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Sample records for acids phenylalanine tyrosine

  1. Zur Biosynthese von Phenylalanin und Tyrosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingens, F.; Keller, E.

    1983-03-01

    With the discovery of arogenic acid two new pathways for the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine have been revealed. The occurrence of two, three, or four pathways for the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine in microorganisms and plants may be a useful tool for taxonomic classifications. Investigations on enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonads, flavobacteria, streptomycetes, archaebacteria, and on Sphaerotilus, Trichococcus and Leptothrix species from bulking sludge are described. The possible role of arogenate in the evolution of the pathways for tyrosine and phenylalanine biosynthesis is discussed.

  2. An experimental and computational investigation into the gas-phase acidities of tyrosine and phenylalanine: three structures for deprotonated tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Bokatzian, Samantha S; Stover, Michele L; Plummer, Chelsea E; Dixon, David A; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2014-11-06

    Using mass spectrometry and correlated molecular orbital theory, three deprotonated structures were revealed for the amino acid tyrosine. The structures were distinguished experimentally by ion/molecule reactions involving proton transfer and trimethylsilyl azide. Gas-phase acidities from proton transfer reactions and from G3(MP2) calculations generally agree well. The lowest energy structure, which was only observed experimentally using electrospray ionization from aprotic solvents, is deprotonated at the carboxylic acid group and is predicted to be highly folded. A second unfolded carboxylate structure is several kcal/mol higher in energy and primarily forms from protic solvents. Protic solvents also yield a structure deprotonated at the phenolic side chain, which experiments find to be intermediate in energy to the two carboxylate forms. G3(MP2) calculations indicate that the three structures differ in energy by only 2.5 kcal/mol, yet they are readily distinguished experimentally. Structural abundance ratios are dependent upon experimental conditions, including the solvent and accumulation time of ions in a hexapole. Under some conditions, carboxylate ions may convert to phenolate ions. For phenylalanine, which lacks a phenolic group, only one deprotonated structure was observed experimentally when electrosprayed from protic solvent. This agrees with G3(MP2) calculations that find the folded and unfolded carboxylate forms to differ by 0.3 kcal/mol.

  3. An Experimental and Computational Investigation into the Gas-Phase Acidities of Tyrosine and Phenylalanine: Three Structures for Deprotonated Tyrosine

    SciTech Connect

    Bokatzian, Samantha S.; Stover, Michele L.; Plummer, Chelsea E.; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2014-11-06

    Using mass spectrometry and correlated molecular orbital theory, three deprotonated structures were revealed for the amino acid tyrosine. The structures were distinguished experimentally by ion/molecule reactions involving proton transfer and trimethylsilyl azide. Gas-phase acidities from proton transfer reactions and from G3(MP2) calculations generally agree well. The lowest energy structure, which was only observed experimentally using electrospray ionization from aprotic solvents, is deprotonated at the carboxylic acid group and is predicted to be highly folded. A second unfolded carboxylate structure is several kcal/mol higher in energy and primarily forms from protic solvents. Protic solvents also yield a structure deprotonated at the phenolic side chain, which experiments find to be intermediate in energy to the two carboxylate forms. G3(MP2) calculations indicate that the three structures differ in energy by only 2.5 kcal/mol, yet they are readily distinguished experimentally. Structural abundance ratios are dependent upon experimental conditions, including the solvent and accumulation time of ions in a hexapole. Under some conditions, carboxylate ions may convert to phenolate ions. For phenylalanine, which lacks a phenolic group, only one deprotonated structure was observed experimentally when electrosprayed from protic solvent. This agrees with G3(MP2) calculations that find the folded and unfolded carboxylate forms to differ by 0.3 kcal/mol.

  4. Immunocytoma effect upon circadian variation in murine urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid, beta-alanine, phenylalanine and tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Halberg, F; Gehrke, C W; Kuo, K; Nelson, W L; Sothern, R B; Cadotte, L M; Haus, E; Scheving, L E

    1978-01-01

    Under the conditions of disynchronization by the manipulation of both the alternation of light and darkness and the availability and unavailability of food, circadian rhythms characterize the excretion of several amino acids by inbred LOU rats bearing an immunocytoma. Large amplitude rhythms can be demonstrated for urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid, beta-alanine, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Under the same conditions of disynchronization, control animals excrete the same compounds also with a marked circadian variation but at an invariably lower average rate. These excretory rhythms, along with those demonstrated earlier for polyamines and light-chains, are of interest as potential markers for the chronotherapy of cancer.

  5. Tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan in gastroesophageal malignancy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Tom; Kumar, Sacheen; Markar, Sheraz R; Antonowicz, Stefan; Hanna, George B

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal cancer has a rapidly increasing incidence worldwide and reliable biomarkers are urgently required to facilitate earlier diagnosis and improve survival. The aromatic amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan represent potential biomarkers and their relation to gastroesophageal cancer will be evaluated in this review. An electronic literature search was performed to identify all published research relating to the measurement of tyrosine, phenylalanine, or tryptophan in the biofluids or tissues of patients with gastroesophageal cancer. Sixteen studies were included in this systematic review. Six studies investigated serum concentrations, which all found decreased concentrations of these aromatic amino acids, except one study that found increased phenylalanine. Five studies reported increased concentrations within gastric content of these patients and two reported increased urinary concentrations. Tissue concentrations of these aromatic amino acids were increased in three studies. Tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan represent potential biomarkers of gastroesophageal cancer, and further research is necessary to definitively establish the mechanism responsible for altered concentrations of these compounds in patients with gastroesophageal cancer.

  6. Identification of phenylalanine 3-hydroxylase for meta-tyrosine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Ames, Brian D; Walsh, Christopher T

    2011-06-21

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH) is an iron(II)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of aromatic amino acid l-phenylalanine (L-Phe) to l-tyrosine (L-Tyr). The enzymatic modification has been demonstrated to be highly regiospecific, forming proteinogenic para-Tyr (p-Tyr) exclusively. Here we biochemically characterized the first example of a phenylalanine 3-hydroxylase (Phe3H) that catalyzes the synthesis of meta-Tyr (m-Tyr) from Phe. Subsequent mutagenesis studies revealed that two residues in the active site of Phe3H (Cys187 and Thr202) contribute to C-3 rather than C-4 hydroxylation of the phenyl ring. This work sets the stage for the mechanistic and structural study of regiospecific control of the substrate hydroxylation by PheH.

  7. Determination of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peat, Judy; Garg, Uttam

    2016-01-01

    Hyperphenylalaninemia/phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most common inborn errors of amino acid metabolism affecting about 1:15,000 infants in the United States. PKU is an autosomal recessive disorder that if untreated results in mental retardation. The most common cause of PKU is deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine. Tyrosine deficiency results in impaired synthesis of catecholamines and thyroxine. Less commonly, it can result from defects in the synthesis or regeneration of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. Increased phenylalanine and decreased tyrosine in blood are used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with PKU. LC/MS/MS method is described for the quantification of phenylalanine and tyrosine.

  8. [Transport of phenylalanine and tyrosine in Brevibacterium linens: specificity and incorporation into proteins].

    PubMed

    Boyaval, P; Moreira, E; Desmazeaud, M J

    1984-04-01

    The specificity of phenylalanine and tyrosine carriers was investigated using actively metabolizing cells of Brevibacterium linens. The cellular protein synthesis of resting cells was very weakly inhibited, even with high concentrations of chloramphenicol or tetracycline. The nonaromatic amino acids were weak inhibitors for these carriers, while fluorinate analogues of phenylalanine and tyrosine were very potent competitive inhibitors. In practice these analogues cannot be used to replace amino acids to evaluate transport without incorporation because they are incorporated in cellular proteins.

  9. meta-Tyrosine in Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue) is synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengfang; Rehak, Ludmila; Jander, Georg

    2012-03-01

    m-Tyrosine is a non-protein amino acid that is structurally similar to the common protein amino acids p-tyrosine and phenylalanine. Copious amounts of m-tyrosine can be found in root exudates of the fine fescue cultivar, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue). The phytotoxicity of m-tyrosine may contribute to the allelopathic potential of F. rubra. m-Tyrosine in Euphorbia myrsinites (donkey-tail spurge), was previously shown to be synthesized via transamination of m-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Here we show that m-tyrosine biosynthesis in F. rubra occurs through direct hydroxylation of phenylalanine in the root tips, perhaps through the activity of a cytochrome P450 enzyme. Hence, E. myrsinites and F. rubra, the only two plant species known to produce m-tyrosine, use distinct biosynthetic pathways that likely arose independently in evolutionary history.

  10. Rhodotorula glutinis Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Ammonia Lyase Enzyme Catalyzed Synthesis of the Methyl Ester of para-Hydroxycinnamic Acid and its Potential Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Marybeth C.; Arivalagan, Pugazhendhi; Barre, Douglas E.; MacInnis, Judith A.; D’Cunha, Godwin B.

    2016-01-01

    Biotransformation of L-tyrosine methyl ester (L-TM) to the methyl ester of para- hydroxycinnamic acid (p-HCAM) using Rhodotorula glutinis yeast phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase (PTAL; EC 4.3.1.26) enzyme was successfully demonstrated for the first time; progress of the reaction was followed by spectrophotometric determination at 315 nm. The following conditions were optimized for maximal formation of p-HCAM: pH (8.5), temperature (37°C), speed of agitation (50 rpm), enzyme concentration (0.080 μM), and substrate concentration (0.50 mM). Under these conditions, the yield of the reaction was ∼15% in 1 h incubation period and ∼63% after an overnight (∼18 h) incubation period. The product (p-HCAM) of the reaction of PTAL with L-TM was confirmed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to rule out potential hydrolysis of p-HCAM during overnight incubation. Potential antibacterial activity of p-HCAM was tested against several strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study describes a synthetically useful transformation, and could have future clinical and industrial applications. PMID:27014206

  11. Production of tyrosine through phenylalanine hydroxylation bypasses the intrinsic feedback inhibition in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Lin, Yuheng; Yuan, Qipeng; Yan, Yajun

    2015-04-01

    Tyrosine is a proteinogenic aromatic amino acid that is often used as a supplement of food and animal feed, as well as a (bio-)synthetic precursor to various pharmaceutically or industrially important molecules. Extensive metabolic engineering efforts have been made towards the efficient and cost-effective microbial production of tyrosine. Conventional strategies usually focus on eliminating intrinsic feedback inhibition and redirecting carbon flux into the shikimate pathway. In this study, we found that continuous conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine by the action of tetrahydromonapterin (MH4)-utilizing phenylalanine 4-hydroxylase (P4H) can bypass the feedback inhibition in Escherichia coli, leading to tyrosine accumulation in the cultures. First, expression of the P4H from Xanthomonas campestris in combination with an MH4 recycling system in wild-type E. coli allowed the strain to accumulate tyrosine at 262 mg/L. On this basis, enhanced expression of the key enzymes associated with the shikimate pathway and the MH4 biosynthetic pathway resulted in the elevation of tyrosine production up to 401 mg/L in shake flasks. This work demonstrated a novel approach to tyrosine production and verified the possibility to alleviate feedback inhibition by creating a phenylalanine sink.

  12. Adaptation of phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolic pathway to hibernation in bats.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Yijian; Cui, Jie; Liu, Yang; McAllan, Bronwyn M; Liao, Chen-Chung; Zhang, Shuyi

    2013-01-01

    Some mammals hibernate in response to harsh environments. Although hibernating mammals may metabolize proteins, the nitrogen metabolic pathways commonly activated during hibernation are not fully characterized. In contrast to the hypothesis of amino acid preservation, we found evidence of amino acid metabolism as three of five key enzymes, including phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), fumarylacetoacetase (FAH), involved in phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolism were co-upregulated during hibernation in two distantly related species of bats, Myotis ricketti and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. In addition, the levels of phenylalanine in the livers of these bats were significantly decreased during hibernation. Because phenylalanine and tyrosine are both glucogenic and ketogenic, these results indicate the role of this catabolic pathway in energy supply. Since any deficiency in the catabolism of these two amino acids can cause accumulations of toxic metabolites, these results also suggest the detoxification role of these enzymes during hibernation. A higher selective constraint on PAH, HPD, and HGD in hibernators than in non-hibernators was observed, and hibernators had more conserved amino acid residues in each of these enzymes than non-hibernators. These conserved amino acid residues are mostly located in positions critical for the structure and activity of the enzymes. Taken together, results of this work provide novel insights in nitrogen metabolism and removal of harmful metabolites during bat hibernation.

  13. Mutagenesis of a specificity-determining residue in tyrosine hydroxylase establishes that the enzyme is a robust phenylalanine hydroxylase but a fragile tyrosine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Daubner, S Colette; Avila, Audrey; Bailey, Johnathan O; Barrera, Dimitrios; Bermudez, Jaclyn Y; Giles, David H; Khan, Crystal A; Shaheen, Noel; Thompson, Janie Womac; Vasquez, Jessica; Oxley, Susan P; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2013-02-26

    The aromatic amino acid hydroxylases tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrH) and phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH) have essentially identical active sites; however, PheH is nearly incapable of hydroxylating tyrosine, while TyrH can readily hydroxylate both tyrosine and phenylalanine. Previous studies have indicated that Asp425 of TyrH is important in determining the substrate specificity of that enzyme [Daubner, S. C., Melendez, J., and Fitzpatrick, P. F. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 9652-9661]. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of amino acids 423-427, a mobile loop containing Asp425, shows that only mutagenesis of Asp425 alters the activity of the enzyme significantly. Saturation mutagenesis of Asp425 results in large (up to 10(4)) decreases in the V(max) and V(max)/K(tyr) values for tyrosine hydroxylation, but only small decreases or even increases in the V(max) and V(max)/K(phe) values for phenylalanine hydroxylation. The decrease in the tyrosine hydroxylation activity of the mutant proteins is due to an uncoupling of tetrahydropterin oxidation from amino acid hydroxylation with tyrosine as the amino acid substrate. In contrast, with the exception of the D425W mutant, the extent of coupling of tetrahydropterin oxidation and amino acid hydroxylation is unaffected or increases with phenylalanine as the amino acid substrate. The decrease in the V(max) value with tyrosine as the substrate shows a negative correlation with the hydrophobicity of the amino acid residue at position 425. The results are consistent with a critical role of Asp425 being to prevent a hydrophobic interaction that results in a restricted active site in which hydroxylation of tyrosine does not occur.

  14. Binding of D-phenylalanine and D-tyrosine to carboxypeptidase A.

    PubMed

    Christianson, D W; Mangani, S; Shoham, G; Lipscomb, W N

    1989-08-05

    The structures of the complexes of carboxypeptidase A with the amino acids D-phenylalanine and D-tyrosine are reported as determined by x-ray crystallographic methods to a resolution of 2.0 A. In each individual study one molecule of amino acids binds to the enzyme in the COOH-terminal hydrophobic pocket: the carboxylate of the bound ligand salt links with Arg-145, and the alpha-amino group salt links with Glu-270. The carboxylate of Glu-270 must break its hydrogen bond with the native zinc-bound water molecule in order to exploit the latter interaction. This result is in accord with spectroscopic studies which indicate that the binding of D or L amino acids (or analogues thereof) allows for more facile displacement of the metal-bound water by anions (Bicknell, R., Schaffer, A., Bertini, I., Luchinat, C., Vallee, B. L., and Auld, D. S. (1988) Biochemistry 27, 1050-1057). Additionally, we observe a significant movement of the zinc-bound water molecule (approximately 1 A) upon the binding of D-ligands. We propose that this unanticipated movement also contributes to anion sensitivity. The structural results of the current x-ray study correct predictions made in an early model building study regarding the binding of D-phenylalanine (Lipscomb, W. N., Hartsuck, J. A., Reeke, G. N., Jr., Quiocho, F. A., Bethge, P. H., Ludwig, M. L., Steitz, T. A., Muirhead, H., and Coppola, J. C. (1968) Brookhaven Symp. Biol. 21, 24-90).

  15. Evaluation of an Adsorbent Based on Agricultural Waste (Corn Cobs) for Removal of Tyrosine and Phenylalanine from Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Cibele C. O.; Franca, Adriana S.; Oliveira, Leandro S.

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of phenolic amino acids, such as phenylalanine and tyrosine, is quite relevant for the production of protein hydrolysates used as dietary formulations for patients suffering from congenital disorders of amino acid metabolism, such as phenylketonuria. In this study, an adsorbent prepared from corn cobs was evaluated for the removal of tyrosine (Tyr) from both a single component solution and a binary aqueous solution with phenylalanine (Phe). The adsorption behavior of tyrosine was similar to that of phenylalanine in single component solutions, however, with a much lower adsorption capacity (14 mg g−1 for Tyr compared to 109 mg g−1 for Phe). Tyr adsorption kinetics was satisfactorily described by a pseudosecond-order model as it was for Phe. In adsorption equilibrium studies for binary mixtures, the presence of Tyr in Phe solutions favored Phe faster adsorption whereas the opposite behavior was observed for the presence of Phe in Tyr solutions. Such results indicate that, in binary systems, Phe will be adsorbed preferably to Tyr, and this is a welcome feature when employing the prepared adsorbent for the removal of Phe from protein hydrolysates to be used in dietary formulations for phenylketonuria treatment. PMID:23936863

  16. Identification of β-phenylalanine as a non-protein amino acid in cultivated rice, Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Yokoo, Takayuki; Takata, Ryo; Yan, Jian; Matsumoto, Fuka; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Okumoto, Yutaka; Jander, Georg; Mori, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Non-protein amino acids, often analogs of the standard 20 protein amino acids, have been discovered in many plant species. Recent research with cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) identified (3R)-β-tyrosine, as well as a tyrosine amino mutase that synthesizes (3R)-β-tyrosine from the protein amino acid (2S)-α-tyrosine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assays and comparison to an authentic standard showed that β-phenylalanine is also a relatively abundant non-protein amino acid in rice leaves and that its biosynthesis occurs independently from that of β-tyrosine. PMID:27066169

  17. Syntheses of halogen derivatives of L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine labeled with hydrogen isotopes.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Małgorzata; Pałka, Katarzyna; Winnicka, Elżbieta; Kańska, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Halogenated, labeled with tritium and doubly with deuterium and tritium, derivatives of L-tryptophan, i.e. 5'-bromo-[2-(3)H]-, 5'-bromo-[2-(2)H/(3)H]-, 5'-fluoro-[2-(3)H]-5'-fluoro-[2-(2)H/(3)H]-, 6'-fluoro-[2-(3)H]-, 6'-fluoro-[2-(2)H/(3)H]-L-tryptophan, as well as, L-tyrosine, i.e. 3'-fluoro-[2-(3)H]-, 3'-fluoro-[2-(2)H/(3)H]-, 3'-chloro-[2-(3)H]-, and 3'-chloro-[2-(2)H/(3)H]-L-tyrosine, and also L-phenylalanine, i.e. 2'-fluoro-[(3S)-(3)H]-, 2'-fluoro-[(3S)-(2)H/(3) H]-, 2'-chloro-[(3S)-(3)H]-, 2'-chloro-[(3S)-(2)H/(3)H]-, 4'-chloro-[(3S)-(3)H]-, and 4'-chloro-[(3S)-(2)H/(3)H]-L-phenylalanine were synthesized using enzymatic methods. Isotopomers of L-tryptophan were synthesized by coupling of halogenated indoles with S-methyl-L-cysteine carried out in deuteriated or tritiated incubation media. Labeled halogenated derivatives of L-tyrosine were obtained by the enzymatically supported exchange between halogenated L-tyrosine and isotopic water. Labeled halogenated isotopologues of L-Phe were synthesized by the enzymatic addition of ammonia to halogenated cinnamic acid. As a source of hydrogen tritiated water (HTO) and heavy water (D2O) with addition of HTO were used.

  18. Calcium binding to calmodulin mutants monitored by domain-specific intrinsic phenylalanine and tyrosine fluorescence.

    PubMed

    VanScyoc, Wendy S; Sorensen, Brenda R; Rusinova, Elena; Laws, William R; Ross, J B Alexander; Shea, Madeline A

    2002-11-01

    Cooperative calcium binding to the two homologous domains of calmodulin (CaM) induces conformational changes that regulate its association with and activation of numerous cellular target proteins. Calcium binding to the pair of high-affinity sites (III and IV in the C-domain) can be monitored by observing calcium-dependent changes in intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence intensity (lambda(ex)/lambda(em) of 277/320 nm). However, calcium binding to the low-affinity sites (I and II in the N-domain) is more difficult to measure with optical spectroscopy because that domain of CaM does not contain tryptophan or tyrosine. We recently demonstrated that calcium-dependent changes in intrinsic phenylalanine fluorescence (lambda(ex)/lambda(em) of 250/280 nm) of an N-domain fragment of CaM reflect occupancy of sites I and II (VanScyoc, W. S., and M. A. Shea, 2001, Protein Sci. 10:1758-1768). Using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence methods, we now show that these excitation and emission wavelength pairs for phenylalanine and tyrosine fluorescence can be used to monitor equilibrium calcium titrations of the individual domains in full-length CaM. Calcium-dependent changes in phenylalanine fluorescence specifically indicate ion occupancy of sites I and II in the N-domain because phenylalanine residues in the C-domain are nonemissive. Tyrosine emission from the C-domain does not interfere with phenylalanine fluorescence signals from the N-domain. This is the first demonstration that intrinsic fluorescence may be used to monitor calcium binding to each domain of CaM. In this way, we also evaluated how mutations of two residues (Arg74 and Arg90) located between sites II and III can alter the calcium-binding properties of each of the domains. The mutation R74A caused an increase in the calcium affinity of sites I and II in the N-domain. The mutation R90A caused an increase in calcium affinity of sites III and IV in the C-domain whereas R90G caused an increase in calcium affinity

  19. Enantioseparation of the constituents involved in the phenylalanine-tyrosine metabolic pathway by capillary electrophoresis tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, Elena; Marcos, Alberto; Ambrosio, Emilio; Marina, María Luisa; Crego, Antonio L

    2016-10-07

    Catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are well-known neurotransmitters playing different roles in the nervous and endocrine system. These compounds are biologically synthesized in the phenylalanine-tyrosine pathway which consists on the successive conversion of l-phenylalanine into l-tyrosine, l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. This work describes the development of an enantioselective CE-ESI-MS(2) methodology enabling, for the first time, the simultaneous enantioseparation of all the constituents involved in the Phe-Tyr metabolic pathway, since all these compounds except dopamine are chiral. The developed method was based on the use of a dual CDs system formed by 180mM of methyl-β-CD and 40mM of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD dissolved in 2M formic acid (pH 1.2) and presented the advantage of avoiding the use of any time-consuming labelling procedure. LODs ranged from 40 to 150nM and the unequivocal identification of the compounds investigated was achieved through their MS(2) spectra. The applicability of this methodology to the analysis of biological samples (rat plasma) was also demonstrated.

  20. Bacterial conversion of phenylalanine and aromatic carboxylic acids into dihydrodiols.

    PubMed Central

    Wegst, W; Tittmann, U; Eberspächer, J; Lingens, F

    1981-01-01

    Strain E of chloridazon-degrading bacteria, when grown on L-phenylalanine accumulates cis-2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxyphenylalanine. In experiments with resting cells and during growth the bacterium converts the aromatic carboxylic acids phenylacetate, phenylpropionate, phenylbutyrate and phenyl-lactate into the corresponding cis-2,3-dihydrodiol compounds. The amino acids L-phenylalanine, N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine and t-butyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanine were also transformed into dihydrodiols. All seven dihydrodiols, thus obtained, were characterized both by conventional analytical techniques and by the ability to serve as substrates for a cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase. PMID:7306016

  1. Bacterial conversion of phenylalanine and aromatic carboxylic acids into dihydrodiols.

    PubMed

    Wegst, W; Tittmann, U; Eberspächer, J; Lingens, F

    1981-03-15

    Strain E of chloridazon-degrading bacteria, when grown on L-phenylalanine accumulates cis-2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxyphenylalanine. In experiments with resting cells and during growth the bacterium converts the aromatic carboxylic acids phenylacetate, phenylpropionate, phenylbutyrate and phenyl-lactate into the corresponding cis-2,3-dihydrodiol compounds. The amino acids L-phenylalanine, N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine and t-butyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanine were also transformed into dihydrodiols. All seven dihydrodiols, thus obtained, were characterized both by conventional analytical techniques and by the ability to serve as substrates for a cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase.

  2. Application of SAIL phenylalanine and tyrosine with alternative isotope-labeling patterns for protein structure determination.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Ono, Akira M; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2010-01-01

    The extensive collection of NOE constraint data involving the aromatic ring signals is essential for accurate protein structure determination, although it is often hampered in practice by the pervasive signal overlapping and tight spin couplings for aromatic rings. We have prepared various types of stereo-array isotope labeled phenylalanines (epsilon- and zeta-SAIL Phe) and tyrosine (epsilon-SAIL Tyr) to overcome these problems (Torizawa et al. 2005), and proven that these SAIL amino acids provide dramatic spectral simplification and sensitivity enhancement for the aromatic ring NMR signals. In addition to these SAIL aromatic amino acids, we recently synthesized delta-SAIL Phe and delta-SAIL Tyr, which allow us to observe and assign delta-(13)C/(1)H signals very efficiently. Each of the various types of SAIL Phe and SAIL Tyr yields well-resolved resonances for the delta-, epsilon- or zeta-(13)C/(1)H signals, respectively, which can readily be assigned by simple and robust pulse sequences. Since the delta-, epsilon-, and zeta-proton signals of Phe/Tyr residues give rise to complementary NOE constraints, the concomitant use of various types of SAIL-Phe and SAIL-Tyr would generate more accurate protein structures, as compared to those obtained by using conventional uniformly (13)C, (15)N-double labeled proteins. We illustrated this with the case of an 18.2 kDa protein, Escherichia coli peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase b (EPPIb), and concluded that the combined use of zeta-SAIL Phe and epsilon-SAIL Tyr would be practically the best choice for protein structural determinations.

  3. Acidic metabolites of phenylalanine in plasma of phenylketonurics.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, M; Fisch, R O; Ramnaraine, M L; Krivit, W

    1985-10-01

    Seven aromatic metabolites of phenylalanine were determined in plasma of 20 patients with classical phenylketonuria by means of capillary gas chromatography. The results obtained showed good correlation with plasma phenylalanine levels. Plasma aromatic acid levels may prove useful in the diagnosis and management of phenylketonuria, as well as in research of this disorder.

  4. Enhancement of L-phenylalanine production by engineered Escherichia coli using phased exponential L-tyrosine feeding combined with nitrogen source optimization.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peipei; Cao, Weijia; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Kequan; Li, Yan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen source optimization combined with phased exponential L-tyrosine feeding was employed to enhance L-phenylalanine production by a tyrosine-auxotroph strain, Escherichia coli YP1617. The absence of (NH4)2SO4, the use of corn steep powder and yeast extract as composite organic nitrogen source were more suitable for cell growth and L-phenylalanine production. Moreover, the optimal initial L-tyrosine level was 0.3 g L(-1) and exponential L-tyrosine feeding slightly improved L-phenylalanine production. Nerveless, L-phenylalanine production was greatly enhanced by a strategy of phased exponential L-tyrosine feeding, where exponential feeding was started at the set specific growth rate of 0.08, 0.05, and 0.02 h(-1) after 12, 32, and 52 h, respectively. Compared with exponential L-tyrosine feeding at the set specific growth rate of 0.08 h(-1), the developed strategy obtained a 15.33% increase in L-phenylalanine production (L-phenylalanine of 56.20 g L(-1)) and a 45.28% decrease in L-tyrosine supplementation.

  5. Elevated Levels of Plasma Phenylalanine in Schizophrenia: A Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase-1 Metabolic Pathway Abnormality?

    PubMed Central

    Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ashraf, Ayesha; Hinman, Sarah; Giegling, Ina; Hartmann, Annette M.; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Schiffman, Jason; Hong, Elliot; Reeves, Gloria; Groer, Maureen; Dantzer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursor amino acids required for the synthesis of dopamine, the main neurotransmitter implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Inflammation, increasingly implicated in schizophrenia, can impair the function of the enzyme Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine) and thus lead to elevated phenylalanine levels and reduced tyrosine levels. This study aimed to compare phenylalanine, tyrosine, and their ratio (a proxy for PAH function) in a relatively large sample of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Methods We measured non-fasting plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine in 950 schizophrenia patients and 1000 healthy controls. We carried out multivariate analyses to compare log transformed phenylalanine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio between patients and controls. Results Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients had higher phenylalanine (p<0.0001) and phenylalanine: tyrosine ratio (p<0.0001) but tyrosine did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.596). Conclusions Elevated phenylalanine and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio in the blood of schizophrenia patients have to be replicated in longitudinal studies. The results may relate to an abnormal PAH function in schizophrenia that could become a target for novel preventative and interventional approaches. PMID:24465804

  6. Acute Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Depletion Reduces Motivation to Smoke Cigarettes Across Stages of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Venugopalan, Viswanath V; Casey, Kevin F; O'Hara, Caitlin; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Benkelfat, Chawki; Fellows, Lesley K; Leyton, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The neurobiology of tobacco use is poorly understood, possibly in part because the relevant mechanisms might differ depending on past nicotine exposure and degree of addiction. In the present study we investigated whether these factors might affect the role of dopamine (DA). Using the acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion method (APTD), DA synthesis was transiently decreased in three groups of abstinent smokers (n=47): (1) early low-frequency smokers, who had smoked a maximum of five cigarettes per day for less than one year, (2) stable low-frequency smokers smoking at the same level as early low-frequency smokers for at least 3 years, and (3) stable high-frequency smokers, who smoked a minimum of 10 or more cigarettes per day for at least 5 years. Motivation to obtain tobacco was measured using a progressive ratio breakpoint schedule for nicotine-containing and de-nicotinized cigarettes. Compared with a nutritionally balanced control mixture, APTD decreased the self-administration of nicotine-containing cigarettes, and this occurred in all three groups of smokers. The results suggest that DA influenced the willingness to sustain effort for nicotine reward, and this was seen in participants at all three levels of cigarette addiction. In the transition from sporadic to addicted use, the role of DA in the motivation to seek drug may change less than previously proposed. PMID:21775977

  7. Serum Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, and their Ratio in Acute Ischemic Stroke: on the Trail of a Biomarker?

    PubMed

    Ormstad, Heidi; Verkerk, Robert; Sandvik, Leiv

    2016-01-01

    Fast diagnosis and appropriate treatment are of utmost importance to improving the outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). A rapid and sensitive blood test for ischemic stroke is required. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of phenylalanine (PHE) and tyrosine (TYR) as diagnostic biomarkers in AIS. Serum levels of PHE and TYR, measured using HPLC, and their ratio (PHE/TYR) were compared between 45 patients with AIS and 40 healthy control subjects. The relationship between PHE/TYR and the serum levels of several cytokines were also examined. PHE/TYR was significantly higher in AIS patients than in healthy controls (1.75 vs 1.24, p < 0.001). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of PHE/TYR in AIS patients relative to healthy controls revealed promising sensitivity and specificity, which at an optimal cutoff of 1.45 were 76 and 85 %, respectively. PHE/TYR was positively correlated with interleukin (IL)-1β (r = 0.37, p = 0.011) and IL-6 (r = 0.33, p = 0.025). This study shows that PHE/TYR is highly elevated in the acute phase of AIS, and that this elevation is coupled to the inflammatory response. The ROC analysis documents the possible value of PHE/TYR as a biomarker for AIS and demonstrates its clinical potential as a blood-based test for AIS.

  8. Dopamine and pain sensitivity: neither sulpiride nor acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion have effects on thermal pain sensations in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Becker, Susanne; Ceko, Marta; Louis-Foster, Mytsumi; Elfassy, Nathaniel M; Leyton, Marco; Shir, Yoram; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Based on animal studies and some indirect clinical evidence, dopamine has been suggested to have anti-nociceptive effects. Here, we investigated directly the effects of increased and decreased availability of extracellular dopamine on pain perception in healthy volunteers. In Study 1, participants ingested, in separate sessions, a placebo and a low dose of the centrally acting D2-receptor antagonist sulpiride, intended to increase synaptic dopamine via predominant pre-synaptic blockade. No effects were seen on thermal pain thresholds, tolerance, or temporal summation. Study 2 used the acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD) method to transiently decrease dopamine availability. In one session participants ingested a mixture that depletes the dopamine amino acid precursors, phenylalanine and tyrosine. In the other session they ingested a nutritionally balanced control mixture. APTD led to a small mood-lowering response following aversive thermal stimulation, but had no effects on the perception of cold, warm, or pain stimuli. In both studies the experimental manipulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission was successful as indicated by manipulation checks. The results contradict proposals that dopamine has direct anti-nociceptive effects in acute experimental pain. Based on dopamine's well-known role in reward processing, we hypothesize that also in the context of pain, dopamine acts on stimulus salience and might play a role in the initiation of avoidance behavior rather than having direct antinociceptive effects in acute experimental pain.

  9. Dopamine and Pain Sensitivity: Neither Sulpiride nor Acute Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Depletion Have Effects on Thermal Pain Sensations in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Susanne; Ceko, Marta; Louis-Foster, Mytsumi; Elfassy, Nathaniel M.; Leyton, Marco; Shir, Yoram; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Based on animal studies and some indirect clinical evidence, dopamine has been suggested to have anti-nociceptive effects. Here, we investigated directly the effects of increased and decreased availability of extracellular dopamine on pain perception in healthy volunteers. In Study 1, participants ingested, in separate sessions, a placebo and a low dose of the centrally acting D2-receptor antagonist sulpiride, intended to increase synaptic dopamine via predominant pre-synaptic blockade. No effects were seen on thermal pain thresholds, tolerance, or temporal summation. Study 2 used the acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD) method to transiently decrease dopamine availability. In one session participants ingested a mixture that depletes the dopamine amino acid precursors, phenylalanine and tyrosine. In the other session they ingested a nutritionally balanced control mixture. APTD led to a small mood-lowering response following aversive thermal stimulation, but had no effects on the perception of cold, warm, or pain stimuli. In both studies the experimental manipulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission was successful as indicated by manipulation checks. The results contradict proposals that dopamine has direct anti-nociceptive effects in acute experimental pain. Based on dopamine’s well-known role in reward processing, we hypothesize that also in the context of pain, dopamine acts on stimulus salience and might play a role in the initiation of avoidance behavior rather than having direct antinociceptive effects in acute experimental pain. PMID:24236199

  10. Tyrosine supplementation in chronic experimental uremia.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, C L; Mandel, S; Mrozinska, K; Wapnir, R A

    1983-08-01

    The occurrence of low tyrosine tissue levels in uremic subjects, possibly due to impaired phenylalanine hydroxylation, suggests that tyrosine may be an essential amino acid in uremia. Additional dietary tyrosine may thus re-dress the deficiency. This study examined growth and tyrosine/phenylalanine metabolism in uremic rats during tyrosine supplementation. Rats made uremic (U) by 7/8 nephrectomy were compared to pair-fed (CP) and ad libitum-fed (CA), sham-operated controls. Two sets of each group of rats were studied after 21 days on the respective diets: I = Purina Lab Chow; II = same + 3.5% tyrosine. Plasma tyrosine was below normal in U and CP-fed diet I. With diet II, the tyrosine:phenylalanine ratio in U was lower than both CA and CP. In rats fed diet II, the tyrosine:phenylalanine ratio became indistinguishable among the three groups. Growth parameters in U and CP were similar, regardless of the diet. Body weight gain, tibial length, muscle mass, and tissue protein did not improve in uremic animals supplemented with tyrosine. The specific activity of liver phenylalanine hydroxylase in U was not different from CA or CP. However, loss of cortical renal mass appeared to be the major determinant of decreased kidney phenylalanine hydroxylation in experimental uremia. This alteration is likely to be the greatest contributory factor to the alteration of plasma levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine. The data presented do not support a proposed essentiality of tyrosine in uremia.

  11. Threonine-124 and phenylalanine-448 in Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase are necessary for activity with L-tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Demidkina, Tatyana V; Barbolina, Maria V; Faleev, Nicolai G; Sundararaju, Bakthavatsalam; Gollnick, Paul D; Phillips, Robert S

    2002-05-01

    Thr-124 and Phe-448 are located in the active site of Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase (TPL) near the phenol ring of a bound substrate analogue, 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid [Sundararaju, Antson, Phillips, Demidkina, Barbolina, Gollnick, Dodson and Wilson (1997) Biochemistry 36, 6502-6510]. Thr-124 is replaced by Asp and Phe-448 is replaced by His in the crystal structure of a structurally similar enzyme, Proteus vulgaris tryptophan indole-lyase, which has 50% identical residues. Hence, Thr-124 and Phe-448 in TPL were mutated to Ala or Asp, and His, respectively, in order to probe the role of these residues in the reaction specificity for L-Tyr. These mutant enzymes have little or no beta-elimination activity with L-Tyr or 3-fluoro-L-Tyr as a substrate, but retain significant elimination activity with S-(o-nitrophenyl)-L-cysteine, S-alkyl-L-cysteines and beta-chloroalanine. Furthermore, the binding of L-Tyr and other non-substrate amino acids is not significantly affected by the mutations. The mutant TPLs form intermediates in rapid-scanning stopped-flow experiments with L-Phe, L-Tyr and L-Trp, similar to those seen with wild-type TPL. These results demonstrate that Thr-124 and Phe-448 are necessary for the reaction specificity of TPL for L-Tyr, and probably play a role in the elimination stage of the reaction mechanism. Thr-124 is within hydrogen-bonding distance of the phenolic group of the bound substrate, and may help to orientate the ring for beta-elimination to occur. Phe-448 may be important to allow the formation of the closed conformation during the reaction.

  12. Molecular Characterization of a Recombinant Zea mays Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (ZmPAL2) and Its Application in trans-Cinnamic Acid Production from L-Phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Zang, Ying; Jiang, Ting; Cong, Ying; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ouyang, Jia

    2015-06-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is one of the most extensively studied enzymes with its crucial role in secondary phenylpropanoid metabolism of plants. Recently, its demand has been increased for aromatic chemical production, but its applications in trans-cinnamic acid production were not much explored. In the present study, a putative PAL gene from Zea mays designated as ZmPAL2 was expressed and characterized in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant ZmPAL2 exhibited a high PAL activity (7.14 U/mg) and a weak tyrosine ammonia-lyase activity. The optimal temperature of ZmPAL2 was 55 °C, and the thermal stability results showed that about 50 % of enzyme activity remained after a treatment at 60 °C for 6 h. The recombinant ZmPAL2 is a good candidate for the production of trans-cinnamic acid. The vitro conversion indicated that the recombinant ZmPAL2 could effectively catalyze the L-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid, and the trans-cinnamic acid concentration can reach up to 5 g/l.

  13. The relationship between consumption of tyrosine and phenylalanine as precursors of catecholamine at breakfast and the circadian typology and mental health in Japanese infants aged 2 to 5 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to examine the relationship between tyrosine and phenylalanine intake at breakfast as precursors of dopamine, and scores on the Torsvall-Åkerstedt Diurnal Type Scale and of mental health in Japanese infants aged 2 to 5 years. Results An integrated questionnaire was administered to parents of 1,367 infants attending one of ten nursery schools governed by Kochi City or a kindergarten affiliated with the Faculty of Education at Kochi University (775 answers for analysis: 56.7%) in May and June 2008. Questionnaires included the Torsvall-Åkerstedt Diurnal Type Scale and questions on sleep habits (onset, offset, quality, quantity, and so on), meal habits (content and regularity of timing), and mental health (depressive states). Amount of tyrosine and phenylalanine intake was calculated based on a breakfast content questionnaire and data on the components of amino acids in foods. Infants who ingested more than 800 mg of tyrosine or phenylalanine at breakfast per meal were more morning-type than those who ingested less than 800 mg (ANOVA: P= 0.005). However, this relationship disappeared in the ANCOVA analysis (with the covariance of tryptophan intake, P= 0.894). Infants who ingested more than 800 mg of the two amino acids at breakfast showed significantly higher mental health scores (lower frequency of depressive states) than those who ingested less than 800 mg (ANOVA: P = 0.004). This relationship remained significant when ANCOVA analysis was performed with the covariance of tryptophan (ANCOVA: P= 0.017). Conclusions These results suggest that tyrosine and phenylalanine ingested at breakfast are not related with circadian phase, but are relate with mental health in infants. PMID:24083356

  14. Grass roots chemistry: meta-Tyrosine, an herbicidal nonprotein amino acid

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Cécile; Weston, Leslie A.; Huang, Tengfang; Jander, Georg; Owens, Thomas; Meinwald, Jerrold; Schroeder, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    Fine fescue grasses displace neighboring plants by depositing large quantities of an aqueous phytotoxic root exudate in the soil rhizosphere. Via activity-guided fractionation, we have isolated and identified the nonprotein amino acid m-tyrosine as the major active component. m-Tyrosine is significantly more phytotoxic than its structural isomers o- and p-tyrosine. We show that m-tyrosine exposure results in growth inhibition for a wide range of plant species and propose that the release of this nonprotein amino acid interferes with root development of competing plants. Acid hydrolysis of total root protein from Arabidopsis thaliana showed incorporation of m-tyrosine, suggesting this as a possible mechanism of phytotoxicity. m-Tyrosine inhibition of A. thaliana root growth is counteracted by exogenous addition of protein amino acids, with phenylalanine having the most significant effect. The discovery of m-tyrosine, as well as a further understanding of its mode(s) of action, could lead to the development of biorational approaches to weed control. PMID:17940026

  15. Dietary Tyrosine/Phenylalanine Depletion Effects on Behavioral and Brain Signatures of Human Motivational Processing

    PubMed Central

    Bjork, James M; Grant, Steven J; Chen, Gang; Hommer, Daniel W

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission is critical for motivational processing. We assessed whether disruption of DA synthesis in healthy controls using an amino-acid beverage devoid of catecholamine precursors (tyrosine–phenylalanine depletion (TPD)) would blunt recruitment of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) by rewards. Sixteen controls ingested each of a tyr/phe-depleting beverage (DEP) or a tyr/phe-balanced (BAL) control beverage in two laboratory visits. Five hours after consumption of each drink, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they viewed anticipatory cues to respond to a target to either win money or avoid losing money. TPD did not exert main effects on mood or on task behavior, but affected brain activation. In right NAcc, TPD blunted activation by anticipation of high rewards. In left NAcc, recruitment anticipating high rewards was modulated by individual differences in mood change across the DEP drink day, where subjects whose mood worsened following TPD (relative to within-day mood change under BAL conditions) also showed lower activation under DEP conditions relative to BAL conditions. Exploratory analysis indicated that TPD qualitatively blunted the voxel-wise spatial extent of suprathreshold activation by reward anticipation. Finally, loss outcomes activated anterior insula under DEP conditions but not under BAL conditions. These data indicate that: (1) dietary depletion of catacholamine precursors will blunt dopaminergic mesolimbic activity, and (2) in controls, synthetic pathways of this neurocircuitry maintain sufficient buffering capacity to resist an effect on motivated behavior. Additional studies are needed to determine if clinical populations would show similar resistance to behavioral effects of TPD. PMID:23995581

  16. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension

    PubMed Central

    Manela, Neta; Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Sikron-Persi, Noga; Ayenew, Biruk; Fait, Aaron; Galili, Gad; Perl, Avichai; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA) pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG*) of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG* protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG* transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids, and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG*. This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG* cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as well. PMID:26236327

  17. Caffeic acid production enhancement by engineering a phenylalanine over-producing Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qin; Lin, Yuheng; Yan, Yajun

    2013-12-01

    Caffeic acid is a plant-specific phenylpropanoic acid with multiple health-improving effects reported, and its therapeutic derivatives have also been studied throughout the last decade. To meet its market need and achieve high-level production, microbial production of caffeic acid approaches have been developed in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli. In our previous work, we have established the first artificial pathway that realized de novo production of caffeic acid using E. coli endogenous 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase (4HP3H). In this work, we exploited the catalytic potential of 4HPA3H in the whole-cell bioconversion study and produced 3.82 g/L (461.12 mg/L/OD) caffeic acid from p-coumaric acid, a direct precursor. We further engineered a phenylalanine over-producer into a tyrosine over-producer and then introduced the artificial pathway. After adjusting the expression strategy and optimizing the inoculants timing, de novo production of caffeic acid reached 766.68 mg/L. Both results from the direct precursor and simple carbon sources represent the highest titers of caffeic acid from microbial production so far.

  18. Simultaneous determination of tyrosine, phenylalanine and deoxyguanosine oxidation products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as non-invasive biomarkers for oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Hilmi; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Tump, Cornelis; Zappey, Herman; Meerman, John H N

    2004-01-25

    We developed an isotope dilution HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of p-tyrosine, phenylalanine, o,o'-dityrosine, m-tyrosine, o-tyrosine, 3-chlorotyrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) that requires no extensive sample pre-treatment. p-[(2)H(4)]Tyrosine and o,o'-[(2)H(6)]dityrosine were used as internal standards. Calibration curves of the method were linear (r(2)=0.990-0.999) over a concentration range of 0.03-10 microM for o-tyrosine; 0.04-10 microM for 3-nitrotyrosine and 3-chlorotyrosine; 0.05-10 microM for o,o'-dityrosine; and for m-tyrosine; 1.0-100 microM for p-tyrosine and for phenylalanine; and 0.01-10 microM for 8-OHdG. The detection limits were from 0.025 to 0.05 microM for the tyrosine derivatives; 0.01 microM for 8-OHdG; and 0.5 microM for p-tyrosine and for phenylalanine, respectively. Within-day coefficients of variation (CV) for spiked human urine samples ranged from 2.7 to 7.0%, except for 8-OHdG (13.7%). Between-day variations ranged from 7.9 to 13.0%, except for o-tyrosine (CV = 18.2%), and for 8-OHdG (CV = 24.7%). The background levels of p-tyrosine, phenylalanine, o,o'-dityrosine, and o-tyrosine in morning urine of eight healthy volunteers were 3890+/-590, 3420+/-730, 5.8+/-0.3, and 9.2+/-1.5 micromol/mol creatinine, respectively. Using the present HPLC-APCI-MS/MS method, the urinary background levels of m-tyrosine, 3-chlorotyrosine, 3-nitrotyrosine and 8-OHdG were below the limit of detection.

  19. Assignment of the rat genes coding for phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), and pyruvate kinase (PKL) to chromosomes 7, 19, 2, respectively.

    PubMed

    Fulchignoni-Lataud, M C; Weiss, M C; Szpirer, C; Levan, G

    1990-01-01

    A panel of hybrid clones segregating rat chromosomes in a mouse background was used to determine the chromosomal localization of three genes specifically expressed in hepatocytes. The phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrosine aminotransferase, and pyruvate kinase genes were assigned to rat chromosomes 7, 19, and 2, respectively.

  20. Allosteric regulation of phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2012-03-15

    The liver enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is responsible for conversion of excess phenylalanine in the diet to tyrosine. Phenylalanine hydroxylase is activated by phenylalanine; this activation is inhibited by the physiological reducing substrate tetrahydrobiopterin. Phosphorylation of Ser16 lowers the concentration of phenylalanine for activation. This review discusses the present understanding of the molecular details of the allosteric regulation of the enzyme.

  1. Effect of dietary aspartame on plasma concentrations of phenylalanine and tyrosine in normal and homozygous phenylketonuric patients.

    PubMed

    Mackey, S A; Berlin, C M

    1992-07-01

    Six normal subjects each ingested a single 12-oz can of a diet cola (Diet Coke) providing 184 mg aspartame (APM), of which 104 mg is phenylalanine (Phe), and, on another occasion, a single 12-oz can of regular cola (Coke Classic). Neither cola significantly affected plasma concentrations of Phe or tyrosine over the three-hour postingestion study period. Each of five homozygous phenylketonuric (PKU) subjects (ages 11, 16, 17, 21, and 23 years) ingested a single 12-oz can of the same diet cola. In these five subjects (three with classic PKU and two with hyperphenylalinemia), the increase in plasma Phe concentrations varied from 0.26 mg/dL to 1.77 mg/dL two or three hours after ingestion (baseline levels, 5.04 to 17.2 mg/dL). Tyrosine concentrations did not differ significantly from baseline levels. The data indicate that ingestion of dietary Phe, as supplied in a single can of diet cola, is readily handled in both normal and PKU subjects. The small increases in plasma Phe concentrations in the homozygous PKU patients are not considered clinically significant.

  2. Direct evidence for a phenylalanine site in the regulatory domain of phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Ilangovan, Udayar; Daubner, S Colette; Hinck, Andrew P; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2011-01-15

    The hydroxylation of phenylalanine to tyrosine by the liver enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is regulated by the level of phenylalanine. Whether there is a distinct allosteric binding site for phenylalanine outside of the active site has been unclear. The enzyme contains an N-terminal regulatory domain that extends through Thr117. The regulatory domain of rat phenylalanine hydroxylase was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein behaves as a dimer on a gel filtration column. In the presence of phenylalanine, the protein elutes earlier from the column, consistent with a conformational change in the presence of the amino acid. No change in elution is seen in the presence of the non-activating amino acid proline. ¹H-¹⁵N HSQC NMR spectra were obtained of the ¹⁵N-labeled protein alone and in the presence of phenylalanine or proline. A subset of the peaks in the spectrum exhibits chemical shift perturbation in the presence of phenylalanine, consistent with binding of phenylalanine at a specific site. No change in the NMR spectrum is seen in the presence of proline. These results establish that the regulatory domain of phenylalanine hydroxylase can bind phenylalanine, consistent with the presence of an allosteric site for the amino acid.

  3. Identification of a plastidial phenylalanine exporter that influences flux distribution through the phenylalanine biosynthetic network

    PubMed Central

    Widhalm, Joshua R.; Gutensohn, Michael; Yoo, Heejin; Adebesin, Funmilayo; Qian, Yichun; Guo, Longyun; Jaini, Rohit; Lynch, Joseph H.; McCoy, Rachel M.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Rhodes, David; Morgan, John A.; Dudareva, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    In addition to proteins, L-phenylalanine is a versatile precursor for thousands of plant metabolites. Production of phenylalanine-derived compounds is a complex multi-compartmental process using phenylalanine synthesized predominantly in plastids as precursor. The transporter(s) exporting phenylalanine from plastids, however, remains unknown. Here, a gene encoding a Petunia hybrida plastidial cationic amino-acid transporter (PhpCAT) functioning in plastidial phenylalanine export is identified based on homology to an Escherichia coli phenylalanine transporter and co-expression with phenylalanine metabolic genes. Radiolabel transport assays show that PhpCAT exports all three aromatic amino acids. PhpCAT downregulation and overexpression result in decreased and increased levels, respectively, of phenylalanine-derived volatiles, as well as phenylalanine, tyrosine and their biosynthetic intermediates. Metabolic flux analysis reveals that flux through the plastidial phenylalanine biosynthetic pathway is reduced in PhpCAT RNAi lines, suggesting that the rate of phenylalanine export from plastids contributes to regulating flux through the aromatic amino-acid network. PMID:26356302

  4. Identification of a plastidial phenylalanine exporter that influences flux distribution through the phenylalanine biosynthetic network.

    PubMed

    Widhalm, Joshua R; Gutensohn, Michael; Yoo, Heejin; Adebesin, Funmilayo; Qian, Yichun; Guo, Longyun; Jaini, Rohit; Lynch, Joseph H; McCoy, Rachel M; Shreve, Jacob T; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Rhodes, David; Morgan, John A; Dudareva, Natalia

    2015-09-10

    In addition to proteins, L-phenylalanine is a versatile precursor for thousands of plant metabolites. Production of phenylalanine-derived compounds is a complex multi-compartmental process using phenylalanine synthesized predominantly in plastids as precursor. The transporter(s) exporting phenylalanine from plastids, however, remains unknown. Here, a gene encoding a Petunia hybrida plastidial cationic amino-acid transporter (PhpCAT) functioning in plastidial phenylalanine export is identified based on homology to an Escherichia coli phenylalanine transporter and co-expression with phenylalanine metabolic genes. Radiolabel transport assays show that PhpCAT exports all three aromatic amino acids. PhpCAT downregulation and overexpression result in decreased and increased levels, respectively, of phenylalanine-derived volatiles, as well as phenylalanine, tyrosine and their biosynthetic intermediates. Metabolic flux analysis reveals that flux through the plastidial phenylalanine biosynthetic pathway is reduced in PhpCAT RNAi lines, suggesting that the rate of phenylalanine export from plastids contributes to regulating flux through the aromatic amino-acid network.

  5. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John J; Trakadis, Yannis J; Scriver, Charles R

    2011-08-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in intolerance to the dietary intake of the essential amino acid phenylalanine. It occurs in approximately 1:15,000 individuals. Deficiency of this enzyme produces a spectrum of disorders including classic phenylketonuria, mild phenylketonuria, and mild hyperphenylalaninemia. Classic phenylketonuria is caused by a complete or near-complete deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase activity and without dietary restriction of phenylalanine most children will develop profound and irreversible intellectual disability. Mild phenylketonuria and mild hyperphenylalaninemia are associated with lower risk of impaired cognitive development in the absence of treatment. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency can be diagnosed by newborn screening based on detection of the presence of hyperphenylalaninemia using the Guthrie microbial inhibition assay or other assays on a blood spot obtained from a heel prick. Since the introduction of newborn screening, the major neurologic consequences of hyperphenylalaninemia have been largely eradicated. Affected individuals can lead normal lives. However, recent data suggest that homeostasis is not fully restored with current therapy. Treated individuals have a higher incidence of neuropsychological problems. The mainstay of treatment for hyperphenylalaninemia involves a low-protein diet and use of a phenylalanine-free medical formula. This treatment must commence as soon as possible after birth and should continue for life. Regular monitoring of plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations is necessary. Targets of plasma phenylalanine of 120-360 μmol/L (2-6 mg/dL) in the first decade of life are essential for optimal outcome. Phenylalanine targets in adolescence and adulthood are less clear. A significant proportion of patients with phenylketonuria may benefit from adjuvant therapy with 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin stereoisomer. Special consideration must be

  6. Ultrasonic speed, densities and viscosities of xylitol in water and in aqueous tyrosine and phenylalanine solutions at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Bidhuri, P.; Uzair, S.

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasonic speed u, densities ρ and viscosities η of xylitol in water and in 0.001 m aqueous l-tyrosine (Tyr) and l-phenylalanine (Phe) have been measured at different temperatures. From the density and ultrasonic speed measurements apparent molar isentropic compression κ_{φ}, apparent molar isentropic compressions at infinite dilution κ_{{S,φ}}0 , experimental slope S K , hydration number n H , transfer partial molar isentropic compressibility Δ_{tr} κ_{{S,φ}}0 of xylitol from water to aqueous Tyr and Phe have been obtained. From the viscosity data, B-coefficient and B-coefficient of transfer Δ tr B of xylitol from water to aqueous Phe and Tyr at different temperatures have also been estimated. Gibbs free energies of activation of viscous flow per mole of solvent Δ μ 1 0# and per mole of solute Δ μ 2 0# have been calculated by using Feakins transition state theory for the studied systems. The calculated parameters have been interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and hydration behavior of xylitol.

  7. Remnants of an ancient pathway to L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine in enteric bacteria: Evolutionary implications and biotechnological impact. [Escherichia coli; Salmonella typhimurium; Neurospora crassa

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, C.A.; Fischer, R.S.; Ahmad, S.; Jensen, R.A. )

    1990-12-01

    The pathway construction for biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in Escherichia coli is atypical of the phylogenetic subdivision of gram-negative bacteria to which it belongs. Related organisms possess second pathways to phenylalanine and tyrosine which depend upon the expression of a monofunctional chorismate mutase (CM-F) and cyclohexadienyl dehydratase (CDT). Some enteric bacteria, unlike E. coli, possess either CM-F or CDT. These essentially cryptic remnants of an ancestral pathway can be a latent source of biochemical potential under certain conditions. As one example of advantageous biochemical potential, the presence of CM-F in Salmonella typhimurium increases the capacity for prephenate accumulation in a tyrA auxotroph. We report the finding that a significant fraction of the latter prephenate is transaminated to L-arogenate. The tyrA19 mutant is now the organism of choice for isolation of L-arogenate, uncomplicated by the presence of other cyclohexadienyl products coaccumulated by a Neurospora crassa mutant that had previously served as the prime biological source of L-arogenate. Prephenate aminotransferase activity was not conferred by a discrete enzyme, but rather was found to be synonymous with the combined activities of aspartate aminotransferase (aspC), aromatic aminotransferase (tyrB), and branched-chain aminotransferase (ilvE).

  8. Amino acid supplementation does not alter whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in Arabian geldings.

    PubMed

    Urschel, Kristine L; Geor, Raymond J; Hanigan, Mark D; Harris, Pat A

    2012-03-01

    Stable isotope infusion methods have not been extensively used in horses to study protein metabolism. The objectives were to develop infusion and sampling methodologies for [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and apply these methods to determine whether the addition of supplemental amino acids to a control diet affected whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in mature horses. Arabian geldings were studied using a 6-h primed (9 μmol/kg), constant (6 μmol · kg(-1) · h(-1)) i.v. infusion of L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine, with blood and breath sampled every 30 min, to measure whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in response to receiving the control diet (n = 12) or the control diet supplemented with equimolar amounts of glutamate (+Glu; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), leucine (+Leu; 49 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), lysine (+Lys; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), or phenylalanine (+Phe; 62 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 6). The plasma concentrations of the supplemented amino acid in horses receiving the +Leu, +Lys, and +Phe diets were 58, 53, and 36% greater, respectively, than for the control treatment (P < 0.05). Isotopic plateau was attained in blood [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and breath (13)CO(2) enrichments by 60 and 270 min, respectively. Phenylalanine flux (+20%) and oxidation (+110%) were greater (P < 0.05) in horses receiving the +Phe treatment than in those fed the control diet. There was no effect of treatment diet on nonoxidative phenylalanine disposal or phenylalanine release from protein breakdown. The developed methods are a valuable way to study protein metabolism and assess dietary amino acid adequacy in horses and will provide a useful tool for studying amino acid requirements in the future.

  9. Effects of dietary energy intake and cold exposure on kinetics of plasma phenylalanine, tyrosine and protein synthesis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sano, Hiroaki; Murakami, Shingo; Sasaki, Satori; Al-Mamun, Mohammad

    2010-02-01

    An isotope dilution method of [2H5]phenylalanine (Phe) and [2H2]tyrosine (Tyr) was used to determine the effects of metabolisable energy (ME) intake and cold exposure on plasma Phe and Tyr turnover rates in sheep. Whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) was calculated with the [2H5]Phe model. Eight adult sheep were assigned to two dietary treatments receiving the same amount of crude protein and either 515 or 828 kJ x kg BW(-0.75) x d(-1) of ME (Me-ME diet and Hi-ME diet, respectively) with a crossover design for two 28 d periods. The sheep were exposed from a thermoneutral environment (23 +/- 1 degrees C) to a cold environment (2 +/- 1 to 4 +/- 1 degrees C) for 6 d for each dietary treatment. The primed-continuous infusion method of isotope dilution was conducted in both environmental temperatures. Plasma Phe turnover rate (PheTR) tended to be greater and plasma Tyr turnover rate (TyrTR) was greater (p = 0.03) for the Hi-ME diet compared with the Me-ME diet. Plasma PheTR increased (p = 0.04) and plasma TyrTR tended to increase during cold exposure. Whole body protein synthesis tended to be greater for the Hi-ME diet compared with the Me-ME diet and increased (p = 0.03) during cold exposure compared to the thermoneutral environment, but no interaction was detected. It was concluded that in sheep, plasma PheTR and WBPS (as determined by the [2H5]Phe model) tended to be influenced by and plasma TyrTR was influenced by ME intake. Further, plasma PheTR and WBPS increased and plasma TyrTR tended to increase during cold exposure.

  10. [Degradation and biosynthesis of L-phenylalanine by chloridazon-degrading bacteria].

    PubMed

    Buck, R; Eberspächer, J; Lingens, F

    1979-07-01

    Incubating chloridazon-degrading bacteria with L-phenylalanine leads to the accumulation of L-2,3-dihydroxyphenylalanine, o-tyrosine and m-tyrosine in the medium. Incubating the bacteria with N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine leads to N-acetyl-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine. Using phenylacetic acid as substrate leads to the accumulation of malonic acid. The products are isolated by gel chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. 2,3-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine is attacked by a catechol 2,3-dioxygenase in the presence of Fe2. An unstable yellow compound is formed in this reaction. This meta-cleavage-product is again cleaved by a hydrolase, leading to aspartic acid and 4-hydroxy-2-oxovaleric acid. Both products were isolated fromthe reaction buffer by amino acid analysis and high performance liquid chromatography. The dioxygenase and hydrolase were partially purified and characterized. A new degradation pathway for phenylalanine is discussed and compared with known pathways. The enzymes chorismate mutase, prephenate dehydratase and prephenate dehydrogenase are characterized and inhibition as well as repression are investigated. Only prephenate dehydrogenase is inhibited by phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophane. Chorismate mutase is repressed by phenylalanine, prephenate dehydrogenase by phenylalanine and tyrosine. Prephenate dehydratase is not repressed by aromatic amino acids. Regulation of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in connection with phenylalanine degradation is discussed.

  11. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase catalyzed synthesis of amino acids by an MIO-cofactor independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, Sarah L; Lloyd, Richard C; Turner, Nicholas J

    2014-04-25

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyases (PALs) belong to a family of 4-methylideneimidazole-5-one (MIO) cofactor dependent enzymes which are responsible for the conversion of L-phenylalanine into trans-cinnamic acid in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Under conditions of high ammonia concentration, this deamination reaction is reversible and hence there is considerable interest in the development of PALs as biocatalysts for the enantioselective synthesis of non-natural amino acids. Herein the discovery of a previously unobserved competing MIO-independent reaction pathway, which proceeds in a non-stereoselective manner and results in the generation of both L- and D-phenylalanine derivatives, is described. The mechanism of the MIO-independent pathway is explored through isotopic-labeling studies and mutagenesis of key active-site residues. The results obtained are consistent with amino acid deamination occurring by a stepwise E1 cB elimination mechanism.

  12. Racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame at 100 degrees C.

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, M F; Bada, J L

    1984-01-01

    The racemization half-lives (i.e., the time required to reach a D/L = 0.33) at pH 6.8 for aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) were determined to be 13 and 23 hours, respectively, at 100 degrees C. Racemization at this pH does not occur in aspartame but rather in its diketopiperazine decomposition product. Our results indicate that the use of aspartame to sweeten neutral pH foods and beverages that are then heated at elevated temperature could generate D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine. The nutritive consequences of these D-amino acids in the human diet are not well established, and thus aspartame should probably not be used as a sweetener when the exposure of neutral pH foods and beverages to elevated temperatures is required. At pH 4, a typical pH of most foods and beverages that might be sweetened with aspartame, the half-lives are 47 hours for aspartic acid and 1200 hours for phenylalanine at 100 degrees C. Racemization at pH 4 takes place in aspartame itself. Although the racemization rates at pH 4 are slow and no appreciable racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine should occur during the normal use of aspartame, some food and beverage components could conceivably act as catalysts. Additional studies are required to evaluate whether the use of aspartame as a sugar substitute might not in turn result in an increased human consumption of D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine. PMID:6591191

  13. Heterologous production of caffeic acid from tyrosine in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J L; Araújo, R G; Prather, K L J; Kluskens, L D; Rodrigues, L R

    2015-04-01

    Caffeic acid is a plant secondary metabolite and its biological synthesis has attracted increased attention due to its beneficial effects on human health. In this study, Escherichia coli was engineered for the production of caffeic acid using tyrosine as the initial precursor of the pathway. The pathway design included tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) from Rhodotorula glutinis to convert tyrosine to p-coumaric acid and 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) from Saccharothrix espanaensis or cytochrome P450 CYP199A2 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris to convert p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid. The genes were codon-optimized and different combinations of plasmids were used to improve the titer of caffeic acid. TAL was able to efficiently convert 3mM of tyrosine to p-coumaric acid with the highest production obtained being 2.62mM (472mg/L). CYP199A2 exhibited higher catalytic activity towards p-coumaric acid than C3H. The highest caffeic acid production obtained using TAL and CYP199A2 and TAL and C3H was 1.56mM (280mg/L) and 1mM (180mg/L), respectively. This is the first study that shows caffeic acid production using CYP199A2 and tyrosine as the initial precursor. This study suggests the possibility of further producing more complex plant secondary metabolites like flavonoids and curcuminoids.

  14. Phenylketonuria: protein content and amino acids profile of dishes for phenylketonuric patients. The relevance of phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Filipa B; Alves, Rita C; Costa, Anabela S G; Torres, Duarte; Almeida, Manuela F; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-04-15

    Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of metabolism, involving, in most cases, a deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Neonatal diagnosis and a prompt special diet (low phenylalanine and natural-protein restricted diets) are essential to the treatment. The lack of data concerning phenylalanine contents of processed foodstuffs is an additional limitation for an already very restrictive diet. Our goals were to quantify protein (Kjeldahl method) and amino acid (18) content (HPLC/fluorescence) in 16 dishes specifically conceived for phenylketonuric patients, and compare the most relevant results with those of several international food composition databases. As might be expected, all the meals contained low protein levels (0.67-3.15 g/100 g) with the highest ones occurring in boiled rice and potatoes. These foods also contained the highest amounts of phenylalanine (158.51 and 62.65 mg/100 g, respectively). In contrast to the other amino acids, it was possible to predict phenylalanine content based on protein alone. Slight deviations were observed when comparing results with the different food composition databases.

  15. NON-PHYSIOLOGICAL AMINO ACID (NPAA) THERAPY TARGETING BRAIN PHENYLALANINE REDUCTION: PILOT STUDIES IN PAHENU2 MICE

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Kara R.; Arning, Erland; Wasek, Brandi L.; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Gibson, K. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Transport of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) across the blood brain barrier (BBB) is facilitated by the L-type amino acid transporter, LAT1. Peripheral accumulation of one LNAA (e.g., phenylalanine (phe) in PKU) is predicted to increase uptake of the offending amino acid to the detriment of others, resulting in disruption of brain amino acid homeostasis. We hypothesized that selected non-physiological amino acids (NPAAs) such as DL-norleucine (NL), 2-aminonorbornane (NB; 2-aminobicyclo-(2,1,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid), 2-aminoisobutyrate (AIB), and N-methyl-aminoisobutyrate (MAIB), acting as competitive inhibitors of various brain amino acid transporters, could reduce brain phe in Pahenu2 mice, a relevant murine model of PKU. Oral feeding of 5% NL, 5% AIB, 0.5% NB and 3% MAIB reduced brain phe by 56% (p<0.01), −1% (p=NS), 27% (p<0.05) and 14% (p<0.01), respectively, compared to untreated subjects. Significant effects on other LNAAs (tyrosine, methionine, branched chain amino acids) were also observed, however, with MAIB displaying the mildest effects. Of interest, MAIB represents an inhibitor of the system A (alanine) transporter that primarily traffics small amino acids and not LNAAs. Our studies represent the first in vivo use of these NPAAs in Pahenu2 mice, and provide proof-of-principle for their further preclinical development, with the long-term objective of identifying NPAA combinations and concentrations that selectively restrict brain phe transport while minimally impacting other LNAAs and downstream intermediates. PMID:22976763

  16. Activation of phenylalanine hydroxylase by phenylalanine does not require binding in the active site.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kenneth M; Khan, Crystal A; Hinck, Cynthia S; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2014-12-16

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH), a liver enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of excess phenylalanine in the diet to tyrosine, is activated by phenylalanine. The lack of activity at low levels of phenylalanine has been attributed to the N-terminus of the protein's regulatory domain acting as an inhibitory peptide by blocking substrate access to the active site. The location of the site at which phenylalanine binds to activate the enzyme is unknown, and both the active site in the catalytic domain and a separate site in the N-terminal regulatory domain have been proposed. Binding of catecholamines to the active-site iron was used to probe the accessibility of the active site. Removal of the regulatory domain increases the rate constants for association of several catecholamines with the wild-type enzyme by ∼2-fold. Binding of phenylalanine in the active site is effectively abolished by mutating the active-site residue Arg270 to lysine. The k(cat)/K(phe) value is down 10⁴ for the mutant enzyme, and the K(m) value for phenylalanine for the mutant enzyme is >0.5 M. Incubation of the R270K enzyme with phenylalanine also results in a 2-fold increase in the rate constants for catecholamine binding. The change in the tryptophan fluorescence emission spectrum seen in the wild-type enzyme upon activation by phenylalanine is also seen with the R270K mutant enzyme in the presence of phenylalanine. Both results establish that activation of PheH by phenylalanine does not require binding of the amino acid in the active site. This is consistent with a separate allosteric site, likely in the regulatory domain.

