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Sample records for acids pufas play

  1. Significance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for the development and behaviour of children.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Huss, Michael; Stauss-Grabo, Manuela; Hahn, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a central role in the normal development and functioning of the brain and central nervous system. Long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5omega-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6omega-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4omega-6), in particular, are involved in numerous neuronal processes, ranging from effects on membrane fluidity to gene expression regulation. Deficiencies and imbalances of these nutrients, not only during the developmental phase but throughout the whole life span, have significant effects on brain function. Numerous observational studies have shown a link between childhood developmental disorders and omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid imbalances. For instance, neurocognitive disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism spectrum disorders are often associated with a relative lack of omega-3 fatty acids. In addition to a high omega-6 fatty acid intake and, in many cases, an insufficient supply of omega-3 fatty acids among the population, evidence is increasing to suggest that PUFA metabolism can be impaired in individuals with ADHD. In this context, PUFA imbalances are being discussed as potential risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. Another focus is whether the nutritive PUFA requirements-especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acid requirements-are higher among some individuals. Meanwhile, several controlled studies investigated the clinical benefits of LC-PUFA supplementation in affected children and adolescents, with occasionally conflicting results. PMID:19672626

  2. Changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities by triiodothyronine (T3) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Varghese, S; Lakshmy, P S; Oommen, O V

    2001-11-01

    Thyroid hormones play an important role in the control of metabolism of vertebrates. This investigation was carried out to examine the effects of triiodothyronine (T3) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on lipid peroxidation in rat liver. Male Wistar strain of rats treated with 6-propylthiouracil (6-PTU) showed no significant change in lipid peroxidation as evident from the generation of malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes. However, in PUFA fed animals as well as 6-PTU + PUFA + T3 treated groups, increased peroxidation products were found. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was low in 6-PTU, 6-PTU + PUFA, PUFA, 6-PTU + PUFA + T3 treated animals while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was high in these groups. Catalase activity was low in all treated groups except PUFA alone fed animals. Glutathione reductase (GR) activity was decreased by 6-PTU treatment and increased in PTU + PUFA fed rats. Cellular glutathione level was high in PUFA and low in PTU-treated groups. From these results it can be concluded that both T3 and PUFA have profound influence on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat liver. PMID:11794465

  3. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases and highly concentrated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).

    PubMed

    Weber, Heinz S; Selimi, Dzevair; Huber, Gustav

    2006-12-01

    30 years ago the observation of a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Inuits (Eskimos) was related to the higher fish consumption when compared to the residual Danish population. Clinical studies confirmed this finding. It was explained by the higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in fish, especially of omega-3 PUFAs. Experimental studies in cell cultures and also in animals with and without infarction models verified the anti-arrhythmic effect of omega-3 PUFAs among other possible contributing factors when compared to other fatty acids. In clinical studies a significant reduction (ca. 40%) of sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) could be found in patients after an acute myocardial infarction, if they were treated with at least 1 g omega-3 PUFAs daily, either by consumption of fish twice weekly or of a highly purified preparation omega-3 PUFAs in capsules. These findings led to recommendations of the American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology to a higher fish consumption and/or the daily intake of 1 g omega-3 PUFAs for primary and especially for secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The much fewer side-effects, and the standardised dosage on one hand and the negative effect of the sometimes higher mercury content of fish make the intake of omega-3 PUFAs as capsules the better choice. PMID:17575803

  4. Metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas putida for production of docosahexaenoic acid based on a myxobacterial PUFA synthase.

    PubMed

    Gemperlein, Katja; Zipf, Gregor; Bernauer, Hubert S; Müller, Rolf; Wenzel, Silke C

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) can be produced de novo via polyketide synthase-like enzymes known as PUFA synthases, which are encoded by pfa biosynthetic gene clusters originally discovered from marine microorganisms. Recently similar gene clusters were detected and characterized in terrestrial myxobacteria revealing several striking differences. As the identified myxobacterial producers are difficult to handle genetically and grow very slowly we aimed to establish heterologous expression platforms for myxobacterial PUFA synthases. Here we report the heterologous expression of the pfa gene cluster from Aetherobacter fasciculatus (SBSr002) in the phylogenetically distant model host bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida. The latter host turned out to be the more promising PUFA producer revealing higher production rates of n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). After several rounds of genetic engineering of expression plasmids combined with metabolic engineering of P. putida, DHA production yields were eventually increased more than threefold. Additionally, we applied synthetic biology approaches to redesign and construct artificial versions of the A. fasciculatus pfa gene cluster, which to the best of our knowledge represents the first example of a polyketide-like biosynthetic gene cluster modulated and synthesized for P. putida. Combination with the engineering efforts described above led to a further increase in LC-PUFA production yields. The established production platform based on synthetic DNA now sets the stage for flexible engineering of the complex PUFA synthase. PMID:26617065

  5. Low n-6/n-3 PUFA Ratio Improves Lipid Metabolism, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Function in Rats Using Plant Oils as n-3 Fatty Acid Source.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li Gang; Song, Zhi Xiu; Yin, Hong; Wang, Yan Yan; Shu, Guo Fang; Lu, Hui Xia; Wang, Shao Kang; Sun, Gui Ju

    2016-01-01

    Lipid metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial function play important roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may be affected by an imbalance in the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio on these cardiovascular risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet using plant oils as the main n-3 PUFA source. The 1:1 and 5:1 ratio groups had significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and proinflammatory cytokines compared with the 20:1 group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the 20:1 group had significantly increased serum levels of E-Selectin, von Willebrand factor (vWF), and numerous markers of oxidative stress compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). The 1:1 group had a significantly decreased lipid peroxide level compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). Serum levels of malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species and vWF tended to increase with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios increasing from 5:1 to 20:1. We demonstrated that low n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (1:1 and 5:1) had a beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk factors by enhancing favorable lipid profiles, having anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects, and improving endothelial function. A high n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (20:1) had adverse effects. Our results indicated that low n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios exerted beneficial cardiovascular effects, suggesting that plant oils could be used as a source of n-3 fatty acids to prevent CVD. They also suggested that we should be aware of possible adverse effects from excessive n-3 PUFA. PMID:26526061

  6. Growth Inhibitory Effect of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) on Colon Cancer Cells via Their Growth Inhibitory Metabolites and Fatty Acid Composition Changes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Yu, Haining; Ni, Xiaofeng; Shen, Shengrong; Das, Undurti N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is common. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert growth-inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on colon cancer cells. Metabolites of PUFAs such as prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes (LTs) and lipoxins (LXs) play a significant role in colon cancer. Methods Human colon cancer LoVo and RKO cells were cultured with different concentration of PUFAs and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in vitro. Cell morphological changes, fatty acid composition, formation of PGE2, LTB4 and LXA4 and expression of COX-2, ALOX5, PGD synthase (PGDS), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES) were assessed in LoVo and RKO cells when supplemented with PUFAs and 5-FU. Results PUFAs and 5-FU inhibited growth of LoVo and RKO cells to the same extent at the doses used and produced significant alterations in their shape. As expected, higher concentrations of supplemented PUFAs were noted in the cells compared to control. LA, GLA, AA, ALA and EPA supplementation to LoVo cells suppressed production of PGE2, LTB4,and ALOX5, mPGES expression, but enhanced that of LXA4; whereas DHA enhanced PGE2 and LXA4 synthesis but decreased LTB4 formation and COX-2, ALOX5, mPGES expression. In contrast, 5-FU enhanced formation of PGE2, LTB4 and mPGES expression, but suppressed LXA4 synthesis and COX-2 expression. PGE2, LTB4 synthesis and ALOX5 expression was suppressed by LA, GLA, ALA and DHA; whereas AA, EPA and 5-FU enhanced PGE2 but paradoxically AA decreased and EPA and 5-FU enhanced LTB4 synthesis in RKO cells. All the PUFAs tested enhanced, while 5-FU decreased LXA4 formation in RKO cells; whereas GLA, AA, and 5-FU augmented while LA, ALA, EPA and DHA enhanced COX-2 expression in RKO cells. Conclusions Tumoricidal action of PUFAs on colorectal LoVo and RKO cancer cells in vitro was associated with increased formation of LXA4, decreased synthesis of PGE2 and LTB4 and suppressed expression of COX-2, ALOX5, mPGES, whereas 5-FU produced contrasting actions on these indices. PMID:25886460

  7. Meta-Analysis of Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LCω-3PUFA) and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dominik D.; Bassett, Julie K.; Weed, Douglas L.; Barrett, Erin Cernkovich; Watson, Heather; Harris, William

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the potential association between LCω-3PUFAs and prostate cancer (PC). A comprehensive literature search was performed through 2013 to identify prospective studies that examined dietary intakes of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCω-3PUFA) or blood biomarkers of LCω-3PUFA status and risk of PC. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to generate summary relative risk estimates (SRREs) for LCω-3PUFAs and total PC, and by stage and grade. Subgroup analyses were also conducted for specific fatty acids and other study characteristics. Twelve self-reported dietary intake and 9 biomarker studies from independent study populations were included in the analysis, with 446,243 and 14,897 total participants, respectively. No association between LCω-3PUFAs and total PC was observed (SRRE = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.93–1.09) for the dietary intake studies (high vs. low LCω-3PUFAs category comparison) or for the biomarker studies (SRRE of 1.07, 95% CI: 0.94–1.20). In general, most summary associations for the dietary intake studies were in the inverse direction, whereas the majority of summary associations for the biomarker studies were in the positive direction, but all were weak in magnitude. The results from this meta-analysis do not support an association between LCω-3PUFAs and PC. PMID:25826711

  8. Dietary PUFA and cancer.

    PubMed

    Abel, S; Riedel, S; Gelderblom, W C A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present paper is to give a brief overview on the role of dietary fat in carcinogenesis and as possible anticancer agents. Dietary fat is an essential nutrient and important source for the essential fatty acids (FA), linoleic and α-linolenic acids, which contribute to proper growth and development. However, dietary fat has been associated with the development of colorectal, breast, prostate, endometrial and ovarian cancers, with the type and quality of fat playing an underlying role. Tumour growth is the disruption of the homoeostatic balance regulating cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis and is associated with altered lipid metabolism. Animal cancer models and human cancer biopsy tissue demonstrate that a characteristic lipid profile is associated with the growth and development of neoplastic lesions. This entails alterations in membrane cholesterol, phospholipid and PUFA metabolism. Particularly, alterations in cell membrane FA metabolism involving the n-6 and n-3 PUFA, are associated with changes in membrane structure, function, cellular oxidative status, activity of enzymes and signalling pathways. These events are a driving force in sustaining the altered growth of cancerous lesions and provide unique targets for intervention/cancer modulation. Challenges in utilising FA in cancer modulation exist regarding intake and effect on cell structure and biochemical interactions within the cell in the prevention of cancer development. Therefore, utilising dietary PUFA in a specific n-6:n-3 ratio may be an important chemopreventive tool in altering the growth characteristics of cancer cells. PMID:24850051

  9. A low omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) diet increases omega-3 (n-3) long chain PUFA status in plasma phospholipids in humans.

    PubMed

    Wood, K E; Lau, A; Mantzioris, E; Gibson, R A; Ramsden, C E; Muhlhausler, B S

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of reducing the dietary linoleic acid (LA) intake from ~5% to <2.5% energy (%E) on n-3 long chain PUFA (LCPUFA) status in humans. Thirty-six participants followed a <2.5%E LA diet for 4 weeks. Nutrient intakes were estimated from diet diaries and blood samples were collected for assessment of fatty acid composition in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids. LA intakes were reduced from 4.6%E to 2%E during the low LA intervention (P<0.001) while n-3 LCPUFA intakes were unchanged. LA and total n-6 PUFA content of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were significantly reduced after the low LA diet phase (P<0.001). The n-3 LCPUFA content of plasma phospholipids was significantly increased after the low LA diet compared to baseline (6.22% vs. 5.53%, P<0.001). These data demonstrate that reducing LA intake for 4 weeks increases n-3 LCPUFA status in humans in the absence of increased n-3 LCPUFA intake. PMID:24456663

  10. Formation of Small Gas Phase Carbonyls from Heterogeneous Oxidation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, S.; Zhao, R.; Lee, A.; Gao, S.; Abbatt, J.

    2011-12-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are emitted into the atmosphere from gas and diesel powered vehicles, cooking, plants, and marine biota. Field measurements have suggested that FAs, including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), could make up an important contribution to the organic fraction of atmospheric aerosols. Due to the existence of carbon-carbon double bonds in their molecules, PUFA are believed to be highly reactive towards atmospheric oxidants such as OH and NO3 radicals and ozone, which will contribute to aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei activity. Previous work from our group has shown that small carbonyls formed from the heterogeneous reaction of linoleic acid (LA) thin films with gas-phase O3. It is known that the formation of small carbonyls in the atmosphere is not only relevant to the atmospheric budget of volatile organic compounds but also to secondary organic aerosol formation. In the present study, using an online proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and off-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) we again investigated carbonyl formation from the same reaction system, i.e. the heterogeneous ozonolysis of LA film. In addition to the previously reported carbonyls, malondialdehyde (MDA), a source of reactive oxygen species that is mutagenic, has been identified as a product for the first time. Small dicarbonyls, e.g. glyoxal, are expected to be formed from the further oxidation of MDA. In this presentation, the gas-phase chemistry of MDA with OH radicals using a newly built Teflon chamber in our group will also be presented.

  11. Dietary omega-3 PUFA and health: stearidonic acid-containing seed oils as effective and sustainable alternatives to traditional marine oils.

    PubMed

    Surette, Marc E

    2013-05-01

    The daily consumption of dietary omega-3 PUFA is recommended by governmental agencies in several countries and by a number of health organizations. The molecular mechanisms by which these dietary PUFA affect health involve the enrichment of cellular membranes with long-chain 20- and 22-carbon omega-3 PUFA that impacts tissues by altering membrane protein functions, cell signaling, and gene expression profiles. These changes are recognized to have health benefits in humans, especially relating to cardiovascular outcomes. Cellular membrane enrichment and health benefits are associated with the consumption of long-chain omega-3 PUFA found in marine oils, but are not generally linked with the consumption of alpha-linolenic acid, the 18-carbon omega-3 PUFA found in plant seed oils. However, the supply of omega-3 PUFA from marine sources is limited and may not be sustainable. New plant-derived sources of omega-3 PUFA like stearidonic acid-soy oil from genetically modified soybeans and Ahiflower oil from Buglossoides arvensis seeds that are enriched in the 18-carbon omega-3 PUFA stearidonic acid are being developed and show promise to become effective as well as sustainable sources of omega-3 PUFA. An example of changes in tissue lipid profiles associated with the consumption of Ahiflower oil is presented in a mouse feeding study. PMID:23417895

  12. Analysis of Δ12-fatty acid desaturase function revealed that two distinct pathways are active for the synthesis of PUFAs in T. aureum ATCC 34304

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Hamaguchi, Rie; Kobayashi, Takumi; Abe, Eriko; Hama, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Masahiro; Honda, Daiske; Okita, Yuji; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Thraustochytrids are known to synthesize PUFAs such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Accumulating evidence suggests the presence of two synthetic pathways of PUFAs in thraustochytrids: the polyketide synthase-like (PUFA synthase) and desaturase/elongase (standard) pathways. It remains unclear whether the latter pathway functions in thraustochytrids. In this study, we report that the standard pathway produces PUFA in Thraustochytrium aureum ATCC 34304. We isolated a gene encoding a putative Δ12-fatty acid desaturase (TauΔ12des) from T. aureum. Yeasts transformed with the tauΔ12des converted endogenous oleic acid (OA) into linoleic acid (LA). The disruption of the tauΔ12des in T. aureum by homologous recombination resulted in the accumulation of OA and a decrease in the levels of LA and its downstream PUFAs. However, the DHA content was increased slightly in tauΔ12des-disruption mutants, suggesting that DHA is primarily produced in T. aureum via the PUFA synthase pathway. The transformation of the tauΔ12des-disruption mutants with a tauΔ12des expression cassette restored the wild-type fatty acid profiles. These data clearly indicate that TauΔ12des functions as Δ12-fatty acid desaturase in the standard pathway of T. aureum and demonstrate that this thraustochytrid produces PUFAs via both the PUFA synthase and the standard pathways. PMID:22368282

  13. Analysis of Δ12-fatty acid desaturase function revealed that two distinct pathways are active for the synthesis of PUFAs in T. aureum ATCC 34304.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Hamaguchi, Rie; Kobayashi, Takumi; Abe, Eriko; Hama, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Masahiro; Honda, Daiske; Okita, Yuji; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2012-06-01

    Thraustochytrids are known to synthesize PUFAs such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Accumulating evidence suggests the presence of two synthetic pathways of PUFAs in thraustochytrids: the polyketide synthase-like (PUFA synthase) and desaturase/elongase (standard) pathways. It remains unclear whether the latter pathway functions in thraustochytrids. In this study, we report that the standard pathway produces PUFA in Thraustochytrium aureum ATCC 34304. We isolated a gene encoding a putative Δ12-fatty acid desaturase (TauΔ12des) from T. aureum. Yeasts transformed with the tauΔ12des converted endogenous oleic acid (OA) into linoleic acid (LA). The disruption of the tauΔ12des in T. aureum by homologous recombination resulted in the accumulation of OA and a decrease in the levels of LA and its downstream PUFAs. However, the DHA content was increased slightly in tauΔ12des-disruption mutants, suggesting that DHA is primarily produced in T. aureum via the PUFA synthase pathway. The transformation of the tauΔ12des-disruption mutants with a tauΔ12des expression cassette restored the wild-type fatty acid profiles. These data clearly indicate that TauΔ12des functions as Δ12-fatty acid desaturase in the standard pathway of T. aureum and demonstrate that this thraustochytrid produces PUFAs via both the PUFA synthase and the standard pathways. PMID:22368282

  14. Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on fatty acid composition, free amino acid profile and gene expression of transporters in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengna; Duan, Yehui; Li, Yinghui; Tang, Yulong; Geng, Meimei; Oladele, Oso Abimbola; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2015-03-14

    Revealing the expression patterns of fatty acid and amino acid transporters as affected by dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio would be useful for further clarifying the importance of the balance between n-6 and n-3 PUFA. A total of ninety-six finishing pigs were fed one of four diets with the ratio of 1:1, 2·5:1, 5:1 and 10:1. Pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 5:1 had the highest (P< 0·05) daily weight gain, and those fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 1:1 had the largest loin muscle area (P< 0·01). The concentration of n-3 PUFA was raised as the ratio declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The contents of tryptophan, tasty amino acids and branched-chain amino acids in the longissimus dorsi were enhanced in pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1. The mRNA expression level of the fatty acid transporter fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) was declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1, and increased (P< 0·05) in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1 and 10:1. The expression profile of FATP-4 was similar to those of FATP-1 in the adipose tissue. The mRNA expression level of the amino acid transceptors LAT1 and SNAT2 was up-regulated (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1 and 2·5:1. In conclusion, maintaining the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1 would facilitate the absorption and utilisation of fatty acids and free amino acids, and result in improved muscle and adipose composition. PMID:25704496

  15. Cheek cell fatty acids reflect n-3 PUFA in blood fractions during linseed oil supplementation: a controlled human intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate biomarkers for the dietary supply of fatty acids (FA) are FA of adipose tissue and blood fractions. In human studies, invasive sample collection is unpleasant for subjects. In contrast, cheek cell sampling can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to investigate FA status. The aim of this study was to analyze whether cheek cell FA composition reflect the supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) using a linseed oil mixture compared to olive oil supplementation. Additionally, it was investigated if cheek cell FA composition correlates with the FA composition of plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and during both interventions. Methods During a 10-week randomized, controlled, double-blind human intervention study, 38 subjects provided cheek cell and blood samples. After a two-week run-in period, the test group (n = 23) received 17 g/d of an ALA-rich linseed oil mixture, while the control group (n = 15) received 17 g/d of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-free olive oil. Cheek cells and blood were collected on days 0, 7 and 56 of the 8-week intervention period. Results Compared to olive oil, the linseed oil intervention increased ALA and also the endogenously converted long-chain n-3 metabolites eicosatetraenoic-, eicosapentaenoic- and docosapentaenoic acid in cheek cells (P ≤ 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. Reflecting the treatment, the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the test group. In general, cheek cell FA reflected the changes of FA in blood fractions. Independent of treatment, significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA between cheek cells and plasma, RBC and PBMC were found, except for linoleic acid and ALA. Conclusions The changes in FA composition of cheek cells confirmed that ALA from linseed oil increased endogenously derived n-3 PUFA in cheek cell lipids. These changes in cheek cells and their correlation to the respective

  16. Increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acid levels in human plasma after a single dose of long-chain omega-3 PUFA

    PubMed Central

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Schneider, Inga; Willenberg, Ina; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D.; Hahn, Andreas; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several supplementation studies with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) describe an increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in blood, while changes in levels of other LC n-3 and n-6 PUFA-derived oxylipins were minor. In order to investigate the kinetics of changes in oxylipin levels in response to LC n-3 PUFA ingestion, we conducted a single dose treatment study with healthy subjects. Subjects and methods In the present kinetic study, we compared patterns of hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in plasma of 6 healthy men before and after 6, 8, 24, and 48 h of fish oil (1008 mg EPA and 672 mg DHA) ingestion. Levels of EPA- as well as other LC PUFA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids were analyzed in plasma by LC–MS. Additionally, levels of these oxylipins were compared with their parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids. Results All EPA-derived oxylipin levels were significantly increased 6 h after LC n-3 PUFA ingestion and gradually drop thereafter reaching the baseline levels about 48 h after treatment. The relative increase in EPA plasma phospholipid levels highly correlated with the increase of plasma EPA-derived oxylipin levels at different time points. In contrast, plasma levels of arachidonic acid- and DHA-derived oxylipins as well as parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids were hardly changed. Discussion and conclusions Our findings demonstrate that a single dose of LC n-3 PUFAs can rapidly induce a shift in the EPA oxylipin profile of healthy subjects within a few hours. Taking the high biological activity of the EPA-derived epoxy fatty acids into account, even short-term treatment with LC n-3 PUFAs may cause systemic effects, which warrant further investigation. PMID:24667634

  17. Umbilical cord PUFA are determined by maternal and child fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genetic variants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).

    PubMed

    Lattka, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold; Zeilinger, Sonja; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Klopp, Norman; Ring, Susan M; Steer, Colin D

    2013-04-14

    Fetal supply with long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy is important for brain growth and visual and cognitive development and is provided by materno-fetal placental transfer. We recently showed that maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotypes modulate the amounts of LC-PUFA in maternal blood. Whether FADS genotypes influence the amounts of umbilical cord fatty acids has not been investigated until now. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of maternal and child FADS genotypes on the amounts of LC-PUFA in umbilical cord venous plasma as an indicator of fetal fatty acid supply during pregnancy. A total of eleven cord plasma n-6 and n-3 fatty acids were analysed for association with seventeen FADS gene cluster SNP in over 2000 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. In a multivariable analysis, the maternal genotype effect was adjusted for the child genotype and vice versa to estimate which of the two has the stronger influence on cord plasma fatty acids. Both maternal and child FADS genotypes and haplotypes influenced amounts of cord plasma LC-PUFA and fatty acid ratios. Specifically, most analysed maternal SNP were associated with cord plasma levels of the precursor n-6 PUFA, whereas the child genotypes were mainly associated with more highly desaturated n-6 LC-PUFA. This first study on FADS genotypes and cord fatty acids suggests that fetal LC-PUFA status is determined to some extent by fetal fatty acid conversion. Associations of particular haplotypes suggest specific effects of SNP rs498793 and rs968567 on fatty acid metabolism. PMID:22877655

  18. Chronic dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation leads to conservation of arachidonic acid and more rapid loss of DHA in rat brain phospholipids[S

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lauren E.; Chen, Chuck T.; Hildebrand, Kayla D.; Liu, Zhen; Hopperton, Kathryn E.; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    To determine how the level of dietary n-6 PUFA affects the rate of loss of arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA in brain phospholipids, male rats were fed either a deprived or adequate n-6 PUFA diet for 15 weeks postweaning, and then subjected to an intracerebroventricular infusion of 3H-ARA or 3H-DHA. Brains were collected at fixed times over 128 days to determine half-lives and the rates of loss from brain phospholipids (Jout). Compared with the adequate n-6 PUFA rats, the deprived n-6-PUFA rats had a 15% lower concentration of ARA and an 18% higher concentration of DHA in their brain total phospholipids. Loss half-lives of ARA in brain total phospholipids and fractions (except phosphatidylserine) were longer in the deprived n-6 PUFA rats, whereas the Jout was decreased. In the deprived versus adequate n-6 PUFA rats, the Jout of DHA was higher. In conclusion, chronic n-6 PUFA deprivation decreases the rate of loss of ARA and increases the rate of loss of DHA in brain phospholipids. Thus, a low n-6 PUFA diet can be used to target brain ARA and DHA metabolism. PMID:25477531

  19. Agonistic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and its metabolites on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through molecular docking simulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor that is implicated in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) localised in cell membranes have been shown to alter the levels of BDNF in the brain, suggesting that PUFAs and BDNF could have physical interaction with each other. To decipher the molecular mechanism through which PUFAs modulates BDNF’s activity, molecular docking was performed for BDNF with PUFAs and its metabolites, with 4-Methyl Catechol as a control. Results Inferring from molecular docking studies, lipoxin A4 (LXA4), and a known anti-inflammatory bioactive metabolite derived from PUFAs, with a binding energy of −3.98 Kcal/mol and dissociation constant of 1.2mM showed highest binding affinity for BDNF in comparison to other PUFAs and metabolites considered in the study. Further, the residues Lys 18, Thr 20, Ala 21, Val 22, Phe 46, Glu 48, Lys 50, Lys 58, Thr 75, Gln 77, Arg 97 and Ile 98 form hot point motif, which on interaction enhances BDNF’s function. Conclusion These results suggest that PUFAs and their metabolites especially, LXA4, modulate insulin resistance by establishing a physical interaction with BDNF. Similar interaction(s) was noted between BDNF and resolvins and protectins but were of lesser intensity compared to LXA4. PMID:22943296

  20. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) Status in Pregnant Women: Associations with Sleep Quality, Inflammation, and Length of Gestation.

    PubMed

    Christian, Lisa M; Blair, Lisa M; Porter, Kyle; Lower, Mary; Cole, Rachel M; Belury, Martha A

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic pathways linking maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status with gestational length are poorly delineated. This study examined whether inflammation and sleep quality serve as mediators, focusing on the antiinflammatory ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) and proinflammatory ω-6 arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n6). Pregnant women (n = 135) provided a blood sample and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) at 20-27 weeks gestation. Red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid levels were determined by gas chromatography and serum inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and C-reactive protein] by electrochemiluminescence using high sensitivity kits. Both higher serum IL-8 (95% CI = 0.10,3.84) and poor sleep (95% CI = 0.03,0.28) served as significant mediators linking lower DHA:AA ratios with shorter gestation. Further, a serial mediation model moving from the DHA:AA ratio → sleep → IL-8 → length of gestation was statistically significant (95% CI = 0.02, 0.79). These relationships remained after adjusting for depressive symptoms, age, BMI, income, race, and smoking. No interactions with race were observed in relation to length of gestation as a continuous variable. However, a significant interaction between race and the DHA:AA ratio in predicting preterm birth was observed (p = 0.049); among African Americans only, odds of preterm birth decreased as DHA:AA increased (p = 0.048). These data support a role for both inflammatory pathways and sleep quality in linking less optimal RBC PUFA status with shorter gestation in African American and European American women and suggest that African-Americans have greater risk for preterm birth in the context of a low DHA:AA ratio. PMID:26859301

  1. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) Status in Pregnant Women: Associations with Sleep Quality, Inflammation, and Length of Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Lisa M.; Blair, Lisa M.; Porter, Kyle; Lower, Mary; Cole, Rachel M.; Belury, Martha A.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic pathways linking maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status with gestational length are poorly delineated. This study examined whether inflammation and sleep quality serve as mediators, focusing on the antiinflammatory ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) and proinflammatory ω-6 arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n6). Pregnant women (n = 135) provided a blood sample and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) at 20–27 weeks gestation. Red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid levels were determined by gas chromatography and serum inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and C-reactive protein] by electrochemiluminescence using high sensitivity kits. Both higher serum IL-8 (95% CI = 0.10,3.84) and poor sleep (95% CI = 0.03,0.28) served as significant mediators linking lower DHA:AA ratios with shorter gestation. Further, a serial mediation model moving from the DHA:AA ratio → sleep → IL-8 → length of gestation was statistically significant (95% CI = 0.02, 0.79). These relationships remained after adjusting for depressive symptoms, age, BMI, income, race, and smoking. No interactions with race were observed in relation to length of gestation as a continuous variable. However, a significant interaction between race and the DHA:AA ratio in predicting preterm birth was observed (p = 0.049); among African Americans only, odds of preterm birth decreased as DHA:AA increased (p = 0.048). These data support a role for both inflammatory pathways and sleep quality in linking less optimal RBC PUFA status with shorter gestation in African American and European American women and suggest that African-Americans have greater risk for preterm birth in the context of a low DHA:AA ratio. PMID:26859301

  2. Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses.

    PubMed

    Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Seal, Chris J; Sanderson, Roy; Benbrook, Charles; Steinshamn, Håvard; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Eyre, Mick; Cozzi, Giulio; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Jordon, Teresa; Niggli, Urs; Sakowski, Tomasz; Calder, Philip C; Burdge, Graham C; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Stergiadis, Sokratis; Yolcu, Halil; Chatzidimitriou, Eleni; Butler, Gillian; Stewart, Gavin; Leifert, Carlo

    2016-03-28

    Demand for organic milk is partially driven by consumer perceptions that it is more nutritious. However, there is still considerable uncertainty over whether the use of organic production standards affects milk quality. Here we report results of meta-analyses based on 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic and conventional bovine milk. There were no significant differences in total SFA and MUFA concentrations between organic and conventional milk. However, concentrations of total PUFA and n-3 PUFA were significantly higher in organic milk, by an estimated 7 (95 % CI -1, 15) % and 56 (95 % CI 38, 74) %, respectively. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid (ALA), very long-chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DPA+DHA) and conjugated linoleic acid were also significantly higher in organic milk, by an 69 (95 % CI 53, 84) %, 57 (95 % CI 27, 87) % and 41 (95 % CI 14, 68) %, respectively. As there were no significant differences in total n-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations, the n-6:n-3 and LA:ALA ratios were lower in organic milk, by an estimated 71 (95 % CI -122, -20) % and 93 (95 % CI -116, -70) %. It is concluded that organic bovine milk has a more desirable fatty acid composition than conventional milk. Meta-analyses also showed that organic milk has significantly higher α-tocopherol and Fe, but lower I and Se concentrations. Redundancy analysis of data from a large cross-European milk quality survey indicates that the higher grazing/conserved forage intakes in organic systems were the main reason for milk composition differences. PMID:26878105

  3. Association between polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase gene cluster and the plasma triacylglycerol response to an n-3 PUFA supplementation.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Thifault, Elisabeth; Garneau, Véronique; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2012-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation is observed in different studies. Genetic variations may influence plasma lipid responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a supplementation with n-3 PUFA on the plasma lipid profile in relation to the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster. A total of 208 subjects from Quebec City area were supplemented with 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA, during six weeks. In a statistical model including the effect of the genotype, the supplementation and the genotype by supplementation interaction, SNP rs174546 was significantly associated (p = 0.02) with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, pre- and post-supplementation. The n-3 supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels and no significant genotype by supplementation interaction effects were observed. In summary, our data support the notion that the FADS gene cluster is a major determinant of plasma TG levels. SNP rs174546 may be an important SNP associated with plasma TG levels and FADS1 gene expression independently of a nutritional intervention with n-3 PUFA. PMID:23016130

  4. Retinal very long-chain PUFAs: new insights from studies on ELOVL4 protein

    PubMed Central

    Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Mandal, Md Nawajes A.; Anderson, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Compared with other mammalian tissues, retina is highly enriched in PUFA. Long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA; C18-C24) are essential FAs that are enriched in the retina and are necessary for maintenance of normal retinal development and function. The retina, brain, and sperm also contain very LC-PUFA (VLC-PUFA; >C24). Although VLC-PUFA were discovered more than two decades ago, very little is known about their biosynthesis and functional roles in the retina. This is due mainly to intrinsic difficulties associated with working on these unusually long polyunsaturated hydrocarbon chains and their existence in small amounts. Recent studies on the FA elongase elongation of very long chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4) protein, however, suggest that VLC-PUFA probably play some uniquely important roles in the retina as well as the other tissues. Mutations in the ELOVL4 gene are found in patients with autosomal dominant Stargardt disease. Here, we review the recent literature on VLC-PUFA with special emphasis on the elongases responsible for their synthesis. We focus on a novel elongase, ELOVL4, involved in the synthesis of VLC-PUFA, and the importance of these FAs in maintaining the structural and functional integrity of retinal photoreceptors. PMID:20299492

  5. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Thifault, Elisabeth; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and serum fatty acid composition. Objective: To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g–2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA). Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03) was performed. Results: Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2) had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation interaction effect on FG levels was observed for rs482548 (p = 0.008). For FI levels, a genotype effect was observed with one SNP (rs174456). For HOMA-IS, several genotype*supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs7394871, rs174602, rs174570, rs7482316 and rs482548 (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; respectively). Conclusion: Results suggest that SNPs in the FADS gene cluster may modulate plasma FG, FI and HOMA-IS levels in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation. PMID:24705214

  6. Regulation of Tissue LC-PUFA Contents, Δ6 Fatty Acyl Desaturase (FADS2) Gene Expression and the Methylation of the Putative FADS2 Gene Promoter by Different Dietary Fatty Acid Profiles in Japanese Seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus)

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zuo, Rantao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the influences of different dietary fatty acid profiles on the tissue content and biosynthesis of LC-PUFA in a euryhaline species Japanese seabass reared in seawater. Six diets were prepared, each with a characteristic fatty acid: Diet PA: Palmitic acid (C16:0); Diet SA: Stearic acid (C18:0); Diet OA: Oleic acid (C18:1n-9); Diet LNA: α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3); Diet N-3 LC-PUFA: n-3 LC-PUFA (DHA+EPA); Diet FO: the fish oil control. A 10-week feeding trial was conducted using juvenile fish (29.53±0.86 g). The results showed that Japanese seabass had limited capacity to synthesize LC-PUFA and fish fed PA, SA, OA and LNA showed significantly lower tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents compared to fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. The putative gene promoter and full-length cDNA of FADS2 was cloned and characterized. The protein sequence was confirmed to be homologous to FADS2s of marine teleosts and possessed all the characteristic features of microsomal fatty acid desaturases. The FADS2 transcript levels in liver of fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO were significantly lower than those in fish fed other diets except LNA while Diet PA significantly up-regulated the FADS2 gene expression compared to Diet LNA, N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. Inversely, fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO showed significantly higher promoter methylation rates of FADS2 gene compared to fish fed the LC-PUFA deficient diets. These results suggested that Japanese seabass had low LC-PUFA synthesis capacity and LC-PUFA deficient diets caused significantly reduced tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The liver gene expression of FADS2 was up-regulated in groups enriched in C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9 respectively but not in the group enriched in C18:3n-3 compared to groups with high n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The FADS2 gene expression regulated by dietary fatty acids was significantly negatively correlated with the methylation rate of putative FADS2 gene promoter. PMID:24498178

  7. Omega-3 PUFAs Lower the Propensity for Arachidonic Acid Cascade Overreactions

    PubMed Central

    Lands, Bill

    2015-01-01

    A productive view of the benefits from omega-3 (n-3) nutrients is that the dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) linoleic acid has a very narrow therapeutic window which is widened by n-3 nutrients. The benefit from moderate physiological actions of the arachidonic acid cascade can easily shift to harm from excessive pathophysiological actions. Recognizing the factors that predispose the cascade to an unwanted overactivity gives a rational approach for arranging beneficial interactions between the n-3 and n-6 essential nutrients that are initial components of the cascade. Much detailed evidence for harmful cascade actions was collected by pharmaceutical companies as they developed drugs to decrease those actions. A remaining challenge is to understand the factors that predispose the cascade toward unwanted outcomes and create the need for therapeutic interventions. Such understanding involves recognizing the similar dynamics for dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients in forming the immediate precursors of the cascade plus the more vigorous actions of the n-6 precursor, arachidonic acid, in forming potent mediators that amplify unwanted cascade outcomes. Tools have been developed to aid deliberate day-to-day quantitative management of the propensity for cascade overactivity in ways that can decrease the need for drug treatments. PMID:26301244

  8. Significant Enrichment of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) in the Lipids Extracted by Supercritical CO2 from the Livers of Australian Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trung T; Zhang, Wei; Barber, Andrew R; Su, Peng; He, Shan

    2015-05-13

    Australian rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) liver contains approximately 24.3% (w/w) lipids, which can contain a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, this material has been found to be contaminated with arsenic (240 mg/kg) and cadmium (8 mg/kg). The high level of contaminants in the raw material and the large amount of PUFAs in the lipids prove a significant challenge in the extraction of high-quality lipids from this byproduct by conventional methods. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction is a highly promising technology for lipid extraction with advantages including low contamination and low oxidation. The technique was optimized to achieve nearly 94% extraction of lipids relative to conventional Soxhlet extraction in Australian rock lobster liver at conditions of 35 MPa and 50 °C for 4 h. The extracted lipids are significantly enriched in PUFAs at 31.3% of total lipids, 4 times higher than those in the lipids recovered by Soxhlet extraction (7.8%). Specifically, the concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in SC-CO2 extraction are 7 times higher than those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, very small amounts of toxic heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) were detected in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids, 0.5-27 times lower than those in the Soxhlet-extracted lipids, which are 40-200 times lower than the regulatory limit maximum values. The low levels of contaminants and the high proportion of PUFAs (dominated by DHA and EPA) found in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids from Australian rock lobster liver suggest that the material could potentially be used as a valuable source of essential fatty acids for human consumption. PMID:25905456

  9. When balanced for precursor fatty acid supply echium oil is not superior to linseed oil in enriching lamb tissues with long-chain n-3 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Young, Paul; Nattrass, Greg; Gardner, Graham; Pearce, Kelly; Pethick, David W

    2012-07-14

    Vegetable oils containing stearidonic acid (SDA, 18 : 4n-3) are considered better precursors of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) than those with only α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18 : 3n-3). The present study re-examined this premise using treatments where added ALA from linseed oil was matched with ALA plus SDA from echium oil. Lambs (n 6) were abomasally infused with saline (control (C), 25 ml), echium oil low (EL, 25 ml), echium oil high (EH, 50 ml), linseed oil low (LL, 25 ml) or linseed oil high (LH, 50 ml) for 4 weeks. The basal ration used was identical across all treatments. EPA (20 : 5n-3) in meat increased from 6·5 mg in the C lambs to 16·8, 17·7, 13·5 and 11·7 (SEM 0·86) mg/100 g muscle in the EL, EH, LL and LH lambs, respectively. For muscle DPA (docosapentaenoic acid; 22 : 5n-3), the corresponding values were 14·3, 22·2, 18·6 18·2 and 19·4 (SEM 0·57) mg/100 g muscle. The DHA (22 : 6n-3) content of meat was 5·8 mg/100 g in the C lambs and ranged from 4·53 to 5·46 (SEM 0·27) mg/100 g muscle in the oil-infused groups. Total n-3 PUFA content of meat (including ALA and SDA) increased from 39 mg to 119, 129, 121 and 150 (SEM 12·3) mg/100 g muscle. We conclude that both oil types were effective in enhancing the EPA and DPA, but not DHA, content of meat. Furthermore, we conclude that, when balanced for precursor n-3 fatty acid supply, differences between linseed oil and echium oil in enriching meat with LC n-3 PUFA were of little, if any, nutritional significance. PMID:22011528

  10. A Novel Process for the Synthesis of Highly Pure n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA)-Enriched Triglycerides by Combined Transesterification and Ethanolysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Daoming; Wang, Weifei; Qin, Xiaoli; Li, Xingxing; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-08-31

    In this study, a novel two-step enzymatic reaction was developed for the synthesis of highly pure triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a high content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Glyceride mixtures were primarily synthesized by Novozym 435-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol and DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters (EEs), followed by removal of partial glycerides, for the first time, by immobilized mono- and diacylglycerol lipase SMG1-F278N-catalyzed ethanolysis. TAG yield as high as 98.66% was achieved under the optimized conditions, and highly pure (98.75%) n-3 PUFA-enriched TAGs with 88.44% of n-3 PUFA was obtained after molecular distillation at lower temperature (140 °C). In addition, the EEs produced during ethanolysis had a FA composition similar to that of the original EEs, making them feasible for cyclic utilization. This was the first study reporting removal of partial glycerides by ethanolysis. Through ethanolysis, a higher purity product could be easily obtained at a relatively low temperature compared with the conventional high-temperature molecular distillation. PMID:27540752

  11. Protective effect of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on sodium nitroprusside-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Khan, M W; Priyamvada, S; Khan, S A; Khan, S; Naqshbandi, A; Yusufi, A N K

    2012-10-01

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) a nitric oxide (NO) donor has proven toxic effects. Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) has been shown to reduce the severity of numerous ailments. Present study examined whether intake of fish oil (FO)/flaxseed oil (FXO, Omega Nutrition, St Vancouver, Canada) would have protective effect against SNP-induced toxicity. Male Wistar rats (150 ± 10 g) were used in this study. Initially animals were divided into two groups: one fed on normal diet and the other on 15% FO/FXO for 15 days. On the 16th day, SNP (1.5 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally for 7 days daily. After 7 days animals were killed, kidneys were harvested for further analysis. SNP induced nephrotoxicity by increasing serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, SNP significantly decreased malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and malic enzyme but increased lactate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Brush border membrane enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and leucine amino peptidase were also decreased. The activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase decreased concomitantly with increased lipid peroxidation, indicating that the significant kidney damage has been inflicted by SNP. Feeding of FO and FXO with SNP ameliorated the changes in various parameters caused by SNP. The results of the present study suggest that ω-3 PUFA-enriched FO and FXO from seafoods and plant sources, respectively, are similarly effective in reducing SNP-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage. Thus, vegetarians who cannot consume FO can have similar health benefits from plant-derived ω-3 PUFA. PMID:22549094

  12. The PUFA-Enriched Fatty Acid Profiles of some Frozen Bison from the Early Holocene found in the Siberian Permafrost

    PubMed Central

    Guil-Guerrero, José L.; Rodríguez-García, Ignacio; Kirillova, Irina; Shidlovskiy, Fedor; Ramos-Bueno, Rebeca P.; Savvinov, Grigoryi; Tikhonov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the availability of n-3 fatty acids for humans in prehistoric times is highly relevant in order to draw useful conclusions on the healthy dietary habits for present-day humans. To this end, we have analysed fat from several frozen bison found in the permafrost of Siberia (Russia). A total of 3 bison were included in this study, all them very close to the early Holocene (8,000; 8,200; and 9,300 years BP). All samples were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS) and GLC flame-ionization detection (GLC-FID). Fat samples from two bison showed two well-differenced areas, i.e. brown and white, the latter being saturated fatty acid enriched, corresponding to an intermediate stage of adipocere formation, while the brown ones yielded α-linolenic acid in higher percentages than found in present-day bison. As demonstrated in this work, the subcutaneous fat of bison consumed by Mesolithic hunters contained amounts of n-3 fatty acids in higher quantities than those found in current bison; thus, the subcutaneous fat of bison could have contributed to meet today's recommended daily intake of essential fatty acids for good health in the Mesolithic to a greater extent than previously thought. PMID:25604079

  13. ω-3 PUFAs ameliorate liver fibrosis and inhibit hepatic stellate cells proliferation and activation by promoting YAP/TAZ degradation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Chang, Yanan; Shi, Zhemin; Han, Xiaohui; Han, Yawei; Yao, Qingbin; Hu, Zhimei; Cui, Hongmei; Zheng, Lina; Han, Tao; Hong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Elevated levels of the transcriptional regulators Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivators with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), key effectors of the Hippo pathway, have been shown to play essential roles in controlling liver cell fate and the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) has been positively associated with a number of health benefits including prevention and reduction of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation and cancers. However, little is known about the impact of ω-3 PUFAs on liver fibrosis. In this study, we used CCl4-induced liver fibrosis mouse model and found that YAP/TAZ is over-expressed in the fibrotic liver and activated HSCs. Fish oil administration to the model mouse attenuates CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Further study revealed that ω-3 PUFAs down-regulate the expression of pro-fibrogenic genes in activated HSCs and fibrotic liver, and the down-regulation is mediated via YAP, thus identifying YAP as a target of ω-3 PUFAs. Moreover, ω-3 PUFAs promote YAP/TAZ degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Our data have identified a mechanism of ω-3 PUFAs in ameliorating liver fibrosis. PMID:27435808

  14. ω-3 PUFAs ameliorate liver fibrosis and inhibit hepatic stellate cells proliferation and activation by promoting YAP/TAZ degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Chang, Yanan; Shi, Zhemin; Han, Xiaohui; Han, Yawei; Yao, Qingbin; Hu, Zhimei; Cui, Hongmei; Zheng, Lina; Han, Tao; Hong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Elevated levels of the transcriptional regulators Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivators with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), key effectors of the Hippo pathway, have been shown to play essential roles in controlling liver cell fate and the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) has been positively associated with a number of health benefits including prevention and reduction of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation and cancers. However, little is known about the impact of ω-3 PUFAs on liver fibrosis. In this study, we used CCl4-induced liver fibrosis mouse model and found that YAP/TAZ is over-expressed in the fibrotic liver and activated HSCs. Fish oil administration to the model mouse attenuates CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Further study revealed that ω-3 PUFAs down-regulate the expression of pro-fibrogenic genes in activated HSCs and fibrotic liver, and the down-regulation is mediated via YAP, thus identifying YAP as a target of ω-3 PUFAs. Moreover, ω-3 PUFAs promote YAP/TAZ degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Our data have identified a mechanism of ω-3 PUFAs in ameliorating liver fibrosis. PMID:27435808