  17. Spectroscopic analyses on interaction of o-Vanillin-D-Phenylalanine, o-Vanillin-L-Tyrosine and o-Vanillin-L-Levodopa Schiff Bases with bovine serum albumin (BSA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingqun; Guo, Yuwei; Wang, Jun; Wang, Zhiqiu; Jin, Xudong; Cheng, Chunping; Li, Ying; Li, Kai

    2011-04-01

    In this work, three o-Vanillin Schiff Bases (o-VSB: o-Vanillin-D-Phenylalanine (o-VDP), o-Vanillin-L-Tyrosine (o-VLT) and o-Vanillin-L-Levodopa (o-VLL)) with alanine constituent were synthesized by direct reflux method in ethanol solution, and then were used to study the interaction to bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules by fluorescence spectroscopy. Based on the fluorescence quenching calculation, the bimolecular quenching constant (K(q)), apparent quenching constant (K(sv)), effective binding constant (K(A)) and corresponding dissociation constant (K(D)) as well as binding site number (n) were obtained. In addition, the binding distance (r) was also calculated according to Foster's non-radioactive energy transfer theory. The results show that these three o-VSB can efficiently bind to BSA molecules, but the binding array order is o-VDP-BSA>o-VLT-BSA>o-VLL-BSA. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that the o-VDP is more accessibility to tryptophan (Trp) residues of BSA molecules than to tyrosine (Tyr) residues. Nevertheless, the o-VLT and o-VLL are more accessibility to Tyr residues than to Trp residues.

  18. Oxidative Status of DJ-1-dependent Activation of Dopamine Synthesis through Interaction of Tyrosine Hydroxylase and 4-Dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (l-DOPA) Decarboxylase with DJ-1*

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Shizuma; Taira, Takahiro; Niki, Takeshi; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Maita, Chinatsu; Maita, Hiroshi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is caused by loss of dopamine, which is synthesized from tyrosine by two enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and 4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC). DJ-1 is a causative gene for the familial form of PD, but little is known about the roles of DJ-1 in dopamine synthesis. In this study, we found that DJ-1 directly bound to TH and DDC and positively regulated their activities in human dopaminergic cells. Mutants of DJ-1 found in PD patients, including heterozygous mutants, lost their activity and worked as dominant-negative forms toward wild-type DJ-1. When cells were treated with H2O2, 6-hydroxydopamine, or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, changes in activities of TH and DDC accompanied by oxidation of cysteine 106 of DJ-1 occurred. It was found that DJ-1 possessing Cys-106 with SH and SOH forms was active and that DJ-1 possessing Cys-106 with SO2H and SO3H forms was inactive in terms of stimulation of TH and DDC activities. These findings indicate an essential role of DJ-1 in dopamine synthesis and contribution of DJ-1 to the sporadic form of PD. PMID:19703902

  19. Oxidative status of DJ-1-dependent activation of dopamine synthesis through interaction of tyrosine hydroxylase and 4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) decarboxylase with DJ-1.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shizuma; Taira, Takahiro; Niki, Takeshi; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Maita, Chinatsu; Maita, Hiroshi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M

    2009-10-16

    Parkinson disease (PD) is caused by loss of dopamine, which is synthesized from tyrosine by two enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and 4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC). DJ-1 is a causative gene for the familial form of PD, but little is known about the roles of DJ-1 in dopamine synthesis. In this study, we found that DJ-1 directly bound to TH and DDC and positively regulated their activities in human dopaminergic cells. Mutants of DJ-1 found in PD patients, including heterozygous mutants, lost their activity and worked as dominant-negative forms toward wild-type DJ-1. When cells were treated with H(2)O(2), 6-hydroxydopamine, or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, changes in activities of TH and DDC accompanied by oxidation of cysteine 106 of DJ-1 occurred. It was found that DJ-1 possessing Cys-106 with SH and SOH forms was active and that DJ-1 possessing Cys-106 with SO(2)H and SO(3)H forms was inactive in terms of stimulation of TH and DDC activities. These findings indicate an essential role of DJ-1 in dopamine synthesis and contribution of DJ-1 to the sporadic form of PD.

  20. The Amino Acid Specificity for Activation of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Matches the Specificity for Stabilization of Regulatory Domain Dimers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengnan; Hinck, Andrew P; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2015-08-25

    Liver phenylalanine hydroxylase is allosterically activated by phenylalanine. The structural changes that accompany activation have not been identified, but recent studies of the effects of phenylalanine on the isolated regulatory domain of the enzyme support a model in which phenylalanine binding promotes regulatory domain dimerization. Such a model predicts that compounds that stabilize the regulatory domain dimer will also activate the enzyme. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation were used to determine the ability of different amino acids and phenylalanine analogues to stabilize the regulatory domain dimer. The abilities of these compounds to activate the enzyme were analyzed by measuring their effects on the fluorescence change that accompanies activation and on the activity directly. At concentrations of 10-50 mM, d-phenylalanine, l-methionine, l-norleucine, and (S)-2-amino-3-phenyl-1-propanol were able to activate the enzyme to the same extent as 1 mM l-phenylalanine. Lower levels of activation were seen with l-4-aminophenylalanine, l-leucine, l-isoleucine, and 3-phenylpropionate. The ability of these compounds to stabilize the regulatory domain dimer agreed with their ability to activate the enzyme. These results support a model in which allosteric activation of phenylalanine hydroxylase is linked to dimerization of regulatory domains.

  1. Phosphorylation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) serine-511 by the combined action of tyrosine kinases and CK2: the implication of tyrosine-512 and phenylalanine-508.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Luca; Marin, Oriano; Venerando, Andrea; Donella-Deana, Arianna; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2013-12-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) harbors, close to Phe-508, whose deletion is the commonest cause of cystic fibrosis, a conserved potential CK2 phospho-acceptor site (Ser511), which however is not susceptible to phosphorylation by CK2. To shed light on this apparent paradox, a series of systematically substituted peptides encompassing Ser511 were assayed for their ability to be phosphorylated. The main outcomes of our study are the following: (a) Tyr512 plays a prominent role as a negative determinant as its replacement by Ala restores Ser511 phosphorylation by CK2; (b) an even more pronounced phosphorylation of Ser511 is promoted if Tyr512 is replaced by phospho-tyrosine instead of alanine; (c) Tyr512 and, to a lesser extent, Tyr515 are readily phosphorylated by Lyn, a protein tyrosine kinase of the Src family, in a manner which is enhanced by the concomitant Phe508 deletion. Collectively taken, our data, in conjunction with the notion that Tyr515 is phosphorylated in vivo, disclose the possibility that CFTR Ser511 can be phosphorylated by the combined action of tyrosine kinases and CK2 and disclose a new mechanism of hierarchical phosphorylation where the role of the priming kinase is that of removing negative determinant(s).

  2. Expression of bacterial tyrosine ammonia-lyase creates a novel p-coumaric acid pathway in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasutaka; Yun, Choong-Soo; Matsuda, Fumio; Sasaki, Tadamasa; Saito, Kazuki; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2010-06-01

    Some flavonoids are considered as beneficial compounds because they exhibit anticancer or antioxidant activity. In higher plants, flavonoids are secondary metabolites that are derived from phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway. A large number of phenylpropanoids are generated from p-coumaric acid, which is a derivative of the primary metabolite, phenylalanine. The first two steps in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway are catalyzed by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, and the coupling of these two enzymes forms a rate-limiting step in the pathway. For the generation of p-coumaric acid, the conversion from phenylalanine to p-coumaric acid that is catalyzed by two enzymes can be theoretically performed by a single enzyme, tyrosine ammonia-lyase (TAL) that catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to p-coumaric acid in certain bacteria. To modify the p-coumaric acid pathway in plants, we isolated a gene encoding TAL from a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and introduced the gene (RsTAL) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of metabolites revealed that the ectopic over-expression of RsTAL leads to higher accumulation of anthocyanins in transgenic 5-day-old seedlings. On the other hand, 21-day-old seedlings of plants expressing RsTAL showed accumulation of higher amount of quercetin glycosides, sinapoyl and p-coumaroyl derivatives than control. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RsTAL gene in Arabidopsis enhanced the metabolic flux into the phenylpropanoid pathway and resulted in increased accumulation of flavonoids and phenylpropanoids.

  3. Diseases of Phenylalanine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Charles E.

    1979-01-01

    Continuing investigation of the system that hydroxylates phenylalanine to tyrosine has led to new insights into diseases associated with the malfunction of this system. Good evidence has confirmed that phenylketonuria (PKU) is not caused by a simple lack of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Dihydropteridine reductase deficiency as well as defects in biopterin metabolism may also cause the clinical features of phenylketonuria. Furthermore, these diseases do not respond to the standard treatment for phenylketonuria. PMID:388868

  4. Evidence that phenylalanine hydroxylation rates are overestimated in neonatal subjects receiving total parenteral nutrition with a high phenylalanine content.

    PubMed

    House, J D; Thorpe, J M; Wykes, L J; Pencharz, P B; Ball, R O

    1998-04-01

    Recent publications have indicated that the parenterally fed neonate has a substantial ability to hydroxylate phenylalanine. Examination of these data suggests that, at high phenylalanine intakes, estimated rates of hydroxylation exceed rates of intake. This implies significant net tissue breakdown. However, the quantitative validity of the estimates of phenylalanine hydroxylation cannot be assessed without nitrogen balance data. We have recently developed a parenterally fed neonatal piglet model and have used this to study aromatic amino acid metabolism in piglets fed different amino acid solutions. Reappraisal of the data from these studies has allowed us to estimate both phenylalanine hydroxylation and tissue protein accretion. Piglets were parenterally fed Vamin [292 micromol of Phe x kg(-1) x h(-1), 26 micromol of Tyr x kg(-1) x h(-1)], Vaminolact + Phe [VLP, 277 micromol of Phe x kg(-1) x h(-1), 26 micromol Tyr x kg(-1) x h(-1)], or Vaminolact + glycyl-L-tyrosine [VLGT, 152 micromol of Phe x kg(-1) x h(-1), 159 micromol of Tyr x kg(-1) x h(-1)] for 8 d. Nitrogen balance was measured over the last 5 study d, and aromatic amino acid kinetics were determined using a primed continuous infusion of L-[1-4C]phenylalanine on d 8. Average body protein gain, derived from nitrogen balance, was 11 g x kg(-1) x d(-1). For the Vamin and VLP groups, the rates of phenylalanine hydroxylation were estimated to be 139 and 90% of intake, respectively. However, phenylalanine hydroxylation was only 16% of intake for the VLGT group. In view of the tissue protein accretion data, it appears that the rate of phenylalanine hydroxylation may be overestimated in neonates fed high phenylalanine parenteral nutrition. The extent to which the parenterally fed neonate can adapt to a high phenylalanine intake, by increasing the rate of phenylalanine hydroxylation, remains to be determined.

  5. Self-assembled phenylalanine-α,β-dehydrophenylalanine nanotubes for sustained intravitreal delivery of a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Panda, Jiban J; Yandrapu, Sarath; Kadam, Rajendra S; Chauhan, Virander S; Kompella, Uday B

    2013-12-28

    Current standard of care for sustained back of the eye drug delivery is surgical placement or injection of large, slow release implants using a relatively large 22 gauge needle. We designed novel dipeptide (phenylalanine-α,β-dehydrophenylalanine; Phe-∆Phe) based nanotubes with a diameter of ~15-30 nm and a length of ~1500 nm that could be injected with a 33 gauge needle for sustained intravitreal delivery of pazopanib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The drug could be loaded during nanotube assembly or post-loaded after nanotube formation, with the former being more efficient at 25% w/w pazopanib loading and ~55% loading efficiency. Plain and peptide loaded nanotube were non-cytotoxic to retinal pigment epithelial cells even at a concentration of 200 μg/ml. Following intravitreal injection of fluorescently labeled nanotubes using a 33 gauge needle in a rat model, the nanotube persistence and drug delivery were monitored using noninvasive fluorophotometry, electron microscopy and mass spectrometry analysis. Nanotubes persisted in the vitreous humor during the 15 days study and pazopanib levels in the vitreous humor, retina, and choroid-RPE at the end of the study were 4.5, 5, and 2.5-folds higher, respectively, compared to the plain drug. Thus, Phe-∆Phe nanotubes allow intravitreal injections with a small gauge needle and sustain drug delivery.

  6. Reduced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities and lignin synthesis in wheat grown under low pressure sodium lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerra, D.; Anderson, A. J.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Fremont) grown in hydroponic culture under 24-hour continuous irradiation at 560 to 580 micromoles per square meter per second from either metalhalide (MH), high pressure sodium (HPS), or low pressure sodium (LPS) lamps reached maturity in 70 days. Grain yields were similar under all three lamps, although LPS-grown plants lodged at maturity. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and a tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) with lesser activity were detected in all extracts of leaf, inflorescence, and stem. Ammonia-lyase activities increased with age of the plant, and plants grown under the LPS lamp displayed PAL and TAL activities lower than wheat cultured under MH and HPS radiation. Greenhouse solar-grown wheat had the highest PAL and TAL activities. Lignin content of LPS-grown wheat was also significantly reduced from that of plants grown under MH or HPS lamps or in the greenhouse, showing a correlation with the reduced PAL and TAL activities. Ratios of far red-absorbing phytochrome to total phytochrome were similar for all three lamps, but the data do not yet warrant a conclusion about specific wavelengths missing from the LPS lamps that might have induced PAL and TAL activities in plants under the other lamps.

  7. Roles of the tyrosine isomers meta-tyrosine and ortho-tyrosine in oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ipson, Brett R; Fisher, Alfred L

    2016-05-01

    The damage to cellular components by reactive oxygen species, termed oxidative stress, both increases with age and likely contributes to age-related diseases including Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cataract formation. In the setting of oxidative stress, hydroxyl radicals can oxidize the benzyl ring of the amino acid phenylalanine, which then produces the abnormal tyrosine isomers meta-tyrosine or ortho-tyrosine. While elevations in m-tyrosine and o-tyrosine concentrations have been used as a biological marker of oxidative stress, there is emerging evidence from bacterial, plant, and mammalian studies demonstrating that these isomers, particularly m-tyrosine, directly produce adverse effects to cells and tissues. These new findings suggest that the abnormal tyrosine isomers could in fact represent mediators of the effects of oxidative stress. Consequently the accumulation of m- and o-tyrosine may disrupt cellular homeostasis and contribute to disease pathogenesis, and as result, effective defenses against oxidative stress can encompass not only the elimination of reactive oxygen species but also the metabolism and ultimately the removal of the abnormal tyrosine isomers from the cellular amino acid pool. Future research in this area is needed to clarify the biologic mechanisms by which the tyrosine isomers damage cells and disrupt the function of tissues and organs and to identify the metabolic pathways involved in removing the accumulated isomers after exposure to oxidative stress.

  8. Conformational preferences of 1-amino-2-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid, a phenylalanine cyclohexane analogue

    PubMed Central

    Alemán, Carlos; Jiménez, Ana I.; Cativiela, Carlos; Nussinov, Ruth; Casanovas, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    The intrinsic conformational preferences of the restricted phenylalanine analogue generated by including the α and β carbon atoms into a cyclohexane ring (1-amino-2-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid, c6Phe) have been determined using quantum mechanical calculations. Specifically, the conformational profile of the N-acetyl-N’-methylamide derivative of the c6Phe stereoisomers exhibiting either a cis or a trans relative orientation between the amino and phenyl substituents has been analyzed in different environments (gas phase, chloroform and aqueous solutions). Calculations were performed using B3LYP, MP2 and HF methods combined with the 6-31+G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets, and a self-consistent reaction-field (SCRF) method was applied to analyze the influence of the solvent. The amino acids investigated can be viewed as constrained phenylalanine analogues with a rigidly oriented aromatic side chain that may interact with the peptide backbone not only sterically but also electronically through the aromatic π orbitals. Their conformational propensities have been found to be strongly influenced by the specific orientation of the aromatic substituent in each stereoisomer and the conformation adopted by the cyclohexane ring, as well as by the environment. PMID:19772338

  9. Modulation of anti-endotoxin property of Temporin L by minor amino acid substitution in identified phenylalanine zipper sequence.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Saurabh; Kumar, Amit; Tripathi, Amit Kumar; Tandon, Anshika; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

    2016-11-01

    A 13-residue frog antimicrobial peptide Temporin L (TempL) possesses versatile antimicrobial activities and is considered a lead molecule for the development of new antimicrobial agents. To find out the amino acid sequences that influence the anti-microbial property of TempL, a phenylalanine zipper-like sequence was identified in it which was not reported earlier. Several alanine-substituted analogs and a scrambled peptide having the same composition of TempL were designed for evaluating the role of this motif. To investigate whether leucine residues instead of phenylalanine residues at 'a' and/or 'd' position(s) of the heptad repeat sequence could alter its antimicrobial property, several TempL analogs were synthesized after replacing these phenylalanine residues with leucine residues. Replacing phenylalanine residues with alanine residues in the phenylalanine zipper sequence significantly compromised the anti-endotoxin property of TempL. This is evident from the higher production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat bone-marrow-derived macrophage cells in the presence of its alanine-substituted analogs than TempL itself. However, replacement of these phenylalanine residues with leucine residues significantly augmented anti-endotoxin property of TempL. A single alanine-substituted TempL analog (F8A-TempL) showed significantly reduced cytotoxicity but retained the antibacterial activity of TempL, while the two single leucine-substituted analogs (F5L-TempL and F8L-TempL), although exhibiting lower cytotoxicity, were able to retain the antibacterial activity of the parent peptide. The results demonstrate how minor amino acid substitutions in the identified phenylalanine zipper sequence in TempL could yield analogs with better antibacterial and/or anti-endotoxin properties with their plausible mechanism of action.

  10. An additional substrate binding site in a bacterial phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Ronau, Judith A; Paul, Lake N; Fuchs, Julian E; Corn, Isaac R; Wagner, Kyle T; Liedl, Klaus R; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M; Das, Chittaranjan

    2013-09-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is a non-heme iron enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of phenylalanine to tyrosine, a reaction that must be kept under tight regulatory control. Mammalian PAH has a regulatory domain in which binding of the substrate leads to allosteric activation of the enzyme. However, the existence of PAH regulation in evolutionarily distant organisms, for example some bacteria in which it occurs, has so far been underappreciated. In an attempt to crystallographically characterize substrate binding by PAH from Chromobacterium violaceum, a single-domain monomeric enzyme, electron density for phenylalanine was observed at a distal site 15.7 Å from the active site. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments revealed a dissociation constant of 24 ± 1.1 μM for phenylalanine. Under the same conditions, ITC revealed no detectable binding for alanine, tyrosine, or isoleucine, indicating the distal site may be selective for phenylalanine. Point mutations of amino acid residues in the distal site that contact phenylalanine (F258A, Y155A, T254A) led to impaired binding, consistent with the presence of distal site binding in solution. Although kinetic analysis revealed that the distal site mutants suffer discernible loss of their catalytic activity, X-ray crystallographic analysis of Y155A and F258A, the two mutants with the most noticeable decrease in activity, revealed no discernible change in the structure of their active sites, suggesting that the effect of distal binding may result from protein dynamics in solution.

  11. Syntheses of L-tyrosine-related amino acids by tyrosine phenol-lyase of Citrobacter intermedius.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, T; Utagawa, T; Goto, J; Kim, C J; Tani, Y; Kumagai, H; Yamada, H

    1981-06-01

    Degradation of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate and ammonia by tyrosine phenol-lyase from Citrobacter intermedius (formerly named Escherichia intermedia) is readily reversible at high concentrations of pyruvate and ammonia. Spectrophotometric studies indicate that ammonia is the first substrate which interacts with bound pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Kinetic results show that pyruvate is the second substrate bound, hence phenol must be the third. When an appropriate phenol derivative is substituted for phenol, the corresponding tyrosine analogue can be synthesized. 3-Fluoro-, 2-fluoro-, 3-chloro-, 2-chloro-, 3-bromo-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 3-methyl-, 2-methyl- and 2-methoxy-L-tyrosines have been synthesized by this reaction. By using various phenol derivatives or tyrosine analogues as substrates, the substrate specificity of tyrosine phenol-lyase is investigated and the situation of its active site is discussed.

  12. The phylogeny of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases revisited by characterizing phenylalanine hydroxylase from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica; Steen, Ida Helene; Svebak, Randi M; Martinez, Aurora

    2008-12-31

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum contains only one aromatic amino acid hydroxylase (AAAH) gene compared to at least three in metazoans. As shown in this work this gene codes for a phenylalanine hydroxylase (DictyoPAH) and phylogenetic analysis places this enzyme close to the precursor AAAHs, aiding to define the evolutionary history of the AAAH family. DictyoPAH shows significant similarities to other eukaryote PAH, but it exhibits higher activity with tetrahydrodictyopterin (DH4) than with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as cofactor. DH4 is an abundant tetrahydropterin in D. discoideum while BH4 is the natural cofactor of the AAAHs in mammals. Moreover, DictyoPAH is devoid of the characteristic regulatory mechanisms of mammalian PAH such as positive cooperativity for L-Phe and activation by preincubation with the substrate. Analysis of the few active site substitutions between DictyoPAH and mammalian PAH, including mutant expression analysis, reveals potential structural determinants for allosteric regulation.

  13. Phenylalanine-containing cyclic dipeptides--the lowest molecular weight hydrogelators based on unmodified proteinogenic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kleinsmann, Alexander J; Nachtsheim, Boris J

    2013-09-14

    Cyclic dipeptides (diketopiperazines - DKPs) that are based on the proteinogenic amino acid phenylalanine in combination with serine, cysteine, glutamate, histidine and lysine are described as simple and remarkable low molecular weight hydrogelators. Blends of selected DKPs show remarkable pH-dependent properties and can be applied as easy to tune materials in drug delivery.

  14. Structural insights into the regulation of aromatic amino acid hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2015-12-01

    The aromatic amino acid hydroxylases phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and tryptophan hydroxylase are homotetramers, with each subunit containing a homologous catalytic domain and a divergent regulatory domain. The solution structure of the regulatory domain of tyrosine hydroxylase establishes that it contains a core ACT domain similar to that in phenylalanine hydroxylase. The isolated regulatory domain of tyrosine hydroxylase forms a stable dimer, while that of phenylalanine hydroxylase undergoes a monomer-dimer equilibrium, with phenylalanine stabilizing the dimer. These solution properties are consistent with the regulatory mechanisms of the two enzymes, in that phenylalanine hydroxylase is activated by phenylalanine binding to an allosteric site, while tyrosine hydroxylase is regulated by binding of catecholamines in the active site.

  15. The global gene expression response of Escherichia coli to L-phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Polen, T; Krämer, M; Bongaerts, J; Wubbolts, M; Wendisch, V F

    2005-02-09

    We investigated the global gene expression changes of Escherichia coli due to the presence of different concentrations of phenylalanine or shikimate in the growth medium. The response to 0.5 g l(-1) phenylalanine primarily reflected a perturbed aromatic amino acid metabolism, in particular due to TyrR-mediated regulation. The addition of 5g l(-1) phenylalanine reduced the growth rate by half and elicited a great number of likely indirect effects on genes regulated in response to changed pH, nitrogen or carbon availability. Consistent with the observed gene expression changes, supplementation with shikimate, tyrosine and tryptophan relieved growth inhibition by phenylalanine. In contrast to the wild-type, a tyrR disruption strain showed increased expression of pckA and of tktB in the presence of phenylalanine, but its growth was not affected by phenylalanine at the concentrations tested. The absence of growth inhibition by phenylalanine suggested that at high phenylalanine concentrations TyrR-defective strains might perform better in phenylalanine production.

  16. l-Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (Maize)

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Philip D.; Havir, Evelyn A.; Marsh, Herbert V.

    1972-01-01

    Extracts of maize leaf sheath tissue deaminate both l-phenylalanine and l-tyrosine. The activities with both substrates are enhanced by treating the plant with gibberellic acid. Both activities decrease rapidly at the same rate when tissue is incubated in a moist atmosphere, and this decrease can be slowed by treatment with cycloheximide. The ratio of the activities was constant throughout a series of purification steps which included acetone and ammonium sulfate precipitation, and passage through an agarose column. The two activities could not be separated by isoelectric focusing. These results support our earlier conclusion that both activities occur at the same catalytic site. PMID:16658200

  17. Amino Acid Mixture Enriched With Arginine, Alanine, and Phenylalanine Stimulates Fat Metabolism During Exercise.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Keisuke; Nakamura, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Mori, Takeshi; Uchida, Masayuki; Fujita, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Although there have been many investigations of the beneficial effects of both exercise and amino acids (AAs), little is known about their combined effects on the single-dose ingestion of AAs for lipid metabolism during exercise. We hypothesize that taking a specific combination of AAs implicated in glucagon secretion during exercise may increase fat metabolism. We recently developed a new mixture, d-AA mixture (D-mix), that contains arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine to investigate fat oxidation. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 10 healthy male volunteers were randomized to ingest either D-mix (3 g/dose) or placebo. Subjects in each condition subsequently performed a physical task that included workload trials on a cycle ergometer at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption for 1 hr. After oral intake of D-mix, maximum serum concentrations of glycerol (9.32 ± 6.29 mg/L and 5.22 ± 2.22 mg/L, respectively; p = .028), free fatty acid level (0.77 ± 0.26 mEq/L and 0.63 ± 0.28 mEq/L, respectively; p = .022), and acetoacetic acid levels (37.9 ± 17.7 μmol/L and 30.3 ± 13.9 μmol/L, respectively; p = .040) were significantly higher than in the placebo groups. The area under the curve for glucagon during recovery was numerically higher than placebo (6.61 ± 1.33 μg/L · min and 6.06 ± 1.23 μg/L · min, respectively; p = .099). These results suggest that preexercise ingestion of D-mix may stimulate fat metabolism. Combined with exercise, the administration of AA mixtures could prove to be a useful nutritional strategy to maximize fat metabolism.

  18. Gibberellic Acid-Promoted Lignification and Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase Activity in a Dwarf Pea (Pisum sativum) 1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Christina K.-C.; Marsh, H. V.

    1968-01-01

    The effects of gibberellic acid on lignification in seedlings of a dwarf and a tall cultivar of pea (Pisum sativum) grown under red or white light or in the darkness, were studied. Gibberellic acid (10−6-10−4 m) promoted stem elongation in both light and dark and increased the percentage of lignin in the stems of the light-grown dwarf pea. The gibberellin had no effect on the lignin content of the tall pea although high concentrations (10−4 m) promoted growth of the tall plants. Time course studies indicated that the enhanced lignification in the gibberellin-treated dwarf plants occurred only after a lag period of several days. It was concluded that gibberellic acid-enhanced ligmification had no direct relation to gibberellic acid-promoted growth. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (E.C. 4.3.1.5) was higher in gibberellin-treated dwarf plants grown under white or red light than in untreated dwarf plants. Gibberellic acid had no detectable effect on the activity of this enzyme when the plants were grown in darkness, just as it had no effect on lignification under dark conditions. The data suggest that in gibberellin-deficient peas the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase is one of the limiting factors in lignification. PMID:16656968

  19. Expression, purification, crystallization, data collection and preliminary biochemical characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Seetharamappa, Jaldappagari; Oke, Muse; Liu, Huanting; McMahon, Stephen A.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Carter, Lester; Dorward, Mark; Zawadzki, Michal; Overton, Ian M.; Niekirk, C. A. Johannes van; Graham, Shirley; Botting, Catherine H.; Taylor, Garry L.; White, Malcolm F.; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Coote, Peter J.; Naismith, James H.

    2007-05-01

    As part of work on S. aureus, the crystallization of Sar2028, a protein that is upregulated in MRSA, is reported. Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase with a molecular weight of 48 168 Da, was overexpressed in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared with a methicillin-sensitive strain. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The protein crystallized in a primitive orthorhombic Laue group with unit-cell parameters a = 83.6, b = 91.3, c = 106.0 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Analysis of the systematic absences along the three principal axes indicated the space group to be P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. A complete data set was collected to 2.5 Å resolution.

  20. Expression, purification, crystallization, data collection and preliminary biochemical characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Seetharamappa, Jaldappagari; Oke, Muse; Liu, Huanting; McMahon, Stephen A.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Carter, Lester; Dorward, Mark; Zawadzki, Michal; Overton, Ian M.; van Niekirk, C. A. Johannes; Graham, Shirley; Botting, Catherine H.; Taylor, Garry L.; White, Malcolm F.; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Coote, Peter J.; Naismith, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase with a molecular weight of 48 168 Da, was overexpressed in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared with a methicillin-sensitive strain. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The protein crystallized in a primitive orthorhombic Laue group with unit-cell parameters a = 83.6, b = 91.3, c = 106.0 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Analysis of the systematic absences along the three principal axes indicated the space group to be P212121. A complete data set was collected to 2.5 Å resolution. PMID:17565195

  1. Tannic acid, a potent inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Er Bin; Wei, Liu; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yu Zong; Chen, Wei Ning

    2006-03-01

    Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that tannic acid, a plant polyphenol, exerts anticarcinogenic activity in chemically induced cancers. In the present study, tannic acid was found to strongly inhibit tyrosine kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) in vitro (IC50 = 323 nM). In contrast, the inhibition by tannic acid of p60(c-src) tyrosine kinase (IC50 = 14 microM) and insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (IC50 = 5 microM) was much weaker. The inhibition of EGFr tyrosine kinase by tannic acid was competitive with respect to ATP and non-competitive with respect to peptide substrate. In cultured cells, growth factor-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of growth factor receptors, including EGFr, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and basic fibroblast growth factor receptor, was inhibited by tannic acid. No inhibition of insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor and insulin-receptor substrate-1 was observed. EGF-stimulated growth of HepG2 cells was inhibited in the presence of tannic acid. The inhibition of serine/threonine-specific protein kinases, including cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase, by tannic acid was only detected at relatively high concentration, IC50 being 3, 325 and 142 microM respectively. The molecular modeling study suggested that tannic acid could be docked into the ATP binding pockets of either EGFr or insulin receptor. These results demonstrate that tannic acid is an in vitro potent inhibitor of EGFr tyrosine kinase.

  2. Study of the effects of proline, phenylalanine, and urea foliar application to Tempranillo vineyards on grape amino acid content. Comparison with commercial nitrogen fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Garde-Cerdán, T; López, R; Portu, J; González-Arenzana, L; López-Alfaro, I; Santamaría, P

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application of different nitrogen sources on grape amino acid content. The nitrogen sources applied to Tempranillo grapevines were proline, phenylalanine, urea, and two commercial nitrogen fertilisers, both without and with amino acids in their formulations. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later. Proline treatment did not affect the must nitrogen composition. However, phenylalanine and urea foliar application enhanced the plants' synthesis of most of the amino acids, producing similar effects. In addition, the spray of commercial nitrogen fertilisers over leaves also induced a rise in grape amino acid concentrations regardless of the presence or absence of amino acids in their formulation. The most effective treatments were phenylalanine and urea followed by nitrogen fertilisers. This finding is of oenological interest for improved must nitrogen composition, ensuring better fermentation kinetics and most likely enhancing wine quality.

  3. Growth, structural, spectral, optical, and thermal studies on amino acid based new NLO single crystal: L-phenylalanine-4-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, M.; Lydia Caroline, M.; Geetha, D.

    2013-05-01

    A new organic nonlinear optical single crystal, L-phenylalanine-4-nitrophenol (LPAPN) belonging to the amino acid group has been successfully grown by slow evaporation technique. The lattice parameters of the grown crystal have been determined by X-ray diffraction studies. FT-IR spectrum was recorded to identify the presence of functional group and molecular structure was confirmed by NMR spectrum. Thermal strength of the grown crystal has been studied using TG-DTA analyses. The grown crystals were found to be transparent in the entire visible region. The existence of second harmonic generation signals was observed using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm.

  4. Growth, structural, spectral, optical, and thermal studies on amino acid based new NLO single crystal: L-phenylalanine-4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Prakash, M; Lydia Caroline, M; Geetha, D

    2013-05-01

    A new organic nonlinear optical single crystal, L-phenylalanine-4-nitrophenol (LPAPN) belonging to the amino acid group has been successfully grown by slow evaporation technique. The lattice parameters of the grown crystal have been determined by X-ray diffraction studies. FT-IR spectrum was recorded to identify the presence of functional group and molecular structure was confirmed by NMR spectrum. Thermal strength of the grown crystal has been studied using TG-DTA analyses. The grown crystals were found to be transparent in the entire visible region. The existence of second harmonic generation signals was observed using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm.

  5. Modeling of facilitated transport of phenylalanine by emulsion liquid membranes with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid as a carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Liu, D.

    1998-12-01

    A mathematical model is developed in this paper to simulate the facilitated transport of phenylalanine (Phe) in emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) systems with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid as a carrier. The model takes into account the mass transfer in both the external aqueous phase and the organic membrane phase interfacial reaction as well as membrane breakage during agitation. The model is tested by comparing theoretical predications with experimental results using Phe extraction by ELM processes. It is found that the model is valid for simulating the facilitated transport of Phe with ELM under various experimental conditions.

  6. Spectroscopic analyses on interaction of o-Vanillin- D-Phenylalanine, o-Vanillin- L-Tyrosine and o-Vanillin- L-Levodopa Schiff Bases with bovine serum albumin (BSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jingqun; Guo, Yuwei; Wang, Jun; Wang, Zhiqiu; Jin, Xudong; Cheng, Chunping; Li, Ying; Li, Kai

    2011-04-01

    In this work, three o-Vanillin Schiff Bases (o-VSB: o-Vanillin- D-Phenylalanine (o-VDP), o-Vanillin- L-Tyrosine (o-VLT) and o-Vanillin- L-Levodopa (o-VLL)) with alanine constituent were synthesized by direct reflux method in ethanol solution, and then were used to study the interaction to bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules by fluorescence spectroscopy. Based on the fluorescence quenching calculation, the bimolecular quenching constant ( Kq), apparent quenching constant ( Ksv), effective binding constant ( KA) and corresponding dissociation constant ( KD) as well as binding site number ( n) were obtained. In addition, the binding distance ( r) was also calculated according to Foster's non-radioactive energy transfer theory. The results show that these three o-VSB can efficiently bind to BSA molecules, but the binding array order is o-VDP-BSA > o-VLT-BSA > o-VLL-BSA. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that the o-VDP is more accessibility to tryptophan (Trp) residues of BSA molecules than to tyrosine (Tyr) residues. Nevertheless, the o-VLT and o-VLL are more accessibility to Tyr residues than to Trp residues.

  7. Insights into the catalytic mechanisms of phenylalanine and tryptophan hydroxylase from kinetic isotope effects on aromatic hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Pavon, Jorge Alex; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2006-09-12

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TrpH) catalyze the aromatic hydroxylation of phenylalanine and tryptophan, forming tyrosine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. The reactions of PheH and TrpH have been investigated with [4-(2)H]-, [3,5-(2)H(2)]-, and (2)H(5)-phenylalanine as substrates. All (D)k(cat) values are normal with Delta117PheH, the catalytic core of rat phenylalanine hydroxylase, ranging from 1.12-1.41. In contrast, for Delta117PheH V379D, a mutant protein in which the stoichiometry between tetrahydropterin oxidation and amino acid hydroxylation is altered, the (D)k(cat) value with [4-(2)H]-phenylalanine is 0.92 but is normal with [3,5-(2)H(2)]-phenylalanine. The ratio of tetrahydropterin oxidation to amino acid hydroxylation for Delta117PheH V379D shows a similar inverse isotope effect with [4-(2)H]-phenylalanine. Intramolecular isotope effects, determined from the deuterium contents of the tyrosine formed from [4-(2)H]-and [3,5(2)H(2)]-phenylalanine, are identical for Delta117PheH and Delta117PheH V379D, suggesting that steps subsequent to oxygen addition are unaffected in the mutant protein. The inverse effects are consistent with the reaction of an activated ferryl-oxo species at the para position of the side chain of the amino acid to form a cationic intermediate. The normal effects on the (D)k(cat) value for the wild-type enzyme are attributed to an isotope effect of 5.1 on the tautomerization of a dienone intermediate to tyrosine with a rate constant 6- to7-fold that for hydroxylation. In addition, there is a slight ( approximately 34%) preference for the loss of the hydrogen originally at C4 of phenylalanine. With (2)H(5)-indole-tryptophan as a substrate for Delta117PheH, the (D)k(cat) value is 0.89, consistent with hydroxylation being rate-limiting in this case. When deuterated phenylalanines are used as substrates for TrpH, the (D)k(cat) values are within error of those for Delta117PheH V379D. Overall, these results

  8. Utilization of [14C]phenylalanine derived from arylphorin or free amino acid in Manduca sexta pharate adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M.; Tischler, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    The role of arylphorin as a storage protein was studied using 14C-arylphorin. 14C-arylphorin was produced optimally by incubating one-half fat body from Manduca sexta fifth instar larvae at 22 degrees C for 24 h, in 1 ml of medium containing amino acids at 25% of their physiological concentration with [U-14C]-phenylalanine (phe) provided initially without nonlabeled phenylalanine. Nonlabeled phe was provided after 1 h at 16% of its physiological concentration. The specific activity of 14C-arylphorin produced in vitro was 30 times greater than that generated in vivo. Injection of 14C-arylphorin into pharate adults was used to study the distribution of 14C-phe derived from this protein into 14CO2 and tissues for comparison with injection of free 14C-phe during the middle (days 6 to 12 pharate adult) and late (days 12 to 17 pharate adult) stages of adult development. Appearance of 14CO2 from 14C-arylphorin as compared to 14C-phenylalanine showed a slower time course during both the middle and late stages of development, in keeping with the time needed for degradation of the protein. In accord with faster phe turnover near the end of adult development, total 14CO2 production was greater and the retention of 14C in hemolymph and fat body was less compared to the middle stage of development regardless of whether 14C-arylphorin or 14C-phe was injected. In the middle stage of development, the appearance of 14C in the cuticle and head parts was greater, whereas incorporation into abdomen and thorax was less than during the late stage of development. Since the pattern of 14C distribution from 14C-arylphorin and 14C-phe was similar, one major function of arylphorin must be as a storage protein replenishing the supply of free amino acids used for synthesis of adult tissues. These results also suggest a limited contribution of M. sexta arylphorin to formation of the cuticle subsequent to day-6 pharate adult.

  9. Electron Transfer Studies of Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Biologically Important Phenolic Acids and Tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, Angusamy; Ramdass, Arumugam; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2016-03-01

    The ruthenium(II) complexes having 2,2'-bipyridine and phenanthroline derivatives are synthesized and characterized. The photophysical properties of these complexes at pH 12.5 are studied. The electron transfer reaction of biologically important phenolic acids and tyrosine are studied using absorption, emission and transient absorption spectral techniques. Semiclassical theory is applied to calculate the rate of electron transfer between ruthenium(II) complexes and biologically important phenolic acids.

  10. Fungal and Plant Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Min Woo; Yun, Yeo Hong; Kim, Jun Young

    2011-01-01

    L-Phenylalanine is one of the essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in mammals in adequate amounts to meet the requirements for protein synthesis. Fungi and plants are able to synthesize phenylalanine via the shikimic acid pathway. L-Phenylalanine, derived from the shikimic acid pathway, is used directly for protein synthesis in plants or metabolized through the phenylpropanoid pathway. This phenylpropanoid metabolism leads to the biosynthesis of a wide array of phenylpropanoid secondary products. The first step in this metabolic sequence involves the action of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). The discovery of PAL enzyme in fungi and the detection of 14CO2 production from 14C-ring-labeled phenylalanine and cinnamic acid demonstrated that certain fungi can degrade phenylalanine by a pathway involving an initial deamination to cinnamic acid, as happens in plants. In this review, we provide background information on PAL and a recent update on the presence of PAL genes in fungi. PMID:22783113

  11. The effect of elevated plasma phenylalanine levels on protein synthesis rates in adult rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, D S; Yang, X R; Lajtha, A

    1994-01-01

    Increasing the plasma phenylalanine concentration to levels as high as 0.560-0.870 mM (over ten times normal levels) had no detectable effect on the rate of brain protein synthesis in adult rats. The average rates for 7-week-old rats were: valine, 0.58 +/- 0.05%/h, phenylalanine, 0.59 +/- 0.06%/h, and tyrosine, 0.60 +/- 0.09%/h, or 0.59 +/- 0.06%/h overall. Synthesis rates calculated on the basis of the specific activity of the tRNA-bound amino acid were slightly lower (4% lower for phenylalanine) than those based on the brain free amino acid pool. Similarly, the specific activities of valine and phenylalanine in microdialysis fluid from striatum were practically the same as those in the brain free amino acid pool. Thus the specific activities of the valine and phenylalanine brain free pools are good measures of the precursor specific activity for protein synthesis. In any event, synthesis rates, whether based on the specific activities of the amino acids in the brain free pool or those bound to tRNA, were unaffected by elevated levels of plasma phenylalanine. Brain protein synthesis rates measured after the administration of quite large doses of phenylalanine (> 1.5 mumol/g) or valine (15 mumol/g) were in agreement (0.62 +/- 0.01 and 0.65 +/- 0.01%/h respectively) with the rates determined with infusions of trace amounts of amino acids. Thus the technique of stabilizing precursor-specific activity, and pushing values in the brain close to those of the plasma, by the administration of large quantities of precursor, appears to be valid. PMID:8093014

  12. Role of Tyrosine Isomers in Acute and Chronic Diseases Leading to Oxidative Stress - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, Gergő A.; Kun, Szilárd; Sélley, Eszter; Kertész, Melinda; Szélig, Lívia; Csontos, Csaba; Böddi, Katalin; Bogár, Lajos; Miseta, Attila; Wittmann, István

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Measurement of the oxidative stress-related end products may be performed, e.g. that of structural isomers of the physiological para-tyrosine, namely meta- and ortho-tyrosine, that are oxidized derivatives of phenylalanine. Recent data suggest that in sepsis, serum level of meta-tyrosine increases, which peaks on the 2nd and 3rd days (p<0.05 vs. controls), and the kinetics follows the intensity of the systemic inflammation correlating with serum procalcitonin levels. In a similar study subset, urinary meta-tyrosine excretion correlated with both need of daily insulin dose and the insulin-glucose product in non-diabetic septic cases (p<0.01 for both). Using linear regression model, meta-tyrosine excretion, urinary meta-tyrosine/para-tyrosine, urinary ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine and urinary (meta- + ortho-tyrosine)/para-tyrosine proved to be markers of carbohydrate homeostasis. In a chronic rodent model, we tried to compensate the abnormal tyrosine isomers using para-tyrosine, the physiological amino acid. Rats were fed a standard high cholesterol-diet, and were given para-tyrosine or vehicle orally. High-cholesterol feeding lead to a significant increase in aortic wall meta-tyrosine content and a decreased vasorelaxation of the aorta to insulin and the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, that both could be prevented by administration of para-tyrosine. Concluding, these data suggest that meta- and ortho-tyrosine are potential markers of oxidative stress in acute diseases related to oxidative stress, and may also interfere with insulin action in septic humans. Competition of meta- and ortho-tyrosine by supplementation of para-tyrosine may exert a protective role in oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26785996

  13. Deoxycholic acid differentially regulates focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation: role of tyrosine phosphatase ShP2.

    PubMed

    Khare, Sharad; Holgren, Cory; Samarel, Allen M

    2006-12-01

    Environmental factors, including dietary fats, are implicated in colonic carcinogenesis. Dietary fats modulate secondary bile acids including deoxycholic acid (DCA) concentrations in the colon, which are thought to contribute to the nutritional-related component of colon cancer risk. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that DCA differentially regulated the site-specific phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). DCA decreased adhesion of HCA-7 cells to the substratum and induced dephosphorylation of FAK at tyrosine-576/577 (Tyr-576/577) and Tyr-925. Tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-397 remained unaffected by DCA stimulation. Interestingly, we found that c-Src was constitutively associated with FAK and DCA actually activated Src, despite no change in FAK-397 and an inhibition of FAK-576 phosphorylation. DCA concomitantly and significantly increased association of tyrosine phosphatase ShP2 with FAK. Incubation of immunoprecipitated FAK, in vitro, with glutathione-S-transferase-ShP2 fusion protein resulted in tyrosine dephosphorylation of FAK in a concentration-dependent manner. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides directed against ShP2 decreased ShP2 protein levels and attenuated DCA-induced FAK dephosphorylation. Inhibition of FAK by adenoviral-mediated overexpression of FAK-related nonkinase and gene silencing of Shp2 both abolished DCA's effect on cell adhesion, thus providing a possible mechanism for inside-out signaling by DCA in colon cancer cells. Our results suggest that DCA differentially regulates focal adhesion complexes and that tyrosine phosphatase ShP2 has a role in DCA signaling.

  14. Relationships between salicylic acid content, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, and resistance of barley to aphid infestation.

    PubMed

    Chaman, Mercedes E; Copaja, Sylvia V; Argandoña, Victor H

    2003-04-09

    It has been suggested that salicylic acid (SA) is a signal in acquired resistance to pathogens in several plants. Also, it has been suggested that infestation of plants causes an increase in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), a key phenolic biosynthesis enzyme. The purpose of this work was to investigate whether the induction of SA and PAL activity is related to the susceptibility of barley to aphid infestation. The induction of free and conjugated SA in two barley cultivars that differ in susceptibility to aphids was analyzed. Analyses of several physiological parameters showed that cv. UNA-80 was more susceptible to the aphid Schizaphis graminum than cv. LM-109. Salicylic acid was not detected in noninfested plants. Levels of free and conjugated SA in cv. LM-109 and of conjugated SA in cv. UNA-80 increased with aphid infestation, whereas the levels of free SA in cv. UNA-80 remained high under all infestation degrees. Maximum values reached in both cultivars were not significantly different. With respect to PAL activity, cv. LM-109 showed a significantly higher specific activity than cv. UNA-80, the more susceptible cultivar. The relationship between the susceptibility of a plant to aphid and SA induction and PAL activity is discussed.

  15. Growth, thermal, dielectric and mechanical properties of L-phenylalanine-benzoic acid: A nonlinear optical single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamilselvan, S.; Vimalan, M.; Vetha Potheher, I.; Rajasekar, S.; Jeyasekaran, R.; Antony Arockiaraj, M.; Madhavan, J.

    2013-10-01

    An efficient amino acid family nonlinear optical single crystal L-phenylalanine-benzoic acid (LPB) was conveniently grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The crystal system and the lattice parameters were analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The grown crystal has excellent transmission in the entire visible region and its lower cut-off wavelength was found to be 248 nm. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal was found to be 1.6 times higher than that of KDP crystal. The Laser damage threshold value of LPB has been found to be 6.5 GW/cm2. The sample was thermally stable up to 134 °C. Microhardness, dielectric and AC/DC conductivity measurements were made along (0 0 1) plane and reported for the first time. Microhardness studies revealed that the sample belongs to hard nature. Frequency dependent dielectric constant was measured for different temperatures and found maximum dielectric constant of 14 for 363 K. Photoconductivity studies of LPB divulged its negative photoconducting nature.

  16. Growth, thermal, dielectric and mechanical properties of L-phenylalanine-benzoic acid: a nonlinear optical single crystal.

    PubMed

    Tamilselvan, S; Vimalan, M; Potheher, I Vetha; Rajasekar, S; Jeyasekaran, R; Arockiaraj, M Antony; Madhavan, J

    2013-10-01

    An efficient amino acid family nonlinear optical single crystal L-phenylalanine-benzoic acid (LPB) was conveniently grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The crystal system and the lattice parameters were analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The grown crystal has excellent transmission in the entire visible region and its lower cut-off wavelength was found to be 248 nm. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal was found to be 1.6 times higher than that of KDP crystal. The Laser damage threshold value of LPB has been found to be 6.5 GW/cm(2). The sample was thermally stable up to 134°C. Microhardness, dielectric and AC/DC conductivity measurements were made along (001) plane and reported for the first time. Microhardness studies revealed that the sample belongs to hard nature. Frequency dependent dielectric constant was measured for different temperatures and found maximum dielectric constant of 14 for 363 K. Photoconductivity studies of LPB divulged its negative photoconducting nature.

  17. The Induction of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase and Phaseollin by 9-Aminoacridine and Other Deoxyribonucleic Acid Intercalating Compounds 1

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Samuel L.; Hadwiger, Lee A.

    1971-01-01

    Bean pod tissue (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Top Crop) is induced to produce phaseollin when challenged with various microorganisms. The pods react in the same manner when challenged with 9-aminoacridine. This compound also caused an increase in concentrations of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, an enzyme of the phaseollin synthesizing pathway. Both the synthesis of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and phaseollin are subject to inhibition by actinomycin D, cycloheximide, or 6-methylpurine. The results suggest that both phaseollin production and increased phenylalanine ammonia lyase, when induced by 9-aminoacridine, require newly synthesized RNA and protein. The concentration of 9-aminoacridine optimal for synthesis of phaseollin and PAL (0.5 mg/ml) does not increase the rate of total protein synthesis. However, there is a differential effect of 9-aminoacridine on synthesis of certain protein fractions. Optimal concentrations of 9-aminoacridine induce phaseollin and phenylalanine ammonia lyase synthesis while reducing the net synthesis of RNA during the period of induction. The planar three-ring structure of 9-aminoacridine appears to be a desirable feature for phaseollin and phenylalanine ammonia lyase induction. Similar compounds, all DNA intercalators, having dimethylamino, diethylamino, amino, or 9-alkylamino substitutions of a three-ring acridine skeleton, are also inducers of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and phaseollin synthesis. It is suggested that 9-aminoacridine and other DNA intercalators function as inducers of phaseollin and phenylalanine ammonia lyase synthesis by reacting with the DNA template. PMID:16657762

  18. Tryptophanase from Proteus vulgaris: the conformational rearrangement in the active site, induced by the mutation of Tyrosine 72 to phenylalanine, and its mechanistic consequences.

    PubMed

    Kulikova, Vitalia V; Zakomirdina, Ludmila N; Dementieva, Irene S; Phillips, Robert S; Gollnick, Paul D; Demidkina, Tatyana V; Faleev, Nicolai G

    2006-04-01

    Tyr72 is located at the active site of tryptophanase (Trpase) from Proteus vulgaris. For the wild-type Trpase Tyr72 might be considered as the general acid catalyst at the stage of elimination of the leaving groups. The replacement of Tyr72 by Phe leads to a decrease in activity for L-tryptophan by 50,000-fold and to a considerable rearrangement of the active site of Trpase. This rearrangement leads to an increase of room around the alpha-C atom of any bound amino acid, such that covalent binding of alpha-methyl-substituted amino acids becomes possible (which cannot be realized in wild-type Trpase). The changes in reactivities of S-alkyl-L-cysteines provide evidence for an increase of congestion in the proximity of their side groups in the mutant enzyme as compared to wild-type enzyme. The observed alteration of catalytic properties in a large degree originates from a conformational change in the active site. The Y72F Trpase retains significant activity for L-serine, which allowed us to conclude that in the mutant enzyme, some functional group is present which fulfills the role of the general acid catalyst in reactions associated with elimination of small leaving groups.

  19. First evidence of a membrane-bound, tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine producing, tyrosine decarboxylase in Enterococcus faecalis: a two-dimensional electrophoresis proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Pessione, Enrica; Pessione, Alessandro; Lamberti, Cristina; Coïsson, Daniel Jean; Riedel, Kathrin; Mazzoli, Roberto; Bonetta, Silvia; Eberl, Leo; Giunta, Carlo

    2009-05-01

    The soluble and membrane proteome of a tyramine producing Enterococcus faecalis, isolated from an Italian goat cheese, was investigated. A detailed analysis revealed that this strain also produces small amounts of beta-phenylethylamine. Kinetics of tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine accumulation, evaluated in tyrosine plus phenylalanine-enriched cultures (stimulated condition), suggest that the same enzyme, the tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC), catalyzes both tyrosine and phenylalanine decarboxylation: tyrosine was recognized as the first substrate and completely converted into tyramine (100% yield) while phenylalanine was decarboxylated to beta-phenylethylamine (10% yield) only when tyrosine was completely depleted. The presence of an aspecific aromatic amino acid decarboxylase is a common feature in eukaryotes, but in bacteria only indirect evidences of a phenylalanine decarboxylating TDC have been presented so far. Comparative proteomic investigations, performed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, on bacteria grown in conditions stimulating tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine biosynthesis and in control conditions revealed 49 differentially expressed proteins. Except for aromatic amino acid biosynthetic enzymes, no significant down-regulation of the central metabolic pathways was observed in stimulated conditions, suggesting that tyrosine decarboxylation does not compete with the other energy-supplying routes. The most interesting finding is a membrane-bound TDC highly over-expressed during amine production. This is the first evidence of a true membrane-bound TDC, longly suspected in bacteria on the basis of the gene sequence.

  20. Unresponsiveness to tetrahydrobiopterin of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ponzone, Alberto; Porta, Francesco; Mussa, Alessandro; Alluto, Alessandra; Ferraris, Silvio; Spada, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Conflicting results have been reported concerning the efficacy of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), the cofactor of phenylalanine hydroxylase, for reducing phenylalanine (Phe) concentration in phenylketonuria (PKU). We aimed to test quantitatively the effects of BH4 in PKU patients. Seven fully characterized patients were selected among a population of 130 PKU subjects as harboring PKU mutations predicted as BH4 responsive and previously considered responsive to a cofactor challenge. They received a simple Phe (100 mg/kg) and 2 combined Phe (100 mg/kg) and BH4 (20 mg/kg) oral loading tests. Cofactor was administered either before or after the amino acid. The concentrations of Phe, tyrosine (Tyr), and biopterin were measured over 24 hours after loading. The comparative analysis of the loading tests showed that in all patients plasma Phe concentrations peaked within 3 hours, and fell within 24 hours by about 50% in benign, 20% in mild, and 15% in severe phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency regardless of BH4 administration. A consistent or moderate increase of plasma Tyr, again independent of the cofactor challenge, was observed only in the less severe forms of PAH deficiency. Mean blood biopterin concentration increased 6 times after simple Phe and 34 to 39 times after combined loading tests. The administration of BH4 does not alter Phe and Tyr metabolism in PKU patients. The clearance of plasma Phe after oral loading and, as well as Tyr production, is not related to cofactor challenge but to patient's phenotype. The assessment of BH4 responsiveness by the methods so far used is not reliable, and the occurrence of BH4-responsive forms of PKU still has to be definitely proven.

  1. Transport of Aromatic Amino Acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kay, W. W.; Gronlund, Audrey F.

    1971-01-01

    Kinetic studies of the transport of aromatic amino acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed the existence of two high-affinity transport systems which recognized the three aromatic amino acids. From competition data and studies on the exchange of preformed aromatic amino acid pools, the first transport system was found to be functional with phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan (in order of decreasing activity), whereas the second system was active with tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. The two systems also transported a number of aromatic amino acid analogues but not other amino acids. Mutants defective in each of the two and in both transport systems were isolated and described. When the amino acids were added at low external concentrations to cells growing logarithmically in glucose minimal medium, the tryptophan pool very quickly became saturated. Under identical conditions, phenylalanine and tyrosine each accumulated in the intracellular pool of P. aeruginosa at a concentration which was 10 times greater than that of tryptophan. PMID:4994029

  2. Enantioselective acylation of β-phenylalanine acid and its derivatives catalyzed by penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Dengchao; Ji, Lilian; Wang, Xinfeng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2013-01-01

    This study developed a simple, efficient method for producing racemic β-phenylalanine acid (BPA) and its derivatives via the enantioselective acylation catalyzed by the penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis (Af-PGA). When the reaction was run at 25°C and pH 10 in an aqueous medium containing phenylacetamide and BPA in a molar ratio of 2:1, 8 U/mL enzyme and 0.1 M BPA, the maximum BPA conversion efficiency at 40 min only reached 36.1%, which, however, increased to 42.9% as the pH value and the molar ratio of phenylacetamide to BPA were elevated to 11 and 3:1, respectively. Under the relatively optimum reaction conditions, the maximum conversion efficiencies of BPA derivatives all reached about 50% in a relatively short reaction time (45-90 min). The enantiomeric excess value of product (ee(p)) and enantiomeric excess value of substrate (ee(s)) were all above 98% and 95%, respectively. These results suggest that the method established in this study is practical, effective, and environmentally benign and may be applied to industrial production of enantiomerically pure BPA and its derivatives.

  3. Evidence for a high-spin Fe(IV) species in the catalytic cycle of a bacterial phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Panay, Aram Joel; Lee, Michael; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J Martin; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2011-03-22

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase is a mononuclear non-heme iron protein that uses tetrahydropterin as the source of the two electrons needed to activate dioxygen for the hydroxylation of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Rapid-quench methods have been used to analyze the mechanism of a bacterial phenylalanine hydroxylase from Chromobacterium violaceum. Mössbauer spectra of samples prepared by freeze-quenching the reaction of the enzyme-(57)Fe(II)-phenylalanine-6-methyltetrahydropterin complex with O(2) reveal the accumulation of an intermediate at short reaction times (20-100 ms). The Mössbauer parameters of the intermediate (δ = 0.28 mm/s, and |ΔE(Q)| = 1.26 mm/s) suggest that it is a high-spin Fe(IV) complex similar to those that have previously been detected in the reactions of other mononuclear Fe(II) hydroxylases, including a tetrahydropterin-dependent tyrosine hydroxylase. Analysis of the tyrosine content of acid-quenched samples from similar reactions establishes that the Fe(IV) intermediate is kinetically competent to be the hydroxylating intermediate. Similar chemical-quench analysis of a reaction allowed to proceed for several turnovers shows a burst of tyrosine formation, consistent with rate-limiting product release. All three data sets can be modeled with a mechanism in which the enzyme-substrate complex reacts with oxygen to form an Fe(IV)═O intermediate with a rate constant of 19 mM(-1) s(-1), the Fe(IV)═O intermediate hydroxylates phenylalanine with a rate constant of 42 s(-1), and rate-limiting product release occurs with a rate constant of 6 s(-1) at 5 °C.

  4. Are carboxyl groups the most acidic sites in amino acids? Gas-phase acidities, photoelectron spectra, and computations on tyrosine, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and their conjugate bases.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhixin; Wang, Xue-Bin; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Kass, Steven R

    2009-01-28

    Deprotonation of tyrosine in the gas phase was found to occur preferentially at the phenolic site, and the conjugate base consists of a 70:30 mixture of phenoxide and carboxylate anions at equilibrium. This result was established by developing a chemical probe for differentiating these two isomers, and the presence of both ions was confirmed by photoelectron spectroscopy. Equilibrium acidity measurements on tyrosine indicated that deltaG(acid)(o) = 332.5 +/- 1.5 kcal mol(-1) and deltaH(acid)(o) = 340.7 +/- 1.5 kcal mol(-1). Photoelectron spectra yielded adiabatic electron detachment energies of 2.70 +/- 0.05 and 3.55 +/- 0.10 eV for the phenoxide and carboxylate anions, respectively. The H/D exchange behavior of deprotonated tyrosine was examined using three different alcohols (CF3CH2OD, C6H5CH2OD, and CH3CH2OD), and incorporation of up to three deuterium atoms was observed. Two pathways are proposed to account for these results, and all of the experimental findings are supplemented with B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ and G3B3 calculations. In addition, it was found that electrospray ionization of tyrosine from a 3:1 (v/v) CH3OH/H2O solution using a commercial source produces a deprotonated [M-H]- anion with the gas-phase equilibrium composition rather than the structure of the ion that exists in aqueous media. Electrospray ionization from acetonitrile, however, leads largely to the liquid-phase (carboxylate) structure. A control molecule, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, was found to behave in a similar manner. Thus, the electrospray conditions that are employed for the analysis of a compound can alter the isomeric composition of the resulting anion.

  5. Activation of lysophosphatidic acid receptor by gintonin inhibits Kv1.2 channel activity: involvement of tyrosine kinase and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase α.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Choi, Sun-Hye; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Rhee, Jeehae; Chung, Chihye; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2013-08-26

    Gintonin is a novel ginseng-derived G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand. The primary action of gintonin is to elicit a transient increase in [Ca(2+)]i via activation of LPA receptor subtypes. Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels play important roles in synaptic transmission in nervous systems. The previous reports have shown that Kv channels can be regulated by Gαq/11 protein-coupled receptor ligands. In the present study, we examined the effects of gintonin on Kv1.2 channel activity expressed in Xenopus oocytes after injection of RNA encoding the human Kv1.2 α subunit. Gintonin treatment inhibited Kv1.2 channel activity in reversible and concentration-dependent manners. The inhibitory effect of gintonin on Kv1.2 channel activity was blocked by active phospholipase C inhibitor, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor antagonist, and intracellular Ca(2+) chelator. The co-expression of active receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase α (RPTPα) with Kv1.2 channel greatly attenuated gintonin-mediated inhibition of Kv1.2 channel activity, but attenuation was not observed with catalytically inactive RPTPα. Furthermore, neither genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nor site-directed mutation of a tyrosine residue (Y132 to Y132F), which is phosphorylated by tyrosine kinase of the N-terminal of the Kv1.2 channel α subunit, significantly attenuated gintonin-mediated inhibition of Kv1.2 channel activity. These results indicate that the gintonin-mediated Kv1.2 channel regulation involves the dual coordination of both tyrosine kinase and RPTPα coupled to this receptor. Finally, gintonin-mediated regulation of Kv1.2 channel activity might explain one of the modulations of gintonin-mediated neuronal activities in nervous systems.

  6. Phenylalanine metabolism regulates reproduction and parasite melanization in the malaria mosquito.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Silke; Behrends, Volker; Bundy, Jacob G; Crisanti, Andrea; Nolan, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The blood meal of the female malaria mosquito is a pre-requisite to egg production and also represents the transmission route for the malaria parasite. The proper and rapid assimilation of proteins and nutrients in the blood meal creates a significant metabolic challenge for the mosquito. To better understand this process we generated a global profile of metabolite changes in response to blood meal of Anopheles gambiae, using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). To disrupt a key pathway of amino acid metabolism we silenced the gene phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) involved in the conversion of the amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine. We observed increased levels of phenylalanine and the potentially toxic metabolites phenylpyruvate and phenyllactate as well as a reduction in the amount of tyrosine available for melanin synthesis. This in turn resulted in a significant impairment of the melanotic encapsulation response against the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Furthermore silencing of PAH resulted in a significant impairment of mosquito fertility associated with reduction of laid eggs, retarded vitellogenesis and impaired melanisation of the chorion. Carbidopa, an inhibitor of the downstream enzyme DOPA decarboxylase that coverts DOPA into dopamine, produced similar effects on egg melanization and hatching rate suggesting that egg chorion maturation is mainly regulated via dopamine. This study sheds new light on the role of amino acid metabolism in regulating reproduction and immunity.

  7. Phenylalanine Metabolism Regulates Reproduction and Parasite Melanization in the Malaria Mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Silke; Behrends, Volker; Bundy, Jacob G.; Crisanti, Andrea; Nolan, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The blood meal of the female malaria mosquito is a pre-requisite to egg production and also represents the transmission route for the malaria parasite. The proper and rapid assimilation of proteins and nutrients in the blood meal creates a significant metabolic challenge for the mosquito. To better understand this process we generated a global profile of metabolite changes in response to blood meal of Anopheles gambiae, using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). To disrupt a key pathway of amino acid metabolism we silenced the gene phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) involved in the conversion of the amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine. We observed increased levels of phenylalanine and the potentially toxic metabolites phenylpyruvate and phenyllactate as well as a reduction in the amount of tyrosine available for melanin synthesis. This in turn resulted in a significant impairment of the melanotic encapsulation response against the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Furthermore silencing of PAH resulted in a significant impairment of mosquito fertility associated with reduction of laid eggs, retarded vitellogenesis and impaired melanisation of the chorion. Carbidopa, an inhibitor of the downstream enzyme DOPA decarboxylase that coverts DOPA into dopamine, produced similar effects on egg melanization and hatching rate suggesting that egg chorion maturation is mainly regulated via dopamine. This study sheds new light on the role of amino acid metabolism in regulating reproduction and immunity. PMID:24409310

  8. Different pathways of tyrosine oxidation by ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Verweij, H.; Christianse, K.; van Steveninck, J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of OH. scavengers on DOPA and 0,0'-dityrosine generation during ozone-treatment of tyrosine and phenylalanine was studied. The results of these studies are presented in this communication.

  9. Production of curcuminoids from tyrosine by a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli using caffeic acid as an intermediate.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Joana L; Araújo, Rafael G; Prather, Kristala L J; Kluskens, Leon D; Rodrigues, Ligia R

    2015-04-01

    Curcuminoids are phenylpropanoids with high pharmaceutical potential. Herein, we report an engineered artificial pathway in Escherichia coli to produce natural curcuminoids through caffeic acid. Arabidopsis thaliana 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase and Curcuma longa diketide-CoA synthase (DCS) and curcumin synthase (CURS1) were used to produce curcuminoids and 70 mg/L of curcumin was obtained from ferulic acid. Bisdemethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin were also produced, but in lower concentrations, by feeding p-coumaric acid or a mixture of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, respectively. Additionally, curcuminoids were produced from tyrosine through the caffeic acid pathway. To produce caffeic acid, tyrosine ammonia lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis and 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase from Saccharothrix espanaensis were used. Caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase from Medicago sativa was used to convert caffeoyl-CoA to feruloyl-CoA. Using caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid or tyrosine as a substrate, 3.9, 0.3, and 0.2 mg/L of curcumin were produced, respectively. This is the first time DCS and CURS1 were used in vivo to produce curcuminoids and that curcumin was produced by feeding tyrosine. We have shown that curcumin can be produced using a pathway involvoing caffeic acid. This alternative pathway represents a step forward in the heterologous production of curcumin using E. coli.

  10. Genetic Incorporation of the Unnatural Amino Acid p-Acetyl Phenylalanine into Proteins for Site-Directed Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Eric G.B.; Millhauser, Glenn L.

    2016-01-01

    Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) is a powerful tool for the characterization of protein structure and dynamics; however, its application in many systems is hampered by the reliance on unique and benign cysteine substitutions for the site-specific attachment of the spin label. An elegant solution to this problem involves the use of genetically encoded unnatural amino acids (UAAs) containing reactive functional groups that are chemically orthogonal to those of the 20 amino acids found naturally in proteins. These unique functional groups can then be selectively reacted with an appropriately functionalized spin probe. In this chapter, we detail the genetic incorporation of the ketone-bearing amino acid p-acetyl phenylalanine (pAcPhe) into recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli. Incorporation of pAcPhe is followed by chemoselective reaction of the ketone side chain with a hydroxylamine-functionalized nitroxide to afford the spin-labeled side chain “K1,” and we present two protocols for successful K1 labeling of proteins bearing site-specific pAcPhe. We outline the basic requirements for pAcPhe incorporation and labeling, with an emphasis on practical aspects that must be considered by the researcher if high yields of UAA incorporation and efficient labeling reactions are to be achieved. To this end, we highlight recent advances that have led to increased yields of pAcPhe incorporation, and discuss the use of aniline-based catalysts allowing for facile conjugation of the hydroxylamine spin label under mild reaction conditions. To illustrate the utility of K1 labeling in proteins where traditional cysteine-based SDSL methods are problematic, we site-specifically K1 label the cellular prion protein at two positions in the C-terminal domain and determine the interspin distance using double electron–electron resonance EPR. Recent advances in UAA incorporation and ketone-based bioconjugation, in combination with the commercial availability of all requisite

  11. Tyrosine Metabolism in Patients with Liver Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert J.; Conn, Harold O.

    1967-01-01

    Plasma levels of tyrosine were assayed in the fasting state and after oral administration of either tyrosine (tyrosine tolerance test) or phenylalanine (phenlyalanine conversion test) in normal subjects and in patients with hepatitis, biliary obstruction, or cirrhosis. Fasting tyrosine levels tended to be slightly increased in patients with hepatitis and biliary obstruction and markedly increased in patients with cirrhosis. Tyrosine tolerance tests in patients with cirrhosis were characterized by larger than normal increments in tyrosine levels and by delayed returns toward fasting levels. The results of phenylalanine conversion tests were abnormal in approximately one-half of patients with either hepatitis or biliary obstruction and four-fifths of patients with cirrhosis. Abnormalities were characterized by elevated fasting plasma tyrosine levels, or small and delayed increments in tyrosine levels, or both. Abnormal phenylalanine conversion test results in patients with cirrhosis did not correlate closely with any clinical feature of cirrhosis or with the results of any standard liver function test; there was positive correlation only with abnormal ammonia tolerance, a test of portalsystemic shunting. Tests of tyrosine metabolism do not appear to be useful for routine clinical assessment of liver function. Tyrosine tolerance tests and phenylalanine conversion tests done for purposes of diagnosis of other diseases may yield misleading results in patients with liver disease. PMID:6074004

  12. Shikimate and Phenylalanine Biosynthesis in the Green Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Tohge, Takayuki; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Hoefgen, Rainer; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2013-01-01

    The shikimate pathway provides carbon skeletons for the aromatic amino acids l-tryptophan, l-phenylalanine, and l-tyrosine. It is a high flux bearing pathway and it has been estimated that greater than 30% of all fixed carbon is directed through this pathway. These combined pathways have been subjected to considerable research attention due to the fact that mammals are unable to synthesize these amino acids and the fact that one of the enzymes of the shikimate pathway is a very effective herbicide target. However, in addition to these characteristics these pathways additionally provide important precursors for a wide range of important secondary metabolites including chlorogenic acid, alkaloids, glucosinolates, auxin, tannins, suberin, lignin and lignan, tocopherols, and betalains. Here we review the shikimate pathway of the green lineage and compare and contrast its evolution and ubiquity with that of the more specialized phenylpropanoid metabolism which this essential pathway fuels. PMID:23543266

  13. Two-Step Production of Phenylpyruvic Acid from L-Phenylalanine by Growing and Resting Cells of Engineered Escherichia coli: Process Optimization and Kinetics Modeling.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying; Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) is widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and chemical industries. Here, a two-step bioconversion process, involving growing and resting cells, was established to produce PPA from l-phenylalanine using the engineered Escherichia coli constructed previously. First, the biotransformation conditions for growing cells were optimized (l-phenylalanine concentration 20.0 g·L-1, temperature 35°C) and a two-stage temperature control strategy (keep 20°C for 12 h and increase the temperature to 35°C until the end of biotransformation) was performed. The biotransformation conditions for resting cells were then optimized in 3-L bioreactor and the optimized conditions were as follows: agitation speed 500 rpm, aeration rate 1.5 vvm, and l-phenylalanine concentration 30 g·L-1. The total maximal production (mass conversion rate) reached 29.8 ± 2.1 g·L-1 (99.3%) and 75.1 ± 2.5 g·L-1 (93.9%) in the flask and 3-L bioreactor, respectively. Finally, a kinetic model was established, and it was revealed that the substrate and product inhibition were the main limiting factors for resting cell biotransformation.