  15. Incorporation of n-3 PUFA and γ-linolenic acid in blood lipids and red blood cell lipids together with their influence on disease activity in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis - a randomized controlled human intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and aim Marine n-3 fatty acids and γ-linolenic acid both have anti-inflammatory effects and may be useful to help treat inflammatory diseases. The effects of these alone or combined were examined in patients with arthritis in a randomized controlled trial. Design Patients with rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis were randomized into four groups in a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel designed study. Patients received the respective capsules (1: 3.0 g n-3 LC-PUFA/d; 2: 3.2 g γ-linolenic acid/d; 3: 1.6 g n-3 LC-PUFA + 1.8 g γ-linolenic acid/d; 4: 3.0 g olive oil) for a twelve week period. Clinical status was evaluated and blood samples were taken at the beginning and at the end of the period. Differences before and after intervention were tested with paired t-test or with Wilcoxon test for non-normal data distribution. Results 60 patients (54 rheumatoid arthritis, 6 psoriatic arthritis) were randomised, 47 finished per protocol. In group 1, the ratio of arachidonic acid (AA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) decreased from 6.5 ± 3.7 to 2.7 ± 2.1 in plasma lipids and from 25.1 ± 10.1 to 7.2 ± 4.7 in erythrocyte membranes (p ≤ 0.001). There was no significant influence on AA/EPA ratio due to interventions in group 2-4. In group 2, the intake of γ-linolenic acid resulted in a strong rise of γ-linolenic acid and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid concentrations in plasma lipids, cholesteryl esters, and erythrocyte membranes. The combination of n-3 LC-PUFA and γ-linolenic acid (group 3) led to an increase of γ-linolenic acid and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid concentrations in plasma lipids, cholesteryl esters, and erythrocyte mem-branes. This increase was only half of that in group 2. Conclusions Incorporation of eicosanoid precursor FAs was influenced by an intake of n-3 LC-PUFA and γ-linolenic acid suggesting a possible benefit for therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials NCT01179971 PMID:21816071

  16. Dietary Echium Oil Increases Long-Chain n–3 PUFAs, Including Docosapentaenoic Acid, in Blood Fractions and Alters Biochemical Markers for Cardiovascular Disease Independently of Age, Sex, and Metabolic Syndrome12

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Fuhrmann, Claudia; Köhler, Melanie; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with echium oil (EO) containing stearidonic acid (SDA) is a plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) n–3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status in humans. We investigated the effect of EO on LC n–3 PUFA accumulation in blood and biochemical markers with respect to age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. This double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled study started with a 2-wk run-in period, during which participants (n = 80) were administered 17 g/d run-in oil. Normal-weight individuals from 2 age groups (20–35 and 49–69 y) were allotted to EO or fish oil (FO; control) groups. During the 8-wk intervention, participants were administered either 17 g/d EO (2 g SDA; n = 59) or FO [1.9 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); n = 19]. Overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome (n = 19) were recruited for EO treatment only. During the 10-wk study, the participants followed a dietary n–3 PUFA restriction, e.g., no fish. After the 8-wk EO treatment, increases in the LC n–3 metabolites EPA (168% and 79%) and docosapentaenoic acid [DPA (68% and 39%)] were observed, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreased (−5% and −23%) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. Compared with FO, the efficacy of EO to increase EPA and DPA in blood was significantly lower (∼25% and ∼50%, respectively). A higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower relative and net increases in EPA and DPA. Compared with baseline, EO significantly reduced serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, and triglyceride (TG), but also HDL cholesterol, regardless of age and BMI. In the FO group, only TG decreased. Overall, daily intake of 15–20 g EO increased EPA and DPA in blood but had no influence on DHA. EO lowered cardiovascular risk markers, e.g., serum TG, which is particularly relevant for individuals with metabolic syndrome. Natural EO could be a noteworthy source of n–3 PUFA in human nutrition. This trial

  17. Thraustochytrid Marine Protists: production of PUFAs and Other Emerging Technologies.

    PubMed

    Raghukumar, Seshagiri

    2008-01-01

    Thraustochytrids, the heterotrophic, marine, straminipilan protists, are now established candidates for commercial production of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3 PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), that is important in human health and aquaculture. Extensive screening of cultures from a variety of habitats has yielded strains that produce at least 50% of their biomass as lipids, and DHA comprising at least 25% of the total fatty acids, with a yield of at least 5 g L(-1). Most of the lipids occur as triacylglycerols and a lesser amount as phospholipids. Numerous studies have been carried out on salinity, pH, temperature, and media optimization for DHA production. Commercial production is based on a fed batch method, using high C/N ratio that favors lipid accumulation. Schizochytrium DHA is now commercially available as nutritional supplements for adults and as feeds to enhance DHA levels in larvae of aquaculture animals. Thraustochytrids are emerging as a potential source of other PUFAs such as arachidonic acid and oils with a suite of PUFA profiles that can have specific uses. They are potential sources of asataxanthin and carotenoid pigments, as well as other lipids. Genes of the conventional fatty acid synthesis and the polyketide-like PUFA synthesis pathways of thraustochytrids are attracting attention for production of recombinant PUFA-containing plant oils. Future studies on the basic biology of these organisms, including biodiversity, environmental adaptations, and genome research are likely to point out directions for biotechnology explorations. Potential areas include enzymes, polysaccharides, and secondary metabolites. PMID:18712565

  18. Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Fred; Sharapan, Hedda

    1993-01-01

    Contends that, in childhood, work and play seem to come together. Says that for young children their play is their work, and the more adults encourage children to play, the more they emphasize important lifelong resource. Examines some uses of children's play, making and building, artwork, dramatic play, monsters and superheroes, gun play, and…

  19. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  20. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  1. Compared with Daily, Weekly n–3 PUFA Intake Affects the Incorporation of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid into Platelets and Mononuclear Cells in Humans123

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Lucy M.; Walker, Celia G.; Mander, Adrian P.; West, Annette L.; Gambell, Joanna; Madden, Jackie; Calder, Philip C.; Jebb, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of oily fish is sporadic, whereas controlled intervention studies of n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids usually provide capsules containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a daily dose. This methodologic study explored whether there are differences in the short-, medium-, and long-term incorporation of EPA and DHA into blood plasma and cells with the provision of identical amounts of EPA and DHA, equivalent to 2 oily fish servings per week (or 6.54 g/wk EPA and DHA), either intermittently (i.e., 1 portion twice per week) or continuously (i.e., divided into daily amounts). The study was part of a randomized, double-blind controlled intervention lasting 12 mo, with participants stratified by age and sex. There were 5 intervention groups, 2 of which are reported here: the 2 intermittent portions (2I) and 2 continuous portions (2C) groups. EPA and DHA were measured in plasma phosphatidylcholine, platelets, and blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) at 9 time points. Sixty-five participants completed the study (2I group, n = 30, mean age of 49.2 y; 2C group, n = 35, mean age of 50.6 y). The incorporation pattern over the 12-mo intervention was different between the 2 groups in all samples (P < 0.0001, time × treatment interaction). At the end of the 12-mo intervention, the 2C group had higher EPA, DHA, and EPA + DHA in platelets (all P < 0.01) and higher EPA and EPA + DHA in MNCs (both P < 0.05) compared with the 2I group. No significant differences were shown for plasma phosphatidylcholine EPA (P = 0.1), DHA (P = 0.15), EPA + DHA (P = 0.07), or MNC DHA (P = 0.06). In conclusion, the pattern of consumption does affect the incorporation of EPA and DHA into cells used as biomarkers of intake. The differences identified here need to be considered in the design of studies and when extrapolating results from continuous capsule-based intervention studies to dietary guidelines for oily fish consumption. This trial was registered at www

  2. Dietary n-3 PUFAs Deficiency Increases Vulnerability to Inflammation-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Thomazeau, Aurore; Madore, Charlotte; Bosch-Bouju, Clementine; Larrieu, Thomas; Lacabanne, Chloe; Remus-Borel, Julie; Aubert, Agnès; Joffre, Corinne; Nadjar, Agnès; Layé, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical components of inflammatory response and memory impairment. However, the mechanisms underlying the sensitizing effects of low n-3 PUFAs in the brain for the development of memory impairment following inflammation are still poorly understood. In this study, we examined how a 2-month n-3 PUFAs deficiency from pre-puberty to adulthood could increase vulnerability to the effect of inflammatory event on spatial memory in mice. Mice were given diets balanced or deficient in n-3 PUFAs for a 2-month period starting at post-natal day 21, followed by a peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, at adulthood. We first showed that spatial memory performance was altered after LPS challenge only in n-3 PUFA-deficient mice that displayed lower n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in the hippocampus. Importantly, long-term depression (LTD), but not long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired in the hippocampus of LPS-treated n-3 PUFA-deficient mice. Proinflammatory cytokine levels were increased in the plasma of both n-3 PUFA-deficient and n-3 PUFA-balanced mice. However, only n-3 PUFA-balanced mice showed an increase in cytokine expression in the hippocampus in response to LPS. In addition, n-3 PUFA-deficient mice displayed higher glucocorticoid levels in response to LPS as compared with n-3 PUFA-balanced mice. These results indicate a role for n-3 PUFA imbalance in the sensitization of the hippocampal synaptic plasticity to inflammatory stimuli, which is likely to contribute to spatial memory impairment. PMID:25948102

  3. Advances in Our Understanding of Oxylipins Derived from Dietary PUFAs12

    PubMed Central

    Gabbs, Melissa; Leng, Shan; Devassy, Jessay G; Monirujjaman, Md; Aukema, Harold M

    2015-01-01

    Oxylipins formed from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the main mediators of PUFA effects in the body. They are formed via cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 pathways, resulting in the formation of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids (FAs), epoxy FAs, lipoxins, eoxins, hepoxilins, resolvins, protectins (also called neuroprotectins in the brain), and maresins. In addition to the well-known eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid, recent developments in lipidomic methodologies have raised awareness of and interest in the large number of oxylipins formed from other PUFAs, including those from the essential FAs and the longer-chain n–3 (ω-3) PUFAs. Oxylipins have essential roles in normal physiology and function, but can also have detrimental effects. Compared with the oxylipins derived from n–3 PUFAs, oxylipins from n–6 PUFAs generally have greater activity and more inflammatory, vasoconstrictory, and proliferative effects, although there are notable exceptions. Because PUFA composition does not necessarily reflect oxylipin composition, comprehensive analysis of the oxylipin profile is necessary to understand the overall physiologic effects of PUFAs mediated through their oxylipins. These analyses should include oxylipins derived from linoleic and α-linolenic acids, because these largely unexplored bioactive oxylipins constitute more than one-half of oxylipins present in tissues. Because collated information on oxylipins formed from different PUFAs is currently unavailable, this review provides a detailed compilation of the main oxylipins formed from PUFAs and describes their functions. Much remains to be elucidated in this emerging field, including the discovery of more oxylipins, and the understanding of the differing biological potencies, kinetics, and isomer-specific activities of these novel PUFA metabolites. PMID:26374175

  4. Stabilizing PUFA-rich oils from salmon heads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Alaska, discarded salmon heads represent a food-grade source of valuable long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, these highly unsaturated marine oils are susceptible to oxidation. This research explored smoke-processing as a technology to reduce oxidation of salmon oil during...

  5. Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    Designing a game with a serious purpose involves considering the worlds of Reality and Meaning yet it is undeniably impossible to create a game without a third world, one that is specifically concerned with what makes a game a game: the play elements. This third world, the world of people like designers and artists, and disciplines as computer science and game design, I call the world of Play and this level is devoted to it. The level starts off with some of the misperceptions people have of play. Unlike some may think, we play all the time, even when we grow old—this was also very noticeable in designing the game Levee Patroller as the team exhibited very playful behavior at many occasions. From there, I go into the aspects that characterize this world. The first concerns the goal of the game. This relates to the objectives people have to achieve within the game. This is constituted by the second aspect: the gameplay. Taking actions and facing challenges is subsequently constituted by a gameworld, which concerns the third aspect. And all of it is not possible without the fourth and final aspect, the type of technology that creates and facilitates the game. The four aspects together make up a “game concept” and from this world such a concept can be judged on the basis of three closely interrelated criteria: engagement, immersion, and fun.

  6. Postgraduate Symposium: Long-chain n-3 PUFA: intakes in the UK and the potential of a chicken meat prototype to increase them.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D Ian

    2010-02-01

    With the wide acceptance of the long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA EPA and DHA as important nutrients playing a role in the amelioration of certain diseases, efforts to understand factors affecting intakes of these fatty acids along with potential strategies to increase them are vital. Widespread aversion to oil-rich fish, the richest natural source of EPA and DHA, highlights both the highly suboptimal current intakes in males and females across all age-groups and the critical need for an alternative supply of EPA and DHA. Poultry meat is a popular and versatile food eaten in large quantities relative to other meats and is open to increased LC n-3 PUFA content through manipulation of the chicken's diet to modify fatty acid deposition and therefore lipid composition of the edible tissues. It is therefore seen as a favourable prototype food for increasing human dietary supply of LC n-3 PUFA. Enrichment of chicken breast and leg tissue is well established using fish oil or fishmeal, but concerns about sustainability have led to recent consideration of algal biomass as an alternative source of LC n-3 PUFA. Further advances have also been made in the quality of the resulting meat, including achieving acceptable flavour and storage properties as well as understanding the impact of cooking on the retention of fatty acids. Based on these considerations it may be concluded that EPA- and DHA-enriched poultry meat has a very positive potential future in the food chain. PMID:19954567

  7. Current Progress in Deciphering Importance of VLC-PUFA in the Retina.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Lea D; Anderson, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Stargardt-like macular dystrophy-3 (STGD3) is a juvenile-onset disease caused by mutations in ELOVL4 (elongation of very long fatty acids-4). This gene product catalyzes the elongation of long chain saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-FAs and LC-PUFAs) into very long chain FAs and PUFAs (VLC-FAs and VLC-PUFAs). These mutations cause a frame shift in the ELOVL4 transcript, introducing a premature stop codon that results in the translation of a truncated protein that has lost a C-terminus endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention/retrieval signal. The truncated protein is not targeted to the ER, the site of very long-chain PUFA (VLC-PUFA; 28-40 carbons) synthesis. Expression of the ELOVL4 gene is limited mainly to the brain, testis, skin, and photoreceptor cells of the retina. While the skin and brain contain very long chain saturated fatty acids (VLC-FAs), the other tissues expressing ELOVL4 contain VLC-PUFAs, with sperm and the retina having the highest levels. This review focuses on the current information available concerning the role of VLC-PUFAs in the retina. PMID:26427405

  8. Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) among breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding 24–48 month old children in Bangladesh1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Yakes, Elizabeth A.; Arsenault, Joanne E.; Islam, M. Munirul; Ahmed, Tahmeed; German, J. Bruce; Drake, Christiana; Hossain, Mohammad B.; Lewis, Bess L.; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Jamil, Kazi M.; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the adequacy of polyunsaturated fatty acid intake by rural Bangladeshi children 24–48 months of age in relation to their breastfeeding status. Methods Multi-stage sampling was used to select a representative sample of children 24–48 mo of age from two rural districts in Bangladesh (n=479). Two non-consecutive 24 h periods of dietary data were collected via 12 h daytime in-home observations and recall. Breast milk intake was estimated using test weighing. The National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods was used to estimate distributions of usual food and nutrient intakes. Results Based on the estimated intake distributions, more than 95% of the children had usual fat intakes less than 30% of total energy. Among 24–35 mo (younger) and 36–48 mo (older) children, respectively, 4% and 16% of breastfeeding children and 31% and 41% of non-breastfeeding children were estimated to consume less than 10% of total energy from fat. An estimated 80% of all children consumed less than 4% of total energy as linoleic acid, and 99% consumed less than 1% of energy as alpha-linolenic acid. Younger breastfeeding children had higher estimated average docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intakes (0.04 g DHA/d) than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (0.01 g DHA/d; p = 0.0005). Both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding older children had estimated mean DHA intakes of 0.02 g/d (p=0.74). Conclusions Rural Bangladeshi children 24–48 months of age, and especially those who have discontinued breastfeeding, may benefit from increased fat consumption. PMID:21336160

  9. Elevated Linoleic Acid (A Pro-Inflammatory PUFA) and Liver Injury in a Treatment Naive HIV-HCV Co-Infected Alcohol Dependent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Barve, Shirish S.; McClain, Craig J.; Ramchandani, Vijay A.

    2016-01-01

    HIV and HCV co-infection is a unique disease condition, and medical management of such condition is difficult due to severity and systemic complications. Added with heavy alcohol drinking, risk of liver injury increases due to several pro-inflammatory responses that subsequently get involved with alcohol metabolism. Elevated levels of fatty acids have been reported both in viral infections as well as alcoholic liver disease though such investigations have not addressed the adverse events with dual viral infection of HIV and HCV along with heavy drinking. This case report is of a patient with excessive alcohol drinking and first time diagnosis of HIV and HCV dual infection, elaborating concurrent alteration in Linoleic Acid (LA) levels and pro-inflammatory shift in ω-6/ω-3 ratio along with the elevations in liver injury markers. Elevated LA has been recently studied extensively for its role in alcoholic liver disease; and in the present case, we also found it to be clinically relevant to liver injury. PMID:27489857

  10. Dietary PUFA intakes in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ka-Hung; Meyer, Barbara J; Reece, Lauren; Sinn, Natalie

    2009-12-01

    Research has shown associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and erythrocyte long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) levels, with limited evidence for dietary LC n-3 PUFA intake and ADHD. The aims of the present study were to assess dietary PUFA intakes and food sources in children with ADHD, to compare these intakes to previously published Australian National Nutrition Survey (NNS) data and determine any relationships between intakes and ADHD symptoms. Eighty-six 3-d-weighed food records (FR) were analysed from children with ADHD. The median (interquartile range) daily intakes of fatty acids (mg/d) were: linoleic acid (18 : 2n-6), 7797 (6240-12 333); arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6), 55 (27.0-93); total n-6 PUFA, 7818 (6286-10 662); alpha-linolenic acid (18 : 3n-3), 1039 (779-1461); EPA (20 : 5n-3), 18 (6.0-32.0); docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-3), 17 (6.3-39.3); DHA (22 : 6n-3), 16 (8.5-445); total LC n-3 PUFA (addition of 20 : 5n-3, 22 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3), 65 (28.3-120.1); total n-3 PUFA, 1151 (876-1592). In comparison to the NNS data, 18 : 3n-3 intakes were higher and 20 : 4n-6 were lower (P < 0.05). Children with ADHD consumed half the amount of fish/seafood, meat and eggs when compared to the NNS (P < 0.05). No significant correlations were found between fatty acids and ADHD symptoms. Children with ADHD met the adequate intake for LC n-3 PUFA, but fell short of other recommendations. PMID:19631022

  11. Echium oil provides no benefit over linseed oil for (n-3) long-chain PUFA biosynthesis in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Benjamin J; Francis, David S; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2012-08-01

    The implementation of alternative lipid sources for use in aquaculture is of considerable interest globally. However, the possible benefit of using stearidonic acid (SDA)-rich fish oil (FO) alternatives has led to scientific confusion. Two hundred and forty rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed 1 of 4 diets (3 replicate tanks/treatment) containing either FO, linseed oil (LO), echium oil, or mixed vegetable oil (72% LO, 23% sunflower oil, and 6% canola oil) as the dietary lipid source (16.5%) for 73 d to investigate the competition and long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis between the fatty acid substrates α-linolenic acid (ALA) and SDA. SDA was more efficiently bioconverted to LC-PUFA compared with ALA. However, when the dietary lipid sources were directly compared, the increased provision of C18 PUFA within the LO diet resulted in no significant differences in (n-3) LC-PUFA content compared with fish fed the other diets. This study therefore shows that, rather than the previously speculated substrate competition, the limiting process in the apparent in vivo (n-3) LC-PUFA biosynthesis appears to be substrate availability. Rainbow trout fed the SDA- and ALA-rich dietary lipid sources subsequently had similar significant reductions in (n-3) LC-PUFA compared with fish fed the FO diet, therefore providing no additional dietary benefit on (n-3) LC-PUFA concentrations. PMID:22739372

  12. Modifying the lipid content and composition of plant seeds: engineering the production of LC-PUFA.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Usher, Sarah; Sayanova, Olga V; Napier, Johnathan A; Haslam, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are characterized by a double bond at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. Latterly, long chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5Δ5,8,11,14,17) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA; 22:6 Δ4,7,10,13,16,19), which typically only enter the human diet via the consumption of oily fish, have attracted much attention. The health benefits of the omega-3 LC-PUFAs EPA and DHA are now well established. Given the desire for a sustainable supply of omega-LC-PUFA, efforts have focused on enhancing the composition of vegetable oils to include these important fatty acids. Specifically, EPA and DHA have been the focus of much study, with the ultimate goal of producing a terrestrial plant-based source of these so-called fish oils. Over the last decade, many genes encoding the primary LC-PUFA biosynthetic activities have been identified and characterized. This has allowed the reconstitution of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway in oilseed crops, producing transgenic plants engineered to accumulate omega-3 LC-PUFA to levels similar to that found in fish oil. In this review, we will describe the most recent developments in this field and the challenges of overwriting endogenous seed lipid metabolism to maximize the accumulation of these important fatty acids. PMID:25417743

  13. Hepatoprotective Role of Wheatgrass on Alcohol and ΔPUFA-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Varalakshmi; Shakya, Garima; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol abuse is recognized as the most common cause for the development of various abnormalities including liver disease. Excessive free radicals are generated during the metabolism of ethanol. The ingestion of alcohol along with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) aggravates the production of free radicals and enhances the oxidative stress. Medicinal plants contain active phytocomponents, which are the principal healthcare resources. We aimed to analyze the effect of wheatgrass extract on alcohol and thermally oxidized PUFAPUFA) induced oxidative stress in male albino Wistar rats. The levels of marker enzymes gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lipid peroxidative markers; thiobarbutric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxides (LH), the levels of enzymatic (catalase [CAT], superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) and nonenzymatic (reduced glutathione [GSH], vitamin E, vitamin C) antioxidants were analyzed in liver to evaluate the effects of wheatgrass. The levels of TBARS and LH were significantly (p ≤ .05) increased in alcohol + ΔPUFA group, which were found to be reduced on treatment with wheatgrass. The levels of both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants were significantly (p ≤ .05) decreased in alcohol + ΔPUFA group, which were found to be restored on treatment with wheatgrass. From the results obtained, we conclude that wheatgrass protects the liver against alcohol and ΔPUFA induced oxidative stress. PMID:24697162

  14. Why and How Meet n-3 PUFA Dietary Recommendations?

    PubMed Central

    Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Legry, Vanessa; Leclercq, Isabelle A.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are systemic inflammatory diseases reaching epidemic proportions. Contemporary changes in human nutrition occurred characterized by increased consumption of fat and of vegetable oils rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) together with decrease in n-3 PUFA-rich foods, resulting in an n-6/n-3 ratio of 10–20/1 in Western diet for a ratio around 1/1 in the diet of our ancestors. The literature provides compelling evidence for the health benefit of n-3 PUFA consumption on inflammation and metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment. Such evidence led to the establishment of comprehensive recommendations. However, we show here that, both in collective catering proposed to children and in hospital diet, it is not straightforward to meet such recommendations. Willingness of governments to institute changes, with accountable decisions on catering, nutritional education, and food processing, is required to face our neglected responsibility in promoting balanced diet and consumption of foods rich in essential nutrients in the general population. PMID:21197079

  15. n-3 PUFAs have beneficial effects on anxiety and cognition in female rats: Effects of early life stress.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Matteo M; Kelly, Philip; Ariffin, Nurbazilah; Cryan, John F; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G

    2015-08-01

    Stressful life events, especially those in early life, can exert long-lasting changes in the brain, increasing vulnerability to mental illness especially in females. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) play a critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, we investigated the influence of an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (80% EPA, 20% DHA) n-3 PUFAs mixture on stress-related behavioural and neurobiological responses. Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to an early-life stress, maternal separation (MS) procedure from postnatal days 2 to 12. Non-separated (NS) and MS rats were administered saline, EPA/DHA 0.4g/kg/day or EPA/DHA 1g/kg/day, respectively. In adulthood, EPA/DHA treated animals had a dose dependent reduction in anxiety in NS rats. Furthermore, cognitive performance in the novel object recognition task (NOR) was improved by EPA/DHA treatment in NS animals only. EPA/DHA 1g/kg/day decreased behavioural despair in the forced swim test. Notably, EPA/DHA high dose increased the translocation of GRs into the nucleus of NS rat hippocampus. However, the levels of mBDNF remained unchanged in all the experimental groups. The corticosterone response to an acute stress was blunted in MS rats and this was further attenuated by pre-treatment with EPA/DHA. Immune response and monoamine neurotransmission were significantly altered by early-life stress. In conclusion, our study supports the view that n-3 PUFAs are beneficial in neurodevelopmentally normal animals but have little positive benefit in animals exposed to early life stress. PMID:25965872

  16. Inhibition of endometrial cancer by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hang; Tang, Hongjun; Liu, Miao; He, Minhong; Lai, Pinglin; Dong, Heling; Lin, Jun; Jia, Chunhong; Zhong, Mei; Dai, Yifan; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Liping

    2014-08-01

    Although preclinical and epidemiologic studies have shown the importance of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the prevention of hormone-responsive cancers such as breast cancer, evidence of the association between n-3 PUFAs and endometrial cancer risk is limited and no previous study has examined the effect of n-3 PUFAs on endometrial cancer in cellular and animal models. In this study, we demonstrated that docosahexenoic acid (DHA) dose- and time-dependently inhibited endometrial cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, and migration and promoted apoptosis. Dietary n-3 PUFAs efficiently prevented endometrial cancer cell growth in xenograft models. Moreover, ectopic expression of fat-1, a desaturase, catalyzed the conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs and produced n-3 PUFAs endogenously, also suppressed endometrial tumor cell growth and migration, and potentiated apoptosis in endometrial cancer cell lines. Interestingly, implanted endometrial cancer cells were unable to grow in fat-1 transgenic SCID mice. Further study revealed that mTOR signaling, which plays an essential role in cell proliferation and endometrial tumorigenesis, is a target of n-3 PUFAs. Exogenous or endogenous n-3 PUFAs efficiently suppressed both mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2 in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, both dietary n-3 PUFAs and transgenic expression of fat-1 in mice effectively repressed mTORC1/2 signaling and endometrial growth elicited by unopposed estrogen. Taken together, our findings provide comprehensive preclinical evidences that n-3 PUFAs efficiently prevent endometrial cancer and establish mTORC1/2 as a target of n-3 PUFAs. PMID:24866178

  17. ω-3 PUFAs and Resveratrol Differently Modulate Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Joseph; Richard, Nathalie; Riegger, Christoph; Salem, Norman

    2015-01-01

    ω-3 PUFAs and polyphenols have multiple effects on inflammation in vivo and in vitro. The effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and resveratrol (RV) were investigated in LPS-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) (i.e., acute inflammation) and IL-1β activated human chondrocytes (i.e., chronic inflammation). Inflammatory mediators including chemokines, cytokines, interleukins, and PGE2 were measured by multiplex analysis and gene expression was quantified by RT-PCR. In PBLs, RV decreased the secretion of PGE2, CCL5/RANTES, and CXCL8/IL-8 but increased IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10. In contrast to RV, ω-3 PUFAs augmented the production of PGE2 and CXCL8/IL-8. EPA and DHA similarly affected the pattern of inflammatory mediators. Combination of RV and ω-3 PUFAs exerted synergistic effects on CCL5/RANTES and had additive effects on IL-6 or CXCL8/IL-8. Both ω-3 PUFAs and RV reduced catabolic gene expression (e.g., MMPs, ADAMTS-4, IL-1β, and IL-6) in activated chondrocytes. The data suggest that ω-3 PUFAs and RV differ in the regulation of acute inflammation of peripheral blood leukocytes but have common properties in modulating features related to chronic inflammation of chondrocytes. PMID:26301248

  18. PUFA diets alter the microRNA expression profiles in an inflammation rat model

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, ZHENG; GE, YINLIN; ZHANG, JINYU; XUE, MEILAN; LI, QUAN; LIN, DONGLIANG; MA, WENHUI

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can directly or indirectly regulate immune homeostasis via inflammatory pathways, and components of these pathways are crucial targets of microRNAs (miRNAs). However, no study has examined the changes in the miRNA transcriptome during PUFA-regulated inflammatory processes. Here, we established PUFA diet-induced autoimmune-prone (AP) and autoimmune-averse (AA) rat models, and studied their physical characteristics and immune status. Additionally, miRNA expression patterns in the rat models were compared using microarray assays and bioinformatic methods. A total of 54 miRNAs were differentially expressed in common between the AP and the AA rats, and the changes in rno-miR-19b-3p, -146b-5p and -183-5p expression were validated using stem-loop reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To better understand the mechanisms underlying PUFA-regulated miRNA changes during inflammation, computational algorithms and biological databases were used to identify the target genes of the three validated miRNAs. Furthermore, Gene Ontology (GO) term annotation and KEGG pathway analyses of the miRNA targets further allowed to explore the potential implication of the miRNAs in inflammatory pathways. The predicted PUFA-regulated inflammatory pathways included the Toll-like receptor (TLR), T cell receptor (TCR), NOD-like receptor (NLR), RIG-I-like receptor (RLR), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway. This study is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, on in vivo comparative profiling of miRNA transcriptomes in PUFA diet-induced inflammatory rat models using a microarray approach. The results provide a useful resource for future investigation of the role of PUFA-regulated miRNAs in immune homeostasis. PMID:25672643

  19. Biochemical and Genetic Engineering of Diatoms for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Ye; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The role of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds has been recently explored. Diatom cells store a high amount of fatty acids, especially certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, many aspects of diatom metabolism and the production of PUFAs remain unclear. This review describes a number of technical strategies, such as modulation of environmental factors (temperature, light, chemical composition of culture medium) and culture methods, to influence the content of PUFAs in diatoms. Genetic engineering, a newly emerging field, also plays an important role in controlling the synthesis of fatty acids in marine microalgae. Several key points in the biosynthetic pathway of PUFAs in diatoms as well as recent progresses are also a critical part and are summarized here. PMID:24402175

  20. Biochemical and genetic engineering of diatoms for polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Ye; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The role of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds has been recently explored. Diatom cells store a high amount of fatty acids, especially certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, many aspects of diatom metabolism and the production of PUFAs remain unclear. This review describes a number of technical strategies, such as modulation of environmental factors (temperature, light, chemical composition of culture medium) and culture methods, to influence the content of PUFAs in diatoms. Genetic engineering, a newly emerging field, also plays an important role in controlling the synthesis of fatty acids in marine microalgae. Several key points in the biosynthetic pathway of PUFAs in diatoms as well as recent progresses are also a critical part and are summarized here. PMID:24402175

  1. Production and Dietary Uptake of PUFA by Piezophilic Bacteria, Implications for Marine Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Chan, O.; Agarkar, N.; Kato, C.; Sato, T.

    2003-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been used extensively as proxies for determining the source and preservation of organic matter in marine sediments. However, the origin of polyunsaturated fatty acids in deep-sea sediments is not well understood; the ultimate source of PUFAs is only partially constrained. At issue is whether PUFAs in deep-sea sediments are derived from the primary production of the photic zone or from the in situ piezophilic bacterial production in the deep-sea, or both. In this study, we tested three deep-sea piezophilic strains, Shewanella violacea DSS12, Shewanella benthica DB21MT-2, Moritella yayanosii DB21MT-5, in biosynthesis and dietary uptake of PUFAs. These piezophilic bacteria were characterized by high abundance of unsaturated fatty acids (62-73% of total fatty acids). In particularly, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were detected in all piezophiles examined, ranging from 8 to 27% of total fatty acids. M. japonica DSK1 produced 22:6n-3 (cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), whereas the three Shewanella strains produced 20:5n-3 (cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA) with trace amounts of DHA. The total concentrations of PLFA were higher in strains grown at low pressure (DSK1, 10 Megapascal or MPa, 26,983μ g/g dry wt cells; DSS12, 50 MPa, 23,986 μ g/g), and lower in strains grown at high pressure (DB6705, 85 MPa, 1,901μ g/g; DB21MT-2, 100 MPa, 3,014 μ g/g). When growth media were supplemented with arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4n-6), there was active uptake and cellular incorporation of AA in the hyperpiezophilic bacteria DB21MT-2 (14.7%) and DB21MT-5 (1.4%). No uptake was observed in DSS12. When cells were treated with antibiotic cerulenin, all three strains incorporated AA into cell membranes (13 to 19%). These results suggest that piezophilic bacteria can be an important contributor in producing and reworking of PUFAs in the deep sea, and that that caution must be exercised in using PUFAs in deducing sources

  2. Long-chain n-3 PUFA: plant v. marine sources.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christine M; Burdge, Graham

    2006-02-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the long-chain n-3 PUFA, EPA and DHA, to cardiovascular health, and in the case of DHA to normal neurological development in the fetus and the newborn, has focused greater attention on the dietary supply of these fatty acids. The reason for low intakes of EPA and DHA in most developed countries (0.1-0.5 g/d) is the low consumption of oily fish, the richest dietary source of these fatty acids. An important question is whether dietary intake of the precursor n-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (alphaLNA), can provide sufficient amounts of tissue EPA and DHA by conversion through the n-3 PUFA elongation-desaturation pathway. alphaLNA is present in marked amounts in plant sources, including green leafy vegetables and commonly-consumed oils such as rape-seed and soyabean oils, so that increased intake of this fatty acid would be easier to achieve than via increased fish consumption. However, alphaLNA-feeding studies and stable-isotope studies using alphaLNA, which have addressed the question of bioconversion of alphaLNA to EPA and DHA, have concluded that in adult men conversion to EPA is limited (approximately 8%) and conversion to DHA is extremely low (<0.1%). In women fractional conversion to DHA appears to be greater (9%), which may partly be a result of a lower rate of utilisation of alphaLNA for beta-oxidation in women. However, up-regulation of the conversion of EPA to DHA has also been suggested, as a result of the actions of oestrogen on Delta6-desaturase, and may be of particular importance in maintaining adequate provision of DHA in pregnancy. The effect of oestrogen on DHA concentration in pregnant and lactating women awaits confirmation. PMID:16441943

  3. p21 induction plays a dual role in anti-cancer activity of ursolic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Song, Xinhua; Yin, Shutao; Zhao, Chong; Fan, Lihong; Hu, Hongbo

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis by ursolic acid is associated with up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) protein p21 in multiple types of cancer cells. However, the functional role of p21 induction in G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and the mechanisms of p21 induction by ursolic acid have not been critically addressed. In the current study, we demonstrated that p21 played a mediator role in G1 cell cycle arrest by ursolic acid, whereas p21-mediated up-regulation of Mcl-1 compromised apoptotic effect of ursolic acid. These results suggest that p21 induction plays a dual role in the anti-cancer activity of ursolic acid in terms of cell cycle and apoptosis regulation. p21 induction by ursolic acid was attributed to p53 transcriptional activation. Moreover, we found that ursolic acid was able to inhibit murine double minute-2 protein (MDM2) and T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK), the two negative regulator of p53, which in turn contributed to ursolic acid-induced p53 activation. Our findings provided novel insights into understanding of the mechanisms involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in response to ursolic acid exposure. PMID:26582056

  4. Enhancement of cell viability after treatment with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bartl, J; Walitza, S; Grünblatt, E

    2014-01-24

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in children and adolescents and both environmental and genetic factors play major roles. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are postulated to contribute to the development of the infant brain and an imbalance in these may increase the risk of ADHD. In recent clinical studies, supplementation with PUFAs improved symptoms of ADHD in some cases. Similarly, some beneficial effects were observed with PUFA treatment in neuronal cell cultures. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that a specific PUFA combination (available on the market as Equazen™ [Vifor Pharma, Switzerland]) along with iron, zinc, or vitamin B5 (vitB5) would produce an additive beneficial effect on the viability of rat pheochromocytoma-12 dopaminergic cells. The specific PUFA combination alone, as well as added to each of the three nutrients, was tested in a dose-response manner. The specific PUFAs significantly improved cell viability, starting at very low doses (100pM) from 60h up to 90h; while the combined treatment with vitB5 and minerals did not provide additional benefit. Our results confirmed the beneficial effect of the specific PUFAs on neuronal cell viability; although supplementation with minerals and vitB5 did not enhance this effect. PMID:24269370

  5. Diet-gene interactions and PUFA metabolism: a potential contributor to health disparities and human diseases.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Floyd H; Murphy, Robert C; Wilson, Bryan A; Sergeant, Susan; Ainsworth, Hannah; Seeds, Michael C; Mathias, Rasika A

    2014-05-01

    The "modern western" diet (MWD) has increased the onset and progression of chronic human diseases as qualitatively and quantitatively maladaptive dietary components give rise to obesity and destructive gene-diet interactions. There has been a three-fold increase in dietary levels of the omega-6 (n-6) 18 carbon (C18), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), with the addition of cooking oils and processed foods to the MWD. Intense debate has emerged regarding the impact of this increase on human health. Recent studies have uncovered population-related genetic variation in the LCPUFA biosynthetic pathway (especially within the fatty acid desaturase gene (FADS) cluster) that is associated with levels of circulating and tissue PUFAs and several biomarkers and clinical endpoints of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Importantly, populations of African descent have higher frequencies of variants associated with elevated levels of arachidonic acid (ARA), CVD biomarkers and disease endpoints. Additionally, nutrigenomic interactions between dietary n-6 PUFAs and variants in genes that encode for enzymes that mobilize and metabolize ARA to eicosanoids have been identified. These observations raise important questions of whether gene-PUFA interactions are differentially driving the risk of cardiovascular and other diseases in diverse populations, and contributing to health disparities, especially in African American populations. PMID:24853887

  6. Does consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA enhance cognitive performance in healthy school-aged children and throughout adulthood? Evidence from clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Stonehouse, Welma

    2014-07-01

    Long-chain (LC) omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and processess. Despite its critical role in brain function, human's capacity to synthesize DHA de novo is limited and its consumption through the diet is important. However, many individuals do not or rarely consume seafood. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthy school-aged children, younger and older adults to determine whether consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance and to make recommendations for future research. Current evidence suggests that consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, may enhance cognitive performance relating to learning, cognitive development, memory and speed of performing cognitive tasks. Those who habitually consume diets low in DHA, children with low literacy ability and malnourished and older adults with age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most. However, study design limitations in many RCTs hamper firm conclusions. The measurement of a uniform biomarker, e.g., % DHA in red blood cells, is essential to establish baseline DHA-status, to determine targets for cognitive performance and to facilitate dosage recommendations. It is recommended that future studies be at least 16 weeks in duration, account for potential interaction effects of gender, age and apolipoprotein E genotype, include vegan/vegetarian populations, include measures of speed of cognitive performance and include brain imaging technologies as supportive information on working mechanisms of LC omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25054550

  7. Does Consumption of LC Omega-3 PUFA Enhance Cognitive Performance in Healthy School-Aged Children and throughout Adulthood? Evidence from Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Stonehouse, Welma

    2014-01-01

    Long-chain (LC) omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and processess. Despite its critical role in brain function, human’s capacity to synthesize DHA de novo is limited and its consumption through the diet is important. However, many individuals do not or rarely consume seafood. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthy school-aged children, younger and older adults to determine whether consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance and to make recommendations for future research. Current evidence suggests that consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, may enhance cognitive performance relating to learning, cognitive development, memory and speed of performing cognitive tasks. Those who habitually consume diets low in DHA, children with low literacy ability and malnourished and older adults with age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most. However, study design limitations in many RCTs hamper firm conclusions. The measurement of a uniform biomarker, e.g., % DHA in red blood cells, is essential to establish baseline DHA-status, to determine targets for cognitive performance and to facilitate dosage recommendations. It is recommended that future studies be at least 16 weeks in duration, account for potential interaction effects of gender, age and apolipoprotein E genotype, include vegan/vegetarian populations, include measures of speed of cognitive performance and include brain imaging technologies as supportive information on working mechanisms of LC omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25054550

  8. The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Jiyuan; Dou, Yang; Tian, Xiaodi; Wang, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the third commonest cause of death following cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In particular, in recent years, the morbidity and mortality of stroke keep remarkable growing. However, stroke still captures people attention far less than cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Past studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammation play crucial roles in the progress of cerebral injury induced by stroke. Evidence is accumulating that the dietary supplementation of fish oil exhibits beneficial effects on several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), the major component of fish oil, have been found against oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases. And the potential of n-3 PUFAs in stroke treatment is attracting more and more attention. In this review, we will review the effects of n-3 PUFAs on stroke and mainly focus on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFAs. PMID:27433289

  9. The association between polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption and the transition to psychosis in ultra-high risk individuals.

    PubMed

    Pawełczyk, T; Trafalska, E; Kotlicka-Antczak, M; Pawełczyk, A

    2016-05-01

    PUFA deficiencies in cellular membranes have been observed in ultra-high risk (HR) individuals and in early schizophrenia. It is uncertain whether dietary PUFA consumption can be associated with the risk of transition to psychosis in HR individuals. The aim of the study was to assess PUFA consumption and confirm whether dietary habits are related to the risk of transition to full-threshold psychosis in HR individuals during a 12-month follow-up. PUFA consumption during the previous year was analyzed in 62 h individuals and 33 healthy controls (HC) at the beginning of the follow-up period using a validated Food-Frequency Questionnaire and the Polish Food Composition Tables. Fifteen HR individuals converted into psychosis (C-HR) during the 12-month follow-up. C-HR individuals reported significantly higher consumption of n-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid, LA and arachidonic acid, AA) in comparison with individuals who did not develop psychosis (NC-HR). The C-HR group reported a significantly higher AA/(EPA+DHA) consumption ratio than the NC-HR group. HC reported significantly higher consumption of most n-3 PUFA and lower consumption of all n-6 PUFA than both groups of HR individuals. The results suggest that dietary patterns of PUFA consumption may play a role in the conversion to psychosis of HR individuals. PMID:27154362

  10. The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajie; Ma, David W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding α-linolenic acid (ALA), however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research. PMID:25412153

  11. The role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiajie; Ma, David W L

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding α-linolenic acid (ALA), however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research. PMID:25412153

  12. mTORC1/2 targeted by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of mammary tumorigenesis and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Zhang, Y; Jia, C; Wang, Y; Lai, P; Zhou, X; Wang, Y; Song, Q; Lin, Jun; Ren, Z; Gao, Q; Zhao, Z; Zheng, H; Wan, Z; Gao, T; Zhao, A; Dai, Y; Bai, X

    2014-09-11

    Although epidemiological and preclinical studies have shown the preventative effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on breast cancer, inconsistencies still remain in the data and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we identified mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which plays an essential role in cell proliferation and breast tumorigenesis, as a target of n-3 PUFAs. In breast cancer cell lines, n-3 PUFAs rapidly and efficiently suppress both mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2 and their downstream signaling, and subsequently inhibit cell proliferation and angiogenesis while promoting apoptosis. Further study indicates that stabilization of the mTOR-raptor complex by n-3 PUFAs may contribute to their inhibitory effect on mTORC1. Importantly, four complementary and well-controlled animal models were utilized to identify the role and molecular target of n-3 PUFAs in the prevention of breast carcinogenesis and progression, namely: (1) chemically induced mammary tumor rats with a high dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs; (2) nude mice implanted with mammary tumor cell lines stably expressing fat-1, a desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs and produces n-3 PUFAs endogenously; (3) fat-1 transgenic severe combined immune deficiency mice implanted with breast tumor cells; and (4) the fat-1 transgenic mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma virus middle T oncogene double-hybrid mice, a model of aggressive breast cancer. In summary, dietary and endogenous n-3 PUFAs abrogate the activity of mTORC1/2 pathways in vitro and in vivo and prevent breast carcinogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. Taken together, our findings convincingly clarify the causal relationship between n-3 PUFAs and breast cancer prevention and establish mTORC1/2 as a target of n-3 PUFAs. PMID:24096482

  13. Thraustochytrids can be grown in low-salt media without affecting PUFA production.

    PubMed

    Shabala, Lana; McMeekin, Tom; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-08-01

    Marine microheterotrophs thraustochytrids are emerging as a potential source for commercial production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that have nutritional and pharmacological values. With prospective demand for PUFAs increasing, biotechnological companies are looking for potential increases in those valuable products. However, high levels of NaCl in the culture media required for optimal thraustochytrid growth and PUFA production poses a significant problem to the biotechnological industry due to corrosion of fermenters calling for a need to reduce the amount of NaCl in the culture media, without imposing penalties on growth and yield of cultured organisms. Earlier, as reported by Shabala et al. (Environ Microbiol 11:1835-1843, 2009), we have shown that thraustochytrids use sodium predominantly for osmotic adjustment purposes and, as such, can be grown in low-salt environment without growth penalties, providing the media osmolality is adjusted. In this study, we verify if that conclusion, made for one specific strain and osmolyte only, is applicable to the larger number of strains and organic osmotica, as well as address the issue of yield quality (e.g., PUFA production in low-saline media). Using mannitol and sucrose for osmotic adjustment of the growth media enabled us to reduce NaCl concentration down to 1 mM; this is 15-100-fold lower than any method proposed so far. At the same time, the yield of essential PUFAs was increased by 15 to 20 %. Taken together, these results suggest that the proposed method can be used in industrial fermenters for commercial PUFA production. PMID:23568670

  14. Metabolic syndrome: effects of n-3 PUFAs on a model of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and adiposity.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Yolanda B; Hein, Gustavo; Chicco, Adriana

    2007-05-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors (e.g. nutrition, life style) contribute to the development of the plurimetabolic syndrome, which has a high prevalence in the world population. Dietary n-3 PUFAs specially those from marine oil (EPA and DHA) appear to play an important role against the adverse effects of this syndrome. The present work examined the effectiveness of fish oil (FO) in reversing or improving the dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and adiposity induced in rats by long-term feeding a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). We studied several metabolic and molecular mechanisms involved in both lipid and glucose metabolisms in different tissues (liver, skeletal muscle, fat pad) as well as insulin secretion patterns from perifused islets under the stimulation of different secretagogues. Dietary FO reverses dyslipidemia and improves insulin action and adiposity in the SRD fed rats. FO reduces adipocytes cell size and thus, the smaller adipocytes are more insulin sensitive and the release of fatty acids decreases. In muscle, FO normalizes both the oxidative and non-oxidative glucose pathways. Moreover, FO modifies the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids. In isolated beta cells, lipid contents and glucose oxidation return to normal. All these effects could contribute to the normalization of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and muscle insulin insensitivity. PMID:17476547

  15. Brain white matter development is associated with a human-specific haplotype increasing the synthesis of long chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Peters, Bart D; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Szeszko, Philip R; Lett, Tristram A; DeRosse, Pamela; Guha, Saurav; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Felsky, Daniel; John, Majnu; Rotenberg, David J; Kennedy, James L; Lencz, Todd; Malhotra, Anil K

    2014-04-30

    The genetic and molecular pathways driving human brain white matter (WM) development are only beginning to be discovered. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have been implicated in myelination in animal models and humans. The biosynthesis of LC-PUFAs is regulated by the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes, of which a human-specific haplotype is strongly associated with ω-3 and ω-6 LC-PUFA concentrations in blood. To investigate the relationship between LC-PUFA synthesis and human brain WM development, we examined whether this FADS haplotype is associated with age-related WM differences across the life span in healthy individuals 9-86 years of age (n = 207). Diffusion tensor imaging was performed to measure fractional anisotropy (FA), a putative measure of myelination, of the cerebral WM tracts. FADS haplotype status was determined with a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs174583) that tags this haplotype. Overall, normal age-related WM differences were observed, including higher FA values in early adulthood compared with childhood, followed by lower FA values across older age ranges. However, individuals homozygous for the minor allele (associated with lower LC-PUFA concentrations) did not display these normal age-related WM differences (significant age × genotype interactions, p(corrected) < 0.05). These findings suggest that LC-PUFAs are involved in human brain WM development from childhood into adulthood. This haplotype and LC-PUFAs may play a role in myelin-related disorders of neurodevelopmental origin. PMID:24790207

  16. Ursolic acid plays a protective role in obesity-induced cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Yu, Ya-Mei; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Chiang, Su-Yin; Chan, Hsu-Chin; Lee, Ming-Fen

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic disturbance of obesity is one of the most common risk factors of atherosclerosis. Resistin, an obesity-induced adipokine, can induce the expression of cell adhesion molecules and the attachment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in fruits and many herbs, exhibits an array of biological effects such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential underlying mechanisms of the effect of ursolic acid on resistin-induced adhesion of U937 cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data indicated that ursolic acid suppressed the adhesion of U937 to HUVECs and downregulated the expression of adhesion molecules, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin, in resistin-induced HUVECs by decreasing the production of intracellular reaction oxygen species (ROS) and attenuating the nuclear translocation of NFκB. Ursolic acid appeared to inhibit resistin-induced atherosclerosis, suggesting that ursolic acid may play a protective role in obesity-induced cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26991492

  17. Synergic hypocholesterolaemic effect of n-3 PUFA and oestrogen by modulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism in female rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yuna; Jin, Youri; Park, Yongsoon

    2015-12-14

    n-3 PUFA such as EPA and DHA as well as oestrogen have been reported to decrease blood levels of cholesterol, but their underlying mechanism is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the combination of n-3 PUFA supplementation and oestrogen injection on hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Rats were fed a modified AIN-93G diet with 0, 1 or 2 % n-3 PUFA (EPA+DHA) relative to the total energy intake for 12 weeks. Rats were surgically ovariectomised at week 8, and, after 1-week recovery, rats were injected with 17β-oestradiol-3-benzoate (E2) or maize oil for the last 3 weeks. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA and E2 injection significantly increased the ratio of the hepatic expression of phosphorylated AMP activated protein kinase (p-AMPK):AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) and decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA increased hepatic expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) and sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1); however, E2 injection decreased CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 but not CYP27A1. Additionally, E2 injection increased hepatic expression of oestrogen receptor-α and β. In conclusion, n-3 PUFA supplementation and E2 injection had synergic hypocholesterolaemic effects by down-regulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis (n-3 PUFA and oestrogen) and up-regulating bile acid synthesis (n-3 PUFA) in ovariectomised rats. PMID:26388416

  18. The association of serum long-chain n-3 PUFA and hair mercury with exercise cardiac power in men.

    PubMed

    Tajik, Behnam; Kurl, Sudhir; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Virtanen, Jyrki K

    2016-08-01

    Long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish and exercise capacity are associated with CVD risk. Fish, especially large and old predatory fish, may contain Hg, which may attenuate the inverse association of long-chain n-3 PUFA with CVD. However, the associations of long-chain n-3 PUFA or Hg exposure with exercise capacity are not well known. We aimed to evaluate the associations of serum long-chain n-3 PUFA EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA and hair Hg with exercise cardiac power (ECP, a ratio of VO2max:maximal systolic blood pressure (SBP) during an exercise test), a measure for exercise capacity. For this, data from the population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study were analysed cross-sectionally in order to determine the associations between serum long-chain n-3 PUFA, hair Hg and ECP in 1672 men without CVD, aged 42-60 years. After multivariate adjustments, serum total long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was associated with higher ECP and VO2max (P trend across quartiles=0·04 and P trend=0·02, respectively), but not with maximal SBP (P trend=0·69). Associations were generally similar when EPA, DPA and DHA were evaluated individually. Hair Hg was not associated with ECP, VO2max or maximal SBP. However, the associations of total long-chain n-3 PUFA (P interaction=0·03) and EPA (P interaction=0·02) with higher VO2max were stronger among men with lower hair Hg. Higher serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration, mainly a marker for fish consumption in this study population, was associated with higher ECP and VO2max in middle-aged men from eastern Finland. PMID:27255152

  19. Soil surface acidity plays a determining role in the atmospheric-terrestrial exchange of nitrous acid

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Melissa A.; Bish, David L.; Raff, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important hydroxyl (OH) radical source that is formed on both ground and aerosol surfaces in the well-mixed boundary layer. Recent studies report the release of HONO from nonacidic soils, although it is unclear how soil that is more basic than the pKa of HONO (∼3) is capable of protonating soil nitrite to serve as an atmospheric HONO source. Here, we used a coated-wall flow tube and chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) to study the pH dependence of HONO uptake onto agricultural soil and model substrates under atmospherically relevant conditions (1 atm and 30% relative humidity). Experiments measuring the evolution of HONO from pH-adjusted surfaces treated with nitrite and potentiometric titrations of the substrates show, to our knowledge for the first time, that surface acidity rather than bulk aqueous pH determines HONO uptake and desorption efficiency on soil, in a process controlled by amphoteric aluminum and iron (hydr)oxides present. The results have important implications for predicting when soil nitrite, whether microbially derived or atmospherically deposited, will act as a net source or sink of atmospheric HONO. This process represents an unrecognized mechanism of HONO release from soil that will contribute to HONO emissions throughout the day. PMID:25512517

  20. Soil surface acidity plays a determining role in the atmospheric-terrestrial exchange of nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Melissa A; Bish, David L; Raff, Jonathan D

    2014-12-30

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important hydroxyl (OH) radical source that is formed on both ground and aerosol surfaces in the well-mixed boundary layer. Recent studies report the release of HONO from nonacidic soils, although it is unclear how soil that is more basic than the pKa of HONO (∼ 3) is capable of protonating soil nitrite to serve as an atmospheric HONO source. Here, we used a coated-wall flow tube and chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) to study the pH dependence of HONO uptake onto agricultural soil and model substrates under atmospherically relevant conditions (1 atm and 30% relative humidity). Experiments measuring the evolution of HONO from pH-adjusted surfaces treated with nitrite and potentiometric titrations of the substrates show, to our knowledge for the first time, that surface acidity rather than bulk aqueous pH determines HONO uptake and desorption efficiency on soil, in a process controlled by amphoteric aluminum and iron (hydr)oxides present. The results have important implications for predicting when soil nitrite, whether microbially derived or atmospherically deposited, will act as a net source or sink of atmospheric HONO. This process represents an unrecognized mechanism of HONO release from soil that will contribute to HONO emissions throughout the day. PMID:25512517

  1. Influence of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on growth, nutritional composition and immune function in marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shiming; Yue, Yanfeng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Yin, Fei; Wang, Jiangang

    2014-09-01

    A 60-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) on growth, nutritional composition and immune function of marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus. Five diets containing 3.6, 10.2, 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg n-3 LC-PUFA were prepared. The results reveal significant influences of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on the final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and condition factor. As dietary n-3 LCPUFA increased, weight gain and specific growth rate increased and were significantly higher in groups fed 18.2, 26.5 and 37.0 g/kg than in groups fed 3.6 and 10.2 g/kg ( P<0.05); there was no significant difference between groups fed 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg ( P>0.05). With increasing dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexenoic acid content in muscle and liver increased significantly, immunoglobulin class M content gradually increased from 9.1 to 14.8 μg/L, and lysozyme activity content increased from 1 355 to 2 268 U/mL. Broken line model analysis according to weight gain indicated that a dietary n-3 LC-PUFA level of 18.2 g/kg is essential for normal growth at a fat level of 125 g/kg. Therefore, appropriate dietary n-3 LC-PUFA not only promote growth and improve the n-3 LC-PUFA content, but also enhance immune function in S. marmoratus.

  2. Investigation of long chain omega-3 PUFAs on arterial blood pressure, vascular reactivity and survival in angiotensin II-infused Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bürgin-Maunder, Corinna S; Nataatmadja, Maria; Vella, Rebecca K; Fenning, Andrew S; Brooks, Peter R; Russell, Fraser D

    2016-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory vascular disease. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) decrease inflammation and oxidative stress in an angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mouse model of AAA. This study investigated the effects of LC n-3 PUFAs on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in fourteen angiotensin II-infused ApoE(-/-) male mice. Blood pressure was obtained using a non-invasive tail cuff method and whole blood was collected by cardiac puncture. Vascular reactivity of the thoracic aorta was assessed using wire myography and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was determined by immunohistochemistry. A high LC n-3 PUFA diet increased the omega-3 index and reduced the n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio. At day 10 post-infusion with angiotensin II, there was no difference in systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure in mice fed the high or low n-3 PUFA diets. The high LC n-3 PUFA diet resulted in a non-significant trend for delay in time to death from abdominal aortic rupture. Vascular reactivity and eNOS activation remained unchanged in mice fed the high compared to the low LC n-3 PUFA diet. This study argues against direct improvement in vascular reactivity in ApoE(-/-) mice that were supplemented with n-3 PUFA for 8 weeks prior to infusion with angiotensin II. PMID:26638987

  3. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease feelings of anger in substance abusers

    PubMed Central

    Buydens-Branchey, Laure; Branchey, Marc

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that low levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a role in the pathophysiology of some psychiatric disorders. In light of the existence of strong associations between high-frequency and high-severity aggressive behaviors and substance use disorders and of our observation that substance abusers have poor dietary habits, the possibility that the administration of supplements of n-3 PUFAs would decrease their anger levels was explored. A life long history of aggressive behaviors and problems with the law was obtained in 24 patients. Thirteen patients received on a daily basis capsules containing 3 g of n-3 PUFAs (EPA+DHA). Eleven patients received placebo capsules. The trial was double-blind, randomized, and lasted 3 months. An anger scale was administered at baseline and every month thereafter. Six PUFA group patients and eight placebo group patients were followed for an additional 3 months after treatment discontinuation. Four patients in each group had a history of assaultive behavior. The baseline fish and n-3 PUFA intakes of these 8 patients were significantly lower than those of the non-aggressive patients. When given for 3 months, n-3 PUFAs were superior to placebo in diminishing anger scores. These scores remained decreased for 3 months following treatment discontinuation. These data provide further support to emerging evidence indicating that supplementation with long-chain n-3 PUFAs could be beneficial in the treatment of some individuals with aggressive tendencies. PMID:17900705

  4. PUFA-induced cell death is mediated by Yca1p-dependent and -independent pathways, and is reduced by vitamin C in yeast.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Magnus; Chen, Xin; Milanova, Stefina; Santos, Cristiano; Petranovic, Dina

    2016-03-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as linoleic acid (LA, n-6, C18:2) and γ-linolenic acid (GLA, n-6, C18:3) are essential and must be obtained from the diet. There has been a growing interest in establishing a bio-sustainable production of PUFA in several microorganisms, e.g. in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, PUFAs can also be toxic to cells because of their susceptibility to peroxidation. Here we investigated the negative effects of LA and GLA production on S. cerevisiae by characterizing a strain expressing active Δ6 and Δ12 desaturases from the fungus Mucor rouxii. Previously, we showed that the PUFA-producing strain has low viability, down-regulated genes for oxidative stress response, and decreased proteasome activity. Here we show that the PUFA strain accumulates high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxides, and accumulates damaged proteins. The PUFA strain also showed great increase in metacaspase Yca1p activity, suggesting cells could die by caspase-mediated cell death. When treated with antioxidant vitamin C, ROS, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were greatly reduced, and the activity of the metacaspase was significantly decreased too, ultimately doubling the lifespan of the PUFA strain. When deleting YCA1, the caspase-like activity and the oxidative stress decreased and although the lifespan was slightly prolonged, the phenotype could not be fully reversed, pointing that Yca1p was not the main executor of cell death. PMID:26833421

  5. Roles played by acidic lipids in HIV-1 Gag membrane binding

    PubMed Central

    Olety, Balaji; Ono, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The MA domain mediates plasma membrane (PM) targeting of HIV-1 Gag, leading to particle assembly at the PM. The interaction between MA and acidic phospholipids, in addition to N-terminal myristoyl moiety, promotes Gag binding to lipid membranes. Among acidic phospholipids, PI(4,5)P2, a PM-specific phosphoinositide, is essential for proper HIV-1 Gag localization to the PM and efficient virus particle production. Recent studies further revealed that MA-bound RNA negatively regulates HIV-1 Gag membrane binding and that PI(4,5)P2 is necessary to overcome this RNA-imposed block. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of Gag-membrane interactions and discuss potential roles played by acidic phospholipids. PMID:24998886

  6. Omega-3 PUFAs and atrial fibrillation: have we made up our mind yet?

    PubMed

    Guerra, Federico; Shkoza, Matilda; Scappini, Lorena; Roberti, Laura; Capucci, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of arrhythmia in adults, accounting for about one third of total arrhythmia-related hospitalizations. AF impact on daily clinical practice is steadily rising, together with population aging and increased survival from underlying conditions closely associated with AF such as coronary heart disease and heart failure. Although antiarrhythmic therapy, oral anticoagulation, implanted device therapy, and ablation techniques are now all common and promptly available strategies in AF management, some of them are burdened by a low efficacy rate, while others are associated with increased proarrhythmic or hemorrhagic risk. Consequently, useful alternatives are being sought. Between those, polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have risen from mere alternative to statins in dyslipidemia management to powerful and well-tolerated antiinflammatory, antithrombotic, and antiarrhythmogenic drugs. From the evidence collected through basic science studies, whether on in vivo myocytes, animal models, or surrogate end points in human, n-3 PUFAs seem to offer innumerable advantages. On the other hand, epidemiological and clinical trials failed to demonstrate a clear efficacy of n-3 PUFAs as antiarrhythmic drugs, although covered by an optimal safety profile. The aim of the present review is to summarize the most important evidences currently available on the role of n-3 PUFA in AF management and therapy. PMID:23347022

  7. Determination of HEL (Hexanoyl-lysine adduct): a novel biomarker for omega-6 PUFA oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kazuo; Kino, Satoko; Masuda, Aino; Takeuchi, Masao; Ochi, Tairin; Osredkar, Josko; Rejc, Barbara; Gersak, Ksenija; Ramarathnam, Narasimhan; Kato, Yoji

    2014-01-01

    Published evidences indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce lipid peroxidation, which plays important role in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases including atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer and aging process. Monitoring of oxidative modification or oxidative damages of biomolecules may therefore be essential for the understanding of aging, and age-related diseases. N-epsilon-Hexanoyl-lysine (HEL) is a novel lipid peroxidation biomarker which is derived from the oxidation of omega-6 unsaturated fatty acid. In this chapter, development of HEL ELISA and its applications are reported. Assay range of HEL ELISA was 2-700 nmol/L, and showed good linearity and reproducibility. Accuracy of this assay was validated by recovery test and absorption test. HEL concentration in human urine was 22.9 ± 15.4 nmol/L and it was suggested that HEL exists as low molecular substances, in a free or in the peptide-attached form. In contrast with the urine sample, serum HEL was suggested to exist in the protein-attached form, and hydrolysis by protease might be essential for the accurate measurement of HEL in protein containing samples such as serum and cultured cells. By sample pretreatment with proteases, HEL was successfully detected in oxidized LDL, oxidized serum, and rat serum. In conclusion, HEL ELISA can be applied to measure urine, serum, and other biological samples independent of the animal species, and may be useful for the assessment of omega-6 PUFA oxidation in the living bodies. PMID:24374918

  8. Isolation and Characterization of the Diatom Phaeodactylum Δ5-Elongase Gene for Transgenic LC-PUFA Production in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Mulan; Guo, Bing; Wan, Xia; Gong, Yangmin; Zhang, Yinbo; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2014-01-01

    The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) up to 30% of the total fatty acids. This species has been targeted for isolating gene encoding desaturases and elongases for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) metabolic engineering. Here we first report the cloning and characterization of Δ5-elongase gene in P. tricornutum. A full-length cDNA sequence, designated PhtELO5, was shown to contain a 1110 bp open reading frame encoding a 369 amino acid polypeptide. The putative protein contains seven transmembrane regions and two elongase characteristic motifs of FLHXYHH and MYSYY, the latter being typical for microalgal Δ5-elongases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PhtELO5 belongs to the ELO5 group, tightly clustered with the counterpart of Thalassiosira pseudonana. Heterologous expression of PhtELO5 in Pichia pastoris confirmed that it encodes a specific Δ5-elongase capable of elongating arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Co-expression of PhtELO5 and IsFAD4 (a ∆4-desaturase from Isochrysis sphaerica) demonstrated that the high-efficiency biosynthetic pathway of docosahexaenoic acid was assembled in the transgenic yeast. Substrate competition revealed that PhtELO5 exhibited higher activity towards n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA. It is hypothesized that Phaeodactylum ELO5 may preferentially participate in biosynthesis of transgenic LC-PUFA via a n-3 pathway in the yeast host. PMID:24608969

  9. Isolation and characterization of the diatom Phaeodactylum Δ5-elongase gene for transgenic LC-PUFA production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mulan; Guo, Bing; Wan, Xia; Gong, Yangmin; Zhang, Yinbo; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2014-03-01

    The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) up to 30% of the total fatty acids. This species has been targeted for isolating gene encoding desaturases and elongases for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) metabolic engineering. Here we first report the cloning and characterization of Δ5-elongase gene in P. tricornutum. A full-length cDNA sequence, designated PhtELO5, was shown to contain a 1110 bp open reading frame encoding a 369 amino acid polypeptide. The putative protein contains seven transmembrane regions and two elongase characteristic motifs of FLHXYHH and MYSYY, the latter being typical for microalgal Δ5-elongases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PhtELO5 belongs to the ELO5 group, tightly clustered with the counterpart of Thalassiosira pseudonana. Heterologous expression of PhtELO5 in Pichia pastoris confirmed that it encodes a specific Δ5-elongase capable of elongating arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Co-expression of PhtELO5 and IsFAD4 (a ∆4-desaturase from Isochrysis sphaerica) demonstrated that the high-efficiency biosynthetic pathway of docosahexaenoic acid was assembled in the transgenic yeast. Substrate competition revealed that PhtELO5 exhibited higher activity towards n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA. It is hypothesized that Phaeodactylum ELO5 may preferentially participate in biosynthesis of transgenic LC-PUFA via a n-3 pathway in the yeast host. PMID:24608969

  10. LC-PUFA-Enriched Oil Production by Microalgae: Accumulation of Lipid and Triacylglycerols Containing n-3 LC-PUFA Is Triggered by Nitrogen Limitation and Inorganic Carbon Availability in the Marine Haptophyte Pavlova lutheri

    PubMed Central

    Guihéneuf, Freddy; Stengel, Dagmar B.

    2013-01-01

    In most microalgal species, triacyglycerols (TAG) contain mostly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, rather than PUFA, while PUFA-enriched oil is the form most desirable for dietary intake. The ability of some species to produce LC-PUFA-enriched oil is currently of specific interest. In this work, we investigated the role of sodium bicarbonate availability on lipid accumulation and n-3 LC-PUFA partitioning into TAG during batch cultivation of Pavlova lutheri. Maximum growth and nitrate uptake exhibit an optimum concentration and threshold tolerance to bicarbonate addition (~9 mM) above which both parameters decreased. Nonetheless, the transient highest cellular lipid and TAG contents were obtained at 18 mM bicarbonate, immediately after combined alkaline pH stress and nitrate depletion (day nine), while oil body and TAG accumulation were highly repressed with low carbon supply (2 mM). Despite decreases in the proportions of EPA and DHA, maximum volumetric and cellular EPA and DHA contents were obtained at this stage due to accumulation of TAG containing EPA/DHA. TAG accounted for 74% of the total fatty acid per cell, containing 55% and 67% of the overall cellular EPA and DHA contents, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that inorganic carbon availability and elevated pH represent two limiting factors for lipid and TAG accumulation, as well as n-3 LC-PUFA partitioning into TAG, under nutrient-depleted P. lutheri cultures. PMID:24177672

  11. Effects of developmental alcohol and valproic acid exposure on play behavior of ferrets.

    PubMed

    Krahe, Thomas E; Filgueiras, Claudio C; Medina, Alexandre E

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to alcohol and valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal valproate syndrome, respectively. Altered social behavior is a hallmark of both these conditions and there is ample evidence showing that developmental exposure to alcohol and VPA affect social behavior in rodents. However, results from rodent models are somewhat difficult to translate to humans owing to the substantial differences in brain development, morphology, and connectivity. Since the cortex folding pattern is closely related to its specialization and that social behavior is strongly influenced by cortical structures, here we studied the effects of developmental alcohol and VPA exposure on the play behavior of the ferret, a gyrencephalic animal known for its playful nature. Animals were injected with alcohol (3.5g/kg, i.p.), VPA (200mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (i.p) every other day during the brain growth spurt period, between postnatal days 10 and 30. The play behavior of pairs of the same experimental group was evaluated 3 weeks later. Both treatments induced significant behavioral differences compared to controls. Alcohol and VPA exposed ferrets played less than saline treated ones, but while animals from the alcohol group displayed a delay in start playing with each other, VPA treated ones spent most of the time close to one another without playing. These findings not only extend previous results on the effects of developmental exposure to alcohol and VPA on social behavior, but make the ferret a great model to study the underlying mechanisms of social interaction. PMID:27208641

  12. Intake levels of dietary long-chain PUFAs modify the association between genetic variation in FADS and LDL-C.

    PubMed

    Hellstrand, S; Sonestedt, E; Ericson, U; Gullberg, B; Wirfält, E; Hedblad, B; Orho-Melander, M

    2012-06-01

    Polymorphisms of the FA desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with LDL, HDL, and triglyceride concentrations. Because FADS converts α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid into PUFAs, we investigated the interaction between different PUFA intakes and the FADS polymorphism rs174547 (T>C) on fasting blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. We included 4,635 individuals (60% females, 45-68 years) from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Dietary intakes were assessed by a modified diet history method including 7-day registration of cooked meals. The C-allele of rs174547 was associated with lower LDL concentration (P = 0.03). We observed significant interaction between rs174547 and long-chain ω-3 PUFA intakes on LDL (P = 0.01); the C-allele was only associated with lower LDL among individuals in the lowest tertile of long-chain ω-3 PUFA intakes (P < 0.001). In addition, significant interaction was observed between rs174547 and the ratio of ALA and linoleic FA intakes on HDL (P = 0.03). However, no significant associations between the C-allele and HDL were detected within the intake tertiles of the ratio. Our findings suggest that dietary intake levels of different PUFAs modify the associated effect of genetic variation in FADS on LDL and HDL. PMID:22451038

  13. Changes in whole-blood PUFA and their predictors during recovery from severe acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Babirekere-Iriso, Esther; Mortensen, Charlotte G; Mupere, Ezekiel; Rytter, Maren J H; Namusoke, Hanifa; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André; Stark, Ken D; Friis, Henrik; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2016-05-01

    Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) with complications require in-patient management including therapeutic feeding. Little attention has been given to the effects of these feeds on the essential fatty acid status of children with SAM. The objective of this study was to describe changes in the PUFA composition in whole blood in children with SAM during treatment and to determine predictors of change. This prospective study took place in a paediatric nutrition rehabilitation unit in Kampala, Uganda, and assessed whole-blood fatty acid composition of children with SAM at admission, transition, discharge and follow-up (8 and 16 weeks). ANCOVA was used to identify predictors of change in whole-blood PUFA. The study included 120 children with SAM and twenty-nine healthy control children of similar age and sex. Among the SAM children, 38 % were female and 64 % had oedema. Whole-blood n-6 PUFA proportions increased from admission to follow-up, except for arachidonic acid, which decreased by 0·79 (95 % CI 0·46, 1·12) fatty acid percentage (FA%) from admission to transition and 0·10 (95 % CI 0·23, 0·44) FA% at discharge. n-3 Long-chain (LC) PUFA decreased by 0·21 (95 % CI 0·03, 0·40) FA% at discharge and 0·22 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·42) FA% at 8 weeks of follow-up. This decrease was greater in children from families with recent fish intake and those with nasogastric tube feeding. Current therapeutic feeds do not correct whole-blood levels of LCPUFA, particularly n-3 LCPUFA, in children with SAM. Increased attention is needed to the contents of n-3 LCPUFA in therapeutic feeds. PMID:26996197

  14. Abscisic Acid Uridine Diphosphate Glucosyltransferases Play a Crucial Role in Abscisic Acid Homeostasis in Arabidopsis1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ting; Xu, Zheng-Yi; Park, Youngmin; Kim, Dae Heon; Lee, Yongjik; Hwang, Inhwan

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is crucial for plant growth and adaptive responses to various stress conditions. Plants continuously adjust the ABA level to meet physiological needs, but how ABA homeostasis occurs is not fully understood. This study provides evidence that UGT71B6, an ABA uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase (UGT), and its two closely related homologs, UGT71B7 and UGT71B8, play crucial roles in ABA homeostasis and in adaptation to dehydration, osmotic stress, and high-salinity stresses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). UGT RNA interference plants that had low levels of these three UGT transcripts displayed hypersensitivity to exogenous ABA and high-salt conditions during germination and exhibited a defect in plant growth. However, the ectopic expression of UGT71B6 in the atbg1 (for β-glucosidase) mutant background aggravated the ABA-deficient phenotype of atbg1 mutant plants. In addition, modulation of the expression of the three UGTs affects the expression of CYP707A1 to CYP707A4, which encode ABA 8′-hydroxylases; four CYP707As were expressed at higher levels in the UGT RNA interference plants but at lower levels in the UGT71B6:GFP-overexpressing plants. Based on these data, this study proposes that UGT71B6 and its two homologs play a critical role in ABA homeostasis by converting active ABA to an inactive form (abscisic acid-glucose ester) depending on intrinsic cellular and environmental conditions in plants. PMID:24676855

  15. Chemoprotective epigenetic mechanisms in a colorectal cancer model: Modulation by n-3 PUFA in combination with fermentable fiber

    PubMed Central

    Triff, Karen; Kim, Eunjoo; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third major cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women worldwide. The beneficial role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in preventing colon cancer is substantiated by experimental, epidemiological, and clinical data. From a mechanistic perspective, n-3 PUFA are pleiotropic and multifaceted with respect to their molecular mechanisms of action. For example, this class of dietary lipid uniquely modulates membrane and nuclear receptors, sensors/ion channels, and membrane structure/cytoskeletal function, thereby regulating signaling processes that influence patterns of gene expression and cell phenotype. In addition, n-3 PUFA can synergize with other potential chemoprotective agents known to reprogram the chromatin landscape, such as the fermentable fiber product, butyrate. Nutri-epigenomics is an emerging field of research that is focused on the interaction between nutrition and epigenetics. Epigenetics refers to a group of heterogeneous processes that regulate transcription without changing the DNA coding sequence, ranging from DNA methylation, to histone tail modifications and transcription factor activity. One implication of the nutri-epigenome is that it may be possible to reprogram epigenetic marks that are associated with increased disease risk by nutritional or lifestyle interventions. This review will focus on the nutri-epigenomic role of n-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, as well as the combinatorial effects of n-3 PUFA and fermentable fiber in relation to colon cancer. PMID:25938013

  16. Fish, a Mediterranean source of n-3 PUFA: benefits do not justify limiting consumption.

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Gil, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Fish is an important source of energy, high-quality proteins, fat, vitamins and minerals. Within lipids, n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC PUFA), mainly EPA and DHA, play an important role in health promotion and disease prevention. In contrast to the potential health benefits of dietary fish intake, certain chemical pollutants, namely heavy metals and some organic compounds, contained in seafood have emerged as an issue of concern, particularly for frequent fish consumers and sensitive groups of populations. The present review summarises the health benefits and risks of fish consumption. n-3 LC-PUFA are key compounds of cell membranes and play an important role in human health from conception through every stage of human development, maturation and ageing. DHA has a major role in the development of brain and retina during fetal development and the first 2 years of life and positively influences neurodevelopment, mainly visual acuity and cognitive functions. n-3 LC-PUFA are also effective in preventing cardiovascular events (mainly stroke and acute myocardial infarction) especially in persons with high cardiovascular risk. By contrast, there is convincing evidence of adverse neurological/neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and young children associated with methylmercury exposure during fetal development due to maternal fish consumption during pregnancy. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls present in contaminated fish may also develop a risk for both infants and adults. However, for major health outcomes among adults, the vast majority of epidemiological studies have proven that the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks with the exception of a few selected species in sensitive populations. PMID:26148923

  17. Specific polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate lipid delivery and oocyte development in C. elegans revealed by molecular-selective label-free imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Wen; Yi, Yung-Hsiang; Chien, Cheng-Hao; Hsiung, Kuei-Ching; Ma, Tian-Hsiang; Lin, Yi-Chun; Lo, Szecheng J.; Chang, Ta-Chau

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exhibit critical functions in biological systems and their importance during animal oocyte maturation has been increasingly recognized. However, the detailed mechanism of lipid transportation for oocyte development remains largely unknown. In this study, the transportation of yolk lipoprotein (lipid carrier) and the rate of lipid delivery into oocytes in live C. elegans were examined for the first time by using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. The accumulation of secreted yolk lipoprotein in the pseudocoelom of live C. elegans can be detected by CARS microscopy at both protein (~1665 cm−1) and lipid (~2845 cm−1) Raman bands. In addition, an image analysis protocol was established to quantitatively measure the levels of secreted yolk lipoprotein aberrantly accumulated in PUFA-deficient fat mutants (fat-1, fat-2, fat-3, fat-4) and PUFA-supplemented fat-2 worms (the PUFA add-back experiments). Our results revealed that the omega-6 PUFAs, not omega-3 PUFAs, play a critical role in modulating lipid/yolk level in the oocytes and regulating reproductive efficiency of C. elegans. This work demonstrates the value of using CARS microscopy as a molecular-selective label-free imaging technique for the study of PUFA regulation and oocyte development in C. elegans. PMID:27535493

  18. Specific polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate lipid delivery and oocyte development in C. elegans revealed by molecular-selective label-free imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Wen; Yi, Yung-Hsiang; Chien, Cheng-Hao; Hsiung, Kuei-Ching; Ma, Tian-Hsiang; Lin, Yi-Chun; Lo, Szecheng J; Chang, Ta-Chau

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exhibit critical functions in biological systems and their importance during animal oocyte maturation has been increasingly recognized. However, the detailed mechanism of lipid transportation for oocyte development remains largely unknown. In this study, the transportation of yolk lipoprotein (lipid carrier) and the rate of lipid delivery into oocytes in live C. elegans were examined for the first time by using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. The accumulation of secreted yolk lipoprotein in the pseudocoelom of live C. elegans can be detected by CARS microscopy at both protein (~1665 cm(-1)) and lipid (~2845 cm(-1)) Raman bands. In addition, an image analysis protocol was established to quantitatively measure the levels of secreted yolk lipoprotein aberrantly accumulated in PUFA-deficient fat mutants (fat-1, fat-2, fat-3, fat-4) and PUFA-supplemented fat-2 worms (the PUFA add-back experiments). Our results revealed that the omega-6 PUFAs, not omega-3 PUFAs, play a critical role in modulating lipid/yolk level in the oocytes and regulating reproductive efficiency of C. elegans. This work demonstrates the value of using CARS microscopy as a molecular-selective label-free imaging technique for the study of PUFA regulation and oocyte development in C. elegans. PMID:27535493

  19. n-3 PUFA: bioavailability and modulation of adipose tissue function.

    PubMed

    Kopecky, Jan; Rossmeisl, Martin; Flachs, Pavel; Kuda, Ondrej; Brauner, Petr; Jilkova, Zuzana; Stankova, Barbora; Tvrzicka, Eva; Bryhn, Morten

    2009-11-01

    Adipose tissue has a key role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS), which includes obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and other disorders. Systemic insulin resistance represents a major factor contributing to the development of MS in obesity. The resistance is precipitated by impaired adipose tissue glucose and lipid metabolism, linked to a low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue and secretion of pro-inflammatory adipokines. Development of MS could be delayed by lifestyle modifications, while both dietary and pharmacological interventions are required for the successful therapy of MS. The n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA, EPA and DHA, which are abundant in marine fish, act as hypolipidaemic factors, reduce cardiac events and decrease the progression of atherosclerosis. Thus, n-3 LC PUFA represent healthy constituents of diets for patients with MS. In rodents n-3 LC PUFA prevent the development of obesity and impaired glucose tolerance. The effects of n-3 LC PUFA are mediated transcriptionally by AMP-activated protein kinase and by other mechanisms. n-3 LC PUFA activate a metabolic switch toward lipid catabolism and suppression of lipogenesis, i.e. in the liver, adipose tissue and small intestine. This metabolic switch improves dyslipidaemia and reduces ectopic deposition of lipids, resulting in improved insulin signalling. Despite a relatively low accumulation of n-3 LC PUFA in adipose tissue lipids, adipose tissue is specifically linked to the beneficial effects of n-3 LC PUFA, as indicated by (1) the prevention of adipose tissue hyperplasia and hypertrophy, (2) the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis in adipocytes, (3) the induction of adiponectin and (4) the amelioration of adipose tissue inflammation by n-3 LC PUFA. PMID:19698199

  20. Acid-Tolerant Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Play a Major Role in Iron Cycling in Acidic Iron Rich Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enright, K. A.; Moreau, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    acidic conditions. The dsrAB genes are related to other novel SRB lineages derived from acidic environments in previous reports, suggesting that these species have adapted to the acidity rather than colonized more circumneutral microenvironments. In an acidic hypersaline lake system in NW Victoria (Australia), previous studies suggested that pore water bisulfide derived from anoxic groundwater transported from distal locations. However, isolated potholes of oxic Fe(III)-rich springwater exhibited nearly a two-fold increase in conductivity and pH increase from 4.5 to 8.0 over time periods on the order of days; and biogeochemical and mineralogical observations were consistent with the presence of active acid- and halo-tolerant SRB. Furthermore, stratified active microbial mat communities, with zones of black FeS formation localized several millimeters below the sediment-air interface, were identified in cross-section from lakeshore sediments near groundwater discharge springs. Culture-independent and culture-based work to characterize the SRB population is ongoing at this site. We infer, from previous sulfur isotope tracer experiments at the lake, that overall sulfate reduction rates may be slow, but are nonetheless proceeding and contributing to the recycling of oxidized iron to a significant degree given the abundance of sulfate evidenced by widespread gypsum precipitation. We conclude from the two study-sites described above that acid-tolerant SRB species play an important role in the linked S, Fe and C cycles in acidifying, iron-rich environments, and their phylogenetic and physiological diversity should be further investigated.

  1. Identification and Functional Analysis of Delta-9 Desaturase, a Key Enzyme in PUFA Synthesis, Isolated from the Oleaginous Diatom Fistulifera

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Masaki; Kubota, Chihiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Satoh, Akira; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Oleaginous microalgae are one of the promising resource of nonedible biodiesel fuel (BDF) feed stock alternatives. Now a challenge task is the decrease of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content affecting on the BDF oxidative stability by using gene manipulation techniques. However, only the limited knowledge has been available concerning the fatty acid and PUFA synthesis pathways in microalgae. Especially, the function of Δ9 desaturase, which is a key enzyme in PUFA synthesis pathway, has not been determined in diatom. In this study, 4 Δ9 desaturase genes (fD9desA, fD9desB, fD9desC and fD9desD) from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera were newly isolated and functionally characterized. The putative Δ9 acyl-CoA desaturases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed 3 histidine clusters that are well-conserved motifs in the typical Δ9 desaturase. Furthermore, the function of these Δ9 desaturases was confirmed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ole1 gene deletion mutant (Δole1). All the putative Δ9 acyl-CoA desaturases showed Δ9 desaturation activity for C16∶0 fatty acids; fD9desA and fD9desB also showed desaturation activity for C18∶0 fatty acids. This study represents the first functional analysis of Δ9 desaturases from oleaginous microalgae and from diatoms as the first enzyme to introduce a double bond in saturated fatty acids during PUFA synthesis. The findings will provide beneficial insights into applying metabolic engineering processes to suppressing PUFA synthesis in this oleaginous microalgal strain. PMID:24039966

  2. Lipid content in hepatic and gonadal adipose tissue parallel aortic cholesterol accumulation in mice fed diets with different omega-6 PUFA to EPA plus DHA ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diets with low omega (u)-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ratios have been shown to decrease aortic cholesterol accumulation and have been suggested to promote weight loss. The involvement of the liver and gonadal adipose tissue (GAT...

  3. Neurite outgrowth stimulation by n-3 and n-6 PUFAs of phospholipids in apoE-containing lipoproteins secreted from glial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakato, Mitsuhiro; Matsuo, Michinori; Kono, Nozomu; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Jun; Kioka, Noriyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2015-10-01

    PUFAs, which account for 25-30% of the total fatty acids in the human brain, are important for normal brain development and cognitive function. However, it remains unclear how PUFAs are delivered to neurons and exert their effects. In this study, we demonstrated that n-3 and n-6 PUFAs added to the medium are incorporated into membrane phospholipids of primary glial cells from rat cortices, and then secreted as the fatty acid moiety of phospholipids in apoE-containing lipoproteins (LpEs). Tandem mass spectrometry analysis further showed that LpEs secreted from glial cells contain a variety of metabolites of PUFAs produced in glial cells by elongation and unsaturation. LpEs are absorbed by endocytosis into neurons via LDL receptor-related protein 1. LpE-containing n-3 and n-6 PUFAs exhibit a strong effect on neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons by increasing the number of branches. This study sheds light on the novel role of LpEs in the central nervous system and also a novel pathway in which PUFAs act on neurons. PMID:26239183

  4. Reduction of n-3 PUFAs, specifically DHA and EPA, and enhancement of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in type 2 diabetic rat heart

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is overwhelming evidence that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly EPA (C20:5n-3) and DHA (C22:6n-3), has cardiovascular protective effects on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but not on healthy people. Because the T2DM heart increases fatty acid oxidation (FAO) to compensate for the diminished utilization of glucose, we hypothesize that T2DM hearts consume more n-3 PUFAs and, therefore, need more n-3 PUFAs. In the present study, we investigated the changes in cardiac n-3 PUFAs and peroxisomal beta-oxidation, which are responsible for the degradation of PUFAs in a high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic rat model. Methods and results The capillary gas chromatography results showed that all the n-3 (or omega-3) PUFAs, especially DHA (~50%) and EPA (~100%), were significantly decreased, and the n-6/n-3 ratio (~115%) was significantly increased in the hearts of diabetic rats. The activity of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, which is crucial to very-long-chain and unsaturated FA metabolism (including DHA), was significantly elevated in DM hearts. Additionally, the real-time PCR results showed that the mRNA expression of most peroxisomal beta-oxidation key enzymes were up-regulated in T2DM rat hearts, which might contribute to the reduction of n-3 (or omega-3) PUFAs. Conclusion In conclusion, our results indicate that T2DM hearts consume more n-3 PUFAs, especially DHA and EPA, due to exaggerated peroxisomal beta-oxidation. PMID:23057715

  5. Anterior cingulate cortex mediates the relationship between O3PUFAs and executive functions in APOE e4 carriers

    PubMed Central

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K.; Paul, Erick J.; Rubin, Rachael D.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although diet has a substantial influence on the aging brain, the relationship between biomarkers of diet and aspects of brain health remains unclear. This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (O3PUFAs) and executive functions in at-risk (APOE e4 carriers), cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher levels of O3PUFAs are associated with better performance in a particular component of the executive functions, namely cognitive flexibility, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter volume of a specific region thought to be important for cognitive flexibility, the anterior cingulate cortex. Methods: We examined 40 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 with the APOE e4 polymorphism to investigate the relationship between biomarkers of O3PUFAs, tests of cognitive flexibility (measured by the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making Test), and gray matter volume within regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Results: A mediation analysis revealed that gray matter volume within the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex partially mediates the relationship between O3PUFA biomarkers and cognitive flexibility. Conclusion: These results suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex acts as a mediator of the relationship between O3PUFAs and cognitive flexibility in cognitively intact adults thought to be at risk for cognitive decline. Through their link to executive functions and neuronal measures of PFC volume, O3PUFAs show potential as a nutritional therapy to prevent dysfunction in the aging brain. PMID:26052283

  6. Low-temperature affected LC-PUFA conversion and associated gene transcript level in Nannochloropsis oculata CS-179

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaolei; Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Baohua; Pan, Kehou; Li, Si; Yang, Guanpin

    2011-09-01

    Nannochloropsis oculata CS-179, a marine eukaryotic unicellular microalga, is rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). Culture temperature affected cell growth and the composition of LC-PUFAs. At an initial cell density of 1.5 × 106 cell mL-1, the highest growth was observed at 25°C and the cell density reached 3 × 107 cell mL-1 at the beginning of logarithmic phase. The content of LC-PUFAs varied with culture temperature. The highest content of LC-PUFAs (43.96%) and EPA (36.6%) was gained at 20°C. Real-time PCR showed that the abundance of Δ6-desaturase gene transcripts was significantly different among 5 culture temperatures and the highest transcript level (15°C) of Nanoc-D6D took off at cycle 21.45. The gene transcript of C20-elongase gene was higher at lower temperatures (10, 15, and 20°C), and the highest transcript level (20°C) of Nanoc-E took off at cycle 21.18. The highest conversion rate (39.3%) of Δ6-desaturase was also gained at 20°C. But the conversion rate of Nanoc-E was not detected. The higher content of LC-PUFAs was a result of higher gene transcript level and higher enzyme activity. Compared with C20-elongase gene, Δ6-desaturase gene transcript and enzyme activity varied significantly with temperature. It will be useful to study the mechanism of how the content of LC-PUFAs is affected by temperature.