  14. Two-Step Production of Phenylpyruvic Acid from L-Phenylalanine by Growing and Resting Cells of Engineered Escherichia coli: Process Optimization and Kinetics Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ying; Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) is widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and chemical industries. Here, a two-step bioconversion process, involving growing and resting cells, was established to produce PPA from l-phenylalanine using the engineered Escherichia coli constructed previously. First, the biotransformation conditions for growing cells were optimized (l-phenylalanine concentration 20.0 g·L−1, temperature 35°C) and a two-stage temperature control strategy (keep 20°C for 12 h and increase the temperature to 35°C until the end of biotransformation) was performed. The biotransformation conditions for resting cells were then optimized in 3-L bioreactor and the optimized conditions were as follows: agitation speed 500 rpm, aeration rate 1.5 vvm, and l-phenylalanine concentration 30 g·L−1. The total maximal production (mass conversion rate) reached 29.8 ± 2.1 g·L−1 (99.3%) and 75.1 ± 2.5 g·L−1 (93.9%) in the flask and 3-L bioreactor, respectively. Finally, a kinetic model was established, and it was revealed that the substrate and product inhibition were the main limiting factors for resting cell biotransformation. PMID:27851793

  15. Inhibition of acid, alkaline, and tyrosine (PTP1B) phosphatases by novel vanadium complexes.

    PubMed

    McLauchlan, Craig C; Hooker, Jaqueline D; Jones, Marjorie A; Dymon, Zaneta; Backhus, Emily A; Greiner, Bradley A; Dorner, Nicole A; Youkhana, Mary A; Manus, Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    In the course of our investigations of vanadium-containing complexes for use as insulin-enhancing agents, we have generated a series of novel vanadium coordination complexes with bidentate ligands. Specifically we have focused on two ligands: anthranilate (anc(-)), a natural metabolite of tryptophan, and imidizole-4-carboxylate (imc(-)), meant to mimic naturally occurring N-donor ligands. For each ligand, we have generated a series of complexes containing the V(III), V(IV), and V(V) oxidation states. Each complex was investigated using phosphatase inhibition studies of three different phosphatases (acid, alkaline, and tyrosine (PTP1B) phosphatase) as prima facia evidence for potential use as an insulin-enhancing agent. Using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as an artificial phosphatase substrate, the levels of inhibition were determined by measuring the absorbance of the product at 405nm using UV/vis spectroscopy. Under our experimental conditions, for instance, V(imc)(3) appears to be as potent an inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase as sodium orthovanadate when comparing the K(cat)/K(m) term. VO(anc)(2) is as potent an inhibitor of acid phosphatase and tyrosine phosphatase as the Na(3)VO(4). Thus, use of these complexes can increase our mechanistic understanding of the effects of vanadium in vivo.

  16. Expression Analysis of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene and Rosmarinic Acid Production in Salvia officinalis and Salvia virgata Shoots Under Salicylic Acid Elicitation.

    PubMed

    Ejtahed, Roghayeh Sadat; Radjabian, Tayebeh; Hoseini Tafreshi, Sayed Ali

    2015-08-01

    Partial fragments of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) genes were cloned and characterized from Salvia officinalis (SoPAL) and Salvia virgata (SvPAL). Different concentrations (250 and 500 μM) of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) were used when correlation between PAL expression and rosmarinic acid (RA) accumulation was compared. The results showed that the deduced cDNA sequences of the partial genes had high similarities with those of known PAL gene from other plant species. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that exogenous application of SA led to up-regulating of the PAL expression. Further analysis showed that in S. virgata, at higher concentration of SA, higher accumulation of RA was achieved, while in S. officinalis, the higher RA accumulation was observed at lower concentration of SA. It was concluded that there was no positive correlation between the intensity of PAL transcription and the RA accumulation in the studied species. Therefore, despite of the increase in transcription rate of the PAL at the higher concentration of SA, the lower amounts of RA were accumulated in the case of S. officinalis. Consequently, the hypothesis that PAL is the rate-determining step in RA biosynthesis is not always valid and probably some other unknown factors participate in the synthesis of phenolics.

  17. Hydroxyindole Carboxylic Acid-Based Inhibitors for Receptor-Type Protein Tyrosine Protein Phosphatase Beta

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Li-Fan; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Bai, Yunpeng; Wu, Li; Gunawan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play an important role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. Understanding the role of PTPs within these processes has been hampered by a lack of potent and selective PTP inhibitors. Generating potent and selective probes for PTPs remains a significant challenge because of the highly conserved and positively charged PTP active site that also harbors a redox-sensitive Cys residue. Results: We describe a facile method that uses an appropriate hydroxyindole carboxylic acid to anchor the inhibitor to the PTP active site and relies on the secondary binding elements introduced through an amide-focused library to enhance binding affinity for the target PTP and to impart selectivity against off-target phosphatases. Here, we disclose a novel series of hydroxyindole carboxylic acid-based inhibitors for receptor-type tyrosine protein phosphatase beta (RPTPβ), a potential target that is implicated in blood vessel development. The representative RPTPβ inhibitor 8b-1 (L87B44) has an IC50 of 0.38 μM and at least 14-fold selectivity for RPTPβ over a large panel of PTPs. Moreover, 8b-1 also exhibits excellent cellular activity and augments growth factor signaling in HEK293, MDA-MB-468, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Innovation: The bicyclic salicylic acid pharmacophore-based focused library approach may provide a potential solution to overcome the bioavailability issue that has plagued the PTP drug discovery field for many years. Conclusion: A novel method is described for the development of bioavailable PTP inhibitors that utilizes bicyclic salicylic acid to anchor the inhibitors to the active site and peripheral site interactions to enhance binding affinity and selectivity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2130–2140. PMID:24180557

  18. Aromatic amino acids are utilized and protein synthesis is stimulated during amino acid infusion in the ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Liechty, E A; Boyle, D W; Moorehead, H; Auble, L; Denne, S C

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ovine fetus is capable of increased disposal of an amino acid load; if so, would it respond by increased protein synthesis, amino acid catabolism or both? A further purpose of the study was to determine whether the pathways of aromatic amino acid catabolism are functional in the fetus. Late gestation ovine fetuses of well-nourished ewes received an infusion of Aminosyn PF alone (APF), and Aminosyn PF + glycyl-L-tyrosine (APF+GT) at rates estimated to double the intake of these amino acids. The initial study, using APF, was performed at 126 +/- 1.4 d; the APF+GT study was performed at 132 +/- 1.7 d (term = 150 d). Phenylalanine and tyrosine kinetics were determined using both stable and radioactive isotopes. Plasma concentrations of most amino acids, but not tyrosine, increased during both studies; tyrosine concentration increased only during the APF+GT study. Phenylalanine rate of appearance and phenylalanine hydroxylation increased during both studies. Tyrosine rate of appearance increased only during the APF+GT study; tyrosine oxidation did not increase during either study. Fetal protein synthesis increased significantly during both studies, producing a significant increase in fetal protein accretion. Fetal proteolysis was unchanged in response to either amino acid infusion. These results indicate that the fetus responds to an acute increase in amino acid supply primarily by increasing protein synthesis and accretion, with a smaller but significant increase in amino acid catabolism also. Both phenylalanine hydroxylation and tyrosine oxidation are active in the fetus, and the fetus is able to increase phenylalanine hydroxylation rapidly in response to increased supply.

  19. Phenylalanine hydroxylase misfolding and pharmacological chaperones.

    PubMed

    Underhaug, Jarl; Aubi, Oscar; Martinez, Aurora

    2012-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a loss-of-function inborn error of metabolism. As many other inherited diseases the main pathologic mechanism in PKU is an enhanced tendency of the mutant phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) to misfold and undergo ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Recent alternative approaches with therapeutic potential for PKU aim at correcting the PAH misfolding, and in this respect pharmacological chaperones are the focus of increasing interest. These compounds, which often resemble the natural ligands and show mild competitive inhibition, can rescue the misfolded proteins by stimulating their renaturation in vivo. For PKU, a few studies have proven the stabilization of PKU-mutants in vitro, in cells, and in mice by pharmacological chaperones, which have been found either by using the tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) cofactor as query structure for shape-focused virtual screening or by high-throughput screening of small compound libraries. Both approaches have revealed a number of compounds, most of which bind at the iron-binding site, competitively with respect to BH(4). Furthermore, PAH shares a number of ligands, such as BH(4), amino acid substrates and inhibitors, with the other aromatic amino acid hydroxylases: the neuronal/neuroendocrine enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the tryptophan hydroxylases (TPHs). Recent results indicate that the PAH-targeted pharmacological chaperones should also be tested on TH and the TPHs, and eventually be derivatized to avoid unwanted interactions with these other enzymes. After derivatization and validation in animal models, the PAH-chaperoning compounds represent novel possibilities in the treatment of PKU.

  20. Highly Active and Specific Tyrosine Ammonia-Lyases from Diverse Origins Enable Enhanced Production of Aromatic Compounds in Bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jendresen, Christian Bille; Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Li, Mingji; Gaspar, Paula; Siedler, Solvej; Förster, Jochen; Maury, Jérôme; Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2015-07-01

    Phenylalanine and tyrosine ammonia-lyases form cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, which are precursors of a wide range of aromatic compounds of biotechnological interest. Lack of highly active and specific tyrosine ammonia-lyases has previously been a limitation in metabolic engineering approaches. We therefore identified 22 sequences in silico using synteny information and aiming for sequence divergence. We performed a comparative in vivo study, expressing the genes intracellularly in bacteria and yeast. When produced heterologously, some enzymes resulted in significantly higher production of p-coumaric acid in several different industrially important production organisms. Three novel enzymes were found to have activity exclusively for phenylalanine, including an enzyme from the low-GC Gram-positive bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus, a bacterial-type enzyme from the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, and a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from the moss Physcomitrella patens (producing 230 μM cinnamic acid per unit of optical density at 600 nm [OD600]) in the medium using Escherichia coli as the heterologous host). Novel tyrosine ammonia-lyases having higher reported substrate specificity than previously characterized enzymes were also identified. Enzymes from Herpetosiphon aurantiacus and Flavobacterium johnsoniae resulted in high production of p-coumaric acid in Escherichia coli (producing 440 μM p-coumaric acid OD600 unit(-1) in the medium) and in Lactococcus lactis. The enzymes were also efficient in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where p-coumaric acid accumulation was improved 5-fold over that in strains expressing previously characterized tyrosine ammonia-lyases.

  1. 4-Quinolone-3-carboxylic acids as cell-permeable inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Ying; Gao, Li-Xin; Jin, Yi; Tang, Chun-Lan; Li, Jing-Ya; Li, Jia; Long, Ya-Qiu

    2014-07-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B is a negative regulator in the insulin and leptin signaling pathways, and has emerged as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, the essential pharmacophore of charged phosphotyrosine or its mimetic confer low selectivity and poor cell permeability. Starting from our previously reported aryl diketoacid-based PTP1B inhibitors, a drug-like scaffold of 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid was introduced for the first time as a novel surrogate of phosphotyrosine. An optimal combination of hydrophobic groups installed at C-6, N-1 and C-3 positions of the quinolone motif afforded potent PTP1B inhibitors with low micromolar IC50 values. These 4-quinolone-3-carboxylate based PTP1B inhibitors displayed a 2-10 fold selectivity over a panel of PTP's. Furthermore, the bidentate inhibitors of 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acids conjugated with aryl diketoacid or salicylic acid were cell permeable and enhanced insulin signaling in CHO/hIR cells. The kinetic studies and molecular modeling suggest that the 4-quinolone-3-carboxylates act as competitive inhibitors by binding to the PTP1B active site in the WPD loop closed conformation. Taken together, our study shows that the 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid derivatives exhibit improved pharmacological properties over previously described PTB1B inhibitors and warrant further preclinical studies.

  2. Molecular cloning and promoter analysis of the specific salicylic acid biosynthetic pathway gene phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AaPAL1) from Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Fu, Xueqing; Hao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Luyao; Qian, Hongmei; Zhao, Jingya

    2016-07-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of salicylic acid (SA). In this study, a full-length cDNA of PAL gene (named as AaPAL1) was cloned from Artemisia annua. The gene contains an open reading frame of 2,151 bps encoding 716 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatics analysis revealed that the polypeptide protein of AaPAL1 was highly homologous to PALs from other plant species. Southern blot analysis revealed that it belonged to a gene family with three members. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of various tissues of A. annua showed that AaPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the young leaves. A 1160-bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including W-box, TGACG-motif, and TC-rich repeats. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that AaPAL1 was upregulated by salinity, drought, wounding, and SA stresses, which were corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. AaPAL1 was successfully expressed in Escherichia. coli and the enzyme activity of the purified AaPAL1 was approximately 287.2 U/mg. These results substantiated the involvement of AaPAL1 in the phenylalanine pathway.

  3. [Degradation of L-phenylalanine and of aromatic carboxylic acids by chloridazon-degrading bacteria. Combination of side chain degradation and dioxygenase pathway].

    PubMed

    Wegst, W; Lingens, F

    1981-09-01

    Strain N of Chloridazon-degrading bacteria degrades phenylalanine via cis-2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxyphenylalanine,2,3-dihydroxyphenylalanine aspartate and 4-hydroxy-2-oxovalerate [Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 360, 957--969, (1979); Biochem. J. 194, 679--684 (1981)]. cis-2,3-Dihydro-2,3-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 2,3-dihydroxyphenylalanine as well as phenylpyruvate, cis-2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxyphenylpyruvate, 2,3-dihydroxyphenylpyruvate, cis-2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxyphenylacetate, 2,3-dihydroxyphenylacetate and 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde are detectable in the medium of strain E during growth on phenylalanine. Incubation with phenylacetate, 3-phenylpropionate or 4-phenylbutyrate leads to the accumulation of the corresponding cis-2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxyphenyl derivatives. These compounds are transformed with dihydrodiol dehydrogenase to 2,3-dihydroxyphenylacetate, 3-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)propionate and 4-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)-butyrate, 3-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)propionate is attacked by a catechol 2,3-dioxygenase and the meta-cleavage product is again cleaved by a hydrolase yielding succinate. In a similar reaction sequence the degradation of 4-phenylbutyrate leads to the formation of glutarate. From the growth medium of strain E on phenylacetate also small amounts of 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate were isolated. Resting cells were shown to metabolize 3- and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate via homogentisate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate. In the culture medium of strain K2AP benzoate could be detected. Pathways for the degradation of phenylalanine and aromatic carboxylic acids in chloridazon degrading bacteria are proposed.

  4. Kinetic mechanism of phenylalanine hydroxylase: intrinsic binding and rate constants from single-turnover experiments.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kenneth M; Pavon, Jorge Alex; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2013-02-12

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH) catalyzes the key step in the catabolism of dietary phenylalanine, its hydroxylation to tyrosine using tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and O(2). A complete kinetic mechanism for PheH was determined by global analysis of single-turnover data in the reaction of PheHΔ117, a truncated form of the enzyme lacking the N-terminal regulatory domain. Formation of the productive PheHΔ117-BH(4)-phenylalanine complex begins with the rapid binding of BH(4) (K(d) = 65 μM). Subsequent addition of phenylalanine to the binary complex to form the productive ternary complex (K(d) = 130 μM) is approximately 10-fold slower. Both substrates can also bind to the free enzyme to form inhibitory binary complexes. O(2) rapidly binds to the productive ternary complex; this is followed by formation of an unidentified intermediate, which can be detected as a decrease in absorbance at 340 nm, with a rate constant of 140 s(-1). Formation of the 4a-hydroxypterin and Fe(IV)O intermediates is 10-fold slower and is followed by the rapid hydroxylation of the amino acid. Product release is the rate-determining step and largely determines k(cat). Similar reactions using 6-methyltetrahydropterin indicate a preference for the physiological pterin during hydroxylation.

  5. Production of phenylpyruvic acid from L-phenylalanine using an L-amino acid deaminase from Proteus mirabilis: comparison of enzymatic and whole-cell biotransformation approaches.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying; Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng

    2015-10-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) is an important organic acid that has a wide range of applications. In this study, the membrane-bound L-amino acid deaminase (L-AAD) gene from Proteus mirabilis KCTC 2566 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and then the L-AAD was purified. After that, we used the purified enzyme and the recombinant E. coli whole-cell biocatalyst to produce PPA via a one-step biotransformation from L-phenylalanine. L-AAD was solubilized from the membrane and purified 52-fold with an overall yield of 13 %, which corresponded to a specific activity of 0.94 ± 0.01 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1). Then, the biotransformation conditions for the pure enzyme and the whole-cell biocatalyst were optimized. The maximal production was 2.6 ± 0.1 g·L(-1) (specific activity of 1.02 ± 0.02 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1) protein, 86.7 ± 5 % mass conversion rate, and 1.04 g·L(-1)·h(-1) productivity) and 3.3 ± 0.2 g L(-1) (specific activity of 0.013 ± 0.003 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1) protein, 82.5 ± 4 % mass conversion rate, and 0.55 g·L(-1)·h(-1) productivity) for the pure enzyme and whole-cell biocatalyst, respectively. Comparative studies of the enzymatic and whole-cell biotransformation were performed in terms of specific activity, production, conversion, productivity, stability, need of external cofactors, and recycling. We have developed two eco-friendly and efficient approaches for PPA production. The strategy described herein may aid the biotransformational synthesis of other α-keto acids from their corresponding amino acids.

  6. Food Products Made With Glycomacropeptide, a Low Phenylalanine Whey Protein, Provide a New Alternative to Amino Acid-Based Medical Foods for Nutrition Management of Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Van Calcar, Sandra C.; Ney, Denise M.

    2012-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn error in phenylalanine (phe) metabolism, requires lifelong nutrition management with a low-phe diet, which includes a phe-free amino acid-based medical formula to provide the majority of an individual’s protein needs. Compliance with this diet is often difficult for older children, adolescents and adults with PKU. The whey protein glycomacropeptide (GMP) is ideally suited for the PKU diet since it is naturally low in phe. Nutritionally complete, acceptable medical foods and beverages can be made with GMP to increase the variety of protein sources for the PKU diet. As an intact protein, GMP improves protein utilization and increases satiety compared with amino acids. Thus, GMP provides a new, more physiologic source of low-phe dietary protein for those with PKU. PMID:22818728

  7. Stress enhances the gene expression and enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and the endogenous content of salicylic acid to induce flowering in pharbitis.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kaede C; Mizuuchi, Kaori; Koshio, Aya; Kaneko, Kentaro; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2014-07-01

    The involvement of salicylic acid (SA) in the regulation of stress-induced flowering in the short-day plant pharbitis (also called Japanese morning glory) Ipomoea nil (formerly Pharbitis nil) was studied. Pharbitis cv. Violet was induced to flower when grown in 1/100-strength mineral nutrient solution under non-inductive long-day conditions. All fully expanded true leaves were removed from seedlings, leaving only the cotyledons, and flowering was induced under poor-nutrition stress conditions. This indicates that cotyledons can play a role in the regulation of poor-nutrition stress-induced flowering. The expression of the pharbitis homolog of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE, the enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; E.C. 4.3.1.5) and the content of SA in the cotyledons were all up-regulated by the stress treatment. The Violet was also induced to flower by low-temperature stress, DNA demethylation and short-day treatment. Low-temperature stress enhanced PAL activity, whereas non-stress factors such as DNA demethylation and short-day treatment decreased the activity. The PAL enzyme activity was also examined in another cultivar, Tendan, obtaining similar results to Violet. The exogenously applied SA did not induce flowering under non-stress conditions but did promote flowering under weak stress conditions in both cultivars. These results suggest that stress-induced flowering in pharbitis is induced, at least partly, by SA, and the synthesis of SA is promoted by PAL.

  8. Regulation of phenylalanine hydroxylase: conformational changes upon phosphorylation detected by H/D exchange and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2013-07-15

    The enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase catalyzes the hydroxylation of excess phenylalanine in the liver to tyrosine. The enzyme is regulated allosterically by phenylalanine and by phosphorylation of Ser16. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry has been used to gain insight into any structural change upon phosphorylation. Peptides in both the catalytic and regulatory domains show increased deuterium incorporation into the phosphorylated protein. Deuterium is incorporated into fewer peptides than when the enzyme is activated by phenylalanine, and the incorporation is slower. This establishes that the conformational change upon phosphorylation of phenylalanine hydroxylase is different from and less extensive than that upon phenylalanine activation.

  9. Mechanistic, Mutational, and Structural Evaluation of a Taxus Phenylalanine Aminomutase

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Lei; Wanninayake, Udayanga; Strom, Susan; Geiger, James; Walker, Kevin D.

    2014-10-02

    The structure of a phenylalanine aminomutase (TcPAM) from Taxus canadensis has been determined at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. The active site of the TcPAM contains the signature 4-methylidene-1H-imidazol-5(4H)-one prosthesis, observed in all catalysts of the class I lyase-like family. This catalyst isomerizes (S)-{alpha}-phenylalanine to the (R)-{beta}-isomer by exchange of the NH{sub 2}/H pair. The stereochemistry of the TcPAM reaction product is opposite of the (S)-{beta}-tyrosine made by the mechanistically related tyrosine aminomutase (SgTAM) from Streptomyces globisporus. Since TcPAM and SgTAM share similar tertiary- and quaternary-structures and have several highly conserved aliphatic residues positioned analogously in their active sites for substrate recognition, the divergent product stereochemistries of these catalysts likely cannot be explained by differences in active site architecture. The active site of the TcPAM structure also is in complex with (E)-cinnamate; the latter functions as both a substrate and an intermediate. To account for the distinct (3R)-{beta}-amino acid stereochemistry catalyzed by TcPAM, the cinnamate skeleton must rotate the C{sub 1}-C{sub {alpha}} and C{sub ipso}-C{sub {beta}} bonds 180{sup o} in the active site prior to exchange and rebinding of the NH{sub 2}/H pair to the cinnamate, an event that is not required for the corresponding acrylate intermediate in the SgTAM reaction. Moreover, the aromatic ring of the intermediate makes only one direct hydrophobic interaction with Leu-104. A L104A mutant of TcPAM demonstrated an 1.5-fold increase in k{sub cat} and a decrease in K{sub M} values for sterically demanding 3'-methyl-{alpha}-phenylalanine and styryl-{alpha}-alanine substrates, compared to the kinetic parameters for TcPAM. These parameters did not change significantly for the mutant with 4'-methyl-{alpha}-phenylalanine compared to those for TcPAM.

  10. Resolving phenylalanine metabolism sheds light on natural synthesis of penicillin G in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Tânia; Solis-Escalante, Daniel; Romagnoli, Gabriele; ten Pierick, Angela; Hanemaaijer, Mark; Deshmukh, Amit T; Deshmuhk, Amit; Wahl, Aljoscha; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2012-02-01

    The industrial production of penicillin G by Penicillium chrysogenum requires the supplementation of the growth medium with the side chain precursor phenylacetate. The growth of P. chrysogenum with phenylalanine as the sole nitrogen source resulted in the extracellular production of phenylacetate and penicillin G. To analyze this natural pathway for penicillin G production, chemostat cultures were switched to [U-(13)C]phenylalanine as the nitrogen source. The quantification and modeling of the dynamics of labeled metabolites indicated that phenylalanine was (i) incorporated in nascent protein, (ii) transaminated to phenylpyruvate and further converted by oxidation or by decarboxylation, and (iii) hydroxylated to tyrosine and subsequently metabolized via the homogentisate pathway. The involvement of the homogentisate pathway was supported by the comparative transcriptome analysis of P. chrysogenum cultures grown with phenylalanine and with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) as the nitrogen source. This transcriptome analysis also enabled the identification of two putative 2-oxo acid decarboxylase genes (Pc13g9300 and Pc18g01490). cDNAs of both genes were cloned and expressed in the 2-oxo-acid-decarboxylase-free Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CEN.PK711-7C (pdc1 pdc5 pdc6Δ aro10Δ thi3Δ). The introduction of Pc13g09300 restored the growth of this S. cerevisiae mutant on glucose and phenylalanine, thereby demonstrating that Pc13g09300 encodes a dual-substrate pyruvate and phenylpyruvate decarboxylase, which plays a key role in an Ehrlich-type pathway for the production of phenylacetate in P. chrysogenum. These results provide a basis for the metabolic engineering of P. chrysogenum for the production of the penicillin G side chain precursor phenylacetate.

  11. Resolving Phenylalanine Metabolism Sheds Light on Natural Synthesis of Penicillin G in Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Tânia; Solis-Escalante, Daniel; Romagnoli, Gabriele; ten Pierick, Angela; Hanemaaijer, Mark; Deshmuhk, Amit; Wahl, Aljoscha; Pronk, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    The industrial production of penicillin G by Penicillium chrysogenum requires the supplementation of the growth medium with the side chain precursor phenylacetate. The growth of P. chrysogenum with phenylalanine as the sole nitrogen source resulted in the extracellular production of phenylacetate and penicillin G. To analyze this natural pathway for penicillin G production, chemostat cultures were switched to [U-13C]phenylalanine as the nitrogen source. The quantification and modeling of the dynamics of labeled metabolites indicated that phenylalanine was (i) incorporated in nascent protein, (ii) transaminated to phenylpyruvate and further converted by oxidation or by decarboxylation, and (iii) hydroxylated to tyrosine and subsequently metabolized via the homogentisate pathway. The involvement of the homogentisate pathway was supported by the comparative transcriptome analysis of P. chrysogenum cultures grown with phenylalanine and with (NH4)2SO4 as the nitrogen source. This transcriptome analysis also enabled the identification of two putative 2-oxo acid decarboxylase genes (Pc13g9300 and Pc18g01490). cDNAs of both genes were cloned and expressed in the 2-oxo-acid-decarboxylase-free Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CEN.PK711-7C (pdc1 pdc5 pdc6Δ aro10Δ thi3Δ). The introduction of Pc13g09300 restored the growth of this S. cerevisiae mutant on glucose and phenylalanine, thereby demonstrating that Pc13g09300 encodes a dual-substrate pyruvate and phenylpyruvate decarboxylase, which plays a key role in an Ehrlich-type pathway for the production of phenylacetate in P. chrysogenum. These results provide a basis for the metabolic engineering of P. chrysogenum for the production of the penicillin G side chain precursor phenylacetate. PMID:22158714

  12. Antibodies to Yeast Phenylalanine Transfer Ribonucleic Acid Are Specific for the Odd Nucleoside Y in the Anticodon Loop

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Sara; Aharonov, Aharon; Sela, Michael; Von Der Haar, Friedrich; Cramer, Friedrich

    1974-01-01

    Antibodies with specificity to a single species of tRNA were elicited in a goat by immunization with a glutaraldehyde conjugate of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA with bovine gamma globulin. The specificity of the antibodies was studied by a radioimmunoassay measuring the direct binding of [3H]tRNAPhe or the inhibition of the binding. The antibodies formed are predominantly directed towards the characteristic highly modified nucleoside Y, which is located right next to the anticodon. The antibodies bind specifically to tRNAPhe, to oligonucleotides derived by enzymatic digestion from the anticodon loop of tRNAPhe, and to the Y nucleoside itself. tRNA species which do not contain Y in their sequences, or tRNAPhe from which the Y base has been excised, do not bind to the antibodies. Yeast tRNAPhe can be separated from other tRNA species with an immunoadsorbent of antibodies to tRNAPhe. PMID:4527666

  13. Gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters of milk fat by an ionic liquid derived from L-phenylalanine as the stationary phase.

    PubMed

    González Mendoza, Laura; González-Álvarez, Jaime; Fernández Gonzalo, Carla; Arias-Abrodo, Pilar; Altava, Belén; Luis, Santiago V; Burguete, Maria Isabel; Gutiérrez-Álvarez, María Dolores

    2015-10-01

    A Gas Chromatography (GC) method has been developed for the separation and characterization of the different fatty acids in anhydrous milk fat (AMF) by means of an ionic liquid stationary phase, characterized by a monocationic imidazolium salt derived from L-phenylalanine. The inner surface of a fused silica capillary column was modified using this ionic liquid functionality and 3-aminopropyldiethoxymethyl silane. This coated GC column, which exhibited good thermal stability (270°C) and good efficiency (2700 plates/m), has been characterized using the Abraham solvation parameter model. The intra-day and inter-day precision of the method have been evaluated, obtaining relative standard deviations (RSD) from 0.99% to 4.0% and from 2.8% to 9.2%, respectively. Furthermore, recoveries from 90% and 99% have been achieved.

  14. A root-expressed L-phenylalanine:4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate aminotransferase is required for tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in Atropa belladonna.

    PubMed

    Bedewitz, Matthew A; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Uebler, Joseph B; Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana; Wiegert-Rininger, Krystle E; Childs, Kevin L; Hamilton, John P; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Yeo, Yun-Soo; Chappell, Joseph; DellaPenna, Dean; Jones, A Daniel; Buell, C Robin; Barry, Cornelius S

    2014-09-01

    The tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine, are medicinal compounds that are the active components of several therapeutics. Hyoscyamine and scopolamine are synthesized in the roots of specific genera of the Solanaceae in a multistep pathway that is only partially elucidated. To facilitate greater understanding of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis, a de novo transcriptome assembly was developed for Deadly Nightshade (Atropa belladonna). Littorine is a key intermediate in hyoscyamine and scopolamine biosynthesis that is produced by the condensation of tropine and phenyllactic acid. Phenyllactic acid is derived from phenylalanine via its transamination to phenylpyruvate, and mining of the transcriptome identified a phylogenetically distinct aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (ArAT), designated Ab-ArAT4, that is coexpressed with known tropane alkaloid biosynthesis genes in the roots of A. belladonna. Silencing of Ab-ArAT4 disrupted synthesis of hyoscyamine and scopolamine through reduction of phenyllactic acid levels. Recombinant Ab-ArAT4 preferentially catalyzes the first step in phenyllactic acid synthesis, the transamination of phenylalanine to phenylpyruvate. However, rather than utilizing the typical keto-acid cosubstrates, 2-oxoglutarate, pyruvate, and oxaloacetate, Ab-ArAT4 possesses strong substrate preference and highest activity with the aromatic keto-acid, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Thus, Ab-ArAT4 operates at the interface between primary and specialized metabolism, contributing to both tropane alkaloid biosynthesis and the direct conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.

  15. Regulation of phenylalanine hydroxylase: conformational changes upon phenylalanine binding detected by hydrogen/deuterium exchange and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Dangott, Lawrence J; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2010-04-20

    Phenylalanine acts as an allosteric activator of the tetrahydropterin-dependent enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry has been used to gain insight into local conformational changes accompanying activation of rat phenylalanine hydroxylase by phenylalanine. Peptides in the regulatory and catalytic domains that lie in the interface between these two domains show large increases in the extent of deuterium incorporation from solvent in the presence of phenylalanine. In contrast, the effects of phenylalanine on the exchange kinetics of a mutant enzyme lacking the regulatory domain are limited to peptides surrounding the binding site for the amino acid substrate. These results support a model in which the N-terminus of the protein acts as an inhibitory peptide, with phenylalanine binding causing a conformational change in the regulatory domain that alters the interaction between the catalytic and regulatory domains.

  16. Does oral administration of the amino acid tyrosine affect oestradiol-17β concentration and sexual behaviour in the bitch?

    PubMed

    Spankowsky, S; Heuwieser, W; Arlt, S P

    2013-02-23

    The oral administration of the amino acid, tyrosine, has been for years recommended in order to improve fertility, especially to improve copulation behaviour in female dogs. However, evidence is comparatively poor. The objective of our study was to determine whether oral administration of tyrosine has an effect on oestradiol-17β concentrations and the oestrous behaviour in the bitch. Fifty bitches were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups in which each dog received 100mg/kg/day of either tyrosine or milk sugar orally between Day 3 and Day 9 of heat. Every two to three days, a gynaecological examination was performed and blood samples were taken to determine oestradiol-17β and progesterone concentrations. The day of ovulation was estimated by clinical findings, and according to the specifications of the laboratory, once progesterone values exceeded 12.7nmol/l. The observed copulation behaviour was not different between the groups. No differences in volume and visual nature of vaginal discharge were observed. At the day of ovulation, mean oestradiol-17β concentration in the treated group was 163.4pmol/l and 162.2pmol/l in the placebo group, respectively. In conclusion, feeding tyrosine to female dogs between Day 3 and Day 9 of heat did not alter visual signs of heat or copulation behaviour, and did not alter oestradiol-17β concentration.

  17. Tyrosine and tryptophan act through the same binding site at the dimer interface of yeast chorismate mutase.

    PubMed

    Schnappauf, G; Krappmann, S; Braus, G H

    1998-07-03

    Tyrosine and tryptophan are the regulators of the dimeric yeast chorismate mutase. Biochemical studies reveal two binding sites per molecule for both effectors, tyrosine or tryptophan. A single binding site is built up by helix 8 and helices 4 and 5 of two different subunits. The binding sites have been analyzed in the active enzyme by site directed mutagenesis of critical codons of the coding gene, ARO7. Gly-141 and Ser-142, which both reside on helix 8, are involved in the binding of tyrosine or tryptophan presumably by interacting specifically with the amino- and carboxylate-groups of these amino acid effectors. Interaction with Thr-145 of helix 8 is required for a strong tyrosine binding to the allosteric site. Replacement of Arg-75, which connects helices 4 and 5 or of Arg-76, which is part of helix 5 by alanine residues, resulted in unregulated enzymes. These two residues are bonded to the carboxylate group and phenolic hydroxyl group of tyrosine, respectively, but do not interact with tryptophan by hydrogen bonding in the crystal structures. Phenylalanine, which has low binding affinity slightly activated the chorismate mutase. A T145V mutant chorismate mutase, however, showed increased activation by phenylalanine. Our results support a mechanism by which tyrosine contracts the allosteric site by interacting with its phenolic hydroxyl group. Tryptophan works in an inverse way by opening the allosteric site through the steric size of its side chain.

  18. Synthesis of Hydroxylated Bicyclic Amino Acids from l-Tyrosine: Octahydro-1H-indole Carboxylates

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Joshua G.; Kasi, Dhanalakshmi; Fushimi, Makoto; Cuzzupe, Anthony; Wipf, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A stereoselective approach to polyhydroxylated l-Choi derivatives has been developed. The oxidative cyclization of l-tyrosine was optimized to avoid partial racemization and to allow a more efficient scale-up. PMID:18767800

  19. Influence of tyrosine-kinase Wzc activity on colanic acid production in Escherichia coli K12 cells.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Brice; Lacour, Soline; Doublet, Patricia; Baubichon-Cortay, Hélène; Cozzone, Alain J; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2007-03-16

    Bacterial tyrosine-kinases have been demonstrated to participate in the regulation of capsule polysaccharides (CPS) and exopolysaccharides (EPS) production and export. However, discrepant data have been reported on the molecular mechanism responsible for this regulation depending on the bacterial species analyzed. Special attention was previously paid to the tyrosine-kinase Wzc(ca) of Escherichia coli K-12, which is involved in the production of the exopolysaccharide, colanic acid, and autophosphorylates by using a cooperative two-step process. In this work, we took advantage of these observations to investigate in further detail the effect of Wzc(ca) phosphorylation on the colanic acid production. First, it is shown that expression of the phosphorylated form of Wzc prevents production of colanic acid whereas expression of the non-phosphorylated form allows biosynthesis of this exopolysaccharide. However, we provide evidence that, in the latter case, the size distribution of the colanic acid polymer is less scattered than in the case of the wild-type strain expressing both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of Wzc. It is then demonstrated that colanic acid production is not merely regulated by an on/off mechanism and that, instead, both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of Wzc are required to promote colanic acid synthesis. Moreover, a series of data suggests that besides the involvement of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of Wzc in the production of colanic acid, two particular regions of this kinase play as such an important role in the synthesis of this exopolysaccharide: a proline-rich domain located in the N-terminal part of Wzc(ca), and a tyrosine cluster present in the C-terminal portion of the enzyme. Furthermore, considering that polysaccharides are known to facilitate bacterial resistance to certain environmental stresses, it is shown that the resistance of E. coli to desiccation is directly connected with the phosphorylation

  20. Transport of aromatic amino acids by Brevibacterium linens.

    PubMed

    Boyaval, P; Moreira, E; Desmazeaud, M J

    1983-09-01

    Whole metabolizing Brevibacterium linens cells were used to study the transport of aromatic amino acids. Kinetic results followed the Michaelis-Menten equation with apparent Km values for phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan of 24, 3.5, and 1.8 microM. Transport of these amino acids was optimum at pH 7.5 and 25 degrees C for phenylalanine and pH 8.0 and 35 degrees C for tyrosine and tryptophan. Crossed inhibitions were all noncompetitive. The only marked stereospecificity was for the L form of phenylalanine. Transport was almost totally inhibited by carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Iodoacetate and N-ethylmaleimide were much more inhibitory for tryptophan transport than for transport of the other two aromatic amino acids.

  1. Brain catechol synthesis - Control by brain tyrosine concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.; Larin, F.; Mostafapour, S.; Fernstrom, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Brain catechol synthesis was estimated by measuring the rate at which brain dopa levels rose following decarboxylase inhibition. Dopa accumulation was accelerated by tyrosine administration, and decreased by treatments that lowered brain tyrosine concentrations (for example, intraperitoneal tryptophan, leucine, or parachlorophenylalanine). A low dose of phenylalanine elevated brain tyrosine without accelerating dopa synthesis. Our findings raise the possibility that nutritional and endocrine factors might influence brain catecholamine synthesis by controlling the availability of tyrosine.

  2. Use of Tyrosine or Foods to Amplify Catecholamine Release.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-02

    valine; phenylalanine ; tryptophan) are unaffected (see Figure 2). These observations suggest a second mechanism for the precursor- dependence of...involves the activation by phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase that occurs when the neurons fire frequently. This activation changes the enzyme’s... phenylalanine , as well as their plasma "ratios" no changes were noted in the plasma tryptophan nor tyrosine ratios. The metabolic alterations induced by marathon

  3. Regulation of the plasma amino acid profile by leucine via the system L amino acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Hongmin; Nakamura, Koichi; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takuya; Kondo, Yusuke; Xu, Minjun; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of amino acids reflect the intracellular amino acid pool in mammals. However, the regulatory mechanism requires clarification. In this study, we examined the effect of leucine administration on plasma amino acid profiles in mice with and without the treatment of 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) or rapamycin as an inhibitor of system L or mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, respectively. The elevation of plasma leucine concentration after leucine administration was associated with a significant decrease in the plasma concentrations of isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine; BCH treatment almost completely blocked the leucine-induced decrease in plasma amino acid concentrations. Rapamycin treatment had much less effects on the actions of leucine than BCH treatment. These results suggest that leucine regulates the plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine, and that system L amino acid transporters are involved in the leucine action.

  4. Growth, spectral, thermal, laser damage threshold, microhardness, dielectric, linear and nonlinear optical properties of an organic single crystal: L-phenylalanine DL-mandelic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaprakash, P.; Peer Mohamed, M.; Krishnan, P.; Nageshwari, M.; Mani, G.; Lydia Caroline, M.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of L-phenylalanine dl-mandelic acid [C9H11NO2. C8H8O3], have been grown by the slow evaporation technique at room temperature using aqueous solution. The single crystal XRD study confirms monoclinic system for the grown crystal. The functional groups present in the grown crystal have been identified by FTIR and FT-Raman analyses. The optical absorption studies show that the crystal is transparent in the visible region with a lower cut-off wavelength of 257 nm and the optical band gap energy Eg is determined to be 4.62 eV. The Kurtz powder second harmonic generation was confirmed using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. Further, the thermal studies confirmed no weight loss up to 150°C for the as-grown crystal. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibited three peaks (414 nm, 519 nm, 568 nm) due to the donation of protons from carboxylic acid to amino group. Laser damage threshold value was found to be 4.98 GW/cm2. The Vickers microhardness test was carried out on the grown crystals and there by Vickers hardness number (Hv), work hardening coefficient (n), yield strength (σy), stiffness constant C11 were evaluated. The dielectric behavior of the crystal has been determined in the frequency range 50 Hz-5 MHz at various temperatures.

  5. Scallop phenylalanine hydroxylase implicates in immune response and can be induced by human TNF-α.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Mengqiang; Zhang, Huan; Wu, Tiantian; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2011-12-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is an important metabolic enzyme of aromatic amino acids, which is responsible for the irreversible oxidation of phenylalanine to tyrosine. In the present study, the full-length cDNA encoding PAH from Chlamys farreri (designated CfPAH) was cloned by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches and expression sequence tag (EST) analysis. The open reading frame of CfPAH encoded a polypeptide of 460 amino acids, and its sequence shared 64.4-74.2% similarity with those of PAHs from other animals. There were an N-terminal regulatory ACT domain and a C-terminal catalytic Biopterin_H domain in the deduced CfPAH protein. The mRNA transcripts of CfPAH could be detected in all the tested tissues, including adductor muscle, mantle, gill, gonad, haemocytes and hepatopancreas. And its expression level in haemocytes was increased significantly during 3-48 h after bacteria Vibrio anguillarum challenge with the highest level (9.1-fold, P < 0.05) at 24 h. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of CfPAH in haemocytes also increased significantly to 2.6-fold (P < 0.05) at 4 h and 3.3-fold (P < 0.05) at 6 h after the stimulation of 50.0 ng mL(-1) human TNF-α. The cDNA fragment encoding the mature peptide of CfPAH was recombined and expressed in the prokaryotic expression system, and 1 mg recombinant CfPAH protein (rCfPAH) could catalyze the conversion of 192.23 ± 32.35 nmol phenylalanine to tyrosine within 1 min (nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein) in vitro. These results indicated collectively that CfPAH, as a homologue of phenylalanine hydroxylase in scallop C. farreri, could be induced by cytokine and involved in the immunomodulation of scallops by supplying the starting material tyrosine for the synthesis of melanin and catecholamines.

  6. Epileptic Activity Increases Cerebral Amino Acid Transport Assessed by 18F-Fluoroethyl-l-Tyrosine Amino Acid PET: A Potential Brain Tumor Mimic.

    PubMed

    Hutterer, Markus; Ebner, Yvonne; Riemenschneider, Markus J; Willuweit, Antje; McCoy, Mark; Egger, Barbara; Schröder, Michael; Wendl, Christina; Hellwig, Dirk; Grosse, Jirka; Menhart, Karin; Proescholdt, Martin; Fritsch, Brita; Urbach, Horst; Stockhammer, Guenther; Roelcke, Ulrich; Galldiks, Norbert; Meyer, Philipp T; Langen, Karl-Josef; Hau, Peter; Trinka, Eugen

    2017-01-01

    O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET is a well-established method increasingly used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and monitoring in gliomas. Epileptic activity, frequently occurring in glioma patients, can influence MRI findings. Whether seizures also affect (18)F-FET PET imaging is currently unknown. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to investigate the brain amino acid metabolism during epileptic seizures by (18)F-FET PET and to elucidate the pathophysiologic background.

  7. New Method for Determining Isotopic Values of Glutamic Acid and Phenylalanine for Estimation of Precise Trophic Position in Food Web Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, T.; Broek, T.; McCarthy, M.

    2012-12-01

    Compound Specific Isotope Analysis of Amino Acids (CSI-AA) has emerged as a highly precise new method of determining trophic levels of both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Multiple studies have now shown that δ15N values for glutamic acid (Glu) and phenylalanine (Phe) can be coupled to provide extremely precise estimates of trophic position in diverse food web studies. The standard gas chromatography—isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-IRMS) approach is presently limited to a select number of labs since necessary equipment is both expensive and not widely accessible. Furthermore, typical GC-IRMS δ15N precision (±1‰) is significantly lower than usual bulk δ15N values (±0.1‰), thus presenting a considerable setback for precise trophic level calculations. In this study, we develop a new dual-column method to purify Glu and Phe using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phe is purified using an analytical scale reverse phase column embedded with anionic ion-pairing reagents and collected using automated fraction collection. Glu is separated from the non-polar amino acids using the same column and further purified using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) cation and anion-exchange column and collected via automated fraction collection. Isotopic analysis of the purified AAs is then conducted on an elemental analyzer—isotope ratio mass spectrometer (EA-IRMS). As a test of this method, we present and compare the trophic position of five marine organisms—cyanobacteria, deep-sea bamboo coral, juvenile and adult white sea bass, and harbor seal, calculated using Glu and Phe δ15N values produced by both GC-IRMS and our HPLC-EA-IRMS approach. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the HPLC-EA-IRMS method is a viable alternative to GC-IRMS, which should allow accurate trophic position estimates to be made by more researchers using more readily available instrumentation.

  8. Synthesis of d‐ and l‐Phenylalanine Derivatives by Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyases: A Multienzymatic Cascade Process†

    PubMed Central

    Parmeggiani, Fabio; Lovelock, Sarah L.; Weise, Nicholas J.; Ahmed, Syed T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of substituted d‐phenylalanines in high yield and excellent optical purity, starting from inexpensive cinnamic acids, has been achieved with a novel one‐pot approach by coupling phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) amination with a chemoenzymatic deracemization (based on stereoselective oxidation and nonselective reduction). A simple high‐throughput solid‐phase screening method has also been developed to identify PALs with higher rates of formation of non‐natural d‐phenylalanines. The best variants were exploited in the chemoenzymatic cascade, thus increasing the yield and ee value of the d‐configured product. Furthermore, the system was extended to the preparation of those l‐phenylalanines which are obtained with a low ee value using PAL amination. PMID:27478261

  9. Synthesis of d- and l-Phenylalanine Derivatives by Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyases: A Multienzymatic Cascade Process.

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Fabio; Lovelock, Sarah L; Weise, Nicholas J; Ahmed, Syed T; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-04-07

    The synthesis of substituted d-phenylalanines in high yield and excellent optical purity, starting from inexpensive cinnamic acids, has been achieved with a novel one-pot approach by coupling phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) amination with a chemoenzymatic deracemization (based on stereoselective oxidation and nonselective reduction). A simple high-throughput solid-phase screening method has also been developed to identify PALs with higher rates of formation of non-natural d-phenylalanines. The best variants were exploited in the chemoenzymatic cascade, thus increasing the yield and ee value of the d-configured product. Furthermore, the system was extended to the preparation of those l-phenylalanines which are obtained with a low ee value using PAL amination.

  10. Synthesis of D- and L-phenylalanine derivatives by phenylalanine ammonia lyases: a multienzymatic cascade process.

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Fabio; Lovelock, Sarah L; Weise, Nicholas J; Ahmed, Syed T; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-04-07

    The synthesis of substituted D-phenylalanines in high yield and excellent optical purity, starting from inexpensive cinnamic acids, has been achieved with a novel one-pot approach by coupling phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) amination with a chemoenzymatic deracemization (based on stereoselective oxidation and nonselective reduction). A simple high-throughput solid-phase screening method has also been developed to identify PALs with higher rates of formation of non-natural D-phenylalanines. The best variants were exploited in the chemoenzymatic cascade, thus increasing the yield and ee value of the D-configured product. Furthermore, the system was extended to the preparation of those L-phenylalanines which are obtained with a low ee value using PAL amination.

  11. Synthesis of d- and l-Phenylalanine Derivatives by Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyases: A Multienzymatic Cascade Process**

    PubMed Central

    Parmeggiani, Fabio; Lovelock, Sarah L; Weise, Nicholas J; Ahmed, Syed T; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of substituted d-phenylalanines in high yield and excellent optical purity, starting from inexpensive cinnamic acids, has been achieved with a novel one-pot approach by coupling phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) amination with a chemoenzymatic deracemization (based on stereoselective oxidation and nonselective reduction). A simple high-throughput solid-phase screening method has also been developed to identify PALs with higher rates of formation of non-natural d-phenylalanines. The best variants were exploited in the chemoenzymatic cascade, thus increasing the yield and ee value of the d-configured product. Furthermore, the system was extended to the preparation of those l-phenylalanines which are obtained with a low ee value using PAL amination. PMID:25728350

  12. Poly(carbonate–amide)s Derived from Bio-Based Resources: Poly(ferulic acid-co-tyrosine)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA), a bio-based resource found in fruits and vegetables, was coupled with a hydroxyl-amino acid to generate a new class of monomers to afford poly(carbonate–amide)s with potential to degrade into natural products. l-Serine was first selected as the hydroxyl-amino partner for FA, from which the activated p-nitrophenyl carbonate monomer was synthesized. Unfortunately, polymerizations were unsuccessful, and the elimination product was systematically obtained. To avoid elimination, we revised our strategy and used l-tyrosine ethyl ester, which lacks an acidic proton on the α position of the ethyl ester. Four new monomers were synthesized and converted into the corresponding poly(carbonate–amide)s with specific regioselectivities. The polymers were fully characterized through thermal and spectroscopic analyses. Preliminary fluorescent studies revealed interesting photophysical properties for the monomers and their corresponding poly(carbonate–amide)s, beyond the fluorescence characteristics of l-tyrosine and FA, making these materials potentially viable for sensing and/or imaging applications, in addition to their attractiveness as engineering materials derived from renewable resources. PMID:24839309

  13. Oxidation of the aromatic amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine disrupts their anabolic effects on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    El Refaey, Mona; Watkins, Christopher P; Kennedy, Eileen J; Chang, Andrew; Zhong, Qing; Ding, Ke-Hong; Shi, Xing-ming; Xu, Jianrui; Bollag, Wendy B; Hill, William D; Johnson, Maribeth; Hunter, Monte; Hamrick, Mark W; Isales, Carlos M

    2015-07-15

    Age-induced bone loss is associated with greater bone resorption and decreased bone formation resulting in osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures. The etiology of this age-induced bone loss is not clear but has been associated with increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from leaky mitochondria. ROS are known to oxidize/damage the surrounding proteins/amino acids/enzymes and thus impair their normal function. Among the amino acids, the aromatic amino acids are particularly prone to modification by oxidation. Since impaired osteoblastic differentiation from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) plays a role in age-related bone loss, we wished to examine whether oxidized amino acids (in particular the aromatic amino acids) modulated BMMSC function. Using mouse BMMSCs, we examined the effects of the oxidized amino acids di-tyrosine and kynurenine on proliferation, differentiation and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway. Our data demonstrate that amino acid oxides (in particular kynurenine) inhibited BMMSC proliferation, alkaline phosphatase expression and activity and the expression of osteogenic markers (Osteocalcin and Runx2). Taken together, our data are consistent with a potential pathogenic role for oxidized amino acids in age-induced bone loss.

  14. Oxidation of the aromatic amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine disrupts their anabolic effects on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Refaey, Mona El; Watkins, Christopher P.; Kennedy, Eileen; Chang, Andrew; Zhong, Qing; Ding, Ke-Hong; Shi, Xing-ming; Xu, Jianrui; Bollag, Wendy B.; Hill, William D.; Johnson, Maribeth; Hunter, Monte; Hamrick, Mark W; Isales, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Age-induced bone loss is associated with greater bone resorption and decreased bone formation resulting in osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures. The etiology of this age-induced bone loss is not clear but has been associated with increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from leaky mitochondria. ROS are known to oxidize/damage the surrounding proteins/amino acids/enzymes and thus impair their normal function. Among the amino acids, the aromatic amino acids are particularly prone to modification by oxidation. Since impaired osteoblastic differentiation from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) plays a role in age-related bone loss, we wished to examine whether oxidized amino acids (in particular the aromatic amino acids) modulated BMMSC function. Using mouse BMMSCs, we examined the effects of the oxidized amino acids di-tyrosine and kynurenine on proliferation, differentiation and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway. Our data demonstrate that amino acid oxides (in particular kynurenine) inhibited BMMSC proliferation, alkaline phosphatase expression and activity and the expression of osteogenic markers (Osteocalcin and Runx2). Taken together, our data are consistent with a potential pathogenic role for oxidized amino acids in age-induced bone loss. PMID:25637715

  15. Aromatic/heterocyclic amino acids and the simulated sunlight-ultraviolet inactivation of the Heliothis/Helicoverpa baculovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Ignoffo, C.M.; Garcia, C.

    1995-04-01

    Tryptophan, of five aromatic/heterocyclic amino acids (tyrosine, phenylalanine, proline, histidine) provided significant protection of the Heliothis baculovirus (HzSNPV) from inactivation by simulated ultraviolet (SUV). Fifty percent of SUV protection of HzSNPV with tryptophan or tyrosine was obtained at 0.03 mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively. Rates as high as 100.0 mg/ml of phenylalanine, histidine, or proline provided <50% protection. The extent of tryptophan protection was correlated with its absorption in the sunlight UV-B spectra. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Differential inductions of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase during wounding, salicylic acid treatment, and salinity stress in safflower, Carthamus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Sara; Sadeghi, Mahnaz; Pöppel, Anne; Fischer, Rainer; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard; Kavousi, Hamid Reza; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Rahnamaeian, Mohammad

    2014-06-25

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) serves as a reference dicot for investigation of defence mechanisms in Asteraceae due to abundant secondary metabolites and high resistance/tolerance to environmental stresses. In plants, phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways are considered as two central defence signalling cascades in stress conditions. Here, we describe the isolation of two major genes in these pathways, CtPAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) and CtCHS (chalcone synthase) in safflower along with monitoring their expression profiles in different stress circumstances. The aa (amino acid) sequence of isolated region of CtPAL possesses the maximum identity up to 96% to its orthologue in Cynara scolymus, while that of CtCHS retains the highest identity to its orthologue in Callistephus chinensis up to 96%. Experiments for gene expression profiling of CtPAL and CtCHS were performed after the treatment of seedlings with 0.1 and 1 mM SA (salicylic acid), wounding and salinity stress. The results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that both CtPAL and CtCHS genes are further responsive to higher concentration of SA with dissimilar patterns. Regarding wounding stress, CtPAL gets slightly induced upon injury at 3 hat (hours after treatment) (hat), whereas CtCHS gets greatly induced at 3 hat and levels off gradually afterward. Upon salinity stress, CtPAL displays a similar expression pattern by getting slightly induced at 3 hat, but CtCHS exhibits a biphasic expression profile with two prominent peaks at 3 and 24 hat. These results substantiate the involvement of phenylpropanoid and particularly flavonoid pathways in safflower during wounding and especially salinity stress.

  17. Effects of tetrahydrobiopterin and phenylalanine on in vivo human phenylalanine hydroxylase by phenylalanine breath test.

    PubMed

    Okano, Yoshiyuki; Takatori, Kazuhiko; Kudo, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Tomoko; Asada, Minoru; Kajiwara, Masahiro; Yamano, Tsunekazu

    2007-12-01

    BH(4) administration results in the reduction of blood phenylalanine level in patients with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4))-responsive phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency. The mechanism underlying BH(4) response remains unknown. Here, we studied the effects of BH(4) and phenylalanine on in vivo PAH activity of normal controls using the phenylalanine breath test (PBT) by converting l-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine to (13)CO(2). Phenylalanine oxidation rates were expressed as Delta(13)C ((13)CO(2)/(12+13)CO(2), per thousand) and cumulative recovery rates over 120min (CRR(120), %; total amount of (13)CO(2)/the administered dose of (13)C-phenylalanine). Under physiological conditions of blood phenylalanine, BH(4) administration reduced the Delta(13)C peak from 40.8 per thousand to 21.6 per thousand and CRR(120) from 16.9% to 10.2%. Under high blood phenylalanine conditions, administration of BH(4) increased the Delta(13)C peak from 30.7 per thousand to 46.0 per thousand, while the CRR(120) was similar between phenylalanine (19.9%) and phenylalanine+BH(4) (21.1%) groups. Corrected Delta(13)C and CRR(120) were calculated against serum phenylalanine levels to remove the effects of phenylalanine loading. After BH(4) administration, the corrected Delta(13)C peak increased from 82.7 per thousand to 112.6 per thousand, while the corrected CRR(120) was similar (47.6% and 45.6%). These results indicate that phenylalanine worked as a regulator of in vivo PAH by serving as both a substrate and an activator for the enzyme. Excessive dosages of BH(4) inhibited PAH under normal phenylalanine conditions and activated PAH under conditions of high phenylalanine. The regulation system is therefore designed to maintain phenylalanine levels in the human body. Appropriate BH(4) supplementation must be reviewed in patients with BH(4)-responsive PAH deficiency.

  18. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  19. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  20. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  1. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  2. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  3. Synthesis and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory properties of amino acid - coumarin/quinolinone conjugates incorporating glycine, alanine and phenylalanine moieties.

    PubMed

    Küçükbay, F Zehra; Küçükbay, Hasan; Tanc, Muhammet; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    N-Protected amino acids (Gly, Ala and Phe) were reacted with amino substituted coumarin and quinolinone derivatives, leading to the corresponding N-protected amino acid-coumarin/quinolinone conjugates. The carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory activity of the new compounds was assessed against various human (h) isoforms, such as hCA I, hCA II, hCA IV and hCA XII. The quinolinone conjugates were inactive as enzyme inhibitors, whereas the coumarins were ineffective hCA I/II inhibitors (KIs > 50 μM) but were submicromolar hCA IV and XII inhibitors, with inhibition constants ranging between 92 nM and 1.19 μM for hCA IV, and between 0.11 and 0.79 μM for hCA XII. These coumarin derivatives, as many others reported earlier, thus show an interesting selective inhibitory profile for the membrane-bound over the cytosolic CA isoforms.

  4. Highly Active and Specific Tyrosine Ammonia-Lyases from Diverse Origins Enable Enhanced Production of Aromatic Compounds in Bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Li, Mingji; Gaspar, Paula; Siedler, Solvej; Förster, Jochen; Maury, Jérôme; Borodina, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Phenylalanine and tyrosine ammonia-lyases form cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, which are precursors of a wide range of aromatic compounds of biotechnological interest. Lack of highly active and specific tyrosine ammonia-lyases has previously been a limitation in metabolic engineering approaches. We therefore identified 22 sequences in silico using synteny information and aiming for sequence divergence. We performed a comparative in vivo study, expressing the genes intracellularly in bacteria and yeast. When produced heterologously, some enzymes resulted in significantly higher production of p-coumaric acid in several different industrially important production organisms. Three novel enzymes were found to have activity exclusively for phenylalanine, including an enzyme from the low-GC Gram-positive bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus, a bacterial-type enzyme from the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, and a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from the moss Physcomitrella patens (producing 230 μM cinnamic acid per unit of optical density at 600 nm [OD600]) in the medium using Escherichia coli as the heterologous host). Novel tyrosine ammonia-lyases having higher reported substrate specificity than previously characterized enzymes were also identified. Enzymes from Herpetosiphon aurantiacus and Flavobacterium johnsoniae resulted in high production of p-coumaric acid in Escherichia coli (producing 440 μM p-coumaric acid OD600 unit−1 in the medium) and in Lactococcus lactis. The enzymes were also efficient in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where p-coumaric acid accumulation was improved 5-fold over that in strains expressing previously characterized tyrosine ammonia-lyases. PMID:25911487

  5. Pulsed EPR study of amino acid and tetrahydropterin binding in a tyrosine hydroxylase nitric oxide complex: evidence for substrate rearrangements in the formation of the oxygen-reactive complex.

    PubMed

    Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Eser, Bekir E; Ellis, Holly R; Fitzpatrick, Paul F; McCracken, John

    2013-11-26

    Tyrosine hydroxylase is a nonheme iron enzyme found in the nervous system that catalyzes the hydroxylation of tyrosine to form l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters. Catalysis requires the binding of three substrates: tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and molecular oxygen. We have used nitric oxide as an O₂ surrogate to poise Fe(II) at the catalytic site in an S = 3/2, {FeNO}⁷ form amenable to EPR spectroscopy. ²H-electron spin echo envelope modulation was then used to measure the distance and orientation of specifically deuterated substrate tyrosine and cofactor 6-methyltetrahydropterin with respect to the magnetic axes of the {FeNO}⁷ paramagnetic center. Our results show that the addition of tyrosine triggers a conformational change in the enzyme that reduces the distance from the {FeNO}⁷ center to the closest deuteron on 6,7-²H-6-methyltetrahydropterin from >5.9 Å to 4.4 ± 0.2 Å. Conversely, the addition of 6-methyltetrahydropterin to enzyme samples treated with 3,5-²H-tyrosine resulted in reorientation of the magnetic axes of the S = 3/2, {FeNO}⁷ center with respect to the deuterated substrate. Taken together, these results show that the coordination of both substrate and cofactor direct the coordination of NO to Fe(II) at the active site. Parallel studies of a quaternary complex of an uncoupled tyrosine hydroxylase variant, E332A, show no change in the hyperfine coupling to substrate tyrosine and cofactor 6-methyltetrahydropterin. Our results are discussed in the context of previous spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic studies done on tyrosine hydroxylase and phenylalanine hydroxylase.

  6. Enhancement of L-tryptophan 5-hydroxylation activity by structure-based modification of L-phenylalanine 4-hydroxylase from Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Kino, Kuniki; Hara, Ryotaro; Nozawa, Ai

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance l-tryptophan hydroxylation activity of l-phenylalanine 4-hydroxylase. It had been known that l-phenylalanine 4-hydroxylase from Chromobacterium violaceum could convert l-tryptophan to 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan and l-phenylalanine to l-tyrosine; however, the activity for l-tryptophan was extremely low compared to l-phenylalanine activity levels. We used the information on the crystal structures of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases to generate C. violaceuml-phenylalanine 4-hydroxylase with high l-tryptophan hydroxylating activity. In silico structural modeling analysis suggested that hydrophobic and/or stacking interactions with the substrate and cofactor at L101 and W180 in C. violaceuml-phenylalanine 4-hydroxylase would increase hydroxylation activity. Based on this hypothesis, we introduced a saturation mutagenesis towards these sites followed by the evaluation of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan productivity using a modified Gibbs assay. Three and nine positive mutants were obtained from the L101 and W180 mutant libraries, respectively. Among the mutants, L101Y and W180F showed the highest l-tryptophan hydroxylation activity at the respective residues. Steady-state kinetic analysis revealed that k(cat) values for l-tryptophan hydroxylation were increased from 0.40 (wild-type) to 1.02 (L101Y) and 0.51 s(-1) (W180F). In addition, the double mutant (L101Y-W180F) displayed higher l-tryptophan hydroxylation activity than the wild-type and the W180F and L101Y mutants. The k(cat) value of L101Y-W180F increased to 2.08 s(-1), showing a 5.2-fold increase compared to wild-type enzyme levels.

  7. Identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 as a new target of perfluoroalkyl acids in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Lv, Qi-Yan; Guo, Liang-Hong; Wan, Bin; Ren, Xiao-Min; Shi, Ya-Li; Cai, Ya-Qi

    2016-08-29

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widespread environmental contaminants which have been detected in humans and linked to adverse health effects. Previous toxicological studies mostly focused on nuclear receptor-mediated pathways and did not support the observed toxic effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of PFAA toxicities by identifying their biological targets in cells. Using a novel electrochemical biosensor, 16 PFAAs were evaluated for inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 activity. Their potency increased with PFAA chain length, with perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFODA) showing the strongest inhibition. Three selected PFAAs, 25 μM perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, and PFODA, also inhibited SHP-2 activity in HepG2 cells and increased paxillin phosphorylation level. PFOA was detected in the immunoprecipitated SHP-2 from the cells exposed to 250 μM PFOA, providing unequivocal evidence for the direct binding of PFOA with SHP-2 in the cell. Molecular docking rationalized the formation of PFAA/SHP-2 complex and chain length-dependent inhibition potency. Our results have established SHP-2 as a new cellular target of PFAAs.

  8. Serum amino acid concentrations in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition with an amino acid plus dextrose mixture.

    PubMed

    Philcox, J C; Hartley, T F; Worthley, L I; Thomas, D W

    1984-01-01

    The results of monitoring the serum amino acid concentrations during three infusion regimens using a 5:4 mixture of 70% glucose and the synthetic L-amino acid solution, Synthamin 17 (Travasol) are reported. Twelve stabilized patients received continuous total parenteral nutrition (TPN), eight of whom were subsequently placed on a second regimen of cyclical feeding. A separate group of five patients was infused with amino acids, both with and without simultaneous glucose. The serum amino acid concentrations indicated that the supply of valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine, and the synthesis of taurine from the infused methionine was suboptimal, particularly if the period of TPN was prolonged. The synthesis of tyrosine from phenylalanine appeared to be inversely proportional to the infusion rate of the TPN mixture, in particular the glucose component, resulting in depressed tyrosine and increased phenylalanine concentrations in serum during continuous iv nutrition. Cyclical infusions, on the other hand, permitted the tyrosine and phenylalanine concentrations to return to normal during the noninfusion stage of the cycle. Amino acid measurements enabled us to design an amino acids additive mixture which normalized the serum concentrations in three long-term home parenteral nutrition patients. As a result of these investigations serum amino acid measurements are used routinely to monitor the efficacy of TPN and accommodate any specific amino acid requirements of individual patients.

  9. Treatment of hyperactive children with D-phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Zametkin, A J; Karoum, F; Rapoport, J L

    1987-06-01

    Eleven hyperactive boys were treated for 2 weeks with D-phenylalanine (20 mg/kg per day) and for 2 weeks with placebo in a double-blind crossover study. Tests included parent and teacher behavior ratings, cognitive measures, and blood and urine measures of norepinephrine, amino acids, and trace amines. No significant improvement or deterioration in behavior and no side effects were noted, and only serum phenylalanine was increased by the active treatment phase. This provides reassurance about the toxicity of aspartame, a food additive that contains phenylalanine, but argues against precursor loading treatment of hyperactivity.

  10. Dynamic regulation of phenylalanine hydroxylase by simulated redox manipulation.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Julian E; Huber, Roland G; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Wallnoefer, Hannes G; Spitzer, Gudrun M; Fuchs, Dietmar; Liedl, Klaus R

    2012-01-01

    Recent clinical studies revealed increased phenylalanine levels and phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios in patients suffering from infection, inflammation and general immune activity. These data implicated down-regulation of activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase by oxidative stress upon in vivo immune activation. Though the structural damage of oxidative stress is expected to be comparably small, a structural rationale for this experimental finding was lacking. Hence, we investigated the impact of side chain oxidation at two vicinal cysteine residues on local conformational flexibility in the protein by comparative molecular dynamics simulations. Analysis of backbone dynamics revealed a highly flexible loop region (Tyr138-loop) in proximity to the active center of phenylalanine hydroxylase. We observed elevated loop dynamics in connection with a loop movement towards the active site in the oxidized state, thereby partially blocking access for the substrate phenylalanine. These findings were confirmed by extensive replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations and serve as a first structural explanation for decreased enzyme turnover in situations of oxidative stress.

  11. Systems engineering of tyrosine 195, tyrosine 260, and glutamine 265 in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Paenibacillus macerans to enhance maltodextrin specificity for 2-O-(D)-glucopyranosyl-(L)-ascorbic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruizhi; Liu, Long; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Chen, Rachel R; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the site saturation mutagenesis of tyrosine 195, tyrosine 260 and glutamine 265 in the cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Paenibacillus macerans was conducted to improve the specificity of CGTase for maltodextrin, which can be used as a cheap and easily soluble glycosyl donor for the synthesis of 2-O-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G). Specifically, the site-saturation mutagenesis of three sites-tyrosine 195, tyrosine 260, and glutamine 265-was performed, and it was found that the resulting mutants (containing the mutations Y195S [tyrosine → serine], Y260R [tyrosine → arginine], and Q265K [glutamine → lysine]) produced higher AA-2G yields than the wild type and the other mutant CGTases when maltodextrin was used as the glycosyl donor. Furthermore, double and triple mutations were introduced, and four mutants (containing Y195S/Y260R, Y195S/Q265K, Y260R/Q265K, and Y260R/Q265K/Y195S) were obtained and evaluated for the capacity to produce AA-2G. The Y260R/Q265K/Y195S triple mutant produced the highest titer of AA-2G at 1.92 g/liter, which was 60% higher than that (1.20 g/liter) produced by the wild-type CGTase. The kinetics analysis of AA-2G synthesis by the mutant CGTases confirmed the enhanced maltodextrin specificity, and it was also found that compared with the wild-type CGTase, all seven mutants had lower cyclization activities and higher hydrolysis and disproportionation activities. Finally, the mechanism responsible for the enhanced substrate specificity was explored by structure modeling, which indicated that the enhancement of maltodextrin specificity may be related to the changes of hydrogen bonding interactions between the side chain of residue at the three positions (195, 260, and 265) and the substrate sugars. This work adds to our understanding of the synthesis of AA-2G and makes the Y260R/Q265K/Y195S mutant a good starting point for further development by protein engineering.