  7. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN INCREASES IN PLASMA N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS FOLLOWING SUPPLEMENTATION AND DECREASES IN ANGER AND ANXIETY IN SUBSTANCE ABUSERS

    PubMed Central

    Buydens-Branchey, Laure; Branchey, Marc; Hibbeln, Joseph R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Mounting evidence indicates that low levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a role in the pathophysiology of a large number of psychiatric disorders. In light of the suboptimal n-3 PUFAs intake due to poor dietary habits among substance abusers and the strong associations between aggression, anxiety and substance use disorders we examined if insurance of adequate intakes of n-3 PUFAs with supplementation would decrease their anger and anxiety scores. Method Substance abusers (n=22) were assigned to either 3 g of n-3 PUFAs, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or soybean oil in identically looking capsules. The trial was double-blind, randomized and lasted 3 months. Anger and anxiety scales were administered at baseline and once a month thereafter. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results Patients' dietary intakes of n-3 PUFAs fell below recommended levels. Assignment to n-3 PUFA treatment was accompanied by significant decreases in anger and anxiety scores compared to placebo assignment. These changes were associated with increases in plasma levels of both EPA and DHA but an increase in EPA was more robustly correlated with low end-of-trial anxiety scores and an increase in DHA was more robustly correlated with low end-of-trial anger scores. Conclusion These pilot data indicate that ensuring adequate n-3 PUFA intake via supplementation benefits substance abusers by reducing their anger and anxiety levels. The strong correlations between an increase in plasma EPA and lower anxiety scores and between an increase in plasma DHA and lower anger scores suggests a need for the further exploration of the differential responses to these two n-3 PUFAs in different psychiatric conditions. PMID:18060675

  8. Arabidopsis abscisic acid receptors play an important role in disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-06-01

    Stomata are natural pores of plants and constitute the entry points for water during transpiration. However, they also facilitate the ingress of potentially harmful bacterial pathogens. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a pivotal role in protecting plants against biotic stress, by regulating stomatal closure. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism whereby ABA influences plant defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000, which is a virulent bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis, at the pre-invasive stage. We found that overexpression of two ABA receptors, namely, RCAR4/PYL10-OX and RCAR5/PYL11-OX (hereafter referred to as RCARs), resulted in ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes being exhibited during the seed germination and seedling growth stages. Sensitivity to ABA enhanced the resistance of RCAR4-OX and RCAR5-OX plants to Pst DC3000, through promoting stomatal closure leading to the development of resistance to this bacterial pathogen. Protein phosphatase HAB1 is an important component that is responsible for ABA signaling and which interacts with ABA receptors. We found that hab1 mutants exhibited enhanced resistance to Pst DC3000; moreover, similar to RCAR4-OX and RCAR5-OX plants, this enhanced resistance was correlated with stomatal closure. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that alteration of RCAR4- or RCAR5-HAB1 mediated ABA signaling influences resistance to bacterial pathogens via stomatal regulation. PMID:25969135

  9. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are oxidized by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases to PUFA epoxides which function as potent lipid mediators. The major metabolic pathways of PUFA epoxides are incorporation into phospholipids and hydrolysis to the corresponding PUFA diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase. Inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase stabilize PUFA epoxides and potentiate their functional effects. The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) synthesized from arachidonic acid produce vasodilation, stimulate angiogenesis, have anti-inflammatory actions, and protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury. EETs produce these functional effects by activating receptor-mediated signaling pathways and ion channels. The epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids synthesized from eicosapentaenoic acid and epoxydocosapentaenoic acids synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid are potent inhibitors of cardiac arrhythmias. Epoxydocosapentaenoic acids also inhibit angiogenesis, decrease inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and reduce tumor metastasis. These findings indicate that a number of the beneficial functions of PUFA may be due to their conversion to PUFA epoxides. PMID:25093613

  10. Significance of Increasing n-3 PUFA Content in Pork on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xianyong; Jiang, Zongyong; Lai, Chaoqiang

    2016-04-01

    Evidence for the health-promoting effects of food rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is reviewed. Pork is an important meat source for humans. According to a report by the US Department of Agriculture ( http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics ), the pork consumption worldwide in 2011 was about 79.3 million tons, much higher than that of beef (48.2 million tons). Pork also contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids relative to ruminant meats (Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J. and Wood, J. D. (1996) . Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb, and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 44:443-458). The available literature indicates that the levels of eicosatetraenoic and docosahexaenoic in pork may be increased by fish-derived or linseed products, the extent of which being dependent on the nature of the supplementation. Transgenic pigs and plants show promise with high content of n-3 PUFA and low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in their tissues. The approaches mentioned for decreasing n-6/n-3 ratios have both advantages and disadvantages. Selected articles are critically reviewed and summarized. PMID:26237277

  11. Dietary fatty acids affect semen quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A H; Moghadasian, M H; Alizadeh, A R

    2015-05-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa are characterized by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which play a crucial role in fertilization. This review focuses on analysis of sperm fatty acid profiles and the effects of omega-3, saturated and trans dietary and sperm fatty acids on sperm parameters. Two major points have been pivotal points of investigation in the field of sperm fatty acid profiles: first, the comparison between fatty acid profiles of fertile and infertile men and second, the effect of dietary fatty acids on sperm fatty acid profiles as well as sperm quality and quantity. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3), and palmitic acid (C16:0) are the predominant PUFA and saturated fatty acids, respectively, in human sperm cells. Higher levels of DHA are concentrated on the sperm's head or tail varying among different species. However, the human sperm head contains a higher concentration of DHA. Dietary fatty acids influence on sperm fatty acid profiles and it seems that sperm fatty acid profiles are most sensitive to dietary omega-3 PUFA. Although improvements in sperm parameters are a response to omega-3 sources after more than 4 weeks of supplementation in the male diet, time-dependent and dose-dependent responses may explain the failure in some experiments. In human spermatozoa, elevated saturated or trans fatty acid concentration and a low DHA level is a concern. The regulations of the sperm fatty acid mean melting point as well as expression regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) alongside with spermatozoon assembly, anti-apoptosis effects, eicosanoid formation, and hormone activity are the putative key factors that induce a response by inclusion of omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25951427

  12. Comparative Analysis and Distribution of Omega-3 lcPUFA Biosynthesis Genes in Marine Molluscs

    PubMed Central

    Surm, Joachim M.; Prentis, Peter J.; Pavasovic, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has identified marine molluscs as an excellent source of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (lcPUFAs), based on their potential for endogenous synthesis of lcPUFAs. In this study we generated a representative list of fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) and elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (Elovl) genes from major orders of Phylum Mollusca, through the interrogation of transcriptome and genome sequences, and various publicly available databases. We have identified novel and uncharacterised Fad and Elovl sequences in the following species: Anadara trapezia, Nerita albicilla, Nerita melanotragus, Crassostrea gigas, Lottia gigantea, Aplysia californica, Loligo pealeii and Chlamys farreri. Based on alignments of translated protein sequences of Fad and Elovl genes, the haeme binding motif and histidine boxes of Fad proteins, and the histidine box and seventeen important amino acids in Elovl proteins, were highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of aligned reference sequences was used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships for Fad and Elovl genes separately. Multiple, well resolved clades for both the Fad and Elovl sequences were observed, suggesting that repeated rounds of gene duplication best explain the distribution of Fad and Elovl proteins across the major orders of molluscs. For Elovl sequences, one clade contained the functionally characterised Elovl5 proteins, while another clade contained proteins hypothesised to have Elovl4 function. Additional well resolved clades consisted only of uncharacterised Elovl sequences. One clade from the Fad phylogeny contained only uncharacterised proteins, while the other clade contained functionally characterised delta-5 desaturase proteins. The discovery of an uncharacterised Fad clade is particularly interesting as these divergent proteins may have novel functions. Overall, this paper presents a number of novel Fad and Elovl genes suggesting that many mollusc groups possess most of the

  13. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids (FAHFAs) With Anti-inflammatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Ondrej; Brezinova, Marie; Rombaldova, Martina; Slavikova, Barbora; Posta, Martin; Beier, Petr; Janovska, Petra; Veleba, Jiri; Kopecky, Jan; Kudova, Eva; Pelikanova, Terezie; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-09-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Dysregulation of all of these functions of WAT, together with low-grade inflammation of the tissue in obese individuals, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of marine origin play an important role in the resolution of inflammation and exert beneficial metabolic effects. Using experiments in mice and overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, we elucidated the structures of novel members of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids-lipokines derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid, which were present in serum and WAT after n-3 PUFA supplementation. These compounds contained DHA esterified to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HLA) or 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDHA), termed 9-DHAHLA, 13-DHAHLA, and 14-DHAHDHA, and were synthesized by adipocytes at concentrations comparable to those of protectins and resolvins derived from DHA in WAT. 13-DHAHLA exerted anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties while reducing macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharides and enhancing the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. Our results document the existence of novel lipid mediators, which are involved in the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects attributed to n-3 PUFAs, in both mice and humans. PMID:27313314

  14. Coenzyme Q addition to an n-6 PUFA-rich diet resembles benefits on age-related mitochondrial DNA deletion and oxidative stress of a MUFA-rich diet in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Quiles, José L; Pamplona, Reinald; Ramirez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Naudí, Alba; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Araujo-Nepomuceno, Eduardo; López-Frías, Magdalena; Battino, Maurizio; Ochoa, Julio J

    2010-01-01

    Age-related changes in cardiomyocytes reduce the capacity to recover from acute injury or to adapt during chronic disease in advanced age. N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA) lead to higher lipid peroxidation during aging than the less oxidizable monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA); and coenzyme Q (CoQ)-supplemented n-6PUFA lengthens the lifespan and reduces peroxidation in comparison to non-supplemented n-6PUFA. Here, lifelong feeding on MUFA, n-6PUFA, and n-6 PUFA+CoQ was compared regarding age-related alterations in rat heart. Less mitochondrial area and perimeter were reported for aged n-6 PUFA-fed animals while MUFA led to a higher density of mitochondrial cristae. Mitochondrial complexes and cytochrome c oxidase activity decreased with aging (except complex I and cytochrome c oxidase in n-6 PUFA+CoQ), while increased apoptosis-inducing factor was found with aging. MUFA led to lower mitochondrial DNA-deletion frequency. The lowest hydroperoxide levels for aged animals were found for n-6 PUFA+CoQ, which also showed lower concentrations than did n-6 PUFA. For protein oxidation, specific carbonyl compounds were lower in aged animals; meanwhile lipoxidation-derived protein-oxidation markers were higher. The results suggest that MUFA can protect mitochondria from age-related changes, and that CoQ supplementation to n-6 PUFA partially resembles MUFA benefits. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, lipid-derived oxidative damage appears to be more important than the pure protein-derived oxidative damage during aging. PMID:19948181

  15. Intakes of PUFAs were inversely associated with plasma C-reactive protein 12 years later in a middle-aged population with vitamin E intake as an effect modifier.

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Touvier, Mathilde; Meunier, Nathalie; Papet, Isabelle; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2013-11-01

    Although n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered anti-inflammatory components, the role of dietary n-6 PUFAs in inflammation remains controversial. Some mechanistic evidence suggests vitamin E as a potential effect modifier in the relationship between PUFAs and inflammation. Our objectives were to evaluate the long-term associations between dietary intakes of PUFAs and elevated plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and to investigate potential effect modification by vitamin E. Individuals in the placebo group of the SU.VI.MAX trial who had available CRP measurements in 2007-2009 were included in the study (n = 843). Dietary intakes of n-3 PUFAs, n-6 PUFAs, and vitamin E were assessed in 1994-1996 with at least 6 dietary records. The logistic regression OR for elevated CRP (>3 mg/L) and 95% CI were estimated for individual PUFAs and for total n-3 and n-6 PUFA intakes. Models were adjusted for sociodemographical, lifestyle, anthropometric, and dietary variables. Interactions with vitamin E intakes were also assessed. Inverse associations were observed between intakes of total n-3 PUFAs [α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), ALA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), EPA + docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-3), DPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3)] and n-6 PUFA [linoleic acid (18:2n-6) + arachidonic acid (20:4n-6)] and elevated CRP (OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 of intake: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.77; P-trend = 0.01; and OR 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.70; P-trend = 0.002, respectively). Stratification on vitamin E intakes showed that inverse associations between dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA intakes and elevated CRP were substantial only in individuals with low intakes of vitamin E. Our results supported the contention that intakes of both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are inversely associated with plasma CRP concentrations. Vitamin E is a potential effect modifier and should therefore be taken into account in such investigations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  16. Systematic metabolomic analysis of eicosanoids after omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation by a highly specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Yang, Nan; Ai, Ding; Zhu, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have beneficial effects in many pathological processes, especially cardiovascular disease, and their protective eicosanoid metabolites are thought to play important roles. However, how ω-3 PUFAs affect the eicosanoid profile has not been elucidated comprehensively. Here, we systematically analyzed the eicosanoid metabolites induced by ω-3 PUFA supplementation. We developed an LC-MS/MS-based method covering 32 arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites and 37 ω-3 PUFA-derived products. The limits of detection for eicosanoids were between 0.0625 and 1 pg and the detection specificity was optimized. We then quantified eicosanoids in mouse and human plasma and mouse aorta samples after ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Levels of EPA hydroxyl products, 4-HDoHE, 17,18-EEQ, 17,18-DiHETE, TXB2, and LXA4 were significantly changed in both mouse samples, and those of 2-series PGs, EDPs and DHA hydroxyl products were changed in aorta samples. Correlation network analysis of mouse plasma data revealed that some eicosanoids had higher connection degree or betweenness centrality score than others after ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Eicosanoids in human plasma were profiled across five time points after ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm suggested that the time curves of eicosanoid activity could be described with three kinetic patterns: sustained upregulation, short-term upregulation, and downregulation. This is the first systematic profiling of eicosanoids with ω-3 PUFA supplementation. The highly specific eicosanoid metabolomic and related data analysis methods would be powerful tools for comprehensive eicosanoid study. PMID:25736083

  17. High-protein-PUFA supplementation, red blood cell membranes, and plasma antioxidant activity in volleyball athletes.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Marco; Baldini, Marta; Angeloni, Cristina; Biagi, Pierluigi; Hrelia, Silvana

    2008-06-01

    The authors evaluated the role of a high-protein, low-calorie, polyunsaturated fatty-acid (PUFA) -supplemented diet on anthropometric parameters, erythrocyte-membrane fatty-acid composition, and plasma antioxidant defenses of nonprofessional volleyball athletes. The athletes were divided in two groups: One (n = 5) followed the Mediterranean diet, and the other (n = 6) followed a high-protein, low-calorie diet with a 3-g/day fish-oil supplementation. All the athletes had anthropometric measurements taken, both at the beginning and at the end of the study, which lasted for 2 months. Body-mass index and total body fat were significantly diminished in the second group, while they remained unchanged in the first. Plasma total antioxidant activity (TAA) was significantly increased in the plasma of both groups, with no differences between the groups, suggesting that physical activity, not the different diets, is the main contributor to the increase of plasma TAA. The second group showed a significant increase in erythrocyte-membrane PUFA content and in the unsaturation index value (UI) because of the fish-oil supplementation.A high-protein, low-carbohydrate, fish-oil-supplemented diet seems to be useful only when the aim of the diet is to obtain weight loss in a short-term period. The significant increase in the UI of erythrocyte membranes indicates the potential for harm, because a high intake of PUFA might increase susceptibility to lipid peroxidation not counterbalanced by a higher increase in TAA. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet seems to be the better choice. PMID:18562771

  18. Nutritional regulation of long-chain PUFA biosynthetic genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Gregory, Melissa K; Collins, Robert O; Tocher, Douglas R; James, Michael J; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2016-05-28

    Most studies on dietary vegetable oil in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) have been conducted on a background of dietary EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) contained in the fishmeal used as a protein source in aquaculture feed. If dietary EPA and DHA repress their endogenous synthesis from α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18 : 3n-3), then the potential of ALA-containing vegetable oils to maintain tissue EPA and DHA has been underestimated. We examined the effect of individual dietary n-3 PUFA on the expression of the biosynthetic genes required for metabolism of ALA to DHA in rainbow trout. A total of 720 juvenile rainbow trout were allocated to twenty-four experimental tanks and assigned one of eight diets. The effect of dietary ALA, EPA or DHA, in isolation or in combination, on hepatic expression of fatty acyl desaturase (FADS)2a(Δ6), FADS2b(Δ5), elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (ELOVL)5 and ELOVL2 was examined after 3 weeks of dietary intervention. The effect of these diets on liver and muscle phospholipid PUFA composition was also examined. The expression levels of FADS2a(Δ6), ELOVL5 and ELOVL2 were highest when diets were high in ALA, with no added EPA or DHA. Under these conditions ALA was readily converted to tissue DHA. Dietary DHA had the largest and most consistent effect in down-regulating the gene expression of all four genes. The ELOVL5 expression was the least responsive of the four genes to dietary n-3 PUFA changes. These findings should be considered when optimising aquaculture feeds containing vegetable oils and/or fish oil or fishmeal to achieve maximum DHA synthesis. PMID:26987422

  19. Intra-myocellular fatty acid metabolism plays a critical role in mediating responses to dietary restriction in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Katewa, Subhash D.; Demontis, Fabio; Kolipinski, Marysia; Hubbard, Allan; Gill, Matthew S.; Perrimon, Norbert; Melov, Simon; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Summary Changes in fat content have been associated with dietary restriction (DR), but whether they play a causal role in mediating various responses to DR remains unknown. We demonstrate that upon DR, Drosophila melanogaster shift their metabolism towards increasing both fatty acid synthesis and breakdown, which is required for various responses to DR. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis or oxidation genes specifically in the muscle tissue inhibited lifespan extension upon DR. Furthermore, DR enhances spontaneous activity of flies which was found to be dependent on the enhanced fatty acid metabolism. This increase in activity was found to be at least partially required for the lifespan extension upon DR. Over-expression of adipokinetic hormone (dAKH), the functional ortholog of glucagon, enhances fat metabolism, spontaneous activity and lifespan. Together, these results suggest that enhanced fat metabolism in the muscle and physical activity play a key role in the protective effects of DR. PMID:22768842

  20. ASICs Do Not Play a Role in Maintaining Hyperalgesia Induced by Repeated Intramuscular Acid Injections

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Mamta; Benson, Christopher J.; Ranier, Jon D.; Light, Alan R.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Repeated intramuscular acid injections produce long-lasting mechanical hyperalgesia that depends on activation of ASICs. The present study investigated if pH-activated currents in sensory neurons innervating muscle were altered in response to repeated acid injections, and if blockade of ASICs reverses existing hyperalgesia. In muscle sensory neurons, the mean acid-evoked current amplitudes and the biophysical properties of the ASIC-like currents were unchanged following acidic saline injections when compared to neutral pH saline injections or uninjected controls. Moreover, increased mechanical sensitivity of the muscle and paw after the second acid injection was unaffected by local blockade of ASICs (A-317567) in the muscle. As a control, electron microscopic analysis showed that the tibial nerve was undamaged after acid injections. Our previous studies demonstrated that ASICs are important in the development of hyperalgesia to repeated acid injections. However, the current data suggest that ASICs are not involved in maintaining hyperalgesia to repeated intramuscular acid injections. PMID:22191025

  1. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and...

  2. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of D...

  3. n3 PUFAs Do Not Affect Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Overweight to Moderately Obese Men and Women123

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Mario; Kuzma, Jessica N.; Hagman, Derek K.; van Yserloo, Brian; Matthys, Colleen C.; Callahan, Holly S.; Weigle, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease adipose tissue inflammation in rodents and in morbidly obese humans. We investigated whether a diet rich in n3 PUFAs from both marine and plant sources reduces adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese adults. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, parallel-design, placebo-controlled feeding trial. Healthy men and women with a body mass index between 28 and 33 kg/m2 consumed a diet rich in n3 PUFAs (3.5% of energy intake; n = 11) from plant and marine sources or a control diet (0.5% of energy intake from n3 PUFAs; n = 13). These diets were consumed for 14 wk (ad libitum for 12 wk). All foods were provided for the entire study period. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and fasting plasma were collected after the first 2 wk with the control diet and again at the end of the 14-wk dietary period. The primary outcome of this ex post analysis was the adipose tissue gene expression of 13 key mediators of inflammation. Adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the 2 groups, after adjustment for weight change. Furthermore, none of the 5 plasma markers of systemic inflammation differed significantly as an effect of diet treatment. We conclude that a relatively high dose of n3 PUFAs from plant and marine sources did not significantly lower adipose tissue or systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese healthy men and women over 14 wk. PMID:23761646

  4. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the major components of brain and retina, and are the essential fatty acids with important physiologically active functions. Thus, PUFAs should be provided to children, and are very important in the brain growth and development for fetuses, newborn infants, and children. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease coronary artery disease and improve blood flow. PUFAs have been known to have anti-inflammatory action and improved the chronic inflammation such as auto-immune diseases or degenerative neurologic diseases. PUFAs are used for metabolic syndrome related with obesity or diabetes. However, there are several considerations related with intake of PUFAs. Obsession with the intake of unsaturated fatty acids could bring about the shortage of essential fatty acids that are crucial for our body, weaken the immune system, and increase the risk of heart disease, arrhythmia, and stroke. In this review, we discuss types, physiologic mechanism of action of PUFAs, intake of PUFAs for children, recommended intake of PUFAs, and considerations for the intake of PUFAs. PMID:24224148

  5. In vitro fatty acid enrichment of macrophages alters inflammatory response and net cholesterol accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary omega (omega)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and omega–6 PUFA are thought to have unique benefits with respect to cardiovascular disease. Macrophages (M phi) differentiated from human monocytic cell line THP-1 were used to assess the effect of omega-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]...

  6. High feeding intensity increases the severity of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison) with potential ameliorating role for long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid body fat mobilization, obesity, and an inadequate supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been suggested to play roles in the etiology of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison). This study examined the effects of feeding intensity and dietary fat source on fatty liver induced by fasting. In a multi-factorial design, 3 different fat sources (herring oil, rich in n-3 PUFA, soya oil, rich in n-6 PUFA, and canola oil, rich in n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids) were fed to mink at a low and high feeding intensity for 10 weeks, followed by an overnight or a 5-day fasting treatment to induce fatty liver. Results Fasting led to the development of fatty liver with increased severity in the mink fed at the high feeding intensity. The herring oil diet, high in long-chain n-3 PUFA, was found to decrease the severity of fatty liver in the mink at the high feeding intensity. Conclusion Preventing excessive weight gain and increasing dietary intake of n-3 long-chain PUFA may help prevent excessive lipid accumulation during prolonged periods of fasting or inappetence by promoting hepatic fatty acid oxidation. PMID:24438337

  7. Type 2 diabetes, PUFAs, and vitamin D: their relation to inflammation.

    PubMed

    Guadarrama-López, Ana L; Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Martínez-Carrillo, Beatríz E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases have become one of the most important public health problems, due to their high costs for treatment and prevention. Until now, researchers have considered that the etiology of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is multifactorial. Recently, the study of the innate immune system has offered an explanation model of the pathogenesis of T2DM. On the other hand, there is evidence about the beneficial effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) n-3 and n-6 in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases including diabetes. Furthermore, high vitamin D plasmatic concentrations have been associated with the best performance of pancreatic β cells and the improving of this disease. In conclusion, certain fatty acids in the adequate proportion as well as 25-hydroxivitamin D can modulate the inflammatory response in diabetic people, modifying the evolution of this disease. PMID:24741627

  8. Type 2 Diabetes, PUFAs, and Vitamin D: Their Relation to Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Guadarrama-López, Ana L.; Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Martínez-Carrillo, Beatríz E.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases have become one of the most important public health problems, due to their high costs for treatment and prevention. Until now, researchers have considered that the etiology of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is multifactorial. Recently, the study of the innate immune system has offered an explanation model of the pathogenesis of T2DM. On the other hand, there is evidence about the beneficial effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) n-3 and n-6 in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases including diabetes. Furthermore, high vitamin D plasmatic concentrations have been associated with the best performance of pancreatic β cells and the improving of this disease. In conclusion, certain fatty acids in the adequate proportion as well as 25-hydroxivitamin D can modulate the inflammatory response in diabetic people, modifying the evolution of this disease. PMID:24741627

  9. Antioxidant activity of some Moroccan marine microalgae: Pufa profiles, carotenoids and phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Maadane, Amal; Merghoub, Nawal; Ainane, Tarik; El Arroussi, Hicham; Benhima, Redouane; Amzazi, Saaid; Bakri, Youssef; Wahby, Imane

    2015-12-10

    In order to promote Moroccan natural resources, this study aims to evaluate the potential of microalgae isolated from Moroccan coastlines, as new source of natural antioxidants. Different extracts (ethanolic, ethanol/water and aqueous) obtained from 9 microalgae strains were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical-scavenging assay. The highest antioxidant potentials were obtained in Dunalliela sp., Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis gaditana extracts. The obtained results indicate that ethanol extract of all microalgae strains exhibit higher antioxidant activity, when compared to water and ethanol/water extracts. Therefore, total phenolic and carotenoid content measurement were performed in active ethanol extracts. The PUFA profiles of ethanol extracts were also determined by GC/MS analysis. The studied microalgae strains displayed high PUFA content ranging from 12.9 to 76.9 %, total carotenoids content varied from 1.9 and 10.8mg/g of extract and total polyphenol content varied from 8.1 to 32.0mg Gallic acid Equivalent/g of extract weight. The correlation between the antioxidant capacities and the phenolic content and the carotenoids content were found to be insignificant, indicating that these compounds might not be major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these microalgae. The microalgae extracts exerting the high antioxidant activity are potential new source of natural antioxidants. PMID:26113214

  10. Production and characterisation of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched Burrata cheese.

    PubMed

    Trani, Antonio; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Gomes, Tommaso F; Loizzo, Pasqua; Cassone, Angela; Faccia, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Burrata is an Italian fresh 'pasta filata' cheese made from cow's milk and cream that is rapidly spreading in Europe. It has very high caloric content, and a technological protocol was developed for producing a reduced-fat type and fortifying it with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of vegetable origin. A satisfactory reduced-fat prototype was obtained by using a 14% fat cream, which was specifically developed by diluting double cream with a suspension of carob seed flour. The composition of the new cheese changed with respect to the control, but the sensory characteristics were not impaired. Moisture increased from 62·6 to 68·4%, fat on dry matter decreased from 59·1 to 34·7%, and the caloric content decreased from 1060·8 to 718 J/100 g. Proteolysis and lipolysis were not affected by the technological modifications: after 7 d storage, the electrophoretic pattern of caseins and the free fatty acids profile of experimental and control cheeses were not significantly different. Fortification of reduced-fat Burrata with PUFA was obtained by using two commercial formulates available at a compatible price with the current economic values of the cheese. The two formulates derived from flaxseeds and Carthamus tinctorius oil and allowed enrichment in C18 :3 : n3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA), and 9cis,11trans- and 10trans,12cis- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), respectively. Fortification was easy to perform under a technical point of view, but the negative sensory impact limited fortification at a maximum of 7·0 mg g-1 fat ALA and 6·8 g-1 fat CLA. PMID:27210495

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids, lipid rafts, and T cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tim Y; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-08-15

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown in many clinical studies to attenuate inflammatory responses. Although inflammatory responses are orchestrated by a wide spectrum of cells, CD4(+) T cells play an important role in the etiology of many chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. In light of recent concerns over the safety profiles of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), alternatives such as bioactive nutraceuticals are becoming more attractive. In order for these agents to be accepted into mainstream medicine, however, the mechanisms by which nutraceuticals such as n-3 PUFA exert their anti-inflammatory effects must be fully elucidated. Lipid rafts are nanoscale, dynamic domains in the plasma membrane that are formed through favorable lipid-lipid (cholesterol, sphingolipids, and saturated fatty acids) and lipid-protein (membrane-actin cytoskeleton) interactions. These domains optimize the clustering of signaling proteins at the membrane to facilitate efficient cell signaling which is required for CD4(+) T cell activation and differentiation. This review summarizes novel emerging data documenting the ability of n-3 PUFA to perturb membrane-cytoskeletal structure and function in CD4(+) T cells. An understanding of these underlying mechanisms will provide a rationale for the use of n-3 PUFA in the treatment of chronic inflammation. PMID:26001374

  12. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and Alzheimer's disease: towards an omega-3 index for mental health?

    PubMed

    Milte, Catherine M; Sinn, Natalie; Howe, Peter R C

    2009-10-01

    Interest in the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly long-chain (LC) omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs, in mental health is increasing. This review investigates whether n-3 PUFA levels are abnormal in people with three prevalent mental health problems - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and dementia. Data sources included PubMed, Web of Science, and bibliographies of papers published in English that describe PUFA levels in the circulation of individuals who have these mental health conditions. Although abnormal blood PUFA levels were reported in a number of studies, weighted comparisons of PUFA status showed no significant differences overall between people with mental health problems and controls. Whether those with low n-3 PUFA status are likely to be more responsive to n-3 PUFA supplementation is not yet resolved. Further studies assessing PUFA levels and mental status with greater uniformity are required in order to clarify the relationship between LC n-3 PUFA status and mental health. PMID:19785689

  13. A purple acid phosphatase plays a role in nodule formation and nitrogen fixation in Astragalus sinicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyun; Si, Zaiyong; Li, Fang; Xiong, Xiaobo; Lei, Lei; Xie, Fuli; Chen, Dasong; Li, Yixing; Li, Youguo

    2015-08-01

    The AsPPD1 gene from Astragalus sinicus encodes a purple acid phosphatase. To address the functions of AsPPD1 in legume-rhizobium symbiosis, its expression patterns, enzyme activity, subcellular localization, and phenotypes associated with its over-expression and RNA interference (RNAi) were investigated. The expression of AsPPD1 was up-regulated in roots and nodules after inoculation with rhizobia. Phosphate starvation reduced the levels of AsPPD1 transcripts in roots while increased those levels in nodules. We confirmed the acid phosphatase and phosphodiesterase activities of recombinant AsPPD1 purified from Pichia pastoris, and demonstrated its ability to hydrolyze ADP and ATP in vitro. Subcellular localization showed that AsPPD1 located on the plasma membranes in hairy roots and on the symbiosomes membranes in root nodules. Over-expression of AsPPD1 in hairy roots inhibited nodulation, while its silencing resulted in nodules early senescence and significantly decreased nitrogenase activity. Furthermore, HPLC measurement showed that AsPPD1 overexpression affects the ADP levels in the infected roots and nodules, AsPPD1 silencing affects the ratio of ATP/ADP and the energy charge in nodules, and quantitative observation demonstrated the changes of AsPPD1 transcripts level affected nodule primordia formation. Taken together, it is speculated that AsPPD1 contributes to symbiotic ADP levels and energy charge control, and this is required for effective nodule organogenesis and nitrogen fixation. PMID:26105827

  14. Metal Ions Play an Essential Catalytic Role in the Mechanism of Ketol-Acid Reductoisomerase.

    PubMed

    Tadrowski, Sonya; Pedroso, Marcelo M; Sieber, Volker; Larrabee, James A; Guddat, Luke W; Schenk, Gerhard

    2016-05-23

    Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI) is a Mg(2+) -dependent enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway. It catalyses a complex two-part reaction: an alkyl migration followed by a NADPH-dependent reduction. Both reactions occur within the one active site, but in particular, the mechanism of the isomerisation step is poorly understood. Here, using a combination of kinetic, thermodynamic and spectroscopic techniques, the reaction mechanisms of both Escherichia coli and rice KARI have been investigated. We propose a conserved mechanism of catalysis, whereby a hydroxide, bridging the two Mg(2+) ions in the active site, initiates the reaction by abstracting a proton from the C2 alcohol group of the substrate. While the μ-hydroxide-bridged dimetallic centre is pre-assembled in the bacterial enzyme, in plant KARI substrate binding leads to a reduction of the metal-metal distance with the concomitant formation of a hydroxide bridge. Only Mg(2+) is capable of promoting the isomerisation reaction, likely to be due to non-competent substrate binding in the presence of other metal ions. PMID:27136273

  15. Computational Modeling of Competitive Metabolism between ω3- and ω6-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Inflammatory Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shakti; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Maurya, Mano R; Norris, Paul C; Dennis, Edward A; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2016-08-25

    Arachidonic acid (AA), a representative ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is a precursor of 2-series prostaglandins (PGs) that play important roles in inflammation, pain, fever, and related disorders including cardiovascular diseases. Eating fish or supplementation with the ω3-PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is widely assumed to be beneficial in preventing cardiovascular diseases. A proposed mechanism for a cardio-protective role of ω3-PUFAs assumes competition between AA and ω3-PUFAs for cyclooxygenases (COX), leading to reduced production of 2-series PGs. In this study, we have used a systems biology approach to integrate existing knowledge and novel high-throughput data that facilitates a quantitative understanding of the molecular mechanism of ω3- and ω6-PUFA metabolism in mammalian cells. We have developed a quantitative computational model of the competitive metabolism of AA and EPA via the COX pathway through a two-step matrix-based approach to estimate the rate constants. This model was developed by using lipidomic data sets that were experimentally obtained from EPA-supplemented ATP-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. The resulting model fits the experimental data well for all metabolites and demonstrates that the integrated metabolic and signaling networks and the experimental data are consistent with one another. The robustness of the model was validated through parametric sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. We also validated the model by predicting the results from other independent experiments involving AA- and DHA-supplemented ATP-stimulated RAW264.7 cells using the parameters estimated with EPA. Furthermore, we showed that the higher affinity of EPA binding to COX compared with AA was able to inhibit AA metabolism effectively. Thus, our model captures the essential features of competitive metabolism of ω3- and ω6-PUFAs. PMID:27063350

  16. COX-2, aspirin and metabolism of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and their physiological and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Poorani, R; Bhatt, Anant N; Dwarakanath, B S; Das, Undurti N

    2016-08-15

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are vital for normal growth and development and physiological function of various tissues in humans. PUFAs have immunomodulatory actions in addition to their ability to modulate inflammation, vascular reactivity, neurotransmission and stem cell biology. PUFAs and their metabolites possess both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties that underlie their actions and involvement in several diseases. Aspirin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), possesses both cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory action and enhances the production of anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 {(called as epi-lipoxin A4, aspirin-triggered lipoxins (ATLs))}. In addition, at low doses aspirin may not interfere with the production of prostacyclin (PGI2). Both lipoxin A4 and PGI2 have vasodilator, platelet anti-aggregator and anti-inflammatory actions that may underlie the beneficial actions of aspirin. Paradoxically, other NSAIDs may not have the same actions as that of aspirin on PUFA metabolism. Similar anti-inflammatory compounds are formed from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by the action of aspirin termed as resolvins (from EPA and DHA) and protectins and maresins from DHA. PUFAs: arachidonic acid (AA), EPA and DHA and their various products modulate not only inflammation and immune response but also possess actions on various genes, nuclear factors, cyclic AMP and GMP, G-protein coupled receptors (GPRs), hypothalamic neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines and enzymes, and interact with nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide to regulate their formation and action and to form new compounds that have several biological actions. These pleiotropic actions of PUFAs and their metabolites may explain their ability to play a role in several physiological actions and diseases. The big challenge is to harness these actions to prevent and manage clinical conditions. PMID:26335394

  17. n-3 LC-PUFA deposition efficiency and appetite-regulating hormones are modulated by the dietary lipid source during rainbow trout grow-out and finishing periods.

    PubMed

    Francis, D S; Thanuthong, T; Senadheera, S P S D; Paolucci, M; Coccia, E; De Silva, S S; Turchini, G M

    2014-04-01

    Largely attributable to concerns surrounding sustainability, the utilisation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich (n-3 LC-PUFA) fish oils in aquafeeds for farmed fish species is an increasingly concerning issue. Therefore, strategies to maximise the deposition efficiency of these key health beneficial fatty acids are being investigated. The present study examined the effects of four vegetable-based dietary lipid sources (linseed, olive, palm and sunflower oil) on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and the circulating blood plasma concentrations of the appetite-regulating hormones, leptin and ghrelin, during the grow-out and finishing phases in rainbow trout culture. Minimal detrimental effects were noted in fish performance; however, major modifications were apparent in tissue fatty acid compositions, which generally reflected that of the diet. These modifications diminished somewhat following the fish oil finishing phase, but longer-lasting effects remained evident. The fatty acid composition of the alternative oils was demonstrated to have a modulatory effect on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and on the key endocrine hormones involved in appetite regulation, growth and feed intake during both the grow-out and finishing phases. In particular, n-6 PUFA (sunflower oil diet) appeared to 'spare' the catabolism of n-3 LC-PUFA and, as such, resulted in the highest retention of these fatty acids, ultimately highlighting new nutritional approaches to maximise the maintenance of the qualitative benefits of fish oils when they are used in feeds for aquaculture species. PMID:24078221

  18. Monomethyl Branched-Chain Fatty Acids Play an Essential Role in Caenorhabditis elegans Development

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Quinn T; Seiber, Matt; Wang, Cun-Yu

    2004-01-01

    Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) are commonly found in many organisms from bacteria to mammals. In humans, they have been detected in skin, brain, blood, and cancer cells. Despite a broad distribution, mmBCFAs remain exotic in eukaryotes, where their origin and physiological roles are not understood. Here we report our study of the function and regulation of mmBCFAs in Caenorhabditis elegans, combining genetics, gas chromatography, and DNA microarray analysis. We show that C. elegans synthesizes mmBCFAs de novo and utilizes the long-chain fatty acid elongation enzymes ELO-5 and ELO-6 to produce two mmBCFAs, C15ISO and C17ISO. These mmBCFAs are essential for C. elegans growth and development, as suppression of their biosynthesis results in a growth arrest at the first larval stage. The arrest is reversible and can be overcome by feeding the arrested animals with mmBCFA supplements. We show not only that the levels of C15ISO and C17ISO affect the expression of several genes, but also that the activities of some of these genes affect biosynthesis of mmBCFAs, suggesting a potential feedback regulation. One of the genes, lpd-1, encodes a homolog of a mammalian sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP 1c). We present results suggesting that elo-5 and elo-6 may be transcriptional targets of LPD-1. This study exposes unexpected and crucial physiological functions of C15ISO and C17ISO in C. elegans and suggests a potentially important role for mmBCFAs in other eukaryotes. PMID:15340492

  19. Genetic Variants of the FADS Gene Cluster and ELOVL Gene Family, Colostrums LC-PUFA Levels, Breastfeeding, and Child Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Eva; Bustamante, Mariona; Gonzalez, Juan Ramon; Guxens, Monica; Torrent, Maties; Mendez, Michelle; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Vrijheid, Martine; Molto-Puigmarti, Carolina; Lopez-Sabater, Carmen; Estivill, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Breastfeeding effects on cognition are attributed to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), but controversy persists. Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturase (FADS) and elongase (ELOVL) enzymes has been overlooked when studying the effects of LC-PUFAs supply on cognition. We aimed to: 1) to determine whether maternal genetic variants in the FADS cluster and ELOVL genes contribute to differences in LC-PUFA levels in colostrum; 2) to analyze whether these maternal variants are related to child cognition; and 3) to assess whether children's variants modify breastfeeding effects on cognition. Methods Data come from two population-based birth cohorts (n = 400 mother-child pairs from INMA-Sabadell; and n = 340 children from INMA-Menorca). LC-PUFAs were measured in 270 colostrum samples from INMA-Sabadell. Tag SNPs were genotyped both in mothers and children (13 in the FADS cluster, 6 in ELOVL2, and 7 in ELOVL5). Child cognition was assessed at 14 mo and 4 y using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, respectively. Results Children of mothers carrying genetic variants associated with lower FADS1 activity (regulating AA and EPA synthesis), higher FADS2 activity (regulating DHA synthesis), and with higher EPA/AA and DHA/AA ratios in colostrum showed a significant advantage in cognition at 14 mo (3.5 to 5.3 points). Not being breastfed conferred an 8- to 9-point disadvantage in cognition among children GG homozygote for rs174468 (low FADS1 activity) but not among those with the A allele. Moreover, not being breastfed resulted in a disadvantage in cognition (5 to 8 points) among children CC homozygote for rs2397142 (low ELOVL5 activity), but not among those carrying the G allele. Conclusion Genetically determined maternal supplies of LC-PUFAs during pregnancy and lactation appear to be crucial for child cognition. Breastfeeding effects on cognition are modified by child genetic variation in

  20. n-3 PUFA added to high-fat diets affect differently adiposity and inflammation when carried by phospholipids or triacylglycerols in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is primarily recognized to protect against cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunctions and the onset of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, some of their properties such as bioavailability can depend on their chemical carriers. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the nature of n-3 PUFA carrier results in different metabolic effects related to adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods 4 groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 weeks low fat (LF) diet or high-fat (HF, 20%) diets. Two groups of high-fat diets were supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA either incorporated in the form of phospholipids (HF-ω3PL) or triacylglycerols (HF-ω3TG). Results Both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets reduced the plasma concentrations of (i) inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), (ii) leptin and (iii) 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a marker of n-6 PUFA-derived oxidative stress compared with the control HF diet. Moreover, in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups, MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expressions were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue and the mRNA level of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase GPx2, an antioxidant enzyme, was decreased in the jejunum compared with the control HF diet. The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes. The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups. Adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL and LF groups were similar in size distribution. Conclusion Supplementation of mice diet with long-chain n-3 PUFA during long-term consumption of high-fat diets had the same lowering effects on inflammation regardless of triacyglycerol or phospholipid carrier, whereas the location of these fatty acids on a PL carrier had a major effect on decreasing the size of

  1. Autocrine abscisic acid plays a key role in quartz-induced macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Magnone, Mirko; Sturla, Laura; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Scarfì, Sonia; Bruzzone, Santina; Usai, Cesare; Guida, Lucrezia; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2012-03-01

    Inhalation of quartz induces silicosis, a lung disease where alveolar macrophages release inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Here we report the pivotal role of abscisic acid (ABA), a recently discovered human inflammatory hormone, in silica-induced activation of murine RAW264.7 macrophages and of rat alveolar macrophages (AMs). Stimulation of both RAW264.7 cells and AMs with quartz induced a significant increase of ABA release (5- and 10-fold, respectively), compared to untreated cells. In RAW264.7 cells, autocrine ABA released after quartz stimulation sequentially activates the plasma membrane receptor LANCL2 and NADPH oxidase, generating a Ca(2+) influx resulting in NFκ B nuclear translocation and PGE(2) and TNF-α release (3-, 2-, and 3.5-fold increase, respectively, compared to control, unstimulated cells). Quartz-stimulated RAW264.7 cells silenced for LANCL2 or preincubated with a monoclonal antibody against ABA show an almost complete inhibition of NFκ B nuclear translocation and PGE(2) and TNF-α release compared to controls electroporated with a scramble oligonucleotide or preincubated with an unrelated antibody. AMs showed similar early and late ABA-induced responses as RAW264.7 cells. These findings identify ABA and LANCL2 as key mediators in quartz-induced inflammation, providing possible new targets for antisilicotic therapy. PMID:22042223

  2. Does α-Amino-β-methylaminopropionic Acid (BMAA) Play a Role in Neurodegeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Alexander S.; Gehringer, Michelle M.; Welch, Jeffrey H.; Neilan, Brett A.

    2011-01-01

    The association of α-amino-β-methylaminopropionic acid (BMAA) with elevated incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinson’s disease complex (ALS/PDC) was first identified on the island of Guam. BMAA has been shown to be produced across the cyanobacterial order and its detection has been reported in a variety of aquatic and terrestrial environments worldwide, suggesting that it is ubiquitous. Various in vivo studies on rats, mice, chicks and monkeys have shown that it can cause neurodegenerative symptoms such as ataxia and convulsions. Zebrafish research has also shown disruption to neural development after BMAA exposure. In vitro studies on mice, rats and leeches have shown that BMAA acts predominantly on motor neurons. Observed increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ influx, coupled with disruption to mitochondrial activity and general neuronal death, indicate that the main mode of activity is via excitotoxic mechanisms. The current review pertaining to the neurotoxicity of BMAA clearly demonstrates its ability to adversely affect neural tissues, and implicates it as a potentially significant compound in the aetiology of neurodegenerative disease. When considering the potential adverse health effects upon exposure to this compound, further research to better understand the modes of toxicity of BMAA and the environmental exposure limits is essential. PMID:22016712

  3. SCD1 activity in muscle increases triglyceride PUFA content, exercise capacity, and PPARδ expression in mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Rogowski, Michael P.; Flowers, Matthew T.; Stamatikos, Alexis D.; Ntambi, James M.; Paton, Chad M.

    2013-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)1 converts saturated fatty acids into monounsaturated fatty acids. Using muscle overexpression, we sought to determine the role of SCD1 expression in glucose and lipid metabolism and its effects on exercise capacity in mice. Wild-type C57Bl/6 (WT) and SCD1 muscle transgenic (SCD1-Tg) mice were generated, and expression of the SCD1 transgene was restricted to skeletal muscle. SCD1 overexpression was associated with increased triglyceride (TG) content. The fatty acid composition of the muscle revealed a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of TG, including linoleate (18:2n6). Untrained SCD1-Tg mice also displayed significantly increased treadmill exercise capacity (WT = 6.6 ± 3 min, Tg = 71.9 ± 9.5 min; P = 0.0009). SCD1-Tg mice had decreased fasting plasma glucose, glucose transporter (GLUT)1 mRNA, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial content, and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)δ and Pgc-1 protein expression in skeletal muscle. In vitro studies in C2C12 myocytes revealed that linoleate (18:2n6) and not oleate (18:1n9) caused a 3-fold increase in PPARδ and a 9-fold increase in CPT-1b with a subsequent increase in fat oxidation. The present model suggests that increasing delta-9 desaturase activity of muscle increases metabolic function, exercise capacity, and lipid oxidation likely through increased PUFA content, which increases PPARδ expression and activity. However, the mechanism of action that results in increased PUFA content of SCD1-Tg mice remains to be elucidated. PMID:23918045

  4. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  5. Development of a food-exchange model to replace saturated fat with MUFAs and n-6 PUFAs in adults at moderate cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Weech, Michelle; Vafeiadou, Katerina; Hasaj, Marinela; Todd, Susan; Yaqoob, Parveen; Jackson, Kim G; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2014-06-01

    The recommendation to reduce saturated fatty acid (SFA) consumption to ≤10% of total energy (%TE) is a key public health target aimed at lowering cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Replacement of SFA with unsaturated fats may provide greater benefit than replacement with carbohydrates, yet the optimal type of fat is unclear. The aim of the DIVAS (Dietary Intervention and Vascular Function) study was to develop a flexible food-exchange model to investigate the effects of substituting SFAs with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on CVD risk factors. In this parallel study, UK adults aged 21-60 y with moderate CVD risk (50% greater than the population mean) were identified using a risk assessment tool (n = 195; 56% females). Three 16-wk isoenergetic diets of specific fatty acid (FA) composition (%TE SFA:%TE MUFA:%TE n-6 PUFA) were designed using spreads, oils, dairy products, and snacks as follows: 1) SFA-rich diet (17:11:4; n = 65); 2) MUFA-rich diet (9:19:4; n = 64); and 3) n-6 PUFA-rich diet (9:13:10; n = 66). Each diet provided 36%TE total fat. Dietary targets were broadly met for all intervention groups, reaching 17.6 ± 0.4%TE SFA, 18.5 ± 0.3%TE MUFA, and 10.4 ± 0.3%TE n-6 PUFA in the respective diets, with significant overall diet effects for the changes in SFAs, MUFAs, and n-6 PUFAs between groups (P < 0.001). There were no differences in the changes of total fat, protein, carbohydrate, and alcohol intake or anthropometric measures between groups. Plasma phospholipid FA composition showed changes from baseline in the proportions of total SFAs, MUFAs, and n-6 PUFAs for each diet group, with the changes in SFAs and MUFAs differing between the groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, successful implementation of the food-exchange model broadly achieved the dietary target intakes for the exchange of SFAs with MUFAs or n-6 PUFAs with minimal disruption to the overall diet in a free-living population. This trial was

  6. Effect of n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Microsomal P450 Steroidogenic Enzyme Activities and In Vitro Cortisol Production in Adrenal Tissue From Yorkshire Boars.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xuemei; Wang, Xudong; Mick, Gail J; Kabarowski, Janusz H; Wilson, Landon Shay; Barnes, Stephen; Walcott, Gregory P; Luo, Xiaoping; McCormick, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of adrenal glucocorticoid production is increasingly recognized to play a supportive role in the metabolic syndrome although the mechanism is ill defined. The adrenal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP17 and CYP21, are essential for glucocorticoid synthesis. The omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may ameliorate metabolic syndrome, but it is unknown whether they have direct actions on adrenal CYP steroidogenic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine whether PUFA modify adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis using isolated porcine microsomes. The enzyme activities of CYP17, CYP21, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH), and CYP2E1 were measured in intact microsomes treated with fatty acids of disparate saturated bonds. Cortisol production was measured in a cell-free in vitro model. Microsomal lipid composition after arachidonic acid (AA) exposure was determined by sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra-mass spectrometry. Results showed that adrenal microsomal CYP21 activity was decreased by docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid, α-linolenic acid, AA, and linoleic acid, and CYP17 activity was inhibited by DPA, DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and AA. Inhibition was associated with the number of the PUFA double bonds. Similarly, cortisol production in vitro was decreased by DPA, DHA, and AA. Endoplasmic enzymes with intraluminal activity were unaffected by PUFA. In microsomes exposed to AA, the level of AA or oxidative metabolites of AA in the membrane was not altered. In conclusion, these observations suggest that omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA, especially those with 2 or more double bonds (DPA, DHA, and AA), impede adrenal glucocorticoid production. PMID:26889941

  7. Protective role of n6/n3 PUFA supplementation with varying DHA/EPA ratios against atherosclerosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Hu, Qinling; Wu, Huihui; Xue, Yihong; Cai, Liang; Fang, Min; Liu, Zhiguo; Yao, Ping; Wu, Yongning; Gong, Zhiyong

    2016-06-01

    The effects of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiovascular disease are controversial. We currently explored the effects of various ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on high-fat-induced atherosclerosis. In model apoE(-/-) mice, high-fat diets (HFD) were partially replaced with fish and algal oils (DHA/EPA 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2) and/or plant oils enriched in linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids with an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1. PUFA supplementation significantly reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area, serum lipid profile, inflammatory response, aortic ROS production, proinflammatory factors and scavenger receptor expression as compared to those in the HFD group. However, plant oils did not have a significant effect on the following: serum HDL-C level; aortic ABCA1, ABCG1 and LAL mRNA expression; and CD36 and LOX-1 protein expression. Compared to the plant-oil-treated group, the DHA/EPA 1:1 group had a smaller atherosclerotic plaque area, higher serum HDL-C levels and lesser CD36 and MSR-1 mRNA expression; the DHA/EPA 2:1 group had lower serum TC, LDL-C and TNF-α levels and lower aortic ROS levels. Our study suggested that n3 PUFA from animals had more potent atheroprotective effects than that from plants. Supplementation involving higher DHA/EPA ratios and an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1 was beneficial for reducing serum "bad cholesterol" and a 1:1 DHA/EPA ratio with an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1 was beneficial for improving serum "good cholesterol" and inhibiting ox-LDL uptake. Our results suggest that achieving an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1 in the diet is also important in addition to having an optimal DHA/EPA ratio. PMID:27142749

  8. Effect of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on the muscle transcriptome in older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Jun; Smith, Gordon I; Kelly, Shannon C; Julliand, Sophie; Reeds, Dominic N; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2016-06-01

    Dietary fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA supplementation can increase muscle mass, reduce oxygen demand during physical activity, and improve physical function (muscle strength and power, and endurance) in people. The results from several studies conducted in animals suggest that the anabolic and performance-enhancing effects of n-3 PUFA are at least in part transcriptionally regulated. The effect of n-3 PUFA therapy on the muscle transcriptome in people is unknown. In this study, we used muscle biopsy samples collected during a recently completed randomized controlled trial that found that n-3 PUFA therapy increased muscle mass and function in older adults to provide a comprehensive assessment of the effect of n-3 PUFA therapy on the skeletal muscle gene expression profile in these people. Using the microarray technique, we found that several pathways involved in regulating mitochondrial function and extracellular matrix organization were increased and pathways related to calpain- and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and inhibition of the key anabolic regulator mTOR were decreased by n-3 PUFA therapy. However, the effect of n-3 PUFA therapy on the expression of individual genes involved in regulating mitochondrial function and muscle growth, assessed by quantitative RT-PCR, was very small. These data suggest that n-3 PUFA therapy results in small but coordinated changes in the muscle transcriptome that may help explain the n-3 PUFA-induced improvements in muscle mass and function. PMID:27252251

  9. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835)

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  10. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835).