  12. Brain dysfunction in phenylketonuria: is phenylalanine toxicity the only possible cause?

    PubMed

    van Spronsen, F J; Hoeksma, Marieke; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan

    2009-02-01

    In phenylketonuria, mental retardation is prevented by a diet that severely restricts natural protein and is supplemented with a phenylalanine-free amino acid mixture. The result is an almost normal outcome, although some neuropsychological disturbances remain. The pathology underlying cognitive dysfunction in phenylketonuria is unknown, although it is clear that the high plasma concentrations of phenylalanine influence the blood-brain barrier transport of large neutral amino acids. The high plasma phenylalanine concentrations increase phenylalanine entry into brain and restrict the entry of other large neutral amino acids. In the literature, emphasis has been on high brain phenylalanine as the pathological substrate that causes mental retardation. Phenylalanine was found to interfere with different cerebral enzyme systems. However, apart from the neurotoxicity of phenylalanine, a deficiency of the other large neutral amino acids in brain may also be an important factor affecting cognitive function in phenylketonuria. Cerebral protein synthesis was found to be disturbed in a mouse model of phenylketonuria and could be caused by shortage of large neutral amino acids instead of high levels of phenylalanine. Therefore, in this review we emphasize the possibility of a different idea about the pathogenesis of mental dysfunction in phenylketonuria patients and the aim of treatment strategies. The aim of treatment in phenylketonuria might be to normalize cerebral concentrations of all large neutral amino acids rather than prevent high cerebral phenylalanine concentrations alone. In-depth studies are necessary to investigate the role of large neutral amino acid deficiencies in brain.

  13. Acidic substitution of the activation loop tyrosines in TrkA supports nerve growth factor-independent cell survival and neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gryz, E A; Meakin, S O

    2000-01-20

    TrkA is the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) for nerve growth factor (NGF) and stimulates NGF-dependent cell survival and differentiation in primary neurons. TrkA expression in neuronal tumors also supports NGF-dependent differentiation of neuroblastomas and apoptosis of medulloblastomas. Phosphorylation of the activation loop tyrosines in RTK's are essential to activation as well as allosteric changes that facilitate substrate interaction and phosphorylation. Acidic amino acid substitution of the activation loop tyrosines in TrkA, Tyr683Tyr684, was performed to mimic the negative charges normally induced by ligand activation and receptor phosphorylation. A total of eight independent mutants containing single or double substitutions were generated for comparison. Herein, we demonstrate that acidic substitution of the activation loop tyrosines is sufficient to induce allosteric changes required for constitutive TrkA kinase activity as well as phosphorylation of TrkA signaling proteins such as Shc, PLCgamma-1, FRS-2 and erk1/2. The strongest constitutively active TrkA mutants, GluAsp and AspGlu, support NGF-independent neuritogenesis and cell survival to levels approximately 65 and 80-100%, respectively, of NGF-activated wild type TrkA. Thus, constitutively active TrkA may provide a useful strategy in future therapeutic approaches to limit the development and progression of neuronal tumors.

  14. Protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate arachidonic acid release, StAR induction and steroidogenesis acting on a hormone-dependent arachidonic acid-preferring acyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Cano, Florencia; Poderoso, Cecilia; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Castilla, Rocío; Maloberti, Paula; Castillo, Fernanda; Neuman, Isabel; Paz, Cristina; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2006-06-01

    The activation of the rate-limiting step in steroid biosynthesis, that is the transport of cholesterol into the mitochondria, is dependent on PKA-mediated events triggered by hormones like ACTH and LH. Two of such events are the protein tyrosine dephosphorylation mediated by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and the release of arachidonic acid (AA) mediated by two enzymes, ACS4 (acyl-CoA synthetase 4) and Acot2 (mitochondrial thioesterase). ACTH and LH regulate the activity of PTPs and Acot2 and promote the induction of ACS4. Here we analyzed the involvement of PTPs on the expression of ACS4. We found that two PTP inhibitors, acting through different mechanisms, are both able to abrogate the hormonal effect on ACS4 induction. PTP inhibitors also reduce the effect of cAMP on steroidogenesis and on the level of StAR protein, which facilitates the access of cholesterol into the mitochondria. Moreover, our results indicate that exogenous AA is able to overcome the inhibition produced by PTP inhibitors on StAR protein level and steroidogenesis. Then, here we describe a link between PTP activity and AA release, since ACS4 induction is under the control of PTP activity, being a key event for AA release, StAR induction and steroidogenesis.

  15. Effects of totally synthetic, low phenylalanine diet on adolescent phenylketonuric patients

    PubMed Central

    McKean, Charles M.

    1971-01-01

    The long-term responses of 5 adolescent phenylketonuric patients to chemically-defined, synthetic diets with normal and low phenylalanine content were determined. The synthetic preparations were found capable of sustaining good health and rapid growth in this group of profoundly retarded, behaviourally disturbed patients over a 3½-year period without clinical or biochemical evidence of nutritional inadequacy. 4 of these patients who were treated for 6 months on a comparable diet, in which 80% of the phenylalanine was replaced by tyrosine, continued to show weight maintenance and height increases. There was no evidence of poor acceptability of the imbalanced diet, whether the blood phenylalanine concentrations were at phenylketonuric or treatment levels. The phenylalanine intake required to maintain blood phenylalanine concentrations of 3-5 mg/100 ml in these 4 patients was well below normal requirements, and ranged between 6·8 and 20·1 mg/kg per day. Predictably, the phenylalanine requirement varied with individual growth rates. All 4 treated patients had objective signs of improved central nervous system function during the six-month period on the phenylalanine-restricted diet. These electrophysiological and behavioural improvements were manifest after blood phenylalanine concentrations fell below 12 mg/100 ml in 3 cases and below 5 mg/100 ml in the fourth. PMID:5118048

  16. 13C-phenylalanine breath test detects altered phenylalanine kinetics in schizophrenia patients

    PubMed Central

    Teraishi, T; Ozeki, Y; Hori, H; Sasayama, D; Chiba, S; Yamamoto, N; Tanaka, H; Iijima, Y; Matsuo, J; Kawamoto, Y; Kinoshita, Y; Hattori, K; Ota, M; Kajiwara, M; Terada, S; Higuchi, T; Kunugi, H

    2012-01-01

    Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid required for the synthesis of catecholamines including dopamine. Altered levels of phenylalanine and its metabolites in blood and cerebrospinal fluid have been reported in schizophrenia patients. This study attempted to examine for the first time whether phenylalanine kinetics is altered in schizophrenia using L-[1-13C]phenylalanine breath test (13C-PBT). The subjects were 20 chronically medicated schizophrenia patients (DSM-IV) and the same number of age- and sex-matched controls. 13C-phenylalanine (99 atom% 13C; 100 mg) was administered orally and the breath 13CO2 /12CO2 ratio was monitored for 120 min. The possible effect of antipsychotic medication (risperidone (RPD) or haloperidol (HPD) treatment for 21 days) on 13C-PBT was examined in rats. Body weight (BW), age and diagnostic status were significant predictors of the area under the curve of the time course of Δ13CO2 (‰) and the cumulative recovery rate (CRR) at 120 min. A repeated measures analysis of covariance controlled for age and BW revealed that the patterns of CRR change over time differed between the patients and controls and that Δ13CO2 was lower in the patients than in the controls at all sampling time points during the 120 min test, with an overall significant difference between the two groups. Chronic administration of RPD or HPD had no significant effect on 13C-PBT indices in rats. Our results suggest that 13C-PBT is a novel laboratory test that can detect altered phenylalanine kinetics in chronic schizophrenia patients. Animal experiments suggest that the observed changes are unlikely to be attributable to antipsychotic medication. PMID:22832963

  17. Salicylic Acid Based Small Molecule Inhibitor for the Oncogenic Src Homology-2 Domain Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-2 (SHP2)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xian; He, Yantao; Liu, Sijiu; Yu, Zhihong; Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Yang, Zhenyun; Dong, Yuanshu; Nabinger, Sarah C.; Wu, Li; Gunawan, Andrea M.; Wang, Lina; Chan, Rebecca J.; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2010-08-13

    The Src homology-2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) plays a pivotal role in growth factor and cytokine signaling. Gain-of-function SHP2 mutations are associated with Noonan syndrome, various kinds of leukemias, and solid tumors. Thus, there is considerable interest in SHP2 as a potential target for anticancer and antileukemia therapy. We report a salicylic acid based combinatorial library approach aimed at binding both active site and unique nearby subpockets for enhanced affinity and selectivity. Screening of the library led to the identification of a SHP2 inhibitor II-B08 (compound 9) with highly efficacious cellular activity. Compound 9 blocks growth factor stimulated ERK1/2 activation and hematopoietic progenitor proliferation, providing supporting evidence that chemical inhibition of SHP2 may be therapeutically useful for anticancer and antileukemia treatment. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the structure of SHP2 in complex with 9 reveals molecular determinants that can be exploited for the acquisition of more potent and selective SHP2 inhibitors.

  18. Ethacrynic acid improves the antitumor effects of irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, YunLong; Chen, TingTing; Peng, BoYa; Gao, NingNing; Jin, ZhenChao; Jia, TieLiu; Zhang, Na; Wang, ZhuLin; Jin, GuangYi

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged treatment of breast cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) often results in acquired resistance and a narrow therapeutic index. One strategy to improve the therapeutic effects of EGFR TKIs is to combine them with drugs used for other clinical indications. Ethacrynic acid (EA) is an FDA approved drug that may have antitumor effects and may enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents by binding to glutathione and inhibiting WNT signaling. While the α,β-unsaturated-keto structure of EA is similar to that of irreversible TKIs, the mechanism of action of EA when combined with irreversible EGFR TKIs in breast cancer remains unknown. We therefore investigated the combination of irreversible EGFR TKIs and EA. We found that irreversible EGFR TKIs and EA synergistically inhibit breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The combination of EGFR TKIs and EA induces necrosis and cell cycle arrest and represses WNT/β-catenin signaling as well as MAPK-ERK1/2 signaling. We conclude that EA synergistically enhances the antitumor effects of irreversible EGFR TKIs in breast cancer. PMID:27487128

  19. Ethacrynic acid improves the antitumor effects of irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Huang, XinPing; Hu, YunLong; Chen, TingTing; Peng, BoYa; Gao, NingNing; Jin, ZhenChao; Jia, TieLiu; Zhang, Na; Wang, ZhuLin; Jin, GuangYi

    2016-09-06

    Prolonged treatment of breast cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) often results in acquired resistance and a narrow therapeutic index. One strategy to improve the therapeutic effects of EGFR TKIs is to combine them with drugs used for other clinical indications. Ethacrynic acid (EA) is an FDA approved drug that may have antitumor effects and may enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents by binding to glutathione and inhibiting WNT signaling. While the α,β-unsaturated-keto structure of EA is similar to that of irreversible TKIs, the mechanism of action of EA when combined with irreversible EGFR TKIs in breast cancer remains unknown. We therefore investigated the combination of irreversible EGFR TKIs and EA. We found that irreversible EGFR TKIs and EA synergistically inhibit breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The combination of EGFR TKIs and EA induces necrosis and cell cycle arrest and represses WNT/β-catenin signaling as well as MAPK-ERK1/2 signaling. We conclude that EA synergistically enhances the antitumor effects of irreversible EGFR TKIs in breast cancer.

  20. Two-step energy transfer enables use of phenylalanine in action-EET for distance constraint determination in gaseous biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Nathan G; Julian, Ryan R

    2015-08-18

    Two-step energy transfer is potentially useful for exploring macromolecular structure, but it has not been observed previously in the gas-phase. Single step excitation energy transfer (EET) has been recently documented for tyrosine and tryptophan containing peptides, but not for phenylalanine. Herein, we report sequential energy transfer from phenylalanine to tyrosine to a disulfide, resulting in homolytic cleavage of a sulfur-sulfur bond. Interestingly, energy transfer from phenylalanine is only observed in the presence of tyrosine and only occurs within certain distance constraints. Isolated, electronically excited phenylalanine is known to have an extremely long lifetime in the gas phase, potentially suggesting quicker relaxation occurs via energy transfer to tyrosine. Alternatively, the direct overlap of states between phenylalanine and disulfide bonds is predicted to be poor, in which case tyrosine would serve to bridge the gap. In either case, the distance constraints imposed by this two-step EET are shown to be useful for evaluation and determination of gaseous biomolecular structure.

  1. Isolation of betulinic acid, its methyl ester and guaiane sesquiterpenoids with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity from the roots of Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Na, Minkyun; Hyun Hwang, In; Ho Lee, Seung; Young Bae, Eun; Yeon Kim, Bo; Seog Ahn, Jong

    2009-01-08

    Activity-guided fractionation of a MeOH extract of the roots of Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke (Compositae), using an in vitro protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibition assay, led to the isolation of four active constituents: betulinic acid (1), betulinic acid methyl ester (2), mokko lactone (3) and dehydrocostuslactone (4), along with nine inactive compounds. Our findings indicate that betulinic acid (1) and its methyl ester 2, as well as the two guaiane sesquiterpenoids 3 and 4 are potential lead moieties for the development of new PTP1B inhibitors.

  2. Second harmonic generation from tyrosine containing peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, M. N.; Bergmann, E.; Benichou, E.; Russier-Antoine, I.; Lascoux, N.; Jonin, Ch.; Besson, F.; Brevet, P. F.

    2013-10-01

    The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) response from Tyrosine-containing peptides at the air-water interface is presented. First, the quadratic hyperpolarizability of the aromatic amino acid Tyrosine obtained by Hyper Rayleigh Scattering is reported, demonstrating its potentiality as an endogenous molecular probe for SHG studies. Then, the single Tyrosine antimicrobial peptide Mycosubtilin is monitored at the air-water interface and compared to another peptide, Surfactin, lacking a Tyrosine residue. Adsorption kinetics and polarization analysis of the SHG intensity for the peptide monolayers clearly demonstrate that the SHG response from Mycosubtilin arises from Tyrosine. Besides, it confirms that indeed Tyrosine can be targeted as an endogenous molecular probe.

  3. Au-Pd/reduced graphene oxide composite as a new sensing layer for electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid, acetaminophen and tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Tadayon, Fariba; Vahed, Saba; Bagheri, Hasan

    2016-11-01

    An Au-Pd/reduced graphene oxide composite was employed as a novel electrode material for the sensitive and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, acetaminophen and tyrosine. The electrochemical response characteristics of the modified electrode toward the analytes were investigated by differential pulse voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. The responses of the electrochemical sensor for the target analytes were found to be improved significantly in comparison with those obtained using a conventional carbon paste electrode (CPE) and reduced graphene oxide/CPE. The experimental conditions for simultaneous determination of these species have been established. Ternary mixtures of analytes can be determined in the ranges of 0.03-9.50μM. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection were 15.7, 7.6 and 11.1nM for ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, and tyrosine, respectively. The method was applied successfully to determine the analytes in urine, serum and pharmaceutical samples simultaneously.

  4. Tyrosine aminotransferase: biochemical and structural properties and molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mehere, P.; Robinson, H.; Han, Q.; Lemkul, J. A.; Vavricka, C. J.; Bevan, D. R.; Li, J.

    2010-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  5. Tyrosine Aminotransferase: Biochemical and Structural Properties and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    P Mehere; Q Han; J Lemkul; C Vavricka; H Robinson; D Bevan; J Li

    2011-12-31

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  6. Staphylococcal nuclease active-site amino acids: pH dependence of tyrosines and arginines by sup 13 C NMR and correlation with kinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Grissom, C.G.; Markley, J.L. )

    1989-03-07

    The pH and temperature dependence of the kinetic parameters of staphylococcal nuclease have been examined with three p-nitrophenyl phosphate containing DNA analogues that vary as to 3'-substituent. With wild-type (Foggi variant) nuclease (nuclease wt) and the substrates thymidine 3'-phosphate 5'-(p-nitrophenyl phosphate) (PNPdTp), thymidine 3'-methylphosphonate 5'-(p-nitrophenyl phosphate) (PNPdTp Me), and thymidine 5'-(p-nitrophenyl phosphate) (PNPdT), k{sub cat} remains nearly constant at 13 min{sup {minus}1}. However, k{sub cat}/k{sub m} with nuclease wt varies considerably. The data suggests that the inflection k{sub cat}/K{sub m} with pK{sub a} at 9.67 arises from ionization of tyrosine-85, which hydrogen bonds to the divalent 3'-phosphomonester of substrates with this substituent. The enthalpy of ionization of both deprotonation steps in the k{sub cat}/K{sub m} versus pH profile is 5 kcal/mol. {sup 13}C NMR has been used to determine the pK{sub a} values of the arginine and tyrosine residues. The results do not rule out arginine as a candidate for the acidic catalyst that protonates the 5'-ribose alkoxide prior to product release. The phenolic hydroxyl carbon of tyrosine-85 has been assigned by comparing the {sup 13}C NMR spectrum of nuclease wt and nuclease Y85F. This correlation between pK{sub a} values along with the absence of other candidates indicates that the ionization of tyrosine-85 is the pK{sub a} seen in the k{sub cat}/K{sub m} vs pH profile for substrates with a divalent 3'-phosphomonester. This conclusion is consistent with the proposed role of tyrosine-85 as a hydrogen-bond donor to the 3'-phosphomonoester of substrates poised for exonucleolytic hydrolysis.

  7. A Unique Dual Activity Amino Acid Hydroxylase in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Gaskell, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Judith E.; Pinney, John W.; Westhead, Dave R.; McConkey, Glenn A.

    2009-01-01

    The genome of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was found to contain two genes encoding tyrosine hydroxylase; that produces l-DOPA. The encoded enzymes metabolize phenylalanine as well as tyrosine with substrate preference for tyrosine. Thus the enzymes catabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine and tyrosine to l-DOPA. The catalytic domain descriptive of this class of enzymes is conserved with the parasite enzyme and exhibits similar kinetic properties to metazoan tyrosine hydroxylases, but contains a unique N-terminal extension with a signal sequence motif. One of the genes, TgAaaH1, is constitutively expressed while the other gene, TgAaaH2, is induced during formation of the bradyzoites of the cyst stages of the life cycle. This is the first description of an aromatic amino acid hydroxylase in an apicomplexan parasite. Extensive searching of apicomplexan genome sequences revealed an ortholog in Neospora caninum but not in Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Theileria, or Plasmodium. Possible role(s) of these bi-functional enzymes during host infection are discussed. PMID:19277211

  8. Biomolecular interactions of emerging two-dimensional materials with aromatic amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallineni, Sai Sunil Kumar; Karakaya, Mehmet; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao

    The present work experimentally investigates the interaction of aromatic amino acids, viz., tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine with novel two-dimensional (2D) materials including graphene (G), graphene oxide (GO), and boron nitride (BN). Photoluminescence, micro-Raman spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were employed to investigate the nature of interactions and possible charge transfer between 2D materials and amino acids. Consistent with previous theoretical studies, graphene and BN were observed to interact with amino acids through π- π interactions. Furthermore, we found that GO exhibits strong interactions with tryptophan and tyrosine as compared to graphene and BN, which we attribute to the formation of H-bonds between tryptophan and GO as shown theoretically in Ref. 2. On the other hand, phenylalanine did not exhibit much difference in interactions with G, GO, and BN. Clemson Nanomaterials Center, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA.

  9. Prediction of Intramolecular Polarization of Aromatic Amino Acids Using Kriging Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Timothy L; Davie, Stuart J; Popelier, Paul L A

    2014-09-09

    Present computing power enables novel ways of modeling polarization. Here we show that the machine learning method kriging accurately captures the way the electron density of a topological atom responds to a change in the positions of the surrounding atoms. The success of this method is demonstrated on the four aromatic amino acids histidine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine. A new technique of varying training set sizes to vastly reduce training times while maintaining accuracy is described and applied to each amino acid. Each amino acid has its geometry distorted via normal modes of vibration over all local energy minima in the Ramachandran map. These geometries are then used to train the kriging models. Total electrostatic energies predicted by the kriging models for previously unseen geometries are compared to the true energies, yielding mean absolute errors of 2.9, 5.1, 4.2, and 2.8 kJ mol(-1) for histidine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine, respectively.

  10. Crystal growth, structural, optical, dielectric and thermal studies of an amino acid based organic NLO material: L-Phenylalanine L-phenylalaninium malonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, M.; Geetha, D.; Lydia Caroline, M.; Ramesh, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    Good transparent single crystals of L-phenylalanine L-phenylalaninium malonate (LPPMA) have been grown successfully by slow evaporation technique from aqueous solution. Single crystal X-ray diffractometer was utilized to measure unit cell parameter and to confirm the crystal structure. The chemical structure of compound was established by FT-NMR technique. The vibrational modes of the molecules of elucidated from FTIR spectra. Its optical behaviour has been examined by UV-vis spectral analysis, which shows the absence of absorbance in the visible region. Thermal properties of the LPPMA crystal were carried out by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques, which indicate that the material does not decompose before melting. The melting point of grown crystal was observed as 180 °C by melting point apparatus. The NLO property was confirmed by the powder technique of Kurtz and Perry. The dielectric behaviour of the sample was also studied for the first time.

  11. Crystal growth, structural, optical, dielectric and thermal studies of an amino acid based organic NLO material: L-phenylalanine L-phenylalaninium malonate.

    PubMed

    Prakash, M; Geetha, D; Caroline, M Lydia; Ramesh, P S

    2011-12-01

    Good transparent single crystals of L-phenylalanine L-phenylalaninium malonate (LPPMA) have been grown successfully by slow evaporation technique from aqueous solution. Single crystal X-ray diffractometer was utilized to measure unit cell parameter and to confirm the crystal structure. The chemical structure of compound was established by FT-NMR technique. The vibrational modes of the molecules of elucidated from FTIR spectra. Its optical behaviour has been examined by UV-vis spectral analysis, which shows the absence of absorbance in the visible region. Thermal properties of the LPPMA crystal were carried out by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques, which indicate that the material does not decompose before melting. The melting point of grown crystal was observed as 180°C by melting point apparatus. The NLO property was confirmed by the powder technique of Kurtz and Perry. The dielectric behaviour of the sample was also studied for the first time.

  12. Tyrosine Pretreatment Alleviates Suppression of Schedule-Controlled Responding Produced by Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    specific interaction with tyrosine hydroxylase . Thus, (3,13,14). alleviation of CRF with tyrosine may result from an affect of The 200 mg/kg dose of tyrosine...G., Dana, R.; Risch, S. C.; Koob, G. F. Activating aspartame, phenylalanine , and tyrosine. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 16: and anxiogenic effects of...Onali, P. Corticotropin-releasing factor activates ty- Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 32:967-970: 1989. rosine hydroxylase in rat and mouse striatal

  13. Critical Role for an acidic amino acid region in platelet signaling by the HemITAM (hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif) containing receptor CLEC-2 (C-type lectin receptor-2).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Craig E; Sinha, Uma; Pandey, Anjali; Eble, Johannes A; O'Callaghan, Christopher A; Watson, Steve P

    2013-02-15

    CLEC-2 is a member of new family of C-type lectin receptors characterized by a cytosolic YXXL downstream of three acidic amino acids in a sequence known as a hemITAM (hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif). Dimerization of two phosphorylated CLEC-2 molecules leads to recruitment of the tyrosine kinase Syk via its tandem SH2 domains and initiation of a downstream signaling cascade. Using Syk-deficient and Zap-70-deficient cell lines we show that hemITAM signaling is restricted to Syk and that the upstream triacidic amino acid sequence is required for signaling. Using surface plasmon resonance and phosphorylation studies, we demonstrate that the triacidic amino acids are required for phosphorylation of the YXXL. These results further emphasize the distinct nature of the proximal events in signaling by hemITAM relative to ITAM receptors.

  14. Ammonia lyases and aminomutases as biocatalysts for the synthesis of α-amino and β-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nicholas J

    2011-04-01

    Ammonia lyases catalyse the reversible addition of ammonia to cinnamic acid (1: R=H) and p-hydroxycinnamic (1: R=OH) to generate L-phenylalanine (2: R=H) and L-tyrosine (2: R=OH) respectively (Figure 1a). Both phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) are widely distributed in plants, fungi and prokaryotes. Recently there has been interest in the use of these enzymes for the synthesis of a broader range of L-arylalanines. Aminomutases catalyse a related reaction, namely the interconversion of α-amino acids to β-amino acids (Figure 1b). In the case of L-phenylalanine, this reaction is catalysed by phenylalanine aminomutase (PAM) and proceeds stereospecifically via the intermediate cinnamic acid to generate β-Phe 3. Ammonia lyases and aminomutases are related in sequence and structure and share the same active site cofactor 4-methylideneimidazole-5-one (MIO). There is currently interest in the possibility of using these biocatalysts to prepare a wide range of enantiomerically pure l-configured α-amino and β-amino acids. Recent reviews have focused on the mechanism of these MIO containing enzymes. The aim of this review is to review recent progress in the application of ammonia lyase and aminomutase enzymes to prepare enantiomerically pure α-amino and β-amino acids.

  15. L-DOPA Reverses the Increased Free Amino Acids Tissue Levels Induced by Dopamine Depletion and Rises GABA and Tyrosine in the Striatum.

    PubMed

    Solís, Oscar; García-Sanz, Patricia; Herranz, Antonio S; Asensio, María-José; Moratalla, Rosario

    2016-07-01

    Perturbations in the cerebral levels of various amino acids are associated with neurological disorders, and previous studies have suggested that such alterations have a role in the motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, the direct effects of chronic L-DOPA treatment, that produces dyskinesia, on neural tissue amino acid concentrations have not been explored in detail. To evaluate whether striatal amino acid concentrations are altered in peak dose dyskinesia, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned hemiparkinsonian mice were treated chronically with L-DOPA and tissue amino acid concentrations were assessed by HPLC analysis. These experiments revealed that neither 6-OHDA nor L-DOPA treatment are able to alter glutamate in the striatum. However, glutamine increases after 6-OHDA and returns back to normal levels with L-DOPA treatment, suggesting increased striatal glutamatergic transmission with lack of dopamine. In addition, glycine and taurine levels are increased following dopamine denervation and restored to normal levels by L-DOPA. Interestingly, dyskinetic animals showed increased levels of GABA and tyrosine, while aspartate striatal tissue levels are not altered. Overall, our results indicate that chronic L-DOPA treatment, besides normalizing the altered levels of some amino acids after 6-OHDA, robustly increases striatal GABA and tyrosine levels which may in turn contribute to the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia.

  16. Autocatalytic tyrosine-phosphorylation of protein kinase CK2 alpha and alpha' subunits: implication of Tyr182.

    PubMed Central

    Donella-Deana, A; Cesaro, L; Sarno, S; Brunati, A M; Ruzzene, M; Pinna, L A

    2001-01-01

    CK2 is a pleiotropic and constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase composed of two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') and two regulatory beta-subunits, whose mechanism of modulation is still obscure. Here we show that CK2 alpha/alpha' subunits undergo intermolecular (trans) tyrosine-autophosphorylation, which is dependent on intrinsic catalytic activity and is suppressed by the individual mutation of Tyr182, a crucial residue of the activation loop, to phenylalanine. At variance with serine-autophosphorylation, tyrosine-autophosphorylation of CK2alpha is reversed by ADP and GDP and is counteracted by the beta-subunit and by a peptide reproducing the activation loop of CK2alpha/alpha' (amino acids 175-201). These results disclose new perspectives about the mode of regulation of CK2 catalytic subunits. PMID:11439109

  17. Phenylalanine transfer across the isolated perfused human placenta: an experimental and modeling investigation.

    PubMed

    Lofthouse, E M; Perazzolo, S; Brooks, S; Crocker, I P; Glazier, J D; Johnstone, E D; Panitchob, N; Sibley, C P; Widdows, K L; Sengers, B G; Lewis, R M

    2016-02-01

    Membrane transporters are considered essential for placental amino acid transfer, but the contribution of other factors, such as blood flow and metabolism, is poorly defined. In this study we combine experimental and modeling approaches to understand the determinants of [(14)C]phenylalanine transfer across the isolated perfused human placenta. Transfer of [(14)C]phenylalanine across the isolated perfused human placenta was determined at different maternal and fetal flow rates. Maternal flow rate was set at 10, 14, and 18 ml/min for 1 h each. At each maternal flow rate, fetal flow rates were set at 3, 6, and 9 ml/min for 20 min each. Appearance of [(14)C]phenylalanine was measured in the maternal and fetal venous exudates. Computational modeling of phenylalanine transfer was undertaken to allow comparison of the experimental data with predicted phenylalanine uptake and transfer under different initial assumptions. Placental uptake (mol/min) of [(14)C]phenylalanine increased with maternal, but not fetal, flow. Delivery (mol/min) of [(14)C]phenylalanine to the fetal circulation was not associated with fetal or maternal flow. The absence of a relationship between placental phenylalanine uptake and net flux of phenylalanine to the fetal circulation suggests that factors other than flow or transporter-mediated uptake are important determinants of phenylalanine transfer. These observations could be explained by tight regulation of free amino acid levels within the placenta or properties of the facilitated transporters mediating phenylalanine transport. We suggest that amino acid metabolism, primarily incorporation into protein, is controlling free amino acid levels and, thus, placental transfer.

  18. Association of plasma ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio with responsiveness of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent in dialyzed patients.

    PubMed

    Kun, Szilárd; Mikolás, Esztella; Molnár, Gergo A; Sélley, Eszter; Laczy, Boglárka; Csiky, Botond; Kovács, Tibor; Wittmann, István

    2014-09-01

    Objectives Patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are often ESA-hyporesponsive associated with free radical production. Hydroxyl free radical converts phenylalanine into ortho-tyrosine, while physiological isomer para-tyrosine is formed enzymatically, mainly in the kidney. Production of 'para-tyrosine' is decreased in ESRF and it can be replaced by ortho-tyrosine in proteins. Our aim was to study the role of tyrosines in ESA-responsiveness. Methods Four groups of volunteers were involved in our cross-sectional study: healthy volunteers (CONTR; n = 16), patients on hemodialysis without ESA-treatment (non-ESA-HD; n = 8), hemodialyzed patients with ESA-treatment (ESA-HD; n = 40), and patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis (CAPD; n = 21). Plasma ortho-, para-tyrosine, and phenylalanine levels were detected using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-method. ESA-demand was expressed by ESA-dose, ESA-dose/body weight, and erythropoietin resistance index1 (ERI1, weekly ESA-dose/body weight/hemoglobin). Results We found significantly lower para-tyrosine levels in all groups of dialyzed patients when compared with control subjects, while in contrast ortho-tyrosine levels and ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio were comparatively significantly higher in dialyzed patients. Among groups of dialyzed patients the ortho-tyrosine level and ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio were significantly higher in ESA-HD than in the non-ESA-HD and CAPD groups. There was a correlation between weekly ESA-dose/body weight, ERI1, and ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio (r = 0.441, P = 0.001; r = 0.434, P = 0.001, respectively). Our most important finding was that the ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio proved to be an independent predictor of ERI1 (β = 0.330, P = 0.016). In these multivariate regression models most of the known predictors of ESA-hyporesponsiveness were included. Discussion Our findings may

  19. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) from the lower eukaryote Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Lye, Lon-Fye; Kang, Song Ok; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Casadevall, Arturo; Beverley, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAH) typically use tetrahydrobiopterin (H(4)B) as the cofactor. The protozoan parasite Leishmania major requires biopterin for growth and expresses strong salvage and regeneration systems to maintain H(4)B levels. Here we explored the consequences of genetic manipulation of the sole L. major phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) to explore whether it could account for the Leishmania H(4)B requirement. L. major PAH resembles AAAHs of other organisms, bearing eukaryotic-type domain organization, and conservation of key catalytic residues including those implicated in pteridine binding. A pah(-) null mutant and an episomal complemented overexpressing derivative (pah-/+PAH) were readily obtained, and metabolic labeling studies established that PAH was required to hydroxylate Phe to Tyr. Neither WT nor overexpressing lines were able to hydroxylate radiolabeled tyrosine or tryptophan, nor to synthesize catecholamines. WT but not pah(-) parasites showed reactivity with an antibody to melanin when grown with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), although the reactive product is unlikely to be melanin sensu strictu. WT was auxotrophic for Phe, Trp and Tyr, suggesting that PAH activity was insufficient to meet normal Tyr requirements. However, pah(-) showed an increased sensitivity to Tyr deprivation, while the pah(-)/+PAH overexpressor showed increased survival and could be adapted to grow well without added Tyr. pah(-) showed no alterations in H(4)B-dependent differentiation, as established by in vitro metacyclogenesis, or survival in mouse or macrophage infections. Thus Leishmania PAH may mitigate but not alleviate Tyr auxotrophy, but plays no essential role in the steps of the parasite infectious cycle. These findings suggest PAH is unlikely to explain the Leishmania requirement for biopterin.

  20. Phenylalanine-coupled solid lipid nanoparticles for brain tumor targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharya, Parul; Jain, Ashish; Gulbake, Arvind; Shilpi, Satish; Jain, Ankit; Hurkat, Pooja; Majumdar, Subrata; Jain, Sanjay K.

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the targeting potential of amino acid (phenylalanine)-coupled solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) loaded with ionically complexed doxorubicin HCl (Dox). Ionic complexation was used to enhance the loading efficiency and release characteristics of water soluble form of Dox. l-Type amino acid transporters (LAT1) are highly expressed on blood brain barrier as well as on many brain cancer cells, thus targeting LAT1 using phenylalanine improved anticancer activity of prepared nanocarrier. The phenylalanine-coupled SLN were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. The particle size of the resulting SLN was found to be in the range of 163.3 ± 5.2 to 113.0 ± 2.6 nm, with a slightly negative surface charge. In ex vivo study on C6 glioma cell lines, the cellular cytotoxicity of the SLN was highly increased when coupled with phenylalanine. In addition, stealthing sheath of PEG present on the surface of the SLN enhanced the cellular uptake of the SLN on C6 glioma cell line. Results of biodistribution and fluorescence studies clearly revealed that phenylalanine-coupled SLN could deliver high amount of drug into the brain tumor cells and showed the brain-targeting potential.

  1. The Biosynthetic Pathways for Shikimate and Aromatic Amino Acids in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Tzin, Vered; Galili, Gad

    2010-01-01

    The aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan in plants are not only essential components of protein synthesis, but also serve as precursors for a wide range of secondary metabolites that are important for plant growth as well as for human nutrition and health. The aromatic amino acids are synthesized via the shikimate pathway followed by the branched aromatic amino acid metabolic pathway, with chorismate serving as a major branch point intermediate metabolite. Yet, the regulation of their synthesis is still far from being understood. So far, only three enzymes in this pathway, namely, chorismate mutase of phenylalanine and tyrosine synthesis, tryptophan synthase of tryptophan biosynthesis and arogenate dehydratase of phenylalanine biosynthesis, proved experimentally to be allosterically regulated. The major biosynthesis route of phenylalanine in plants occurs via arogenate. Yet, recent studies suggest that an alternative route of phynylalanine biosynthesis via phenylpyruvate may also exist in plants, similarly to many microorganisms. Several transcription factors regulating the expression of genes encoding enzymes of both the shikimate pathway and aromatic amino acid metabolism have also been recently identified in Arabidopsis and other plant species. PMID:22303258

  2. Regulation and function of syk tyrosine kinase in mast cell signaling and beyond.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Rodrigo Orlandini

    2011-01-01

    The protein tyrosine kinase Syk plays a critical role in FcεRI signaling in mast cells. Binding of Syk to phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (p-ITAM) of the receptor subunits results in conformational changes and tyrosine phosphorylation at multiple sites that leads to activation of Syk. The phosphorylated tyrosines throughout the molecule play an important role in the regulation of Syk-mediated signaling. Reconstitution of receptor-mediated signaling in Syk(-/-) cells by wild-type Syk or mutants which have substitution of these tyrosines with phenylalanine together with in vitro assays has been useful strategies to understand the regulation and function of Syk.

  3. Dictyostelium phenylalanine hydroxylase is activated by its substrate phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Lim; Park, Mi-Bee; Kim, Yumin; Yang, Yun Gyeong; Lee, Soo-Woong; Zhuang, Ningning; Lee, Kon Ho; Park, Young Shik

    2012-10-19

    We have studied the regulatory function of Dictyostelium discoideum Ax2 phenylalanine hydroxylase (dicPAH) via characterization of domain structures. Including the full-length protein, partial proteins truncated in regulatory, tetramerization, or both, were prepared from Escherichia coli as his-tag proteins and examined for oligomeric status and catalytic parameters for phenylalanine. The proteins were also expressed extrachromosomally in the dicPAH knockout strain to examine their in vivo compatibility. The results suggest that phenylalanine activates dicPAH, which is functional in vivo as a tetramer, although cooperativity was not observed. In addition, the results of kinetic study suggest that the regulatory domain of dicPAH may play a role different from that of the domain in mammalian PAH.

  4. Phenylalanine-pyruvate aminotransferase activity in chicks subjected to phenylalanine imbalance or phenylalanine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Austic, R E

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the influence of Phe imbalance and excess on Phe-pyruvate aminotransferase (PAT) activity in the chick. Five replicates of 3 chicks (experiment 1) or 2 chicks (experiment 2) of a commercial brown egg layer strain were fed a semipurified diet for 1 wk and then received experimental diets for 10 d. Three diets were used in experiment 1: the basal diet contained 0.46% Phe; the imbalance diet was similar to the basal diet except that it contained a 10% mixture of indispensable amino acids lacking Phe (IAA - Phe) to create a Phe imbalance; the imbalance corrected diet was similar to the imbalance diet except that it was supplemented with 1.12% Phe to correct the imbalance. A 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in experiment 2 provided 3 dietary levels (0.46, 1.58, and 2.46%) of Phe and either no supplement or 10% supplement of IAA - Phe. Nonfasted chicks were killed and livers were sampled in experiment 1, and livers, kidneys, brains, and pectoralis major muscles were sampled in experiment 2. In experiment 1, liver PAT activity per gram of liver was 80 and 55% higher (P < 0.01) in chicks fed the imbalance and imbalance corrected diets than in chicks fed the basal diet. In experiment 2, the livers and kidneys, but not brains and muscles, of chicks that received the 10% supplement of IAA - Phe had higher activities of PAT per gram of tissue per minute and per milligram of tissue protein extract per minute than chicks that did not receive IAA - Phe (P < 0.001). No effect of dietary Phe on PAT activity was detected (P > 0.05). Phenylalanine-pyruvate aminotransferase activity appears to be regulated in response to dietary content of indispensable amino acids but not by the dietary level of Phe.

  5. How does fish metamorphosis affect aromatic amino acid metabolism?

    PubMed

    Pinto, Wilson; Figueira, Luís; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2009-02-01

    Aromatic amino acids (AAs, phenylalanine and tyrosine) may be specifically required during fish metamorphosis, since they are the precursors of thyroid hormones which regulate this process. This project attempted to evaluate aromatic AA metabolism during the ontogenesis of fish species with a marked (Senegalese sole; Solea senegalensis) and a less accentuated metamorphosis (gilthead seabream; Sparus aurata). Fish were tube-fed with three L-[U-14C] AA solutions at pre-metamorphic, metamorphic and post-metamorphic stages of development: controlled AA mixture (Mix), phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr). Results showed a preferential aromatic AA retention during the metamorphosis of Senegalese sole, rather than in gilthead seabream. Senegalese sole's highly accentuated metamorphosis seems to increase aromatic AA physiological requirements, possibly for thyroid hormone production. Thus, Senegalese sole seems to be especially susceptible to dietary aromatic AA deficiencies during the metamorphosis period, and these findings may be important for physiologists, fish nutritionists and the flatfish aquaculture industry.

  6. Calcium alginate bead immobilization of cells containing tyrosine ammonia lyase activity for use in the production of p-hydroxycinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Trotman, Robert J; Camp, Carl E; Ben-Bassat, Arie; DiCosimo, Robert; Huang, Lixuan; Crum, Grace A; Sariaslani, F Sima; Haynie, Sharon L

    2007-01-01

    An Escherichia coli catalyst with tyrosine ammonia lyase activity (TAL) has been stabilized for repeated use in batch conversions of high tyrosine solids to p-hydroxycinnamic acid (pHCA). The TAL biocatalyst was stabilized by controlling the reaction pH to 9.8 +/- 0.1 and immobilizing the cells within a calcium alginate matrix that was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and polyethyleneimine (GA/PEI). We found a GA range where the bead-encapsulated TAL was not inactivated, and the resulting cross-linking provided the beads with the mechanical stability necessary for repeated use in consecutive batch reactions with catalyst recycle. The GA/PEI calcium alginate TAL catalyst was used in 41 1-L batch reactions where 50 g L(-1) tyrosine was converted to 39 +/- 4 g L(-1) pHCA in each batch. The practical usefulness and ease of this process was demonstrated by scaling up the TAL bead immobilization and using the immobilized TAL catalyst in four 125-L bioconversion reactions to produce over 12 kg of purified pHCA.

  7. The mechanism of action of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase: the role of prosthetic dehydroalanine.

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, B; Rétey, J

    1995-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) from parsley is posttranslationally modified by dehydrating its Ser-202 to the catalytically essential dehydroalanine prosthetic group. The codon of Ser-202 was changed to those of alanine and threonine by site-directed mutagenesis. These mutants and the recombinant wild-type enzyme, after treatment with sodium borohydride, were virtually inactive with L-phenylalanine as substrate but catalyzed the deamination of L-4-nitrophenylalanine, which is also a substrate for the wild-type enzyme. Although the mutants reacted about 20 times slower with L-4-nitrophenylalanine than the wild-type enzyme, their Vmax for L-4-nitrophenylalanine was two orders of magnitude higher than for L-phenylalanine. In contrast to L-tyrosine, which was a poor substrate, DL-3-hydroxyphenylalanine (DL-m-tyrosine) was converted by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase at a rate comparable to that of L-phenylalanine. These results suggest a mechanism in which the crucial step is an electrophilic attack of the prosthetic group at position 2 or 6 of the phenyl group. In the resulting carbenium ion, the beta-HSi atom is activated in a similar way as it is in the nitro analogue. Subsequent elimination of ammonia, concomitant with restoration of both the aromatic ring and the prosthetic group, completes the catalytic cycle. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7667307

  8. Tyrosine 569 in the c-Fms juxtamembrane domain is essential for kinase activity and macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent internalization.

    PubMed Central

    Myles, G M; Brandt, C S; Carlberg, K; Rohrschneider, L R

    1994-01-01

    The receptor (Fms) for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a member of the tyrosine kinase class of growth factor receptors. It maintains survival, stimulates growth, and drives differentiation of the macrophage lineage of hematopoietic cells. Fms accumulates on the cell surface and becomes activated for signal transduction after M-CSF binding and is then internalized via endocytosis for eventual degradation in lysosomes. We have investigated the mechanism of endocytosis as part of the overall signaling process of this receptor and have identified an amino acid segment near the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane region surrounding tyrosine 569 that is important for internalization. Mutation of tyrosine 569 to alanine (Y569A) eliminates ligand-induced rapid endocytosis of receptor molecules. The mutant Fms Y569A also lacks tyrosine kinase activity; however, tyrosine kinase activity is not essential for endocytosis because the kinase inactive receptor Fms K614A does undergo ligand-induced endocytosis, albeit at a reduced rate. Mutation of tyrosine 569 to phenylalanine had no effect on the M-CSF-induced endocytosis of Fms, and a four-amino-acid sequence containing Y-569 could support endocytosis when transferred into the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane region of a glycophorin A construct. These results indicate that tyrosine 569 within the juxtamembrane region of Fms is part of a signal recognition sequence for endocytosis that does not require tyrosine phosphorylation at this site and that this domain also influences the kinase activity of the receptor. These results are consistent with a ligand-dependent step in recognition of the potential cryptic internalization signal. Images PMID:8007983

  9. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ULTRAVIOLET ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF CERTAIN PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Calvin B.; Stone, Florence M.; Kabat, Elvin A.

    1936-01-01

    1. The absorption spectra of a number of proteins in the region 2500 to 3000 A. have been found to comprise from six to nine narrow bands. In consequence of variation in the relative intensity of these bands from protein to protein, the absorption curve has a characteristic configuration for each protein. 2. These bands correspond closely in position with the narrow bands which appear in the absorption spectra of tryptophan, tyrosin, and phenylalanine. Tryptophan and tyrosin each present three bands, phenylalanine shows nine. 3. The bands in the proteins are accordingly attributed to these amino acids. In the proteins the bands are displaced from the positions which they occupy in the uncombined amino acids, in most instances, by 10 to 35 A. toward longer wavelengths. 4. The absorption spectrum of Pneumococcus Type I antibody resembles that of normal pseudoglobulin but shows characteristic differences. PMID:19872958

  10. Neutral penta- and hexacoordinate silicon(IV) complexes containing two bidentate ligands derived from the alpha-amino acids (S)-alanine, (S)-phenylalanine, and (S)-tert-leucine.

    PubMed

    Cota, Smaranda; Beyer, Matthias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Burschka, Christian; Götz, Kathrin; Kaupp, Martin; Tacke, Reinhold

    2010-06-11

    The neutral hexacoordinate silicon(IV) complex 6 (SiO(2)N(4) skeleton) and the neutral pentacoordinate silicon(IV) complexes 7-11 (SiO(2)N(2)C skeletons) were synthesized from Si(NCO)(4) and RSi(NCO)(3) (R = Me, Ph), respectively. The compounds were structurally characterized by solid-state NMR spectroscopy (6-11), solution NMR spectroscopy (6 and 10), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (8 and 11 were studied as the solvates 8 x CH(3)CN and 11 x C(5)H(12) x 0.5 CH(3)CN, respectively). The silicon(IV) complexes 6 (octahedral Si-coordination polyhedron) and 7-11 (trigonal-bipyramidal Si-coordination polyhedra) each contain two bidentate ligands derived from an alpha-amino acid: (S)-alanine, (S)-phenylalanine, or (S)-tert-leucine. The deprotonated amino acids act as monoanionic (6) or as mono- and dianionic ligands (7-11). The experimental investigations were complemented by computational studies of the stereoisomers of 6 and 7.

  11. Biochemical Evaluation of the Decarboxylation and Decarboxylation-Deamination Activities of Plant Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylases*

    PubMed Central

    Torrens-Spence, Michael P.; Liu, Pingyang; Ding, Haizhen; Harich, Kim; Gillaspy, Glenda; Li, Jianyong

    2013-01-01

    Plant aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) enzymes are capable of catalyzing either decarboxylation or decarboxylation-deamination on various combinations of aromatic amino acid substrates. These two different activities result in the production of arylalkylamines and the formation of aromatic acetaldehydes, respectively. Variations in product formation enable individual enzymes to play different physiological functions. Despite these catalytic variations, arylalkylamine and aldehyde synthesizing AAADs are indistinguishable without protein expression and characterization. In this study, extensive biochemical characterization of plant AAADs was performed to identify residues responsible for differentiating decarboxylation AAADs from aldehyde synthase AAADs. Results demonstrated that a tyrosine residue located on a catalytic loop proximal to the active site of plant AAADs is primarily responsible for dictating typical decarboxylase activity, whereas a phenylalanine at the same position is primarily liable for aldehyde synthase activity. Mutagenesis of the active site phenylalanine to tyrosine in Arabidopsis thaliana and Petroselinum crispum aromatic acetaldehyde synthases primarily converts the enzymes activity from decarboxylation-deamination to decarboxylation. The mutation of the active site tyrosine to phenylalanine in the Catharanthus roseus and Papaver somniferum aromatic amino acid decarboxylases changes the enzymes decarboxylation activity to a primarily decarboxylation-deamination activity. Generation of these mutant enzymes enables the production of unusual AAAD enzyme products including indole-3-acetaldehyde, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, and phenylethylamine. Our data indicates that the tyrosine and phenylalanine in the catalytic loop region could serve as a signature residue to reliably distinguish plant arylalkylamine and aldehyde synthesizing AAADs. Additionally, the resulting data enables further insights into the mechanistic roles of active site

  12. The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif of Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A is essential for blocking BCR-mediated signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Fruehling, S; Longnecker, R

    1997-09-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) blocks B-cell receptor (BCR) signal transduction in EBV-immortalized B lymphocytes in vitro. The cytoplasmic amino-terminal domain of LMP2A contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motif (ITAM). ITAMs consist of paired tyrosine and leucine residues and play a central role in signal transduction of the BCR and the T-cell receptor (TCR). To investigate the importance of the LMP2A ITAM, two EBV recombinants were constructed, each containing a tyrosine-to-phenylalanine point mutation at amino acid 74 or 85 within the ITAM of LMP2A. Tyrosine phosphorylation, calcium mobilization, and induction of BZLF1 expression were no longer blocked in the LMP2A ITAM mutant LCLs following BCR cross-linking. In addition, the Syk protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) was unable to bind LMP2A in unstimulated LCLs infected with either of the LMP2A ITAM mutants. Analysis of Syk phosphorylation before and after BCR cross-linking in the LMP2A mutant ITAM LCLs compared with wild-type EBV LCLs indicates a specific role of the LMP2A ITAM on the LMP2A-mediated negative effect on the Syk PTK. These data indicate the importance of the LMP2A ITAM motif in the LMP2A-mediated block on BCR signal transduction and position the role of the Syk PTK as being central to the function of LMP2A.

  13. Contribution of the tyrosines to the structure and function of the human U1A N-terminal RNA binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, J. K.; Lu, J.; Hall, K. B.

    1996-01-01

    RNA binding domains (RBDs) are members of a large family of proteins that share minimal sequence conservation but adopt an alpha beta sandwich global fold. Defining the contributions of specific amino acids to RBD structure and RNA binding is critical to understanding the functions of these proteins. In these experiments with the human U1A N-terminal RNA binding domain (RBD1), the contributions from each of its four tyrosines to protein structure, stability, and RNA binding were measured. Each tyrosine was substituted with phenylalanine and one other selected residue, and the resulting proteins were characterized by chemical denaturation to measure their unfolding free energy, by binding free energies to the wild-type RNA hairpin, and by 19F NMR to probe for structural changes. Features of the protein identified in these experiments include a possible tyrosine/lysine contact in an alpha-helix, which may be an example of an energetically favorable aromatic/amino side chain interaction. One long loop of the protein, which shows unusual 15N backbone and tyrosine side-chain dynamics, is implicated in protein:protein association. The diverse interactions of the four tyrosine residues in the organization of RBD1 illustrate how each member of this family of proteins will have unique molecular details that contribute to function. PMID:8844847

  14. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Alexandrina; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-01

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  15. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Nan, Alexandrina Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-23

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  16. Adsorption of nucleic acid bases and amino acids on single-walled carbon and boron nitride nanotubes: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Song, Wei; Wang, Lu; Lu, Jing; Luo, Guangfu; Zhou, Jing; Qin, Rui; Li, Hong; Gao, Zhengxiang; Lai, Lin; Li, Guangping; Mei, Wai Ning

    2009-11-01

    We study the adsorptions of nucleic acid bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T), and uracil (U) and four amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, alanine on the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and boron nitride nanotubes (SWBNNTs) by using density functional theory. We find that the aromatic content plays a critical role in the adsorption. The adsorptions of nucleic acid bases and amino acids on the (7, 7) SWBNNT are stronger than those on the (7, 7) SWCNT. Oxidative treatment of SWCNTs favors the adsorption of biomolecules on nanotubes.

  17. New compounds from acid hydrolyzed products of the fruits of Momordica charantia L. and their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatas 1B.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ke; He, Yan-Ni; Yang, Di; Cao, Jia-Qing; Xia, Xi-Chun; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Bi, Xiu-Li; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2014-06-23

    Four new cucurbitane-type triterpene sapogenins, compounds 1-4, together with other eight known compounds were isolated from the acid-hydrolyzed fruits extract of Momordica charantia L. Their chemical structures were established by NMR, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1-7 and 9-12 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities toward protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a tyrosine phosphatase that has been implicated as a key target for therapy against type II diabetes. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 7 and 9 were shown inhibitory activities of 77%, 62%, 62% 60% and 68% against PTP1B, respectively. All of these tested compounds were exhibited higher PTP1B inhibition activities than that of the Na3VO4, a known PTP1B inhibitor used as positive control in present study. Structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis indicated that the inhibition activity of PTP1B was associated with the presence and number of -OH groups.

  18. Novel scheme for biosynthesis of aryl metabolites from L-phenylalanine in the fungus Bjerkandera adusta.

    PubMed

    Lapadatescu, C; Giniès, C; Le Quéré, J L; Bonnarme, P

    2000-04-01

    Aryl metabolite biosynthesis was studied in the white rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta cultivated in a liquid medium supplemented with L-phenylalanine. Aromatic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following addition of labelled precursors ((14)C- and (13)C-labelled L-phenylalanine), which did not interfere with fungal metabolism. The major aromatic compounds identified were benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde (bitter almond aroma), and benzoic acid. Hydroxy- and methoxybenzylic compounds (alcohols, aldehydes, and acids) were also found in fungal cultures. Intracellular enzymatic activities (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, aryl-alcohol oxidase, aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase, aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase, lignin peroxidase) and extracellular enzymatic activities (aryl-alcohol oxidase, lignin peroxidase), as well as aromatic compounds, were detected in B. adusta cultures. Metabolite formation required de novo protein biosynthesis. Our results show that L-phenylalanine was deaminated to trans-cinnamic acid by a phenylalanine ammonia lyase and trans-cinnamic acid was in turn converted to aromatic acids (phenylpyruvic, phenylacetic, mandelic, and benzoylformic acids); benzaldehyde was a metabolic intermediate. These acids were transformed into benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, and benzoic acid. Our findings support the hypothesis that all of these compounds are intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway from L-phenylalanine to aryl metabolites. Additionally, trans-cinnamic acid can also be transformed via beta-oxidation to benzoic acid. This was confirmed by the presence of acetophenone as a beta-oxidation degradation intermediate. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a beta-oxidation sequence leading to benzoic acid synthesis has been found in a white rot fungus. A novel metabolic scheme for biosynthesis of aryl metabolites from L-phenylalanine is proposed.

  19. Structural evolution of differential amino acid effector regulation in plant chorismate mutases.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Corey S; Xu, Ang; Jez, Joseph M

    2014-10-10

    Chorismate mutase converts chorismate into prephenate for aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. To understand the molecular basis of allosteric regulation in the plant chorismate mutases, we analyzed the three Arabidopsis thaliana chorismate mutase isoforms (AtCM1-3) and determined the x-ray crystal structures of AtCM1 in complex with phenylalanine and tyrosine. Functional analyses show a wider range of effector control in the Arabidopsis chorismate mutases than previously reported. AtCM1 is activated by tryptophan with phenylalanine and tyrosine acting as negative effectors; however, tryptophan, cysteine, and histidine activate AtCM3. AtCM2 is a nonallosteric form. The crystal structure of AtCM1 in complex with tyrosine and phenylalanine identifies differences in the effector sites of the allosterically regulated yeast enzyme and the other two Arabidopsis isoforms. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues in the effector site reveals key features leading to differential effector regulation in these enzymes. In AtCM1, mutations of Gly-213 abolish allosteric regulation, as observed in AtCM2. A second effector site position, Gly-149 in AtCM1 and Asp-132 in AtCM3, controls amino acid effector specificity in AtCM1 and AtCM3. Comparisons of chorismate mutases from multiple plants suggest that subtle differences in the effector site are conserved in different lineages and may lead to specialized regulation of this branch point enzyme.

  20. Cockroach larval-specific protein, a tyrosine-rich serum protein.

    PubMed

    Duhamel, R C; Kunkel, J G

    1983-12-10

    Larval-specific protein (LSP) is the most abundant protein in the hemolymph of cockroaches shortly before molting, but is rapidly cleared from the hemolymph during the molt (Kunkel, J. G., and Lawler, D. M. (1974) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 47B, 697-710). Blatta orientalis LSP was purified by sedimentation in preparative sucrose gradients followed by 2-hydroxypropylamino-cellulose anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration on a column of Bio-Gel A-1.5m. The amino acid composition of LSP includes 16.3 mol % tyrosine and 4.9 mol % phenylalanine, but virtually no cysteine and little methionine. The following physical properties were determined for LSP: R8 = 68.3 A, 8(20),w = 17.8, and V = 0.723. From these values an Mr = 507,900 was calculated. In electron micrographs, LSP appears as rectangular particles of 121 by 134 A. In disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, native LSP exhibits a single band, but in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, LSP is resolved into a doublet of closely spaced bands of Mr = 88,100 and 84,400 present in a ratio of 1.38:1. These data indicate that native B. orientalis LSP is a hexamer of subunits averaging approximately Mr = 86,000. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis of Blattella germanica larval serum indicates that LSP in that species is a hexamer composed of a random assortment of two subunits of different charge in the ratio 1.25:1. The amino acid composition and physical properties of LSP suggest that LSP may be the hemimetabolous analogue of the tyrosine- and phenylalanine-rich storage proteins of holometabolous insects.

  1. Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

  2. A Novel Phosphatidic Acid-Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase D2 Axis Is Essential for ERBB2 Signaling in Mammary Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Mathangi; Krishnan, Navasona; Muthuswamy, Senthil K.; Tonks, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    We used a loss-of-function screen to investigate the role of classical protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in three-dimensional mammary epithelial cell morphogenesis and ERBB2 signaling. The study revealed a novel role for PTPD2 as a positive regulator of ERBB2 signaling. Suppression of PTPD2 attenuated the ERBB2-induced multiacinar phenotype in three-dimensional cultures specifically by inhibiting ERBB2-mediated loss of polarity and lumen filling. In contrast, overexpression of PTPD2 enhanced the ERBB2 phenotype. We also found that a lipid second messenger, phosphatidic acid, bound PTPD2 in vitro and enhanced its catalytic activity. Small molecule inhibitors of phospholipase D (PLD), an enzyme that produces phosphatidic acid in cells, also attenuated the ERBB2 phenotype. Exogenously added phosphatidic acid rescued the PLD-inhibition phenotype, but only when PTPD2 was present. These findings illustrate a novel pathway involving PTPD2 and the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid that promotes ERBB2 function. PMID:25681440

  3. Erythrocytes encapsulated with phenylalanine hydroxylase exhibit improved pharmacokinetics and lowered plasma phenylalanine levels in normal mice.

    PubMed

    Yew, Nelson S; Dufour, Emmanuelle; Przybylska, Malgorzata; Putelat, Julie; Crawley, Cristin; Foster, Meta; Gentry, Sarah; Reczek, David; Kloss, Alla; Meyzaud, Aurélien; Horand, Françoise; Cheng, Seng H; Godfrin, Yann

    2013-08-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy is often hampered by the rapid clearance and degradation of the administered enzyme, limiting its efficacy and requiring frequent dosing. Encapsulation of therapeutic molecules into red blood cells (RBCs) is a clinically proven approach to improve the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of biologics and small molecule drugs. Here we evaluated the ability of RBCs encapsulated with phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) to metabolize phenylalanine (Phe) from the blood and confer sustained enzymatic activity in the circulation. Significant quantities of PAH were successfully encapsulated within murine RBCs (PAH-RBCs) with minimal loss of endogenous hemoglobin. While intravenously administered free PAH enzyme was rapidly eliminated from the blood within a few hours, PAH-RBCs persisted in the circulation for at least 10days. A single injection of PAH-RBCs was able to decrease Phe levels by nearly 80% in normal mice. These results demonstrate the ability of enzyme-loaded RBCs to metabolize circulating amino acids and highlight the potential to treat disorders of amino acid metabolism.

  4. The Tyrosine Aminomutase TAM1 Is Required for β-Tyrosine Biosynthesis in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jian; Aboshi, Takako; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Strickler, Susan R.; Spindel, Jennifer E.; Tung, Chih-Wei; Takata, Ryo; Matsumoto, Fuka; Maesaka, Yoshihiro; McCouch, Susan R.; Okumoto, Yutaka; Mori, Naoki; Jander, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Non-protein amino acids, often isomers of the standard 20 protein amino acids, have defense-related functions in many plant species. A targeted search for jasmonate-induced metabolites in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) identified (R)-β-tyrosine, an isomer of the common amino acid (S)-α-tyrosine in the seeds, leaves, roots, and root exudates of the Nipponbare cultivar. Assays with 119 diverse cultivars showed a distinct presence/absence polymorphism, with β-tyrosine being most prevalent in temperate japonica cultivars. Genetic mapping identified a candidate gene on chromosome 12, which was confirmed to encode a tyrosine aminomutase (TAM1) by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and in vitro enzyme assays. A point mutation in TAM1 eliminated β-tyrosine production in Nipponbare. Rice cultivars that do not produce β-tyrosine have a chromosome 12 deletion that encompasses TAM1. Although β-tyrosine accumulation was induced by the plant defense signaling molecule jasmonic acid, bioassays with hemipteran and lepidopteran herbivores showed no negative effects at physiologically relevant β-tyrosine concentrations. In contrast, root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and other tested dicot plants was inhibited by concentrations as low as 1 μM. As β-tyrosine is exuded into hydroponic medium at higher concentrations, it may contribute to the allelopathic potential of rice. PMID:25901084

  5. Effects on general acid catalysis from mutations of the invariant tryptophan and arginine residues in the protein tyrosine phosphatase from Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Hoff, R H; Hengge, A C; Wu, L; Keng, Y F; Zhang, Z Y

    2000-01-11

    General acid catalysis in protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) is accomplished by a conserved Asp residue, which is brought into position for catalysis by movement of a flexible loop that occurs upon binding of substrate. With the PTPase from Yersinia, we have examined the effect on general acid catalysis caused by mutations to two conserved residues that are integral to this conformation change. Residue Trp354 is at a hinge of the loop, and Arg409 forms hydrogen bonding and ionic interactions with the phosphoryl group of substrates. Trp354 was mutated to Phe and to Ala, and residue Arg409 was mutated to Lys and to Ala. The four mutant enzymes were studied using steady state kinetics and heavy-atom isotope effects with the substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The data indicate that mutation of the hinge residue Trp354 to Ala completely disables general acid catalysis. In the Phe mutant, general acid catalysis is partially effective, but the proton is only partially transferred in the transition state, in contrast to the native enzyme where proton transfer to the leaving group is virtually complete. Mutation of Arg409 to Lys has a minimal effect on the K(m), while this parameter is increased 30-fold in the Ala mutant. The k(cat) values for R409K and for R409A are about 4 orders of magnitude lower than that for the native enzyme. General acid catalysis is rendered inoperative by the Lys mutation, but partial proton transfer during catalysis still occurs in the Ala mutant. Structural explanations for the differential effects of these mutations on movement of the flexible loop that enables general acid catalysis are presented.

  6. Styrene production from a biomass-derived carbon source using a coculture system of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase-expressing Streptomyces lividans transformants.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ryosuke; Noda, Shuhei; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-12-01

    To produce styrene from a biomass-derived carbon source, Streptomyces lividans was adopted as a host strain. The gene encoding ferulic acid decarboxylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (FDC1) was introduced into S. lividans, and the resulting S. lividans transformant successfully expressed FDC1 and converted trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to styrene. A key factor in styrene production using microbes is the recovery of volatile styrene. In the present study, we selected polystyrene resin beads XRD-4 as the absorbent agent to recover styrene produced using S. lividans transformants, which enabled recovery of styrene from the culture broth. For styrene production from biomass-derived carbon sources, S. lividans/FDC1 was cultured together with S. lividans/p-encP, which we previously reported as a CA-producing S. lividans strain. This coculture system combined with the recovery of styrene using XAD-4 allowed the production of styrene from glucose, cellobiose, or xylo-oligosaccharide, respectively.

  7. Pharmacologic inhibition of L-tyrosine degradation ameliorates cerebral dopamine deficiency in murine phenylketonuria (PKU).

    PubMed

    Harding, Cary O; Winn, Shelley R; Gibson, K Michael; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Grompe, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency has been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with chronic hyperphenylalaninemia in phenylketonuria (PKU). Two proposed explanations for neurotransmitter deficiency in PKU include first, that chronically elevated blood L-phenylalanine (Phe) inhibits the transport of L-tyrosine (Tyr) and L-tryptophan (Trp), the substrates for dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively, into brain. In the second hypothesis, elevated Phe competitively inhibits brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activities, the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis. Dietary supplementation with large neutral amino acids (LNAA) including Tyr and Trp has been recommended for individuals with chronically elevated blood Phe in an attempt to restore amino acid and monoamine homeostasis in brain. As a potential alternative treatment approach, we demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation through oral administration of nitisinone (NTBC) yielded sustained increases in blood and brain Tyr, decreased blood and brain Phe, and consequently increased dopamine synthesis in a murine model of PKU. Our results suggest that Phe-mediated inhibition of TH activity is the likely mechanism of impaired dopamine synthesis in PKU. Pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation may be a promising adjunct therapy for CNS monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency in hyperphenylalaninemic individuals with PKU.

  8. Free amino acids in fibromyalgia syndrome: relationship with clinical picture.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Valeria; Mura, Massimiliano; Cacace, Enrico; Era, Benedetta; Peri, Marcella; Sanna, Giuseppina; Fais, Antonella

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of our study were to evaluate free amino acid (FAA) concentrations in the serum of patients affected by fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and to determine the relationships between FAA levels and FMS clinical parameters. Thus, serum amino acid concentrations were quantified (HPLC analysis) in 23 females with fibromyalgia (according to the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria) and 20 healthy females. The results showed significantly higher serum concentrations of aspartate, cysteine, glutamate, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, phenylalanine, sarcosine, serine, taurine, tyrosine and valine in FMS patients vs. healthy controls. Patients with higher Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) scores showed increased levels of alanine, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline and valine. In conclusion, our results indicate an imbalance in some FAAs in FMS patients. Increased Glu is particularly interesting, as it could explain the deficit in monoaminergic transmission involved in pain.

  9. Tyrosine Ameliorates a Cold-Induced Delayed Matching-to-Sample Performance Decrement in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    were controlled and creased firing rate of CNS neurons and the continued recorded by a computer system. release of catecholamines, tyrosine hydroxylase ... hydroxylase . In: Lipton MA, DiMascio ducing a working memory deficit under field conditions A, Killam KF (eds) Psychopharmacology: a generation of pro...of rats after acute oral doses of aspar- References tame, phenylalanine , and tyrosine. Fundam Appi Toxicol 16:495-505 Ahlers ST, Thomas JR, Berkey DL

  10. Highest Plasma Phenylalanine Levels in (Very) Premature Infants on Intravenous Feeding; A Need for Concern

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Castell, Ernesto; Sánchez-González, Pablo; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Bosch-Giménez, Vicente; Manero-Soler, Herminia; Juste-Ruiz, Mercedes; Rizo-Baeza, María Mercedes; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the association in newborns between blood levels of phenylalanine and feeding method and gestational age. Study Design This observational, cross-sectional study included a sample of 11,829 infants between 2008 and 2013 in a Spanish region. Data were recorded on phenylalanine values, feeding method [breast, formula, mixed (breast plus formula), or partial or fully intravenous feeding], gestational age in weeks (<32, 32–37, ≥37), gender and days since birth at the moment of blood collection. Outcomes were [phenylalanine] and [phenylalanine] ≥95th percentile. Associations were analysed using multivariate models [linear (means difference) and logistic regression (adjusted odds ratios)]. Results Higher phenylalanine values were associated with lower gestational age (p<0.001) and with intravenous feeding (p<0.001). Conclusion The degree of prematurity and intravenous feeding influenced the plasma concentration of phenylalanine in the newborn. Caution should be taken in [phenylalanine] for newborns with intravenous feeding, monitoring them carefully. Very preterm infants given the recommended amount of amino acids should also be strictly monitored. These findings should be taken into consideration and call for adapting the amounts to the needs of the infant. PMID:26389596

  11. Posttranslational protein knockdown coupled to receptor tyrosine kinase activation with phosphoPROTACs

    PubMed Central

    Hines, John; Gough, Jonathan D.; Corson, Timothy W.; Crews, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    Posttranslational knockdown of a specific protein is an attractive approach for examining its function within a system. Here we introduce phospho-dependent proteolysis targeting chimeras (phosphoPROTACs), a method to couple the conditional degradation of targeted proteins to the activation state of particular kinase-signaling pathways. We generated two phosphoPROTACs that couple the tyrosine phosphorylation sequences of either the nerve growth factor receptor, TrkA (tropomyosin receptor kinase A), or the neuregulin receptor, ErbB3 (erythroblastosis oncogene B3), with a peptide ligand for the E3 ubiquitin ligase von Hippel Lindau protein. These phosphoPROTACs recruit either the neurotrophic signaling effector fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2α or the survival-promoting phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, respectively, to be ubiquitinated and degraded upon activation of specific receptor tyrosine kinases and phosphorylation of the phosphoPROTACs. We demonstrate the ability of these phosphoPROTACs to suppress the short- and long-term effects of their respective activating receptor tyrosine kinase pathways both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we show that activation of phosphoPROTACs is entirely dependent on their kinase-mediated phosphorylation, as phenylalanine-containing null variants are inactive. Furthermore, stimulation of unrelated growth factor receptors does not induce target protein knockdown. Although comparable in efficiency to RNAi, this approach has the added advantage of providing a degree of temporal and dosing control as well as cell-type selectivity unavailable using nucleic acid-based strategies. By varying the autophosphorylation sequence of a phosphoPROTAC, it is conceivable that other receptor tyrosine kinase/effector pairings could be similarly exploited to achieve other biological effects. PMID:23674677

  12. Posttranslational protein knockdown coupled to receptor tyrosine kinase activation with phosphoPROTACs.

    PubMed

    Hines, John; Gough, Jonathan D; Corson, Timothy W; Crews, Craig M

    2013-05-28

    Posttranslational knockdown of a specific protein is an attractive approach for examining its function within a system. Here we introduce phospho-dependent proteolysis targeting chimeras (phosphoPROTACs), a method to couple the conditional degradation of targeted proteins to the activation state of particular kinase-signaling pathways. We generated two phosphoPROTACs that couple the tyrosine phosphorylation sequences of either the nerve growth factor receptor, TrkA (tropomyosin receptor kinase A), or the neuregulin receptor, ErbB3 (erythroblastosis oncogene B3), with a peptide ligand for the E3 ubiquitin ligase von Hippel Lindau protein. These phosphoPROTACs recruit either the neurotrophic signaling effector fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2α or the survival-promoting phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, respectively, to be ubiquitinated and degraded upon activation of specific receptor tyrosine kinases and phosphorylation of the phosphoPROTACs. We demonstrate the ability of these phosphoPROTACs to suppress the short- and long-term effects of their respective activating receptor tyrosine kinase pathways both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we show that activation of phosphoPROTACs is entirely dependent on their kinase-mediated phosphorylation, as phenylalanine-containing null variants are inactive. Furthermore, stimulation of unrelated growth factor receptors does not induce target protein knockdown. Although comparable in efficiency to RNAi, this approach has the added advantage of providing a degree of temporal and dosing control as well as cell-type selectivity unavailable using nucleic acid-based strategies. By varying the autophosphorylation sequence of a phosphoPROTAC, it is conceivable that other receptor tyrosine kinase/effector pairings could be similarly exploited to achieve other biological effects.