    PubMed

    Mfilinge, Prosper L; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  11. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C20–22 ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C20–22 ω 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ω 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ω 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C20–22 ω 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ω 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ω 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  12. Pathways of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Utilization: Implications for Brain Function in Neuropsychiatric Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joanne J.; Green, Pnina; Mann, J. John; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Sublette, M. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have profound effects on brain development and function. Abnormalities of PUFA status have been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases such as major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pathophysiologic mechanisms could involve not only suboptimal PUFA intake, but also metabolic and genetic abnormalities, defective hepatic metabolism, and problems with diffusion and transport. This article provides an overview of physiologic factors regulating PUFA utilization, highlighting their relevance to neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:25498862

  13. The fatty acid profile of rainbow trout liver cells modulates their tolerance to methylmercury and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Ferain, Aline; Bonnineau, Chloé; Neefs, Ineke; Rees, Jean François; Larondelle, Yvan; Schamphelaere, Karel A C De; Debier, Cathy

    2016-08-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of fish tissues, which generally reflects that of the diet, affects various cellular properties such as membrane structure and fluidity, energy metabolism and susceptibility to oxidative stress. Since these cellular parameters can play an important role in the cellular response to organic and inorganic pollutants, a variation of the PUFA supply might modify the toxicity induced by such xenobiotics. In this work, we investigated whether the cellular fatty acid profile has an impact on the in vitro cell sensitivity to two environmental pollutants: methylmercury and cadmium. Firstly, the fatty acid composition of the rainbow trout liver cell line RTL-W1 was modified by enriching the growth medium with either alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) or docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-6). These modified cells and their control (no PUFA enrichment) were then challenged for 24h with increasing concentrations of methylmercury or cadmium. We observed that (i) the phospholipid composition of the RTL-W1 cells was profoundly modulated by changing the PUFA content of the growth medium: major modifications were a high incorporation of the supplemented PUFA in the cellular phospholipids, the appearance of direct elongation and desaturation metabolites in the cellular phospholipids as well as a change in the gross phospholipid composition (PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels and n-3/n-6 ratio); (ii) ALA, EPA and DPA enrichment significantly protected the RTL-W1 cells against both methylmercury and cadmium; (iv) DHA enrichment significantly protected the cells against cadmium but not methylmercury; (v) AA and LA enrichment had no impact on the cell tolerance to both methylmercury and cadmium; (vi) the abundance of 20:3n-6, a metabolite of the n-6 biotransformation pathway, in

  14. Genetic variation in FADS1 has little effect on the association between dietary PUFA intake and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hellstrand, Sophie; Ericson, Ulrika; Gullberg, Bo; Hedblad, Bo; Orho-Melander, Marju; Sonestedt, Emily

    2014-09-01

    The unclear link between intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) could depend on genetic differences between individuals. Minor alleles of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ∆5 fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1 gene were associated with lower blood concentrations of long-chain ω-3 (n-3) and ω-6 (n-6) PUFAs, indicating an associated loss of function effect. We examined whether the SNP rs174546 in FADS1 modifies the association between PUFA intakes and CVD risk. We included 24,032 participants (62% women, aged 44-74 y) from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort without prevalent CVD and diabetes. During a mean follow-up of 14 y, 2648 CVD cases were identified. Diet was assessed by a modified diet history method. A borderline interaction was observed between the α-linolenic acid (ALA) (18:3n-3)-to-linoleic acid (LA) (18:2n-6) intake ratio and FADS1 genotype on CVD incidence (P = 0.06). The ALA-to-LA intake ratio was inversely associated with CVD risk only among participants homozygous for the minor T-allele (HR for quintile 5 vs. quintile 1 = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.50, 1.04; P-trend = 0.049). When excluding participants reporting unstable food habits in the past (35%), the interaction between the ALA-to-LA intake ratio and FADS1 genotype on CVD incidence was strengthened and statistically significant (P = 0.04). Additionally, we observed a significant interaction between ALA and FADS1 genotype on ischemic stroke incidence (P = 0.03). ALA was inversely associated with ischemic stroke only among TT genotype carriers (HR for quintile 5 vs. quintile 1 = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.94; P-trend = 0.02). In this large cohort, we found some weak, but not convincing, evidence of effect modification by genetic variation in FADS1 on the associations between PUFA intakes and CVD risk. For the 11% of the population homozygous for the minor T-allele of rs174546 that associates with lower ∆5 FADS activity, high ALA intake and ALA

  15. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is inversely related to development of adiposity in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Wei; Villamor, Eduardo; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marin, Constanza; Baylin, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Studies in adults indicate that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition may play a role in development of adiposity. Because adipocyte quantity is established between late childhood and early adolescence, understanding the impact of PUFAs on weight gain during the school-age years is crucial to developing effective interventions. Subjects/Methods We quantified N-3 and N-6 PUFAs in serum samples of 668 Colombian schoolchildren aged 5–12 years at the time of recruitment into a cohort study, using gas-liquid chromatography. Serum concentrations of N-3 (ALA, EPA, DHA) and N-6 PUFAs (LA, GLA, DGLA, AA) were determined as % total fatty acids. Children’s anthropometry was measured annually for a median of 30 months. We used mixed-effects models with restricted cubic splines to construct population body mass index-for-age z-score (BAZ) growth curves for age-and sex-specific quartiles of each PUFA. Results N-3 ALA was inversely related to BAZ gain after adjustment for sex, baseline age and weight status, and household socioeconomic level. Estimated BAZ change between 6 and 14 years among children in the highest quartile of ALA compared to those in the lowest quartile was 0.45 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.83) lower (P-trend=0.006). Conclusions N-3 ALA may be protective against weight gain in school-age children. Whether improvement in PUFA status reduces adiposity in pediatric populations deserves evaluation in randomized trials. PMID:25271016

  16. Reduction in Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Eicosapentaenoic Acid plus Docosahexaenoic Acid Ratio Minimizes Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation and Inflammatory Response in the LDL Receptor Null Mouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary very long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been associated with reduced CVD risk. LDL receptor null mice (LDLr-/-) were used to assess different dietary ratios of omega-6 PUFA to eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-6:EPA+DHA) on atherogenesis and infl...

  17. Erythrocyte Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Mammographic Breast Density

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Alana G.; Reeves, Katherine W.; Modugno, Francesmary; Wilson, John W.; Evans, Rhobert W.; Vogel, Victor G.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Simpson, Jennifer; Weissfeld, Joel L.

    2013-01-01

    Diets low in omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and high in omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs may protect against breast cancer development. Associations of PUFA intake with mammographic density, an intermediate marker of breast cancer risk, have been inconsistent; however, prior studies have relied on self-reported dietary PUFA intake. We examined the association between circulating erythrocyte n-6 and n-3 PUFAs with mammographic density in 248 postmenopausal women who were not taking exogenous hormones. PUFAs in erythrocytes were measured by gas-liquid chromatography, and mammographic density was assessed quantitatively by planimetry. Spearman’s correlation coefficients and generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationships between PUFA measures and mammographic density. None of the erythrocyte n-6 or n-3 PUFA measures were associated with percent density or dense breast area. PMID:23530640

  18. Biohydrogenation of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids by anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sakurama, Haruko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Mihara, Kousuke; Ando, Akinori; Kita, Keiko; Takahashi, Satomi; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun

    2014-09-01

    The PUFAs include many bioactive lipids. The microbial metabolism of C18 PUFAs is known to produce their bioactive isomers, such as conjugated FAs and hydroxy FAs, but there is little information on that of C20 PUFAs. In this study, we aimed to obtain anaerobic bacteria with the ability to produce novel PUFAs from C20 PUFAs. Through the screening of ∼100 strains of anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium bifermentans JCM 1386 was selected as a strain with the ability to saturate PUFAs during anaerobic cultivation. This strain converted arachidonic acid (cis-5,cis-8,cis-11,cis-14-eicosatetraenoic acid) and EPA (cis-5,cis-8,cis-11,cis-14,cis-17-EPA) into cis-5,cis-8,trans-13-eicosatrienoic acid and cis-5,cis-8,trans-13,cis-17-eicosatetraenoic acid, giving yields of 57% and 67% against the added PUFAs, respectively. This is the first report of the isolation of a bacterium transforming C20 PUFAs into corresponding non-methylene-interrupted FAs. We further investigated the substrate specificity of the biohydrogenation by this strain and revealed that it can convert two cis double bonds at the ω6 and ω9 positions in various C18 and C20 PUFAs into a trans double bond at the ω7 position. This study should serve to open up the development of novel potentially bioactive PUFAs. PMID:25002034

  19. Expression profile of polyunsaturated fatty acids in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Li, Hong; Dong, Jin; Dong, Yan; Wang, Chang-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and tumor-associated factors for predicting the outcome of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) in Chinese patients. METHODS: Fresh-frozen malignant and normal tissues from 82 Chinese patients with CRC were analyzed for PUFA composition using gas-liquid chromatography. The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the levels of VEGF, p53 and Ki-67 were measured by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In malignant tissue, compared with normal tissue, the levels of total ω-6 PUFAs (24.64% ± 3.41% vs 26.77% ± 3.37%, P = 0.00) and linoleic acid (LA) (15.46% ± 3.51% vs 18.30% ± 2.83%, P < 0.01) were lower, whereas the levels of total ω-3 PUFAs (1.58% ± 0.74% vs 1.35% ± 0.60%, P < 0.01) and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) (1.32% ± 0.69% vs 0.85% ± 0.29%, P < 0.01) were significantly higher. The ratios of arachidonic acid (AA)/LA (0.53 ± 0.22 vs 0.42 ± 0.19, P < 0.01) and AA/total ω-6 PUFAs (0.31 ± 0.09 vs 0.27 ± 0.10, P < 0.01) were also significantly higher in malignant tissue. The levels of PDGF (353.10 ± 148.85 pg/mL vs 286.09 ± 104.91 pg/mL, P < 0.01), COX-2 (125.21 ± 70.29 ng/mL vs 67.06 ± 42.22 ng/mL, P < 0.01) and VEGF (357.11 ± 128.76 pg/mL vs 211.38 ± 99.47 pg/mL, P < 0.01) were also higher in malignant tissue compared to normal tissue. COX-2 was inversely correlated with LA (R = -0.3244, P < 0.05) and positively correlated with AA/total ω-6 PUFAs (R = 0.3083, P < 0.05) and AA/LA (R = 0.3001, P < 0.05). The tissue level of LA was highest in poorly differentiated tumors (19.9% ± 6.3%, P < 0.05), while the ratio of AA/ω-3 PUFAs was lowest in these tumors (10.8 ± 2.6, P < 0.05). In VEGF-positive tumors, the level of LA was higher (16.2% ± 3.7% vs 13.9% ± 2.7%, P < 0.01), while the AA/ω-3PUFA, AA/ω-6

  20. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids alter oxytocin signaling and receptor density in cultured pregnant human myometrial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Paul Y; Zhong, Miao; Kim, Yoon-Sun; Sanborn, Barbara M; Allen, Kenneth G D

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and interventional clinical trials indicate that consumption of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) lengthen gestational duration. Although the mechanisms are not well understood, prostaglandins (PG) of the 2-series are known to play a role in the initiation and progress of labor. In animal studies, modest DHA provision has been shown to reduce placental and uterine PGE(2) and PGF(2α), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression, and placental collagenase activity. However, modulation of PG biosynthesis may not account for all the effects of LC n-3 PUFAs in labor. We investigated one potential PG-independent mechanism of LC PUFA action using cultured pregnant human myometrial smooth muscle cells. Our goal was to characterize the effect of LC PUFA treatment on oxytocin signaling, a potent uterotonic hormone involved in labor. The addition of 10 µM-100 µM DHA or arachidonic acid (AA) to the culture media for 48 h resulted in dose dependent enrichment of these fatty acids in membrane lipid. DHA and AA significantly inhibited phosphatidylinositol turnover and [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization with oxytocin stimulation compared to bovine serum albumin control and equimolar oleic acid. DHA and AA significantly reduced oxytocin receptor membrane concentration without altering binding affinity or rate of receptor internalization. These findings demonstrate a role for LC n-3 PUFAs in regulation of oxytocin signaling and provide new insight into additional mechanisms pertaining to reports of dietary fish and fish oil consumption prolonging gestation. PMID:22848573

  1. Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

  2. Effect of altering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on cardiovascular risk measures in patients treated with statins: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sabrina P S; Dart, Anthony M; Walker, Karen Z; O'Dea, Kerin; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P F; Skilton, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    Increasing dietary n-3 PUFA decreases the risk of CHD. Since n-6 PUFA compete with n-3 PUFA for common metabolic enzymes, the n-6:n-3 ratio intake rather than the n-3 PUFA intake levels per se may be critical. We aimed to examine whether altering the n-6:n-3 ratio affects cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolaemic patients on lipid management with statins. Adhering to a randomised, crossover study design, patients on statins (n 11) were placed on one of two dietary interventions (Diet high-ratio (HR) - n-6:n-3 = 30:1 or Diet low-ratio (LR) - n-6:n-3 = 1·7:1) for 4 weeks followed after an 8-week washout period by the alternate diet. Foods enriched with n-3 or n-6 PUFA were delivered to each patient, who were given clear guidance on consumption expectations for the study. Measures of lipid profile, blood pressure and vascular function were determined. Diet LR significantly reduced body weight, LDL-cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, blood pressure and the apoA-1:apoB ratio. While Diet HR trended towards a similar cardioprotective profile, most of the parameters examined did not reach statistical significance. A direct comparison between diets demonstrated no significant superiority of Diet LR over Diet HR. These results suggest that a dietary intervention focused on n-6 and n-3 fatty acids may improve cardiovascular risk factors in patients over and above standard lipid management, but there is no significant advantage of a low n-6:n-3 ratio diet when compared to a high-ratio diet. PMID:22182482

  3. Relationship between diet and plasma long-chain n-3 PUFAs in older people: impact of apolipoprotein E genotype

    PubMed Central

    Samieri, Cécilia; Lorrain, Simon; Buaud, Benjamin; Vaysse, Carole; Berr, Claudine; Peuchant, Evelyne; Cunnane, Stephen C.; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The main risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, age and the ϵ4 allele of the APOE gene (APOE4), might modify the metabolism of n-3 PUFAs and in turn, their impact on cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary fat and plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in elderly persons, taking the APOE4 genotype into account. The sample was composed of 1,135 participants from the Three-City study aged 65 years and over, of whom 19% were APOE4 carriers. Mean plasma proportions of EPA [1.01%, standard deviation (SD) 0.60] and DHA (2.41%, SD 0.81) did not differ according to APOE4. In multivariate models, plasma EPA increased with frequency of fish consumption (P < 0.0001), alcohol intake (P = 0.0006), and female gender (P = 0.02), and decreased with intensive consumption of n-6 oils (P = 0.02). The positive association between fish consumption and plasma DHA was highly significant whatever the APOE genotype (P < 0.0001) but stronger in APOE4 noncarriers than in carriers (P = 0.06 for interaction). Plasma DHA increased significantly with age (P = 0.009) in APOE4 noncarriers only. These findings suggest that dietary habits, gender, and APOE4 genotype should be considered when designing interventions to increase n-3 PUFA blood levels in older people. PMID:23801662

  4. Mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species play a vital role in the salicylic acid signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Nie, Shengjun; Yue, Haiyun; Zhou, Jun; Xing, Da

    2015-01-01

    Plant mitochondria constitute a major source of ROS and are proposed to act as signaling organelles in the orchestration of defense response. At present, the signals generated and then integrated by mitochondria are still limited. Here, fluorescence techniques were used to monitor the events of mitochondria in vivo, as well as the induction of mitochondrial signaling by a natural defensive signal chemical salicylic acid (SA). An inhibition of respiration was observed in isolated mitochondria subjected to SA. The cytochrome reductase activity analysis in isolated mitochondria demonstrated that SA might act directly on the complex III in the respiration chain by inhibiting the activity. With this alteration, a quick burst of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) was stimulated. SA-induced mtROS caused mitochondrial morphology transition in leaf tissue or protoplasts expressing mitochondria-GFP (43C5) and depolarization of membrane potential. However, the application of AsA, an H2O2 scavenger, significantly prevented both events, indicating that both of them are attributable to ROS accumulation. In parallel, SA-induced mtROS up-regulated AOX1a transcript abundance and this induction was correlated with the disease resistance, whereas AsA-pretreatment interdicted this effect. It is concluded that mitochondria play an essential role in the signaling pathway of SA-induced ROS generation, which possibly provided new insight into the SA-mediated biological processes, including plant defense response. PMID:25811367

  5. Mitochondrial-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Play a Vital Role in the Salicylic Acid Signaling Pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shengjun; Yue, Haiyun; Zhou, Jun; Xing, Da

    2015-01-01

    Plant mitochondria constitute a major source of ROS and are proposed to act as signaling organelles in the orchestration of defense response. At present, the signals generated and then integrated by mitochondria are still limited. Here, fluorescence techniques were used to monitor the events of mitochondria in vivo, as well as the induction of mitochondrial signaling by a natural defensive signal chemical salicylic acid (SA). An inhibition of respiration was observed in isolated mitochondria subjected to SA. The cytochrome reductase activity analysis in isolated mitochondria demonstrated that SA might act directly on the complex III in the respiration chain by inhibiting the activity. With this alteration, a quick burst of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) was stimulated. SA-induced mtROS caused mitochondrial morphology transition in leaf tissue or protoplasts expressing mitochondria-GFP (43C5) and depolarization of membrane potential. However, the application of AsA, an H2O2 scavenger, significantly prevented both events, indicating that both of them are attributable to ROS accumulation. In parallel, SA-induced mtROS up-regulated AOX1a transcript abundance and this induction was correlated with the disease resistance, whereas AsA-pretreatment interdicted this effect. It is concluded that mitochondria play an essential role in the signaling pathway of SA-induced ROS generation, which possibly provided new insight into the SA-mediated biological processes, including plant defense response. PMID:25811367

  6. Preservation of metabolic flexibility in skeletal muscle by a combined use of n-3 PUFA and rosiglitazone in dietary obese mice.

    PubMed

    Horakova, Olga; Medrikova, Dasa; van Schothorst, Evert M; Bunschoten, Annelies; Flachs, Pavel; Kus, Vladimir; Kuda, Ondrej; Bardova, Kristina; Janovska, Petra; Hensler, Michal; Rossmeisl, Martin; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Illig, Thomas; Keijer, Jaap; Kopecky, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance, the key defect in type 2 diabetes (T2D), is associated with a low capacity to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability, i.e., metabolic inflexibility. This, in turn, contributes to a further damage of insulin signaling. Effectiveness of T2D treatment depends in large part on the improvement of insulin sensitivity and metabolic adaptability of the muscle, the main site of whole-body glucose utilization. We have shown previously in mice fed an obesogenic high-fat diet that a combined use of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) and thiazolidinediones (TZDs), anti-diabetic drugs, preserved metabolic health and synergistically improved muscle insulin sensitivity. We investigated here whether n-3 LC-PUFA could elicit additive beneficial effects on metabolic flexibility when combined with a TZD drug rosiglitazone. Adult male C57BL/6N mice were fed an obesogenic corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF) for 8 weeks, or randomly assigned to various interventions: cHF with n-3 LC-PUFA concentrate replacing 15% of dietary lipids (cHF+F), cHF with 10 mg rosiglitazone/kg diet (cHF+ROSI), cHF+F+ROSI, or chow-fed. Indirect calorimetry demonstrated superior preservation of metabolic flexibility to carbohydrates in response to the combined intervention. Metabolomic and gene expression analyses in the muscle suggested distinct and complementary effects of the interventions, with n-3 LC-PUFA supporting complete oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria and the combination with n-3 LC-PUFA and rosiglitazone augmenting insulin sensitivity by the modulation of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. These beneficial metabolic effects were associated with the activation of the switch between glycolytic and oxidative muscle fibers, especially in the cHF+F+ROSI mice. Our results further support the idea that the combined use of n-3 LC-PUFA and TZDs could improve the efficacy of the therapy of obese and diabetic patients. PMID:22952760

  7. Preservation of Metabolic Flexibility in Skeletal Muscle by a Combined Use of n-3 PUFA and Rosiglitazone in Dietary Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    van Schothorst, Evert M.; Bunschoten, Annelies; Flachs, Pavel; Kus, Vladimir; Kuda, Ondrej; Bardova, Kristina; Janovska, Petra; Hensler, Michal; Rossmeisl, Martin; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Illig, Thomas; Keijer, Jaap; Kopecky, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance, the key defect in type 2 diabetes (T2D), is associated with a low capacity to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability, i.e., metabolic inflexibility. This, in turn, contributes to a further damage of insulin signaling. Effectiveness of T2D treatment depends in large part on the improvement of insulin sensitivity and metabolic adaptability of the muscle, the main site of whole-body glucose utilization. We have shown previously in mice fed an obesogenic high-fat diet that a combined use of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) and thiazolidinediones (TZDs), anti-diabetic drugs, preserved metabolic health and synergistically improved muscle insulin sensitivity. We investigated here whether n-3 LC-PUFA could elicit additive beneficial effects on metabolic flexibility when combined with a TZD drug rosiglitazone. Adult male C57BL/6N mice were fed an obesogenic corn oil–based high-fat diet (cHF) for 8 weeks, or randomly assigned to various interventions: cHF with n-3 LC-PUFA concentrate replacing 15% of dietary lipids (cHF+F), cHF with 10 mg rosiglitazone/kg diet (cHF+ROSI), cHF+F+ROSI, or chow-fed. Indirect calorimetry demonstrated superior preservation of metabolic flexibility to carbohydrates in response to the combined intervention. Metabolomic and gene expression analyses in the muscle suggested distinct and complementary effects of the interventions, with n-3 LC-PUFA supporting complete oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria and the combination with n-3 LC-PUFA and rosiglitazone augmenting insulin sensitivity by the modulation of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. These beneficial metabolic effects were associated with the activation of the switch between glycolytic and oxidative muscle fibers, especially in the cHF+F+ROSI mice. Our results further support the idea that the combined use of n-3 LC-PUFA and TZDs could improve the efficacy of the therapy of obese and diabetic patients. PMID:22952760

  8. Polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the localization and signaling of PIP3/AKT in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhennan; Wu, Jiansheng; Wang, Shihua; Suburu, Janel; Chen, Haiqin; Thomas, Michael J; Shi, Lihong; Edwards, Iris J; Berquin, Isabelle M; Chen, Yong Q

    2013-09-01

    AKT is a serine-threonine protein kinase that plays important roles in cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. It is activated after binding to phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) with phosphate groups at positions 3,4 and 3,4,5 on the inositol ring. In spite of extensive research on AKT, one aspect has been largely overlooked, namely the role of the fatty acid chains on PIPs. PIPs are phospholipids composed of a glycerol backbone with fatty acids at the sn-1 and sn-2 position and inositol at the sn-3 position. Here, we show that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modify phospholipid content. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω3 PUFA, can replace the fatty acid at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone, thereby changing the species of phospholipids. DHA also inhibits AKT(T308) but not AKT(S473) phosphorylation, alters PI(3,4,5)P3 (PIP3) and phospho-AKT(S473) protein localization, decreases pPDPK1(S241)-AKT and AKT-BAD interaction and suppresses prostate tumor growth. Our study highlights a potential novel mechanism of cancer inhibition by ω3 PUFA through alteration of PIP3 and AKT localization and affecting the AKT signaling pathway. PMID:23633519

  9. Stability of omega-3 LC-PUFA-rich photoautotrophic microalgal oils compared to commercially available omega-3 LC-PUFA oils.

    PubMed

    Ryckebosch, Eline; Bruneel, Charlotte; Termote-Verhalle, Romina; Lemahieu, Charlotte; Muylaert, Koenraad; Van Durme, Jim; Goiris, Koen; Foubert, Imogen

    2013-10-23

    Microalgae are the primary producers of omega-3 LC-PUFA, which are known for their health benefits. Their oil may thus be a potential alternative for fish oil. However, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of omega-3 LC-PUFA oils are important parameters. The purpose of this work was therefore to evaluate these parameters in oils from photoautotrophic microalgae (Isochrysis, Phaeodactylum, Nannochloropsis gaditana, and Nannochloropsis sp.) obtained with hexane/isopropanol (HI) and hexane (H) and compare them with commercial omega-3 LC-PUFA oils. When the results of both the primary and secondary oxidation parameters were put together, it was clear that fish, tuna, and heterotrophic microalgae oil are the least oxidatively stable oils, whereas krill oil and the microalgae oils performed better. The microalgal HI oils were shown to be more oxidatively stable than the microalgal H oils. The hydrolytic stability was shown not to be a problem during the storage of any of the oils. PMID:24111711

  10. Abscisic Acid Plays an Important Role in the Regulation of Strawberry Fruit Ripening1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Hai-Feng; Chai, Ye-Mao; Li, Chun-Li; Lu, Dong; Luo, Jing-Jing; Qin, Ling; Shen, Yuan-Yue

    2011-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a role in fruit development, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking. Here, we report that ABA promotes strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) fruit ripening. Using a newly established Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing technique in strawberry fruit, the expression of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene (FaNCED1), which is key to ABA biosynthesis, was down-regulated, resulting in a significant decrease in ABA levels and uncolored fruits. Interestingly, a similar uncolored phenotype was observed in the transgenic RNA interference (RNAi) fruits, in which the expression of a putative ABA receptor gene encoding the magnesium chelatase H subunit (FaCHLH/ABAR) was down-regulated by virus-induced gene silencing. More importantly, the uncolored phenotype of the FaNCED1-down-regulated RNAi fruits could be rescued by exogenous ABA, but the ABA treatment could not reverse the uncolored phenotype of the FaCHLH/ABAR-down-regulated RNAi fruits. We observed that down-regulation of the FaCHLH/ABAR gene in the RNAi fruit altered both ABA levels and sugar content as well as a set of ABA- and/or sugar-responsive genes. Additionally, we showed that exogenous sugars, particularly sucrose, can significantly promote ripening while stimulating ABA accumulation. These data provide evidence that ABA is a signal molecule that promotes strawberry ripening and that the putative ABA receptor, FaCHLH/ABAR, is a positive regulator of ripening in response to ABA. PMID:21734113

  11. IL-10 plays a central regulatory role in the cytokines induced by hepatitis C virus core protein and polyinosinic acid:polycytodylic acid.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhaoxia; Zhai, Naicui; Zhang, Qianqian; Song, Hongxiao; Zhang, Yujiao; Li, Tianyang; Li, Haijun; Su, Lishan; Niu, Junqi; Tu, Zhengkun

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can cause persistent infection and chronic liver disease, and viral factors are involved in HCV persistence. HCV core protein, a highly conserved viral protein, not only elicits an immunoresponse, but it also regulates it. In addition, HCV core protein interacts with toll-like receptors (TLRs) on monocytes, inducing them to produce cytokines. Polyinosinic acid:polycytodylic acid (polyI:C) is a synthetic analogue of double-stranded RNA that binds to TLR3 and can induce secretion of type I IFN from monocytes. Cytokine response against HCV is likely to affect the natural course of infection as well as HCV persistence. However, possible effects of cytokines induced by HCV core protein and polyI:C remain to be investigated. In this study, we isolated CD14(+) monocytes from healthy donors, cultured them in the presence of HCV core protein and/or polyI:C, and characterized the induced cytokines, phenotypes and mechanisms. We demonstrated that HCV core protein- and polyI:C-stimulated CD14(+) monocytes secreted tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and type I interferon (IFN). Importantly, TNF-α and IL-1β regulated the secretion of IL-10, which then influenced the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) and subsequently the production of type I IFN. Interestingly, type I IFN also regulated the production of IL-10, which in turn inhibited the nuclear factor (NF)-κB subunit, reducing TNF-α and IL-1β levels. Therefore, IL-10 appears to play a central role in regulating the production of cytokines induced by HCV core protein and polyI:C. PMID:27337528

  12. Maternal but not fetal FADS gene variants modify the association between maternal long-chain PUFA intake in pregnancy and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; van Dongen, Martien C J M; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P; Tan, Frans E S; Heinrich, Joachim; Thijs, Carel

    2014-09-01

    Several studies have shown a positive association between maternal fish intake in pregnancy and pregnancy duration and child birth weight (BW), probably due to fish n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). n-3 LC-PUFAs can also be synthesized endogenously, and their synthesis depends on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene encoding for FADS. We assessed the associations of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake in pregnancy with pregnancy duration and BW and investigated whether these associations are modified by maternal or fetal FADS SNP genotypes. We hypothesized that we would find stronger associations in minor allele homozygous mothers or fetuses due to their lower n-3 LC-PUFA endogenous synthesis and hence higher dependence on dietary supply. Data on maternal diet, pregnancy duration, and BW were available for 2622 mother-child pairs from the KOALA (Kind, Ouders en gezondheid: Aandacht voor Leefstijl en Aanleg) Birth Cohort Study. The rs174556 FADS SNP was genotyped in 1516 mothers and 1515 children. Associations and gene-diet interactions were tested with linear regression adjusting for potential confounders, including intake of other PUFAs. Women at the 75th percentile of DHA intake had 0.7-d longer pregnancies (P = 0.016) and 28-g heavier infants (P = 0.039) than did women at the 25th percentile of intake. Associations with arachidonic acid intake were of the same order but in the opposite direction. Mothers who were homozygous for the minor allele had 2-d shorter pregnancies (P = 0.035) and infants who were nearly 140 g lighter (P = 0.006) than did mothers who were major allele homozygotes. Post hoc analyses revealed that they had higher prepregnancy BMI (P = 0.020). Among the women homozygous for the minor allele, those at the 75th percentile of DHA intake had 226-g heavier infants than those at the 25th percentile of intake (P = 0.030), whereas DHA intake was not significantly

  13. Characterization of the fatty acyl elongase (elovl) gene family, and hepatic elovl and delta-6 fatty acyl desaturase transcript expression and fatty acid responses to diets containing camelina oil in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Xue, Xi; Feng, Charles Y; Hixson, Stefanie M; Johnstone, Kim; Anderson, Derek M; Parrish, Christopher C; Rise, Matthew L

    2014-09-01

    For aquaculture to become sustainable, there is a need to substitute fish oil [FO, rich in ω3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as 20:5ω3 (EPA) and 22:6ω3 (DHA)] in aquafeed with plant oils such as camelina oil [CO, rich in C18 PUFA such as 18:3ω3 (ALA) and 18:2ω6 (LNA)]. The LC-PUFA are essential components in fish diets for maintaining optimal health, physiology and growth. However, most marine fish including Atlantic cod are inefficient at producing LC-PUFA from shorter chain precursors. Since elovl genes encode enzymes that play key roles in fatty acid biosynthesis, we hypothesized that they may be involved in Atlantic cod responses to diets rich in 18:3ω3 and 18:2ω6. Ten members of the cod elovl gene family were characterized at the mRNA level. RT-PCR was used to study constitutive expression of elovl transcripts in fifteen tissues. Some transcripts (e.g. elovl5) were ubiquitously expressed, while others had tissue-specific expression (e.g. elovl4a in brain and eye). Cod fed a CO-containing diet (100% CO replacement of FO and including solvent-extracted fish meal) had significantly lower weight gain, with significant up-regulation of elovl5 and fadsd6 transcripts in the liver as shown by QPCR analysis, compared with cod on a FO control diet after a 13-week trial. Multivariate statistical analyses (SIMPER and PCA) indicated that high 18:3ω3 and/or low ω3 LC-PUFA levels in the liver were associated with the up-regulation of elovl5 and fadsd6, which are involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in cod. PMID:24970595

  14. High-Fat Diets Containing Different Amounts of n3 and n6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Bukowski, Michael R; Lie, Wen-Rong; Picklo, Matthew J; Yan, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil may exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines thereby preventing obesity. This study investigated the effects of high-fat diets containing different amounts of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on adiposity and adipokine production in mice. Mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet with 16 or 45 % of energy from corn oil (low n3 PUFA) in comparison with a high-fat diet containing soybean or high-oleic sunflower oil (adequate n3 PUFA) or flaxseed or fish oil (high n3 PUFA) for 11 weeks. High-fat diets, regardless of types of oils, significantly increased body fat mass and body weights compared to the low-fat diet. Adipose fatty acid composition and contents reflected dietary fatty acid profiles. The high-fat fish oil diet significantly increased adiponectin and reduced leptin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue; it did not elevate plasma insulin concentration compared to the high-fat corn oil diet. All high-fat diets elevated concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) but lowered resistin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue. In conclusion, fish oil may be beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity by upregulation of adiponectin and downregulation of leptin production; n3 and n6 PUFA do not play a role at the dietary levels tested in reducing adiposity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (leptin, PAI-1, MCP-1 and resistin) and anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin. PMID:26645280

  15. Outdoor Play and Play Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Heather

    1985-01-01

    Discusses aspects of the play environment and its effect on children's play behavior. Indoor and outdoor play spaces are considered along with factors affecting the use of outdoor environments for play. Children's preferences for different outdoor play environments and for various play structures are explored. Guides for choosing play equipment…

  16. Ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of 274135 adult females from 11 independent prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in diet or serum may have a protective effect on the risk of breast cancer (BC); however, the conclusions from prospective studies are still controversial. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the relationship between intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and the risk of BC, and estimate the potential summarized dose–response trend. Methods Relevant English-language studies were identified through Cochrane Library, PubMed and EMBASE database till April 2013. Eligible prospective studies reporting the multivariate adjusted risk ratios (RRs) for association of n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio in diet or serum with BC risk. Data extraction was conducted independently by 2 investigators; disagreements were reconciled by consensus. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Study-specific RRs were combined via a random-effects model. Results Six prospective nested case–control and 5 cohort studies, involving 8,331 BC events from 274,135 adult females across different countries, were included in present study. Subjects with higher dietary intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs have a significantly lower risk of BC among study populations (pooled RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.99), and per 1/10 increment of ratio in diet was associated with a 6% reduction of BC risk (pooled RR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99; P for linear trend = 0.012). USA subjects with higher ratio of n-3/n-6 in serum phospholipids (PL) have a significantly lower risk of BC (pooled RR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.97; I2 = 0.00%; P for metaregression = 0.103; P for a permutation test = 0.100), and per 1/10 increment of ratio in serum PL was associated with 27% reduction of BC risk (pooled RR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.91; P for linear trend = 0.004; P for metaregression = 0.082; P for a permutation test = 0.116). Conclusions Higher intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs is associated with lower risk of BC among females, which implies an important evidence for

  17. Identification of a Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase from the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana1

    PubMed Central

    Tonon, Thierry; Qing, Renwei; Harvey, David; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony Robert; Graham, Ian Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The draft genome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was searched for DNA sequences showing homology with long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (LACSs), since the corresponding enzyme may play a key role in the accumulation of health-beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in triacylglycerol. Among the candidate genes identified, an open reading frame named TplacsA was found to be full length and constitutively expressed during cell cultivation. The predicted amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein, TpLACSA, exhibited typical features of acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetases involved in the activation of long-chain fatty acids. Feeding experiments carried out in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) transformed with the algal gene showed that TpLACSA was able to activate a number of PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Determination of acyl-CoA synthetase activities by direct measurement of acyl-CoAs produced in the presence of different PUFA substrates showed that TpLACSA was most active toward DHA. Heterologous expression also revealed that TplacsA transformants were able to incorporate more DHA in triacylglycerols than the control yeast. PMID:15821149

  18. Raman Spectroscopic Analysis Reveals Abnormal Fatty Acid Composition in Tumor Micro- and Macroenvironments in Human Breast and Rat Mammary Cancer

    PubMed Central

    You, Sixian; Tu, Haohua; Zhao, Youbo; Liu, Yuan; Chaney, Eric J.; Marjanovic, Marina; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids play essential roles in the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. To facilitate their avid growth and proliferation, cancer cells not only alter the fatty acid synthesis and metabolism intracellularly and extracellularly, but also in the macroenvironment via direct or indirect pathways. We report here, using Raman micro-spectroscopy, that an increase in the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was identified in both cancerous and normal appearing breast tissue obtained from breast cancer patients and tumor-bearing rats. By minimizing confounding effects from mixed chemicals and optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio of Raman spectra, we observed a large-scale transition from monounsaturated fatty acids to PUFAs in the tumor while only a small subset of fatty acids transitioned to PUFAs in the tumor micro- and macroenvironment. These data have important implications for further clarifying the macroenvironmental effect of cancer progression and provide new potential approaches for characterizing the tumor micro- and macroenvironment of breast cancer in both pre-clinical animal studies and clinical applications. PMID:27596041

  19. Raman Spectroscopic Analysis Reveals Abnormal Fatty Acid Composition in Tumor Micro- and Macroenvironments in Human Breast and Rat Mammary Cancer.