  13. Role of the phenylalanine-hydroxylating system in aromatic substance degradation and lipid metabolism in the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongchao; Chen, Haiqin; Hao, Guangfei; Yang, Bo; Feng, Yun; Wang, Yu; Feng, Lu; Zhao, Jianxin; Song, Yuanda; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Wang, Lei; Chen, Wei

    2013-05-01

    Mortierella alpina is a filamentous fungus commonly found in soil that is able to produce lipids in the form of triacylglycerols that account for up to 50% of its dry weight. Analysis of the M. alpina genome suggests that there is a phenylalanine-hydroxylating system for the catabolism of phenylalanine, which has never been found in fungi before. We characterized the phenylalanine-hydroxylating system in M. alpina to explore its role in phenylalanine metabolism and its relationship to lipid biosynthesis. Significant changes were found in the profile of fatty acids in M. alpina grown on medium containing an inhibitor of the phenylalanine-hydroxylating system compared to M. alpina grown on medium without inhibitor. Genes encoding enzymes involved in the phenylalanine-hydroxylating system (phenylalanine hydroxylase [PAH], pterin-4α-carbinolamine dehydratase, and dihydropteridine reductase) were expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli, and the resulting proteins were purified to homogeneity. Their enzymatic activity was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or visible (Vis)-UV spectroscopy. Two functional PAH enzymes were observed, encoded by distinct gene copies. A novel role for tetrahydrobiopterin in fungi as a cofactor for PAH, which is similar to its function in higher life forms, is suggested. This study establishes a novel scheme for the fungal degradation of an aromatic substance (phenylalanine) and suggests that the phenylalanine-hydroxylating system is functionally significant in lipid metabolism.

  14. VUV state-selected photoionization of thermally-desorbed biomolecules by coupling an aerosol source to an imaging photoelectron/photoion coincidence spectrometer: case of the amino acids tryptophan and phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Gaie-Levrel, François; Garcia, Gustavo A; Schwell, Martin; Nahon, Laurent

    2011-04-21

    Gas phase studies of biological molecules provide structural and dynamical information on isolated systems. The lack of inter- or intra-molecular interactions facilitates the interpretation of the experimental results through theoretical calculations, and constitutes an informative complement to the condensed phase. However advances in the field are partially hindered by the difficulty of vaporising these systems, most of which are thermally unstable. In this work we present a newly developed aerosol mass thermodesorption setup, which has been coupled to a Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) analyzer operated in coincidence with a Wiley-McLaren Time of Flight spectrometer, using synchrotron radiation as a single photon ionization source. Although it has been previously demonstrated that thermolabile molecules such as amino acids can be produced intact by the aerosol vaporisation technique, we show how its non-trivial coupling to a VMI analyzer plus the use of electron/ion coincidences greatly improves the concept in terms of the amount of spectroscopic and dynamic information that can be extracted. In this manner, we report on the valence shell ionization of two amino acids, tryptophan and phenylalanine, for which threshold photoelectron spectra have been recorded within the first 3 eV above the first ionization energy using synchrotron radiation emitted from the DESIRS beamline located at SOLEIL in France. Their adiabatic ionization energies (IEs) have been measured at 7.40 ± 0.05 and 8.65 ± 0.02 eV, respectively, and their spectra analyzed using existing theoretical data from the literature. The IE values agree well with previously published ones, but are given here with a considerably reduced uncertainty by up to a factor of 5. The photostability of both amino acids is also described in detail, through the measurement of the state-selected fragmentation pathways via the use of threshold electron/ion coincidences (TPEPICO), with appearance energies for the different

  15. Poly(ferulic acid-co-tyrosine): Effect of the Regiochemistry on the Photophysical and Physical Properties en Route to Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The photophysical and mechanical properties of novel poly(carbonate-amide)s derived from two biorenewable resources, ferulic acid (FA) and l-tyrosine ethyl ester, were evaluated in detail. From these two bio-based precursors, a series of four monomers were generated (having amide and/or carbonate coupling units with remaining functionalities to allow for carbonate formation) and transformed to a series of four poly(carbonate-amide)s. The simplest monomer, which was biphenolic and was obtained in a single amidation synthetic step, displayed bright, visible fluorescence that was twice brighter than FA. Multidimensional fluorescence spectroscopy of the polymers in solution highlighted the strong influence that regioselectivity and the degree of polymerization have on their photophysical properties. The regiochemistry of the system had little effect on the wettability, surface free energy, and Young’s modulus (ca. 2.5 GPa) in the solid state. Confocal imaging of solvent-cast films of each polymer revealed microscopically flat surfaces with fluorescent emission deep into the visible region. Fortuitously, one of the two regiorandom polymers (obtainable from the biphenolic monomer in only an overall two synthetic steps from FA and l-tyrosine ethyl ester) displayed the most promising fluorescent properties both in the solid state and in solution, allowing for the possibility of translating this system as a self-reporting or imaging agent in future applications. To further evaluate the potential of this polymer as a biodegradable material, hydrolytic degradation studies at different pH values and temperatures were investigated. Additionally, the antioxidant properties of the degradation products of this polymer were compared with its biphenolic monomer and FA. PMID:25364040

  16. Tyrosine - Effects on catecholamine release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acworth, Ian N.; During, Matthew J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Tyrosine administration elevates striatal levels of dopamine metabolites in animals given treatments that accelerate nigrostriatal firing, but not in untreated rats. We examined the possibility that the amino acid might actually enhance dopamine release in untreated animals, but that the technique of measuring striatal dopamine metabolism was too insensitive to demonstrate such an effect. Dopamine release was assessed directly, using brain microdialysis of striatal extracellular fluid. Tyrosine administration (50-200 mg/kg IP) did indeed cause a dose related increase in extracellular fluid dopamine levels with minor elevations in levels of DOPAC and HVA, its major metabolites, which were not dose-related. The rise in dopamine was short-lived, suggesting that receptor-mediated feedback mechanisms responded to the increased dopamine release by diminishing neuronal firing or sensitivity to tyrosine. These observations indicate that measurement of changes in striatal DOPAC and HVA, if negative, need not rule out increases in nigrostriatal dopamine release.

  17. Gas-phase structures of Pb(2+)-cationized phenylalanine and glutamic acid determined by infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Burt, Michael B; Fridgen, Travis D

    2013-02-14

    Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in the 3200-3800 cm(-1) region was used to determine the gas-phase structures of bare and monohydrated [Pb(Phe-H)](+) and [Pb(Glu-H)](+). These experiments were supported by infrared spectra calculated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory as well as 298 K enthalpies and Gibbs energies determined using the MP2(full)/6-311++G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) method. The gas-phase structure of [Pb(Phe-H)](+) has Pb(2+) bound in a tridentate fashion between Phe's amine nitrogen, one oxygen of the deprotonated carboxyl group, and the aromatic ring. The IRMPD spectrum of [Pb(Glu-H)](+) can be assigned to a structure where the side chain carboxyl group is deprotonated. The structure of [Pb(Phe-H)H(2)O](+) is simply the hydrated analogue of [Pb(Phe-H)](+) where water attaches to Pb(2+) in the same hemisphere as the ligated amino acid. The spectrum of [Pb(Glu-H)H(2)O](+) could not be assigned a unique structure. The IRMPD spectrum shows features attributed to symmetric and antisymmetric O-H stretching of water and a broad band characteristic of a hydrogen bonded O-H stretching vibration. These features can only be explained by the presence of at least two isomers and agree with the computational results that predict the four lowest energy structures to be within 6 kJ mol(-1) of one another.

  18. Asymmetrical phosphorylation and function of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif tyrosines in B cell antigen receptor signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Pao, L I; Famiglietti, S J; Cambier, J C

    1998-04-01

    CD79a and CD79b function as transducers of B cell antigen receptor signals via a cytoplasmic sequence, termed the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). ITAMs contain two conserved tyrosines that may become phosphorylated upon receptor aggregation and bind distinct effectors by virtue of the distinct preference of phosphotyrosyl-containing sequences for SH2 domains. To explore the function of CD79a and CD79b ITAM tyrosines, we created membrane molecules composed of MHC class II I-Ak extracellular and transmembrane domains, and CD79a or CD79b cytoplasmic domains in which one or both of the ITAM tyrosines were mutated to phenylalanine. Functional analysis revealed that both ITAM tyrosines are required for ligand-induced Syk phosphorylation. However CD79a-ITAM and CD79b-ITAM tyrosine phosphorylations were asymmetrical, with >80% of phosphorylation occurring on the N-terminal tyrosine (Y-E-G-L). Thus, these findings suggest that following receptor ligation, only a minor proportion of phosphorylated ITAMs are doubly phosphorylated and thus can engage Syk. Only the N-terminal ITAM tyrosine of CD79a was required for ligand-mediated phosphorylation of the receptor and a subset of downstream substrates, including p62, p110, and Shc, and for Ca2+ mobilization. However, responses mediated through CD79b exhibited a greater dependence on the presence of both tyrosines. Neither tyrosine in CD79a or CD79b appeared absolutely essential for Src family kinase phosphorylation. These results indicate that phosphorylations of the tyrosines in CD79a and CD79b occur with very different stoichiometry, and the respective tyrosyl residues have distinct functions.

  19. [The microflora of sourdough. XVIII. The protein degrading capabilities of lactic acid bacteria in sourdough].

    PubMed

    Spicher, G; Nierle, W

    1984-05-01

    Acidification of the dough by the use of sourdough or acidifiers is necessary not only for good baking quality of rye flour but it is also very important for development of the typical sensory characteristics of rye bread. We confirmed that the lactic acid bacteria of sour dough are proteolytic. Proteolytic effects are observed in the increase of the amino acid content during fermentation. A marked increase was found in the content of leucine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, glutamic acid, glutamine, arginine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and serine. Lactobacillus plantarum showed a higher proteolytic activity than L. brevis ssp. lindneri or L. fructivorans.

  20. The role of L-type amino acid transporter 1 in human tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Lin; Pan, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Summary L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is an L-type amino acid transporter and transports large neutral amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, methionine, and histidine. LAT1 was found to be highly expressed especially in human cancer tissues, and up-regulated LAT1 can lead to dysfunction in human tumor cells. These findings suggest that LAT1 plays an important role in human tumors. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of LAT1 expression and its clinical significance and function in tumors. PMID:26668776

  1. Polyclonal antibody to soman-tyrosine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Duysen, Ellen G.; Froment, Marie-Thérèse; Masson, Patrick; Nachon, Florian; Jiang, Wei; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Klassen, Lynell W.; Cashman, John; Williams, Gareth R.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Soman forms a stable, covalent bond with tyrosine 411 of human albumin, with tyrosines 257 and 593 in human transferrin, and with tyrosine in many other proteins. The pinacolyl group of soman is retained, suggesting that pinacolyl methylphosphonate bound to tyrosine could generate specific antibodies. Tyrosine in the pentapeptide RYGRK was covalently modified with soman simply by adding soman to the peptide. The phosphonylated-peptide was linked to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and the conjugate was injected into rabbits. The polyclonal antiserum recognized soman-labeled human albumin, soman-mouse albumin, and soman human transferrin, but not non-phosphonylated control proteins. The soman-labeled tyrosines in these proteins are surrounded by different amino acid sequences, suggesting that the polyclonal recognizes soman-tyrosine independent of the amino acid sequence. Antiserum obtained after 4 antigen injections over a period of 18 weeks was tested in a competition ELISA where it had an IC50 of 10−11 M. The limit of detection on Western blots was 0.01 μg (15 picomoles) of soman-labeled albumin. In conclusion, a high-affinity, polyclonal antibody that specifically recognizes soman adducts on tyrosine in a variety of proteins has been produced. Such an antibody could be useful for identifying secondary targets of soman toxicity. PMID:23469927

  2. Brain and brain tumor uptake of L-3-(123I)iodo-alpha-methyl tyrosine: competition with natural L-amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Langen, K.J.; Roosen, N.; Coenen, H.H.; Kuikka, J.T.; Kuwert, T.; Herzog, H.; Stoecklin, G.F.; Feinendegen, L.E. )

    1991-06-01

    SPECT studies with L-3-(123I)iodo-alpha-methyl tyrosine (IMT) were carried out in 10 patients with different types of brain tumors--first under fasting conditions (basal) and a week later during intravenous infusion of a mixture of naturally-occurring L-amino acids (AA load). An uptake index (UI) was calculated by dividing tissue count rates by the integral of plasma count rates. The UI decreased by 45.6% {plus minus} 15.4% (n = 10, p less than 0.001) for normal brain and by 53.2% {plus minus} 14.1% for gliomas (n = 5, p less than 0.01) during AA load compared to basal conditions, while two meningiomas and a metastasis showed only a minor decrease (23.9 {plus minus} 5.7%, n.s.). Two pituitary adenomas could not be delineated on the SPECT scans. These data indicate that IMT competes with naturally-occurring L-amino acids for transport into normal brain and gliomas. Transport characteristics of IMT into tumors of nonglial origin appear to be different from those of gliomas. For both types of tumors, it is advisable to perform IMT-SPECT under fasting conditions.

  3. Gallic acid inhibition of Src-Stat3 signaling overcomes acquired resistance to EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Ai N.H.; Hua, Tuyen N.M.; Kim, Min-Kyu; Vo, Vu T.A.; Choi, Jong-Whan; Kim, Hyun-Won; Rho, Jin Kyung; Kim, Ki Woo; Jeong, Yangsik

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have clinically benefited to lung cancer patients harboring a subset of activating EGFR mutations. However, even with the remarkable therapeutic response at the initial TKI treatment, most lung cancer patients eventually have relapsed aggressive tumors due to acquired resistance to the TKIs. Here, we report that 3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid or gallic acid (GA), a natural polyphenolic compound, shows anti-tumorigenic effects in TKI-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using both in vitro growth assay and in vivo xenograft animal model, we demonstrated tumor suppressive effect of GA was more selective for the TKI-resistant cancer compared to the TKI-sensitive one. Mechanistically, GA treatment inhibited Src-Stat3-mediated signaling and decreased the expression of Stat3-regulated tumor promoting genes, subsequently inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the TKI-resistant lung cancer but not in the TKI-sensitive one. Consistent with the in vitro results, in vivo xenograft experiments showed the TKI-resistant tumor-selective growth inhibition and suppression of Src-Stat3-dependent signaling in the GA-treated tumors isolated from the xenograft model. This finding identified an importance of Src-Stat3 signaling cascade in GA-mediated tumor-suppression activity and, more importantly, provides a novel therapeutic insight of GA for advanced TKI-resistant lung cancer. PMID:27419630

  4. Phosphorylation and recruitment of Syk by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-based phosphorylation of tamalin.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masayuki; Kitano, Jun; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Moriyoshi, Koki; Yanagi, Shigeru; Yamamura, Hirohei; Muto, Takanori; Jingami, Hisato; Nakanishi, Shigetada

    2004-07-30

    Tamalin is a scaffold protein that forms a multiple protein assembly including metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and several postsynaptic and protein-trafficking scaffold proteins in distinct mode of protein-protein association. In the present investigation, we report that tamalin possesses a typical immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), which enables Syk kinase to be recruited and phosphorylated by the Src family kinases. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis of rat brain membrane fractions showed that tamalin is present in a multimolecular protein assembly comprising not only mGluR1 but also c-Src, Fyn, and a protein phosphatase, SHP-2. The protein association of both tamalin and c-Src, as determined by truncation analysis of mGluR1 in COS-7 cells, occurred at the carboxyl-terminal tail of mGluR1. Mutation analysis of tyrosine with phenylalanine in COS-7 cells revealed that paired tyrosines at the ITAM sequence of tamalin are phosphorylated preferentially by c-Src and Fyn, and this phosphorylation can recruit Syk kinase and enables it to be phosphorylated by the Src family kinases. The phosphorylated tyrosines at the ITAM sequence of tamalin were highly susceptible to dephosphorylation by protein-tyrosine phosphatases in COS-7 cells. Importantly, tamalin was endogenously phosphorylated and associated with Syk in retinoic acid-treated P19 embryonal carcinoma cells that undergo neuron-like differentiation. The present investigation demonstrates that tamalin is a novel signaling molecule that possesses a PDZ domain and a PDZ binding motif and mediates Syk signaling in an ITAM-based fashion.

  5. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency: diagnosis and management guideline.

    PubMed

    Vockley, Jerry; Andersson, Hans C; Antshel, Kevin M; Braverman, Nancy E; Burton, Barbara K; Frazier, Dianne M; Mitchell, John; Smith, Wendy E; Thompson, Barry H; Berry, Susan A

    2014-02-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, traditionally known as phenylketonuria, results in the accumulation of phenylalanine in the blood of affected individuals and was the first inborn error of metabolism to be identified through population screening. Early identification and treatment prevent the most dramatic clinical sequelae of the disorder, but new neurodevelopmental and psychological problems have emerged in individuals treated from birth. The additional unanticipated recognition of a toxic effect of elevated maternal phenylalanine on fetal development has added to a general call in the field for treatment for life. Two major conferences sponsored by the National Institutes of Health held >10 years apart reviewed the state of knowledge in the field of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, but there are no generally accepted recommendations for therapy. The purpose of this guideline is to review the strength of the medical literature relative to the treatment of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency and to develop recommendations for diagnosis and therapy of this disorder. Evidence review from the original National Institutes of Health consensus conference and a recent update by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality was used to address key questions in the diagnosis and treatment of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency by a working group established by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. The group met by phone and in person over the course of a year to review these reports, develop recommendations, and identify key gaps in our knowledge of this disorder. Above all, treatment of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency must be life long, with a goal of maintaining blood phenylalanine in the range of 120-360 µmol/l. Treatment has predominantly been dietary manipulation, and use of low protein and phenylalanine medical foods is likely to remain a major component of therapy for the immediate future. Pharmacotherapy for phenylalanine

  6. Engineering tyrosine-based electron flow pathways in proteins: the case of aplysia myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Brandon J; Svistunenko, Dimitri A; Cooper, Chris E; Wilson, Michael T

    2012-05-09

    Tyrosine residues can act as redox cofactors that provide an electron transfer ("hole-hopping") route that enhances the rate of ferryl heme iron reduction by externally added reductants, for example, ascorbate. Aplysia fasciata myoglobin, having no naturally occurring tyrosines but 15 phenylalanines that can be selectively mutated to tyrosine residues, provides an ideal protein with which to study such through-protein electron transfer pathways and ways to manipulate them. Two surface exposed phenylalanines that are close to the heme have been mutated to tyrosines (F42Y, F98Y). In both of these, the rate of ferryl heme reduction increased by up to 3 orders of magnitude. This result cannot be explained in terms of distance or redox potential change between donor and acceptor but indicates that tyrosines, by virtue of their ability to form radicals, act as redox cofactors in a new pathway. The mechanism is discussed in terms of the Marcus theory and the specific protonation/deprotonation states of the oxoferryl iron and tyrosine. Tyrosine radicals have been observed and quantified by EPR spectroscopy in both mutants, consistent with the proposed mechanism. The location of each radical is unambiguous and allows us to validate theoretical methods that assign radical location on the basis of EPR hyperfine structure. Mutation to tyrosine decreases the lipid peroxidase activity of this myoglobin in the presence of low concentrations of reductant, and the possibility of decreasing the intrinsic toxicity of hemoglobin by introduction of these pathways is discussed.

  7. Tyrosine pathway regulation is host-mediated in the pea aphid symbiosis during late embryonic and early larval development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nutritional symbioses play a central role in insects’ adaptation to specialized diets and in their evolutionary success. The obligatory symbiosis between the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the bacterium, Buchnera aphidicola, is no exception as it enables this important agricultural pest insect to develop on a diet exclusively based on plant phloem sap. The symbiotic bacteria provide the host with essential amino acids lacking in its diet but necessary for the rapid embryonic growth seen in the parthenogenetic viviparous reproduction of aphids. The aphid furnishes, in exchange, non-essential amino acids and other important metabolites. Understanding the regulations acting on this integrated metabolic system during the development of this insect is essential in elucidating aphid biology. Results We used a microarray-based approach to analyse gene expression in the late embryonic and the early larval stages of the pea aphid, characterizing, for the first time, the transcriptional profiles in these developmental phases. Our analyses allowed us to identify key genes in the phenylalanine, tyrosine and dopamine pathways and we identified ACYPI004243, one of the four genes encoding for the aspartate transaminase (E.C. 2.6.1.1), as specifically regulated during development. Indeed, the tyrosine biosynthetic pathway is crucial for the symbiotic metabolism as it is shared between the two partners, all the precursors being produced by B. aphidicola. Our microarray data are supported by HPLC amino acid analyses demonstrating an accumulation of tyrosine at the same developmental stages, with an up-regulation of the tyrosine biosynthetic genes. Tyrosine is also essential for the synthesis of cuticular proteins and it is an important precursor for cuticle maturation: together with the up-regulation of tyrosine biosynthesis, we observed an up-regulation of cuticular genes expression. We were also able to identify some amino acid transporter genes which are

  8. Laser Desorption Supersonic Jet Spectroscopy of Hydrated Tyrosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Hikari; Shimozono, Yoko; Ishiuchi, Shun-Ichi; Fujii, Masaaki; Carcabal, Pierre

    2013-06-01

    The structure of tyrosine (tyr) consists of amino-acid chain and phenol, and it has roughly two possible binding sites for water, amino-acid site and phenolic OH site. Investigating how water molecule binds to tyr will give fundamental information for hydrations of peptide and protein. Resonance enhanced multi photon ionization (REMPI) spectrum of tyr-water 1:1 cluster has already been reported by de Vries and co-workers, however, no analysis on the hydrated structures has been reported. In the REMPI spectrum, two clusters of bands are observed; one appears at ˜35600 cm^{-1} energy region which is the almost same with 0-0 transitions of tyr monomer, and another is observed at ˜300 cm^{-1} lower than the former. Based on the electronic transition energy of phenylalanine and the hydrated clusters, the former is expected to be derived from a structure that water binds to amino acid site. On the other hand, it is plausibly predicted that the latter originates from a structure that water binds to phenolic OH group, because the electronic transition of mono hydrated phenol is ˜300 cm^{-1} red-shifted from the monomer. We applied IR dip spectroscopy which can measure conformer selective IR spectra to the tyr-(H_{2}O)_{1} clusters by using laser desorption supersonic jet technique to confirm the assignments. Especially in the phenolic OH bound isomer, it was found that the intra molecular hydrogen bond within amino-acid chain, which is far from the water molecule and cannot interact directly with each other, is strengthened by the hydration. A. Abio-Riziq et al., J. Phys. Chem. A, 115, 6077 (2011). Y. Shimozono, et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., (2013) DOI: 10.1039/c3cp43573c. T. Ebata et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 8, 4783 (2006). T. Watanabe et al., J. Chem. Phys., 105, 408 (1996).

  9. Thyroid peroxidase activity is inhibited by amino acids.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, D P; Ferreira, A C; Coelho, S M; Moraes, J M; Camacho, M A; Rosenthal, D

    2000-03-01

    Normal in vitro thyroid peroxidase (TPO) iodide oxidation activity was completely inhibited by a hydrolyzed TPO preparation (0.15 mg/ml) or hydrolyzed bovine serum albumin (BSA, 0.2 mg/ml). A pancreatic hydrolysate of casein (trypticase peptone, 0.1 mg/ml) and some amino acids (cysteine, tryptophan and methionine, 50 microM each) also inhibited the TPO iodide oxidation reaction completely, whereas casamino acids (0.1 mg/ml), and tyrosine, phenylalanine and histidine (50 microM each) inhibited the TPO reaction by 54% or less. A pancreatic digest of gelatin (0.1 mg/ml) or any other amino acid (50 microM) tested did not significantly decrease TPO activity. The amino acids that impair iodide oxidation also inhibit the TPO albumin iodination activity. The inhibitory amino acids contain side chains with either sulfur atoms (cysteine and methionine) or aromatic rings (tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine and phenylalanine). Among the amino acids tested, only cysteine affected the TPO guaiacol oxidation reaction, producing a transient inhibition at 25 or 50 microM. The iodide oxidation inhibitory activity of cysteine, methionine and tryptophan was reversed by increasing iodide concentrations from 12 to 18 mM, while no such effect was observed when the cofactor (H2O2) concentration was increased. The inhibitory substances might interfere with the enzyme activity by competing with its normal substrates for their binding sites, binding to the free substrates or reducing their oxidized form.

  10. Bacterial Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase: a biocatalyst with broad substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, Sarah L; Turner, Nicholas J

    2014-10-15

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyases (PALs) catalyse the regio- and stereoselective hydroamination of cinnamic acid analogues to yield optically enriched α-amino acids. Herein, we demonstrate that a bacterial PAL from Anabaena variabilis (AvPAL) displays significantly higher activity towards a series of non-natural substrates than previously described eukaryotic PALs. Biotransformations performed on a preparative scale led to the synthesis of the 2-chloro- and 4-trifluoromethyl-phenylalanine derivatives in excellent ee, highlighting the enormous potential of bacterial PALs as biocatalysts for the synthesis of high value, non-natural amino acids.

  11. Impact of addition of aromatic amino acids on non-volatile and volatile compounds in lychee wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MERIT.ferm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dai; Chia, Jing Yee; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2014-01-17

    The impact of individual aromatic amino acid addition (L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine) on non-volatile and volatile constituents in lychee wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. cerevisiae MERIT.ferm was studied. None of the added amino acids had any significant effect on the yeast cell count, pH, soluble solid contents, sugars and ethanol. The addition of L-phenylalanine significantly reduced the production of pyruvic and succinic acids. The addition of each amino acid dramatically reduced the consumption of proline and decreased the production of glycerol. Supplementation of the lychee juice with L-phenylalanine resulted in the formation of significantly higher amounts of 2-phenylethyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl acetate, 2-phenylethyl isobutyrate and 2-phenylethyl hexanoate. In contrast, supplementation with L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine had negligible effects on the volatile profile of lychee wines. These findings suggest that selectively adding amino acids may be used as a tool to modulate the volatile profile of lychee wines so as to diversify and/or intensify wine flavour and style.

  12. Influence of Phenylalanine on Carotenoid Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, L.; Ni, X.; Luo, X.

    2015-01-01

    The carotenoids lutein and β-carotene form, in 1:1 ethanol-water mixtures H-aggregates, of different strengths. The effects of phenylalanine on these aggregates were recorded by UV-Vis absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and Raman spectra. The H-aggregate of lutein was characterized by a large 78 nm blue shift in the absorption spectra, confirming the strong coupling between hydroxyl groups of adjacent molecules. The 15 nm blue shift in the β-carotene mixture also indicates that it was assembled by weak coupling between polyenes. After adding phenylalanine, the reducing absorption strength of the aggregates of lutein and reappearance of vibrational substructure indicate that the hydroxyl and amino groups of phenylalanine may coordinate to lutein and disaggregate the H-aggregates. However, phenylalanine had no effect on aggregates of β-carotene. The Raman spectra show three bands of carotenoids whose intensities decreased with increasing phenylalanine concentration. The frequency of ν1 corresponding to the length of the conjugated region was more sensitive to the solution of lutein. This coordination of phenylalanine to lutein could increase the length of the conjugated region. In addition, phenylalanine significantly affected the excited electronic states of carotenoids, which were crucial in the energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll a in vivo.

  13. Hydrothermal reaction kinetics and pathways of phenylalanine alone and in binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Changi, Shujauddin; Zhu, Minghan; Savage, Phillip E

    2012-09-01

    We examined the behavior of phenylalanine in high-temperature water (HTW) at 220, 250, 280, and 350 °C. Under these conditions, the major product is phenylethylamine. The minor products include styrene and phenylethanol (1-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethanol), which appear at higher temperatures and longer batch holding times. Phenylethylamine forms via decarboxylation of phenylalanine, styrene forms via deamination of phenylethylamine, and phenylethanol forms via hydration of styrene. We quantified the molar yields of each product at the four temperatures, and the carbon recovery was between 80-100 % for most cases. Phenylalanine disappearance follows first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 144 ± 14 kJ mol⁻¹ and a pre-exponential factor of 10(12.4 ± 1.4)  min⁻¹. A kinetics model based on the proposed pathways was consistent with the experimental data. Effects of five different salts (NaCl, NaNO₃, Na₂ SO₄, KCl, K₂ HPO₄) and boric acid (H₃BO₃) on phenylalanine behavior at 250 °C have also been elucidated. These additives increase phenylalanine conversion, but decrease the yield of phenylethylamine presumably by promoting formation of high molecular weight compounds. Lastly, binary mixtures of phenylalanine and ethyl oleate have been studied at 350 °C and three different molar concentration ratios. The presence of phenylalanine enhances the conversion of ethyl oleate and molar yields of fatty acid. Higher concentration of ethyl oleate leads to increased deamination of phenylethylamine and hydration of styrene. Amides are also formed due to the interaction of oleic acid/ethyl oleate and phenylethylamine/ammonia and lead to a decrease in the fatty acid yields. Taken collectively, these results provide new insights into the reactions of algae during its hydrothermal liquefaction to produce crude bio-oil.

  14. Synergistic and antagonistic effect of lactic acid bacteria on tyramine production by food-borne pathogenic bacteria in tyrosine decarboxylase broth.

    PubMed

    Kuley, Esmeray; Ozogul, Fatih

    2011-08-01

    The effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains on tyramine (TYR) and also other biogenic amines (BA) production by eight common food-borne pathogen (FBP) in tyrosine decarboxylase broth (TDB) was investigated by using a rapid HPLC method. Significant differences were observed among the FBP strains in ammonia (AMN) and BA production apart from tryptamine, histamine (HIS) and spermine formation (p<0.05). Salmonella paratyphi A was characterised as the main amine producer. LAB had an important synergetic role in some BA production by food-borne pathogenic bacteria, although the effect of some LAB strains on BA production was strain-dependent. Lactococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. resulted in significantly higher TYR accumulation by Aeromonas hydrophila and Enterococcus faecalis in TDB. The presence of Lactococcus and/or Lactobacillus in TDB significantly increased HIS production by A. hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Ent. faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas HIS accumulation was significantly reduced by Staphylococcus aureus, S. paratyphi A and Listeria monocytogenes.

  15. New platform for controlled and sustained delivery of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478 using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Rebecca; Bertram, James P.; Reiter, Jill L.; Lavik, Erin B.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to reduce tumor growth and metastases and promote axon regeneration in the central nervous system. Current strategies for inhibiting EGFR include the administration of reversible or irreversible small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, to be effective in vivo constant and sustained delivery is required. This study explored the feasibility of encapsulating the tyrphostin 4-(3-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (AG1478) in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres to achieve sustained delivery of the TKI. We characterized microspheres prepared using three different emulsion methods: solid-in-oil-in-water, oil-in-water, and oil-in-water with co-solvent. Addition of a co-solvent increased the loading and release of AG1478, and significantly (P<0.001) decreased the size of the microspheres which facilitates administration of the spheres. On average, sustained delivery of AG1478 from microspheres was achieved for six months. However, the addition of a co-solvent prolonged release for over nine months (266 days). In addition, AG1478 retained its bioactivity upon delivery, and inhibited EGFR in both immortalized rat fibroblasts and in EGFR-amplified human carcinoma cells. These results demonstrate that AG1478 can be encapsulated in PLGA and retain bioactivity; thereby providing a new platform for controlled administration of EGFR TKIs. PMID:20055747

  16. Pitfalls in phenylalanine loading test in the diagnosis of dopa-responsive dystonia.

    PubMed

    Opladen, Thomas; Hoffmann, Georg F; Kühn, Andrea A; Blau, Nenad

    2013-03-01

    Phenylalanine (Phe) loading test is a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of dopa-responsive dystonia due to autosomal dominant or recessive GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) deficiency or autosomal recessive sepiapterin reductase (SR) deficiency. In these patients hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase system is compromised due to subnormal tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) levels and hydroxylation of phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine (Tyr) is reduced with elevated Phe/Tyr ratio 1-2 h after oral Phe administration (100 mg/kg bw) administration. In healthy persons there is only a modest increase in Tyr production and blood Phe normalizes after 4 h. We report on a challenge with Phe (100 mg/kg bw) in a patient with dopa-responsive dystonia while on therapy with BH(4) and l-dopa. During Phe challenge Phe concentration remained below the normal range while a transient mild hypertyrosinemia was observed, leading to an extremely low Phe/Tyr ratio. A repeated test, after BH(4) withdrawal, reversed the findings and resulted normal. These data suggest activation of hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase by BH(4). Thus, the Phe loading test should not be performed during substitution with BH(4).

  17. The influence of the cell free solution of lactic acid bacteria on tyramine production by food borne-pathogens in tyrosine decarboxylase broth.

    PubMed

    Toy, Nurten; Özogul, Fatih; Özogul, Yesim

    2015-04-15

    The function of cell-free solutions (CFSs) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on tyramine and other biogenic amine production by different food borne-pathogens (FBPs) was investigated in tyrosine decarboxylase broth (TDB) using HPLC. Cell free solutions were prepared from four LAB strains. Two different concentrations which were 50% (5 ml CFS+5 ml medium/1:1) and 25% (2.5 ml CFS+7.5 ml medium/1:3) CFS and the control without CFS were prepared. Both concentration of CFS of Streptococcus thermophilus and 50% CFS of Pediococcus acidophilus inhibited tyramine production up to 98% by Salmonella paratyphi A. Tyramine production by Escherichia coli was also inhibited by 50% CFS of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and 25% CFS of Leuconostoc lactis. subsp. cremoris. The inhibitor effect of 50% CFS of P. acidophilus was the highest on tyramine production (55%) by Listeria monocytogenes, following Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris (20%) whilst 25% CFS of Leu. mes. subsp. cremoris and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis showed stimulator effects (160%). The stimulation effects of 50% CFS of S. thermophilus and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis were more than 70% by Staphylococcus aureus comparing to the control. CFS of LAB strains showed statistically inhibitor effect since lactic acid inhibited microbial growth, decreased pH quickly and reduced the formation of AMN and BAs. Consequently, in order to avoid the formation of high concentrations of biogenic amines in fermented food by bacteria, it is advisable to use CFS for food and food products.

  18. Transport of amino acids in Lactobacillus casei by proton-motive-force-dependent and non-proton-motive-force-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, H J; Russell, J B; Driessen, A J; Konings, W N

    1989-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei 393 cells which were energized with glucose (pH 6.0) took up glutamine, asparagine, glutamate, aspartate, leucine, and phenylalanine. Little or no uptake of several essential amino acids (valine, isoleucine, arginine, cysteine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) was observed. Inhibition studies indicated that there were at least five amino acid carriers, for glutamine, asparagine, glutamate/aspartate, phenylalanine, or branched-chain amino acids. Transport activities had pH optima between 5.5 and 6.0, but all amino acid carriers showed significant activity even at pH 4.0. Leucine and phenylalanine transport decreased markedly when the pH was increased to 7.5. Inhibitors which decreased proton motive force (delta p) nearly eliminated leucine and phenylalanine uptake, and studies with de-energized cells and membrane vesicles showed that an artificial electrical potential (delta psi) of at least -100 mV was needed for rapid uptake. An artificial delta p was unable to drive glutamine, asparagine, or glutamate uptake, and transport of these amino acids was sensitive to a decline in intracellular pH. When intracellular pH was greater than 7.7, glutamine, asparagine, or glutamate was transported rapidly even though the proton motive force had been abolished by inhibitors. PMID:2492498

  19. Influence of dietary phytic acid and source of microbial phytase on ileal endogenous amino acid flows in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cowieson, A J; Ravindran, V; Selle, P H

    2008-11-01

    The effects of phytic acid and 2 sources of exogenous phytase (bacterial vs. fungal) on the flow of endogenous amino acids at the terminal ileum of broilers were assessed using the enzyme-hydrolyzed casein method. Phytic acid (as the sodium salt) was included in a purified diet at 8.5 and 14.5 g/kg, and each diet was fed without or with a fungal (Aspergillus niger-derived) or a bacterial (Escherichia coli-derived) microbial phytase at 500 phytase units/kg of diet. Increasing the concentration of phytic acid in the diet from 8.5 to 14.5 g/kg increased (P < 0.001) the flow of all measured amino acids by an average of 68%, with a range from 17% for proline to 145% for phenylalanine. The flow of endogenous aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and histidine were increased by more than the mean, indicating changes in the composition of endogenous protein in response to the presence of higher concentrations of phytic acid. Supplementation of both phytases reduced (P < 0.001) the flow of endogenous amino acids, but the reduction (P = 0.06) was greater for the bacterial phytase compared with the fungal phytase. These data suggest that a substantial part of the amino acid and energy responses observed following phytase supplementation in broiler chickens stems from reduced endogenous amino acid flows and that the capacity of different phytases to counteract the antinutritive properties of phytic acid vary.

  20. Distribution and enantiomeric composition of amino acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, M. H.; Nagy, B.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the amino acid contents and enantiomeric compositions of a single stone from the Murchison meteorite are reported. Water-extracted and 6M HCl-extracted samples from the meteorite interior of meteorite fragments were analyzed by gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Examination of the D/L ratios of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, leucine and alanine reveals those amino acids extractable by water to be partially racemized, whereas the acid-extracted amino acids were less racemized. The amino acid composition of the stone is similar to those previously reported, including the absence of serine, threonine, tyrosine phenylalanine and methionine and the presence of unusual amino acids including such as isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and pseudoleucine. It is concluded that the most likely mechanism accounting for the occurrence of nonracemic amino acid mixtures in the Murchison meteorite is by extraterrestrial stereoselective synthesis or decomposition reactions.

  1. Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase from Loblolly Pine 1

    PubMed Central

    Whetten, Ross W.; Sederoff, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) has been purified from differentiating secondary xylem of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Native molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 280,000, with a subunit molecular weight of 74,000; isoelectric point, 5.8; and Michaelis constant for i-phenylalanine, 27 micromolar. No evidence was obtained for the existence of isoforms of the enzyme, nor for negative cooperativity of substrate binding. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase subunit and used to identify a pal clone in an expression library of xylem complementary DNA (cDNA). Polymerase chain reaction, using oligonucleotide primers made from N-terminal amino acid sequence and from the 5′ end of the clone isolated from the expression library, was also used to isolate cDNA clones. These methods yielded cDNA clones covering the protein coding region of the pal messenger RNA. Comparisons of nucleotide sequence of pal cDNAs from pine, bean, sweet potato, and rice showed 60 to 62% identity between the pine clone and the angiosperm clones. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4 PMID:16668639

  2. Amino acids inhibit kynurenic acid formation via suppression of kynurenine uptake or kynurenic acid synthesis in rat brain in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Airi; Okamoto, Misaki; Kanatani, Yuka; Sano, Mitsue; Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The tryptophan metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA), is a preferential antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at endogenous brain concentrations. Recent studies have suggested that increase of brain KYNA levels is involved in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. KYNA-producing enzymes have broad substrate specificity for amino acids, and brain uptake of kynurenine (KYN), the immediate precursor of KYNA, is via large neutral amino acid transporters (LAT). In the present study, to find out amino acids with the potential to suppress KYNA production, we comprehensively investigated the effects of proteinogenic amino acids on KYNA formation and KYN uptake in rat brain in vitro. Cortical slices of rat brain were incubated for 2 h in Krebs-Ringer buffer containing a physiological concentration of KYN with individual amino acids. Ten out of 19 amino acids (specifically, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, methionine, tyrosine, alanine, cysteine, glutamine, glutamate, and aspartate) significantly reduced KYNA formation at 1 mmol/L. These amino acids showed inhibitory effects in a dose-dependent manner, and partially inhibited KYNA production at physiological concentrations. Leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine, all LAT substrates, also reduced tissue KYN concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, with their inhibitory rates for KYN uptake significantly correlated with KYNA formation. These results suggest that five LAT substrates inhibit KYNA formation via blockade of KYN transport, while the other amino acids act via blockade of the KYNA synthesis reaction in brain. Amino acids can be a good tool to modulate brain function by manipulation of KYNA formation in the brain. This approach may be useful in the treatment and prevention of neurological and psychiatric diseases associated with increased KYNA levels.

  3. The absence of myristic acid decreases membrane binding of p60src but does not affect tyrosine protein kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Buss, J E; Kamps, M P; Gould, K; Sefton, B M

    1986-01-01

    We have constructed two point mutants of Rous sarcoma virus in which the amino-terminal glycine residue of the transforming protein, p60src, was changed to an alanine or a glutamic acid residue. Both mutant proteins failed to become myristylated and, more importantly, no longer transformed cells. The lack of transformation could not be attributed to defects in the catalytic activity of the mutant p60src proteins. In vitro phosphorylation of the peptide angiotensin or of the cellular substrate proteins enolase and p36 revealed no significant differences in the Km or specific activity of the mutant and wild-type p60src proteins. However, when cellular fractions were prepared, less than 12% of the nonmyristylated p60src proteins was bound to membranes. In contrast, more than 82% of the wild-type protein was associated with membranes. Wild-type p60src was phosphorylated by protein kinase C, a protein kinase which associates with membranes when activated. The mutant proteins were not. This finding supports the idea that within the intact cell the nonmyristylated p60src proteins are cytoplasmic and suggests that this apparent solubility is not an artifact of the cell fractionation procedure. The myristyl groups of p60src apparently encourages a tight association between protein and membranes and, by determining the cellular location of the enzyme, allows transformation to occur. Images PMID:3009860

  4. A new physiological role for Pdr12p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: export of aromatic and branched-chain organic acids produced in amino acid catabolism.

    PubMed

    Hazelwood, Lucie A; Tai, Siew Leng; Boer, Viktor M; de Winde, Johannes H; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean Marc

    2006-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use a broad range of compounds as sole nitrogen source. Many amino acids, such as leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and methionine, are utilized through the Ehrlich pathway. The fusel acids and alcohols produced from this pathway, along with their derived esters, are important contributors to beer and wine flavor. It is unknown how these compounds are exported from the cell. Analysis of nitrogen-source-dependent transcript profiles via microarray analysis of glucose-limited, aerobic chemostat cultures revealed a common upregulation of PDR12 in cultures grown with leucine, methionine or phenylalanine as sole nitrogen source. PDR12 encodes an ABC transporter involved in weak-organic-acid resistance, which has hitherto been studied in the context of resistance to exogenous organic acids. The hypothesis that PDR12 is involved in export of natural products of amino acid catabolism was evaluated by analyzing the phenotype of null mutants in PDR12 or in WAR1, its positive transcriptional regulator. The hypersensitivity of the pdr12Delta and war1Delta strains for some of these compounds indicates that Pdr12p is involved in export of the fusel acids, but not the fusel alcohols derived from leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine and tryptophan.

  5. Glyceryl ether monooxygenase resembles aromatic amino acid hydroxylases in metal ion and tetrahydrobiopterin dependence.

    PubMed

    Watschinger, Katrin; Keller, Markus A; Hermetter, Albin; Golderer, Georg; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Werner, Ernst R

    2009-01-01

    Glyceryl ether monooxygenase is a tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent membrane-bound enzyme which catalyses the cleavage of lipid ethers into glycerol and the corresponding aldehyde. Despite many different characterisation and purification attempts, so far no gene and primary sequence have been assigned to this enzyme. The seven other tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent enzymes can be divided in the family of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases - comprising phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase and the two tryptophan hydroxylases - and into the three nitric oxide synthases. We tested the influences of different metal ions and metal ion chelators on glyceryl ether monooxygenase, phenylalanine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase activity to elucidate the relationship of glyceryl ether monooxygenase to these two families. 1,10-Phenanthroline, an inhibitor of non-heme iron-dependent enzymes, was able to potently block glyceryl ether monooxygenase as well as phenylalanine hydroxylase, but had no effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase. Two tetrahydrobiopterin analogues, N(5)-methyltetrahydrobiopterin and 4-aminotetrahydrobiopterin, had a similar impact on glyceryl ether monooxygenase activity, as has already been shown for phenylalanine hydroxylase. These observations point to a close analogy of the role of tetrahydrobiopterin in glyceryl ether monooxygenase and in aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and suggest that glyceryl ether monooxygenase may require a non-heme iron for catalysis.

  6. The transmembrane tyrosines Y56, Y91 and Y167 play important roles in determining the affinity and transport rate of the rabbit proton-coupled peptide transporter PepT1.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Myrtani; Gan, Christine; Bailey, Patrick; Meredith, David

    2009-11-01

    The mammalian proton-coupled peptide transporter PepT1 is widely accepted as the major route of uptake for dietary nitrogen, as well as being responsible for the oral absorption of a number of classes of drugs, including beta-lactam antibiotics and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Using site-directed mutagenesis and zero-trans transport assays, we investigated the role of conserved tyrosines in the transmembrane domains (TMDs) of rabbit PepT1 as predicted by hydropathy plots. All the individual TMD tyrosines were substituted with phenylalanine and shown to retain the ability to traffic to the plasma membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes. These single substitutions of TMD tyrosines by phenylalanine residues did not affect the proton dependence of peptide uptake, with all retaining wild-type PepT1-like pH dependence. Individual mutations of four of the nine TMD residue tyrosines (Y64, Y287, Y345 and Y587) were without measurable effect on PepT1 function, whereas the other five (Y12, Y56, Y91, Y167 and Y345) were shown to result in altered transport function compared to the wild-type PepT1. Intriguingly, the affinity of Y56F-PepT1 was found to be dramatically increased (approximately 100-fold) in comparison to that of the wild-type rabbit PepT1. Y91 mutations also affected the substrate affinity of the transporter, which increased in line with the hydrophilicity of the substituted amino acid (F>Y>Q>R). Y167 was demonstrated to play a pivotal role in rabbit PepT1 function since Y167F, Y167R and Y167Q demonstrated very little transport function. These results are discussed with regard to a proposed mechanism for PepT1 substrate binding.

  7. Identification of the Allosteric Site for Phenylalanine in Rat Phenylalanine Hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengnan; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2016-04-01

    Liver phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH) is an allosteric enzyme that requires activation by phenylalanine for full activity. The location of the allosteric site for phenylalanine has not been established. NMR spectroscopy of the isolated regulatory domain (RDPheH(25-117) is the regulatory domain of PheH lacking residues 1-24) of the rat enzyme in the presence of phenylalanine is consistent with formation of a side-by-side ACT dimer. Six residues in RDPheH(25-117) were identified as being in the phenylalanine-binding site on the basis of intermolecular NOEs between unlabeled phenylalanine and isotopically labeled protein. The location of these residues is consistent with two allosteric sites per dimer, with each site containing residues from both monomers. Site-specific variants of five of the residues (E44Q, A47G, L48V, L62V, and H64N) decreased the affinity of RDPheH(25-117) for phenylalanine based on the ability to stabilize the dimer. Incorporation of the A47G, L48V, and H64N mutations into the intact protein increased the concentration of phenylalanine required for activation. The results identify the location of the allosteric site as the interface of the regulatory domain dimer formed in activated PheH.

  8. Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, F.; Ayuso, D.; Trabattoni, A.; Belshaw, L.; De Camillis, S.; Anumula, S.; Frassetto, F.; Poletto, L.; Palacios, A.; Decleva, P.; Greenwood, J. B.; Martín, F.; Nisoli, M.

    2014-10-01

    In the past decade, attosecond technology has opened up the investigation of ultrafast electronic processes in atoms, simple molecules, and solids. Here, we report the application of isolated attosecond pulses to prompt ionization of the amino acid phenylalanine and the subsequent detection of ultrafast dynamics on a sub-4.5-femtosecond temporal scale, which is shorter than the vibrational response of the molecule. The ability to initiate and observe such electronic dynamics in polyatomic molecules represents a crucial step forward in attosecond science, which is progressively moving toward the investigation of more and more complex systems.

  9. Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Calegari, F; Ayuso, D; Trabattoni, A; Belshaw, L; De Camillis, S; Anumula, S; Frassetto, F; Poletto, L; Palacios, A; Decleva, P; Greenwood, J B; Martín, F; Nisoli, M

    2014-10-17

    In the past decade, attosecond technology has opened up the investigation of ultrafast electronic processes in atoms, simple molecules, and solids. Here, we report the application of isolated attosecond pulses to prompt ionization of the amino acid phenylalanine and the subsequent detection of ultrafast dynamics on a sub-4.5-femtosecond temporal scale, which is shorter than the vibrational response of the molecule. The ability to initiate and observe such electronic dynamics in polyatomic molecules represents a crucial step forward in attosecond science, which is progressively moving toward the investigation of more and more complex systems.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of nonconventional surfactants of aromatic amino acid-glycerol ethers: effect of the amino acid moiety on the orientation and surface properties of these soap-type amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Varka, Evdoxia-Maria A; Heli, Maria G; Coutouli-Argyropoulou, Evdoxia; Pegiadou, Sofia A

    2006-11-06

    The synthesis, characterization, and surface properties of soap-type amphiphiles comprising alkyl chains of 10-16 carbon atoms linked through an ether group to a glycerol-amino acid hydrophilic head group is described. The surface properties of members of this series derived from histidine and tyrosine were compared with those of phenylalanine and tryptophan derivatives described previously and with those of conventional soaps. In all cases, the amino acid derivatives showed superior surface properties, and an interesting differentiation was discovered regarding the orientation of tryptophan derivatives.

  11. Phenylalanine hydroxylase: function, structure, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Flydal, Marte I; Martinez, Aurora

    2013-04-01

    Mammalian phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the phenylalanine catabolism, consuming about 75% of the phenylalanine input from the diet and protein catabolism under physiological conditions. In humans, mutations in the PAH gene lead to phenylketonuria (PKU), and most mutations are mainly associated with PAH misfolding and instability. The established treatment for PKU is a phenylalanine-restricted diet and, recently, supplementation with preparations of the natural tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor also shows effectiveness for some patients. Since 1997 there has been a significant increase in the understanding of the structure, catalytic mechanism, and regulation of PAH by its substrate and cofactor, in addition to improved correlations between genotype and phenotype in PKU. Importantly, there has also been an increased number of studies on the structure and function of PAH from bacteria and lower eukaryote organisms, revealing an additional anabolic role of the enzyme in the synthesis of melanin-like pigments. In this review, we discuss these recent studies, which contribute to define the evolutionary adaptation of the PAH structure and function leading to sophisticated regulation for effective catabolic processing of phenylalanine in mammalian organisms.

  12. Free amino acid profiling in the giant puffball mushroom (Calvatia gigantea) using UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, İbrahim; Kıvrak, Şeyda; Harmandar, Mansur

    2014-09-01

    Wild edible and medicinal mushroom, Calvatia gigantea, was quantitatively analyzed for the determination of its free amino acids using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The concentrations of total free amino acids, essential and non-essential amino acids were 199.65 mg/100 g, 113.69 mg/100 g, and 85.96 mg/100 g in C. gigantea, respectively. This study showed that C. gigantea, so called a giant puffball mushroom, has free amino acids content. The essential amino acids: tryptophan, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, leucine, threonine, lysine, histidine, methionine, and the non-essential amino acids: tyrosine, 4-hyrdroxy proline, arginine, proline, glycine, serine, alanine, glutamine, glutamic acid, aspargine, aspartic acid were detected.

  13. Src Tyrosine Kinase Alters Gating of Hyperpolarization-Activated HCN4 Pacemaker Channel through Tyr531

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen-Hong; Zhang, Qi; Teng, Bunyen; Mustafa, S. Jamal; Huang, Jian-Ying; Yu, Han-Gang

    2009-01-01

    We recently discovered that the constitutively active Src tyrosine kinase can enhance the HCN4 channel activity by binding to the channel protein. To investigate the mechanism of modulation by Src of HCN channels, we studied the effects of a selective inhibitor of Src tyrosine kinase, PP2, on HCN4 and its mutant channels ex pressed in HEK293 cells using whole-cell patch clamp technique. We found that PP2 can inhibit HCN4 currents by negatively shifting the voltage dependence of channel activation, decreasing the whole-cell channel conductance, and slowing activation and deactivation kinetics. Screening putative tyrosine residues subject to phosphorylation yielded two candidates: Tyr531 and Tyr554. Substituting HCN4-Tyr531 with phenylalanine largely abolished the effects of PP2 on HCN4 channels. Replacing HCN4-Tyr554 by phenylalanine did not abolish the effects of PP2 on voltage-dependent activation, but did eliminate PP2-induced slowing of channel kinetics. The inhibitory effects of HCN channels associated with reduced Src tyrosine activity is confirmed in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Finally, we found that PP2 can decrease the heart rate in a mouse model. These results demonstrate that Src tyrosine kinase enhances HCN4 currents by shifting their activation to more positive potentials and increasing the whole-cell channel conductance as well as speeding the channel kinetics. The tyrosine residue that mediates most of Src actions on HCN4 channels is Tyr531. PMID:17977941

  14. The insulin receptor juxtamembrane region contains two independent tyrosine/beta-turn internalization signals

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the role of tyrosine residues in the insulin receptor cytoplasmic juxtamembrane region (Tyr953 and Tyr960) during endocytosis. Analysis of the secondary structure of the juxtamembrane region by the Chou-Fasman algorithms predicts that both the sequences GPLY953 and NPEY960 form tyrosine-containing beta-turns. Similarly, analysis of model peptides by 1-D and 2-D NMR show that these sequences form beta-turns in solution, whereas replacement of the tyrosine residues with alanine destabilizes the beta-turn. CHO cell lines were prepared expressing mutant receptors in which each tyrosine was mutated to phenylalanine or alanine, and an additional mutant contained alanine at both positions. These mutations had no effect on insulin binding or receptor autophosphorylation. Replacements with phenylalanine had no effect on the rate of [125I]insulin endocytosis, whereas single substitutions with alanine reduced [125I]insulin endocytosis by 40-50%. Replacement of both tyrosines with alanine reduced internalization by 70%. These data suggest that the insulin receptor contains two tyrosine/beta-turns which contribute independently and additively to insulin-stimulated endocytosis. PMID:1500426

  15. Distinct tyrosine autophosphorylation sites negatively and positively modulate neu-mediated transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Dankort, D L; Wang, Z; Blackmore, V; Moran, M F; Muller, W J

    1997-01-01

    A number of cytoplasmic signaling molecules are thought to mediate mitogenic signaling from the activated Neu receptor tyrosine kinase through binding specific phosphotyrosine residues located within the intracellular portion of Neu/c-ErbB-2. An activated neu oncogene containing tyrosine-to-phenylalanine substitutions at each of the known autophosphorylation sites was generated and assessed for its specific transforming potential in Rat1 and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Mutation of these sites resulted in a dramatic impairment of the transforming potential of neu. To assess the role of these tyrosine phosphorylation sites in cellular transformation, the transforming potential of a series of mutants in which individual tyrosine residues were restored to this transformation-debilitated neu mutant was evaluated. Reversion of any one of four mutated sites to tyrosine residues restored wild-type transforming activity. While each of these transforming mutants displayed Ras-dependent signaling, the transforming activity of two of these mutants was correlated with their ability to bind either the GRB2 or SHC adapter molecules that couple receptor tyrosine kinases to the Ras signaling pathway. By contrast, restoration of a tyrosine residue located at position 1028 completely suppressed the basal transforming activity of this mutated neu molecule or other transforming neu molecules which possessed single tyrosine residues. These data argue that the transforming potential of activated neu is mediated both by positive and negative regulatory tyrosine phosphorylation sites. PMID:9271418

  16. Three aromatic amino acids in gastric juice as potential biomarkers for gastric malignancies.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Lin, Sanren; Zhou, Liya; Geng, Qiuming; Li, Yuan; Xu, Ming; Na, Renhua

    2011-05-23

    For screening early-stage gastric malignancies, the existing serum biomarkers have limited sensitivity and specificity. Gastric juice biomarkers are scarce and require further investigation. We divided this study on searching potential biomarkers into four parts: (1) detection of differential fluorescence spectrum and peaks in the gastric juice from patients using fluorescence spectroscopy and HPLC, (2) identification and validation of differential peaks using LC/MS and NMR, (3) quantification of potential biomarkers, and (4) establishment of diagnostic detection. The fluorescence intensity (FI), tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and total protein content were significantly higher in the gastric juice of patients with gastric malignancies (all P<0.01). With all P<0.001, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the biomarkers were tyrosine, 0.838; phenylalanine, 0.856; and tryptophan, 0.816. At a specificity of 79.4%, the sensitivity for gastric malignancy detection with phenylalanine was 87.9% only. Aromatic amino acids in gastric juices could be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers to screen gastric malignancies. It is a less-invasive and economical method compared to gastric biopsy.

  17. Preparation of l-phenylalanine-imprinted solid-phase extraction sorbent by Pickering emulsion polymerization and the selective enrichment of l-phenylalanine from human urine.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Hu, Xiaoling; Guan, Ping; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Qian, Liwei; Zhang, Nan; Du, Chunbao; Song, Renyuan

    2016-05-01

    A novel l-phenylalanine molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction sorbent was synthesized by the combination of Pickering emulsion polymerization and ion-pair dummy template imprinting. Compared to other polymerization methods, the molecularly imprinted polymers thus prepared exhibit a high specific surface, large pore diameter, and appropriate particle size. The key parameters for solid-phase extraction were optimized, and the result indicated that the molecularly imprinted polymer thus prepared exhibits a good recovery of 98.9% for l-phenylalanine. Under the optimized conditions of the procedure, an analytical method for l-phenylalanine was well established. By comparing the performance of the molecularly imprinted polymer and a commercial reverse-phase silica gel, the obtained molecularly imprinted polymer as an solid-phase extraction sorbent is more suitable, exhibiting high precision (relative standard deviation 3.2%, n = 4) and a low limit of detection (60.0 ± 1.9 nmol·L(-1) ) for the isolation of l-phenylalanine. Based on these results, the combination of the Pickering emulsion polymerization and ion-pair dummy template imprinting is effective for preparing selective solid-phase extraction sorbents for the separation of amino acids and organic acids from complex biological samples.

  18. Protein Quantification by Derivatization-Free High-Performance Liquid Chromatography of Aromatic Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid analysis is considered to be the gold standard for quantitative peptide and protein analysis. Here, we would like to propose a simple HPLC/UV method based on a reversed-phase separation of the aromatic amino acids tyrosine (Tyr), phenylalanine (Phe), and optionally tryptophan (Trp) without any derivatization. The hydrolysis of the proteins and peptides was performed by an accelerated microwave technique, which needs only 30 minutes. Two internal standard compounds, homotyrosine (HTyr) and 4-fluorophenylalanine (FPhe) were used for calibration. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 0.05 µM (~10 µg/L) for tyrosine and phenylalanine at 215 nm. The LOD for a protein determination was calculated to be below 16 mg/L (~300 ng BSA absolute). Aromatic amino acid analysis (AAAA) offers excellent accuracy and a precision of about 5% relative standard deviation, including the hydrolysis step. The method was validated with certified reference materials (CRM) of amino acids and of a pure protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA). AAAA can be used for the quantification of aromatic amino acids, isolated peptides or proteins, complex peptide or protein samples, such as serum or milk powder, and peptides or proteins immobilized on solid supports. PMID:27559481

  19. Transport of Amino Acids to the Maize Root 1

    PubMed Central

    Oaks, Ann

    1966-01-01

    When 5-mm maize root tips were excised and placed in an inorganic salts solution for 6 hours, there was a loss of alcohol-insoluble nitrogen. The levels of threonine, proline, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and lysine in the alcohol soluble fraction were severely reduced, whereas those of glutamate, aspartate, ornithine, and alanine were scarcely affected. There was a 4-fold increase in the level of γ-aminobutyrate. Those amino acids whose synthesis appeared to be deficient in excised root tips also showed poor incorporation of acetate carbon. In addition, the results show that asparagine and the amino acids of the neutral and basic fraction were preferentially transported to the root tip region. The results therefore suggest that the synthesis of certain amino acids in the root tip region is restricted, and that this requirement for amino acids in the growing region could regulate the flow of amino acids to the root tip. PMID:16656225

  20. Phenylalanine binding is linked to dimerization of the regulatory domain of phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengnan; Roberts, Kenneth M; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2014-10-28

    Analytical ultracentrifugation has been used to analyze the oligomeric structure of the isolated regulatory domain of phenylalanine hydroxylase. The protein exhibits a monomer-dimer equilibrium with a dissociation constant of ~46 μM; this value is unaffected by the removal of the 24 N-terminal residues or by phosphorylation of Ser16. In contrast, phenylalanine binding (Kd = 8 μM) stabilizes the dimer. These results suggest that dimerization of the regulatory domain of phenylalanine hydroxylase is linked to allosteric activation of the enzyme.

  1. The rotational spectrum of tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2015-04-23

    In this work neutral tyrosine has been generated in the gas phase by laser ablation of solid samples, and its most abundant conformers characterized through their rotational spectra. Their identification has been made by comparison between the experimental and ab initio values of the rotational and quadrupole coupling constants. Both conformers are stabilized by an O-H•••N hydrogen bond established within the amino acid skeleton chain and an additional weak N-H•••π hydrogen bond. The observed conformers differ in the orientation of the phenolic -OH group.

  2. [Tyrosine kinase inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Robert, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    Membrane receptors with tyrosine kinase activity and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases have emerged as important potential targets in oncology. Starting from basic structures such as anilino-quinazoline, numerous compounds have been synthesised, with the help of tyrosine kinase crystallography, which has allowed to optimise protein-ligand interactions. The catalytic domains of all kinases present similar three-dimensional structures, which explains that it may be difficult to identify molecules having a high specificity for a given tyrosine kinase. Some tyrosine kinase inhibitors are relatively specific for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as géfitinib and erlotinib; other are mainly active against platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and the receptor KIT, such as imatinib or nilotinib, and other against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors involved in angiogenesis, such as sunitinib and sorafenib. The oral formulation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors is well accepted by the patients but may generate sometimes compliance problems requiring pharmacokinetic monitoring. This chemical family is in full expansion and several dozens of compounds have entered clinical trials.

  3. Computation of energy interaction parameters as well as electric dipole intensity parameters for the absorption spectral study of the interaction of Pr(III) with L-phenylalanine, L-glycine, L-alanine and L-aspartic acid in the presence and absence of Ca 2+ in organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moaienla, T.; Singh, Th. David; Singh, N. Rajmuhon; Devi, M. Indira

    2009-10-01

    Studying the absorption difference and comparative absorption spectra of the interaction of Pr(III) and Nd(III) with L-phenylalanine, L-glycine, L-alanine and L-aspartic acid in the presence and absence of Ca 2+ in organic solvents, various energy interaction parameters like Slater-Condon ( FK), Racah ( Ek), Lande factor ( ξ4f), nephelauxetic ratio ( β), bonding ( b1/2), percentage-covalency ( δ) have been evaluated applying partial and multiple regression analysis. The values of oscillator strength ( P) and Judd-Ofelt electric dipole intensity parameter Tλ ( λ = 2, 4, 6) for different 4f-4f transitions have been computed. On analysis of the variation of the various energy interaction parameters as well as the changes in the oscillator strength ( P) and Tλ values reveal the mode of binding with different ligands.

  4. 21 CFR 582.5590 - Phenylalanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Phenylalanine. 582.5590 Section 582.5590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5590 - Phenylalanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phenylalanine. 582.5590 Section 582.5590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5590 - Phenylalanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phenylalanine. 582.5590 Section 582.5590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  7. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPAL2): a potent enzyme for the synthesis of non-canonical aromatic alpha-amino acids: Part I: Comparative characterization to the enzymes from Petroselinum crispum (PcPAL1) and Rhodosporidium toruloides (RtPAL).

    PubMed

    Dreßen, Alana; Hilberath, Thomas; Mackfeld, Ursula; Billmeier, Arne; Rudat, Jens; Pohl, Martina

    2017-04-06

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPAL2) was comparatively characterized to the well-studied enzyme from parsley (PcPAL1) and Rhodosporidium toruloides (RtPAL) with respect to kinetic parameters for the deamination and the amination reaction, pH- and temperature optima and the substrate range of the amination reaction. Whereas both plant enzymes are specific for phenylalanine, the bifunctional enzyme from Rhodosporidium toruloides shows KM-values for L-Phe and L-Tyr in the same order of magnitude and, compared to both plant enzymes, a 10-15-fold higher activity. At 30°C all enzymes were sufficiently stable with half-lives of 3.4days (PcPAL1), 4.6days (AtPAL2) and 9.7days (RtPAL/TAL). Very good results for the amination of various trans-cinnamic acid derivatives were obtained using E. coli cells as whole cell biocatalysts in ammonium carbonate buffer. Investigation of the substrate ranges gave interesting results for the newly tested enzymes from A. thaliana and R. toruloides. Only the latter accepts besides 4-hydroxy-CA also 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-CA as a substrate, which is an interesting intermediate for the formation of pharmaceutically relevant L-Dopa. AtPAL2 is a very good catalyst for the formation of (S)-3-F-Phe, (S)-4-F-Phe and (S)-2-Cl-Phe. Such non-canonical amino acids are valuable building blocks for the formation of various drug molecules.

  8. Autistic children exhibit distinct plasma amino acid profile.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Jain, Jamal Md Nurul; Prasad, Chintakindi Krishna; Naik, Usha; Akella, Radha Rama Devi

    2013-10-01

    In order to ascertain whether autistic children display characteristic metabolic signatures that are of diagnostic value, plasma amino acid analyses were carried out on a cohort of 138 autistic children and 138 normal controls using reverse-phase HPLC. Pre-column derivatization of amino acids with phenyl isothiocyanate forms phenyl thio-carbamate derivates that have a lamba(max) of 254 nm, enabling their detection using photodiode array. Autistic children showed elevated levels of glutamic acid (120 +/- 89 vs. 83 +/- 35 micromol/L) and asparagine (85 +/- 37 vs. 47 +/- 19 micromol/L); lower levels of phenylalanine (45 +/- 20 vs. 59 +/- 18 micromol/L), tryptophan (24 +/- 11 vs. 41 +/- 16 micromol/L), methionine (22 +/- 9 vs. 28 +/- 9 micromol/L) and histidine (45 +/- 21 vs. 58 +/- 15 micromol/L). A low molar ratio of (tryptophan/large neutral amino acids) x 100 was observed in autism (5.4 vs 9.2), indicating lesser availability of tryptophan for neurotransmitter serotonin synthesis. To conclude, elevated levels of excitatory amino acids (glutamate and asparagine), decreased essential amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and methionine) and decreased precursors of neurotransmitters (tyrosine and tryptophan) are the distinct characteristics of plasma amino acid profile of autistic children. Thus, such metabolic signatures might be useful tools for early diagnosis of autism.

  9. On the reported optical activity of amino acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, J. L.; Cronin, J. R.; Ho, M.-S.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Lawless, J. G.; Miller, S. L.; Oro, J.; Steinberg, S.

    1983-02-01

    It is shown that the explanation of terrestrial contamination of the Murchison meteorite is consistent with the analysis of extracts from the meteorite reported by Engel and Nagy (EN) (1982) and is much more probable than their suggestion that the excess of L-enantiomers for several protein amino acids is due to asymmetric synthesis or decomposition. The low abundance of serine and threonine reported by EN may be due to their decomposition during the derivatization procedure, and the absence of methionine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine can be attributed to various causes. The amount of contamination in EN's extracts are estimated from a mass balance of the amino acid enantiomers, and it is found that the amino acids in the HCl could be due entirely to contamination while in the water extract the amount of contamination ranges from about 40 to 97 percent, depending on the amino acid. The argument that contaminants were preferentially extracted by EN's procedure cannot account for the failure to detect methionine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine.