    PubMed

    You, Sixian; Tu, Haohua; Zhao, Youbo; Liu, Yuan; Chaney, Eric J; Marjanovic, Marina; Boppart, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids play essential roles in the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. To facilitate their avid growth and proliferation, cancer cells not only alter the fatty acid synthesis and metabolism intracellularly and extracellularly, but also in the macroenvironment via direct or indirect pathways. We report here, using Raman micro-spectroscopy, that an increase in the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was identified in both cancerous and normal appearing breast tissue obtained from breast cancer patients and tumor-bearing rats. By minimizing confounding effects from mixed chemicals and optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio of Raman spectra, we observed a large-scale transition from monounsaturated fatty acids to PUFAs in the tumor while only a small subset of fatty acids transitioned to PUFAs in the tumor micro- and macroenvironment. These data have important implications for further clarifying the macroenvironmental effect of cancer progression and provide new potential approaches for characterizing the tumor micro- and macroenvironment of breast cancer in both pre-clinical animal studies and clinical applications. PMID:27596041

  20. Effects of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Growth Medium on Lipid Composition and on Physicochemical Surface Properties of Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanpää, P.; Yang, B.; Kallio, H.; Isolauri, E.; Salminen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Most probiotic lactobacilli adhere to intestinal surfaces, a phenomenon influenced by free polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The present study investigated whether free linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, or docosahexaenoic acid in the growth medium alters the fatty acid composition of lactobacilli and their physical characteristics. The most abundant bacterial fatty acids identified were oleic, vaccenic, and dihydrosterculic acids. PUFA, especially conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers and γ-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and α-linolenic acids, also were identified in lactobacilli. When lactobacilli were cultured in MRS broth supplemented with various free PUFA, the incorporation of a given PUFA into bacterial fatty acids was clearly observed. Moreover, PUFA supplementation also resulted in PUFA-dependent changes in the proportions of other fatty acids; major interconversions were seen in octadecanoic acids (18:1), their methylenated derivatives (19:cyc), and CLA. Intermittent changes in eicosapentaenoic acid proportions also were noted. These results were paralleled by minor changes in the hydrophilic or hydrophobic characteristics of lactobacilli, suggesting that PUFA interfere with microbial adhesion to intestinal surfaces through other mechanisms. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that free PUFA in the growth medium induce changes in bacterial fatty acids in relation to the regulation of the degree of fatty acid unsaturation, cyclization, and proportions of CLA and PUFA containing 20 to 22 carbons. The potential role of lactobacilli as regulators of PUFA absorption may represent another means by which probiotics could redirect the delicate balance of inflammatory mediators derived from PUFA within the inflamed intestine. PMID:14711634

  1. N-3 PUFA Supplementation Triggers PPAR-α Activation and PPAR-α/NF-κB Interaction: Anti-Inflammatory Implications in Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zúñiga, Jessica; Cancino, Milena; Medina, Fernando; Varela, Patricia; Vargas, Romina; Tapia, Gladys; Videla, Luis A.; Fernández, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to rats preconditions the liver against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, with reduction of the enhanced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) functionality occurring in the early phase of IR injury, and recovery of IR-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine response. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that liver preconditioning by n-3 PUFA is exerted through peroxisone proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) activation and interference with NF-κB activation. For this purpose we evaluated the formation of PPAR-α/NF-κBp65 complexes in relation to changes in PPAR-α activation, IκB-α phosphorylation and serum levels and expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in a model of hepatic IR-injury (1 h of ischemia and 20 h of reperfusion) or sham laparotomy (controls) in male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were previously supplemented for 7 days with encapsulated fish oil (General Nutrition Corp., Pittsburg, PA) or isovolumetric amounts of saline (controls). Normalization of IR-altered parameters of liver injury (serum transaminases and liver morphology) was achieved by dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation. EPA and DHA suppression of the early IR-induced NF-κB activation was paralleled by generation of PPAR-α/NF-κBp65 complexes, in concomitance with normalization of the IR-induced IκB-α phosphorylation. PPAR-α activation by n-3 PUFA was evidenced by enhancement in the expression of the PPAR-α-regulated Acyl-CoA oxidase (Acox) and Carnitine-Palmitoyl-CoA transferase I (CPT-I) genes. Consistent with these findings, normalization of IR-induced expression and serum levels of NF-κB-controlled cytokines IL-lβ and TNF-α was observed at 20 h of reperfusion. Taken together, these findings point to an antagonistic effect of PPAR-α on NF-κB-controlled transcription of pro-inflammatory mediators. This

  2. Fatty acid profile of different species of algae of the Cystoseira genus: a nutraceutical perspective.

    PubMed

    Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Pereira, Hugo; Bruno de Sousa, Carolina; Pilar Rauter, Amélia; Albericio, Fernando; Custódio, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of six macroalgae from the Cystoseira genus, namely Cystoseira compressa, Cystoseira humilis, Cystoseira tamariscifolia, Cystoseira nodicaulis, Cystoseira baccata and Cystoseira barbata, was determined. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) corresponded to 29-46% of the total FA detected. C. compressa, C. tamariscifolia and C. nodicaulis stood out for their low PUFA/saturated fatty acid, low n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios as well as favourable unsaturation, atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices, suggesting a high nutritional value with potential applications in the nutraceutical industry. PMID:25554366

  3. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Roles of the gut and the liver and metabolic modulation by some dietary factors and especially long-chain n-3 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Delarue, Jacques; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is the leading cause of chronic liver disease in Western countries. NASH increases the risk for fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms underlying the steatosis to NASH transition remain incompletely understood despite recent progress in cellular and molecular aspects. Our primary aim is to analyze recent advances in understanding deviations in hepatic fat metabolism and the implication of gut physiology and microbiota in this transition. Our second aim is to gather experimental and clinical data on the capability of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA), including docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids to prevent or alleviate NAFLD. Our main conclusions are: (i) increasing data support a pivotal role for the gut toward NASH development; (ii) LC n-3 PUFA have often proven preventive or therapeutic effect toward NASH development in rodent models. In patients with NASH they appear to have no therapeutic effects, but they could have preventive effects, which require to define better the specific roles, modes of action, and doses of DHA and EPA. PMID:26300318

  4. New Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lersten, Kenneth C.

    There have been many theories and hypotheses about play, one of which is the equation of play with "transcendence." Play may have the ingredients to allow us to transcend and, for a moment, remythologize life. There have been recent authors who have given play the status of theology, indicating that play contains elements also found in religion.…

  5. Playful Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…

  6. Association between fish and shellfish, and omega-3 PUFAs intake and CVD risk factors in middle-aged female patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyesook; Park, Seokyung; Yang, Hyesu; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was performed to investigate the association between the dietary intake of fish and shellfish, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the middle-aged Korean female patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). SUBJECTS/METHODS A cross-sectional analysis was performed with 356 female patients (means age: 55.5 years), who were recruited from the Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul, Korea between 2005 and 2011. The dietary intake was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and analyzed using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis program (CAN-Pro) version 4.0 software. RESULTS In a multiple regression analysis after the adjustment for confounding factors such as age, BMI, duration of diagnosed T2D, alcohol consumption, fiber intake, sodium intake, and total energy intake, fish and shellfish intake of the subjects was negatively associated with triglyceride and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Omega-3 PUFAs intake was negatively associated with triglyceride, systolic blood pressures, diastolic blood pressures, and PWV. The multiple logistic regression analysis with the covariates showed a significant inverse relationship between the omega-3 PUFAs consumption and prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia [OR (95% CI) for greater than the median compared to less than the median: 0.395 (0.207-0.753)]. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that the consumption of fish and shellfish, good sources of omega-3 PUFAs, may reduce the risk factors for CVD in the middle-aged female patients with T2D. PMID:26425279

  7. Crystal Structure and Substrate Recognition of Cellobionic Acid Phosphorylase, Which Plays a Key Role in Oxidative Cellulose Degradation by Microbes*

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Young-Woo; Nihira, Takanori; Arakawa, Takatoshi; Saito, Yuka; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Fushinobu, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    The microbial oxidative cellulose degradation system is attracting significant research attention after the recent discovery of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases. A primary product of the oxidative and hydrolytic cellulose degradation system is cellobionic acid (CbA), the aldonic acid form of cellobiose. We previously demonstrated that the intracellular enzyme belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 94 from cellulolytic fungus and bacterium is cellobionic acid phosphorylase (CBAP), which catalyzes reversible phosphorolysis of CbA into glucose 1-phosphate and gluconic acid (GlcA). In this report, we describe the biochemical characterization and the three-dimensional structure of CBAP from the marine cellulolytic bacterium Saccharophagus degradans. Structures of ligand-free and complex forms with CbA, GlcA, and a synthetic disaccharide product from glucuronic acid were determined at resolutions of up to 1.6 Å. The active site is located near the dimer interface. At subsite +1, the carboxylate group of GlcA and CbA is recognized by Arg-609 and Lys-613. Additionally, one residue from the neighboring protomer (Gln-190) is involved in the carboxylate recognition of GlcA. A mutational analysis indicated that these residues are critical for the binding and catalysis of the aldonic and uronic acid acceptors GlcA and glucuronic acid. Structural and sequence comparisons with other glycoside hydrolase family 94 phosphorylases revealed that CBAPs have a unique subsite +1 with a distinct amino acid residue conservation pattern at this site. This study provides molecular insight into the energetically efficient metabolic pathway of oxidized sugars that links the oxidative cellulolytic pathway to the glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways in cellulolytic microbes. PMID:26041776

  8. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Macroalgae: Potential for Nutritional and Pharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Hugo; Barreira, Luísa; Figueiredo, Filipe; Custódio, Luísa; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Polo, Cristina; Rešek, Eva; Engelen, Aschwin; Varela, João

    2012-01-01

    As mammals are unable to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), these compounds need to be taken in through diet. Nowadays, obtaining essential PUFA in diet is becoming increasingly difficult; therefore this work investigated the suitability of using macroalgae as novel dietary sources of PUFA. Hence, 17 macroalgal species from three different phyla (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta) were analyzed and their fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) profile was assessed. Each phylum presented a characteristic fatty acid signature as evidenced by clustering of PUFA profiles of algae belonging to the same phylum in a Principal Components Analysis. The major PUFA detected in all phyla were C18 and C20, namely linoleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The obtained data showed that rhodophytes and phaeophytes have higher concentrations of PUFA, particularly from the n-3 series, thereby being a better source of these compounds. Moreover, rhodophytes and phaeophytes presented “healthier” ∑n-6/∑n-3 and PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios than chlorophytes. Ulva was an exception within the Chlorophyta, as it presented high concentrations of n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid in particular. In conclusion, macroalgae can be considered as a potential source for large-scale production of essential PUFA with wide applications in the nutraceutical and pharmacological industries. PMID:23118712

  9. Soraphen A, an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase activity, interferes with fatty acid elongation

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises; Olson, L. Karl

    2010-01-01

    Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC1 & ACC2) generates malonyl CoA, a substrate for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and an inhibitor of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO). Malonyl CoA is also a substrate for microsomal fatty acid elongation, an important pathway for saturated (SFA), mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthesis. Despite the interest in ACC as a target for obesity and cancer therapy, little attention has been given to the role ACC plays in long chain fatty acid synthesis. This report examines the effect of pharmacological inhibition of ACC on DNL & palmitate (16:0) and linoleate (18:2,n-6) metabolism in HepG2 and LnCap cells. The ACC inhibitor, soraphen A, lowers cellular malonyl CoA, attenuates DNL and the formation of fatty acid elongation products derived from exogenous fatty acids, i.e., 16:0 & 18:2,n-6; IC50 ~ 5 nM. Elevated expression of fatty acid elongases (Elovl5, Elovl6) or desaturases (FADS1, FADS2) failed to override the soraphen A effect on SFA, MUFA or PUFA synthesis. Inhibition of fatty acid elongation leads to the accumulation of 16- and 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids derived from 16:0 and 18:2,n-6, respectively. Pharmacological inhibition of ACC activity will not only attenuate DNL and induce FAO, but will also attenuate the synthesis of very long chain saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:21184748

  10. Postprandial dietary fatty acids exert divergent inflammatory responses in retinal-pigmented epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Naranjo, M Carmen; Bermudez, Beatriz; Lopez, Sergio; Moreda, Wenceslao; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2016-03-16

    Postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) lead to a complex series of events that are potentially oxidative and inflammatory. The main goal of this study was to characterize the influence of postprandial TRLs with different fatty acid compositions (mainly SFAs, MUFAs or MUFAs plus omega-3 PUFAs) on oxidative and inflammatory markers in RPE cells, which play a pivotal role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Compared to TRL-SFAs, TRL-MUFAs and TRL-MUFAs plus omega-3 PUFAs decreased the production of ROS and nitrite, and the gene expression and secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFNγ and VEGF. For the first time we show that postprandial TRLs are metabolic entities able to induce RPE oxidative stress and inflammation in a fatty acid-dependent manner, TRL-SFAs ⋙ TRL-MUFAs = TRL-MUFAs plus omega-3 PUFAs. These exciting findings open new opportunities for developing novel nutritional strategies with olive oil as the principal dietary source of oleic acid to prevent the development and progression of AMD. PMID:26914244

  11. Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 Modulates Docosahexaenoic Acid-Induced Recovery in Rats Undergoing Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Johnny D; Serrano-Illan, Miguel; Licero, Jenniffer; Cordero, Kathia; Miranda, Jorge D; De Leon, Marino

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) promote functional recovery in rats undergoing spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the precise molecular mechanism coupling n-3 PUFAs to neurorestorative responses is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the spatiotemporal expression of fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) after contusive SCI and to investigate whether this protein plays a role in n-3 PUFA-mediated functional recovery post-SCI. We found that SCI resulted in a robust spinal cord up-regulation in FABP5 mRNA levels (556 ± 187%) and protein expression (518 ± 195%), when compared to sham-operated rats, at 7 days post-injury (dpi). This upregulation coincided with significant alterations in the metabolism of fatty acids in the injured spinal cord, as revealed by metabolomics-based lipid analyses. In particular, we found increased levels of the n-3 series PUFAs, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) at 7 dpi. Animals consuming a diet rich in DHA and EPA exhibited a significant upregulation in FABP5 mRNA levels at 7 dpi. Immunofluorescence showed low basal FABP5 immunoreactivity in spinal cord ventral gray matter NeuN(+) neurons of sham-operated rats. SCI resulted in a robust induction of FABP5 in glial (GFAP(+), APC(+), and NG2(+)) and precursor cells (DCX(+), nestin(+)). We found that continuous intrathecal administration of FABP5 silencing with small interfering RNA (2 μg) impaired spontaneous open-field locomotion post-SCI. Further, FABP5 siRNA administration hindered the beneficial effects of DHA to ameliorate functional recovery at 7 dpi. Altogether, our findings suggest that FABP5 may be an important player in the promotion of cellular uptake, transport, and/or metabolism of DHA post-SCI. Given the beneficial roles of n-3 PUFAs in ameliorating functional recovery, we propose that FABP5 is an important contributor to basic repair mechanisms in the

  12. Effects of alpha-linolenic acid vs. docosahexaenoic acid supply on the distribution of fatty acids among the rat cardiac subcellular membranes after a short- or long-term dietary exposure

    PubMed Central

    Brochot, Amandine; Guinot, Marine; Auchere, Daniel; Macaire, Jean-Paul; Weill, Pierre; Grynberg, Alain; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous work showed that the functional cardiac effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in rats requires a long feeding period (6 months), although a docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid-supply affects cardiac adrenergic response after 2 months. However, the total cardiac membrane n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition remained unchanged after 2 months. This delay could be due to a specific reorganization of the different subcellular membrane PUFA profiles. This study was designed to investigate the evolution between 2 and 6 months of diet duration of the fatty acid profile in sarcolemmal (SL), mitochondrial (MI), nuclear (NU) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane fractions. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 3 dietary groups (n = 10/diet/period), either n-3 PUFA-free diet (CTL), or ALA or DHA-rich diets. After 2 or 6 months, the subcellular cardiac membrane fractions were separated by differential centrifugations and sucrose gradients. Each membrane profile was analysed by gas chromatography (GC) after lipid extraction. Results As expected the n-3 PUFA-rich diets incorporated n-3 PUFA instead of n-6 PUFA in all the subcellular fractions, which also exhibited individual specificities. The diet duration increased SFA and decreased PUFA in SL, whereas NU remained constant. The SR and MI enriched in n-3 PUFA exhibited a decreased DHA level with ageing in the DHA and CTL groups. Conversely, the n-3 PUFA level remained unchanged in the ALA group, due to a significant increase in docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). N-3 PUFA rich diets lead to a better PUFA profile in all the fractions and significantly prevent the profile modifications induced by ageing. Conclusion With the ALA diet the n-3 PUFA content, particularly in SR and SL kept increasing between 2 and 6 months, which may partly account for the delay to achieve the modification of adrenergic response. PMID:19320987

  13. Effect of a long chain n-3 PUFA-enriched diet on production and reproduction variables in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Elis, Sebastien; Freret, Sandrine; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Dupont, Mickael; Faverdin, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a rumen-protected fish oil supplement on the production and reproduction variables in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows (n=46) were given a basal total mixed diet plus one PUFA supplement: n-3 (n-3; protected fish oil; 1% dry matter intake (DMI); n=23) or control (n-6; toasted soybeans; 1.8% DMI; n=23), in a switchback design over two consecutive lactations. Supplements were added to the diet between calving and 2 months after calving to assess the effect on growth and maturation of ovarian follicles from which ovulation occurred around the day of insemination. Body weight (BW), milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), subcutaneous fat thickness, plasma fatty acid composition, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and urea concentrations, follicular activity, embryo mortalities and fertility (conception rate after first AI, AI1) were assessed. BW, MY, DMI, plasma NEFA, glucose and urea were unaffected by the diet. There was a trend of an increased number of large follicles (diameter≥10mm) with the n-3 dietary supplementation (P=0.06) and a decrease in infertility or early embryo mortality rate 21 days after AI, 13.5% in the n-3 compared with 38.8% in the n-6 group (P=0.09), with no effect on the conception rate at 35d or 90d after AI1. These data suggest that the effect seen on ovarian variables is not associated with an effect on production and metabolic variables and is specific to n-3 PUFA supplementation. Further studies are necessary to determine whether DHA or EPA enhances fertility in lactating dairy cattle. PMID:26651949

  14. Dihydroceramide-desaturase-1-mediated caspase 9 activation through ceramide plays a pivotal role in palmitic acid-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qun; Yang, Jianjun; Zhu, Rongping; Jiang, Xin; Li, Wanlian; He, Songqing; Jin, Junfei

    2016-09-01

    In this study, results showed that the inhibition of PA-induced HepG2 cell growth takes place in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, that activation of caspase 9 is necessary for PA-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis, that dihydroceramide desaturase 1 (DES1) plays a key role in PA-mediated caspase 9 and caspase 3 activation, and that palmitoleic acid (POA), an omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid, reverses PA-induced apoptosis through DES1 → Ceramide → Caspase 9 → Caspase 3 signaling. PMID:27364952

  15. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake to Regulate Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastric Diseases as Nonantimicrobial Dietary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Kim, Eun-Hee; Han, Young-Min; Kwon, Sung Hun; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), commonly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been acknowledged as essential long-chain fatty acids imposing either optimal health promotion or the rescuing from chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and various inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. Recent studies dealing with EPA and DHA have sparked highest interests because detailed molecular mechanisms had been documented with the identification of its receptor, G protein coupled receptor, and GPR120. In this review article, we have described clear evidences showing that n-3 PUFAs could reduce various Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) associated gastric diseases and extended to play even cancer preventive outcomes including H. pylori-associated gastric cancer by influencing multiple targets, including proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis. Since our previous studies strongly concluded that nonantimicrobial dietary approach for reducing inflammation, for instance, application of phytoceuticals, probiotics, natural products including Korean red ginseng, and walnut plentiful of n-3 PUFAs, might be prerequisite step for preventing H. pylori-associated gastric cancer as well as facilitating the rejuvenation of precancerous atrophic gastritis, these beneficial lipids can restore or modify inflammation-associated lipid distortion and correction of altered lipid rafts to send right signaling to maintain healthy stomach even after chronic H. pylori infection. PMID:26339635

  16. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake to Regulate Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastric Diseases as Nonantimicrobial Dietary Approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Kim, Eun-Hee; Han, Young-Min; Kwon, Sung Hun; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), commonly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been acknowledged as essential long-chain fatty acids imposing either optimal health promotion or the rescuing from chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and various inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. Recent studies dealing with EPA and DHA have sparked highest interests because detailed molecular mechanisms had been documented with the identification of its receptor, G protein coupled receptor, and GPR120. In this review article, we have described clear evidences showing that n-3 PUFAs could reduce various Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) associated gastric diseases and extended to play even cancer preventive outcomes including H. pylori-associated gastric cancer by influencing multiple targets, including proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis. Since our previous studies strongly concluded that nonantimicrobial dietary approach for reducing inflammation, for instance, application of phytoceuticals, probiotics, natural products including Korean red ginseng, and walnut plentiful of n-3 PUFAs, might be prerequisite step for preventing H. pylori-associated gastric cancer as well as facilitating the rejuvenation of precancerous atrophic gastritis, these beneficial lipids can restore or modify inflammation-associated lipid distortion and correction of altered lipid rafts to send right signaling to maintain healthy stomach even after chronic H. pylori infection. PMID:26339635

  17. Prevention of UV-induced skin damages by 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid in hairless mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xing-Ji; Kim, Eun Ju; Oh, In Kyung; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Park, Chi-Hyun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2010-06-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies have shown that some omega-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and dodecahexaenoic acid (DHA), have protective effects on acute and chronic UV-induced changes. However, the effects of other omega-3 PUFAs including 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (20:3) (ETA) on UV-induced skin damages are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the cutaneous photoprotective effects of ETA in hairless mice in vivo. Female HR-1 hairless mice were topically treated with vehicle (ethanol:polyethylene glycol=30:70) only, 0.1% ETA, or 1% ETA once a day for 3 successive days after one time UV irradiation (200 mJ/cm(2)) on dorsal skins. Skin biopsy was carried out on the fourth day (72 hr after UV irradiation). We found that topical treatment with ETA attenuated UV-induced epidermal and dermal thickness and infiltration of inflammatory cells, and impairment of skin barrier function. In addition, ETA suppressed the expression of IL-1beta, COX-2, and MMP-13 induced by UV irradiation. Our results show that the topical application of ETA protects against UV-induced skin damage in hairless mice and suggest that ETA can be a potential agent for preventing and/or treating UV-induced inflammation and photoaging. PMID:20514317

  18. Amino acid residues 201-205 in C-terminal acidic tail region plays a crucial role in antibacterial activity of HMGB1

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antibacterial activity is a novel function of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). However, the functional site for this new effect is presently unknown. Methods and Results In this study, recombinant human HMGB1 A box and B box (rHMGB1 A box, rHMGB1 B box), recombinant human HMGB1 (rHMGB1) and the truncated C-terminal acidic tail mutant (tHMGB1) were prepared by the prokaryotic expression system. The C-terminal acidic tail (C peptide) was synthesized, which was composed of 30 amino acid residues. Antibacterial assays showed that both the full length rHMGB1 and the synthetic C peptide alone could efficiently inhibit bacteria proliferation, but rHMGB1 A box and B box, and tHMGB1 lacking the C-terminal acidic tail had no antibacterial function. These results suggest that C-terminal acidic tail is the key region for the antibacterial activity of HMGB1. Furthermore, we prepared eleven different deleted mutants lacking several amino acid residues in C-terminal acidic tail of HMGB1. Antibacterial assays of these mutants demonstrate that the amino acid residues 201-205 in C-terminal acidic tail region is the core functional site for the antibacterial activity of the molecule. Conclusion In sum, these results define the key region and the crucial site in HMGB1 for its antibacterial function, which is helpful to illustrating the antibacterial mechanisms of HMGB1. PMID:19751520

  19. Neutrophil migration inhibitory properties of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The role of fatty acid structure, metabolism, and possible second messenger systems.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, A; Goh, D; Harvey, D P; Robinson, B S; Hii, C S; Bates, E J; Hardy, S J; Johnson, D W; Poulos, A

    1994-01-01

    The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) appear to have antiinflammatory properties that can be partly explained by their biological activity on leukocytes. Since leukocyte emigration is an essential component of the inflammatory response, we have examined the effects of the n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) on neutrophil random and chemotactic movement. Preexposure of neutrophils for 15-30 min to 1-10 micrograms/ml PUFA reduced the random and chemotactic migration to both FMLP- and fungi-activated complement. The inhibitory effect diminished with increasing saturation and carbon chain length, and methylation abolished this activity. Arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids were the most active fatty acids. The PUFA concentration required to inhibit migration was dependent on cell number, suggesting that the fatty acid effects on leukocyte migration in vivo may be governed by the stage of the inflammatory response. It was concluded that the PUFA rather than their metabolites were responsible for the inhibition since: (a) antioxidants did not prevent the PUFA-induced migration inhibition and the hydroxylated intermediates were less active, and (b) inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways were without effect. Inhibitors of protein kinases and calmodulin-dependent enzyme system did not prevent the PUFA-induced migration inhibition, which was also independent of phospholipase D-catalyzed hydrolysis of phospholipids. It is also shown that PUFA decrease the FMLP-induced Ca2+ mobilization. Images PMID:8132744

  20. Fatty acid metabolism pathway play an important role in carcinogenesis of human colorectal cancers by Microarray-Bioinformatics analysis.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ching-Sheng; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Juan, Chin-Hung; Wu, Chan-Han; Lin, Shiu-Ru

    2006-02-28

    The present study systematically explored metabolic pathways and altered expressions of genes speculatively participating in colorectal carcinogenesis by using a Microarray-Bioinformatic analysis methods. The results revealed that 157 genes were up-regulated and 281 genes were down-regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC). Gene Ontology (GO) and relevant bioinformatics tools indicated that the functional category to which 438 genes (12%; 438/3800) of the most frequent alteration belonged was metabolism. The analysis of 10 colorectal cancer tissue specimens demonstrated that genes involved in fatty acid metabolic pathways had high rates of overexpression. In addition, we stimulated CRL-1790 cell line with linoleic acid (a polyunsaturated fatty acid) for 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell proliferation was elevated by 5, 25, 28 and 31% (P<0.05), respectively. Further analyses revealed that the genes increasingly expressed in the cell line included enoyl-Coenzyme A, hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (EHHADH), enoyl Coenzyme A hydratase, short chain, 1, mitochondrial (ECHS1); glutaryl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (GCDH), acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 2, branched chain (ACOX2); acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, C-2 to C-3 short chain precursor (ACADS); carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B), acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 5 (ACSL5), and cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily A, and polypeptide 11 (CYP4A11) genes. This indicated that the stimulating effect of linoleic acid on cell proliferation was due to interference with the metabolic pathway of fatty acid metabolism. In conclusion, genes with altered expression levels in CRC were mainly associated with fatty acid metabolic pathways speculated to have an important role linked to carcinogenesis. PMID:15885896

  1. Ketogenic Diet, but Not Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diet, Reduces Spontaneous Seizures in Juvenile Rats with Kainic Acid-induced Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dustin, Simone M.; Stafstrom, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is effective in many cases of drug-resistant epilepsy, particularly in children. In the classic KD, fats consist primarily of long-chain saturated triglycerides. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 type, decrease neuronal excitability and provide neuroprotection; pilot human studies have raised the possibility of using PUFAs to control seizures in patients. Methods: To determine the relative roles of the KD and PUFAs in an animal model, we induced epilepsy in juvenile rats (P29–35) using intraperitoneal kainic acid (KA). KA caused status epilepticus in all rats. Two days after KA, rats were randomized to one of 4 dietary groups: Control diet; PUFA diet; KD; or KD plus PUFA. All diets were administered isocalorically at 90% of the rat recommended daily calorie requirement. Spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) were assessed for 3 months after diet randomization. Results: Rats receiving the KD or KD-PUFA diet had significantly fewer SRS than those receiving the Control diet or PUFA diet. The PUFA diet did not reduce SRS compared to the Control diet. Conclusions: In the KA epilepsy model, the KD protects against SRS occurrence but dietary enhancement with PUFA does not afford additional protection against spontaneous seizures. PMID:27390673

  2. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of a fatty acid elongase gene from Nannochloropsis oculata CS179

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Kehou; Ma, Xiaolei; Yu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Baohua; Yang, Guanpin

    2009-12-01

    Nannochloropsis oculata CS179, a unicellular marine microalga, is rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Elongase and desaturase play a key role in the biosynthesis of PUFAs. A new elongase gene, which encodes 322 amino acids, was identified via RT-PCR and 5' and 3' RACE. The sequence of the elongase gene was blast-searched in the NCBI GenBank and showed a similarity to those of the cryptosporidium. But the NJ-tree revealed that the N. oculata CS179 elongase clustered with those of the microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Ostreococcus tauri and Thalassiosira pseudonana.

  3. Stage-Specific Fatty Acid Fluxes Play a Regulatory Role in Glycerolipid Metabolism during Seed Development in Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, Bharatula Sri Krishna; Kumar, Sumit; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Balakrishna, Marrapu; Karuna, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayana; Sastry, Pidaparty Seshadri; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2015-12-23

    The present study describes the changes in lipid profile as well as fatty acid fluxes during seed development in Jatropha curcas L. Endosperm from 34, 37, and 40 days after anthesis (DAA), incubated with [(14)C]acetate, showed significant synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) at seed maturation. The fatty acid methyl ester profile showed PC from 34 DAA was rich in palmitic acid (16:0), whereas PC from 37 and 40 DAA was rich in oleic acid (18:1n-9). Molecular species analysis of diacylglycerol (DAG) indicated DAG (16:0/18:2n-6) was in abundance at 34 DAA, whereas DAG (18:1n-9/18:2n-6) was significantly high at 40 DAA. Triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis revealed TAG (16:0/18:2n-6/16:0) was abundant at 34 DAA, whereas TAG (18:1n-9/18:2n-6/18:1n-9) formed the majority at 40 DAA. Expression of two types of diacylglycerol acyltransferases varied with seed maturation. These data demonstrate stage-specific distinct pools of PC and DAG synthesis during storage TAG accumulation in Jatropha seed. PMID:26628196

  4. Targeted lipidomics strategies for oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Astarita, Giuseppe; Kendall, Alexandra C.; Dennis, Edward A.; Nicolaou, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) through enzymatic or non-enzymatic free radical-mediated reactions can yield an array of lipid metabolites including eicosanoids, octadecanoids, docosanoids and related species. In mammals, these oxygenated PUFA mediators play prominent roles in the physiological and pathological regulation of many key biological processes in the cardiovascular, renal, reproductive and other systems including their pivotal contribution to inflammation. Mass spectrometry-based technology platforms have revolutionized our ability to analyze the complex mixture of lipid mediators found in biological samples, with increased numbers of metabolites that can be simultaneously quantified from a single sample in few analytical steps. The recent development of high-sensitivity and high-throughput analytical tools for lipid mediators affords a broader view of these oxygenated PUFA species, and facilitates research into their role in health and disease. In this review, we illustrate current analytical approaches for a high-throughput lipidomic analysis of eicosanoids and related mediators in biological samples. PMID:25486530

  5. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hopperton, Kathryn E.; Duncan, Robin E.; Bazinet, Richard P.; Archer, Michael C.

    2014-01-15

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from {sup 14}C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as {sup 14}C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare

  6. Modulation of atherosclerosis by N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reviewed literature regarding the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on risk factors for atherosclerosis in human subjects. Dietary intervention with long chain n-3 PUFA decreased some risk factor (s) for atherosclerosis in most human studies reviewed. These benefits resulted ...

  7. Proton play in the formation of low molecular weight chitosan (LWCS) by hydrolyzing chitosan with a carbon based solid acid.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, R Akhil; Deshmukh, Pranjal; Agarwal, Siddharth; Purohit, Poorvi; Dhoble, Deepa; Waske, Prashant; Khandekar, Dileep; Jain, Ratnesh; Dandekar, Prajakta

    2016-10-20

    Low molecular weight chitosan (LWCS) constitute a special class of value added chemicals that are primarily obtained from crustacean shells, which are the main water pollutants from crabs and shrimp processing centers. Unlike chitin and chitosan, LWCS possess improved solubility in water and aqueous solutions, making them widely applicable in numerous fields ranging from drug delivery to waste water treatment. Among the methods employed for their production, chemical breakdown by strong liquid acids has yielded good success. However, this method is met with severe concerns arising from the harsh nature of liquid acids, which may corrode the reactors for commercial synthesis, and their limited reusability. The physical methods like ultrasound and microwave are energy intensive in nature, while the enzymatic methods are expensive and offers limited scope for reuse. We have attempted to overcome these problems by employing carbon based solid acid (CSA) for hydrolyzing chitosan to LWCS. CSA can be easily produced using activated carbon, a cost-effective and easily available raw material. Reactions were carried out between chitosan and CSA in a hydrothermal glass reactor and the products, separated by cold centrifugation, were purified and dried. The dried products were characterized for their molecular weight and solubility. Results indicated more than ten-fold decrease in the molecular weight of chitosan and the product exhibited water solubility. The CSA could be used upto four times, without regeneration, to give a consistent quality product. The aqueous solution of resulting LWCS exhibited a pH of 6.03±0.11, as against the acidic pH range of solutions of commercially available LWCS, indicating its suitability for biomedical applications. Our investigation facilitates a 'green approach' that may be employed for commercial production of value added chemicals from waste products of marine industry. PMID:27474584

  8. Prolonged niacin treatment leads to increased adipose tissue PUFA synthesis and anti-inflammatory lipid and oxylipin plasma profile.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M; Dharuri, Harish K; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Jónasdóttir, Hulda S; Kloos, Dick-Paul; Giera, Martin; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged niacin treatment elicits beneficial effects on the plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile that is associated with a protective CVD risk profile. Acute niacin treatment inhibits nonesterified fatty acid release from adipocytes and stimulates prostaglandin release from skin Langerhans cells, but the acute effects diminish upon prolonged treatment, while the beneficial effects remain. To gain insight in the prolonged effects of niacin on lipid metabolism in adipocytes, we used a mouse model with a human-like lipoprotein metabolism and drug response [female APOE*3-Leiden.CETP (apoE3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein) mice] treated with and without niacin for 15 weeks. The gene expression profile of gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from niacin-treated mice showed an upregulation of the "biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids" pathway, which was corroborated by quantitative PCR and analysis of the FA ratios in gWAT. Also, adipocytes from niacin-treated mice secreted more of the PUFA DHA ex vivo. This resulted in an increased DHA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio in the adipocyte FA secretion profile and in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Interestingly, the DHA metabolite 19,20-dihydroxy docosapentaenoic acid (19,20-diHDPA) was increased in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Both an increased DHA/AA ratio and increased 19,20-diHDPA are indicative for an anti-inflammatory profile and may indirectly contribute to the atheroprotective lipid and lipoprotein profile associated with prolonged niacin treatment. PMID:25320342

  9. Adult Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John M.

    In its broadest context, play can be interpreted as any pleasurable use of discretionary time. Playfulness is an intrinsic feature of being human, and should be viewed in the light of a total lifestyle, not as an occurrence in an isolated time of life. Adult play appears to be an indefinable and controversial concept. A holistic approach should be…

  10. Wanna Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenfeld, Mimi Brodsky

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the importance of play in the lives of children and describes how games and imaginative play contribute to the development of children. From her decades-old collection of countless incidents demonstrating children's love for self-directed, informal, imaginative play, the author shares three incidents that…

  11. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  12. β-Ketoacyl-acyl Carrier Protein Synthase I (KASI) Plays Crucial Roles in the Plant Growth and Fatty Acids Synthesis in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tianquan; Xu, Ronghua; Chen, Jianghua; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids serve many functions in plants, but the effects of some key genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis on plants growth and development are not well understood yet. To understand the functions of 3-ketoacyl-acyl-carrier protein synthase I (KASI) in tobacco, we isolated two KASI homologs, which we have designated NtKASI-1 and NtKASI-2. Expression analysis showed that these two KASI genes were transcribed constitutively in all tissues examined. Over-expression of NtKASI-1 in tobacco changed the fatty acid content in leaves, whereas over-expressed lines of NtKASI-2 exhibited distinct phenotypic features such as slightly variegated leaves and reduction of the fatty acid content in leaves, similar to the silencing plants of NtKASI-1 gene. Interestingly, the silencing of NtKASI-2 gene had no discernibly altered phenotypes compared to wild type. The double silencing plants of these two genes enhanced the phenotypic changes during vegetative and reproductive growth compared to wild type. These results uncovered that these two KASI genes had the partially functional redundancy, and that the KASI genes played a key role in regulating fatty acids synthesis and in mediating plant growth and development in tobacco. PMID:27509494

  13. β-Ketoacyl-acyl Carrier Protein Synthase I (KASI) Plays Crucial Roles in the Plant Growth and Fatty Acids Synthesis in Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianquan; Xu, Ronghua; Chen, Jianghua; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids serve many functions in plants, but the effects of some key genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis on plants growth and development are not well understood yet. To understand the functions of 3-ketoacyl-acyl-carrier protein synthase I (KASI) in tobacco, we isolated two KASI homologs, which we have designated NtKASI-1 and NtKASI-2. Expression analysis showed that these two KASI genes were transcribed constitutively in all tissues examined. Over-expression of NtKASI-1 in tobacco changed the fatty acid content in leaves, whereas over-expressed lines of NtKASI-2 exhibited distinct phenotypic features such as slightly variegated leaves and reduction of the fatty acid content in leaves, similar to the silencing plants of NtKASI-1 gene. Interestingly, the silencing of NtKASI-2 gene had no discernibly altered phenotypes compared to wild type. The double silencing plants of these two genes enhanced the phenotypic changes during vegetative and reproductive growth compared to wild type. These results uncovered that these two KASI genes had the partially functional redundancy, and that the KASI genes played a key role in regulating fatty acids synthesis and in mediating plant growth and development in tobacco. PMID:27509494

  14. Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) and Selected Precursors in the Baltic Sea Environment: Do Precursors Play a Role in Food Web Accumulation of PFAAs?

    PubMed

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Bignert, Anders; Berger, Urs

    2016-06-21

    The present study examined the presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected precursors in the Baltic Sea abiotic environment and guillemot food web, and investigated the relative importance of precursors in food web accumulation of PFAAs. Sediment, water, zooplankton, herring, sprat, and guillemot eggs were analyzed for perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4,6,8,10) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C6-15) along with six perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors and 11 polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs). FOSA, FOSAA and its methyl and ethyl derivatives (Me- and EtFOSAA), and 6:2/6:2 diPAP were detected in sediment and water. While FOSA and the three FOSAAs were detected in all biota, a total of nine diPAPs were only detected in zooplankton. Concentrations of PFOS precursors and diPAPs exceeded PFOS and PFCA concentrations, respectively, in zooplankton, but not in fish and guillemot eggs. Although PFOS precursors were present at all trophic levels, they appear to play a minor role in food web accumulation of PFOS based on PFOS precursor/PFOS ratios and PFOS and FOSA isomer patterns. The PFCA pattern in fish could not be explained by the intake pattern based on PFCAs and analyzed precursors, that is, diPAPs. Exposure to additional precursors might therefore be a dominant exposure pathway compared to direct PFCA exposure for fish. PMID:27192404

  15. Phosphatidic acid plays a special role in stabilizing and folding of the tetrameric potassium channel KcsA.

    PubMed

    Raja, Mobeen; Spelbrink, Robin E J; de Kruijff, Ben; Killian, J Antoinette

    2007-12-11

    In this study, we investigated how the presence of anionic lipids influenced the stability and folding properties of the potassium channel KcsA. By using a combination of gel electrophoresis, tryptophan fluorescence and acrylamide quenching experiments, we found that the presence of the anionic lipid phosphatidylglycerol (PG) in a phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayer slightly stabilized the tetramer and protected it from trifluoroethanol-induced dissociation. Surprisingly, the presence of phosphatidic acid (PA) had a much larger effect on the stability of KcsA and this lipid, in addition, significantly influenced the folding properties of the protein. The data indicate that PA creates some specificity over PG, and that it most likely stabilizes the tetramer via both electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions. PMID:18036565

  16. Low intramuscular fat (but high in PUFA) content in cooked cured pork ham decreased Maillard reaction volatiles and pleasing aroma attributes.

    PubMed

    Benet, Iu; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Ibañez, Carles; Solà, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Roura, Eugeni

    2016-04-01

    The influence of intramuscular fat content (high - HI versus low - LI) and fatty acid composition on pork cooked cured ham flavour was analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry using nasal impact frequency (GC-O/NIF) and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Potential relationships were studied by principal component analysis (PCA). Sixteen and fourteen odourants were identified by GC-O/NIF in LI and HI cooked hams, respectively. The two ham types differed in lipid oxidation odourants: polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) derivatives hexanal, 1-octen-3-one and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were higher in LI ham; while monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivative decanal was higher in HI. HI samples resulted in higher values for odour-active aroma compounds from Maillard reaction, which are related to roast flavour and a higher overall flavour liking. In summary, our results suggest that Maillard derived odour-active aroma compounds were partially inhibited in LI samples (high in PUFA), resulting in lower positive sensory ratings. PMID:26593467

  17. The marine n-3 PUFA DHA evokes cytoprotection against oxidative stress and protein misfolding by inducing autophagy and NFE2L2 in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Ida; Monsen, Vivi Talstad; Pettersen, Kristine; Mildenberger, Jennifer; Misund, Kristine; Kaarniranta, Kai; Schønberg, Svanhild; Bjørkøy, Geir

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins is a hallmark of several diseases collectively known as proteinopathies. Autophagy has a cytoprotective role in diseases associated with protein aggregates. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common neurodegenerative eye disease that evokes blindness in elderly. AMD is characterized by degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and leads to loss of photoreceptor cells and central vision. The initial phase associates with accumulation of intracellular lipofuscin and extracellular deposits called drusen. Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse correlation between dietary intake of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases, including AMD. However, the disease-preventive mechanism(s) mobilized by n-3 PUFAs is not completely understood. In human retinal pigment epithelial cells we find that physiologically relevant doses of the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induce a transient increase in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels that activates the oxidative stress response regulator NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2). Simultaneously, there is a transient increase in intracellular protein aggregates containing SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) and an increase in autophagy. Pretreatment with DHA rescues the cells from cell cycle arrest induced by misfolded proteins or oxidative stress. Cells with a downregulated oxidative stress response, or autophagy, respond with reduced cell growth and survival after DHA supplementation. These results suggest that DHA both induces endogenous antioxidants and mobilizes selective autophagy of misfolded proteins. Both mechanisms could be relevant to reduce the risk of developing aggregate-associate diseases such as AMD. PMID:26237736

  18. Dietary Linseed Oil Reduces Growth While Differentially Impacting LC-PUFA Synthesis and Accretion into Tissues in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Geay, F; Wenon, D; Mellery, J; Tinti, E; Mandiki, S N M; Tocher, D R; Debier, C; Larondelle, Y; Kestemont, P

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of replacing dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, fatty acid composition and regulation of lipid metabolism in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) juveniles. Fish (17.5 g initial body weight) were fed isoproteic and isoenergetic diets containing 116 g/kg of lipid for 10 weeks. Fish fed the LO diet displayed lower growth rates and lower levels of DHA in the liver and muscle than fish fed the FO diet, while mortality was not affected by dietary treatment. However, DHA content recorded in the liver and muscle of fish fed the LO diet remained relatively high, despite a weight gain of 134 % and a reduced dietary level of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), suggesting endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthesis. This was supported by the higher amounts of pathway intermediates, including 18:4n-3, 20:3n-3, 20:4n-3, 18:3n-6 and 20:3n-6, recorded in the liver of fish fed the LO diet in comparison with those fed the FO diet. However, fads2 and elovl5 gene expression and FADS2 enzyme activity were comparable between the two groups. Similarly, the expression of genes involved in eicosanoid synthesis was not modulated by dietary LO. Thus, the present study demonstrated that in fish fed LO for 10 weeks, growth was reduced but DHA levels in tissues were largely maintained compared to fish fed FO, suggesting a physiologically relevant rate of endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthesis capacity. PMID:26439838

  19. Marked variability in hepatic expression of cytochromes CYP7A1 and CYP27A1 as compared to cerebral CYP46A1. Lessons from a dietary study with omega 3 fatty acids in hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Natalia; Shafaati, Marjan; Zaman, Wahiduz; Zheng, Wenchao; Prusak, Deborah; Wood, Thomas; Ansari, G. A. S.; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Olin, Maria; Bjorkhem, Ingemar; Pikuleva, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Two diets simulating the recommendations of the American Heart Association to increase the intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) were tested on Golden Syrian hamsters and compared to the diet simulating the current estimated consumption of fat in the United States. N-3 PUFAs were evaluated for their effects on serum and brain lipids and on the three cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs 7A1, 27A1, and 46A1) that play key roles in cholesterol elimination from different organs. Hamsters on the highest concentration of n-3 PUFAs had a statistically significant decrease in LDL and HDL cholesterol and no change in serum total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. CYP27A1 and CYP46A1 mRNA levels were increased in the liver and brain, respectively, whereas possible effects on CYP7A1 were obscured by a marked intergroup variability at mRNA, protein and sterol product levels. Increased levels of CYP46A1 mRNA in the brain did not lead to significant changes in the levels of lathosterol, 24S-hydroxycholesterol or cholesterol in this organ. The data obtained are discussed in relation to inconsistent effects of n-3 PUFAs on serum lipids in human trials and reported positive effects of fish oil on cognitive function. PMID:20298807

  20. Associations of erythrocyte ω-3 fatty acids with biomarkers of ω-3 fatty acids and inflammation in breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shuvro; Brasky, Theodore M; Belury, Martha A; Krishnan, Shiva; Cole, Rachel M; Marian, Catalin; Yee, Lisa D; Llanos, Adana A; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G

    2015-12-15

    There is increasing evidence that chronic inflammation is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCω-3PUFA) may reduce circulating biomarkers of inflammation; however associations of blood LCω-3PUFA with breast tissue LCω-3PUFA and breast tissue biomarkers of inflammation are not well understood. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of breast tissue and blood samples from n = 85 women with no history of breast cancer, who underwent breast reduction surgery. Fatty acids of erythrocytes and undissected breast tissues were analyzed by gas chromatography; C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in plasma and tissue were measured by ELISA. Multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to estimate associations between erythrocyte LCω-3PUFA and breast tissue biomarkers. Women in the highest erythrocyte LCω-3PUFA tertile had LCω-3PUFA concentrations in the breast 73% (95% CI: 31-128%; p trend < 0.0001) higher than women in the lowest tertile. Associations for each individual LCω-3PUFA were similar in magnitude. No significant association was found for the shorter ω-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid. Although compatible with no association, women in the highest tertile of erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid had a nonsignificant 32% (95% CI: -23 to 62%) reduced breast tissue CRP. No correlation was observed between erythrocyte ω-3 PUFA and tissue IL-6 or IL-8 concentrations. Our findings provide evidence that erythrocyte ω-3 fatty acids are valid measures of breast tissue concentrations, and limited evidence that inverse associations from prospective epidemiologic studies of blood LCω-3PUFA and breast cancer risk may be partly explained by reductions in breast tissue inflammation; however, these findings require replication. PMID:26137879

  1. Impairment of NFkappaB activity by unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Julia; Fuhrmann, Herbert

    2010-08-01

    Using a luciferase reporter gene assay, we identified polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to impair NF kappaB signaling. Furthermore, we could demonstrate the PUFA ability to derogate NF kappaB activity to be independent from the family the fatty acid belongs to. Instead, we found a relation between the number of bis-allyl-methylene positions of the PUFA added and the NF kappaB activity of stimulated, long-term supplemented cells. The data presented provide new insights into the biological mechanisms PUFA exert their anti-inflammatory effects. Since suppression of NF kappaB activity could be of benefit in a number of inflammatory diseases as well as cancer, our findings are of clinical implication. According to our data dietary supplementation with PUFA-containing oils is likely to provide an at least palliative therapy for disorders linked to inappropriate NF kappaB signaling. PMID:20580946

  2. Ouabain-sensitive bicarbonate secretion and acid absorption by the marine teleost fish intestine play a role in osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Grosell, M; Genz, J

    2006-10-01

    The gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) intestine secretes base mainly in the form of HCO3- via apical anion exchange to serve Cl- and water absorption for osmoregulatory purposes. Luminal HCO3- secretion rates measured by pH-stat techniques in Ussing chambers rely on oxidative energy metabolism and are highly temperature sensitive. At 25 degrees C under in vivo-like conditions, secretion rates averaged 0.45 micromol x cm(-2) x h(-1), of which 0.25 micromol x cm(-2) x h(-1) can be accounted for by hydration of endogenous CO2 partly catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. Complete polarity of secretion of HCO3- and H+ arising from the CO2 hydration reaction is evident from equal rates of luminal HCO3- secretion via anion exchange and basolateral H+ extrusion. When basolateral H+ extrusion is partly inhibited by reduction of serosal pH, luminal HCO3- secretion is reduced. Basolateral H+ secretion occurs in exchange for Na+ via an ethylisopropylamiloride-insensitive mechanism and is ultimately fueled by the activity of the basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase. Fluid absorption by the toadfish intestine to oppose diffusive water loss to the concentrated marine environment is accompanied by a substantial basolateral H+ extrusion, intimately linking osmoregulation and acid-base balance. PMID:16709644

  3. Dietary supply with polyunsaturated fatty acids and resulting maternal effects influence host – parasite interactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interactions between hosts and parasites can be substantially modulated by host nutrition. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential dietary nutrients; they are indispensable as structural components of cell membranes and as precursors for eicosanoids, signalling molecules which act on reproduction and immunity. Here, we explored the potential of dietary PUFAs to affect the course of parasitic infections using a well-established invertebrate host – parasite system, the freshwater herbivore Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. Results Using natural food sources differing in their PUFA composition and by experimentally modifying the availability of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) we examined PUFA-mediated effects resulting from direct consumption as well as maternal effects on offspring of treated mothers. We found that both host and parasite were affected by food quality. Feeding on C20 PUFA-containing food sources resulted in higher offspring production of hosts and these effects were conveyed to a great extent to the next generation. While feeding on a diet containing high PUFA concentrations significantly reduced the likelihood of becoming infected, the infection success in the next generation increased whenever the maternal diet contained PUFAs. We suggest that this opposing effect was caused by a trade-off between reproduction and immunity in the second generation. Conclusions Considering the direct and maternal effects of dietary PUFAs on host and parasite we propose that host – parasite interactions and thus disease dynamics under natural conditions are subject to the availability of dietary PUFAs. PMID:24175981

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acid analogs act antiarrhythmically on the cardiac IKs channel

    PubMed Central

    Liin, Sara I.; Silverå Ejneby, Malin; Barro-Soria, Rene; Skarsfeldt, Mark Alexander; Larsson, Johan E.; Starck Härlin, Frida; Parkkari, Teija; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Schmitt, Nicole; Larsson, H. Peter; Elinder, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) affect cardiac excitability. Kv7.1 and the β-subunit KCNE1 form the cardiac IKs channel that is central for cardiac repolarization. In this study, we explore the prospects of PUFAs as IKs channel modulators. We report that PUFAs open Kv7.1 via an electrostatic mechanism. Both the polyunsaturated acyl tail and the negatively charged carboxyl head group are required for PUFAs to open Kv7.1. We further show that KCNE1 coexpression abolishes the PUFA effect on Kv7.1 by promoting PUFA protonation. PUFA analogs with a decreased pKa value, to preserve their negative charge at neutral pH, restore the sensitivity to open IKs channels. PUFA analogs with a positively charged head group inhibit IKs channels. These different PUFA analogs could be developed into drugs to treat cardiac arrhythmias. In support of this possibility, we show that PUFA analogs act antiarrhythmically in embryonic rat cardiomyocytes and in isolated perfused hearts from guinea pig. PMID:25901329