  10. Acidic substitution of the activation loop tyrosines in TrkA supports nerve growth factor-dependent, but not nerve growth factor-independent, differentiation and cell cycle arrest in the human neuroblastoma cell line, SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Gryz, Ela A; Meakin, Susan O

    2003-11-27

    TrkA is the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) for nerve growth factor (NGF) and stimulates NGF-dependent cell survival and differentiation in primary neurons and also differentiation of neuroblastomas and apoptosis of medulloblastomas. We have previously shown that aspartic acid and glutamic acid substitution (AspGlu and GluAsp) of the activation loop tyrosines in TrkA (Tyr(683) and Tyr(684)) supports NGF-independent neuritogenesis and cell survival in PC12 cell-derived nnr5 cells. In this study, the AspGlu and GluAsp mutant Trks have been analysed for their ability to support NGF-independent and NGF-dependent neuritogenesis, proliferation and cell signalling in the human neuroblastoma cell line, SY5Y. We find that the AspGlu and GluAsp mutant Trks support NGF-dependent, but not NGF-independent, autophosphorylation, neuritogenic responses and/or inhibit cell cycle progression. The NGF-dependent neuritogenic responses are lower for the mutant Trks (approximately 30-60% for AspGlu and 50-60% for GluAsp), relative to wild-type TrkA. While both the AspGlu and GluAsp mutant Trks support NGF-dependent transient phosphorylation of Shc, PLCgamma-1, AKT, FRS2, SH2B as well as prolonged MAP kinase activation, the GluAsp mutant induces stronger NGF-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of FRS2 and SH2B, as well as a stronger reduction in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Collectively, these data suggest that neither absolute levels of receptor autophosphorylation, high levels of TrkA expression nor the activation of a specific signalling pathway is dominant and absolutely essential for neuritogenesis and cell cycle arrest of SY5Y cells.

  11. Multiple tyrosine metabolites are GPR35 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Huayun; Hu, Haibei; Fang, Ye

    2012-01-01

    Both kynurenic acid and 2-acyl lysophosphatidic acid have been postulated to be the endogenous agonists of GPR35. However, controversy remains whether alternative endogenous agonists exist. The molecular targets accounted for many nongenomic actions of thyroid hormones are mostly unknown. Here we report the agonist activity of multiple tyrosine metabolites at the GPR35. Tyrosine metabolism intermediates that contain carboxylic acid and/or catechol functional groups were first selected. Whole cell dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays enabled by label-free optical biosensor were then used to characterize their agonist activity in native HT-29. Molecular assays including β-arrestin translocation, ERK phosphorylation and receptor internalization confirmed that GPR35 functions as a receptor for 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, gentisate, rosmarinate, and 3-nitrotyrosine. These results suggest that multiple tyrosine metabolites are alternative endogenous ligands of GPR35, and GPR35 may represent a druggable target for treating certain diseases associated with abnormality of tyrosine metabolism. PMID:22523636

  12. Biosynthesis and Metabolic Fate of Phenylalanine in Conifers.

    PubMed

    Pascual, María B; El-Azaz, Jorge; de la Torre, Fernando N; Cañas, Rafael A; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    The amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) is a critical metabolic node that plays an essential role in the interconnection between primary and secondary metabolism in plants. Phe is used as a protein building block but it is also as a precursor for numerous plant compounds that are crucial for plant reproduction, growth, development, and defense against different types of stresses. The metabolism of Phe plays a central role in the channeling of carbon from photosynthesis to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. The study of this metabolic pathway is particularly relevant in trees, which divert large amounts of carbon into the biosynthesis of Phe-derived compounds, particularly lignin, an important constituent of wood. The trunks of trees are metabolic sinks that consume a considerable percentage of carbon and energy from photosynthesis, and carbon is finally immobilized in wood. This paper reviews recent advances in the biosynthesis and metabolic utilization of Phe in conifer trees. Two alternative routes have been identified: the ancient phenylpyruvate pathway that is present in microorganisms, and the arogenate pathway that possibly evolved later during plant evolution. Additionally, an efficient nitrogen recycling mechanism is required to maintain sustained growth during xylem formation. The relevance of phenylalanine metabolic pathways in wood formation, the biotic interactions, and ultraviolet protection is discussed. The genetic manipulation and transcriptional regulation of the pathways are also outlined.

  13. Biosynthesis and Metabolic Fate of Phenylalanine in Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, María B.; El-Azaz, Jorge; de la Torre, Fernando N.; Cañas, Rafael A.; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    2016-01-01

    The amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) is a critical metabolic node that plays an essential role in the interconnection between primary and secondary metabolism in plants. Phe is used as a protein building block but it is also as a precursor for numerous plant compounds that are crucial for plant reproduction, growth, development, and defense against different types of stresses. The metabolism of Phe plays a central role in the channeling of carbon from photosynthesis to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. The study of this metabolic pathway is particularly relevant in trees, which divert large amounts of carbon into the biosynthesis of Phe-derived compounds, particularly lignin, an important constituent of wood. The trunks of trees are metabolic sinks that consume a considerable percentage of carbon and energy from photosynthesis, and carbon is finally immobilized in wood. This paper reviews recent advances in the biosynthesis and metabolic utilization of Phe in conifer trees. Two alternative routes have been identified: the ancient phenylpyruvate pathway that is present in microorganisms, and the arogenate pathway that possibly evolved later during plant evolution. Additionally, an efficient nitrogen recycling mechanism is required to maintain sustained growth during xylem formation. The relevance of phenylalanine metabolic pathways in wood formation, the biotic interactions, and ultraviolet protection is discussed. The genetic manipulation and transcriptional regulation of the pathways are also outlined. PMID:27468292

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of phenylalanine analog interactions with normal and sicklen hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.H.

    1985-01-01

    Several phenylalanine derivatives have been found to inhibit the gelation of deoxygenated sickle hemoglobin (deoxy HbS). Proton and /sup 19/F-NMR techniques were used to monitor the interaction of selected phenylalanine derivatives with the Hb molecule by using fluorine containing phenylalanine derivatives, Hb labeled at the ..beta..93 position with N-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) iodoacetamide (IA-F/sub 3/), and by monitoring the relaxation rates of the C2 and C4 histidine protons. The results show that the /sup 19/F spin-spin relaxation times of L-phenylalanin-4-fluorobenzylamide (PheNBz1-F), which has a deoxy HbS antigelling activity comparable to that of the amino acid, tryptophan, are affected much more strongly by interaction with Hb than are those of glycin-4-fluorobenzylamide (GlyNBz1-F). In contrast, it is shown that N-(2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidin-1-oxy-3-carboxyl)-L-phenylalanine t-butyl ester (SL-Phe) exhibits specific binding to Hb, and an antigelling activity more than two orders of magnitude greater than that of phenylalanine. These results indicate that the fluorine nuclei strongly influenced by the presence of spin label nitroxide are located in a conformation within a few angstroms of the SL-Phe binding site. Proton NMR relaxation measurements of the C2 and C4 proton resonances from the ..beta..2, 4b143 and ..beta..146 histidine residues show significant and selective effects from the binding of SL-Phe to Hb, indicating that the SL-Phe binding site must be close to the side chains of these three residues. The strong antigelation activity of SL-Phe suggests that this binding site may be one of the intermolecular contact sites of importance to the deoxy HbS aggregation process.

  15. Systemic D-Phenylalanine and D-Leucine for Effective Treatment of Pain in the Horse

    PubMed Central

    McKibbin, L. S.; Cheng, R. S. S.

    1982-01-01

    This study showed that subcutaneous injection of a solution of D-amino acids produced effective analgesia in horses. It is postulated that systemic D-phenylalanine and D-leucine may become one of the safe, effective and nonaddictive drugs for acute and chronic pain treatment. These D-amino acids cause analgesia by presumably preserving brain endorphins. They may bind reversibly to enkephalinases and prevent enzymatic degradation of enkephalins. PMID:17422107

  16. Redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B): Importance of steric and electronic effects on the unusual cyclization of the sulfenic acid intermediate to a sulfenyl amide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Bani Kanta

    2013-09-01

    The redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) via the unusual transformation of its sulfenic acid (PTP1B-SOH) to a cyclic sulfenyl amide intermediate is studied by using small molecule chemical models. These studies suggest that the sulfenic acids derived from the H2O2-mediated reactions o-amido thiophenols do not efficiently cyclize to sulfenyl amides and the sulfenic acids produced in situ can be trapped by using methyl iodide. Theoretical calculations suggest that the most stable conformer of such sulfenic acids are stabilized by nO → σ*S-OH orbital interactions, which force the -OH group to adopt a position trans to the S⋯O interaction, leading to an almost linear arrangement of the O⋯S-O moiety and this may be the reason for the slow cyclization of such sulfenic acids to their corresponding sulfenyl amides. On the other hand, additional substituents at the 6-position of o-amido phenylsulfenic acids that can induce steric environment and alter the electronic properties around the sulfenic acid moiety by S⋯N or S⋯O nonbonded interactions destabilize the sulfenic acids by inducing strain in the molecule. This may lead to efficient the cyclization of such sulfenic acids. This model study suggests that the amino acid residues in the close proximity of the sulfenic acid moiety in PTP1B may play an important role in the cyclization of PTP1B-SOH to produce the corresponding sulfenyl amide.

  17. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-04-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation.

  18. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-12-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation.

  19. Improving the Production of L-Phenylalanine by Identifying Key Enzymes Through Multi-Enzyme Reaction System in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dongqin; Liu, Yongfei; Xu, Yiran; Zheng, Ping; Li, Haixing; Zhang, Dawei; Sun, Jibin

    2016-01-01

    L-Phenylalanine (L-Phe) is an important amino acid used in both food and medicinal applications. We developed an in vitro system that allowed a direct, quantitative investigation of phenylalanine biosynthesis in E. coli. Here, the absolute concentrations of six enzymes (AroK, AroL, AroA, AroC, PheA and TyrB) involved in the shikimate (SHIK) pathway were determined by a quantitative proteomics approach and in vitro enzyme titration experiments. The reconstitution of an in vitro reaction system for these six enzymes was established and their effects on the phenylalanine production were tested. The results showed that the yield of phenylalanine increased 3.0 and 2.1 times when the concentrations of shikimate kinase (AroL) and 5-enolpyruvoyl shikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase (AroA) were increased 2.5 times. Consistent results were obtained from in vivo via the overexpression of AroA in a phenylalanine-producing strain, and the titer of phenylalanine reached 62.47 g/l after 48 h cultivation in a 5-liter jar fermentor. Our quantitative findings provide a practical method to detect the potential bottleneck in a specific metabolic pathway to determine which gene products should be targeted to improve the yield of the desired product. PMID:27558633

  20. Selective separation of sodium ions from a mixture with phenylalanine by Donnan dialysis with a profiled sulfogroup cation exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'eva, V. I.; Goleva, E. A.

    2013-11-01

    The possibility of separating ions of metal from a mixture with ampholyte (an amino acid) by Donnan dialysis with an MK-40 sulfogroup cation exchange membrane is demonstrated. Conditions ensuring the selectivity and intensity of the mass transfer of sodium ions from a mixture with bipolar phenylalanine ions into a diffusate containing hydrochloric acid through a cation exchange membrane are found.

  1. L-tyrosine production by recombinant Escherichia coli: fermentation optimization and recovery.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Ranjan; Zolandz, Raymond R; Green, Daniel A; Kraynie, David F

    2008-03-01

    L-tyrosine (L-tyr) overproducing Escherichia coli strain derived from an L-phenylalanine (L-phe) overproducing strain is characterized in 10 L and 200 L scale fermentations. Deletion of the chromosomal region encoding for the pheA gene, chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydratase, its leader peptide (pheL) and its associated promoter resulted in significant increase in L-tyr production (Olson et al., 2007. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 74(5):1031-1040). Further increase in titer was achieved by overexpressing tyrA, encoding chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase, from a strong non-native trc promoter (Olson et al., 2007. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 74(5):1031-1040). Fermentation optimization studies include media component selection; glucose feed optimization, antifoam agent selection, and understanding fermentation parameters affecting foaming. Generational stability of the strain was evaluated along with rate, titer, and yield of tyrosine formation from glucose. L-tyr titer of 55 g/L in 48 h was demonstrated in 200 L batches, is the highest titer published till date. We have also evaluated two primary separations schemes to isolate and purify L-tyr from the fermentation broth. Physical separation of L-tyr crystals from biomass using a decanter type centrifuge, based on the density difference between the solids, is compared and contrasted with a strategy where L-tyr is first dissolved at pH 11.5 and then acid precipitated from clarified supernatants following removal of biomass using membrane filtration. L-tyr product purity of 98% with yields ranging from 90% to 95% is demonstrated.

  2. Biochemical properties and crystal structure of a β-phenylalanine aminotransferase from Variovorax paradoxus.

    PubMed

    Crismaru, Ciprian G; Wybenga, Gjalt G; Szymanski, Wiktor; Wijma, Hein J; Wu, Bian; Bartsch, Sebastian; de Wildeman, Stefaan; Poelarends, Gerrit J; Feringa, Ben L; Dijkstra, Bauke W; Janssen, Dick B

    2013-01-01

    By selective enrichment, we isolated a bacterium that can use β-phenylalanine as a sole nitrogen source. It was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a strain of Variovorax paradoxus. Enzyme assays revealed an aminotransferase activity. Partial genome sequencing and screening of a cosmid DNA library resulted in the identification of a 1,302-bp aminotransferase gene, which encodes a 46,416-Da protein. The gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme was purified and showed a specific activity of 17.5 U mg(-1) for (S)-β-phenylalanine at 30°C and 33 U mg(-1) at the optimum temperature of 55°C. The β-specific aminotransferase exhibits a broad substrate range, accepting ortho-, meta-, and para-substituted β-phenylalanine derivatives as amino donors and 2-oxoglutarate and pyruvate as amino acceptors. The enzyme is highly enantioselective toward (S)-β-phenylalanine (enantioselectivity [E], >100) and derivatives thereof with different substituents on the phenyl ring, allowing the kinetic resolution of various racemic β-amino acids to yield (R)-β-amino acids with >95% enantiomeric excess (ee). The crystal structures of the holoenzyme and of the enzyme in complex with the inhibitor 2-aminooxyacetate revealed structural similarity to the β-phenylalanine aminotransferase from Mesorhizobium sp. strain LUK. The crystal structure was used to rationalize the stereo- and regioselectivity of V. paradoxus aminotransferase and to define a sequence motif with which new aromatic β-amino acid-converting aminotransferases may be identified.

  3. Euglena mitochondria and chloroplasts form tyrosine-O-sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Saidha, T.; Hanfstingl, U.; Schiff, J.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Mitochondria from light-grown wild-type Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris Cori or dark-grown mutant W{sub 10}BSmL incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, or with {sup 14}C-tyrosine, non-radioactive sulfate and ATP accumulate a labeled compound in the medium. Since this compound shows exact coelectrophoresis with tyrosine-O-sulfate (TOS) at pH 2.0, 5.8 or 8.0., yields sulfate and tyrosine on acid hydrolysis, and treatment with aryl sulfatase from Aerobacter aerogenes yields sulfate and tyrosine but no tyrosine methyl ester, it is identified as TOS. No TOS is found outside purified developing chloroplasts incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, but both chloroplasts and mitochondria form to {sup 35}S externally when incubated with adenosine 3{prime} phosphate 5{prime}phospho({sup 35}S) sulfate (PAP{sup 35}S). Since no tyrosine need be added, tyrosine is provided from endogenous sources. Although TOS is found in the free pool of Euglena cells it cannot be detected in proteins of cells or mucus ruling our sulfation of tyrosine of protein or incorporation of TOS into proteins. The system forming TOS is membrane-bound and may be involved in tyrosine transport.

  4. Disruption of phenylalanine hydroxylase reduces adult lifespan and fecundity, and impairs embryonic development in parthenogenetic pea aphids

    PubMed Central

    Simonet, Pierre; Gaget, Karen; Parisot, Nicolas; Duport, Gabrielle; Rey, Marjolaine; Febvay, Gérard; Charles, Hubert; Callaerts, Patrick; Colella, Stefano; Calevro, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is a key tyrosine-biosynthetic enzyme involved in neurological and melanin-associated physiological processes. Despite extensive investigations in holometabolous insects, a PAH contribution to insect embryonic development has never been demonstrated. Here, we have characterized, for the first time, the PAH gene in a hemimetabolous insect, the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses confirmed that ApPAH is closely related to metazoan PAH, exhibiting the typical ACT regulatory and catalytic domains. Temporal expression patterns suggest that ApPAH has an important role in aphid developmental physiology, its mRNA levels peaking at the end of embryonic development. We used parental dsApPAH treatment to generate successful knockdown in aphid embryos and to study its developmental role. ApPAH inactivation shortens the adult aphid lifespan and considerably affects fecundity by diminishing the number of nymphs laid and impairing embryonic development, with newborn nymphs exhibiting severe morphological defects. Using single nymph HPLC analyses, we demonstrated a significant tyrosine deficiency and a consistent accumulation of the upstream tyrosine precursor, phenylalanine, in defective nymphs, thus confirming the RNAi-mediated disruption of PAH activity. This study provides first insights into the role of PAH in hemimetabolous insects and demonstrates that this metabolic gene is essential for insect embryonic development. PMID:27694983

  5. Phenylketonuria: An Inborn Error of Phenylalanine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Robin A; Mamotte, Cyril DS; Burnett, John R

    2008-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism resulting from deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). Most forms of PKU and hyperphenylalaninaemia (HPA) are caused by mutations in the PAH gene on chromosome 12q23.2. Untreated PKU is associated with an abnormal phenotype which includes growth failure, poor skin pigmentation, microcephaly, seizures, global developmental delay and severe intellectual impairment. However, since the introduction of newborn screening programs and with early dietary intervention, children born with PKU can now expect to lead relatively normal lives. A better understanding of the biochemistry, genetics and molecular basis of PKU, as well as the need for improved treatment options, has led to the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:18566668

  6. Integrin engagement mediates tyrosine dephosphorylation on platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, T T; Yan, L G; Madri, J A

    1996-01-01

    Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31) is a 130-kDa member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily expressed on endothelial cells, platelets, neutrophils, and monocytes and plays a role during endothelial cell migration. Phosphoamino acid analysis and Western blot analysis with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody show that endothelial PECAM-1 is tyrosine-phosphorylated. Phosphorylation is decreased with endothelial cell migration on fibronectin and collagen and with cell spreading on fibronectin but not on plastic. Cell adhesion on anti-integrin antibodies is also able to specifically induce PECAM-1 dephosphorylation while concurrently inducing pp125 focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Inhibition of dephosphorylation with sodium orthovanadate suggests that this effect is at least partially mediated by phosphatase activity. Tyr-663 and Tyr-686 are identified as potential phosphorylation sites and mutated to phenylalanine. When expressed, both mutants show reduced PECAM-1 phosphorylation but Phe-686 mutants also show significant reversal of PECAM-1-mediated inhibition of cell migration and do not localize PECAM-1 to cell borders. Our results suggest that beta 1-integrin engagement can signal to dephosphorylate PECAM-1 and that this signaling pathway may play a role during endothelial cell migration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8876219

  7. Residue 182 influences the second step of protein-tyrosine phosphatase-mediated catalysis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anja K; Guo, Xiao-Ling; Møller, Karin B; Peters, Günther H; Andersen, Henrik S; Kastrup, Jette S; Mortensen, Steen B; Iversen, Lars F; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Møller, Niels Peter H

    2004-03-01

    Previous enzyme kinetic and structural studies have revealed a critical role for Asp181 (PTP1B numbering) in PTP (protein-tyrosine phosphatase)-mediated catalysis. In the E-P (phosphoenzyme) formation step, Asp181 functions as a general acid, while in the E-P hydrolysis step it acts as a general base. Most of our understanding of the role of Asp181 is derived from studies with the Yersinia PTP and the mammalian PTP1B, and to some extent also TC (T-cell)-PTP and the related PTPa and PTPe. The neighbouring residue 182 is a phenylalanine in these four mammalian enzymes and a glutamine in Yersinia PTP. Surprisingly, little attention has been paid to the fact that this residue is a histidine in most other mammalian PTPs. Using a reciprocal single-point mutational approach with introduction of His182 in PTP1B and Phe182 in PTPH1, we demonstrate here that His182-PTPs, in comparison with Phe182-PTPs, have significantly decreased kcat values, and to a lesser degree, decreased kcat/Km values. Combined enzyme kinetic, X-ray crystallographic and molecular dynamics studies indicate that the effect of His182 is due to interactions with Asp181 and with Gln262. We conclude that residue 182 can modulate the functionality of both Asp181 and Gln262 and therefore affect the E-P hydrolysis step of PTP-mediated catalysis.

  8. OMEGA-3 LONG-CHAIN POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN OLDER CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), the most prevalent inborn error of metabolism, is usually secondary to low hepatic activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Growth and development of infants and children with PKU who are managed by mandatory n...

  9. The M1 family of vertebrate aminopeptidases: role of evolutionarily conserved tyrosines in the enzymatic mechanism of aminopeptidase B.

    PubMed

    Cadel, Sandrine; Darmon, Cécile; Pernier, Julien; Hervé, Guy; Foulon, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    Aminopeptidase B (Ap-B), a member of the M1 family of Zn(2+)-aminopeptidases, removes basic residues at the NH2-terminus of peptides and is involved in the in vivo proteolytic processing of miniglucagon and cholecystokinin-8. M1 enzymes hydrolyze numerous different peptides and are implicated in many physiological functions. As these enzymes have similar catalytic mechanisms, their respective substrate specificity and/or catalytic efficiency must be based on subtle structural differences at or near the catalytic site. This leads to the hypothesis that each primary structure contains a consensus structural template, strictly necessary for aminopeptidase activity, and a specific amino acid environment localized in or outside the catalytic pocket that finely tunes the substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency of each enzyme. A multiple sequence alignment of M1 peptidases from vertebrates allowed to identify conserved tyrosine amino acids, which are members of this catalytic backbone. In the present work, site-directed mutagenesis and 3D molecular modeling of Ap-B were used to specify the role of four fully (Y281, Y229, Y414, and Y441) and one partially (Y409) conserved residues. Tyrosine to phenylalanine mutations allowed confirming the influence of the hydroxyl groups on the enzyme activity. These groups are implicated in the reaction mechanism (Y414), in substrate specificity and/or catalytic efficiency (Y409), in stabilization of essential amino acids of the active site (Y229, Y409) and potentially in the maintenance of its structural integrity (Y281, Y441). The importance of hydrogen bonds is verified by the Y229H substitution, which preserves the enzyme activity. These data provide new insights into the catalytic mechanism of Ap-B in the M1 family of aminopeptidases.

  10. Phenylalanine hydroxylase activity and expression in chicks subjected to phenylalanine imbalance or phenylalanine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lartey, F M; Austic, R E

    2009-04-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the activity of hepatic Phe hydroxylase (PAH) and plasma amino acid concentrations under conditions of Phe imbalance or toxicity in chicks fed on experimental diets from 7 to 14 or 16 d of age. In experiment 1, Phe imbalance was created by adding 10% of a mixture of indispensable amino acids lacking Phe (IAA - Phe) to a basal diet containing 0.46% Phe. The activity of PAH was not significantly affected by the imbalance. Correcting the imbalance by adding 1.12% Phe to the diet prevented the growth impairment and increased the activity of PAH. In experiment 2, growth was reduced by the addition of excess (2%) Phe to the basal diet. Correcting the excess by adding the IAA - Phe to the diet prevented the growth reduction. The activity of PAH was not significantly affected by 2% Phe, but it increased in chicks fed the corrected diet. The levels of PAH mRNA were not affected by the dietary treatments. A factorial arrangement of treatments with 3 dietary levels of Phe (0.46, 1.58, and 2.46%) with or without the IAA - Phe was used in experiment 3. The effects on growth were similar to those of the same treatments in experiments 1 and 2. The addition of Phe significantly increased hepatic PAH activity, but there was no detectable main effect of the IAA - Phe and no interaction. Plasma Phe concentration was increased by dietary Phe and decreased by the IAA - Phe mixture. We conclude that hepatic PAH activity in chicks variably increases in response to Phe or a 10% dietary supplement of indispensable amino acids including Phe but does not increase in response to IAA - Phe when the amino acids are added to a diet that is marginally adequate in Phe. The increased activity does not involve changes in PAH mRNA. The effects of IAA - Phe on plasma Phe concentrations appear to be independent of hepatic PAH activity as measured in vitro.

  11. Tissue and method specificities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase assay.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj

    2012-09-01

    A large number of studies have estimated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity because it strongly reacts to various stimuli. Activity of this enzyme has been assayed mainly by means of spectrophotometry, but the precision of this method is poorly known. We compared assays of PAL activity using spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in two species (Matricaria chamomilla and Arabidopsis thaliana). Additionally, copper-exposed M. chamomilla plants and buffer with additive were also tested. Our data indicate that spectrophotometry both overestimates (leaves of M. chamomilla) and underestimates (leaves and roots of A. thaliana) PAL activity in comparison with HPLC, suggesting interference of UV-absorbing metabolites. HPLC also showed more accurate detection of cinnamic acid in Cu-exposed chamomile roots. Addition of dithiothreitol to the extraction buffer enhanced PAL activity but reduced proteins, indicating an artificial negative effect. A comparison of PAL activity in selected species is also provided.

  12. Differentiation of green, white, black, Oolong, and Pu-erh teas according to their free amino acids content.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, A; Ballesteros, O; Jurado, J M; Pablos, F; Martín, M J; Vilches, J L; Navalón, A

    2007-07-25

    In this paper, the differentiation of green, black, Oolong, white, and Pu-erh teas has been carried out according to their free amino acid contents. Alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, isoleucine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, theanine, threonine, and tyrosine have been determined by liquid chromatography with derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde and fluorescence detection. The chromatographic separation was achieved with a Hypersil ODS column and gradient elution. The amino acid contents were used as chemometric descriptors for classification purposes of different tea varieties. Principal component analysis, k-nearest neighbors, linear discriminant analysis, and artificial neural networks were applied to differentiate tea varieties. Using back-propagation multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks, 100% success in the classification was obtained. The most differentiating amino acids were glutamic acid, asparagine, serine, alanine, leucine, and isoleucine.

  13. Tritium secondary kinetic isotope effect on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase-catalyzed reaction.

    PubMed

    Lewandowicz, A; Jemielity, J; Kańska, M; Zoń, J; Paneth, P

    1999-10-15

    The mechanism by which phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) catalyzes the reversible elimination of ammonia from phenylalanine yielding (E)-cinnamic acid has gained much attention in the recent years. Dehydroalanine is essential for the catalysis. It was assumed that this prostetic group acts as the electrophile, leading to a covalently bonded enzyme-intermediate complex with quarternary nitrogen of phenylalanine. Recently, an alternative mechanism has been suggested in which the enzyme-intermediate complex is formed in a Friedel-Crafts reaction between dehydroalanine and orthocarbon of the aromatic ring. Using semiempirical calculations we have shown that these two alternative mechanisms can be distinguished on the basis of the hydrogen secondary kinetic isotope effect when tritium label is placed in the orthopositions. Our calculations indicated also that the kinetic isotope effect measured using ring-labeled d(5)-phenylalanine could not be used to differentiate these alternative mechanisms. Measured secondary tritium kinetic isotope effect shows strong dependence on the reaction progress, starting at the inverse value of k(H)/k(T) = 0.85 for 5% conversion and reaching the normal value of about 1.15 as the conversion increases to 20%. This dependence has been interpreted in terms of a complex mechanism with initial formation of the Friedel-Crafts type intermediate.

  14. Optimal serum phenylalanine for adult patients with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Okano, Yoshiyuki; Nagasaka, Hironori

    2013-12-01

    High serum phenylalanine in adult patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) causes neuropsychological and psychosocial problems that can be resolved by phenylalanine-restricted diet. Therefore, PKU patients must continue to adhere to phenylalanine-restricted diet for life, although the optimal serum phenylalanine level in later life has yet to be established. The purpose of this review was to establish the optimal serum phenylalanine level in later life of PKU patients. We evaluated oxidative stress status, nitric oxide metabolism, cholesterol-derived oxysterols, vitamin D and bone status, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adult PKU patients according to serum phenylalanine level. Oxidative stress increased markedly at serum phenylalanine of 700-800 μmol/L. Serum phenylalanine higher than 700-850 μmol/L correlated with the disturbance of nitric oxide regulatory system. Adult PKU patients had poor vitamin D status and exhibited predominance of bone resorption over bone formation. In the brain, the levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol, a marker of brain cholesterol elimination, were low at serum phenylalanine levels exceeding 650 μmol/L. MRI studies showed high signal intensity in deep white matter on T2-weighted and FLAIR images of PKU patients with serum phenylalanine greater than 500 μmol/L, with decreased apparent diffusion coefficients. Changes in most parameters covering the entire body organs in adult PKU were almost acceptable below 700-800 μmol/L of phenylalanine level. However, the optimal serum phenylalanine level should be 500 μmol/L or less in later life for the brain to be safe.

  15. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation in streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Waters, B; Vujaklija, D; Gold, M R; Davies, J

    1994-07-01

    Using phosphotyrosine-specific antibodies, we demonstrate that in several Streptomyces spp. a variety of proteins are phosphorylated on tyrosine residues. Tyrosine phosphorylation was found in a number of Streptomyces species including Streptomyces lividans, Streptomyces hygroscopicus and Streptomyces lavendulae. Each species exhibited a unique pattern of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Moreover, the patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation varied during the growth phase and were also influenced by culture conditions. We suggest that metabolic shifts during the complex growth cycle of these filamentous bacteria, and possibly secondary metabolic pathways, may be controlled by the action of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases, as has been demonstrated in signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic organisms.

  16. Phenylalanine as a hydroxyl radical-specific probe in pyrite slurries.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Shawn C; Schoonen, Martin Aa; Brownawell, Bruce J

    2012-02-07

    The abundant iron sulfide mineral pyrite has been shown to catalytically produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (.OH) in slurries of oxygenated water. Understanding the formation and fate of these reactive oxygen species is important to biological and ecological systems as exposure can lead to deleterious health effects, but also environmental engineering during the optimization of remediation approaches for possible treatment of contaminated waste streams. This study presents the use of the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) to monitor the kinetics of pyrite-induced .OH formation through rates of hydroxylation forming three isomers of tyrosine (Tyr) - ortho-, meta-, and para-Tyr. Results indicate that about 50% of the Phe loss results in Tyr formation, and that these products further react with .OH at rates comparable to Phe. The overall loss of Phe appeared to be pseudo first-order in [Phe] as a function of time, but for the first time it is shown that initial rates were much less than first-order as a function of initial substrate concentration, [Phe]o. These results can be rationalized by considering that the effective concentration of .OH in solution is lower at a higher level of reactant and that an increasing fraction of .OH is consumed by Phe-degradation products as a function of time. A simplified first-order model was created to describe Phe loss in pyrite slurries which incorporates the [Phe]o, a first-order dependence on pyrite surface area, the assumption that all Phe degradation products compete equally for the limited supply of highly reactive .OH, and a flux that is related to the release of H2O2 from the pyrite surface (a result of the incomplete reduction of oxygen at the pyrite surface). An empirically derived rate constant, Kpyr, was introduced to describe a variable .OH-reactivity for different batches of pyrite. Both the simplified first-order kinetic model, and a more detailed numerical simulation, yielded results that compare well

  17. Selectivity and affinity determinants for ligand binding to the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases.

    PubMed

    Teigen, Knut; McKinney, Jeffrey Alan; Haavik, Jan; Martínez, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxylation of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan is carried out by a family of non-heme iron and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) dependent enzymes, i.e. the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAHs). The reactions catalyzed by these enzymes are important for biomedicine and their mutant forms in humans are associated with phenylketonuria (phenylalanine hydroxylase), Parkinson's disease and DOPA-responsive dystonia (tyrosine hydroxylase), and possibly neuropsychiatric and gastrointestinal disorders (tryptophan hydroxylase 1 and 2). We attempt to rationalize current knowledge about substrate and inhibitor specificity based on the three-dimensional structures of the enzymes and their complexes with substrates, cofactors and inhibitors. In addition, further insights on the selectivity and affinity determinants for ligand binding in the AAHs were obtained from molecular interaction field (MIF) analysis. We applied this computational structural approach to a rational analysis of structural differences at the active sites of the enzymes, a strategy that can help in the design of novel selective ligands for each AAH.

  18. Antigen-specific T cell-mediated suppression. V. H-2-linked genetic control of distinct antigen-specific defects in the production and activity of L-glutamic acid50-L-tyrosine50 suppressor factor

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The occurrence of distinct genetic defects affecting the generation of T cell-derived suppressor factor (TsF) or the suppressive activity of such TsF was investigated. For the synthetic polypeptide L-glutamic acid50-L-tyrosine50 (GT), it could be shown that the nonsuppressor strain A/J fails to produce suppressor T cells (Ts1) capable of GT-TsF generation upon challenge with GT. Conversely, B6, another nonsuppressor strain, produces GT-TsF active on other allogeneic strains such as A/J, but itself fails to be suppressed by this material. (B6A)F1 mice both make GT-TsF, and are suppressed by it. Further experiments revealed that the production of GT-TsF and the ability to be suppressed by GT-TsF are under the control of H-2-linked genes. Finally, the defect in GT-TsF activity in B6 mice was shown to be exquisitely antigen specific, in that this strain can be suppressed by a closely related TsF specific for L-glutamic acid60-L-alanine30-L- tyrosine10. It is suggested that H-2 (I) control of suppressor T cell (Ts) activity may reflect the involvement of I-A and I-C gene products in antigen presentation to Ts in analog with other T cell subsets, and that TsF function might also involve such presentation, in this case of the idiotypic structures of the TsF-combining site. Predictions deriving from this hypothesis are discussed, including the possibility that H-2 linked immune response genes regulate auto-anti-idiotypic responses in immune networks. PMID:6445400

  19. Effect of Thenardite on the Direct Detection of Aromatic Amino Acids: Implications for the Search for Life in the Solar System

    SciTech Connect

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Jill R. Scott

    2009-10-01

    With the discovery of Na-sulfate minerals on Mars and Europa, recent studies using these minerals have focused on their ability to assist in the detection of bio/organic signatures. This study further investigates the ability of thenardite (Na2SO4) to effectively facilitate the ionization and identification of aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) using a technique called geomatrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (GALDI) in conjunction with a Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). This technique is based on the ability of a mineral host to facilitate the ionization and detection of bio/organic molecules. Spectra obtained from each aromatic amino acid alone and in combination with thenardite show differences in ionization mechanism and fragmentation patterns. These differences are due to chemical and structural differences between the aromatic side chains of their respective amino acid. Tyrosine and tryptophan when combined with thenardite were observed to undergo cation-attachment ([M+Na]+), due to the high alkali affinity of their aromatic side chains. Subsequent cation substitution of the carboxyl group led to formation double cation-attached peaks ([M-H+Na]Na+). In contrast, phenylalanine mixed with thenardite showed no evidence of Na+ interaction. Understanding how codeposition of amino acids with thenardite can affect the observed mass spectra is important for future exploration missions that are likely to use laser desorption mass spectrometry to search for bio/organic compounds in extraterrestrial environments.

  20. Experiments on the origins of optical activity. [in amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. A.; Flores, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted concerning the asymmetric adsorption of phenylalanine enantiomers by kaolin. No preferential adsorption of either phenylalanine enantiomer could be detected and there was no resolution of the racemic phenylalanine by kaolin. The attempted asymmetric polymerization of aspartic acid by kaolin is also discussed along with a strontium-90 bremsstrahlung radiolysis of leucine.

  1. A new precursor for the preparation of 6-[18F]-fluoro-L-m-tyrosine (FMT): Efficient synthesis and comparison of radiolabeling

    SciTech Connect

    VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Blagoev, Milan; Hoepping, Alexander; O'Neil, James P.; Klose, Manuela; Schubiger, Pius A.; Ametamey, Simon

    2004-01-09

    For the electrophilic preparation of 6-[18F]-Fluoro-L-m-tyrosine (FMT), a PET tracer for measuring changes in dopaminergic function in movement disorders, a novel precursor, N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-3-(tert-butoxycarbonyloxy)-6-trimethylstannnyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester, was synthesized in four steps and 26 percent yield starting from L-m-tyrosine. FMT produced by two methods at two institutions was comparable in decay corrected yield, 25-26 percent, and quality (chemical, enantiomeric, and radiochemical purity and specific activity) as that obtained with the original N-trifluoroacetyl-3-acetyl-6-trimethylstannyl-L-m-tyrosine ethyl ester FMT precursor.

  2. Tyrosine phosphorylation of glutamate receptors by non-receptor tyrosine kinases: roles in depression-like behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Li-Min; Wang, John Q.

    2016-01-01

    Several key members of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase (nRTK) family are abundantly present within excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain. These neuron-enriched nRTKs interact with glutamate receptors and phosphorylate the receptors at tyrosine sites. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor is a direct substrate of nRTKs and has been extensively investigated in its phosphorylation responses to nRTKs. The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor is the other glutamate receptor subtype that is subject to nRTK-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation. Recently, group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/5) were found to be sensitive to nRTKs. Robust tyrosine phosphorylation may occur in C-terminal tails of mGluR5. Tyrosine phosphorylation of glutamate receptors is either constitutive or induced activity-dependently by changing cellular and/or synaptic input. Through inducing tyrosine phosphorylation, nRTKs regulate trafficking, subcellular distribution, and function of modified receptors. Available data show that nRTK-glutamate receptor interactions and tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptors undergo drastic adaptations in mood disorders such as major depressive disorder. The remodeling of the nRTK-glutamate receptor interplay contributes to the long-lasting pathophysiology and symptomology of depression. This review summarizes the recent progress in tyrosine phosphorylation of glutamate receptors and analyzes the role of nRTKs in regulating glutamate receptors and depression-like behavior. PMID:26942227

  3. Light-activated amino acid transport in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. E.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    Vesicles prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes accumulate amino acids in response to light-induced electrical and chemical gradients. Nineteen of 20 commonly occurring amino acids have been shown to be actively accumulated by these vesicles in response to illumination or in response to an artificially created Na+ gradient. On the basis of shared common carriers the transport systems can be divided into eight classes, each responsible for the transport of one or several amino acids: arginine, lysine, histidine; asparagine, glutamine; alanine, glycine, threonine, serine; leucine, valine, isoleucine, methionine; phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan; aspartate; glutamate; proline. Available evidence suggests that these carriers are symmetrical in that amino acids can be transported equally well in both directions across the vesicle membranes. A tentative working model to account for these observations is presented.

  4. Dopamine release in rat striatum - Physiological coupling to tyrosine supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    During, Matthew J.; Acworth, Ian N.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    Intracerebral microdialysis was used to monitor dopamine release in rat striatal extracellular fluid following the intraperitoneal administration of dopamine's precursor amino acid, L-tyrosine. Dopamine concentrations in dialysates increased transiently after tyrosine (50-100 mg/kg) administration. Pretreatment with haloperidol or the partial lesioning of nigrostriatal neurons enhanced the effect of tyrosine on dopamine release, and haloperidol also prolonged this effect. These data suggest that nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons are responsive to changes in precursor availability under basal conditions, but that receptor-mediated feedback mechanisms limit the magnitude and duration of this effect.

  5. Structural basis for ligand-dependent dimerization of phenylalanine hydroxylase regulatory domain.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dipali; Kopec, Jolanta; Fitzpatrick, Fiona; McCorvie, Thomas J; Yue, Wyatt W

    2016-04-06

    The multi-domain enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) catalyzes the hydroxylation of dietary I-phenylalanine (Phe) to I-tyrosine. Inherited mutations that result in PAH enzyme deficiency are the genetic cause of the autosomal recessive disorder phenylketonuria. Phe is the substrate for the PAH active site, but also an allosteric ligand that increases enzyme activity. Phe has been proposed to bind, in addition to the catalytic domain, a site at the PAH N-terminal regulatory domain (PAH-RD), to activate the enzyme via an unclear mechanism. Here we report the crystal structure of human PAH-RD bound with Phe at 1.8 Å resolution, revealing a homodimer of ACT folds with Phe bound at the dimer interface. This work delivers the structural evidence to support previous solution studies that a binding site exists in the RD for Phe, and that Phe binding results in dimerization of PAH-RD. Consistent with our structural observation, a disease-associated PAH mutant impaired in Phe binding disrupts the monomer:dimer equilibrium of PAH-RD. Our data therefore support an emerging model of PAH allosteric regulation, whereby Phe binds to PAH-RD and mediates the dimerization of regulatory modules that would bring about conformational changes to activate the enzyme.

  6. Structural basis for ligand-dependent dimerization of phenylalanine hydroxylase regulatory domain

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dipali; Kopec, Jolanta; Fitzpatrick, Fiona; McCorvie, Thomas J.; Yue, Wyatt W.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-domain enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) catalyzes the hydroxylation of dietary I-phenylalanine (Phe) to I-tyrosine. Inherited mutations that result in PAH enzyme deficiency are the genetic cause of the autosomal recessive disorder phenylketonuria. Phe is the substrate for the PAH active site, but also an allosteric ligand that increases enzyme activity. Phe has been proposed to bind, in addition to the catalytic domain, a site at the PAH N-terminal regulatory domain (PAH-RD), to activate the enzyme via an unclear mechanism. Here we report the crystal structure of human PAH-RD bound with Phe at 1.8 Å resolution, revealing a homodimer of ACT folds with Phe bound at the dimer interface. This work delivers the structural evidence to support previous solution studies that a binding site exists in the RD for Phe, and that Phe binding results in dimerization of PAH-RD. Consistent with our structural observation, a disease-associated PAH mutant impaired in Phe binding disrupts the monomer:dimer equilibrium of PAH-RD. Our data therefore support an emerging model of PAH allosteric regulation, whereby Phe binds to PAH-RD and mediates the dimerization of regulatory modules that would bring about conformational changes to activate the enzyme. PMID:27049649

  7. Src tyrosine kinase alters gating of hyperpolarization-activated HCN4 pacemaker channel through Tyr531.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-Hong; Zhang, Qi; Teng, Bunyen; Mustafa, S Jamal; Huang, Jian-Ying; Yu, Han-Gang

    2008-01-01

    We recently discovered that the constitutively active Src tyrosine kinase can enhance hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) 4 channel activity by binding to the channel protein. To investigate the mechanism of modulation by Src of HCN channels, we studied the effects of a selective inhibitor of Src tyrosine kinase, 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2), on HCN4 and its mutant channels expressed in HEK 293 cells by using a whole cell patch-clamp technique. We found that PP2 can inhibit HCN4 currents by negatively shifting the voltage dependence of channel activation, decreasing the whole cell channel conductance, and slowing activation and deactivation kinetics. Screening putative tyrosine residues subject to phosphorylation yielded two candidates: Tyr(531) and Tyr(554). Substituting HCN4-Tyr(531) with phenylalanine largely abolished the effects of PP2 on HCN4 channels. Replacing HCN4-Tyr(554) with phenylalanine did not abolish the effects of PP2 on voltage-dependent activation but did eliminate PP2-induced slowing of channel kinetics. The inhibitory effects of HCN channels associated with reduced Src tyrosine activity is confirmed in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Finally, we found that PP2 can decrease the heart rate in a mouse model. These results demonstrate that Src tyrosine kinase enhances HCN4 currents by shifting their activation to more positive potentials and increasing the whole cell channel conductance as well as speeding the channel kinetics. The tyrosine residue that mediates most of Src's actions on HCN4 channels is Tyr(531).

  8. Bacterial phenylalanine and phenylacetate catabolic pathway revealed

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, R.; Mascaraque, V.; Ismail, W.; Voss, M.; Perera, J.; Eisenreich, W.; Haehnel, W.; Fuchs, G.

    2010-01-01

    Aromatic compounds constitute the second most abundant class of organic substrates and environmental pollutants, a substantial part of which (e.g., phenylalanine or styrene) is metabolized by bacteria via phenylacetate. Surprisingly, the bacterial catabolism of phenylalanine and phenylacetate remained an unsolved problem. Although a phenylacetate metabolic gene cluster had been identified, the underlying biochemistry remained largely unknown. Here we elucidate the catabolic pathway functioning in 16% of all bacteria whose genome has been sequenced, including Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida. This strategy is exceptional in several aspects. Intermediates are processed as CoA thioesters, and the aromatic ring of phenylacetyl-CoA becomes activated to a ring 1,2-epoxide by a distinct multicomponent oxygenase. The reactive nonaromatic epoxide is isomerized to a seven-member O-heterocyclic enol ether, an oxepin. This isomerization is followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage and β-oxidation steps, leading to acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA. This widespread paradigm differs significantly from the established chemistry of aerobic aromatic catabolism, thus widening our view of how organisms exploit such inert substrates. It provides insight into the natural remediation of man-made environmental contaminants such as styrene. Furthermore, this pathway occurs in various pathogens, where its reactive early intermediates may contribute to virulence. PMID:20660314

  9. Phenylalanine containing hydrophobic nanospheres for antibody purification.

    PubMed

    Türkmen, Deniz; Denizli, Adil; Oztürk, Nevra; Akgöl, Sinan; Elkak, Assem

    2008-01-01

    In this study, novel hydrophobic nanospheres with an average size of 158 nm utilizing N-methacryloyl-(L)-phenylalanine methyl ester (MAPA) as a hydrophobic monomer were produced by surfactant free emulsion polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and MAPA conducted in an aqueous dispersion medium. MAPA was synthesized using methacryloyl chloride and L-phenylalanine methyl ester. Specific surface area of the nonporous nanospheres was found to be 1874 m2/g. Poly(HEMA-MAPA) nanospheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Average particle size, size distribution, and surface charge measurements were also performed. Elemental analysis of MAPA for nitrogen was estimated as 0.42 mmol/g polymer. Then, poly(HEMA-MAPA) nanospheres were used in the adsorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in batch system. Higher adsorption values (780 mg/g) were obtained when the poly (HEMA-MAPA) nanospheres were used from both aqueous solutions and human plasma. The adsorption phenomena appeared to follow a typical Langmuir isotherm. It was observed that IgG could be repeatedly adsorbed and desorbed without significant loss in adsorption amount. These findings show considerable promise for this material as a hydrophobic support in industrial processes.

  10. The carboxyl terminal tyrosine 417 residue of NOK has an autoinhibitory effect on NOK-mediated signaling transductions

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yinghua; Zhong Shan; Rong Zhili; Ren Yongming; Li Zhiyong; Zhang Shuping; Chang Zhijie; Liu Li . E-mail: Liu_Li@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2007-05-04

    Receptor protein tyrosine kinases (RPTKs) are essential mediators of cell growth, differentiation, migration, and metabolism. Recently, a novel RPTK named NOK has been cloned and characterized. In current study, we investigated the role of the carboxyl terminal tyrosine 417 residue of NOK in the activations of different signaling pathways. A single tyrosine to phenylalanine point mutation at Y417 site (Y417 F) not only dramatically enhanced the NOK-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but also markedly promoted the NOK-mediated activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 and 3 (STAT1 and 3). Moreover, the proliferation potential of NIH3T3-NOK (Y417F) stable cells were significantly elevated as compared with that of NIH3T3-NOK. Overall, our results demonstrate that the tyrosine Y417 residue at the carboxyl tail of NOK exhibits an autoinhibitory role in NOK-mediated signaling transductions.

  11. Effects of hemorrhagic hypotension on tyrosine concentrations in rat spinal cord and plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Maher, T. J.; Roberts, C. H.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Tyrosine is the precursor for catecholamine neurotransmitters. When catecholamine-containing neurons are physiologically active (as sympathoadrenal cells are in hypotension), tyrosine administration increases catecholamine synthesis and release. Since hypotension can alter plasma amino acid composition, the effects of an acute hypotensive insult on tyrosine concentrations in plasma and spinal cord were examined. Rats were cannulated and bled until the systolic blood pressure was 50 mmHg, or were kept normotensive for 1 h. Tyrosine and other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) known to compete with tyrosine for brain uptake were assayed in plasma and spinal cord. The rate at which intra-arterial (H-3)tyrosine disappeared from the plasma was also estimated in hemorrhaged and control rats. In plasma of hemorrhaged animals, both the tyrosine concentration and the tyrosine/LNAA ratio was elevated; moreover, the disappearance of (H-3)tyrosine was slowed. Tyrosine concentrations also increased in spinal cords of hemorrhaged-hypotensive rats when compared to normotensive controls. Changes in plasma amino acid patterns may thus influence spinal cord concentrations of amino acid precursors for neurotransmitters during the stress of hemorrhagic shock.

  12. Enhanced rosmarinic acid production in cultured plants of two species of Mentha.

    PubMed

    Roy, Debleena; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip

    2012-11-01

    In the present investigation an attempt has been made to enhance rosmarinic acid level in plants, grown in vitro, of 2 species of Mentha in presence of 2 precursors in the nutrient media during culture. For in vitro culture establishment and shoot bud multiplication, MS basal media were used supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of different growth regulator like NAA (alpha-napthaleneacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine). The medium containing NAA (0.25 mg/L) and BAP (2.5 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot formation (average 58.0 numbers of shoots) per explant for Mentha piperita L. and the medium containing BAP (2.0 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot (average 19.2 numbers of shoots) formation per explant for Mentha arvensis L. The complete plants were regenerated in above mentioned media after 8 weeks of subculture. For in vitro enhancement of rosmarinic acid production, the 2 precursors tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) were added in the nutrient media at different levels (0.5 mg/L to 15.0 mg/L). Tyrosine was found to be very effective for augmenting rosmarinic acid content in Mentha piperita L. It nearly increased the production up to 1.77 times. In case of Mentha arvensis L., phenylalanine significantly affected the production of rosmarinic acid and the production was nearly 2.03 times more than the control. No significant increase in biomass was observed after addition of these precursors indicating that the added amino acids acting as precursors for rosmarinic acid synthesis were readily utilized in producing rosmarinic acid without promoting growth. Total protein profile also revealed the presence of a specific band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  13. A resolution approach of racemic phenylalanine with aqueous two-phase systems of chiral tropine ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haoran; Yao, Shun; Qian, Guofei; Yao, Tian; Song, Hang

    2015-10-30

    Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) based on tropine type chiral ionic liquids and inorganic salt solution were designed and prepared for the enantiomeric separation of racemic phenylalanine. The phase behavior of IL-based ATPS was comprehensive investigated, and phase equilibrium data were correlated by Merchuk equation. Various factors were also systematically investigated for their influence on separation efficiency. Under the appropriate conditions (0.13g/g [C8Tropine]pro, 35mg/g Cu(Ac)2, 20mg/g d,l-phenylalanine, 0.51g/g H2O and 0.30g/g K2HPO4), the enantiomeric excess value of phenylalanine in solid phase (mainly containing l-enantiomer) was 65%. Finally, the interaction mechanism was studied via 1D and 2D NMR. The results indicate that d-enantiomer of phenylalanine interacts more strongly with chiral ILs and Cu(2+) based on the chiral ion-pairs space coordination mechanism, which makes it tend to remain in the top IL-rich phase. By contrast, l-enantiomer is transferred into the solid phase. Above chiral ionic liquids aqueous two-phase systems have demonstrated obvious resolution to racemic phenylalanine and could be promising alterative resolution approach for racemic amino acids in aqueous circumstance.

  14. A new and recyclable system based on tropin ionic liquids for resolution of several racemic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhixia; Hou, Zhenbo; Yao, Shun; Lin, Min; Song, Hang

    2017-04-01

    A new, recyclable solid-liquid resolution system was developed based on tropin ionic liquids [CnDTr][L-Pro]2 for the enantiomeric resolution of racemic phenylalanine and other α-substituted carboxylic acids including tryptophan, tyrosine, benzene glycine and mandelic acid. With racemic phenylalanine as resolution model, effect factors were investigated for better resolution conditions. On the conditions, some efficient resolution were achieved, for instance the e.e. (98%) and product yield (76%) in solid phase for phenylalanine, and the e.e. 99.71% in solid phase for tryptophan. Chiral product was verified with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectrum, thermal gravity analysis (TG), elemental analysis (EA) and chiral HPLC. Further, the resolution mechanism was studied with computer molecular dynamic simulations and UV-vis. The resolution was closely related to the formation of complexes (L-Phe-Cu(Ⅱ)-L-pro(-)) and the spatial configuration of D/L-Phe. The system is characteristic of high resolution, no organic solvent, easy isolation of solid-liquid and recycle of all chemical materials as much as possible.

  15. Kinetic Characterization of O-Phospho-L-Tyrosine Phosphohydrolase Activity of Two Fungal Phytases.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal phytases belonging to 'Histidine Acid Phosphatase' or HAP class of phosphomonoesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phytic acid could also hydrolyze O-phospho-tyrosine. Two phytases from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus awamori with pH optima 2.5 were tested for phospho-tyrosine hydrola...

  16. Transcriptome sequencing revealed the transcriptional organization at ribosome-mediated attenuation sites in Corynebacterium glutamicum and identified a novel attenuator involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Neshat, Armin; Mentz, Almut; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2014-11-20

    The Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum belongs to the order Corynebacteriales and is used as a producer of amino acids at industrial scales. Due to its economic importance, gene expression and particularly the regulation of amino acid biosynthesis has been investigated extensively. Applying the high-resolution technique of transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), recently a vast amount of data has been generated that was used to comprehensively analyze the C. glutamicum transcriptome. By analyzing RNA-seq data from a small RNA cDNA library of C. glutamicum, short transcripts in the known transcriptional attenuators sites of the trp operon, the ilvBNC operon and the leuA gene were verified. Furthermore, whole transcriptome RNA-seq data were used to elucidate the transcriptional organization of these three amino acid biosynthesis operons. In addition, we discovered and analyzed the novel attenuator aroR, located upstream of the aroF gene (cg1129). The DAHP synthase encoded by aroF catalyzes the first step in aromatic amino acid synthesis. The AroR leader peptide contains the amino acid sequence motif F-Y-F, indicating a regulatory effect by phenylalanine and tyrosine. Analysis by real-time RT-PCR suggests that the attenuator regulates the transcription of aroF in dependence of the cellular amount of tRNA loaded with phenylalanine when comparing a phenylalanine-auxotrophic C. glutamicum mutant fed with limiting and excess amounts of a phenylalanine-containing dipeptide. Additionally, the very interesting finding was made that all analyzed attenuators are leaderless transcripts.

  17. High resolution of racemic phenylalanine with dication imidazolium-based chiral ionic liquids in a solid-liquid two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Haoran; Wang, Zhixia; Luo, Yingjie; Song, Hang

    2017-01-06

    A novel solid-liquid two-phase system was developed for the chiral separation of racemic phenylalanine with new dication imidazolium-based chiral ionic liquids. Preliminary experiments showed distinct enantioselectivity in amino acid extraction with the novel solid-liquid two-phase system, more L-enantiomer of amino acid cooperatively interacted with ionic liquids and copper ions to be the solid phase. Various factors, including the alkyl chain length of cations of ionic liquids, the amount of copper acetate, the ratio of n(ILs)/n(Cu(2+)), the amount of water and racemic phenylalanine, the resolution time together with the resolution temperature, were systematically investigated for their influence on resolution efficiency. The results showed that, under a certain condition, the enantiomeric excess value and the yield of phenylalanine in liquid phase (mainly containing D-enantiomer) were 67.8% and 96.5%, the enantiomeric excess value and the yield of phenylalanine in solid phase (mainly containing L-enantiomer) were 99.2% and 85.2%. Finally, 2D NMR technology, infrared spectroscopy and molecular simulation method were used to study the interaction mechanism. The results indicated that L-enantiomer of phenylalanine interacts more strongly with chiral ILs and Cu(2+). The novel system has characteristics of free-organic solvent, simple operation, fast separation process and very high resolution efficiency for racemic phenylalanine. This work could provide a new and alternative resolution approach for other chiral separations.

  18. Effect of different postharvest temperatures on the accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hikaru; Ikoma, Yoshinori

    2012-10-03

    To elucidate the effect of different postharvest temperatures on the accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids and to determine the best temperature to minimize their postharvest change, their content after harvest was investigated at 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C for 14 days in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Aoshima-unshiu) fruit. In all sugars, the changes were negligible at all temperatures. Organic acids decreased slightly at all temperatures, with the exception of malic acid at 30 °C, which increased slightly. Two amino acids, ornithine and glutamine, increased at 5 °C, but they did not increase at other temperatures. In 11 amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, threonine, lysine, methionine, histidine, and γ-amino butyric acid), the content was higher at 20 and 30 °C than at other temperatures. Thus, the content of amino acids was more variable than that of sugars and organic acids in response to temperatures. Moreover, amino acids responded to temperature differently: two amino acids were cold responsive, and 11 were heat-responsive. The best temperature to minimize the postharvest changes in amino acid profiles in the juice sacs of Aoshima-unshiu was 10 °C. The responsiveness to temperatures in two cold-responsive (ornithine and glutamine) and five heat-responsive (phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, lysine, and histidine) amino acids was conserved among three different Satsuma mandarin cultivars, Aoshima-unshiu (late-maturing cultivar), Silverhill (midmaturing cultivar), and Miyagawa-wase (early-maturing cultivar). The metabolic responsiveness to temperature stress was discussed on the basis of the changes in the amino acid profile.

  19. Quasiracemate Crystal Structures of Magainin 2 Derivatives Support the Functional Significance of the Phenylalanine Zipper Motif.

    PubMed

    Hayouka, Zvi; Thomas, Nicole C; Mortenson, David E; Satyshur, Kenneth A; Weisblum, Bernard; Forest, Katrina T; Gellman, Samuel H

    2015-09-23

    Quasiracemic crystallography has been used to explore the significance of homochiral and heterochiral associations in a set of host-defense peptide derivatives. The previously reported racemic crystal structure of a magainin 2 derivative displayed a homochiral antiparallel dimer association featuring a "phenylalanine zipper" notable for the dual roles of phenylalanines in mediating dimerization and formation of an exposed hydrophobic swath. This motif is seen as well in two new quasiracemate crystals that contain the d form of the magainin 2 derivative along with an l-peptide in which one Ala has been replaced by a β-amino acid residue. This structural trend supports the hypothesis that the Phe zipper motif has functional significance.

  20. Reanalysis of the effects of phenylalanine, alanine, and aspartame on food intake in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1994-08-01

    In 1987 Ryan-Harshman et al. reported finding no effects on food intake after administering high doses (up to 10.08 g) of phenylalanine and aspartame in capsules to human volunteers. However, this is contrary to the results of other studies, and trends in their tabulated data suggest that certain effects may have been overlooked. This is confirmed by a reanalysis of the raw data (available from a Ph.D. thesis: Ryan-Harshman, 1987) that can be interpreted as showing a dose-related suppression of food intake by phenylalanine. Furthermore, the data are consistent with an anorexic action of aspartame and perhaps also of alanine (which was designated as the placebo treatment by Ryan-Harshman et al.). These, together with other findings, suggest that the appetite effects of amino acids and small peptides should be investigated further. In addition to its theoretical importance, such work may have potential for therapeutic applications.

  1. The effects of pollen, propolis, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester on tyrosine hydroxylase activity and total RNA levels in hypertensive rats caused by nitric oxide synthase inhibition: experimental, docking and molecular dynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Ekhteiari Salmas, Ramin; Durdagi, Serdar; Gulhan, Mehmet Fuat; Duruyurek, Merve; Abdullah, Huda I; Selamoglu, Zeliha

    2017-02-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of propolis, pollen, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and total RNA levels of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) inhibition of nitric oxide synthase in the heart, adrenal medulla, and hypothalamus of hypertensive male Sprague dawley rats. The TH activity in the adrenal medulla, heart, and hypothalamus of the rats was significantly increased in the L-NAME group vs. control (p < 0.05). Treatment with L-NAME led to a significant increase in blood pressure (BP) in the L-NAME group compared to control (p < 0.05). These data suggest that propolis, pollen, and CAPE may mediate diminished TH activity in the heart, adrenal medulla, and hypothalamus in hypertensive rats. The decreased TH activity may be due to the modulation and synthesis of catecholamines and BP effects. In addition, the binding mechanism of CAPE within the catalytic domain of TH was investigated by means of molecular modeling approaches. These data suggest that the amino acid residues, Glu429 and Ser354 of TH may play a pivotal role in the stabilization of CAPE within the active site as evaluated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Gibbs binding free energy (ΔGbinding) of CAPE in complex with TH was also determined by post-processing MD analysis approaches (i.e. Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) method).

  2. Phenylalanine Is Required to Promote Specific Developmental Responses and Prevents Cellular Damage in Response to Ultraviolet Light in Soybean (Glycine max) during the Seed-to-Seedling Transition

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Joe H.; Muhammad, DurreShahwar; Warpeha, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    UV-radiation elicits a suite of developmental (photomorphogenic) and protective responses in plants, but responses early post-germination have received little attention, particularly in intensively bred plants of economic importance. We examined germination, hypocotyl elongation, leaf pubescence and subcellular responses of germinating and/or etiolated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seedlings in response to treatment with discrete wavelengths of UV-A or UV-B radiation. We demonstrate differential responses of germinating/young soybean seedlings to a range of UV wavelengths that indicate unique signal transduction mechanisms regulate UV-initiated responses. We have investigated how phenylalanine, a key substrate in the phenylpropanoid pathway, may be involved in these responses. Pubescence may be a key location for phenylalanine-derived protective compounds, as UV-B irradiation increased pubescence and accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds within primary leaf pubescence, visualized by microscopy and absorbance spectra. Mass spectrometry analysis of pubescence indicated that sinapic esters accumulate in the UV-irradiated hairs compared to unirradiated primary leaf tissue. Deleterious effects of some UV-B wavelengths on germination and seedling responses were reduced or entirely prevented by inclusion of phenylalanine in the growth media. Key effects of phenylalanine were not duplicated by tyrosine or tryptophan or sucrose, nor is the specificity of response due to the absorbance of phenylalanine itself. These results suggest that in the seed-to-seedling transition, phenylalanine may be a limiting factor in the development of initial mechanisms of UV protection in the developing leaf. PMID:25549094

  3. Genomic Characterization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene in Buckwheat

    PubMed Central

    Thiyagarajan, Karthikeyan; Vitali, Fabio; Tolaini, Valentina; Galeffi, Patrizia; Cantale, Cristina; Vikram, Prashant; Singh, Sukhwinder; De Rossi, Patrizia; Nobili, Chiara; Procacci, Silvia; Del Fiore, Antonella; Antonini, Alessandro; Presenti, Ombretta; Brunori, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) gene which plays a key role in bio-synthesis of medicinally important compounds, Rutin/quercetin was sequence characterized for its efficient genomics application. These compounds possessing anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties and are predominantly produced by Fagopyrum spp. In the present study, PAL gene was sequenced from three Fagopyrum spp. (F. tataricum, F. esculentum and F. dibotrys) and showed the presence of three SNPs and four insertion/deletions at intra and inter specific level. Among them, the potential SNP (position 949th bp G>C) with Parsimony Informative Site was selected and successfully utilised to individuate the zygosity/allelic variation of 16 F. tataricum varieties. Insertion mutations were identified in coding region, which resulted the change of a stretch of 39 amino acids on the putative protein. Our Study revealed that autogamous species (F. tataricum) has lower frequency of observed SNPs as compared to allogamous species (F. dibotrys and F. esculentum). The identified SNPs in F. tataricum didn’t result to amino acid change, while in other two species it caused both conservative and non-conservative variations. Consistent pattern of SNPs across the species revealed their phylogenetic importance. We found two groups of F. tataricum and one of them was closely related with F. dibotrys. Sequence characterization information of PAL gene reported in present investigation can be utilized in genetic improvement of buckwheat in reference to its medicinal value. PMID:26990297

  4. The development and amino acid binding ability of nano-materials based on azo derivatives: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xuefang; Du, Jinge; Yang, Wancai; Liu, Yun; Fu, Zhiyuan; Wei, Xiaofang; Yan, Ruifang; Yao, Ningcong; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Jinlian; Xu, Xiufang

    2014-05-01

    Two nano-material-containing azo groups have been designed and developed, and the binding ability of nano-materials with various amino acids has been characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence titrations. Results indicated that two nano-materials showed the strongest binding ability for homocysteine among twenty normal kinds of amino acids (alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, glycine, serine, threonine, asparagine, phenylalanine, histidine, tryptophan, proline, lysine, glutamine, tyrosine and homocysteine). The reason for the high sensitivity for homocysteine was that two nano-materials containing an aldehyde group reacted with SH in homocysteine and afforded very stable thiazolidine derivatives. Theoretical investigation further illustrated the possible binding mode in host-guest interaction and the roles of molecular frontier orbitals in molecular interplay. Thus, the two nano-materials can be used as optical sensors for the detection of homocysteine.

  5. Spectroscopy of jet-cooled tyrosine derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Chin Khuan; Sulkes, Mark

    1991-05-01

    Using fluorescence-based techniques (excitation and emission spectra lifetimes), we have studied the jet-cooled tyrosine derivatives tyramine and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (HPA). For solvent addition resulting in small, mainly one adduct complexes, there is a high degree of analogy with the results for the corresponding analogs of the amino acid tryptophan. In particular, for tyramine, as had been the case with its tryptophan analog tryptamine, addition of one -OH bearing solvent molecule at the α-amine apparently results in a complex in a single conformation.

  6. Amino acid contents along the visual and equatorial axes of a pig lens by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gutiérrez, C; Frausto-Reyes, C; Quintanar-Stephano, J L; Sato-Berrú, R

    2004-08-01

    Using near infrared Raman microspectroscopy with laser light of 830 nm, the distribution of amino acids along the visual and equatorial axes of a normal pig lens was studied. The classification of pig lens Raman spectra in these axes was performed using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. The analysis of the scattered light selectively collected from point to point, along the visual axis, indicated that the tyrosine and tryptophan increases and then, at approximately 4 mm position, decreases. Moreover, in the equatorial plane, the nuclear part has the highest concentration of these amino acids. However, the phenylalanine content increases from anterior to posterior cortex of the lens as long as in the equatorial axis it slightly increases and then at approximately 2-2.3 mm position, decreases. The changes in amino acid conformation along the visual axis, similarly to the changes in protein conformation, may explain the refractive gradient of the lens.

  7. Effects of phenylalanine on reproductive performance and teratogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R J; Pesarini, J R; Mauro, M O; Fronza, L S; Victorelli, S G; Cantero, W B; Sena, M C; Antoniolli, A C M B

    2014-07-25

    We evaluated the effects of phenylalanine on reproductive performance and teratogenesis in mice, as well as we assessed its protective effect in mice treated with an acute dose of cyclophosphamide. Animals were divided into 6 experimental groups (females N = 15/group, males N = 5/group): G1, the negative control group, phosphate-buffered saline; G2, the positive control group, 35 mg cyclophosphamide/kg body weight (b.w.); G3 and G4 received phenylalanine at doses of 150 and 300 mg/ kg b.w., respectively; G5 and G6 received phenylalanine at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg b.w. co-administered with cyclophosphamide at a dose of 35 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Pregnant mice received phenylalanine from 8-12 days of pregnancy and cyclophosphamide on the 10th day of treatment or the respective vehicles. In animals treated with cyclophosphamide, offspring fetal weight significantly decreased. The G5 and G6 groups, which received cyclophosphamide co-administered with phenylalanine, showed a smaller reduction in weight. Based on this analysis, the offspring from groups G2, G5, and G6 showed low weight due to pregnancy age. Moreover, at the doses used, phenylalanine did not interfere with embryo-fetal development. However, further studies are necessary to increase the understanding of the effects of phenylalanine on mouse reproductive performance and teratogenesis.

  8. Tyrosine hydroxylase in the european eel (Anguilla anguilla): cDNA cloning, brain distribution, and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Boularand, S; Biguet, N F; Vidal, B; Veron, M; Mallet, J; Vincent, J D; Dufour, S; Vernier, P

    1998-08-01

    We report the isolation of a full-length eel tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) cDNA that is characterized by a long 3' untranslated region and by a diversity restricted to the 3' end owing to the differential use of three polyadenylation signals. The longest eel TH mRNA was distinctive in the presence of four pentameric elements (AUUUA) in the AU-rich 3' noncoding region. Such a diversity could provide the basis of posttranscriptional or translational regulation of eel TH gene expression. Comparison of the eel TH sequence with those of other aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (TH, tryptophan hydroxylase, and phenylalanine hydroxylase) and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the N-terminal regulatory domain is highly divergent, contrasting with the conservation of the catalytic core of the enzyme. Molecular phylogenies including the available sequences of the three hydroxylase genes suggested that the duplication of their common ancestor occurred before the emergence of arthropods. The regional expression of the eel TH mRNA was studied by semiquantitative PCR, northern blots, and in situ hybridization and compared with the immunocytochemical localization of TH protein. The data showed that TH mRNA is mostly expressed in the olfactory and hypothalamic areas, whereas sparse TH-expressing cell bodies are present in the telencephalic region and brainstem. No labeling was detected in the mesencephalic area, in striking contrast with that found in amphibians and amniotes.

  9. Bulkiness or aromatic nature of tyrosine-143 of actin is important for the weak binding between F-actin and myosin-ADP-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Gomibuchi, Yuki; Uyeda, Taro Q.P.; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The effect of mutation of Tyr143 that becomes more exposed on assembly was examined. •Mutation of tyrosine-143 of Dictyostelium actin changed actin polymerizability. •The bulkiness or aromatic nature of Tyr143 is important for the weak binding. •The weak interaction between myosin and actin strengthened by Tyr143Trp mutation. -- Abstract: Actin filaments (F-actin) interact with myosin and activate its ATPase to support force generation. By comparing crystal structures of G-actin and the quasi-atomic model of F-actin based on high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy, the tyrosine-143 was found to be exposed more than 60 Å{sup 2} to the solvent in F-actin. Because tyrosine-143 flanks the hydrophobic cleft near the hydrophobic helix that binds to myosin, the mutant actins, of which the tyrosine-143 was replaced with tryptophan, phenylalanine, or isoleucine, were generated using the Dictyostelium expression system. It polymerized significantly poorly when induced by NaCl, but almost normally by KCl. In the presence of phalloidin and KCl, the extents of the polymerization of all the mutant actins were comparable to that of the wild-type actin so that the actin-activated myosin ATPase activity could be reliably compared. The affinity of skeletal heavy meromyosin to F-actin and the maximum ATPase activity (V{sub max}) were estimated by a double reciprocal plot. The Tyr143Trp-actin showed the higher affinity (smaller K{sub app}) than that of the wild-type actin, with the V{sub max} being almost unchanged. The K{sub app} and V{sub max} of the Tyr143Phe-actin were similar to those of the wild-type actin. However, the activation by Tyr143Ile-actin was much smaller than the wild-type actin and the accurate determination of K{sub app} was difficult. Comparison of the myosin ATPase activated by the various mutant actins at the same concentration of F-actin showed that the extent of activation correlates well with the solvent-accessible surface areas (ASA

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation of protein kinase CK2 by Src-related tyrosine kinases correlates with increased catalytic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Donella-Deana, Arianna; Cesaro, Luca; Sarno, Stefania; Ruzzene, Maria; Brunati, Anna Maria; Marin, Oriano; Vilk, Greg; Doherty-Kirby, Amanda; Lajoie, Gilles; Litchfield, David W; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2003-01-01

    Casein kinase-2 (CK2) is a pleiotropic and constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase composed of two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') and two regulatory beta-subunits, whose regulation is still not well understood. In the present study, we show that the catalytic subunits of human CK2, but not the regulatory beta-subunits, are readily phosphorylated by the Src family protein tyrosine kinases Lyn and c-Fgr to a stoichiometry approaching 2 mol phosphotyrosine/mol CK2alpha with a concomitant 3-fold increase in catalytic activity. We also show that endogenous CK2alpha becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in pervanadate-treated Jurkat cells. Both tyrosine phosphorylation and stimulation of activity are suppressed by the specific Src inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4- d ]pyrimidine. By comparison, mutations giving rise to inactive forms of CK2alpha do not abrogate and, in some cases, stimulate Lyn and c-Fgr-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of CK2. Several radiolabelled phosphopeptides could be resolved by HPLC, following tryptic digestion of CK2alpha that had been phosphoradiolabelled by incubation with [(32)P]ATP and c-Fgr. The most prominent phosphopeptide co-migrates with a synthetic peptide encompassing the 248-268 sequence, phosphorylated previously by c-Fgr at Tyr(255) in vitro. The identification of Tyr(255) as a phosphorylated residue was also supported by MS sequencing of both the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated 248-268 tryptic fragments from CK2alpha and by on-target phosphatase treatment. A CK2alpha mutant in which Tyr(255) was replaced by phenylalanine proved less susceptible to phosphorylation and refractory to stimulation by c-Fgr. PMID:12628006

  11. Conservative Tryptophan Mutants of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase YopH Exhibit Impaired WPD-Loop Function and Crystallize with Divanadate Esters in Their Active Sites

    PubMed Central

    Moise, Gwendolyn; Gallup, Nathan M.; Alexandrova, Anastassia N.; Hengge, Alvan C.; Johnson, Sean J.

    2016-01-01

    Catalysis in protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) involves movement of a protein loop called the WPD loop that brings a conserved aspartic acid into the active site to function as a general acid. Mutation of the tryptophan in the WPD loop of the PTP YopH to any other residue with a planar, aromatic side chain (phenylalanine, tyrosine, or histidine) disables general acid catalysis. Crystal structures reveal these conservative mutations leave this critical loop in a catalytically unproductive, quasi-open position. Although the loop positions in crystal structures are similar for all three conservative mutants, the reasons inhibiting normal loop closure differ for each mutant. In the W354F and W354Y mutants, steric clashes result from six-membered rings occupying the position of the five-membered ring of the native indole side chain. The histidine mutant dysfunction results from new hydrogen bonds stabilizing the unproductive position. The results demonstrate how even modest modifications can disrupt catalytically important protein dynamics. Crystallization of all the catalytically compromised mutants in the presence of vanadate gave rise to vanadate dimers at the active site. In W354Y and W354H, a divanadate ester with glycerol is observed. Such species have precedence in solution and are known from the small molecule crystal database. Such species have not been observed in the active site of a phosphatase, as a functional phosphatase would rapidly catalyze their decomposition. The compromised functionality of the mutants allows the trapping of species that undoubtedly form in solution and are capable of binding at the active sites of PTPs, and, presumably, other phosphatases. In addition to monomeric vanadate, such higher-order vanadium-based molecules are likely involved in the interaction of vanadate with PTPs in solution. PMID:26445170

  12. Mitochondrial tyrosine phosphoproteome: new insights from an up-to-date analysis.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Luca; Salvi, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is a newcomer in the mitochondrial signaling and is currently emerging as an important mechanism for regulating mitochondrial processes. But to what extent? By analyzing an updated draft of the mitochondrial tyrosine phosphoproteome, the following observations can be drawn: more than a hundred mitochondrial proteins undergo tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphotyrosine proteins are distributed in each of the submitochondrial compartments, and mitochondrial tyrosine phosphorylated proteins are involved in a variety of functions as metabolism (electron transport chain, Krebs cycle, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism), solute and protein transport, mitochondrial translation machinery, quality protein assessment, oxidative stress, apoptosis, fission, and other. This large and varied collection suggests that tyrosine phosphorylation could be a widespread mechanism in modulating mitochondrial functions. Moreover the in silico model is here used to explore potential effects of tyrosine phosphorylation on selected mitochondrial proteins pointing out some future perspectives in this field.

  13. Behavioral and cognitive effects of tyrosine intake in healthy human adults.

    PubMed

    Hase, Adrian; Jung, Sophie E; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-06-01

    The amino acid tyrosine is the precursor to the catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. Increasing tyrosine uptake may positively influence catecholamine-related psychological functioning. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effects of tyrosine on behavior and cognition. Fifteen studies were reviewed. All studies except one involved tyrosine loading during a single test session. In most behavioral studies, there were no significant effects of tyrosine on exercise performance. In contrast, cognitive studies employing neuropsychological measures found that tyrosine loading acutely counteracts decrements in working memory and information processing that are induced by demanding situational conditions such as extreme weather or cognitive load. The buffering effects of tyrosine on cognition may be explained by tyrosine's ability to neutralize depleted brain catecholamine levels. There is evidence that tyrosine may benefit healthy individuals exposed to demanding situational conditions. For future research we recommend moving from studying the acute effects of a single tyrosine load in small samples to studying the behavioral and cognitive effects of tyrosine in larger groups over multiple weeks.

  14. Mechanisms of peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Hakan; Houk, K N

    2009-05-01

    The mechanisms of tyrosine nitration by peroxynitrous acid or nitrosoperoxycarbonate were investigated with the CBS-QB3 method. Either the protonation of peroxynitrite or a reaction with carbon dioxide gives a reactive peroxide intermediate. Peroxynitrous acid-mediated nitration of phenol occurs via unimolecular decomposition to give nitrogen dioxide and hydroxyl radicals. Nitrosoperoxycarbonate also undergoes unimolecular decomposition to give carbonate and nitrogen dioxide radicals. The reactions of tyrosine with the hydroxyl or carbonate radicals give a phenoxy radical intermediate. The reaction of the nitrogen dioxide with this radical intermediate followed by tautomerization gives nitrated tyrosine in both cases. According to CBS-QB3 calculations, the rate-limiting step for the nitration of phenol is the decomposition of peroxynitrous acid or nitrosoperoxycarbonate.

  15. Phenylalanine ab initio models for the simulation of skin natural moisturizing factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, B. G.; Raniero, L. J.; Martin, A. A.; Favero, P. P.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated models that can be used to simulate amino acids in biological environments via density functional theory (DFT). The goal was to obtain realistic representations that combine computational economy and result quality when compared to experimental data. We increased the complexity of the models by using a model of an amino acid in a vacuum, followed by a water-solvated amino acid model. To consider pH variation, we simulated zwitterionic and nonionic amino acid configurations. The amino acid chosen for testing was phenylalanine, an aromatic amino acid present in high concentrations in the natural moisturizing factor of skin that plays a fundamental role in ultraviolet protection and vitiligo disease. To validate the models, vibrational modes and electronic properties were calculated and compared to experimental results.

  16. Arabidopsis thaliana NIP7;1: An Anther-Specific Boric Acid Transporter of the Aquaporin Superfamily Regulated by an Unusual Tyrosine in Helix 2 of the Transport Pore

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tian; Choi, Won-Gyu; Baudry, Jerome Y; Roberts, Daniel M

    2011-01-01

    Plant nodulin-26 intrinsic proteins (NIPs) are members of the aquaporin superfamily that serve as multifunctional transporters of uncharged metabolites. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a specific NIP pore subclass, known as the NIP II proteins, is represented by AtNIP5;1 and AtNIP6;1, which encode channel proteins expressed in roots and leaf nodes, respectively, that participate in the transport of the critical cell wall nutrient boric acid. Modeling of the protein encoded by the AtNIP7;1 gene shows that it is a third member of the NIP II pore subclass in Arabidopsis. However, unlike AtNIP5;1 and AtNIP6;1 proteins, which form constitutive boric acid channels, AtNIP7;1 forms a channel with an extremely low intrinsic boric acid transport activity. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations of AtNIP7;1 suggest that a conserved tyrosine residue (Tyr81) located in transmembrane helix 2 adjacent to the aromatic arginine (ar/R) pore selectivity region stabilizes a closed pore conformation through interaction with the canonical Arg220 in ar/R region. Substitution of Tyr81 with a Cys residue, characteristic of established NIP boric acid channels, results in opening of the AtNIP7;1 pore that acquires a robust, transport activity for boric acid as well as other NIP II test solutes (glycerol and urea). Substitution of a Phe for Tyr81 also opens the channel, supporting the prediction from MD simulations that hydrogen bond interaction between the Tyr81 phenol group and the ar/R Arg may contribute to the stabilization of a closed pore state. Expression analyses show that AtNIP7;1 is selectively expressed in developing anther tissues of young floral buds of A. thaliana, principally in developing pollen grains of stage 9 11 anthers. Because boric acid is both an essential nutrient as well as a toxic compound at high concentrations, it is proposed that Tyr81 modulates transport and may provide an additional level of regulation for this transporter in male gametophyte development.

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana NIP7;1: an anther-specific boric acid transporter of the aquaporin superfamily regulated by an unusual tyrosine in helix 2 of the transport pore.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian; Choi, Won-Gyu; Wallace, Ian S; Baudry, Jerome; Roberts, Daniel M

    2011-08-09

    Plant nodulin-26 intrinsic proteins (NIPs) are members of the aquaporin superfamily that serve as multifunctional transporters of uncharged metabolites. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a specific NIP pore subclass, known as the NIP II proteins, is represented by AtNIP5;1 and AtNIP6;1, which encode channel proteins expressed in roots and leaf nodes, respectively, that participate in the transport of the critical cell wall nutrient boric acid. Modeling of the protein encoded by the AtNIP7;1 gene shows that it is a third member of the NIP II pore subclass in Arabidopsis. However, unlike AtNIP5;1 and AtNIP6;1 proteins, which form constitutive boric acid channels, AtNIP7;1 forms a channel with an extremely low intrinsic boric acid transport activity. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations of AtNIP7;1 suggest that a conserved tyrosine residue (Tyr81) located in transmembrane helix 2 adjacent to the aromatic arginine (ar/R) pore selectivity region stabilizes a closed pore conformation through interaction with the canonical Arg220 in ar/R region. Substitution of Tyr81 with a Cys residue, characteristic of established NIP boric acid channels, results in opening of the AtNIP7;1 pore that acquires a robust, transport activity for boric acid as well as other NIP II test solutes (glycerol and urea). Substitution of a Phe for Tyr81 also opens the channel, supporting the prediction from MD simulations that hydrogen bond interaction between the Tyr81 phenol group and the ar/R Arg may contribute to the stabilization of a closed pore state. Expression analyses show that AtNIP7;1 is selectively expressed in developing anther tissues of young floral buds of A. thaliana, principally in developing pollen grains of stage 9-11 anthers. Because boric acid is both an essential nutrient as well as a toxic compound at high concentrations, it is proposed that Tyr81 modulates transport and may provide an additional level of regulation for this transporter in male gametophyte development.

  18. MD-2 interacts with Lyn kinase and is tyrosine phosphorylated following LPS-induced activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Pearl; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Michelsen, Kathrin S.; Brikos, Constantinos; Rentsendorj, Altan; Town, Terrence; Crother, Timothy R.; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Stimulation with LPS induces tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous proteins involved in the TLR signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrate that MD-2 is also tyrosine phosphorylated following LPS stimulation. LPS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is specific, it is blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Herbimycin A, and by an inhibitor of endocytosis, Cytochalsin-D, suggesting that MD-2 phosphorylation occurs during trafficking of MD2 and not on cell surface. Furthermore, we identify two possible phospho-accepting tyrosine residues at positions 22 and 131. Mutant proteins in which these tyrosines were changed to phenylalanine have reduced phosphorylation and significantly diminished ability to activate NF-κB in response to LPS. In addition, MD2 co-precipitates and colocalizes with Lyn kinase, most likely in ER. A Lyn-binding peptide inhibitor abolished MD2 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that Lyn is a likely candidate to be the kinase required for MD-2 tyrosine phophorylation. Our study demonstrates that tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is important for signaling following exposure to LPS and underscores the importance of this event in mediating an efficient and prompt immune response. PMID:21918188

  19. Myeloid differentiation factor-2 interacts with Lyn kinase and is tyrosine phosphorylated following lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gray, Pearl; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Michelsen, Kathrin S; Brikos, Constantinos; Rentsendorj, Altan; Town, Terrence; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-10-15

    Stimulation with LPS induces tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous proteins involved in the TLR signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2) is also tyrosine phosphorylated following LPS stimulation. LPS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is specific; it is blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, as well as by an inhibitor of endocytosis, cytochalasin D, suggesting that MD-2 phosphorylation occurs during trafficking of MD-2 and not on the cell surface. Furthermore, we identified two possible phospho-accepting tyrosine residues at positions 22 and 131. Mutant proteins in which these tyrosines were changed to phenylalanine had reduced phosphorylation and significantly diminished ability to activate NF-κB in response to LPS. In addition, MD-2 coprecipitated and colocalized with Lyn kinase, most likely in the endoplasmic reticulum. A Lyn-binding peptide inhibitor abolished MD-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that Lyn is a likely candidate to be the kinase required for MD-2 tyrosine phosphorylation. Our study demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is important for signaling following exposure to LPS and underscores the importance of this event in mediating an efficient and prompt immune response.

  20. Crystal structure of the ternary complex of the catalytic domain of human phenylalanine hydroxylase with tetrahydrobiopterin and 3-(2-thienyl)-L-alanine, and its implications for the mechanism of catalysis and substrate activation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ole Andreas; Flatmark, Torgeir; Hough, Edward

    2002-07-26

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase catalyzes the stereospecific hydroxylation of L-phenylalanine, the committed step in the degradation of this amino acid. We have solved the crystal structure of the ternary complex (hPheOH-Fe(II).BH(4).THA) of the catalytically active Fe(II) form of a truncated form (DeltaN1-102/DeltaC428-452) of human phenylalanine hydroxylase (hPheOH), using the catalytically active reduced cofactor 6(R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and 3-(2-thienyl)-L-alanine (THA) as a substrate analogue. The analogue is bound in the second coordination sphere of the catalytic iron atom with the thiophene ring stacking against the imidazole group of His285 (average interplanar distance 3.8A) and with a network of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts. Binding of the analogue to the binary complex hPheOH-Fe(II).BH(4) triggers structural changes throughout the entire molecule, which adopts a slightly more compact structure. The largest change occurs in the loop region comprising residues 131-155, where the maximum r.m.s. displacement (9.6A) is at Tyr138. This loop is refolded, bringing the hydroxyl oxygen atom of Tyr138 18.5A closer to the iron atom and into the active site. The iron geometry is highly distorted square pyramidal, and Glu330 adopts a conformation different from that observed in the hPheOH-Fe(II).BH(4) structure, with bidentate iron coordination. BH(4) binds in the second coordination sphere of the catalytic iron atom, and is displaced 2.6A in the direction of Glu286 and the iron atom, relative to the hPheOH-Fe(II).BH(4) structure, thus changing its hydrogen bonding network. The active-site structure of the ternary complex gives new insight into the substrate specificity of the enzyme, notably the low affinity for L-tyrosine. Furthermore, the structure has implications both for the catalytic mechanism and the molecular basis for the activation of the full-length tetrameric enzyme by its substrate. The large conformational change, moving

  1. Phenylalanine functionalized zwitterionic monolith for hydrophobic interaction electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiabin; Jia, Wenchao; Lin, Xucong; Wu, Xiaoping; Xie, Zenghong

    2013-12-01

    A novel phenylalanine (Phe) functionalized zwitterionic monolith for hydrophobic electrochromatography was prepared by a two-step procedure involving the synthesis of glycidyl methacrylate based polymer monolith and subsequent on-column chemical modification with Phe via ring-opening reaction of epoxides. Benefitting from the hydrophobicity of both methacrylate-based matrix and aromatic group of Phe, this monolith could exhibit good hydrophobic interaction for the separation. Typical RP chromatographic behavior was observed toward various solutes. The well-controlled cathodic or anodic EOF of the prepared column could be facilely switched by altering the pH values of running buffers. The separation mechanism of this Phe functionalized zwitterionic monolith is discussed in detail. Two mixed-mode mechanisms of RP/cation exchange and RP/anion exchange could be further realized on the same monolith in different pH condition of the mobile phase. Versatile separation capabilities of neutral, basic, and acidic analytes have been successfully achieved in this zwitterionic monolith by CEC method.

  2. On the asymmetric adsorption of phenylalanine enantiomers by kaolin.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. A.; Flores, J.

    1973-01-01

    The attempt is described to verify a recent report that kaolin adsorbs D- and L-phenylalanine enantiomers to different extents from aqueous solutions at both pH 5.8 and pH 2. No evidence whatsoever could be found for the differential adsorption of D- versus L-phenylalanine by kaolin from either pH 6 or pH 2 solutions.

  3. Plasma concentration of amino acids in obese men consuming very-low-calorie diets composed of soy or collagen protein.

    PubMed

    Fisler, J S; Drenick, E J; Yoshimura, N N; Swendseid, M E

    1985-01-01

    The effects of soy or collagen protein, 1.3 g/kg desirable body weight per day, on fasting and postprandial plasma free amino acid concentrations were evaluated in eight obese men during a 40-day very-low-calorie reducing regimen. The interrelationships among individual plasma amino acids were also examined. In both protein-fed groups, fasting plasma histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, threonine and alanine levels decreased by day 40 whereas glycine increased. The decrease in plasma threonine and increase in plasma glycine were more pronounced in the collagen-fed group (n = 4) than in the soy-fed group (n = 4). Serine increased only in the collagen-fed group. The postprandial increases of all essential amino acids, with the exception of valine and phenylalanine, were less on day 26 than on day zero. Except for threonine levels, plasma amino acid profiles were similar during very-low-calorie dieting and during prolonged fasting. However, essential amino acid levels were better maintained by soy than by collagen protein diets.

  4. Laccase-catalyzed carbon-nitrogen bond formation: coupling and derivatization of unprotected L-phenylalanine with different para-hydroquinones.

    PubMed

    Hahn, V; Mikolasch, A; Manda, K; Gördes, D; Thurow, K; Schauer, F

    2009-07-01

    Unprotected L-phenylalanine was derivatized by an innovative enzymatic method by means of laccases from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and Myceliophthora thermophila. During the incubation of L-phenylalanine with para-hydroquinones using laccase as biocatalyst, one or two main products were formed. Dependent on the substitution grade of the hydroquinones mono- and diaminated products were detected. Differences of the used laccases are discussed. The described reactions are of interest for the derivatization of amino acids and a synthesis of pharmacological-active amino acid structures in the field of white biotechnology.

  5. (-)-3,5-Dicaffeoyl-muco-quinic acid isolated from Aster scaber contributes to the differentiation of PC12 cells: through tyrosine kinase cascade signaling.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin Young; Lee, Pyeongjae; Kim, Hocheol; Kang, Insug; Lee, Kang Ro; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2004-01-23

    Aster scaber T. (Asteraceae) has been used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat bruises, snakebites, headaches, and dizziness. (-)-3,5-Dicaffeoyl-muco-quinic acid (DQ) isolated from A. scaber induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. It has been reported that the activation of the extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk 1/2) and phosphoinositide 3 (PI3) kinase plays a crucial role in the NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. This study showed that the effect of DQ on neurite outgrowth is mediated via the Erk 1/2 and PI3 kinase-dependent pathways like NGF. Furthermore, DQ stimulated the phosphorylation of Trk A. Overall, DQ elicited the differentiation of PC12 cells through Trk A phosphorylation followed by Erk 1/2 and PI3 kinase activation.

  6. Structural investigations into the stereochemistry and activity of a phenylalanine-2,3-aminomutase from Taxus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Wybenga, Gjalt G; Szymanski, Wiktor; Wu, Bian; Feringa, Ben L; Janssen, Dick B; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2014-05-20

    Phenylalanine-2,3-aminomutase (PAM) from Taxus chinensis, a 4-methylidene-imidazole-5-one (MIO)-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the reversible conversion of (S)-α-phenylalanine into (R)-β-phenylalanine via trans-cinnamic acid. The enzyme also catalyzes the direct addition of ammonia to trans-cinnamic acid, a reaction that can be used for the preparation of β-amino acids, which occur as frequent constituents of bioactive compounds. Different hypotheses have been formulated to explain the stereochemistry of the PAM-catalyzed reaction, but structural evidence for these hypotheses is lacking. Furthermore, it remains unclear how the PAM MIO group is formed from the three-amino acid (A-S-G) sequence motif. For these reasons, we elucidated PAM three-dimensional (3D) structures with a bound (R)-β-phenylalanine analogue and with bound trans-cinnamic acid. In addition, 3D structures of the (inactive) Y322A and N231A mutants of PAM were elucidated, which were found to be MIO-less. We conclude that the stereochemistry of the PAM-catalyzed reaction originates from the enzyme's ability to bind trans-cinnamic acid in two different orientations, with either the si,si face or the re,re face directed toward the MIO group, as evidenced by two distinct carboxylate binding modes. The results also suggest that the N231 side chain promotes MIO group formation by increasing the nucleophilicity of the G177 N atom through acidification of the amide proton.

  7. Peroxynitrite-induced nitration of tyrosine hydroxylase: identification of tyrosines 423, 428, and 432 as sites of modification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tyrosine-scanning mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Donald M; Sadidi, Mahdieh; Liu, Xiuli; Kreipke, Christian; Geddes, Timothy; Borges, Chad; Watson, J Throck

    2002-04-19

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter dopamine, is inactivated by peroxynitrite. The sites of peroxynitrite-induced tyrosine nitration in TH have been identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tyrosine-scanning mutagenesis. V8 proteolytic fragments of nitrated TH were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A peptide of 3135.4 daltons, corresponding to residues V410-E436 of TH, showed peroxynitrite-induced mass shifts of +45, +90, and +135 daltons, reflecting nitration of one, two, or three tyrosines, respectively. These modifications were not evident in untreated TH. The tyrosine residues (positions 423, 428, and 432) within this peptide were mutated to phenylalanine to confirm the site(s) of nitration and assess the effects of mutation on TH activity. Single mutants expressed wild-type levels of TH catalytic activity and were inactivated by peroxynitrite while showing reduced (30-60%) levels of nitration. The double mutants Y423F,Y428F, Y423F,Y432F, and Y428F,Y432F showed trace amounts of tyrosine nitration (7-30% of control) after exposure to peroxynitrite, and the triple mutant Y423F,Y428F,Y432F was not a substrate for nitration, yet peroxynitrite significantly reduced the activity of each. When all tyrosine mutants were probed with PEO-maleimide activated biotin, a thiol-reactive reagent that specifically labels reduced cysteine residues in proteins, it was evident that peroxynitrite resulted in cysteine oxidation. These studies identify residues Tyr(423), Tyr(428), and Tyr(432) as the sites of peroxynitrite-induced nitration in TH. No single tyrosine residue appears to be critical for TH catalytic function, and tyrosine nitration is neither necessary nor sufficient for peroxynitrite-induced inactivation. The loss of TH catalytic activity caused by peroxynitrite is associated instead with oxidation of cysteine

  8. The effects of plant growth regulators and L-phenylalanine on phenolic compounds of sweet basil.

    PubMed

    Koca, Nülüfer; Karaman, Şengül

    2015-01-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), spermine (Spm), epibrassinolide (EBL) and l-phenylalanine on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were studied to determine the amount of phenolic compounds and enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of sweet basils were determined by a spectrophotometer, and individual phenolic compounds and activity of PAL were analysed by HPLC/UV. The highest total phenolic (6.72 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid contents (0.92 mg QE/g) obtained from 1.0 mM Spm+MeJA application. Rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid contents significantly enhanced after the applications but no such differences observed in chicoric acid content or PAL activity. RA was the main phenolic acid in all samples and its concentration varied from 1.04 to 2.70 mg/gFW. As a result the combinations of Spm+MeJA and EBL+MeJA can induce secondary metabolites effectively and those interactions play important role in the production of phytochemicals in plants.

  9. [Microbial synthesis of deuterium labelled L-phenylalanine with different levels of isotopic enrichment by facultative methylotrophic bacterium Brevibacterium methylicum with RMP assimilation of carbon].

    PubMed

    Mosin, O V; Shvets, V I; Skladnev, D A; Ignatov, I

    2014-01-01

    The preparative microbial synthesis of amino acids labelled with stable isotopes, including deuterium ( 2 H), suitable for biomedical applications by methylotrophic bacteria was studied using L-phenylalanine as example. This amino acid is secreted by Gram-negative aerobic facultative methylotrophic bacteria Brevibacterium methylicum, assimilating methanol via ribulose-5-monophosphate (RMP) cycle of assimilation of carbon, The data on adaptation of L-phenylalanine secreted by methylotrophic bacterium В. methylicum to the maximal concentration of deuterium in the growth medium with 98% 2 Н 2 O and 2% [ 2 Н]methanol, and biosynthesis of deuterium labelled L-phenylalanine With different levels of enrichment are presented. The strain was adapted by means of plating initial cells on firm (2% agarose) minimal growth media with an increasing gradient of 2 Н 2 O concentration from 0; 24.5; 49.0; 73.5 up to 98% 2 Н 2 O followed by subsequent selection of separate colonies stable to the action of 2 Н 2 O. These colonies were capable to produce L-phenylalanine. L-phenylalanine was extracted from growth medium by extraction with isopropanol with the subsequent crystallization in ethanol (output 0.65 g/l). The developed method of microbial synthesis allows to obtain deuterium labelled L-phenylalanine with different levels of isotopic enrichment, depending on concentration of 2 Н 2 O in growth media, from 17% (on growth medium with 24,5% 2 Н 2 O) up to 75% (on growth medium with 98% 2 Н 2 O) of deuterium in the molecule that is confirmed with the data of the electron impact (EI) mass- spectrometry analysis of methyl ethers of N-dimethylamino(naphthalene)-5-sulfochloride (dansyl) phenylalanine in these experimental conditions.

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation of WW proteins

    PubMed Central

    Reuven, Nina; Shanzer, Matan

    2015-01-01

    A number of key regulatory proteins contain one or two copies of the WW domain known to mediate protein–protein interaction via proline-rich motifs, such as PPxY. The Hippo pathway components take advantage of this module to transduce tumor suppressor signaling. It is becoming evident that tyrosine phosphorylation is a critical regulator of the WW proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge on the involved tyrosine kinases and their roles in regulating the WW proteins. PMID:25627656

  11. Effect of intraduodenal taurodeoxycholate and L-phenylalanine on pancreatic secretion and on gastroenteropancreatic peptide release in man.

    PubMed

    Riepl, R L; Fiedler, F; Ernstberger, M; Teufel, J; Lehnert, P

    1996-09-20

    Intraduodenally applied bile salts and essential amino acids are known to stimulate exocrine pancreatic secretion. There are contradictory reports, however, about an interaction of both stimuli with respect to pancreatic function. The intention of the study was to compare the effects of equimolar amounts of taurodeoxycholate and L-phenylalanine used singularly and combined on pancreatic secretion and on gastroenteropancreatic peptide release. In 12 healthy subjects, 0.8 mmol of Na-taurodeoxycholate (410 mg) and L-phenylalanine (130 mg) were separately and combined applied into the duodenum in a randomized order. Volume, bicarbonate, trypsin, lipase, and amylase secretion as well as cholecystokinin, pancreatic polypeptide, and somatostatin plasma levels were measured. Volume and bicarbonate secretion was significantly enhanced by taurodeoxycholate. The effect was stronger compared to L-phenylalanine. The increase of enzyme secretion was comparable. After combined application, the ecbolic effect was insignificantly smaller, whereas the hydrokinetic effect was between those of the single stimuli. Plasma levels of cholecystokinin, pancreatic polypeptide, and somatostatin rose concomitantly with the pancreatic response. On an equimolar basis taurodeoxycholate results in a stronger hydrokinetic effect than L-phenylalanine. Their ecbolic effects, however, are comparable. In addition to cholinergic mechanisms, as indicated by the PP release observed, cholecystokinin may also act as a mediator. In combined application, the stimuli interfere with each other. Somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide are not responsible for this mutual inhibition.

  12. New insights into tetrahydrobiopterin pharmacodynamics from Pah enu1/2, a mouse model for compound heterozygous tetrahydrobiopterin-responsive phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lagler, Florian B; Gersting, Søren W; Zsifkovits, Clemens; Steinbacher, Alice; Eichinger, Anna; Danecka, Marta K; Staudigl, Michael; Fingerhut, Ralph; Glossmann, Hartmut; Muntau, Ania C

    2010-11-15

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), an autosomal recessive disease with phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency, was recently shown to be a protein misfolding disease with loss-of-function. It can be treated by oral application of the natural PAH cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) that acts as a pharmacological chaperone and rescues enzyme function in vivo. Here we identified Pah(enu1/2) bearing a mild and a severe mutation (V106A/F363S) as a new mouse model for compound heterozygous mild PKU. Although BH(4) treatment has become established in clinical routine, there is substantial lack of knowledge with regard to BH(4) pharmacodynamics and the effect of the genotype on the response to treatment with the natural cofactor. To address these questions we applied an elaborate methodological setup analyzing: (i) blood phenylalanine elimination, (ii) blood phenylalanine/tyrosine ratios, and (iii) kinetics of in vivo phenylalanine oxidation using (13)C-phenylalanine breath tests. We compared pharmacodynamics in wild-type, Pah(enu1/1), and Pah(enu1/2) mice and observed crucial differences in terms of effect size as well as effect kinetics and dose response. Results from in vivo experiments were substantiated in vitro after overexpression of wild-type, V106A, and F263S in COS-7 cells. Pharmacokinetics did not differ between Pah(enu1/1) and Pah(enu1/2) indicating that the differences in pharmacodynamics were not induced by divergent pharmacokinetic behavior of BH(4). In conclusion, our findings show a significant impact of the genotype on the response to BH(4) in PAH deficient mice. This may lead to important consequences concerning the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with PAH deficiency underscoring the need for individualized procedures addressing pharmacodynamic aspects.

  13. Plasma amino acid profiles in preterm infants receiving Vamin 9 glucose or Vamin infant.

    PubMed

    Mitton, S G; Burston, D; Brueton, M J; Kovar, I Z

    1993-02-01

    Amino acid profiles were measured in 29 low-birth-weight infants receiving either Vamin 9 glucose (n = 18, group A) or Vamin Infant (n = 11, group B) as the amino acid source in parenteral nutrition; intake was otherwise identical. Infants were sampled when receiving 430 mgN/kg per day (3.2 g/kg per day amino acids) and 90 non-protein kcal/kg per day. There was no difference between groups in birth weight, gestational or postnatal age. The percentage N retention was similar in both (68 and 60%, groups A and B respectively). Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels were higher in those who received Vamin 9 glucose but 55% of infants given Vamin Infant had tyrosine levels below the lower limit of the target range. Cysteine levels were low in both groups. Further modification of the amino acid composition of parenteral solutions for the newborn is necessary. If sufficient non-protein energy can be provided the risk of abnormally high amino acid levels is reduced.

  14. Tyrosine phosphorylation is an early and specific event involved in primary keratinocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Filvaroff, E; Stern, D F; Dotto, G P

    1990-01-01

    Very little is known about early molecular events triggering epithelial cell differentiation. We have examined the possible role of tyrosine phosphorylation in this process, as observed in cultures of primary mouse keratinocytes after exposure to calcium or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Immunoblotting with phosphotyrosine-specific antibodies as well as direct phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that induction of tyrosine phosphorylation occurs as a very early and specific event in keratinocyte differentiation. Very little or no induction of tyrosine phosphorylation was observed in a keratinocyte cell line resistant to the differentiating effects of calcium. Treatment of cells with tyrosine kinase inhibitors prevented induction of tyrosine phosphorylation by calcium and TPA and interfered with the differentiative effects of these agents. These results suggest that specific activation of tyrosine kinase(s) may play an important regulatory role in keratinocyte differentiation. Images PMID:1689456

  15. Fluctuations in phenylalanine concentrations in phenylketonuria: a review of possible relationships with outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Maureen; Trefz, Friedrich; Muntau, Ania C; Feillet, François; van Spronsen, Francjan J; Burlina, Alberto; Bélanger-Quintana, Amaya; Giżewska, Maria; Gasteyger, Christoph; Bettiol, Esther; Blau, Nenad; MacDonald, Anita

    2013-12-01

    Fluctuations in blood phenylalanine concentrations may be an important determinant of intellectual outcome in patients with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria (PKU). This review evaluates the studies on phenylalanine fluctuations, factors affecting fluctuations, and if stabilizing phenylalanine concentrations affects outcomes, particularly neurocognitive outcome. Electronic literature searches of Embase and PubMed were performed for English-language publications, and the bibliographies of identified publications were also searched. In patients with PKU, phenylalanine concentrations are highest in the morning. Factors that can affect phenylalanine fluctuations include age, diet, timing and dosing of protein substitute and energy intake, dietary adherence, phenylalanine hydroxylase genotype, changes in dietary phenylalanine intake and protein metabolism, illness, and growth rate. Even distribution of phenylalanine-free protein substitute intake throughout 24h may reduce blood phenylalanine fluctuations. Patients responsive to and treated with 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin seem to have less fluctuation in their blood phenylalanine concentrations than controls. An increase in blood phenylalanine concentration may result in increased brain and cerebrospinal fluid phenylalanine concentrations within hours. Although some evidence suggests that stabilization of blood phenylalanine concentrations may have benefits in patients with PKU, more studies are needed to distinguish the effects of blood phenylalanine fluctuations from those of poor metabolic control.

  16. Differential distribution of amino acids in plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Anket; Kaur, Ravdeep; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2017-05-01

    Plants are a rich source of amino acids and their individual abundance in plants is of great significance especially in terms of food. Therefore, it is of utmost necessity to create a database of the relative amino acid contents in plants as reported in literature. Since in most of the cases complete analysis of profiles of amino acids in plants was not reported, the units used and the methods applied and the plant parts used were different, amino acid contents were converted into relative units with respect to lysine for statistical analysis. The most abundant amino acids in plants are glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Pearson's correlation analysis among different amino acids showed that there were no negative correlations between the amino acids. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to relative amino acid contents of different families. Alismataceae, Cyperaceae, Capparaceae and Cactaceae families had close proximity with each other on the basis of their relative amino acid contents. First three components of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 79.5% of the total variance. Factor analysis (FA) explained four main underlying factors for amino acid analysis. Factor-1 accounted for 29.4% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on glycine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine and valine. Factor-2 explained 25.8% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on alanine, aspartic acid, serine and tyrosine. 14.2% of the total variance was explained by factor-3 and had maximum loadings on arginine and histidine. Factor-4 accounted 8.3% of the total variance and had maximum loading on the proline amino acid. The relative content of different amino acids presented in this paper is alanine (1.4), arginine (1.8), asparagine (0.7), aspartic acid (2.4), cysteine (0.5), glutamic acid (2.8), glutamine (0.6), glycine (1.0), histidine (0.5), isoleucine (0.9), leucine (1.7), lysine (1.0), methionine (0.4), phenylalanine (0.9), proline (1.1), serine (1.0), threonine (1

  17. Changes in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and gene expression during storage of asparagus spears.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Pankaj K; Matsui, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    A cDNA clone coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was isolated from a cDNA library prepared from asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Welcome) using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The partial cDNA clone encoded an mRNA of 527 bp and the derived amino acid sequence was found highly homologous to PAL from rice, maize and barley. Northern blot analysis showed an increase of pAS-PAL mRNA until 24 h at 20 degrees C, which coincided well with PAL activity and fiber development, suggesting that the increase is a response to the wounding associated with harvest.

  18. Synthesis and biological activity of novel amino acid-(N'-benzoyl) hydrazide and amino acid-(N'-nicotinoyl) hydrazide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Sherine N

    2005-09-30

    The coupling reaction of benzoic acid and nicotinic acid hydrazides with N- protected L-amino acids including valine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid and tyrosine is reported. The target compounds, N-Boc-amino acid-(N;-benzoyl)- and N- Boc-amino acid-(N;-nicotinoyl) hydrazides 5a-5e and 6a-6e were prepared in very high yields and purity using N-[(dimethylamino)-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-1-yl- methylene]-N-methyl-methanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide (HATU) as coupling reagent. The antimicrobial activity of the Cu and Cd complexes of the designed compounds was tested. The products were deprotected affording the corresponding amino acid-(N;-benzoyl) hydrazide hydrochloride salts (7a-7e) and amino acid-(N;- nicotinoyl) hydrazide hydrochloride salts (8a-8e). These compounds and their Cu and Cd complexes were also tested for their antimicrobial activity. Several compounds showed comparable activity to that of ampicillin against S. aureus and E. coli.

  19. Replacement of insulin receptor tyrosine residues 1162 and 1163 does not alter the mitogenic effect of the hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Debant, A.; Clauser, E.; Ponzio, G.; Filloux, C.; Auzan, C.; Contreres, J.O.; Rossi, B. )

    1988-11-01

    Chinese hamster ovary transfectants that express insulin receptors in which tyrosine residues 1162 and 1163 were replaced by phenylalanine exhibit a total inhibition of the insulin-mediated tyrosine kinase activity toward exogenous substrates; this latter activity is associated with total inhibition of the hypersensitivity reported for insulin in promoting 2-deoxyglucose uptake. The authors now present evidence that the twin tyrosines also control the insulin-mediated stimulation of glycogen synthesis. Surprisingly, this type of Chinese hamster ovary transfectant is as hypersensitive to insulin for its mitogenic effect as are Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing many intact insulin receptors. Such data suggest that (i) the insulin mitogenic effect routes through a different pathway than insulin uses to activate the transport and metabolism of glucose and (ii) the mitogenic effect of insulin is not controlled by the twin tyrosines. At the molecular level, the solubilized mutated receptor has not insulin-dependent tyrosine kinase activity, whereas this receptor displays measurable insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of its {beta} subunit in {sup 32}P-labeled cells. The authors therefore propose that the autocatalytic phosphorylating activity of the receptor reports a cryptic tyrosine kinase activity that cannot be visualized by the use of classical exogenous substrates.

  20. A region rich in aspartic acid, arginine, tyrosine, and glycine (DRYG) mediates eukaryotic initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) self-association and interaction with eIF3.

    PubMed Central

    Méthot, N; Song, M S; Sonenberg, N

    1996-01-01

    The binding of mRNA to the ribosome is mediated by eukaryotic initiation factors eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), eIF4B, eIF4A, and eIF3, eIF4F binds to the mRNA cap structure and, in combination with eIF4B, is believed to unwind the secondary structure in the 5' untranslated region to facilitate ribosome binding. eIF3 associates with the 40S ribosomal subunit prior to mRNA binding. eIF4B copurifies with eIF3 and eIF4F through several purification steps, suggesting the involvement of a multisubunit complex during translation initiation. To understand the mechanism by which eIF4B promotes 40S ribosome binding to the mRNA, we studied its interactions with partner proteins by using a filter overlay (protein-protein [far Western]) assay and the two-hybrid system. In this report, we show that eIF4B self-associates and also interacts directly with the p170 subunit of eIF3. A region rich in aspartic acid, arginine, tyrosine, and glycine, termed the DRYG domain, is sufficient for self-association of eIF4B, both in vitro and in vivo, and for interaction with the p170 subunit of eIF3. These experiments suggest that eIF4B participates in mRNA-ribosome binding by acting as an intermediary between the mRNA and eIF3, via a direct interaction with the p170 subunit of eIF3. PMID:8816444

  1. 21 CFR 862.1730 - Free tyrosine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... measure free tyrosine (an amono acid) in serum and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as congenital tyrosinemia (a disease that can cause liver... phenylketonuria (a disease that can cause brain damage). (b) Classification. Class I....

  2. Recommendations for the nutrition management of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rani H; Rohr, Fran; Frazier, Dianne; Cunningham, Amy; Mofidi, Shideh; Ogata, Beth; Splett, Patricia L; Moseley, Kathryn; Huntington, Kathleen; Acosta, Phyllis B; Vockley, Jerry; Van Calcar, Sandra C

    2014-02-01

    The effectiveness of a phenylalanine-restricted diet to improve the outcome of individuals with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (OMIM no. 261600) has been recognized since the first patients were treated 60 years ago. However, the treatment regime is complex, costly, and often difficult to maintain for the long term. Improvements and refinements in the diet for phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency have been made over the years, and adjunctive therapies have proven to be successful for certain patients. Yet evidence-based guidelines for managing phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, optimizing outcomes, and addressing all available therapies are lacking. Thus, recommendations for nutrition management were developed using evidence from peer-reviewed publications, gray literature, and consensus surveys. The areas investigated included choice of appropriate medical foods, integration of adjunctive therapies, treatment during pregnancy, monitoring of nutritional and clinical markers, prevention of nutrient deficiencies, providing of access to care, and compliance strategies. This process has not only provided assessment and refinement of current nutrition management and monitoring recommendations but also charted a direction for future studies. This document serves as a companion to the concurrently published American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guideline for the medical treatment of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

  3. Insulin Therapy of Nondiabetic Septic Patients Is Predicted by para-Tyrosine/Phenylalanine Ratio and by Hydroxyl Radical-Derived Products of Phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Kun, Szilárd; Molnár, Gergő A; Sélley, Eszter; Szélig, Lívia; Bogár, Lajos; Csontos, Csaba; Miseta, Attila; Wittmann, István

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical converts Phe to para-, meta-, and ortho-Tyr (p-Tyr, m-Tyr, o-Tyr), while Phe is converted enzymatically to p-Tyr in the kidney and could serve as substrate for gluconeogenesis. Pathological isoforms m- and o-Tyr are supposed to be involved in development of hormone resistances. Role of Phe and the three Tyr isoforms in influencing insulin need was examined in 25 nondiabetic septic patients. Daily insulin dose (DID) and insulin-glucose product (IGP) were calculated. Serum and urinary levels of Phe and Tyr isoforms were determined using a rpHPLC-method. Urinary m-Tyr/p-Tyr ratio was higher in patients with DID and IGP over median compared to those below median (P = 0.005 and P = 0.01, resp.). Urinary m-Tyr and m-Tyr/p-Tyr ratio showed positive correlation with DID (P = 0.009 and P = 0.023, resp.) and with IGP (P = 0.004 and P = 0.008, resp.). Serum Phe was a negative predictor, while serum p-Tyr/Phe ratio was positive predictor of both DID and IGP. Urinary m-Tyr and urinary m-Tyr/p-Tyr, o-Tyr/p-Tyr, and (m-Tyr+o-Tyr)/p-Tyr ratios were positive predictors of both DID and IGP. Phe and Tyr isoforms have a predictive role in carbohydrate metabolism of nondiabetic septic patients. Phe may serve as substrate for renal gluconeogenesis via enzymatically produced p-Tyr, while hydroxyl radical derived Phe products may interfere with insulin action.

  4. [13C]-Specific labeling of 8-2' linked (-)-cis-blechnic, (-)-trans-blechnic and (-)-brainic acids in the fern Blechnum spicant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davin, Laurence B.; Wang, Chang-Zeng; Helms, Gregory L.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2003-01-01

    In vivo administration experiments using stable (13C) and radio (14C) labeled precursors established that the optically active 8-2' linked lignans, (-)-cis-blechnic, (-)-trans-blechnic and (-)-trans-brainic acids, were directly derived from L-phenylalanine, cinnamate, and p-coumarate but not either from tyrosine or acetate. The radiochemical time course data suggest that the initial coupling product is (-)-cis-blechnic acid, which is then apparently converted into both (-)-trans-blechnic and (-)-trans-brainic acids in vivo. These findings provide additional evidence for vascular plant proteins engendering distinct but specific phenolic radical-radical coupling modes, i.e., for full control over phenylpropanoid coupling in vivo, whether stereoselective or regiospecific.

  5. Tyrosine phosphatases as key regulators of StAR induction and cholesterol transport: SHP2 as a potential tyrosine phosphatase involved in steroid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Mariana; Mele, Pablo; Maloberti, Paula; Duarte, Alejandra; Poderoso, Cecilia; Orlando, Ulises; Paz, Cristina; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2011-04-10

    The phospho-dephosphorylation of intermediate proteins is a key event in the regulation of steroid biosynthesis. In this regard, it is well accepted that steroidogenic hormones act through the activation of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases. Although many cellular processes can be regulated by a crosstalk between different kinases and phosphatases, the relationship of Ser/Thr phosphorylation and tyrosine (Tyr)-dephosphorylation is a recently explored field in the regulation of steroid synthesis. Indeed in steroidogenic cells, one of the targets of hormone-induced Ser/Thr phosphorylation is a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Whereas protein tyrosine phosphatases were initially regarded as household enzymes with constitutive activity, dephosphorylating all the substrates they encountered, evidence is now accumulating that protein tyrosine phosphatases are tightly regulated by various mechanisms. Here, we will describe the role of protein tyrosine phosphatases in the regulation of steroid biosynthesis, relating them to steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, arachidonic acid metabolism and mitochondrial rearrangement.

  6. The invariant phenylalanine of precursor proteins discloses the importance of Omp85 for protein translocation into cyanelles

    PubMed Central

    Wunder, Tobias; Martin, Roman; Löffelhardt, Wolfgang; Schleiff, Enrico; Steiner, Jürgen M

    2007-01-01

    Background Today it is widely accepted that plastids are of cyanobacterial origin. During their evolutionary integration into the metabolic and regulatory networks of the host cell the engulfed cyanobacteria lost their independency. This process was paralleled by a massive gene transfer from symbiont to the host nucleus challenging the development of a retrograde protein translocation system to ensure plastid functionality. Such a system includes specific targeting signals of the proteins needed for the function of the plastid and membrane-bound machineries performing the transfer of these proteins across the envelope membranes. At present, most information on protein translocation is obtained by the analysis of land plants. However, the analysis of protein import into the primitive plastids of glaucocystophyte algae, revealed distinct features placing this system as a tool to understand the evolutionary development of translocation systems. Here, bacterial outer membrane proteins of the Omp85 family have recently been discussed as evolutionary seeds for the development of translocation systems. Results To further explore the initial mode of protein translocation, the observed phenylalanine dependence for protein translocation into glaucophyte plastids was pursued in detail. We document that indeed the phenylalanine has an impact on both, lipid binding and binding to proteoliposomes hosting an Omp85 homologue. Comparison to established import experiments, however, unveiled a major importance of the phenylalanine for recognition by Omp85. This finding is placed into the context of the evolutionary development of the plastid translocon. Conclusion The phenylalanine in the N-terminal domain signs as a prerequisite for protein translocation across the outer membrane assisted by a "primitive" translocon. This amino acid appears to be optimized for specifically targeting the Omp85 protein without enforcing aggregation on the membrane surface. The phenylalanine has

  7. Phosphorylated tyrosine in the flagellum filament protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly-Wintenberg, K.; Anderson, T.; Montie, T.C. )

    1990-09-01

    Purified flagella from two strains of {sup 32}P-labeled Pseudomonas aeruginosa were shown to be phosphorylated. This was confirmed by autoradiography of flagellin protein in polyacrylamide gels. Thin-layer electrophoresis and autoradiography of flagellin partial hydrolysates indicated that phosphotyrosine was the major phosphorylated amino acid. High-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis confirmed the presence of phosphotyrosine in flagellum filament protein. Preliminary data indicated that less than one tyrosine per subunit was phosphorylated. No evidence was found for phosphorylation of serine or threonine. A function related to tyrosine phosphorylation has not been determined.

  8. Structural features of the regulatory ACT domain of phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, Carla; Fraternali, Franca; Salvatore, Francesco; Fornili, Arianna; Zagari, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) catalyzes the conversion of L-Phe to L-Tyr. Defects in PAH activity, caused by mutations in the human gene, result in the autosomal recessively inherited disease hyperphenylalaninemia. PAH activity is regulated by multiple factors, including phosphorylation and ligand binding. In particular, PAH displays positive cooperativity for L-Phe, which is proposed to bind the enzyme on an allosteric site in the N-terminal regulatory domain (RD), also classified as an ACT domain. This domain is found in several proteins and is able to bind amino acids. We used molecular dynamics simulations to obtain dynamical and structural insights into the isolated RD of PAH. Here we show that the principal motions involve conformational changes leading from an initial open to a final closed domain structure. The global intrinsic motions of the RD are correlated with exposure to solvent of a hydrophobic surface, which corresponds to the ligand binding-site of the ACT domain. Our results strongly suggest a relationship between the Phe-binding function and the overall dynamic behaviour of the enzyme. This relationship may be affected by structure-disturbing mutations. To elucidate the functional implications of the mutations, we investigated the structural effects on the dynamics of the human RD PAH induced by six missense hyperphenylalaninemia-causing mutations, namely p.G46S, p.F39C, p.F39L, p.I65S, p.I65T and p.I65V. These studies showed that the alterations in RD hydrophobic interactions induced by missense mutations could affect the functionality of the whole enzyme.

  9. Self-assembly of aromatic α-amino acids into amyloid inspired nano/micro scaled architects.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prabhjot; Brar, Surinder K; Bajaj, Manish; Narang, Nikesh; Mithu, Venus S; Katare, Om P; Wangoo, Nishima; Sharma, Rohit K

    2017-03-01

    In the pursuit for design of novel bio inspired materials, aromatic α-amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine) have been investigated for the generation of well-ordered self-assembled architects such as fibrils, rods, ribbons and twisted nanosheets in varying solvent systems. These nano/micro scaled architects were thoroughly characterized using FE-SEM, confocal microscopy, optical microscopy, (1)H NMR, FTIR, XRD and TGA. These self-assembled architects were histologically stained with Congo red and thioflavin T dyes for investigation of amyloid morphology which revealed that the deposited state of ordered assemblies exhibit specific characteristic of amyloid deposits. The self-assembly of aromatic amino acids was observed to be driven by non-covalent forces such as π-π stacking, van der Waals and electrostatic interaction.

  10. Electronic Relaxation of the Phenylalanine Residue in Gas Phase Peptides: Role of the Neighbouring Amide Groups in the Photophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loquais, Y.; Biswal, H. S.; Tardivel, B.; Brenner, V.; Mons, M.; Gloaguen, E.; Jouvet, C.; Broquier, M.; Malis, M.; Ljubic, I.; Doslic, N.

    2012-06-01

    Protein absorption in the near UV is mainly due to the presence of aromatic systems on the side chain of three residues: phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine. It is generally expected that the photophysics of these UV chromophores depends on their immediate environment within the molecule and thus on the conformation of these flexible molecules. This property may in particular be used as an optical diagnostic of the conformational state of the peptide chain. The structure of peptide chains isolated in the gas phase can be characterized by UV and IR laser spectroscopy. These measurements allow us to distinguish the spectral contributions of the different conformers and thus provide us with an elegant way to address the issue of the conformational dependence on the photophysics. For this purpose, the dynamics of relaxation of the ππ* excited state of several peptides containing a phenylalanine residue have been studied using two-colour resonant two-photon ionization (2C-R2PI) in the ns time scale at CEA and ps at CLUPS and laser-induced fluorescence as well. The lifetime of the ππ* excited state is found to strongly depend on the conformation adopted by the molecule and on the excess energy in the excited state, with measured lifetimes ranging from 1 ns to 80 ns. W. Chin; F. Piuzzi; I. Dimicoli and M. Mons, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 8, pp 1033-1048 (2006)

  11. Characterization and cDNA cloning of phospholipase C-gamma, a major substrate for heparin-binding growth factor 1 (acidic fibroblast growth factor)-activated tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, W H; Dionne, C A; Kaplow, J; Mudd, R; Friesel, R; Zilberstein, A; Schlessinger, J; Jaye, M

    1990-01-01

    Heparin-binding growth factors (HBGFs) bind to high-affinity cell surface receptors which possess intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. A Mr 150,000 protein phosphorylated on tyrosine in response to class 1 HBGF (HBGF-1) was purified and partially sequenced. On the basis of this sequence, cDNA clones were isolated from a human endothelial cell library and identified as encoding phospholipase C-gamma. Phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma in intact cells treated with HBGF-1 was directly demonstrated by using antiphospholipase C-gamma antibodies. Thus, HBGF-1 joins epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor, whose receptor activation leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and probable activation of phospholipase C-gamma. Images PMID:2167438

  12. Site-directed mutagenesis of tyrosine 118 within the central constriction site of the LamB (Maltoporin) channel of Escherichia coli. I. Effect on ion transport.

    PubMed Central

    Orlik, Frank; Andersen, Christian; Benz, Roland

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the malto-oligosaccharide-specific LamB-channel of Escherichia coli (also called maltoporin) is known from x-ray crystallography. The central constriction of the channel formed by the external loop 3 is controlled by a tyrosine residue (Y118). Y118 was replaced by site-directed mutagenesis by ten other amino acids (alanine, isoleucine, asparagine, serine, cysteine, aspartic acid, arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, and tryptophane) including neutral ones, negatively and positively charged amino acids to study the effect of their size, hydrophobicity, and charge on ion transport through LamB. The mutant proteins were purified to homogeneity. They were reconstituted into lipid bilayer membranes and single-channel conductance and ion selectivity were measured to get insight into the mechanism of ion transport through LamB. The mutation of Y118 to any other nonaromatic amino acid led to a substantial increase of the single-channel conductance by more than a factor of six at maximum. The highest effect was observed for Y118D. Additionally, a nonlinear relationship between the salt concentration in the aqueous phase and the channel conductance was observed for this mutant, indicating strong discrete charge effects on ion conductance. For all other mutants, with the exception of Y118R, linear relationships were found between single-channel conductance and bulk aqueous concentration. The individual hydrophobicity indices of the amino acids introduced inside the central constriction of the LamB channel had a somewhat smaller effect on the single-channel conductance as compared with the effect of their size and charge. PMID:11964234

  13. A Survey of Aspartate Phenylalanine and Glutamate Phenylalanine Interactions in the Protein Data Bank: Searching for Anion Pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Vivek M; Harris, Jason B; Adams, Rachel M; Nguyen, Don; Spires, Jeremy; Howell, Elizabeth E.; Hinde, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Protein structures are stabilized using noncovalent interactions. In addition to the traditional noncovalent interactions, newer types of interactions are thought to be present in proteins. One such interaction, an anion pair, in which the positively charged edge of an aromatic ring interacts with an anion, forming a favorable anion quadrupole interaction, has been previously proposed [Jackson, M. R., et al. (2007) J. Phys. Chem. B111, 8242 8249]. To study the role of anion interactions in stabilizing protein structure, we analyzed pairwise interactions between phenylalanine (Phe) and the anionic amino acids, aspartate (Asp) and glutamate (Glu). Particular emphasis was focused on identification of Phe Asp or Glu pairs separated by less than 7 in the high-resolution, nonredundant Protein Data Bank. Simplifying Phe to benzene and Asp or Glu to formate molecules facilitated in silico analysis of the pairs. Kitaura Morokuma energy calculations were performed on roughly 19000 benzene formate pairs and the resulting energies analyzed as a function of distance and angle. Edgewise interactions typically produced strongly stabilizing interaction energies (2 to 7.3 kcal/mol), while interactions involving the ring face resulted in weakly stabilizing to repulsive interaction energies. The strongest, most stabilizing interactions were identified as preferentially occurring in buried residues. Anion pairs are found throughout protein structures, in helices as well as strands. Numerous pairs also had nearby cation interactions as well as potential stacking. While more than 1000 structures did not contain an anion pair, the 3134 remaining structures contained approximately 2.6 anion pairs per protein, suggesting it is a reasonably common motif that could contribute to the overall structural stability of a protein.

  14. Evaluation of apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in Chinese corn by-products for growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guo; Li, Defa; Wang, Fenglai; Dai, Jianguo; Yang, Wenjun

    2003-04-01

    Twelve crossbred barrows (BW 47 +/- 2.81 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula in the terminal ileum and fed one of ten diets containing corn gluten meal, dried distillers grain or dried distillers grain with solubles as the sole protein source, according to a 6 x 6 Latin Square design. Lysine, tryptophan and methionine were, the first, second and third limiting amino acids in these by-products. The ileal apparent digestibility of methionine, tyrosine, leucine and phenylalanine in corn gluten meal was high. The ileal apparent digestibility of tryptophan, tyrosine and leucine differed significantly in corn gluten meal. The ileal apparent digestibility of amino acids was higher in dried distillers grain with solubles than in dried distillers grain. To predict the ileal apparent digestibility of tryptophan, methionine and threonine linear regression equations were derived. The results suggested that processing technique can influence the ileal apparent digestibility ofamino acids in corn by-products. It was concluded that the direct technique cannot accurately determine the ileal apparent digestibility of tryptophan in dried distillers grain with solubles and dried distillers grain, due to its low content. The content of an amino acid in a feedstuff used as the sole source of protein must meet the minimum requirement of pigs when the ileal apparent digestibility of constituent amino acids is determined using the direct technique.

  15. Free amino acid composition in hemolymph and muscle of the ghost crab, Ocypode platytarsis.

    PubMed

    Sankar, R Siva; Yogamoorthi, A

    2012-05-15

    Free amino acid plays an important role in physiological functions. The ghost crab, Ocypode platytarsis caught off the Puducherry sandy beaches, south east coast of India were investigated for the pattern of distribution of free amino acids. The hemolymph and muscle were sampled from male and female crabs and then subjected to free amino acid analysis quantitatively by HPLC. Fourteen free amino acids have been determined in hemolymph and muscle of both sexes in Ocypode platytarsis. The essential amino acids were leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, valine and histidine and non-essential amino acids were alanine, arginine, glutamic acid, glycine, serine and tyrosine. The total concentration of free amino acid found in the male and female hemolymph was lower than that in the muscle. Glutamic acid is of higher concentration in the hemolymph whereas histidine found was higher in the muscle of both sexes. The male crab contains a strikingly higher concentration of histidine of about eight times than that of female in muscles. The study revealed that distribution pattern of free amino acids differ in relation to hemolymph and muscle of male and female crabs.

  16. Immunolocalization of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase in differentiating xylem of poplar.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takahiko; Takabe, Keiji; Fujita, Minoru

    2004-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H; EC 1.14.13.11) are pivotal enzymes involved in lignification. We synthesized peptides as the epitopes according to the amino acid sequences of these enzymes, coupled them with hemocyanin, and injected them into mice. The antiserums against peptides of PAL and C4H specifically detected PAL and C4H in the crude enzymes extracted from differentiating xylem of poplar, respectively. PAL and C4H were localized in differentiating xylem of poplar. PAL labeling was mainly localized in the cytosol, and somewhat localized on the rough-endoplasmic reticulum (r-ER) and the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, C4H was mainly observed on r-ER and the Golgi apparatus. These findings suggest that conversion of phenylalanine to cinnamic acid occurs in the cytosol and the following reaction occurs near the membrane of r-ER and the Golgi apparatus. The possibility of coordinated localization of PAL and C4H is discussed.

  17. Recovery of pan-genotypic and genotype-specific amino acid alterations in chronic hepatitis C after viral clearance: transition at the crossroad of metabolism and immunity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Ling; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Chang, Su-Wei; Tang, Hsiang-Yu; Chiu, Cheng-Tang; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Shiao, Ming-Shi

    2017-02-01

    Recovery of amino acid (AA) metabolism and the associated clinical implications in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with sustained virological response (SVR) following anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy remains elusive. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 222 CHC patients with SVR. Eighty-two age-matched male genotype 1 (G1) and G2 patients underwent paired serum metabolomics analyses with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to examine AAs before and 24 weeks after anti-HCV therapy. Before anti-HCV therapy, G1 patients had a higher HCV RNA level than G2 patients. Twenty-four weeks post-therapy versus pre-therapy, repeated-measures ANOVA showed that the levels of alanine aminotransferase and most AAs decreased while those of lipids, glutamine and putrescine increased in CHC patients. The methionine sulfoxide/methionine ratio decreased, while the asymmetric dimethylarginine/arginine, glutamine/glutamate, citrulline/arginine, ornithine/arginine, kynurenine/tryptophan, tyrosine/phenylalanine and Fisher's ratios increased. Genotype-specific subgroup analyses showed that valine and serotonin/tyrosine increased in G1 and that kynurenine and tyrosine/phenylalanine increased and sarcosine decreased in G2 patients. Viral clearance in CHC patients pan-genotypically restored fuel utilization by decelerating the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Following improvement in liver function, the urea, nitric oxide, methionine, and polyamine cycles were accelerated. The cardiometabolic risk attenuated, but the augmented kynurenine pathway activity could increase the oncogenesis risk. The trends in neurotransmitter formation differed between G1 and G2 patients after SVR. Moreover, the HCV-suppressing effect of valine was evident in G1 patients; with the exception of prostate cancer, the oncogenesis risk increased, particularly in G2 patients, at least within 24 weeks post-anti-HCV therapy.

  18. Partial purification and characterization of an enzyme from pea nuclei with protein tyrosine phosphatase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Y L; Roux, S J

    1995-01-01

    A pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclear enzyme with protein tyrosine phosphatase activity has been partially purified and characterized. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 90 kD as judged by molecular sieve column chromatography and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Like animal protein tyrosine phosphatases it can be inhibited by low concentrations of molybdate and vanadate. It is also inhibited by heparin and spermine but not by either the acid phosphatase inhibitors citrate and tartrate or the protein serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. The enzyme does not require Ca2+, Mg2+, or Mn2+ for its activity but is stimulated by ethylenediaminetetraacetate and by ethyleneglycolbis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid. It dephosphorylates phosphotyrosine residues on the four different 32P-tyrosine-labeled peptides tested but not the phosphoserine/threonine residues on casein and histone. Like some animal protein tyrosine phosphatases, it has a variable pH optimum depending on the substrate used: the optimum is 5.5 when the substrate is [32P]tyrosine-labeled lysozyme, but it is 7.0 when the substrate is [32P]tyrosine-labeled poly(glutamic acid, tyrosine). It has a Km of 4 microM when the lysozyme protein is used as a substrate. PMID:11536662

  19. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Zhu, Lianfeng; Zhang, Junhua; Jin, Qianyu; Wu, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N), which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3−-N + NH4+-N). On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine) did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10). The compositional similarity of many

  20. Induction of aromatic amino acids and phenylpropanoid compounds in Scrophularia striata Boiss. cell culture in response to chitosan-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kamalipourazad, Maryam; Sharifi, Mohsen; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Chashmi, Najmeh Ahmadian

    2016-10-01

    Manipulation of cell culture media by elicitors is one of most important strategies to inducing secondary metabolism for the production of valuable metabolites. In this investigation, inducing effect of chitosan on physiological, biochemical, and molecular parameters were investigated in cell suspension cultures of Scrophularia striata Boiss. The results showed that chitosan concentration and time of elicitation are determinants of the effectiveness of the elicitor. Accumulation of aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine [Phe] and tyrosine [Tyr]), phenylpropanoid compounds (phenolic acids [PAs] and echinacoside [ECH]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and gene expression, and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], peroxidase [POX], catalase [CAT]) activities were altered by changing the exposure time of elicitation. Results showed that, upon elicitation with chitosan, oxidative events were induced, antioxidant responses of S. striata cells were boosted through enhanced activity of an effective series of scavenging enzymes (SOD, CAT, and POX), and biosynthesis of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ECH and PAs [cinnamic, p-coumaric and, caffeic acids]). The increase in amino acid content and PAL activity at early days of exposure to chitosan was related with rises in phenolic compounds. These results provide evidence that chitosan by up-regulation of PAL gene differentially improves the production of phenylpropanoid compounds, which are of medical commercial value with good biotechnological prospects.

  1. Spectroscopic analysis of tyrosine derivatives: on the role of the tyrosine-histidine covalent linkage in cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Voicescu, Mariana; El Khoury, Youssef; Martel, David; Heinrich, Martine; Hellwig, Petra

    2009-10-08

    2'-(1-Imidazolyl)-4-methylphenol (C-N bonding in the ortho' position at the phenyl group), a model compound for a tyrosine-histidine covalent linkage, was studied with a combined electrochemical and UV-vis/IR spectroscopic approach. Electrochemical analysis of the 2'-(1-imidazolyl)-4-methylphenol model compound by the means of cyclic voltammetry yielded a potential of 0.48 vs ferrocene (1.15 V vs NHE) for the oxidation of the deprotonated form, the reaction being kinetically irreversible. A tentative assignment of the electrochemically induced Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference infrared spectra is presented that indicates the deprotonation of the tyrosine before oxidation and importantly the strong influence of the solvent on the spectral properties and on the mechanism of radical formation. Fluorescence lifetimes and pre-exponential factors of the tyrosine-histidine model compounds are presented and discussed in comparison to tyrosine. The tyrosine-histidine fluorescence lifetime is found to be solvent dependent. The influence of the solvent on the reaction mechanism is proposed with regard to the mechanism of electron coupled proton transfer in proteins that include covalently linked amino acid side chains, like the cytochrome c oxidase.

  2. Purification, characterization, gene cloning and nucleotide sequencing of D: -stereospecific amino acid amidase from soil bacterium: Delftia acidovorans.

    PubMed

    Hongpattarakere, Tipparat; Komeda, Hidenobu; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2005-12-01

    The D-amino acid amidase-producing bacterium was isolated from soil samples using an enrichment culture technique in medium broth containing D-phenylalanine amide as a sole source of nitrogen. The strain exhibiting the strongest activity was identified as Delftia acidovorans strain 16. This strain produced intracellular D-amino acid amidase constitutively. The enzyme was purified about 380-fold to homogeneity and its molecular mass was estimated to be about 50 kDa, on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was active preferentially toward D-amino acid amides rather than their L-counterparts. It exhibited strong amino acid amidase activity toward aromatic amino acid amides including D-phenylalanine amide, D-tryptophan amide and D-tyrosine amide, yet it was not specifically active toward low-molecular-weight D-amino acid amides such as D-alanine amide, L-alanine amide and L-serine amide. Moreover, it was not specifically active toward oligopeptides. The enzyme showed maximum activity at 40 degrees C and pH 8.5 and appeared to be very stable, with 92.5% remaining activity after the reaction was performed at 45 degrees C for 30 min. However, it was mostly inactivated in the presence of phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride or Cd2+, Ag+, Zn2+, Hg2+ and As3+ . The NH2 terminal and internal amino acid sequences of the enzyme were determined; and the gene was cloned and sequenced. The enzyme gene damA encodes a 466-amino-acid protein (molecular mass 49,860.46 Da); and the deduced amino acid sequence exhibits homology to the D-amino acid amidase from Variovorax paradoxus (67.9% identity), the amidotransferase A subunit from Burkholderia fungorum (50% identity) and other enantioselective amidases.

  3. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-06-30

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson's group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src-transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src-associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month.