  5. Pretend play.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2015-01-01

    Pretend play is a form of playful behavior that involves nonliteral action. Although on the surface this activity appears to be merely for fun, recent research has discovered that children's pretend play has connections to important cognitive and social skills, such as symbolic thinking, theory of mind, and counterfactual reasoning. The current article first defines pretend play and then reviews the arguments and evidence for these three connections. Pretend play has a nonliteral correspondence to reality, hence pretending may provide children with practice with navigating symbolic relationships, which may strengthen their language skills. Pretend play and theory of mind reasoning share a focus on others' mental states in order to correctly interpret their behavior, hence pretending and theory of mind may be mutually supportive in development. Pretend play and counterfactual reasoning both involve representing nonreal states of affairs, hence pretending may facilitate children's counterfactual abilities. These connections make pretend play an important phenomenon in cognitive science: Studying children's pretend play can provide insight into these other abilities and their developmental trajectories, and thereby into human cognitive architecture and its development. PMID:26263228

  6. Biochemical characterization of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Schizochytrium: release of the products as free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Metz, James G; Kuner, Jerry; Rosenzweig, Bradley; Lippmeier, James C; Roessler, Paul; Zirkle, Ross

    2009-06-01

    In marine bacteria and some thraustochytrids (marine stramenopiles) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are produced de novo by PUFA synthases. These large, multi-domain enzymes carry out the multitude of individual reactions required for conversion of malonyl-CoA to the final LC-PUFA products. Here we report on the release of fatty acids from the PUFA synthase found in Schizochytrium, a thraustochytrid that has been developed as a commercial source for DHA-enriched biomass and oil. Data from in vitro activity assays indicate that the PUFAs are released from the enzyme as free fatty acids (FFAs). Addition of ATP and Mg(2+) to in vitro assays facilitates appearance of radiolabel from (14)C-malonyl-CoA in a triacylglycerol fraction, suggesting the involvement of acyl-CoA synthetases (ACS). Furthermore, addition of triascin C, an inhibitor of ACSs, to the assays blocks this conversion. When the Schizochytrium PUFA synthase is expressed in Escherichia coli, the products of the enzyme accumulate as FFAs, suggesting that the thioesterase activity required for fatty acid release is an integral part of the PUFA synthase. PMID:19272783

  7. Effect of B-vitamins and n-3 PUFA supplementation for 5 years on blood pressure in patients with CVD.

    PubMed

    Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Julia, Chantal; Hercberg, Serge; Blacher, Jacques; Galan, Pilar

    2012-03-01

    Certain epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that n-3 fatty acids and folate can reduce blood pressure (BP). We investigated the effect of a daily supplementation with dietary doses of B-vitamins or n-3 fatty acids for 5 years on BP in patients with a history of CVD who participated in the Supplémentation en Folates et Omega-3 trial. The patients (n 2501; 1987 men and 514 women) were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of four groups: B-vitamins (5-methyl-THF (560 μg); vitamin B₆ (3 mg) and vitamin B₁₂ (20 μg)) and a placebo capsule for n-3 fatty acids; n-3 fatty acids (600 mg of EPA and DHA at a ratio of 2:1) and a placebo capsule for B-vitamins; both B-vitamins and n-3 fatty acids; or placebo capsules for both treatments. The patients took two capsules daily in a double-blind manner for a median duration of 4·7 years. At baseline and annual examination for 5 years, the patients underwent a clinical examination where BP and clinical and biological parameters were assessed. No effect of supplementation with either n-3 PUFA or B-vitamins on BP was observed in crude and adjusted multivariate models. Change in BP was not associated with change in homocysteine. In conclusion, the present results do not support the routine use of dietary supplements containing B-vitamins, or of n-3 fatty acids, to reduce BP in people with prior CVD. PMID:21801476

  8. The Regulation of Leptin, Leptin Receptor and Pro-opiomelanocortin Expression by N-3 PUFAs in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Is Not Related to the Methylation of Their Promoters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The expression of leptin is increased in obesity and inhibited by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been firmly established. Methods In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary n-3 PUFAs on the methylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of the leptin, leptin-R and POMC genes, as well as the effects of n-3 PUFA status in early life on the modification of the promoters of these three genes. Male C57 BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet with one of four different fat types: sunflower oil (n-3 PUFA deficient), soy oil, fish oil, or a mixture of soy and fish oil (soy:fish oil = 1:1). Two low-fat diets with sunflower oil or soy oil served as controls. Female mice were fed two breeding diets, sunflower oil or a mixture of soy and fish oil (soy:fish oil = 1:1), during pregnancy and lactation to breed new pups. Results Compared to mice fed the control diets, the expression of leptin in fat tissue and leptin-R and POMC in the hypothalamus was higher in the diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice, and the n-3 PUFAs in the diets reversed these elevated expression levels. The mean methylation levels of CpG sites in the promoter regions of the leptin and POMC genes showed no difference between the DIO and the control diet groups nor between the n-3 PUFA-containing and -deficient diet groups. For the CpG sites in the promoter regions of leptin-R, no methylation was found in any of the DIO or control groups. Feeding mice with the n-3 PUFA diet during pregnancy and lactation did not affect CpG methylation in the leptin or POMC promoters. Conclusions Our findings indicate that promoter DNA methylation may not be related to the expression of leptin, leptin-R or its related hypothalamic satiety regulator POMC. PMID:21609458

  9. Relationship between Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition and Psychopathology in the Vienna Omega-3 Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Jhon, Min; Kim, Jae-Min; Smesny, Stefan; Rice, Simon; Berk, Michael; Klier, Claudia M.; McGorry, Patrick D.; Schäfer, Miriam R.; Amminger, G. Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FA) levels and the severity of symptoms of individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Subjects of the present study consisted of 80 neuroleptic-naïve UHR patients. Partial correlation coefficients were calculated between baseline erythrocyte membrane FA levels, measured by gas chromatography, and scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) after controlling for age, sex, smoking and cannabis use. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the predominance of positive or negative symptoms based on PANSS subscale scores; membrane FA levels in the three groups were then compared. More severe negative symptoms measured by PANSS were negatively correlated with two saturated FAs (myristic and margaric acids), one ω-9 monounsaturated FA (MUFA; nervonic acid), and one ω-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA; docosapentaenoic acid), and were positively correlated with two ω-9 MUFAs (eicosenoic and erucic acids) and two ω-6 PUFAs (γ-linolenic and docosadienoic acids). More severe positive symptoms measured by PANSS were correlated only with nervonic acid. No associations were observed between FAs and MADRS scores. In subjects with predominant negative symptoms, the sum of the ω-9 MUFAs and the ω-6:ω-3 FA ratio were both significantly higher than in those with predominant positive symptoms, whereas the sum of ω-3 PUFAs was significantly lower. In conclusion, abnormalities in FA metabolism may contribute to the neurobiology of psychopathology in UHR individuals. In particular, membrane FA alterations may play a role in negative symptoms, which are primary psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia-related disability. PMID:26963912

  10. Relationship between Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition and Psychopathology in the Vienna Omega-3 Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Jhon, Min; Kim, Jae-Min; Smesny, Stefan; Rice, Simon; Berk, Michael; Klier, Claudia M; McGorry, Patrick D; Schäfer, Miriam R; Amminger, G Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FA) levels and the severity of symptoms of individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Subjects of the present study consisted of 80 neuroleptic-naïve UHR patients. Partial correlation coefficients were calculated between baseline erythrocyte membrane FA levels, measured by gas chromatography, and scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) after controlling for age, sex, smoking and cannabis use. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the predominance of positive or negative symptoms based on PANSS subscale scores; membrane FA levels in the three groups were then compared. More severe negative symptoms measured by PANSS were negatively correlated with two saturated FAs (myristic and margaric acids), one ω-9 monounsaturated FA (MUFA; nervonic acid), and one ω-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA; docosapentaenoic acid), and were positively correlated with two ω-9 MUFAs (eicosenoic and erucic acids) and two ω-6 PUFAs (γ-linolenic and docosadienoic acids). More severe positive symptoms measured by PANSS were correlated only with nervonic acid. No associations were observed between FAs and MADRS scores. In subjects with predominant negative symptoms, the sum of the ω-9 MUFAs and the ω-6:ω-3 FA ratio were both significantly higher than in those with predominant positive symptoms, whereas the sum of ω-3 PUFAs was significantly lower. In conclusion, abnormalities in FA metabolism may contribute to the neurobiology of psychopathology in UHR individuals. In particular, membrane FA alterations may play a role in negative symptoms, which are primary psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia-related disability. PMID:26963912

  11. Shadow Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Hilson, Margilee P.

    2012-01-01

    A bunny rabbit playfully hops across the wall. Then hands realign and fingers shift to make a hawk soar toward the ceiling. Most children have enjoyed the delightful experience of playing with shadow puppets. The authors build on this natural curiosity to help students link shadows to complex astronomical concepts such as seasons. The…

  12. Association of plasma n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with synovitis in the knee: the MOST study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In osteoarthritis (OA) the synovium is often inflamed and inflammatory cytokines contribute to cartilage damage. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory effects whereas omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) have, on balance, proinflammatory effects. The goal ...

  13. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the growth of murine colon adenocarcinomas in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, H. J.; Tisdale, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) on the growth of two murine colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (MAC26 and MAC13) has been determined both in vitro and in vivo. When the serum concentrations in the medium became growth limiting, low concentrations (18-33 microM) of both PUFAs were growth stimulatory to both cell lines, while higher concentrations were growth inhibitory. Growth stimulation by AA in both cell lines, and by LA in MAC13, was effectively inhibited by both the cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, and the lipoxygenase inhibitor BWA4C in a dose-dependent manner. The most effective inhibition was exerted by BWA4C, suggesting metabolism of both PUFAs through the lipoxygenase pathway for growth stimulation. In vivo studies using the MAC26 tumour showed a significant stimulation of tumour growth when LA was administered orally at concentrations higher than 0.4 g kg-1 day-1. Higher concentrations did not produce a further increase in tumour growth rate. This suggests that there is a threshold dose for growth stimulation by LA which, together with that in the diet, amounted to 3.8% of the total caloric intake. The increase in tumour volume induced by LA arose from a reduction in the potential doubling time from 41 to 28 h and was effectively reversed by indomethacin (5 mg kg-1). These results suggest that PUFAs may play an important role in tumour growth and may offer a potential target for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:8018542

  14. Low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 PUFA and edible seaweed: Effects of olive oil and chilled storage on physicochemical, sensory and microbial characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2009-09-01

    This article reports a study of the physicochemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of low-fat (10%) and n-3 PUFA-enriched frankfurters as affected by addition of seaweed (5% Himanthalia elongata), partial substitution (50%) of animal fat by olive oil and chilled storage (41days at 2°C). The presence of seaweed improved water and fat binding properties, reduced (P<0.05) lightness and redness and increased (P<0.05) the hardness and chewiness of low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 PUFA. The effect of olive oil on those characteristics was less pronounced than that of seaweed. Replacing pork backfat with olive oil in frankfurters produced acceptable sensory characteristics, similar to control, while addition of seaweed resulted in less acceptable products, due mainly to the special flavour of the seaweed. Formulation and storage time affected the total viable count and lactic acid bacteria count. Frankfurters containing olive oil and seaweed had the highest total viable count from day 14 of storage, with lactic acid bacteria becoming the predominant microflora. PMID:20416775

  15. Application of Silver Ion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Quantitative Analysis of Selected n-3 and n-6 PUFA in Oil Supplements.

    PubMed

    Czajkowska-Mysłek, Anna; Siekierko, Urszula; Gajewska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple method for simultaneous determination of selected cis/cis PUFA-LNA (18:2), ALA (18:3), GLA (18:3), EPA (20:5), and DHA (22:6) by silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (Ag-HPLC-DAD). The separation was performed on three Luna SCX Silver Loaded columns connected in series maintained at 10 °C with isocratic elution by 1% acetonitrile in n-hexane. The applied chromatographic system allowed a baseline separation of standard mixture of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid methyl esters containing LNA, DHA, and EPA and partial separation of ALA and GLA positional isomers. The method was validated by means of linearity, precision, stability, and recovery. Limits of detection (LOD) for considered PUFA standard solutions ranged from 0.27 to 0.43 mg L(-1). The developed method was used to evaluate of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids contents in plant and fish softgel oil capsules, results were compared with reference GC-FID based method. PMID:26939680

  16. Chemotherapeutic Properties of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids - Old Concepts and New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wooki; McMurray, David N.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several decades, data from both experimental animal studies and human clinical trials have shown that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) exhibit anti-inflammatory bioactive properties, compared to n-6 PUFA. Collectively, these studies have identified multiple mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA affect immune cell responses. In this review, we discuss the putative targets of anti-inflammatory n-3 PUFA, specifically, cytokine production, antagonism of n-6 PUFA metabolism, binding to nuclear receptors as ligands, and the alteration of signaling protein acylation. In addition, we investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA on the coalescence of lipid rafts, specialized signaling platforms in the plasma membrane. PMID:19823600

  17. A high-cholesterol, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet causes different responses in rats and hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Huei; Lu, Shao-Chun; Huang, Po-Chao; Liu, Young-Chau; Liu, Shyun-Yeu

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the response to a high-cholesterol, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or n-6 PUFA diet in rats and hamsters. Animals were fed n-3 or n-6 PUFA with a cholesterol-free diet, or with a diet enriched with cholesterol (0.5%, w/w) for 2 weeks. In rats and hamsters fed a cholesterol-free diet, plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride levels in n-3 PUFA group were significantly lower than those in n-6 PUFA group. In contrast, when diets were supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol, the plasma cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering effect of dietary n-3 PUFA disappeared. In hamsters fed with the atherogenic diet (0.5% dietary cholesterol) for 2 weeks, n-3 PUFA induced hypercholesterolemia more than n-6 PUFA, the increase being in the VLDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions. Our data thus indicate that elevation of VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol in hamsters by n-3 PUFA, compared with n-6 PUFA, is dependent on 0.5% dietary cholesterol supplementation. In rats, on the other hand, dietary n-3 PUFA did not induce hypercholesterolemia more than n-6 PUFA when 0.5% cholesterol was supplemented. Although the effects of n-3 PUFA on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL-triglycerides were similar in hamsters and rats, the interactive effects of n-3 PUFA and cholesterol on plasma and lipoprotein cholesterol levels differed in the two species. It was also found that plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol levels in hamsters are higher than in rats in the presence and absence of dietary cholesterol. In addition, cholesterol feeding induces hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia only in hamsters. Moreover, liver triglyceride concentrations increased in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet and hepatic triglyceride levels of the n-3 PUFA-fed rats were significantly lower than those in the n-6 PUFA-fed rats in the presence and absence of dietary cholesterol. However

  18. Enriched endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alleviate cognitive and behavioral deficits in a mice model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kefeng; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Baoyan; Chen, Shiyu; Zhou, Xin; Li, Zhidong; Gan, Yuhong; Cui, Liao; Kang, Jing Xuan; Li, Wende; Huang, Ren

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that accompanied by memory deficits and neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have seemly therapeutic potential in AD, but the benefit of n-3 PUFAs is still in debates. Here, we employed a transgenic mice carry fat-1 gene to encode n-3 desaturase from Caenorhabditis elegans, which increase endogenous n-3 PUFAs by converting n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs crossed with amyloid precursor protein (APP) Tg mice to evaluate the protective effects of endogenous n-3 PUFAs on cognitive and behavioral deficits of APP Tg mice. We fed APP, APP/fat-1 and fat-1 mice with n-6 PUFAs rich diet. Brain tissues were collected at 3, 9 and 12 months for fatty acid and gene expression analysis, histology and protein assays. Morris Water Maze Test, open field test and elevated plus maze test were performed to measure the behavior capability. From the results, the expression of fat-1 transgene increased cortical n-3: n-6 PUFAs ratio and n-3 PUFAs concentrations, and sensorimotor dysfunction and cognitive deficits in AD were significantly less severe in APP/fat-1 mice with endogenous n-3 PUFAs than in APP mice controls. The protection against disturbance of spontaneous motor activity and cognitive deficits in AD was strongly correlated with increased n-3: n-6 PUFAs ratio and endogenous n-3 PUFAs, reduced APP generation, inhibited amyloid β peptide aggregation, suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B and astroglia activation, and reduced death of neurons in the cortex of APP/fat-1 mice compared with APP mice controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that an available medication with the maintenance of enriched n-3 PUFAs in the brain could slow down cognitive decline and prevent neuropsychological disorder in AD. PMID:27474225

  19. Limited evidence for trans-generational effects of maternal dietary supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids on immunity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Koppenol, Astrid; Delezie, Evelyne; Parmentier, Henk K; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet. Broiler breeder hens (n = 120 birds per group) were fed one of four diets, differing in the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). At 28 weeks of age, the eggs produced were incubated to obtain 720 chicks (n = 180 per group). All broiler chicks were fed a control diet and were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Blood samples were taken at different time points after immunisation with human serum albumin (HuSA) in Freund's adjuvant to determine the acute phase response, antibody response and cytokine production. Addition of EPA to the maternal diet was associated with greater ovotransferrin concentrations post-immunisation, compared to other groups. Altering the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA or EPA:DHA in the maternal diet did not affect the offspring in terms of production of caeruloplasmin, α1-acid glycoprotein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Dietary manipulation of the maternal diet did not influence the specific antibody response to HuSA or NDV, nor did it alter the levels of natural antibody binding to keyhole limpet haemocyanin in the offspring. Thus, maternal supplementation with n-3 PUFAs played a minor role in perinatal programming of the immune response of broiler chickens. PMID:25576140

  20. Hepatic Fat Accumulation Is Modulated by the Interaction between the rs738409 Variant in the PNPLA3 Gene and the Dietary Omega6/Omega3 PUFA Intake

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Nicola; Savoye, Mary; Kim, Grace; Marotto, Katie; Shaw, Melissa M.; Pierpont, Bridget; Caprio, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Background A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), the rs738409, in the patatin like phospholipase 3 gene (PNPLA3) has been recently associated with increased hepatic steatosis and ALT levels in adults and children. Given the potential role of PNPLA3 in fatty liver development, we aimed to explore whether the influence of PNPLA3 genotype on hepatic fat in obese youth might be modulated by dietary factors such as essential omega polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake. Materials and Methods We studied 127 children and adolescents (56 boys, 71 girls; 58 Caucasians; 30 African Americans and 39 Hispanics; mean age 14.7±3.3; mean BMI 30.7±7.2). The dietary composition was assessed by the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R version 2011). The patients underwent a MRI study to assess the liver fat content (HFF%), ALT measurement and the genotyping of the rs738409 SNP by automatic sequencing. Results As previously observed, HFF% and ALT levels varied according to the genotype in each ethnicity. ALT levels and HFF% were significantly influenced by the interaction between genotype and omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio (n-6/n-3), p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively. HFF% and ALT levels were, in fact, related to the n-6/n-3 consumption only in subjects homozygote for the G allele of the rs738409 (r2 = 0.45, p =  0.001 and r2 = 0.40, p = 0.006, respectively). Conclusions These findings suggest that the association of a high dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA with fatty liver and liver damage in obese youths may be driven by a predisposing genotype. PMID:22629460

  1. n-3 PUFAs reduce T-helper 17 cell differentiation by decreasing responsiveness to interleukin-6 in isolated mouse splenic CD4⁺ T cells.

    PubMed

    Allen, M Jeannie; Fan, Yang-Yi; Monk, Jennifer M; Hou, Tim Y; Barhoumi, Rola; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2014-08-01

    Cluster of differentiation 4(+) (CD4(+)) effector T-cell subsets [e.g., T-helper (Th) 1 and Th17] are implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that induces Th17 polarization via signaling through the membrane-bound transducer glycoprotein 130 (GP130). Previously, we demonstrated that n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce CD4(+) T-cell activation and differentiation into pathogenic Th17 cells by 25-30%. Here we report that n-3 PUFAs alter the response of CD4(+) T cells to IL-6 in a lipid raft membrane-dependent manner. Naive splenic CD4(+) T cells from fat-1 transgenic mice exhibited 30% lower surface expression of the IL-6 receptor. This membrane-bound receptor is known to be shed during cellular activation, but the release of soluble IL-6 receptor after treatment with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 was not changed in the CD4(+) T cells from fat-1 mice, suggesting that the decrease in surface expression was not due to ectodomain release. We observed a significant 20% decrease in the association of GP130 with lipid rafts in activated fat-1 CD4(+) T cells and a 35% reduction in GP130 homodimerization, an obligate requirement for downstream signaling. The phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a downstream target of IL-6-dependent signaling, was also decreased by 30% in response to exogenous IL-6 in fat-1 CD4(+) T cells. Our results suggest that n-3 PUFAs suppress Th17 cell differentiation in part by reducing membrane raft-dependent responsiveness to IL-6, an essential polarizing cytokine. PMID:24944284

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit Kv1.4 by interacting with positively charged extracellular pore residues.

    PubMed

    Farag, N E; Jeong, D; Claydon, T; Warwicker, J; Boyett, M R

    2016-08-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modulate voltage-gated K(+) channel inactivation by an unknown site and mechanism. The effects of ω-6 and ω-3 PUFAs were investigated on the heterologously expressed Kv1.4 channel. PUFAs inhibited wild-type Kv1.4 during repetitive pulsing as a result of slowing of recovery from inactivation. In a mutant Kv1.4 channel lacking N-type inactivation, PUFAs reversibly enhanced C-type inactivation (Kd, 15-43 μM). C-type inactivation was affected by extracellular H(+) and K(+) as well as PUFAs and there was an interaction among the three: the effect of PUFAs was reversed during acidosis and abolished on raising K(+) Replacement of two positively charged residues in the extracellular pore (H508 and K532) abolished the effects of the PUFAs (and extracellular H(+) and K(+)) on C-type inactivation but had no effect on the lipoelectric modulation of voltage sensor activation, suggesting two separable interaction sites/mechanisms of action of PUFAs. Charge calculations suggest that the acidic head group of the PUFAs raises the pKa of H508 and this reduces the K(+) occupancy of the selectivity filter, stabilizing the C-type inactivated state. PMID:27281482

  3. Prospective Associations between Plasma Saturated, Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Overall and Breast Cancer Risk – Modulation by Antioxidants: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pouchieu, Camille; Chajès, Véronique; Laporte, François; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-01-01

    Background Mechanistic data suggest that different types of fatty acids play a role in carcinogenesis and that antioxidants may modulate this relationship but epidemiologic evidence is lacking. Our aim was to investigate the association between plasma saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs) and overall and breast cancer risk and to evaluate the potential modulatory effect of an antioxidant supplementation on these relationships. Methods A nested case-control study included all first incident cancer cases diagnosed in the SU.VI.MAX study between 1994 and 2002 (n = 250 cases, one matched control/case). Participants to the SU.VI.MAX randomized controlled trial received either vitamin/mineral antioxidants or placebo during this intervention period. Baseline fatty acid composition of plasma total lipids was measured by gas chromatography. Conditional logistic regression was performed overall and stratified by intervention group. Results Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (Ptrend = 0.002), the dihomo-γ-linolenic/linoleic acids ratio (Ptrend = 0.001), mead acid (Ptrend = 0.0004), and palmitoleic acid (Ptrend = 0.02) were inversely associated with overall cancer risk. The arachidonic/dihomo-γ-linolenic acids ratio (Ptrend = 0.02) and linoleic acid (Ptrend = 0.02) were directly associated with overall cancer risk. Similar results were observed for breast cancer specifically. In stratified analyses, associations were only observed in the placebo group. Notably, total PUFAs were directly associated with overall (Ptrend = 0.02) and breast cancer risk in the placebo group only. Conclusion Specific SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs were prospectively differentially associated with cancer risk. In addition, this study suggests that antioxidants may modulate these associations by counteracting the potential effects of these fatty acids on carcinogenesis. PMID:24587366

  4. A New Insight to Bone Turnover: Role of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    López-Frías, Magdalena; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Ochoa, Julio J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Evidence has shown that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially the ω-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are beneficial for bone health and turnover. Objectives. This review summarizes findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies and the effects of LC PUFA on bone metabolism, as well as the relationship with the oxidative stress, the inflammatory process, and obesity. Results. Some studies in humans indicate that LCPUFA can increase bone formation, affect peak bone mass in adolescents, and reduce bone loss. However, the cellular mechanisms of action of the LCPUFA are complex and involve modulation of fatty acid metabolites such as prostaglandins, resolvins and protectins, several signaling pathways, cytokines, and growth factors, although in certain aspects there is still some controversy. LCPUFA affect receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ (RANK), a receptor found on the osteoclast, causing bone resorption, which controls osteoclast formation. Conclusions. Since fatty acids are an endogenous source of reactive oxygen species, free radicals alter the process of bone turnover; however, although there are clinical evidences linking bone metabolism and dietary lipids, more clinical trials are necessary to prove whether ω-3 PUFA supplementation plays a major role in bone health. PMID:24302863

  5. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Anandan, R.; Paul, B. N.; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J.; Venkateshwarlu, G.; Mathew, Suseela; Karunakaran, D.; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  6. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T V; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Karunakaran, D; Mitra, Tandrima; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  7. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation alters proinflammatory gene expression and reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in a neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Jilling, Tamas; Li, Dan; Caplan, Michael S

    2007-04-01

    Although supplementation of preterm formula with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been shown to reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in animal models and clinical trials, the mechanisms remain elusive. We hypothesized that the protective effect of PUFA on NEC may be due to the ability of PUFA to suppress Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) gene expression (molecules that are important in the pathogenesis of NEC) in epithelial cells. To investigate the efficacy of different PUFA preparations on NEC in a neonatal rat model, we compared the incidence of NEC among the four PUFA supplemented groups--A: arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (AA+DHA), B: egg phospholipids (EP), C: DHA, and D: control without PUFA. PUFA supplementation reduced the incidence of NEC and inhibited intestinal PAFR and TLR4 gene expression compared with the controls. To validate the in vivo observations, IEC-6 cells were exposed to PAF after pretreatment with AA or DHA. Both AA and DHA supplementation blocked PAF-induced TLR4 and PAFR mRNA expression in these enterocytes. These results suggest that PUFA modulates gene expression of key factors involved in experimental NEC pathogenesis. These effects might in part explain the protective effect of PUFA on neonatal NEC. PMID:17515866

  8. How plausible is the use of dietary n-3 PUFA in the adjuvant therapy of cancer?

    PubMed

    Serini, Simona; Ottes Vasconcelos, Renata; Fasano, Elena; Calviello, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    Considerable debate exists regarding the potential antineoplastic effect of dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA contained in fatty fishes. Since the majority of published data has proven that their intake does not induce toxic or carcinogenic effects in humans, their possible preventive use against cancer has been suggested. On the other hand, it is unlikely that they could be effective in cancer patients as a single therapy. Nevertheless, a considerable effort has been put forth in recent years to evaluate the hypothesis that n-3 PUFA might improve the antineoplastic efficiency of currently used anticancer agents. The rationale for this therapeutic combinatory strategy is trying to increase cancer sensitivity to conventional therapies. This could allow the use of lower drug/radiation doses and, thereby, a reduction in the detrimental health effects associated with these treatments. We will here critically examine the studies that have investigated this possibility, by focusing particularly on the biological and molecular mechanisms underlying the antineoplastic effect of these combined treatments. A possible use of n-3 PUFA in combination with the innovative single-targeted anti-cancer therapies, that often are not completely devoid of dangerous side-effects, is also suggested. PMID:27172872

  9. The Effects of 120 Minutes of Simulated Match Play on Indices of Acid-Base Balance in Professional Academy Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Harper, Liam D; Clifford, Tom; Briggs, Marc A; McNamee, Ged; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Harper, LD, Clifford, T, Briggs, MA, McNamee, G, West, DJ, Stevenson, E, and Russell, M. The effects of 120 minutes of simulated match play on indices of acid-base balance in professional academy soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1517-1524, 2016-This study investigated the changes in indices of acid-base balance during 120 minutes of simulated soccer match play that included a 30 minute extra-time (ET) period. Eight English Premier League academy soccer players participated in a simulated soccer match that required varying intensities of intermittent exercise including 15-m sprints and soccer dribbling throughout. Blood samples were obtained before (i.e., baseline and pre-exercise) and throughout exercise (i.e., 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 minutes), and at half time. Sprint speeds over 15 m reduced in ET compared to the first half (-0.39 ± 0.37 m·s, -7 ± 6%, p = 0.021) but not the second half (-0.18 ± 0.25 m·s, -3 ± 4%, p = 0.086). At 105 minutes, blood lactate concentrations reduced compared with that in the opening 30 minutes (-0.9 to -1.2 mmol·L, p ≤ 0.05). Blood pH (-0.03 to -0.04 units), base excess (-0.95 to -1.48 mmol·L), and bicarbonate concentrations (-0.9 ± 0.8 mmol·L) were depressed at 120 minutes compared with those at 105 minutes, baseline and half time (all p ≤ 0.05). There were no significant correlations between changes in acid-base balance and sprint speed (all p > 0.05). Although the perturbations in acid-base balance during ET were statistically significant, the decreases in blood pH, lactate, base excess, and bicarbonate concentrations may not represent metabolic acidosis or impairments in buffering capacity that are likely to explain reduced physical performance. Further research is warranted to investigate mechanisms of fatigue during ET and to develop interventions that attenuate decrements in performance. PMID:26605809

  10. Genetic dissection of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Jennifer L.; Browse, John

    2002-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important membrane components and precursors of signaling molecules. To investigate the roles of these fatty acids in growth, development, and neurological function in an animal system, we isolated Caenorhabditis elegans mutants deficient in PUFA synthesis by direct analysis of fatty acid composition. C. elegans possesses all the desaturase and elongase activities to synthesize arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid from saturated fatty acid precursors. In our screen we identified mutants with defects in each fatty acid desaturation and elongation step of the PUFA biosynthetic pathway. The fatty acid compositions of the mutants reveal the substrate preferences of the desaturase and elongase enzymes and clearly demarcate the steps of this pathway. The mutants show that C. elegans does not require n3 or Δ5-unsaturated PUFAs for normal development under laboratory conditions. However, mutants with more severe PUFA deficiencies display growth and neurological defects. The mutants provide tools for investigating the roles of PUFAs in membrane biology and cell function in this animal model. PMID:11972048

  11. DNA Methylation Perturbations in Genes Involved in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Associated with Depression and Suicide Risk

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Galfalvy, Hanga; Chen, Sean; Huang, Yung-yu; Cooper, Thomas B.; Burke, Ainsley K.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Sublette, M. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and risk of suicide. Long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) are obtained in the diet or produced by sequential desaturation and elongation of shorter-chain precursor fatty acids linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). We compared DNA methylation patterns in genes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in major depressive disorder (MDD) with (n = 22) and without (n = 39) history of suicide attempt, and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 59). Plasma levels of selected PUFAs along the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway were determined by transesterification and gas chromatography. CpG methylation levels for the main human LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes, fatty acid desaturases 1 (Fads1) and 2 (Fads2), and elongation of very long-chain fatty acids protein 5 (Elovl5), were assayed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Associations between PUFA levels and diagnosis or suicide attempt status did not survive correction for multiple testing. However, MDD diagnosis and suicide attempts were significantly associated with DNA methylation in Elovl5 gene regulatory regions. Also the relative roles of PUFA levels and DNA methylation with respect to diagnostic and suicide attempt status were determined by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression analyses. We found that PUFA associations with suicide attempt status were explained by effects of Elovl5 DNA methylation within the regulatory regions. The observed link between plasma PUFA levels, DNA methylation, and suicide risk may have implications for modulation of disease-associated epigenetic marks by nutritional intervention. PMID:25972837

  12. DNA methylation perturbations in genes involved in polyunsaturated Fatty Acid biosynthesis associated with depression and suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Galfalvy, Hanga; Chen, Sean; Huang, Yung-Yu; Cooper, Thomas B; Burke, Ainsley K; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John; Sublette, M Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and risk of suicide. Long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) are obtained in the diet or produced by sequential desaturation and elongation of shorter-chain precursor fatty acids linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). We compared DNA methylation patterns in genes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in major depressive disorder (MDD) with (n = 22) and without (n = 39) history of suicide attempt, and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 59). Plasma levels of selected PUFAs along the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway were determined by transesterification and gas chromatography. CpG methylation levels for the main human LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes, fatty acid desaturases 1 (Fads1) and 2 (Fads2), and elongation of very long-chain fatty acids protein 5 (Elovl5), were assayed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Associations between PUFA levels and diagnosis or suicide attempt status did not survive correction for multiple testing. However, MDD diagnosis and suicide attempts were significantly associated with DNA methylation in Elovl5 gene regulatory regions. Also the relative roles of PUFA levels and DNA methylation with respect to diagnostic and suicide attempt status were determined by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression analyses. We found that PUFA associations with suicide attempt status were explained by effects of Elovl5 DNA methylation within the regulatory regions. The observed link between plasma PUFA levels, DNA methylation, and suicide risk may have implications for modulation of disease-associated epigenetic marks by nutritional intervention. PMID:25972837

  13. Functions of omega-3 fatty acids and FFA4 (GPR120) in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Im, Dong-Soon

    2016-08-15

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), which are plentiful in fish oil, have been known for decades to be beneficial functional nutrients in different disease states. GPR120 is a G protein-coupled receptor for long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, including n-3 PUFAs, and was recently renamed free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4). Studies on FFA4-deficient mice and the development of specific pharmacological tools have started to unravel the functions of FFA4 associated with the actions of n-3 PUFAs in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and inflammation-related diseases. Here, the state of the art regarding the roles and functions of FFA4 and n-3 PUFA in macrophages are reviewed from the pharmacological perspective. In particular, the functions of n-3 PUFA on the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes of macrophages in different organs, such as, adipose tissues and liver, are discussed along with future research directions. PMID:25987421

  14. Stearidonic and γ-linolenic acids in echium oil improves glucose disposal in insulin resistant monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, K; Flynn, D M; Jenkins, K A; Wilson, M D; Chilton, F H

    2013-07-01

    Echium oil (EO) contains stearidonic acid (18:4), a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and gamma-linolenic acids (18:3), a n-6 PUFA that can be converted to long chain (LC)-PUFAs. We aimed to compare a safflower oil (SO)-enriched diet to EO- and fish oil (FO)-enriched diets on circulating and tissue PUFAs levels and glycemic, inflammatory, and cardiovascular health biomarkers in insulin resistant African green monkeys. In a Latin-square cross-over study, eight monkeys consumed matched diets for 6 weeks with 3-week washout periods. Monkeys consuming FO had significantly higher levels of n-3 LC-PUFAs and EO supplementation resulted in higher levels of circulating n-3 LC-PUFAs and a significant increase in dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA) in red blood cells and muscle. Glucose disposal was improved after EO consumption. These data suggest that PUFAs in EO supplementation have the capacity to alter circulating, RBC and muscle LC-PUFA levels and improve glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant monkeys. PMID:23664597

  15. Intake of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Increases Omega-3 Index in Aged Male and Female Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bačová, Barbara; Seč, Peter; Čertik, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether n-3 PUFA intake affects n-3 and n-6 FA levels in plasma and red blood cells as well as omega-3 index in old male and female spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and healthy rats. Plasma linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased due to n-3 PUFA intake in SHR and healthy rats. Comparing to healthy rats the levels of PUFA in red blood cells of SHR were lower in males and higher in females with exception of arachidonic acid, which was high in males and low in females. Feeding of rats with n-3 PUFA resulted in increase of red blood cells levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid in a sex- and strain-dependent manner. Moreover, n-3 PUFA intake decreased arachidonic acid in healthy female rats but increased it in SHR and did not affect it in males. Omega-3 index was lower in SHR comparing to healthy rats and it increased due to the consumption of n-3 PUFA. Results point out sex- and strain-related differences in red blood cells levels of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in basal conditions as well as in response to n-3 PUFA intake. PMID:24967252

  16. Effect of PUFA on embryo cryoresistance, gene expression and AMPKalpha phosphorylation in IVF-derived bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Al Darwich, Abdulrahman; Perreau, Christine; Petit, Marie Hélène; Papillier, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle; Guillaume, Daniel; Mermillod, Pascal; Guignot, Florence

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA t10, c12, C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) supplementation on in vitro bovine embryo development, embryo survival after cryopreservation, gene expression and AMPKalpha phosphorylation. Control groups with modified synthetic oviduct fluid (mSOF)+/-100microM beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-ME) were performed. The effects of co-culture with bovine oviduct epithelial cell (Boec) monolayers, serum supplementation and embryo development in the ewe oviduct, on gene expression were also examined. Experiments 1 and 2: a lower d 7 embryo survival was found with 100microM C22:6 and 100microM C18:2 supplementation compared to 1microM C22:6 and 100microM beta-ME supplementation (P<0.05). C18:3 supplementation had no effect on d 7 embryo survival, but 100microM C18:3 increased d 8 embryo survival compared to 100microM beta-ME supplementation (P<0.05). Experiments 3 and 4: stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) mRNA decreased after 10microM C22:6 supplementation compared to all other supplementations (P<0.05). A lower fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) transcript level was found with 100microM C18:2, 10microM C22:6 and 10microM C18:3 supplementations compared to groups without fatty acid supplementation (P<0.05). Acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP), acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), carnitin palmitoyltransferase-II (CPT-II) mRNAs expression and AMPKalpha phosphorylation were not modified with PUFA supplementation. Experiment 5: SCD1 and FAS mRNA decrease in Boec group compared to serum supplementation, as SCD1 mRNA in ewe oviduct group (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that a PUFA supplementation with C18:2, C18:3 or C22:6 in bovine culture development

  17. Clay Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  18. Playing Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Juan E.

    The acceptance of animation technologies is increasing. Video games, such as Sony PlayStation (SONY, 2002), have become part of the culture for young people from kindergarten through undergraduate school. Animation technologies have been implemented into educational systems in the form of animated pedagogical agents (Johnson, 2000). The research…

  19. Game playing.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Christopher D

    2014-03-01

    Game playing has been a core domain of artificial intelligence research since the beginnings of the field. Game playing provides clearly defined arenas within which computational approaches can be readily compared to human expertise through head-to-head competition and other benchmarks. Game playing research has identified several simple core algorithms that provide successful foundations, with development focused on the challenges of defeating human experts in specific games. Key developments include minimax search in chess, machine learning from self-play in backgammon, and Monte Carlo tree search in Go. These approaches have generalized successfully to additional games. While computers have surpassed human expertise in a wide variety of games, open challenges remain and research focuses on identifying and developing new successful algorithmic foundations. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:193-205. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1278 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304308

  20. Sweet Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  1. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modify the Gating of Kv Channels

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Cristina; Macias, Alvaro; Prieto, Angela; De La Cruz, Alicia; Valenzuela, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to exhibit antiarrhythmic properties, which are attributed to their capability to modulate ion channels. This PUFAs ability has been reported to be due to their effects on the gating properties of ion channels. In the present review, we will focus on the role of PUFAs on the gating of two Kv channels, Kv1.5 and Kv11.1. Kv1.5 channels are blocked by n−3 PUFAs of marine [docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid] and plant origin (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) at physiological concentrations. The blockade of Kv1.5 channels by PUFAs steeply increased in the range of membrane potentials coinciding with those of Kv1.5 channel activation, suggesting that PUFAs-channel binding may derive a significant fraction of its voltage sensitivity through the coupling to channel gating. A similar shift in the activation voltage was noted for the effects of n–6 arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA on Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv11.1 channels. PUFAs-Kv1.5 channel interaction is time-dependent, producing a fast decay of the current upon depolarization. Thus, Kv1.5 channel opening is a prerequisite for the PUFA-channel interaction. Similar to the Kv1.5 channels, the blockade of Kv11.1 channels by AA and DHA steeply increased in the range of membrane potentials that coincided with the range of Kv11.1 channel activation, suggesting that the PUFAs-Kv channel interactions are also coupled to channel gating. Furthermore, AA regulates the inactivation process in other Kv channels, introducing a fast voltage-dependent inactivation in non-inactivating Kv channels. These results have been explained within the framework that AA closes voltage-dependent potassium channels by inducing conformational changes in the selectivity filter, suggesting that Kv channel gating is lipid dependent. PMID:22973228

  2. The Arabidopsis F-box E3 ligase RIFP1 plays a negative role in abscisic acid signalling by facilitating ABA receptor RCAR3 degradation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Zhang, Liang; Li, Dekuan; Liu, Zhibin; Wang, Jianmei; Li, Xufeng; Yang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in plant growth and development. The function of ABA is mediated by a group of newly discovered ABA receptors, named PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE 1/PYR-LIKE/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORs (PYR1/PYLs/RCARs). Here, we report that an Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein RCAR3 INTERACTING F-BOX PROTEIN 1 (RIFP1) interacts with ABA receptor (RCAR3) and SCF E3 ligase complex subunits Arabidopsis SKP1-LIKE PROTEINs (ASKs) in vitro and in vivo. The rifp1 mutant plants displayed increased ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination and water loss of detached leaves, while the overexpression of RIFP1 in Arabidopsis led to plants being insensitive to ABA. Meanwhile, the rifp1 mutant plants showed greater tolerance to water deficit. In addition, the RCAR3 protein level was more stable in the rifp1 mutant plants than in the wild-type plants, indicating that RIFP1 facilitates the proteasome degradation of RCAR3. Accordingly, the loss of RIFP1 increased the transcript levels of several ABA-responsive genes. Taken together, these data indicate that RIFP1 plays a negative role in the RCAR3-mediated ABA signalling pathway and likely functions as an adaptor subunit of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex to regulate ABA receptor RCAR3 stability. PMID:26386272

  3. Chylomicron remnants and nonesterified fatty acids differ in their ability to inhibit genes involved in lipogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kohan, Alison B; Qing, Yang; Cyphert, Holly A; Tso, Patrick; Salati, Lisa M

    2011-02-01

    Primary hepatocytes treated with nonesterified PUFA have been used as a model for analyzing the inhibitory effects of dietary polyunsaturated fats on lipogenic gene expression. Although nonesterified fatty acids play an important signaling role in starvation, they do not completely recapitulate the mechanism of dietary fat presentation to the liver, which is delivered via chylomicron remnants. To test the effect of remnant TG on lipogenic enzyme expression, chylomicron remnants were generated from the lymph of rats intubated with either safflower oil or lard. The remnants were added to the medium of primary rat hepatocytes in culture and the accumulation of mRNA for genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was measured. Both PUFA-enriched remnants and nonesterified PUFA inhibited the expression and maturation of sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and the expression of lipogenic genes regulated by this transcription factor. These remnants also inhibited the expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a gene regulated at post-transcriptional steps. In contrast, PUFA-enriched remnants did not inhibit the accumulation of mRNA for malic enzyme, glucokinase, and L-pyruvate kinase, whereas nonesterified fatty acids caused a decrease in these mRNA. These genes are regulated independently of SREBP-1c. SFA-enriched remnants did not inhibit lipogenic gene expression, which is consistent with a lack of inhibition of lipogenesis by dietary saturated fats. Thus, the inhibitory action of dietary polyunsaturated fats on lipogenesis involves a direct action of chylomicron remnants on the liver. PMID:21169224

  4. Cytokine Dysregulation in MECP2- and CDKL5-Related Rett Syndrome: Relationships with Aberrant Redox Homeostasis, Inflammation, and ω-3 PUFAs.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, Silvia; De Felice, Claudio; Signorini, Cinzia; Zollo, Gloria; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Guerranti, Roberto; Rossi, Marcello; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2015-01-01

    An involvement of the immune system has been suggested in Rett syndrome (RTT), a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder related to oxidative stress, and caused by a mutation in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) or, more rarely, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5). To date, it is unclear whether both mutations may have an impact on the circulating cytokine patterns. In the present study, cytokines involved in the Th1-, Th2-, and T regulatory (T-reg) response, as well as chemokines, were investigated in MECP2- (MECP2-RTT) (n = 16) and CDKL5-Rett syndrome (CDKL5-RTT) (n = 8), before and after ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation. A major cytokine dysregulation was evidenced in untreated RTT patients. In MECP2-RTT, a Th2-shifted balance was evidenced, whereas in CDKL5-RTT both Th1- and Th2-related cytokines (except for IL-4) were upregulated. In MECP2-RTT, decreased levels of IL-22 were observed, whereas increased IL-22 and T-reg cytokine levels were evidenced in CDKL5-RTT. Chemokines were unchanged. The cytokine dysregulation was proportional to clinical severity, inflammatory status, and redox imbalance. Omega-3 PUFAs partially counterbalanced cytokine changes, as well as aberrant redox homeostasis and the inflammatory status. RTT is associated with a subclinical immune dysregulation as the likely consequence of a defective inflammation regulatory signaling system. PMID:26236424

  5. Cytokine Dysregulation in MECP2- and CDKL5-Related Rett Syndrome: Relationships with Aberrant Redox Homeostasis, Inflammation, and ω-3 PUFAs

    PubMed Central

    Leoncini, Silvia; De Felice, Claudio; Signorini, Cinzia; Zollo, Gloria; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Guerranti, Roberto; Rossi, Marcello; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2015-01-01

    An involvement of the immune system has been suggested in Rett syndrome (RTT), a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder related to oxidative stress, and caused by a mutation in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) or, more rarely, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5). To date, it is unclear whether both mutations may have an impact on the circulating cytokine patterns. In the present study, cytokines involved in the Th1-, Th2-, and T regulatory (T-reg) response, as well as chemokines, were investigated in MECP2- (MECP2-RTT) (n = 16) and CDKL5-Rett syndrome (CDKL5-RTT) (n = 8), before and after ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation. A major cytokine dysregulation was evidenced in untreated RTT patients. In MECP2-RTT, a Th2-shifted balance was evidenced, whereas in CDKL5-RTT both Th1- and Th2-related cytokines (except for IL-4) were upregulated. In MECP2-RTT, decreased levels of IL-22 were observed, whereas increased IL-22 and T-reg cytokine levels were evidenced in CDKL5-RTT. Chemokines were unchanged. The cytokine dysregulation was proportional to clinical severity, inflammatory status, and redox imbalance. Omega-3 PUFAs partially counterbalanced cytokine changes, as well as aberrant redox homeostasis and the inflammatory status. RTT is associated with a subclinical immune dysregulation as the likely consequence of a defective inflammation regulatory signaling system. PMID:26236424