  4. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson’s group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src–transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src–associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month. PMID:26130799

  5. Adult human liver mesenchymal progenitor cells express phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Baruteau, Julien; Nyabi, Omar; Najimi, Mustapha; Fauvart, Maarten; Sokal, Etienne

    2014-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most prevalent inherited metabolic diseases and is accountable for a severe encephalopathy by progressive intoxication of the brain by phenylalanine. This results from an ineffective L-phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme (PAH) due to a mutated phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Neonatal screening programs allow an early dietetic treatment with restrictive phenylalanine intake. This diet prevents most of the neuropsychological disabilities but remains challenging for lifelong compliance. Adult-derived human liver progenitor cells (ADHLPC) are a pool of precursors that can differentiate into hepatocytes. We aim to study PAH expression and PAH activity in a differenciated ADHLPC. ADHLPC were isolated from human hepatocyte primary culture of two different donors and differenciated under specific culture conditions. We demonstrated the high expression of PAH and a large increase of PAH activity in differenciated LPC. The age of the donor, the cellular viability after liver digestion and cryopreservation affects PAH activity. ADHLPC might therefore be considered as a suitable source for cell therapy in PKU.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1555 - Phenylalanine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital phenylketonuria which, if untreated, may cause mental... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Phenylalanine test system. 862.1555 Section 862.1555 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1555 - Phenylalanine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital phenylketonuria which, if untreated, may cause mental... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phenylalanine test system. 862.1555 Section 862.1555 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1555 - Phenylalanine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital phenylketonuria which, if untreated, may cause mental... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phenylalanine test system. 862.1555 Section 862.1555 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1555 - Phenylalanine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phenylalanine test system. 862.1555 Section 862.1555 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  10. Optical sensing of phenylalanine in urine via extraction with magnetic molecularly imprinted poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Mei-Hwa; Thomas, James L.; Shih, Ching-Ping; Hung, Tzu-Lin; Whang, Thou-Jen; Lin, Hung-Yin

    2015-07-01

    Incorporation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles into molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) is useful for both bioseparations and for concentration and sensing of biomedically relevant target molecules in physiological fluids, through the application of a magnetic field. In this study, we combined the separation and concentration of a target (phenylalanine) in urine, using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymeric composite nanoparticles, with optical sensing, to improve assay sensitivity. This target is important as a catecholamine precursor, and as an important amino acid constituent of proteins. Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol)s were imprinted with target molecules, and showed a high imprinting effectiveness (target binding compared with binding to non-imprinted polymer particles.) Fluorescence spectrophotometry was used to measure binding of the target, and also binding of possible interfering compounds. These measurements suggest that functional groups on phenylalanine dominate the selectivity of the synthesized MIPs. Finally, the composite nanoparticles were used to separate and sense the target molecule in urine by Raman scattering microscopy.

  11. Application of Pre-Column Labeling Liquid Chromatography for Canine Plasma-Free Amino Acid Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Kazuo; Hirao, Yoshiko; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Murahata, Yusuke; Osaki, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Ito, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) levels are a useful metric for diagnosing cancer and providing a prognosis. However, the use of analysis of PFAA levels has been limited in the veterinary medicine field. We addressed the application of liquid chromatography (LC) using a pre-column labeling technique for analysis of canine PFAA levels. This method significantly shortened the analysis time relative to conventional methods. No diurnal fluctuations were detected at 9:00 AM in most PFAA levels, and food intake increased the levels of some PFAAs, including valine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and proline. These results indicate that LC with pre-column labeling is useful for measuring canine PFAA levels, for which time of day and interval after food intake must be taken into consideration. PMID:26771650

  12. Simultaneous analysis of riboflavin and aromatic amino acids in beer using fluorescence and multivariate calibration methods.

    PubMed

    Sikorska, Ewa; Gliszczyńska-Swigło, Anna; Insińska-Rak, Małgorzata; Khmelinskii, Igor; De Keukeleire, Denis; Sikorski, Marek

    2008-04-21

    The study demonstrates an application of the front-face fluorescence spectroscopy combined with multivariate regression methods to the analysis of fluorescent beer components. Partial least-squares regressions (PLS1, PLS2, and N-way PLS) were utilized to develop calibration models between synchronous fluorescence spectra and excitation-emission matrices of beers, on one hand, and analytical concentrations of riboflavin and aromatic amino acids, on the other hand. The best results were obtained in the analysis of excitation-emission matrices using the N-way PLS2 method. The respective correlation coefficients, and the values of the root mean-square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), expressed as percentages of the respective mean analytic concentrations, were: 0.963 and 14% for riboflavin, 0.974 and 4% for tryptophan, 0.980 and 4% for tyrosine, and 0.982 and 19% for phenylalanine.

  13. Investigating the inclusion properties of aromatic amino acids complexing beta-cyclodextrins in model peptides.

    PubMed

    Caso, Jolanda Valentina; Russo, Luigi; Palmieri, Maddalena; Malgieri, Gaetano; Galdiero, Stefania; Falanga, Annarita; Isernia, Carla; Iacovino, Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Cyclodextrins are commonly used as complexing agents in biological, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications since they have an effect on protein thermal and proteolytic stability, refolding yields, solubility, and taste masking. β-cyclodextrins (β-CD), because of their cavity size are a perfectly suited complexing agent for many common guest moieties. In the case of peptide-cyclodextrin and protein-cyclodextrin host-guest complexes the aromatic amino acids are reported to be the principal responsible of the interaction. For these reasons, we have investigated the inclusion properties of nine designed tripeptides, obtained permuting the position of two L-alanines (Ala, A) with that of one L-tryptophan (Trp, W), L-phenylalanine (Phe, F), or L-tyrosine (Tyr, Y), respectively. Interestingly, the position of the aromatic side-chain in the sequence appears to modulate the β-CD:peptide binding constants, determined via UV-Vis and NMR spectroscopy, which in turn assumes values higher than those reported for the single amino acid. The tripeptides containing a tyrosine showed the highest binding constants, with the central position in the Ac-AYA-NH2 peptide becoming the most favorite for the interaction. A combined NMR and Molecular Docking approach permitted to build detailed complex models, highlighting the stabilizing interactions of the neighboring amino acids backbone atoms with the upper rim of the β-CD.

  14. The UL12 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Is Regulated by Tyrosine Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Hikaru; Kato, Akihisa; Mugitani, Michio; Kashima, Yukie; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Arii, Jun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL12 protein (pUL12) is a nuclease that is critical for viral replication in vitro and neurovirulence in vivo. In this study, mass spectrometric analysis of pUL12 and phosphate-affinity SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis identified tyrosine at pUL12 residue 371 (Tyr-371) as a pUL12 phosphorylation site: Tyr-371 is conserved in pUL12 homologs in herpesviruses in all Herpesviridae subfamilies. Replacement of Tyr-371 with phenylalanine (Y371F) in pUL12 (i) abolished its exonuclease activity in HSV-1-infected Vero, HEL, and A549 cells, (ii) reduced viral replication, cell-cell spread, and pUL12 expression in infected cells in a cell type-dependent manner, (iii) led to aberrant subcellular localization of pUL12 in infected cells in a cell type-dependent manner, and (iv) reduced HSV-1 neurovirulence in mice. The effects of the pUL12 Y371F mutation in cell cultures and mice were similar to those of a nuclease-dead double mutation in pUL12, although the Y371F mutation reduced viral replication severalfold more than the nuclease-dead double mutation in a cell type- and multiplicity-of-infection-dependent manner. Replacement of Tyr-371 with glutamic acid, which mimics constitutive phosphorylation, restored the wild-type phenotype in cell cultures and mice. These results suggested that phosphorylation of pUL12 Tyr-371 was essential for pUL12 to express its nuclease activity in HSV-1-infected cells and that this phosphorylation promoted viral replication and cell-cell spread in cell cultures and neurovirulence in mice mainly by upregulating pUL12 nuclease activity and, in part, by regulating the subcellular localization and expression of pUL12 in HSV-1-infected cells. IMPORTANCE Herpesviruses encode a considerable number of enzymes for their replication. Like cellular enzymes, the viral enzymes need to be properly regulated in infected cells. Although the functional aspects of herpesvirus enzymes have gradually been

  15. [Studies on the oxidation of tyrosine induced by hydroxyl radical with fluorescence spectroscopic method].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-hui; Wang, Wei-long; Wu, Lin-sheng; Jia, Xiao-li

    2011-07-01

    Dityrosine is a marker of tyrosine oxidation. To study effecting factors of hydroxyl radical on tyrosine oxidation, synchronous fluorescence spectra with two dimensional correlation was used. The results showed that the peak position and intensity of dityrosine changed while pH value varied. In the system of tyrosine oxidation, with the increment of tyrosine concentration, the concentration of dityrosine decreased. With the increment of hydrogen peroxide concentration, the concentration of dityrosine increased. The oxidation reaction was prone to taking place in acid conditions while difficult to develop in basic conditions. With the development of oxidation reaction, the fluorescence intensity of dityrosine increased and then decreased. Two dimentional correlation synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the variation in the intensity at 292 nm preceded that of 281, 300 and 374 nm. Thus, fluorescence spectroscopy was simple and easy for studying tyrosine oxidation induced by hydroxyl radical.

  16. Uptake of phenylalanine by the rat brain after resuscitation from cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Kapuściński, A

    1995-01-01

    In 47 adult rats 10-min cardiac arrest was induced by the intrathoracic compression of the heart vessel bundle. The animals were sacrificed at 15, 30, 60, 120 min and 6 h or 1, 3, 7 days after resuscitation. Decapitation was performed 15 sec after intracarotid injection of mixture of L-[U-14C] phenylalanine (PHE) and tritiated water in PBS buffer. By the dual label method the brain uptake index (BUI) and percent of injected dose of amino acid in the cerebral hemisphere were calculated. A decrease of PHE uptake and drop of BUI revealed the blood-brain barrier (BBB) alterations resulting in diminution of amino acid transport into brain. The most pronounced changes developed between 15 and 120 min after resuscitation and also after 7 days. The above data revealed the decreased active transport of PHE in the early and late periods after ischemic insult.

  17. Structure-activity relationship of ochratoxin A and synthesized derivatives: importance of amino acid and halogen moiety for cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rottkord, Ulrike; Röhl, Christopher; Ferse, Ines; Schulz, Marie-Christin; Rückschloss, Uwe; Gekle, Michael; Schwerdt, Gerald; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    The enigma why the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) impairs cell and organ function is still not solved. However, an interaction with target molecules is a prerequisite for any observed adverse effect. This interaction depends on characteristics of the target molecule as well as on the OTA molecule itself. OTA has different structural moieties which may be relevant for these interrelations including a halogen (chlorine) and an amino acid group (phenylalanine). To test their importance for the impact of OTA, detailed structure-activity studies with various OTA derivatives were performed. For this, 23 OTA derivatives were available, which were modified by either an exchange of the halogen moiety against another halogen (fluorine, iodine or bromine) or by the amino acid moiety against another one (tyrosine or alanine) or a combination of both. Additionally, the configuration of the 3R carbon atom was changed to 3S. These derivatives were tested in human renal cells for their ability to induce cell death (cytotoxicity, apoptosis, necrosis), their impact on collagen protein secretion and for their influence on gene expression. It turned out that the substitution of the amino acid moiety against tyrosine or alanine almost completely prevented the adverse effects of OTA. The exchange of the halogen moiety had minor effects and the inversion of the stereochemistry at C3 did not prevent the effects of OTA. Therefore, we conclude that the amino acid moiety of OTA is indispensable for the interaction of OTA with its target molecules.

  18. Structural basis of tubulin tyrosination by tubulin tyrosine ligase

    PubMed Central

    Prota, Andrea E.; Magiera, Maria M.; Kuijpers, Marijn; Bargsten, Katja; Frey, Daniel; Wieser, Mara; Jaussi, Rolf; Hoogenraad, Casper C.; Kammerer, Richard A.; Janke, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL) catalyzes the post-translational retyrosination of detyrosinated α-tubulin. Despite the indispensable role of TTL in cell and organism development, its molecular mechanism of action is poorly understood. By solving crystal structures of TTL in complex with tubulin, we here demonstrate that TTL binds to the α and β subunits of tubulin and recognizes the curved conformation of the dimer. Biochemical and cellular assays revealed that specific tubulin dimer recognition controls the activity of the enzyme, and as a consequence, neuronal development. The TTL–tubulin structure further illustrates how the enzyme binds the functionally crucial C-terminal tail sequence of α-tubulin and how this interaction catalyzes the tyrosination reaction. It also reveals how TTL discriminates between α- and β-tubulin, and between different post-translationally modified forms of α-tubulin. Together, our data suggest that TTL has specifically evolved to recognize and modify tubulin, thus highlighting a fundamental role of the evolutionary conserved tubulin tyrosination cycle in regulating the microtubule cytoskeleton. PMID:23358242

  19. Tyrosine kinases in inflammatory dermatologic disease

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Ricardo T.; Fiorentino, David; Chung, Lorinda; Robinson, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases are enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on protein substrates. They are key components of signaling pathways that drive an array of cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Specific tyrosine kinases have recently been identified as critical to the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Small-molecule inhibitors of tyrosine kinases are emerging as a novel class of therapy that may provide benefit in certain patient subsets. In this review, we highlight tyrosine kinase signaling implicated in inflammatory dermatologic diseases, evaluate strategies aimed at inhibiting these aberrant signaling pathways, and discuss prospects for future drug development. PMID:20584561

  20. Facile and Stabile Linkages through Tyrosine: Bioconjugation Strategies with the Tyrosine-Click Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Hitoshi; Nagano, Masanobu; Gavrilyuk, Julia; Hakamata, Wataru; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Barbas, Carlos F.

    2013-01-01

    The scope, chemoselectivity, and utility of the click-like tyrosine labeling reaction with 4-phenyl-3H-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5(4H)-diones (PTADs) is reported. To study the utility and chemoselectivity of PTAD derivatives in peptide and protein chemistry, we synthesized PTAD derivatives possessing azide, alkyne, and ketone groups and studied their reactions with amino acid derivatives and peptides of increasing complexity. With proteins we studied the compatibility of the tyrosine click reaction with cysteine and lysine-targeted labeling approaches and demonstrate that chemoselective tri-functionalization of proteins is readily achieved. In particular cases, we noted PTAD decomposition resulted in formation of a putative isocyanate by-product that was promiscuous in labeling. This side reaction product, however, was readily scavenged by the addition of a small amount of 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol (Tris) to the reaction medium. To study the potential of the tyrosine click reaction to introduce poly(ethylene) glycol chains onto proteins (PEGylation), we demonstrate that this novel reagent provides for the selective PEGylation of chymotrypsinogen whereas traditional succinimide-based PEGylation targeting lysine residues provided a more diverse range of PEGylated products. Finally, we applied the tyrosine click reaction to create a novel antibody drug conjugate. For this purpose, we synthesized a PTAD derivative linked to the HIV entry inhibitor aplaviroc. Labeling of the antibody trastuzumab with this reagent provided a labeled antibody conjugate that demonstrated potent HIV-1 neutralization activity demonstrating the potential of this reaction in creating protein conjugates with small molecules. The tyrosine click linkage demonstrated stability to extremes of pH, temperature and exposure to human blood plasma indicating that this linkage is significantly more robust than maleimide-type linkages that are commonly employed in bioconjugations. These studies

  1. Facile and stabile linkages through tyrosine: bioconjugation strategies with the tyrosine-click reaction.

    PubMed

    Ban, Hitoshi; Nagano, Masanobu; Gavrilyuk, Julia; Hakamata, Wataru; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Barbas, Carlos F

    2013-04-17

    The scope, chemoselectivity, and utility of the click-like tyrosine labeling reaction with 4-phenyl-3H-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5(4H)-diones (PTADs) is reported. To study the utility and chemoselectivity of PTAD derivatives in peptide and protein chemistry, we synthesized PTAD derivatives possessing azide, alkyne, and ketone groups and studied their reactions with amino acid derivatives and peptides of increasing complexity. With proteins we studied the compatibility of the tyrosine click reaction with cysteine and lysine-targeted labeling approaches and demonstrate that chemoselective trifunctionalization of proteins is readily achieved. In particular cases, we noted that PTAD decomposition resulted in formation of a putative isocyanate byproduct that was promiscuous in labeling. This side reaction product, however, was readily scavenged by the addition of a small amount of 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol (Tris) to the reaction medium. To study the potential of the tyrosine click reaction to introduce poly(ethylene glycol) chains onto proteins (PEGylation), we demonstrate that this novel reagent provides for the selective PEGylation of chymotrypsinogen, whereas traditional succinimide-based PEGylation targeting lysine residues provided a more diverse range of PEGylated products. Finally, we applied the tyrosine click reaction to create a novel antibody-drug conjugate. For this purpose, we synthesized a PTAD derivative linked to the HIV entry inhibitor aplaviroc. Labeling of the antibody trastuzumab with this reagent provided a labeled antibody conjugate that demonstrated potent HIV-1 neutralization activity demonstrating the potential of this reaction in creating protein conjugates with small molecules. The tyrosine click linkage demonstrated stability to extremes of pH, temperature, and exposure to human blood plasma indicating that this linkage is significantly more robust than maleimide-type linkages that are commonly employed in bioconjugations. These

  2. Quantitative analysis of flavonoids, sugars, phenylalanine and tryptophan in onion scales during storage under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita; Assefa, Awraris D; Ko, Eun Young; Lee, Eul Tai; Park, Se Won

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive quantitative analysis of flavonoids, sugars, phenylalanine, and tryptophan have been carried out in different onion scales during storage at ambient temperature (20-23 °C) and relative humidity (60-80 %). Depending on the length of storage, dry matter content and composition shows variation inside the onion bulbs. Inner sprouts were observed on longitudinally cut bulbs after 2 months and visible sprouts appeared after 5 months of storage. The bulbs lost 20 to 30 % of their weight at the end of the storage. Higher dry matter content was observed in the inner scales. Significantly high content of quercetin in inner scales and high level of quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside and quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside in outer scales was observed during a 7 months storage. During storage period, high content of fructose and glucose was observed in the middle scales while sucrose was high in the inner scales. There was no particular trend observed within analyzed amino acids. However, the content of phenylalanine was higher than tryptophan.

  3. Biochemical evidence for the tyrosine involvement in cationic intermediate stabilization in mouse β-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCMO1) catalyzes the crucial first step in vitamin A biosynthesis in animals. We wished to explore the possibility that a carbocation intermediate is formed during the cleavage reaction of BCMO1, as is seen for many isoprenoid biosynthesis enzymes, and to determine which residues in the substrate binding cleft are necessary for catalytic and substrate binding activity. To test this hypothesis, we replaced substrate cleft aromatic and acidic residues by site-directed mutagenesis. Enzymatic activity was measured in vitro using His-tag purified proteins and in vivo in a β-carotene-accumulating E. coli system. Results Our assays show that mutation of either Y235 or Y326 to leucine (no cation-π stabilization) significantly impairs the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Moreover, mutation of Y326 to glutamine (predicted to destabilize a putative carbocation) almost eliminates activity (9.3% of wt activity). However, replacement of these same tyrosines with phenylalanine or tryptophan does not significantly impair activity, indicating that aromaticity at these residues is crucial. Mutations of two other aromatic residues in the binding cleft of BCMO1, F51 and W454, to either another aromatic residue or to leucine do not influence the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Our ab initio model of BCMO1 with β-carotene mounted supports a mechanism involving cation-π stabilization by Y235 and Y326. Conclusions Our data are consistent with the formation of a substrate carbocation intermediate and cation-π stabilization of this intermediate by two aromatic residues in the substrate-binding cleft of BCMO1. PMID:20003456

  4. Study of metabolic profile of Rhizopus oryzae to enhance fumaric acid production under low pH condition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Qing; Lv, Chunwei; Yan, Caixia; Li, Shuang; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-12-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH is a major problem in industrial organic acid fermentation. To circumvent this problem, we used a metabolic profiling approach to analyze metabolite changes in Rhizopus oryzae under different pH conditions. A correlation between fumaric acid production and intracellular metabolic characteristics of R. oryzae was revealed by principal component analysis. The results showed that to help cell survival in the presence of low pH, R. oryzae altered amino acid and fatty acid metabolism and promoted sugar or sugar alcohol synthesis, corresponding with a suppressing of energy metabolism, phenylalanine, and tyrosine synthesis and finally resulting in the low performance of fumaric acid production. Based on this observation, 1 % linoleic acid was added to the culture medium in pH 3.0 to decrease the carbon demand for cell survival, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 39.7 % compared with the control (pH 3.0 without linoleic acid addition), reaching 18.3 g/L after 84 h of fermentation. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism by which R. oryzae responds to acidic stress and would be helpful for the development of efficient strategies for fumaric acid production at low pH.

  5. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  6. XAFS of human tyrosine hydroxylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, W.; Haavik, J.; Winkler, H.; Trautwein, A. X.; Nolting, H.-F.

    1995-02-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyses the rate-limiting step (hydroxylation of tyrosine to form dihydroxyphenylalanine) in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the catecholamines dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline. The human enzyme (hTH) is present in four isoforms, generated by splicing of pre-mRNA. The purified apoenzyme (metal free) binds stoichiometric amounts of iron. The incorporation of Fe(II) results in a rapid and up to 40-fold increase of activity [1]. Besides the coordination of the metal centers in native enzyme we studied the purported inhibition of TH by its immediate products. So we analysed Fe-hTH isoform 1 native as well as oxidized with dopamine and Co-hTH isoform 2.

  7. Protein tyrosine phosphatase: enzymatic assays.

    PubMed

    Montalibet, Jacqueline; Skorey, Kathryn I; Kennedy, Brian P

    2005-01-01

    Activity assays for tyrosine phosphatases are based on the hydrolysis of a arylphosphate moiety from a synthetic substrate yielding a spectroscopically active product. Many different substrates can be used for these assays with p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP), fluorescein diphosphate (FDP), and 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbellyferyl phosphate (DiFMUP) being the most efficient and versatile. Equally, larger molecules such as phosphotyrosyl peptides can also be used to mimic more natural substrates. Activity assays include the determinations of the rate of dephosphorylation and calculations of kinetic constants such as k(cat) and K(M). These assays are useful to identify and characterize tyrosine phosphatases and are commonly used to evaluate the efficiency of inhibitors.

  8. A sialic acid assay in isolation and purification of bovine k-casein glycomacropeptide: a review.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takuo; Ozimek, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Sialic acid is a carbohydrate moiety of k-casein glycomacropeptide (GMP), which is a 64 amino acid residue C-terminal sialylated phosphorylated glycopeptide released from k-casein by the action of chymosin during cheese making. GMP lacks aromatic amino acids including phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. Because of its unique amino acid composition and various biological activities, GMP is thought to be a potential ingredient for dietetic foods (e.g., a food for PKU patients) and pharmaceuticals. Thus, increased attention has been given to the development of techniques to purify GMP. In this review, techniques of GMP purification described in patents and scientific research papers were introduced. A sialic acid assay is the important method to track GMP isolation and purification processes, for which the thiobarbituric acid reaction with 1-propanol as a chromophore extracting solvent is an inexpensive, practical and specific technique. Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography, cellulose acetate electrophoresis, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are the major techniques to identify sialic acid specific to GMP. Sephacryl S-200 chromatography and cellulose acetate electrophoresis are also used to detect GMP sialic acid in whey pearmeate and whey added commercial margarine samples. Future research includes development of an economical industrial scale method to produce high purity GMP.

  9. Tyrosine Recombinase Retrotransposons and Transposons.

    PubMed

    Poulter, Russell T M; Butler, Margi I

    2015-04-01

    Retrotransposons carrying tyrosine recombinases (YR) are widespread in eukaryotes. The first described tyrosine recombinase mobile element, DIRS1, is a retroelement from the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The YR elements are bordered by terminal repeats related to their replication via free circular dsDNA intermediates. Site-specific recombination is believed to integrate the circle without creating duplications of the target sites. Recently a large number of YR retrotransposons have been described, including elements from fungi (mucorales and basidiomycetes), plants (green algae) and a wide range of animals including nematodes, insects, sea urchins, fish, amphibia and reptiles. YR retrotransposons can be divided into three major groups: the DIRS elements, PAT-like and the Ngaro elements. The three groups form distinct clades on phylogenetic trees based on alignments of reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H (RT/RH) and YR sequences, and also having some structural distinctions. A group of eukaryote DNA transposons, cryptons, also carry tyrosine recombinases. These DNA transposons do not encode a reverse transcriptase. They have been detected in several pathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Sequence comparisons suggest that the crypton YRs are related to those of the YR retrotransposons. We suggest that the YR retrotransposons arose from the combination of a crypton-like YR DNA transposon and the RT/RH encoding sequence of a retrotransposon. This acquisition must have occurred at a very early point in the evolution of eukaryotes.

  10. Biochemical Evaluation of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase from Endemic Plant Cyathobasis fruticulosa (Bunge) Aellen. for the Dietary Treatment of Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Aydaş, Selcen Babaoğlu; Aslım, Belma

    2016-01-01

    Summary Enzyme substitution therapy with the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a new approach to the treatment of patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). This enzyme is responsible for the conversion of phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid. We assessed the PAL enzyme of the endemic plant Cyathobasis fruticulosa (Bunge) Aellen. for its possible role in the dietary treatment of PKU. The enzyme was found to have a high activity of (64.9±0.1) U/mg, with the optimum pH, temperature and buffer (Tris–HCl and l-phenylalanine) concentration levels of pH=8.8, 37 °C and 100 mM, respectively. Optimum enzyme activity was achieved at pH=4.0 and 7.5, corresponding to pH levels of gastric and intestinal juice, and NaCl concentration of 200 mM. The purification of the enzyme by 1.87-fold yielded an activity of 98.6 U/mg. PAL activities determined by HPLC analyses before and after purification were similar. Two protein bands, one at 70 and the other at 23 kDa, were determined by Western blot analysis of the enzyme. This enzyme is a potential candidate for serial production of dietary food and biotechnological products. PMID:27956861

  11. Biochemical Evaluation of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase from Endemic Plant Cyathobasis fruticulosa (Bunge) Aellen. for the Dietary Treatment of Phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Şirin, Seda; Aydaş, Selcen Babaoğlu; Aslım, Belma

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme substitution therapy with the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a new approach to the treatment of patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). This enzyme is responsible for the conversion of phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid. We assessed the PAL enzyme of the endemic plant Cyathobasis fruticulosa (Bunge) Aellen. for its possible role in the dietary treatment of PKU. The enzyme was found to have a high activity of (64.9±0.1) U/mg, with the optimum pH, temperature and buffer (Tris-HCl and l-phenylalanine) concentration levels of pH=8.8, 37 °C and 100 mM, respectively. Optimum enzyme activity was achieved at pH=4.0 and 7.5, corresponding to pH levels of gastric and intestinal juice, and NaCl concentration of 200 mM. The purification of the enzyme by 1.87-fold yielded an activity of 98.6 U/mg. PAL activities determined by HPLC analyses before and after purification were similar. Two protein bands, one at 70 and the other at 23 kDa, were determined by Western blot analysis of the enzyme. This enzyme is a potential candidate for serial production of dietary food and biotechnological products.

  12. Tomato aromatic amino acid decarboxylases participate in synthesis of the flavor volatiles 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylacetaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Tieman, Denise; Taylor, Mark; Schauer, Nicolas; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Hanson, Andrew D.; Klee, Harry J.

    2006-01-01

    An important phenylalanine-derived volatile compound produced by plants is 2-phenylethanol. It is a major contributor to flavor in many foods, including fresh fruits, such as tomato, and an insect-attracting scent in roses and many other flowers. Despite the centrality of 2-phenylethanol to flavor and fragrance, the plant genes responsible for its synthesis have not been identified. Here, we describe a biosynthetic pathway for 2-phenylethanol and other phenylalanine-derived volatiles in tomato fruits and a small family of decarboxylases (LeAADC1A, LeAADC1B, and LeAADC2) that can mediate that pathway's first step. These enzymes each catalyze conversion of phenylalanine to phenethylamine and tyrosine to tyramine. Although tyrosine is the preferred substrate in vitro, phenylalanine levels in tomato fruits far exceed those of tyrosine, indicating that phenylalanine is a physiological substrate. Consistent with this view, overexpression of either LeAADC1A or LeAADC2 in transgenic tomato plants resulted in fruits with up to 10-fold increased emissions of the products of the pathway, including 2-phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenylethanol, and 1-nitro-2-phenylethane. Further, antisense reduction of LeAADC2 significantly reduced emissions of these volatiles. Besides establishing a biosynthetic route, these results show that it is possible to change phenylalanine-based flavor and aroma volatiles in plants by manipulating expression of a single gene. PMID:16698923

  13. Site selectivity for protein tyrosine nitration: insights from features of structure and topological network.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shangli; Lian, Baofeng; Liang, Juan; Shi, Ting; Xie, Lu; Zhao, Yi-Lei

    2013-11-01

    Tyrosine nitration is a covalent post-translational modification, which regulates protein functions such as hindering tyrosine phosphorylation and affecting essential signal transductions in cells. Based on up-to-date proteomics data, tyrosine nitration appears to be a highly selective process since not all tyrosine residues in proteins or all proteins are nitrated in vivo. Quite a few investigations included the protein structural information from the RCSB PDB database, where near 100,000 high-quality three-dimensional structures are available. In this work, we analyzed the local protein structures and amino acid topological networks of the nitrated and non-nitrated tyrosine sites in nitrated proteins, including neighboring atomic distribution, amino acid pair (AAP) and amino acid triangle (AAT). It has been found that aromatic and aliphatic residues, particularly with large volume, aromatic, aliphatic, or acidic side chains, are disfavored for the nitration. After integrating these structural features and topological network features with traditional sequence features, the predictive model achieves a sensitivity of 63.30% and a specificity of 92.24%, resulting in a much better accuracy compared to the previous models with only protein sequence information. Our investigation implies that the site selectivity may stem from a more open, hydrophilic and high-pH chemical environment around the tyrosine residue.

  14. Effect of tyrosine administration on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, T.; Szabo, S.

    1987-03-01

    Duodenal ulcers were produced by administering cysteamine to rats. Pretreatment with the catecholamine precursor, L-tyrosine (40 mg/100 g i.p. for 5 days), decreased the intensity of duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Equimolar doses of tyrosine methyl ester (51.2 mg/100 g i.p. or s.c.) were equally effective in reducing ulcer intensity. Other amino acids (i.e., alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, leucine, lysine, tryptophan and valine) did not prevent experimental duodenal ulcers. Coadministration of other large neutral amino acids (e.g., leucine and valine) that compete with tyrosine for uptake into the brain did not inhibit the effect of tyrosine on duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Gastric, duodenal and brain dopamine concentrations were increased 1 hr after the injection of tyrosine methyl ester (25.6 mg/100 g s.c.). These results suggest that the effect of tyrosine on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine may be mediated by changes in gastrointestinal dopamine metabolism.

  15. Weak oligomerization of low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase is conserved from mammals to bacteria.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Jascha; Bernadó, Pau; Xu, Huimin; Jin, Changwen; Pons, Miquel

    2009-08-01

    The well-characterized self-association of a mammalian low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (lmwPTP) produces inactive oligomers that are in equilibrium with active monomers. A role of the inactive oligomers as supramolecular proenzymes has been suggested. The oligomerization equilibrium of YwlE, a lmwPTP from Bacillus subtilis, was studied by NMR. Chemical shift data and NMR relaxation confirm that dimerization takes place through the enzyme's active site, and is fully equivalent to the dimerization previously characterized in a eukaryotic low-molecular-weight phosphatase, with similarly large dissociation constants. The similarity between the oligomerization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic phosphatases extends beyond the dimer and involves higher order oligomers detected by NMR relaxation analysis at high protein concentrations. The conservation across different kingdoms of life suggests a physiological role for lmwPTP oligomerization in spite of the weak association observed in vitro. Structural data suggest that substrate modulation of the oligomerization equilibrium could be a regulatory mechanism leading to the generation of signaling pulses. The presence of a phenylalanine residue in the dimerization site of YwlE, replacing a tyrosine residue conserved in all eukaryotic lmwPTPs, demonstrates that lmwPTP regulation by oligomerization can be independent from tyrosine phosphorylation.

  16. Enantiomeric interactions between liquid crystals and organized monolayers of tyrosine-containing dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yiqun; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2012-01-11

    We have examined the orientational ordering of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) supported on organized monolayers of dipeptides with the goal of understanding how peptide-based interfaces encode intermolecular interactions that are amplified into supramolecular ordering. By characterizing the orientations of nematic LCs (4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl and TL205 (a mixture of mesogens containing cyclohexane-fluorinated biphenyls and fluorinated terphenyls)) on monolayers of l-cysteine-l-tyrosine, l-cysteine-l-phenylalanine, or l-cysteine-l-phosphotyrosine formed on crystallographically textured films of gold, we conclude that patterns of hydrogen bonds generated by the organized monolayers of dipeptides are transduced via macroscopic orientational ordering of the LCs. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the ordering exhibited by the achiral LCs is specific to the enantiomers used to form the dipeptide-based monolayers. The dominant role of the -OH group of tyrosine in dictating the patterns of hydrogen bonds that orient the LCs was also evidenced by the effects of phosphorylation of the tyrosine on the ordering of the LCs. Overall, these results reveal that crystallographic texturing of gold films can direct the formation of monolayers of dipeptides with long-range order, thus unmasking the influence of hydrogen bonding, chirality, and phosphorylation on the macroscopic orientational ordering of LCs supported on these surfaces. These results suggest new approaches based on supramolecular assembly for reporting the chemical functionality and stereochemistry of synthetic and biological peptide-based molecules displayed at surfaces.

  17. Three-dimensional tertiary structure of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. H.; Sussman, J. L.; Suddath, F. L.; Quigley, G. J.; Mcpherson, A.; Wang, A. H. J.; Seeman, N. C.; Rich, A.

    1974-01-01

    Results of an analysis and interpretation of a 3-A electron density map of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA. Some earlier detailed assignments of nucleotide residues to electron density peaks are found to be in error, even though the overall tracing of the backbone conformation of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA was generally correct. A new, more comprehensive interpretation is made which makes it possible to define the tertiary interactions in the molecule. The new interpretation makes it possible to visualize a number of tertiary interactions which not only explain the structural role of most of the bases which are constant in transfer RNAs, but also makes it possible to understand in a direct and simple fashion the chemical modification data on transfer RNA. In addition, this pattern of tertiary interactions provides a basis for understanding the general three-dimensional folding of all transfer RNA molecules.

  18. Tyrosine Supplementation Attenuates Cognitive and Psychomotor Deficits in Cold Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited In rats, dietary supplementation with the amino acid tyrosine (TYR) prevented depletion of central...that cold exposure degrades cognitive performance and supplementation with TYR alleviates working memory decrements, even with a reduced core

  19. Effect of a new injectable male contraceptive on the seminal plasma amino acids studied by proton NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Koel; Sharma, Uma; Jagannathan, N R; Guha, Sujoy K

    2002-09-01

    Effect of RISUG, a newly developed male contraceptive, on various amino acids of seminal plasma ejaculates was studied by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 400 MHz. Levels of amino acids were compared with the seminal plasma of obstructive azoospermia and controls. Glutamic acid, glutamine, and arginine were found to be high in concentration in human seminal plasma. The concentration of aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine, histidine, and phenylalanine in RISUG-injected subjects showed no significant difference compared to controls (p > 0.1); however, there was a statistically significant decrease in the concentration of these amino acids in obstructive azoospermia. The concentration of some prominent amino acids that showed overlapping resonances, such as isoleucine+leucine+valine (p < 0.01), alanine+isoleucine+lysine (p < 0.01), arginine+lysine+leucine (p < 0.01), and glutamic acid+glutamine (p < 0.01), showed a statistically significant decrease in RISUG-injected subjects compared to controls. Overlap of these amino acid resonances were noticed even at 600 MHz. In general, the total amino acids concentration in RISUG-injected subjects was found to be higher than in azoospermic subjects, confirming the occurrence of 'partial' obstructive azoospermia in subjects injected with this contraceptive.

  20. Human spermatozoa possess an IL4I1 l-amino acid oxidase with a potential role in sperm function.

    PubMed

    Houston, B; Curry, B; Aitken, R J

    2015-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to play an important role in the regulation of human sperm function. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that human spermatozoa possess interleukin-induced gene 1 (IL4I1), an l-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) which is capable of generating ROS on exposure to aromatic amino acids in the presence of oxygen. The preferred substrates were found to be phenylalanine and tryptophan while the enzyme was located in the acrosomal region and midpiece of these cells. In contrast to equine and bovine spermatozoa, enzyme activity was lost as soon as the spermatozoa became non-viable. On a cell-to-cell basis human spermatozoa were also shown to generate lower levels of hydrogen peroxide than their equine counterparts on exposure to phenylalanine. Stimulation of LAAO activity resulted in the induction of several hallmarks of capacitation including tyrosine phosphorylation of the sperm flagellum and concomitant activation of phospho-SRC expression. In addition, stimulation of LAAO resulted in an increase in the levels of acrosomal exocytosis in both the presence and absence of progesterone stimulation, via mechanisms that could be significantly reversed by the presence of catalase. As is often the case with free radical-mediated phenomena, prolonged exposure of human spermatozoa to phenylalanine resulted in the stimulation of apoptosis as indicated by significant increases in mitochondrial superoxide generation and the activation of intracellular caspases. These results confirm the existence of an LAAO in human spermatozoa with a potential role in driving the redox regulation of sperm capacitation and acrosomal exocytosis.

  1. Interference with immunoglobulin (Ig)alpha immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) phosphorylation modulates or blocks B cell development, depending on the availability of an Igbeta cytoplasmic tail.

    PubMed

    Kraus, M; Pao, L I; Reichlin, A; Hu, Y; Canono, B; Cambier, J C; Nussenzweig, M C; Rajewsky, K

    2001-08-20

    To determine the function of immunoglobulin (Ig)alpha immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) phosphorylation, we generated mice in which Igalpha ITAM tyrosines were replaced by phenylalanines (Igalpha(FF/FF)). Igalpha(FF/FF) mice had a specific reduction of B1 and marginal zone B cells, whereas B2 cell development appeared to be normal, except that lambda1 light chain usage was increased. The mutants responded less efficiently to T cell-dependent antigens, whereas T cell-independent responses were unaffected. Upon B cell receptor ligation, the cells exhibited heightened calcium flux, weaker Lyn and Syk tyrosine phosphorylation, and phosphorylation of Igalpha non-ITAM tyrosines. Strikingly, when the Igalpha ITAM mutation was combined with a truncation of Igbeta, B cell development was completely blocked at the pro-B cell stage, indicating a crucial role of ITAM phosphorylation in B cell development.

  2. Exon deletions of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Italian hyperphenylalaninemics

    PubMed Central

    Calì, Francesco; Ruggeri, Giuseppa; Vinci, Mirella; Meli, Concetta; Carducci, Carla; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Pozzessere, Simone; Schinocca, Pietro; Ragalmuto, Alda; Chiavetta, Valeria; Miccichè, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    A consistent finding of many studies describing the spectrum of mutant phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) alleles underlying hyperphenylalaninemia is the impossibility of achieving a 100% mutation ascertainment rate using conventional gene-scanning methods. These methods include denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), and direct sequencing. In recent years, it has been shown that a significant proportion of undetermined alleles consist of large deletions overlapping one or more exons. These deletions have been difficult to detect in compound heterozygotes using gene-scanning methods due to a masking effect of the non-deleted allele. To date, no systematic search has been carried out for such exon deletions in Italian patients with phenylketonuria or mild hyperphenylalaninemia. We used multiplex ligation- dependent probe amplification (MLPA), comparative multiplex dosage analysis (CMDA), and real-time PCR to search for both large deletions and duplications of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Italian hyperphenylalaninemia patients. Four deletions removing different phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene exons were identified in 12 patients. Two of these deletions involving exons 4-5-6-7-8 (systematic name c.353-?_912 + ?del) and exon 6 (systematic name c.510-?_706 + ?del) have not been reported previously. In this study, we show that exon deletion of the PAH gene accounts for 1.7% of all mutant PAH alleles in Italian hyperphenylalaninemics. PMID:19946181

  3. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anish; Rajan, Arun; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS ‘Driver mutations’ are essential for carcinogenesis as well as tumor progression as they confer a selective growth advantage to cancer cells. Identification of driver mutations in growth related protein kinases, especially tyrosine kinases have led to clinical development of an array of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in various malignancies, including lung cancer. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinases have proven to be of meaningful clinical benefit, while inhibition of several other tyrosine kinases have been of limited clinical benefit, thus far. An improved understanding of tyrosine kinase biology has also led to faster drug development, identification of resistance mechanisms and ways to overcome resistance. In this review, we discuss the clinical data supporting the use and practical aspects of management of patients on epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:22520981

  4. An essential tyrosine residue of Aspergillus polygalacturonase.

    PubMed

    Stratilová, E; Dzúrová, M; Markovic, O; Jörnvall, H

    1996-03-11

    Based on strict conservation of a tyrosine residue in 24 polygalacturonases, tyrosine modification was assessed in two different forms of the Aspergillus enzyme. The second subform was unknown in structure but submitted to sequence analysis and was found also to have the conserved tyrosine residue. Results of chemical modifications are consistent in showing inactivation of the proteins with all tyrosine-reactive agents tested, acetic anhydride, N-acetyl imidazole, and tetranitromethane. Furthermore, after acetylation, regeneration of enzyme activity was possible with hydroxylamine. Spectrophotometric pH titration showed that one accessible tyrosine residue is ionized at pH 9.3-9.5, whereas the remaining, masked residues are all ionized at pH 10.5. It is concluded that one tyrosine residue is catalytically important, in agreement with the inactivation and reactivation data, that this residue is accessible, and that it is likely to correspond to the strictly conserved residue observed in all forms.

  5. Ontogenetic trends in aspartic acid racemization and amino acid composition within modern and fossil shells of the bivalve Arctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfriend, Glenn A.; Weidman, Christopher R.

    2001-06-01

    Ontogenetic trends (umbo to growth edge of shell) in aspartic acid (Asp) racemization and amino acid composition and their evolution over time are examined in serial samples of annual growth bands from a time-series of three live-collected and two fossil (ca. 500 and 1000 y BP) shells of the long-lived bivalve Arctica islandica. The rate of Asp racemization is shown to be higher in the umbonal portion of the shells (laid down when the clams are young) but constant from a biological age of 10 to 20 y to more than 100 y. Corresponding changes are also seen in amino acid composition and concentration: with increasing biological age of the clam: total amino acid concentration increases substantially, the acidic amino acids Asp, glutamic acid, and alanine decrease in relative concentration (mole-percent) and more basic amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, and lysine increase in relative concentration. These ontogenetic trends are generally retained in the fossil shells. These trends may reflect changing protein composition related to changes in growth rate. Clams grow considerably faster in their youth than when they are older, as indicated by changes in the annual growth increments. Production of more acidic proteins, which play a role in crystal growth, may be favored during the phase of faster growth, whereas more structural proteins, perhaps enhancing structural strength of the shell, may be favored during later growth. These ontogenetic differences in protein composition affect the observed rates of racemization of the protein pool. Some weak diagenetic trends in amino acid composition and abundance may be represented in the time series of shells. These results emphasize the importance of standardization of the location from which samples are taken from shells for dating by amino acid racemization analysis.

  6. Innovative effect of illite on improved microbiological conversion of L-tyrosine to 3,4 dihydroxy phenyl L-alanine (L-DOPA) by Aspergillus oryzae ME2 under acidic reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Sikander, Ali; Ikram-ul-Haq

    2006-11-01

    In the present investigation, the previous ultraviolet irradiated mutant strain of Aspergillus oryzae UV-7 was further improved in terms of 3,4 dihydroxy phenyl L-alanine (L-DOPA) activity after chemical mutagenesis through 1-methyl 3-nitro 1-nitroso guanidine (MNNG = 250-1500 microg/ml) treatment (0-30 min). Among several mutant variants, the one that produced a larger amount of L-DOPA from L-tyrosine was designated to as ME2 and it was made 2-deoxy-D-glucose-resistant by growing it at various concentrations of 2 dg (0.01-0.025 %, w/v) in Vogel's agar medium. Relatively better production of L-DOPA (> 0.60 mg/ml) was obtained when 2.0% (w/v) glucose was used as a carbon source in the mycelium production medium and the tyrosinase activity increased constitutively (1.08 mg/ml), which resulted in a greater production of L-DOPA. At optimum pH0 (pH 6.0) and reaction time (60 min), more than 65% sugar was utilized for cell mass formation. The maximum conversion of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA (0.428 mg/ml) was achieved 60 min after the biochemical reaction. Mould mycelium was used for microbiological conversion of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA because tyrosinases, beta-carboxylases, and tyrosine hydroxylases are intracellular enzymes. The effect of illite (1.0 x 10(6)-6.0 x 10(6) M) on biochemical conversion of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA by Aspergillus oryzae ME(2 )was also carried out. Best results of L-DOPA biosynthesis were observed when the concentration of illite was 3.5 x 10(-6) M (1.686 mg/ml L-DOPA produced with 1.525 mg/ml consumption of L-tyrosine). It was noted that the addition of illite not only increased enzyme activity but also enhanced the permeability of cell membrane to facilitate the secretion of enzymes into the reaction broth. The comparison of kinetic parameters showed the ability of mutant to yield L-DOPA (i.e., Yp/x 7.360 +/- 0.04 mg/mg). When the culture grown on various illite concentrations was monitored for Qp, Qs, and qp, there was significant enhancement (p < 0

  7. Post-Translational Incorporation of L-Phenylalanine into the C-Terminus of α-Tubulin as a Possible Cause of Neuronal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ditamo, Yanina; Dentesano, Yanela M.; Purro, Silvia A.; Arce, Carlos A.; Bisig, C. Gastón

    2016-01-01

    α-Tubulin C-terminus undergoes post-translational, cyclic tyrosination/detyrosination, and L-Phenylalanine (Phe) can be incorporated in place of tyrosine. Using cultured mouse brain-derived cells and an antibody specific to Phe-tubulin, we showed that: (i) Phe incorporation into tubulin is reversible; (ii) such incorporation is not due to de novo synthesis; (iii) the proportion of modified tubulin is significant; (iv) Phe incorporation reduces cell proliferation without affecting cell viability; (v) the rate of neurite retraction declines as level of C-terminal Phe incorporation increases; (vi) this inhibitory effect of Phe on neurite retraction is blocked by the co-presence of tyrosine; (vii) microtubule dynamics is reduced when Phe-tubulin level in cells is high as a result of exogenous Phe addition and returns to normal values when Phe is removed; moreover, microtubule dynamics is also reduced when Phe-tubulin is expressed (plasmid transfection). It is known that Phe levels are greatly elevated in blood of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients. The molecular mechanism underlying the brain dysfunction characteristic of PKU is unknown. Beyond the differences between human and mouse cells, it is conceivable the possibility that Phe incorporation into tubulin is the first event (or among the initial events) in the molecular pathways leading to brain dysfunctions that characterize PKU. PMID:27905536

  8. Reassessment of Phenylalanine Tolerance in Adults with Phenylketonuria is Needed as Body Mass Changes

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Erin L.; Gleason, Sally T.; van Calcar, Sandra C.; Ney, Denise M.

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) includes a phenylalanine (phe) restricted diet that provides sufficient phe for growth and maintenance plus phe-free amino acid formula to meet requirements for protein, energy and micronutrients. Phe tolerance (mg phe/kg body weight/day) is the amount of phe those with PKU can consume and maintain acceptable blood phe levels; it requires individual assessment because of varying phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. The objective was to reassess phe tolerance in 8 adults with PKU considering phe requirements, blood phe levels, genotype and phe tolerance at 5 years of age. Subjects had not received a personalized assessment of phe tolerance in several years, and 5 subjects were overweight, body mass index (BMI) 25–28. With the guidance of a metabolic dietitian, 7 subjects increased phe tolerance (by 15–173%) without significantly increasing blood phe concentration. Increased phe tolerance was associated with both improved dietary compliance and inadequate phe intake at the onset of the protocol compared with current requirements. Improved dietary compliance reflected increased consumption of protein equivalents from amino acid formula and increased frequency of formula intake, from 2.2 to 3 times per day. Predictors of higher final phe tolerance following reassessment included being male and having a lower BMI (R2=0.588). This suggests that the rising trend of overweight and obesity may affect assessment of phe tolerance in adults. Therefore, interaction with the metabolic dietitian to reassess phe tolerance in relation to body mass is essential throughout adulthood to insure adequate intake of phe to support protein synthesis and prevent catabolism. PMID:19747868

  9. Weight-loss diets and 2-y changes in circulating amino acids in 2 randomized intervention trials123

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yan; Ceglarek, Uta; Huang, Tao; Li, Lerong; Rood, Jennifer; Ryan, Donna H; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Thiery, Joachim; Shai, Iris; Qi, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Circulating amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs), have been associated with diabetes risk; however, little is known about how a long-term dietary intervention for weight loss affects circulating amino acids. Objectives: We examined the effects of weight-loss diets on long-term changes in plasma amino acids and the associations of these changes with weight loss and the improvement of insulin resistance. Design: We repeatedly measured plasma amino acid profiles over 2 y in overweight or obese participants from 2 randomized, dietary intervention, weight-loss trials [774 subjects from the POUNDS LOST (Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies Trial) and 318 subjects from the DIRECT (Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial)]. Results: Intervention diets consistently lowered most of the amino acid concentrations, including BCAAs and AAAs, in both trials. In the POUNDS LOST, average-protein diets (15% of daily energy) showed stronger effects than did high-protein diets (25% of daily energy) on reducing concentrations of the diabetes-associated BCAA valine at 6 mo independent of the weight change. In both trials, weight loss was directly related to the concurrent reduction of the BCAAs leucine and isoleucine, the AAAs tyrosine and phenylalanine, and 4 other amino acids. For example, per kilogram of weight loss, there was a 0.04-SD decrease in log tyrosine (∼0.6 μmol/L) in both trials. In addition, we showed that reductions in alanine and the AAA tyrosine were significantly related to improved insulin resistance (measured with the use of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), independent of weight loss, in both trials (both P < 0.05). For example, per 1-SD decrease in log tyrosine (∼17 μmol/L), there was a 0.04-SD (∼3%) improvement in insulin resistance in the POUNDS LOST and a 0.13-SD (∼8%) improvement in insulin resistance in the DIRECT. Conclusion: Our findings

  10. Tyramine biosynthesis in Enterococcus durans is transcriptionally regulated by the extracellular pH and tyrosine concentration.

    PubMed

    Linares, Daniel M; Fernández, María; Martín, M Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2009-11-01

    The microbial decarboxylation of some amino acids leads to the undesirable presence of biogenic amines in foods. One of the most abundant and frequent biogenic amines found in fermented foods is tyramine, which is produced by the decarboxylation of tyrosine. In the present work, transcriptional analysis of tyramine biosynthesis in Enterococcus durans IPLA655, a strain isolated from cheese, was studied. The gene coding for the tyrosine decarboxylase (tdcA) and that coding for the tyrosine-tyramine antiporter (tyrP) form an operon transcribed from the promoter P(tdcA), the expression of which is regulated by the extracellular pH and tyrosine concentration. Quantification of gene expression during the log phase of growth showed high concentrations of tyrosine and acidic pH conditions to induce tdcA-tyrP polycistronic messenger transcription.

  11. Antioxidant promotion of tyrosine nitration in the presence of copper(II).

    PubMed

    Qiao, Liang; Liu, Baohong; Girault, Hubert H

    2013-06-01

    Copper(II) is known to catalyze the generation of reactive nitrogen species in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, nitrite or nitric oxide, leading to tyrosine nitration, a biomarker for free radical species associated diseases. Here, we find that biological antioxidants such as ascorbic acid can promote tyrosine nitration in the presence of copper(II) and nitrite under aerobic and weak acidic conditions. Tyrosine nitration is demonstrated on both the β-amyloid peptide and angiotensin I. These studies show that (i) ascorbic acid works as a pro-oxidant in the presence of copper(II) to induce oxidation and nitration on peptides, (ii) both free and coordinated copper(II) can catalyze peptide oxidation and nitration, (iii) nitration occurs under mild acidic conditions (pH = 6.0-6.5).

  12. PDGF-BB-mediated activation of p42(MAPK) is independent of PDGF beta-receptor tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cartel, N J; Liu, J; Wang, J; Post, M

    2001-10-01

    Herein, we investigated the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a key component of downstream signaling events, which is activated subsequent to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB stimulation. Specifically, p42(MAPK) activity peaked 60 min after addition of PDGF-BB, declined thereafter, and was determined not to be a direct or necessary component of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis. PDGF-BB also activated MAPK kinase 2 (MAPKK2) but had no effect on MAPKK1 and Raf-1 activity. Chemical inhibition of Janus kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Src kinase, or tyrosine phosphorylation inhibition of the PDGF beta-receptor (PDGFR-beta) did not abrogate PDGF-BB-induced p42(MAPK) activation or its threonine or tyrosine phosphorylation. A dominant negative cytoplasmic receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility variant 4 (RHAMMv4), a regulator of MAPKK-MAPK interaction and activation, did not inhibit PDGF-BB-induced p42(MAPK) activation nor did a construct expressing PDGFR-beta with cytoplasmic tyrosines mutated to phenylalanine. However, overexpression of a dominant negative PDGFR-beta lacking the cytoplasmic signaling domain abrogated p42(MAPK) activity. These results suggest that PDGF-BB-mediated activation of p42(MAPK) requires the PDGFR-beta but is independent of its tyrosine phosphorylation.

  13. Retrobiosynthetic NMR studies with 13C-labeled glucose. Formation of gallic acid in plants and fungi.

    PubMed

    Werner, I; Bacher, A; Eisenreich, W

    1997-10-10

    The biosynthesis of gallic acid was studied in cultures of the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus and in leaves of the tree Rhus typhina. Fungal cultures were grown with [1-13C]glucose or with a mixture of unlabeled glucose and [U-13C6]glucose. Young leaves of R. typhina were kept in an incubation chamber and were supplied with a solution containing a mixture of unlabeled glucose and [U-13C6]glucose via the leaf stem. Isotope distributions in isolated gallic acid and aromatic amino acids were analyzed by one-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. A quantitative analysis of the complex isotopomer composition of metabolites was obtained by deconvolution of the 13C13C coupling multiplets using numerical simulation methods. This approach required the accurate analysis of heavy isotope chemical shift effects in a variety of different isotopomers and the analysis of long range 13C13C coupling constants. The resulting isotopomer patterns were interpreted using a retrobiosynthetic approach based on a comparison between the isotopomer patterns of gallic acid and tyrosine. The data show that both in the fungus and in the plant all carbon atoms of gallic acid are biosynthetically equivalent to carbon atoms of shikimate. Notably, the carboxylic group of gallic acid is derived from the carboxylic group of an early intermediate of the shikimate pathway and not from the side chain of phenylalanine or tyrosine. It follows that the committed precursor of gallic acid is an intermediate of the shikimate pathway prior to prephenate or arogenate, most probably 5-dehydroshikimate. A formation of gallic acid via phenylalanine, the lignin precursor, caffeic acid, or 3,4, 5-trihydroxycinnamic acid can be ruled out as major pathways in the fungus and in young leaves of R. typhina. The incorporation of uniformly 13C-labeled glucose followed by quantitative NMR analysis of isotopomer patterns is suggested as a general method for biosynthetic studies. As shown by the plant experiment, this

  14. Testing whether metazoan tyrosine loss was driven by selection against promiscuous phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Siddharth; Struck, Travis J; Mannakee, Brian K; Paniscus, Mary; Gutenkunst, Ryan N

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a key regulatory modification in metazoans, and the corresponding kinase enzymes have diversified dramatically. This diversification is correlated with a genome-wide reduction in protein tyrosine content, and it was recently suggested that this reduction was driven by selection to avoid promiscuous phosphorylation that might be deleterious. We tested three predictions of this intriguing hypothesis. 1) Selection should be stronger on residues that are more likely to be phosphorylated due to local solvent accessibility or structural disorder. 2) Selection should be stronger on proteins that are more likely to be promiscuously phosphorylated because they are abundant. We tested these predictions by comparing distributions of tyrosine within and among human and yeast orthologous proteins. 3) Selection should be stronger against mutations that create tyrosine versus remove tyrosine. We tested this prediction using human population genomic variation data. We found that all three predicted effects are modest for tyrosine when compared with the other amino acids, suggesting that selection against deleterious phosphorylation was not dominant in driving metazoan tyrosine loss.

  15. Demonstration of hydroxyl radical generation in stunned' myocardium of intact dogs using aromatic hydroxylation of phenylalanine

    SciTech Connect

    Bolli, R.; Kaur, H.; Li, X.Y.; Triana, J.F.; Halliwell, B. Univ. of California, Davis King's College, London )

    1991-03-11

    Numerous studies have shown that postischemic myocardial dysfunction is attenuated by scavengers of hydroxyl ({sup {sm bullet}}OH) radicals and by iron chelators, suggesting an important pathogenetic role of {sup {sm bullet}}OH. However, the evidence provided by these studies is indirect. Since phenyl-alanine (PH) has been shown to react with {sup {sm bullet}}OH to form o-, m-, and p-tyrosines (TYR), the authors used aromatic hydroxylation of PH to detect {sup {sm bullet}}OH in stunned myocardium. Open-chest dogs underwent a 15-min coronary occlusion (O) followed by reperfusion (R). PH was infused i.v. starting 5 min pre-O and ending 10 min after R (n = 3) or starting at R and ending 10 min later (n = 8). TYR concentration in local coronary venous effluent plasma was measured using HPLC with electrochemical detection. No appreciable production of TYR was observed before or during O. After R, however, in all dogs there was a dramatic increase in myocardial production of o-, m-, and p-TYR which peaked at 1-3 min and ceased after 10 min. In 5 control dogs, infusion of PH without O/R did not result in any TYR production. These results provide evidence that the highly reactive {sup {sm bullet}}OH radical is produced after brief regional ischemia in the intact animal and indicate that PH may be a useful probe for measuring this species. The findings support the hypothesis that {sup {sm bullet}}OH contributes to myocardial stunning.'

  16. Amino acids implicated in plant defense are higher in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-tolerant citrus varieties.

    PubMed

    Killiny, Nabil; Hijaz, Faraj

    2016-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, has been threatening the citrus industry since the early 1900's and up to this date there are no effective cures for this disease. Field observations and greenhouse controlled studies demonstrated that some citrus genotypes are more tolerant to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) pathogen than others. However, the mechanisms underpinning tolerance has not been determined yet. The phloem sap composition of CLas-tolerant and sensitive citrus varieties was studied to identify metabolites that could be responsible for their tolerance to CLas. The citrus phloem sap was collected by centrifugation and was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after methyl chloroformate derivatization. Thirty-three metabolites were detected in the phloem sap of the studied varieties: twenty 20 amino acids, eight 8 organic acids, and five 5 fatty acids. Interestingly, the levels of most amino acids, especially those implicated in plantdefense to pathogens such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, lysine, and asparagine were higher in tolerant varieties. Although the level of organic acids varied between cultivars, this variation was not correlated with citrus resistance to CLas and could be cultivar specific. The fatty acids were found in trace amounts and in most cases their levels were not significantly different among varieties. Better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning citrus tolerance to CLas will help in developing economically tolerant varieties.

  17. Amino acids implicated in plant defense are higher in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-tolerant citrus varieties

    PubMed Central

    Killiny, Nabil; Hijaz, Faraj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, has been threatening the citrus industry since the early 1900's and up to this date there are no effective cures for this disease. Field observations and greenhouse controlled studies demonstrated that some citrus genotypes are more tolerant to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) pathogen than others. However, the mechanisms underpinning tolerance has not been determined yet. The phloem sap composition of CLas-tolerant and sensitive citrus varieties was studied to identify metabolites that could be responsible for their tolerance to CLas. The citrus phloem sap was collected by centrifugation and was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after methyl chloroformate derivatization. Thirty-three metabolites were detected in the phloem sap of the studied varieties: twenty 20 amino acids, eight 8 organic acids, and five 5 fatty acids. Interestingly, the levels of most amino acids, especially those implicated in plantdefense to pathogens such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, lysine, and asparagine were higher in tolerant varieties. Although the level of organic acids varied between cultivars, this variation was not correlated with citrus resistance to CLas and could be cultivar specific. The fatty acids were found in trace amounts and in most cases their levels were not significantly different among varieties. Better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning citrus tolerance to CLas will help in developing economically tolerant varieties. PMID:27057814

  18. The solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 as host for the production of cinnamic acid from glucose.

    PubMed

    Nijkamp, Karin; van Luijk, Nicole; de Bont, Jan A M; Wery, Jan

    2005-11-01

    A Pseudomonas putida S12 strain was constructed that efficiently produced the fine chemical cinnamic acid from glucose or glycerol via the central metabolite phenylalanine. The gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase from the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was introduced. Phenylalanine availability was the main bottleneck in cinnamic acid production, which could not be overcome by the overexpressing enzymes of the phenylalanine biosynthesis pathway. A successful approach in abolishing this limitation was the generation of a bank of random mutants and selection on the toxic phenylalanine anti-metabolite m-fluoro-phenylalanine. Following high-throughput screening, a mutant strain was obtained that, under optimised culture conditions, accumulated over 5 mM of cinnamic acid with a yield (Cmol%) of 6.7%.

  19. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Ecarot-Charrier, B.; Bouchard, F.; Delloye, C. )

    1989-11-25

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with (35S) sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I.

  20. Purification and characterization of tyrosine phenol lyase from Citrobacter freundii.

    PubMed

    Chandel, Meenakshi; Azmi, Wamik

    2013-12-01

    The purification and characterization of intracellular tyrosine phenol lyase from Citrobacter freundii has been carried out. The enzyme was purified 35-fold to homogeneity by ammonium sulphate precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Its subunit molecular weight was found to be 52 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified tyrosine phenol lyase showed maximum activity in borate buffer (0.05 M at pH 8.5) at 45 °C after 20 min of incubation. The Km and Vmax values of purified enzyme were found to be 0.446 mm and 0.342 mM/min/mg. This enzyme exhibits t1/2 of 10, 52 and 130 min at 55, 45 and 35 °C, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined as MET-ASN-TYR-PRO-ALA-GLU-PRO-PHE-ARG-ILETRP- TRP-VAL-GLY.

  1. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Ecarot-Charrier, B; Bouchard, F; Delloye, C

    1989-11-25

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with [35S] sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I.

  2. Metabolic regulation of amino acid uptake in marine waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchman, D.L.; Hodson, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    To determine the relationships among the processes of uptake, intracellular pool formation, and incorporation of amino acids into protein, the authors measured the uptake of dipeptides and free amino acids by bacterial assemblages in estuarine and coastal waters of the southeast US. The dipeptide phenylalanyl-phenylalanine (phe-phe) lowered V/sub max/ of phenylalanine uptake when the turnover rate of phenylalanine was relatively high. When the turnover rate was relatively low, phe-phe either had no effect or increased V/sub max/ of phenylalanine uptake. An analytical model was developed and tested to measure the turnover time of the intracellular pool of phenylalanine. The results suggested that the size of the intracellular pool is regulated, which precludes high assimilation rates of both phenylalanine and phe-phe. In waters with relatively low phenylalanine turnover rates, bacterial assemblages appear to have a greater capacity to assimilate phenylalanine and phe-phe simultaneously. Marine bacterial assemblages do not substantially increase the apparent respiration of amino acids when concentrations increase. The authors conclude that sustained increases in uptake rates and mineralization by marine bacterial assemblages in response to an increase in the concentrations of dissolved organic nitrogen is determined by the rate of protein synthesis.

  3. [Genetic code: codon bases--the symbols of amino acid synthesis and catabolism pathways].

    PubMed

    Konyshev, V A

    1983-01-01

    The correlations between genetic codes of amino acids and pathways of synthesis and catabolism of carbon backbone of amino acids are considered. Codes of amino acids which are synthesized from oxoacids of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and glyoxalic cycle via transamination without any additional chemical reactions, are initiated with guanine (alanine, glutamic and aspartic acids, glycine). Codons of amino acids which are formed on the branches of glycolysis at the level of compounds with three carbon atoms, begin with uracil (phenylalanine, serine, leucine, tyrosine, cysteine, tryptophan). Codes of amino acids formed from aspartate begin with adenine (methionine, isoleucine, threonine, asparagine, lysine, serine), while those of the amino acids formed from the compounds with five carbon atoms (glutamic acid and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate) begin with cytosine (arginine, proline, glutamine, histidine). The second letter of codons is linked to catabolic pathways of amino acids: most of amino acids entering glycolysis and the Krebs cycle through even-numbered carbon compounds, have adenine and uracil at the second position of codes (A-U type); most of amino acids entering the glycolysis and the Krebs cycle via odd-numbered carbon compounds, have codons with guanine and cytidine at the second position (G-C type). The usage of purine and pyrimidine as the third letter of weak codones in most of amino acids is linked to the enthropy of amino acid formation. A hypothesis claiming that the linear genetic code was assembled from the purine and pyrimidine derivatives which have acted as participants of primitive control of amino acid synthesis and catabolism, is suggested.

  4. Phenylalanine-780 near the C-terminus of the mouse glucocorticoid receptor is important for ligand binding affinity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Kohli, K; Zhang, S; Danielsen, M; Stallcup, M R

    1994-04-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to make two single amino acid substitutions for highly conserved amino acid residues near the C-terminus of the 783-amino acid mouse glucocorticoid receptor. Substitution of leucine for histidine-781 caused little or no change in the concentration of dexamethasone required for half-maximal activation of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene expressed from a mouse mammary tumor virus promoter. However, when phenylalanine-780 was changed to alanine, the half-maximal concentrations of various agonists were increased as follows, compared with the wild-type glucocorticoid receptor: triamcinolone acetonide by 7-fold, dexamethasone by 25-fold, and hydrocortisone and deoxycorticosterone by more than 150-fold. Binding of labeled steroids by the mutant receptor in vitro and in vivo was also decreased. In contrast, this mutation caused a small decrease in the concentration of RU486 required for antagonist or partial agonist activity. Thus, the phenyl group of phenylalanine-780 of the mouse glucocorticoid receptor is an important determinant of ligand binding affinity and specificity.

  5. Individualized long-term outcomes in blood phenylalanine concentrations and dietary phenylalanine tolerance in 11 patients with primary phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency treated with Sapropterin-dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Yuskiv, Nataliya; Salvarinova, Ramona; Apatean, Delia; Ho, Gloria; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Lillquist, Yolanda; Ueda, Keiko

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed long-term sustainability of improved blood Phenylalanine (Phe) control and changes to dietary Phe tolerance in 11 patients (1 month to 16 years), with various forms of primary PAH deficiency (classic, moderate, severe phenylketonuria [PKU], mild hyperphenylalaninemia [HPA]), who were treated with 15-20mg/kg/d Sapropterin-dihydrochloride during a period of 13-44 months. 7/11 patients had a sustainable, significant reduction of baseline blood Phe concentrations and 6 of them also had an increase in mg/kg/day Phe tolerance. In 2 patients with mild HPA, blood Phe concentrations remained in the physiologic range even after a 22 and 36% increase in mg/kg/day Phe tolerance and an achieved Phe intake at 105% and 268% of the dietary reference intake (DRI) for protein. 2 of these responders had classic PKU. 1 patient with mild HPA who started treatment at 2 months of life, had a significant and sustainable reduction in pretreatment blood Phe concentrations, but no increase in the mg/kg/day Phe tolerance. An increase in Phe tolerance could only be demonstrated when expressing the patient's daily Phe tolerance with the DRI for protein showing an increase from 58% at baseline to 78% of normal DRI at the end of the observation. Long-term follow-up of patients with an initial response to treatment with Sapropterin is essential to determine clinically meaningful outcomes. Phenylalanine tolerance should be expressed in mg/kg/day and/or % of normal DRI to differentiate medical therapy related from physiologic growth related increase in daily Phe intake.

  6. Pyomelanin production in Penicillium chrysogenum is stimulated by L-tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Vasanthakumar, Archana; DeAraujo, Alice; Mazurek, Joy; Schilling, Michael; Mitchell, Ralph

    2015-06-01

    From a tomb in Upper Egypt we isolated a strain of Penicillium chrysogenum that was capable of producing brown pigment in vitro when grown in a minimal salts medium containing tyrosine. We present evidence that this pigment is a pyomelanin, a compound that is known to assist in the survival of some micro-organisms in adverse environments. We tested type strains of Pe. chrysogenum, which were also able to produce this pigment under similar conditions. Inhibitors of the DHN and DOPA melanin pathways were unable to inhibit the formation of the pigment. Fourier transform IR analysis indicated that this brown pigment is similar to pyomelanin. Pyrolysis-GC/MS revealed the presence of phenolic compounds. Using LC/MS, homogentisic acid, the monomeric precursor of pyomelanin, was detected in supernatants of Pe. chrysogenum cultures growing in tyrosine medium but not in cultures lacking tyrosine. Partial regions of the genes encoding two enzymes in the homogentisic acid pathway of tyrosine degradation were amplified. Data from reverse-transcription PCR demonstrated that hmgA transcription was increased in cultures grown in tyrosine medium, suggesting that tyrosine induced the transcription.