  6. OsPAP10c, a novel secreted acid phosphatase in rice, plays an important role in the utilization of external organic phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Linghong; Qiu, Wenmin; Gao, Wenwen; Tyerman, Stephen D; Shou, Huixia; Wang, Chuang

    2016-10-01

    Under phosphate (Pi ) starvation, plants increase the secretion of purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) into the rhizosphere to scavenge organic phosphorus (P) for plant use. To date, only a few members of the PAP family have been characterized in crops. In this study, we identified a novel secreted PAP in rice, OsPAP10c, and investigated its role in the utilization of external organic P. OsPAP10c belongs to a monocotyledon-specific subclass of Ia group PAPs and is specifically expressed in the epidermis/exodermis cell layers of roots. Both the transcript and protein levels of OsPAP10c are strongly induced by Pi starvation. OsPAP10c overexpression increased acid phosphatase (APase) activity by more than 10-fold in the culture media and almost fivefold in both roots and leaves under Pi -sufficient and Pi -deficient conditions. This increase in APase activity further improved the plant utilization efficiency of external organic P. Moreover, several APase isoforms corresponding to OsPAP10c were identified using in-gel activity assays. Under field conditions with three different Pi supply levels, OsPAP10c-overexpressing plants had significantly higher tiller numbers and shorter plant heights. This study indicates that OsPAP10c encodes a novel secreted APase that plays an important role in the utilization of external organic P in rice. PMID:27411391

  7. The MDM2 RING domain and central acidic domain play distinct roles in MDM2 protein homodimerization and MDM2-MDMX protein heterodimerization.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Patrick L; Ke, Hengming; Zhang, Yanping

    2015-05-15

    The oncoprotein murine double minute 2 (MDM2) is an E3 ligase that plays a prominent role in p53 suppression by promoting its polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In its active form, MDM2 forms homodimers as well as heterodimers with the homologous protein murine double minute 4 (MDMX), both of which are thought to occur through their respective C-terminal RING (really interesting new gene) domains. In this study, using multiple MDM2 mutants, we show evidence suggesting that MDM2 homo- and heterodimerization occur through distinct mechanisms because MDM2 RING domain mutations that inhibit MDM2 interaction with MDMX do not affect MDM2 interaction with WT MDM2. Intriguingly, deletion of a portion of the MDM2 central acidic domain selectively inhibits interaction with MDM2 while leaving intact the ability of MDM2 to interact with MDMX and to ubiquitinate p53. Further analysis of an MDM2 C-terminal deletion mutant reveals that the C-terminal residues of MDM2 are required for both MDM2 and MDMX interaction. Collectively, our results suggest a model in which MDM2-MDMX heterodimerization requires the extreme C terminus and proper RING domain structure of MDM2, whereas MDM2 homodimerization requires the extreme C terminus and the central acidic domain of MDM2, suggesting that MDM2 homo- and heterodimers utilize distinct MDM2 domains. Our study is the first to report mutations capable of separating MDM2 homo- and heterodimerization. PMID:25809483

  8. Associations of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids and fish intake with endometrial cancer risk in the VITamins And Lifestyle cohort123

    PubMed Central

    Brasky, Theodore M; Neuhouser, Marian L; Cohn, David E; White, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inflammation plays an important role in endometrial cancer etiology. Long-chain ω-3 (n−3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), derived from marine sources, are thought to be antiinflammatory; however, several studies of fish consumption suggest an increase in risk. Objective: This study examined whether intakes of long-chain ω-3 PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5ω-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6ω-3), from diet and supplements and intake of fish are associated with endometrial cancer risk. Design: Between 2000 and 2002, 22,494 women aged 50–76 y, living in western Washington State, were recruited to the VITamins And Lifestyle cohort study. Incident endometrial cancers (n = 263) were identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry after 9 y of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for the association of intakes of individual long-chain ω-3 PUFAs and fish with endometrial cancer risk were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards. Results: Women in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of dietary EPA + DHA intake had a 79% increased risk of endometrial cancer (95% CI: 16%, 175%; P-trend = 0.026). Results were similar for EPA and DHA measured individually and for fish intake. When data were stratified by body mass index (in kg/m2; <25 or ≥25), increases in risk of long-chain ω-3 PUFAs were restricted to overweight and obese women, and statistically significant reductions in risk were observed for normal-weight women. Conclusions: The overall increased risk reported here confirms the findings of several prior observational studies of fish intake, which observed similar increases in risk. Randomized trials are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24500149

  9. High serum n6 fatty acid proportion is associated with lowered LDL oxidation and inflammation: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Kaikkonen, J E; Kresanov, P; Ahotupa, M; Jula, A; Mikkilä, V; Viikari, J S A; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Raitakari, O T

    2014-04-01

    The intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is generally linked with a reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but an elevated n6PUFA intake, without simultaneous n3PUFA supply, may elevate the risk. PUFAs are suspected as being easily oxidized and have a potential role in lipoprotein oxidation and inflammation. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are resistant to oxidation. However, in a Western diet, their most important source is red meat, a food stuff rich in heme iron which can catalyze oxidative reactions. Therefore, different serum fatty acid (FA) proportions (free + esterified) were correlated with the status of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vivo (conjugated dienes = oxLDLlipids and antibody-based oxidized proteins = oxLDLprot) and inflammation (serum CRP) in 2196 Finnish subjects (age: 24-39 years) using CVD risk factor-adjusted linear regression models. High n6PUFA, PUFA/SFA and n6/n3 ratios, and low SFA and MUFA were all associated with reduced levels of oxLDLlipids, oxLDLprot, and CRP. These findings at the population level suggest that PUFAs are negatively and SFAs and MUFAs positively related with LDL oxidation and inflammation; these conclusions are in line with previous observations linking PUFAs, particularly n6PUFAs, with lower CVD risk, and SFAs with increased risk. PMID:24437974

  10. ω-3 PUFA Rich Camelina Oil By-Products Improve the Systemic Metabolism and Spleen Cell Functions in Fattening Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Taranu, Ionelia; Gras, Mihail; Pistol, Gina Cecilia; Motiu, Monica; Marin, Daniela E.; Lefter, Nicoleta; Ropota, Mariana; Habeanu, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Camelina oil-cakes results after the extraction of oil from Camelina sativa plant. In this study, camelina oil-cakes were fed to fattening pigs for 33 days and its effect on performance, plasma biochemical analytes, pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and antioxidant detoxifying defence in spleen was investigated in comparison with sunflower meal. 24 crossbred TOPIG pigs were randomly assigned to one of two experimental dietary treatments containing either 12% sunflower meal (treatment 1-T1), or 12.0% camelina oil-cakes, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (ω-3 PUFA) (treatment 2-T2). The results showed no effect of T2 diet (camelina cakes) on feed intake, average weight gain or feed efficiency. Consumption of camelina diet resulted in a significant decrease in plasma glucose concentration (18.47%) with a trend towards also a decrease of plasma cholesterol. In spleen, T2 diet modulated cellular immune response by decreasing the protein and gene expression of pro-inflammatory markers, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin (IL-8) and cyclooxigenase 2 (COX-2) in comparison with T1 diet. By contrast, T2 diet increased (P<0.05) in spleen the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) by 3.43, 2.47 and 1.83 fold change respectively, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (4.60 fold), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (3.23 fold) and the total antioxidant level (9.02%) in plasma. Camelina diet increased also peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) mRNA and decreased that of mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (p38α MAPK) and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB). At this level of inclusion (12%) camelina oil-cakes appears to be a potentially alternative feed source for pig which preserves a high content of ω-3 PUFA indicating antioxidant properties by the

  11. ω-3 PUFA rich camelina oil by-products improve the systemic metabolism and spleen cell functions in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Taranu, Ionelia; Gras, Mihail; Pistol, Gina Cecilia; Motiu, Monica; Marin, Daniela E; Lefter, Nicoleta; Ropota, Mariana; Habeanu, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Camelina oil-cakes results after the extraction of oil from Camelina sativa plant. In this study, camelina oil-cakes were fed to fattening pigs for 33 days and its effect on performance, plasma biochemical analytes, pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and antioxidant detoxifying defence in spleen was investigated in comparison with sunflower meal. 24 crossbred TOPIG pigs were randomly assigned to one of two experimental dietary treatments containing either 12% sunflower meal (treatment 1-T1), or 12.0% camelina oil-cakes, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (ω-3 PUFA) (treatment 2-T2). The results showed no effect of T2 diet (camelina cakes) on feed intake, average weight gain or feed efficiency. Consumption of camelina diet resulted in a significant decrease in plasma glucose concentration (18.47%) with a trend towards also a decrease of plasma cholesterol. In spleen, T2 diet modulated cellular immune response by decreasing the protein and gene expression of pro-inflammatory markers, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin (IL-8) and cyclooxigenase 2 (COX-2) in comparison with T1 diet. By contrast, T2 diet increased (P<0.05) in spleen the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) by 3.43, 2.47 and 1.83 fold change respectively, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (4.60 fold), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (3.23 fold) and the total antioxidant level (9.02%) in plasma. Camelina diet increased also peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) mRNA and decreased that of mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (p38α MAPK) and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB). At this level of inclusion (12%) camelina oil-cakes appears to be a potentially alternative feed source for pig which preserves a high content of ω-3 PUFA indicating antioxidant properties by the

  12. Trans isomeric octadecenoic acids are related inversely to arachidonic acid and DHA and positively related to mead acid in umbilical vessel wall lipids.

    PubMed

    Decsi, Tamás; Boehm, Günther; Tjoonk, H M Ria; Molnár, Szilárd; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Martini, Ingrid A; Muskiet, Frits A J; Boersma, E Rudy

    2002-10-01

    Long-chain PUFA play an important role in early human neurodevelopment. Significant inverse correlations were reported between values of trans isomeric and long-chain PUFA in plasma lipids of preterm infants and children aged 1-15 yr as well as in venous cord blood lipids of full-term infants. Here we report FA compositional data of cord blood vessel wall lipids in 308 healthy, full-term infants (gestational age: 39.7 +/- 1.2 wk, birth weight: 3528 +/- 429 g, mean +/- SD). The median (interquartile range) of the sum of 18-carbon trans FA was 0.22 (0.13) % w/w in umbilical artery and 0.16 (0.10) % w/w in umbilical vein lipids. Nonparametric correlation analysis showed significant inverse correlations between the sum of 18-carbon trans FA and both arachidonic acid and DHA in artery (r = -0.38, P < 0.01, and r = -0.20, P < 0.01) and vein (r = -0.36, P < 0.01, and -0.17, P < 0.01) wall lipids. In addition, the sum of 18-carbon trans FA was significantly positively correlated to Mead acid, a general indicator of EFA deficiency, in both artery (r = +0.35, P < 0.01) and vein (r = +0.31, P< 0.01) wall lipids. The present results obtained in a large group of full-term infants suggest that maternal trans FA intake is inversely associated with long-chain PUFA status of the infant at birth. PMID:12530555

  13. Eicosapentaenoic acid plays a beneficial role in membrane organization and cell division of a cold-adapted bacterium, Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Jun; Kurihara, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Nagayasu, Makiko; Tani, Yasushi; Mihara, Hisaaki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Baba, Takeshi; Sato, Satoshi B; Esaki, Nobuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10, a psychrotrophic gram-negative bacterium isolated from Antarctic seawater, produces eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as a component of phospholipids at low temperatures. EPA constitutes about 5% of the total fatty acids of cells grown at 4 degrees C. We found that five genes, termed orf2, orf5, orf6, orf7, and orf8, are specifically required for the synthesis of EPA by targeted disruption of the respective genes. The mutants lacking EPA showed significant growth retardation at 4 degrees C but not at 18 degrees C. Supplementation of a synthetic phosphatidylethanolamine that contained EPA at the sn-2 position complemented the growth defect. The EPA-less mutant became filamentous, and multiple nucleoids were observed in a single cell at 4 degrees C, indicating that the mutant has a defect in cell division. Electron microscopy of the cells by high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution revealed abnormal intracellular membranes in the EPA-less mutant at 4 degrees C. We also found that the amounts of several membrane proteins were affected by the depletion of EPA. While polyunsaturated fatty acids are often considered to increase the fluidity of the hydrophobic membrane core, diffusion of a small hydrophobic molecule, pyrene, in the cell membranes and large unilamellar vesicles prepared from the lipid extracts was very similar between the EPA-less mutant and the parental strain. These results suggest that EPA in S. livingstonensis Ac10 is not required for bulk bilayer fluidity but plays a beneficial role in membrane organization and cell division at low temperatures, possibly through specific interaction between EPA and proteins involved in these cellular processes. PMID:19011019

  14. Metabolomic approach to the nutraceutical effect of rosemary extract plus Ω-3 PUFAs in diabetic children with capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Balderas, Claudia; Villaseñor, Alma; García, Antonia; Rupérez, F Javier; Ibañez, Elena; Señorans, Javier; Guerrero-Fernández, Julio; González-Casado, Isabel; Gracia-Bouthelier, Ricardo; Barbas, Coral

    2010-12-15

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a major endocrine disorder, affecting approximately 5% of the world's population. It not only leads to hyperglycaemia but also causes many complications, and numerous studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress contributes to these complications. As a new strategy to improve the oxidative damage in diabetes, interest has grown in the usage of natural antioxidants, even more in the long term. Among them, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) has been widely accepted as one of the species with the highest antioxidant activity. In addition, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were efficient in delaying and decreasing cardiovascular risk factors associated with diabetes. Type 1 diabetic children and the corresponding controls were enrolled in the assay. The aim was evaluating the effect of a special additive containing rosemary extract, vitamin E and PUFAs added to their standard diet through the meat. In the analytical point of view, a metabolomic approach with CE-UV was used to detect possible differences in urine of diabetic children as compared to controls. After the application of the appropriate multivariate statistical tools, clear differences could be observed between treated and non-treated diabetic children and some of the metabolites associated could be identified. This was specially challenging as most of the clinical biochemical parameters measured by target analysis showed no differences between the groups. PMID:20719450

  15. TRPA1 Is a Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Sensor in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Motter, Arianne L.; Ahern, Gerard P.

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids can act as important signaling molecules regulating diverse physiological processes. Our understanding, however, of fatty acid signaling mechanisms and receptor targets remains incomplete. Here we show that Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a cation channel expressed in sensory neurons and gut tissues, functions as a sensor of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in vitro and in vivo. PUFAs, containing at least 18 carbon atoms and three unsaturated bonds, activate TRPA1 to excite primary sensory neurons and enteroendocrine cells. Moreover, behavioral aversion to PUFAs is absent in TRPA1-null mice. Further, sustained or repeated agonism with PUFAs leads to TRPA1 desensitization. PUFAs activate TRPA1 non-covalently and independently of known ligand binding domains located in the N-terminus and 5th transmembrane region. PUFA sensitivity is restricted to mammalian (rodent and human) TRPA1 channels, as the drosophila and zebrafish TRPA1 orthologs do not respond to DHA. We propose that PUFA-sensing by mammalian TRPA1 may regulate pain and gastrointestinal functions. PMID:22723860

  16. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Invertebrates: Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R.; Navarro, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs. PMID:24152561

  17. Genetic variation in FADS genes is associated with maternal long-chain PUFA status but not with cognitive development of infants in a high fish-eating observational study.

    PubMed

    Yeates, Alison J; Love, Tanzy M; Engström, Karin; Mulhern, Maria S; McSorley, Emeir M; Grzesik, Katherine; Alhamdow, Ayman; Wahlberg, Karin; Thurston, Sally W; Davidson, Philip W; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Watson, Gene E; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Myers, G J; Strain, J J; Broberg, Karin

    2015-12-01

    Long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA (LC-PUFA), arachidonic acid (AA) (20:4n-6) and DHA (22:6n-3), are critical for optimal brain development. These fatty acids can be consumed directly from the diet, or synthesized endogenously from precursor PUFA by Δ-5 (encoded by FADS1) and Δ-6 desaturases (encoded by FADS2). The aim of this study was to determine the potential importance of maternal genetic variability in FADS1 and FADS2 genes to maternal LC-PUFA status and infant neurodevelopment in populations with high fish intakes. The Nutrition Cohorts 1 (NC1) and 2 (NC2) are longitudinal observational mother-child cohorts in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal serum LC-PUFA was measured at 28 weeks gestation and genotyping for rs174537 (FADS1), rs174561 (FADS1), rs3834458 (FADS1-FADS2) and rs174575 (FADS2) was performed in both cohorts. The children completed the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II) at 30 months in NC1 and at 20 months in NC2. Complete data were available for 221 and 1310 mothers from NC1 and NC2 respectively. With increasing number of rs3834458 minor alleles, maternal concentrations of AA were significantly decreased (NC1 p=0.004; NC2 p<0.001) and precursor:product ratios for linoleic acid (LA) (18:2n-6)-to-AA (NC1 p<0.001; NC2 p<0.001) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) (18:3n-3)-to-DHA were increased (NC2 p=0.028). There were no significant associations between maternal FADS genotype and BSID-II scores in either cohort. A trend for improved PDI was found among infants born to mothers with the minor rs3834458 allele.In these high fish-eating cohorts, genetic variability in FADS genes was associated with maternal AA status measured in serum and a subtle association of the FADS genotype was found with neurodevelopment. PMID:26474818

  18. fat-1 transgene expression prevents cell culture-induced loss of membrane n-3 fatty acids in activated CD4+ T-cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Kim, Wooki; Callaway, Evelyn; Smith, Roger; Jia, Qian; Zhou, Lan; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2008-12-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of fatty acids on immune cell membrane structure and function, it is often necessary to maintain cells in culture. However, cell culture conditions typically reverse alterations in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition achieved by dietary lipid manipulation. Therefore, we hypothesized that T-cells from transgenic mice expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans n-3 desaturase (fat-1) gene would be resistant to the culture-induced loss of n-3 PUFA and, therefore, obviate the need to incorporate fatty acids or homologous serum into the medium. CD4+ T-cells were isolated from (i) control wild type (WT) mice fed a safflower oil-n-6 PUFA enriched diet (SAF) devoid of n-3 PUFA, (ii) fat-1 transgenic mice (enriched with endogenous n-3 PUFA) fed a SAF diet, or (iii) WT mice fed a fish oil (FO) based diet enriched in n-3 PUFA. T-cell phospholipids isolated from WT mice fed FO diet (enriched in n-3 PUFA) and fat-1 transgenic mice fed a SAF diet (enriched in n-6 PUFA) were both enriched in n-3 PUFA. As expected, the mol% levels of both n-3 and n-6 PUFA were decreased in cultures of CD4+ T-cells from FO-fed WT mice after 3d in culture. In contrast, the expression of n-3 desaturase prevented the culture-induced decrease of n-3 PUFA in CD4+ T-cells from the transgenic mice. Carboxyfluorescein succinidyl ester (CFSE) -labeled CD4+ T-cells from fat-1/SAF vs. WT/SAF mice stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 for 3d, exhibited a reduced (P<0.05) number of cell divisions. We conclude that fat-1-containing CD4+ T-cells express a physiologically relevant, n-3 PUFA enriched, membrane fatty acid composition which is resistant to conventional cell culture-induced depletion. PMID:18977126

  19. A genome-wide association study of n-3 and n-6 plasma fatty acids in a Singaporean Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Sun, Ye; Han, Yi; Ke, Tingjing; Burger, Ayala; Chang, Xuling; Low, Hui Qi; Guan, Weihua; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Choon Nam; Tai, E Shyong; Liu, Jianjun; van Dam, Rob M; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Friedlander, Yechiel

    2015-11-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a major impact on human health. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genetic loci that are associated with plasma levels of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in primarily subjects of European ancestry. However, the relevance of these findings has not been evaluated extensively in other ethnic groups. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate for genetic loci associated with n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and to validate the role of recently identified index loci using data from a Singaporean Chinese population. Using a GWAS approach, we evaluated associations with plasma concentrations of three n-3 PUFAs [alphalinolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid], four n-6 PUFAs [linoleic acid (LA), gammalinolenic acid, dihomogammalinolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid], and estimates of delta-5 desaturase and delta-6 desaturase activities among the participants (N = 1361) of the Singaporean Chinese Health Study. Our results reveal robust genome-wide associations (p value <5 × 10(-8)) with ALA, all four n-6 PUFAs, and delta-6 desaturase activity at the FADS1/FADS2 locus. We further replicated the associations between common index variants at the NTAN1/PDXDC1 locus and n-6 PUFAs LA and DGLA, and between the JMJD1C locus and n-6 PUFA LA (p value between 0.0490 and 9.88 × 10(-4)). These associations were independent of dietary intake of PUFAs. In aggregate, we show that genetic loci that influence plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are shared across different ethnic groups. PMID:26584805

  20. Impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognition, motor skills and hippocampal neurogenesis in developing C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Carola I F; Zerbi, Valerio; Mutsaers, Martina P C; de Jong, Bas S W; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Arnoldussen, Ilse A C; Geenen, Bram; Heerschap, Arend; Muskiet, Frits A J; Jouni, Zeina E; van Tol, Eric A F; Gross, Gabriele; Homberg, Judith R; Berg, Brian M; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is critical during perinatal development of the brain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 PUFA in the brain and influences neuronal membrane function and neuroprotection. The present study aims to assess the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA availability during the gestational and postnatal period on cognition, brain metabolism and neurohistology in C57BL/6J mice. Female wild-type C57BL/6J mice at day 0 of gestation were randomly assigned to either an n-3 PUFA deficient diet (0.05% of total fatty acids) or an n-3 PUFA adequate diet (3.83% of total fatty acids) containing preformed DHA and its precursor α-linolenic acid. Male offspring remained on diet and performed cognitive tests during puberty and adulthood. In adulthood, animals underwent (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess brain energy metabolites. Thereafter, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed assessing inflammation, neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Compared to the n-3 PUFA deficient group, pubertal n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice demonstrated increased motor coordination. Adult n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice exhibited increased exploratory behavior, sensorimotor integration and spatial memory, while neurogenesis in the hippocampus was decreased. Selected brain regions of n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice contained significantly lower levels of arachidonic acid and higher levels of DHA and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. Our data suggest that dietary n-3 PUFA can modify neural maturation and enhance brain functioning in healthy C57BL/6J mice. This indicates that availability of n-3 PUFA in infant diet during early development may have a significant impact on brain development. PMID:25444517

  1. Bacterial Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Their Biosynthetic Genes, Functions, and Practical Use.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kiyohito; Hashimoto, Mikako; Hori, Ryuji; Adachi, Takumi; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Orikasa, Yoshitake; Nagamine, Tadashi; Shimizu, Satoru; Ueno, Akio; Morita, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional and pharmaceutical values of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been well recognized. These LC-PUFAs are physiologically important compounds in bacteria and eukaryotes. Although little is known about the biosynthetic mechanisms and functions of LC-PUFAs in bacteria compared to those in higher organisms, a combination of genetic, bioinformatic, and molecular biological approaches to LC-PUFA-producing bacteria and some eukaryotes have revealed the notably diverse organization of the pfa genes encoding a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase complex (PUFA synthase), the LC-PUFA biosynthetic processes, and tertiary structures of the domains of this enzyme. In bacteria, LC-PUFAs appear to take part in specific functions facilitating individual membrane proteins rather than in the adjustment of the physical fluidity of the whole cell membrane. Very long chain polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (LC-HCs) such as hentriacontanonaene are considered to be closely related to LC-PUFAs in their biosynthesis and function. The possible role of LC-HCs in strictly anaerobic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic environments and the evolutionary relationships of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria carrying pfa-like genes are also discussed. PMID:27187420

  2. Bacterial Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Their Biosynthetic Genes, Functions, and Practical Use

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kiyohito; Hashimoto, Mikako; Hori, Ryuji; Adachi, Takumi; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Orikasa, Yoshitake; Nagamine, Tadashi; Shimizu, Satoru; Ueno, Akio; Morita, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional and pharmaceutical values of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been well recognized. These LC-PUFAs are physiologically important compounds in bacteria and eukaryotes. Although little is known about the biosynthetic mechanisms and functions of LC-PUFAs in bacteria compared to those in higher organisms, a combination of genetic, bioinformatic, and molecular biological approaches to LC-PUFA-producing bacteria and some eukaryotes have revealed the notably diverse organization of the pfa genes encoding a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase complex (PUFA synthase), the LC-PUFA biosynthetic processes, and tertiary structures of the domains of this enzyme. In bacteria, LC-PUFAs appear to take part in specific functions facilitating individual membrane proteins rather than in the adjustment of the physical fluidity of the whole cell membrane. Very long chain polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (LC-HCs) such as hentriacontanonaene are considered to be closely related to LC-PUFAs in their biosynthesis and function. The possible role of LC-HCs in strictly anaerobic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic environments and the evolutionary relationships of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria carrying pfa-like genes are also discussed. PMID:27187420

  3. Transcriptional and antioxidative responses to endogenous polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Andrisic, Luka; Collinson, Emma J; Tehlivets, Oksana; Perak, Eleonora; Zarkovic, Tomislav; Dawes, Ian W; Zarkovic, Neven; Cipak Gasparovic, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Pathophysiology of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is associated with aberrant lipid and oxygen metabolism. In particular, under oxidative stress, PUFAs are prone to autocatalytic degradation via peroxidation, leading to formation of reactive aldehydes with numerous potentially harmful effects. However, the pathological and compensatory mechanisms induced by lipid peroxidation are very complex and not sufficiently understood. In our study, we have used yeast capable of endogenous PUFA synthesis in order to understand the effects triggered by PUFA accumulation on cellular physiology of a eukaryotic organism. The mechanisms induced by PUFA accumulation in S. cerevisiae expressing Hevea brasiliensis Δ12-fatty acid desaturase include down-regulation of components of electron transport chain in mitochondria as well as up-regulation of pentose-phosphate pathway and fatty acid β-oxidation at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, while no changes were observed at the transcriptional level, activities of two important enzymatic antioxidants, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase, were altered in response to PUFA accumulation. Increased intracellular glutathione levels further suggest an endogenous oxidative stress and activation of antioxidative defense mechanisms under conditions of PUFA accumulation. Finally, our data suggest that PUFA in cell membrane causes metabolic changes which in turn lead to adaptation to endogenous oxidative stress. PMID:25280400

  4. Environmental evaluation of eicosapentaenoic acid production by Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Paula; González-García, Sara; Allewaert, Céline; Verween, Annick; Murray, Patrick; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play an important role in human health. Due to the increased market demand, the production of PUFAs from potential alternative sources such as microalgae is receiving increased interest. The aim of this study was to perform a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the biotechnological production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, followed by the identification of avenues to improve its environmental profile. The LCA tackles two production schemes of P. tricornutum PUFAs with an EPA content of 36%: lab and pilot scales. The results at lab scale show that both the electricity requirements and the production of the extraction agent (chloroform) have significant influence on the life cycle environmental performance of microalgal EPA production. An alternative method based on hexane was proposed to replace chloroform and environmental benefits were identified. Regarding the production of EPA at pilot scale, three main environmental factors were identified: the production of the nitrogen source required for microalgae growing, the transport activities and electricity requirements. Improvement alternatives were proposed and discussed concerning: a) the use of nitrogen based fertilizers, b) the valorization of the residual algal paste as soil conditioner and, c) the anaerobic digestion of the residual algal paste for bioenergy production. Encouraging environmental benefits could be achieved if sodium nitrate was substituted by urea, calcium nitrate or ammonium nitrate, regardless the category under assessment. In contrast, minor improvement was found when valorizing the residual algal paste as mineral fertilizer, due to its overall low content in N and P. Concerning the biogas production from the anaerobic digestion, the improvement on the environmental profile was also limited due to the discrepancy between the potential energy production from the algal paste and the high electricity requirements in

  5. An aromatic amino acid in the coiled-coil 1 domain plays a crucial role in the auto-inhibitory mechanism of STIM1.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junwei; Zhang, Haining; Zhang, Mingshu; Deng, Yongqiang; Wang, Huiyu; Lu, Jingze; Xu, Tao; Xu, Pingyong

    2013-09-15

    STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1) is one of the key elements that mediate store-operated Ca²⁺ entry via CRAC (Ca²⁺- release-activated Ca²⁺) channels in immune and non-excitable cells. Under physiological conditions, the intramolecular auto-inhibitions in STIM1 C- and STIM1 N-termini play essential roles in keeping STIM1 in an inactive state. However, the auto-inhibitory mechanism of the STIM1 C-terminus is still unclear. In the present study, we first predicted a short inhibitory domain (residues 310-317) in human STIM1 that might determine the different localizations of human STIM1 from Caenorhabditis elegans STIM1 in resting cells. Next, we confirmed the prediction and further identified an aromatic amino acid residue, Tyr³¹⁶, that played a crucial role in maintaining STIM1 in a closed conformation in quiescent cells. Full-length STIM1-Y316A formed constitutive clusters near the plasma membrane and activated the CRAC channel in the resting state when co-expressed with Orai1. The introduction of a Y316A mutation caused the higher-order oligomerization of the in vitro purified STIM1 fragment containing both the auto-inhibitory domain and CAD(CRAC-activating domain).We propose that the Tyr³¹⁶ residue may be involved in the auto-inhibitory mechanism of the STIM1 C-terminus in the quiescent state. This inhibition could be achieved either by interacting with the CAD using hydrogen and/or hydrophobic bonds, or by an intermolecular interaction using repulsive forces, which maintained a dimeric STIM1. PMID:23795811

  6. Fatty acid binding protein 4 and 5 play a crucial role in thermogenesis under the conditions of fasting and cold stress.

    PubMed

    Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A A; Iso, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Putri, Mirasari; Obokata, Masaru; Sunaga, Hiroaki; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Matsui, Hiroki; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Endo, Keigo; Tsushima, Yoshito; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Hypothermia is rapidly induced during cold exposure when thermoregulatory mechanisms, including fatty acid (FA) utilization, are disturbed. FA binding protein 4 (FABP4) and FABP5, which are abundantly expressed in adipose tissues and macrophages, have been identified as key molecules in the pathogenesis of overnutrition-related diseases, such as insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. We have recently shown that FABP4/5 are prominently expressed in capillary endothelial cells in the heart and skeletal muscle and play a crucial role in FA utilization in these tissues. However, the role of FABP4/5 in thermogenesis remains to be determined. In this study, we showed that thermogenesis is severely impaired in mice lacking both FABP4 and FABP5 (DKO mice), as manifested shortly after cold exposure during fasting. In DKO mice, the storage of both triacylglycerol in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and glycogen in skeletal muscle (SkM) was nearly depleted after fasting, and a biodistribution analysis using 125I-BMIPP revealed that non-esterified FAs (NEFAs) are not efficiently taken up by BAT despite the robustly elevated levels of serum NEFAs. In addition to the severe hypoglycemia observed in DKO mice during fasting, cold exposure did not induce the uptake of glucose analogue 18F-FDG by BAT. These findings strongly suggest that DKO mice exhibit pronounced hypothermia after fasting due to the depletion of energy storage in BAT and SkM and the reduced supply of energy substrates to these tissues. In conclusion, FABP4/5 play an indispensable role in thermogenesis in BAT and SkM. Our study underscores the importance of FABP4/5 for overcoming life-threatening environments, such as cold and starvation. PMID:24603714

  7. Characterization of amino acid residues within the N-terminal region of Ubc9 that play a role in Ubc9 nuclear localization

    SciTech Connect

    Sekhri, Palak; Tao, Tao; Kaplan, Feige; Zhang, Xiang-Dong

    2015-02-27

    As the sole E2 enzyme for SUMOylation, Ubc9 is predominantly nuclear. However, the underlying mechanisms of Ubc9 nuclear localization are still not well understood. Here we show that RNAi-depletion of Imp13, an importin known to mediate Ubc9 nuclear import, reduces both Ubc9 nuclear accumulation and global SUMOylation. Furthermore, Ubc9-R13A or Ubc9-H20D mutation previously shown to interrupt the interaction of Ubc9 with nucleus-enriched SUMOs reduces the nuclear enrichment of Ubc9, suggesting that the interaction of Ubc9 with the nuclear SUMOs may enhance Ubc9 nuclear retention. Moreover, Ubc9-R17E mutation, which is known to disrupt the interaction of Ubc9 with both SUMOs and Imp13, causes a greater decrease in Ubc9 nuclear accumulation than Ubc9-R13A or Ubc9-H20D mutation. Lastly, Ubc9-K74A/S89D mutations that perturb the interaction of Ubc9 with nucleus-enriched SUMOylation-consensus motifs has no effect on Ubc9 nuclear localization. Altogether, our results have elucidated that the amino acid residues within the N-terminal region of Ubc9 play a pivotal role in regulation of Ubc9 nuclear localization. - Highlights: • Imp13-mediated nuclear import of Ubc9 is critical for global SUMOylation. • Ubc9 mutations disrupting Ubc9-SUMO interaction decrease Ubc9 nuclear accumulation. • N-terminal amino acid residues of Ubc9 are critical for Ubc9 nuclear enrichment.

  8. Impulsivity-based thrifty eating phenotype and the protective role of n-3 PUFAs intake in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reis, R S; Dalle Molle, R; Machado, T D; Mucellini, A B; Rodrigues, D M; Bortoluzzi, A; Bigonha, S M; Toazza, R; Salum, G A; Minuzzi, L; Buchweitz, A; Franco, A R; Pelúzio, M C G; Manfro, G G; Silveira, P P

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects brain responses to palatable foods and whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain) serum levels moderate the association between IUGR and brain and behavioral responses to palatable foods. Brain responses to palatable foods were investigated using a functional magnetic resonance imaging task in which participants were shown palatable foods, neutral foods and non-food items. Serum DHA was quantified in blood samples, and birth weight ratio (BWR) was used as a proxy for IUGR. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to evaluate eating behaviors. In the contrast palatable food > neutral items, we found an activation in the right superior frontal gyrus with BWR as the most important predictor; the lower the BWR (indicative of IUGR), the greater the activation of this region involved in impulse control/decision making facing the viewing of palatable food pictures versus neutral items. At the behavioral level, a general linear model predicting external eating using the DEBQ showed a significant interaction between DHA and IUGR status; in IUGR individuals, the higher the serum DHA, the lower is external eating. In conclusion, we suggest that IUGR moderates brain responses when facing stimuli related to palatable foods, activating an area related to impulse control. Moreover, higher intake of n-3 PUFAs can protect IUGR individuals from developing inappropriate eating behaviors, the putative mechanism of protection would involve decreasing intake in response to external food cues in adolescents/young adults. PMID:26978737

  9. Impulsivity-based thrifty eating phenotype and the protective role of n-3 PUFAs intake in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Reis, R S; Dalle Molle, R; Machado, T D; Mucellini, A B; Rodrigues, D M; Bortoluzzi, A; Bigonha, S M; Toazza, R; Salum, G A; Minuzzi, L; Buchweitz, A; Franco, A R; Pelúzio, M C G; Manfro, G G; Silveira, P P

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects brain responses to palatable foods and whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain) serum levels moderate the association between IUGR and brain and behavioral responses to palatable foods. Brain responses to palatable foods were investigated using a functional magnetic resonance imaging task in which participants were shown palatable foods, neutral foods and non-food items. Serum DHA was quantified in blood samples, and birth weight ratio (BWR) was used as a proxy for IUGR. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to evaluate eating behaviors. In the contrast palatable food > neutral items, we found an activation in the right superior frontal gyrus with BWR as the most important predictor; the lower the BWR (indicative of IUGR), the greater the activation of this region involved in impulse control/decision making facing the viewing of palatable food pictures versus neutral items. At the behavioral level, a general linear model predicting external eating using the DEBQ showed a significant interaction between DHA and IUGR status; in IUGR individuals, the higher the serum DHA, the lower is external eating. In conclusion, we suggest that IUGR moderates brain responses when facing stimuli related to palatable foods, activating an area related to impulse control. Moreover, higher intake of n-3 PUFAs can protect IUGR individuals from developing inappropriate eating behaviors, the putative mechanism of protection would involve decreasing intake in response to external food cues in adolescents/young adults. PMID:26978737

  10. Ellagic acid plays a protective role against UV-B-induced oxidative stress by up-regulating antioxidant components in human dermal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Beomyeol; Lee, Su Hee; Lim, Hye-Won

    2016-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA), an antioxidant polyphenolic constituent of plant origin, has been reported to possess diverse pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities. This work aimed to clarify the skin anti-photoaging properties of EA in human dermal fibroblasts. The skin anti-photoaging activity was evaluated by analyzing the reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), total glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels as well as cell viability in dermal fibroblasts under UV-B irradiation. When fibroblasts were exposed to EA prior to UV-B irradiation, EA suppressed UV-B-induced ROS and proMMP-2 elevation. However, EA restored total GSH and SOD activity levels diminished in fibroblasts under UV-B irradiation. EA had an up-regulating activity on the UV-B-reduced Nrf2 levels in fibroblasts. EA, at the concentrations used, was unable to interfere with cell viabilities in both non-irradiated and irradiated fibroblasts. In human dermal fibroblasts, EA plays a defensive role against UV-B-induced oxidative stress possibly through an Nrf2-dependent pathway, indicating that this compound has potential skin antiphotoaging properties. PMID:27162481

  11. Microarray and genetic analysis reveals that csa-miR159b plays a critical role in abscisic acid-mediated heat tolerance in grafted cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Wang, Yu; Wang, Ze; Guo, Xie; Wang, Feng; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jing-Quan; Zhou, Yan-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Root-shoot communication plays a vital role in plant growth, development and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Grafting-induced stress tolerance is associated with the induction of plentiful stress-related genes and proteins; the mechanism involved, however, remains obscure. Here, we show that the enhanced tolerance against heat stress in cucumber plants with luffa as rootstock was accompanied with an increased accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), down-regulation of a subset of microRNAs (miRNAs) but up-regulation of their target genes and CsHSP70 accumulation in the shoots. Significantly, luffa rootstock and foliar application of ABA both down-regulated csa-miR159b and up-regulated its target mRNAs CsGAMYB1 and CsMYB29-like and CsHSP70 accumulation in cucumber, while ectopic expression of csa-miR159b led to decreased heat tolerance, AtMYB33 transcript and AtHSP70 accumulation in Arabidopsis plants. Taken together, our results suggest that root-originated signals such as ABA could alter miRNAs in the shoots, which have a major role in the post-transcriptional regulation of the stress-responsive genes. PMID:27037862

  12. The tobacco salicylic acid-binding protein 3 (SABP3) is the chloroplast carbonic anhydrase, which exhibits antioxidant activity and plays a role in the hypersensitive defense response.

    PubMed

    Slaymaker, David H; Navarre, Duroy A; Clark, Daniel; del Pozo, Olga; Martin, Gregory B; Klessig, Daniel F

    2002-09-01

    In plants, salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in signaling both local and systemic defense responses. Previous efforts to identify SA effector proteins in tobacco have led to the isolation of two soluble cytoplasmic SA-binding proteins (SABPs): catalase, SABP, and an approximately 25-kDa protein, SABP2. Here we describe the identification of an SA-binding protein, SABP3, in the stroma of tobacco chloroplasts. SABP3 bound SA with an apparent dissociation constant (K(d)) of 3.7 microM and exhibited much greater affinity for biologically active than inactive analogs. Purification and partial sequencing of SABP3 indicated that it is the chloroplast carbonic anhydrase (CA). Confirming this finding, recombinant tobacco chloroplast CA exhibited both CA enzymatic and SA-binding activities. Expression of this protein in yeast also demonstrated that CA/SABP3 has antioxidant activity. A second gene encoding CA was also cloned, and its encoded protein was shown to behave similarly to that purified as SABP3. Finally, silencing of CA gene expression in leaves suppressed the Pto:avrPto-mediated hypersensitive response in disease resistance. These results demonstrate that SA may act through multiple effector proteins in plants and shed further light on the function of CA in chloroplasts. PMID:12185253

  13. Hepatic fatty acid composition differs between chronic hepatitis C patients with and without steatosis.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Bianca M; Mohammed, Saira S; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Prayitno, Nita R; Ma, David W L; Nguyen, Augustin; Guindi, Maha; Sherman, Morris; Heathcote, E Jenny; Allard, Johane P

    2009-04-01

    Hepatic fatty acid (FA) composition may influence steatosis development in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). In a cross-sectional study, we compared the hepatic FA profile in hepatitis C patients with (n = 9) and without (n = 33) steatosis (> or =5% of hepatocytes involved). FA composition of hepatic and RBC total lipids was measured by gas chromatography. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in liver and plasma, blood biochemistry, and nutritional status were also assessed. Patients with steatosis had more fibrosis, higher necroinflammatory activity of their hepatitis C infection, were more often infected with genotype 3, and had lower serum cholesterol. Monounsaturated FA in the liver were higher and trans FA were lower in patients with steatosis. Lower stearic acid and higher oleic acid in hepatic total lipids suggested higher Delta9-desaturase activity. alpha-Linolenic acid in the liver was higher and the ratios of long-chain PUFA:essential FA precursors were lower for (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA. Plasma vitamin C was lower in steatosis, but RBC FA composition and other parameters did not differ. We conclude that hepatic FA composition is altered in patients with hepatitis C and steatosis, probably due to modulation of enzymatic elongation and desaturation. Oxidative stress or nutritional status does not seem to play a predominant role for development of steatosis in CHC. PMID:19211827

  14. Odd-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kim Jye Lee; Mansour, Maged P; Dunstan, Graeme A; Blackburn, Susan I; Koutoulis, Anthony; Nichols, Peter D

    2011-08-01

    A series of unusual odd-chain fatty acids (OC-FA) were identified in two thraustochytrid strains, TC 01 and TC 04, isolated from waters off the south east coast of Tasmania, Australia. FA compositions were determined by capillary GC and GC-MS, with confirmation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) structure performed by analysis of 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. PUFA constituted 68-74% of the total FA, with the essential PUFA; eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3, EPA), arachidonic acid (20:4ω6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3, DHA), accounting for 42-44% of the total FA. High proportions of the saturated OC-FA 15:0 (7.1% in TC 01) and 17:0 (6.2% in TC 04) were detected. The OC-FA 17:1ω8 was present at 2.8% in TC 01. Of particular interest, the C₂₁ PUFA 21:5ω5 and 21:4ω7 were detected at 3.5% and 4.1%, respectively, in TC 04. A proposed biosynthesis pathway for these OC-PUFA is presented. It is possible that the unsaturated OC-PUFA found previously in a number of marine animals were derived from dietary thraustochytrids and they could be useful biomarkers in environmental and food web studies. PMID:21546043

  15. Effect of feeding crude red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and grain amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus) to hens on total lipids, cholesterol, PUFA levels and acceptability of eggs.

    PubMed

    Punita, A; Chaturvedi, A

    2000-01-01

    Eggs, though a very nutritious food, also have high amounts of cholesterol and hence are not recommended to be consumed regularly by persons having hypercholesterolemia and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this context, an attempt was made in this study to reduce the cholesterol content of eggs by diet manipulation, using two naturally available and already proved hypocholesteromic agents [red palm oil (RPO) and grain amaranth]. Thirteen experimental rations using raw and popped grain Amaranth and RPO were fed to 24 weeks old hens for a period of 6 weeks, singularly and in combinations. Total lipids, cholesterol and PUFA contents were analyzed in the experimental and control eggs. The results showed that RPO and RPO + popped amaranth feeding resulted in a maximum reduction in total lipids and cholesterol contents. Significant increase was observed in linoleic acid content in RPO + popped amaranth; raw amaranth and RPO fed groups. Acceptability studies showed that the products made from lower cholesterol eggs were well accepted. PMID:10898484

  16. Metabolic conversion and growth effects of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the T47D breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Bardon, S; Le, M T; Alessandri, J M

    1996-01-19

    The incorporation and conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of n-3 and n-6 families were examined in the T47D breast cancer cell line in parallel with their effects on cell proliferation. In low serum-containing medium, PUFA exerted differential growth effects, depending both on their affiliation and unsaturation degree. The study of PUFA processing suggested that T47D cells are deficient in delta 6 and delta 4-desaturation activities whereas they can process to delta 5-desaturation. Thus, the PUFA growth effect on T47D cells appeared to be associated with a lack of desaturation. PMID:8564929

  17. [Therapeutic effects of larger doses of arachidonic acid added to DHA on social impairment and its relation to alterations of polyunsaturated fatty acids in individuals with autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Yui, Kunio; Koshiba, Mamiko; Nakamura, Shun; Onishi, Masako

    2011-06-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may play key roles in brain network maturation. ARA plays an important role in signal transduction related to neuronal maturation. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of supplementing with larger doses of ARA added to DHA in a double-blind, placebo-controlled 16-week trial. To confirm findings observed in the placebo-controlled trial, an additional 16-week open-label study was further conducted. To examine the relationship between the efficacy of the supplementation regimen and alterations in PUFAs levels, we examined plasma levels of PUFAs. We used the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC) to estimate psychotic symptoms. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that this supplementation significantly improved SRS-measured communication as well as ABC-measured social withdrawal during the placebo-controlled trial. The treatment effect sizes were more favorable for the treatment group compared with the placebo group (communication: 0.87 vs. 0.44; social withdrawal: 0.88 vs. 0.54). At the end of the placebo-controlled trial, there was a significant difference in the change in plasma ARA levels from the baseline and a trend towards a significant difference in plasma ARA levels between the two groups. The open-label study was not powered to detect significant improvements in the outcome measures or significant differences in plasma ARA levels. The present clinical trials suggest that supplementation with larger ARA doses added to DHA improves social impairment in individuals with ASD via ARA-induced upregulation of neuronal functioning. PMID:21800702

  18. Should the pharmacological actions of dietary fatty acids in cardiometabolic disorders be classified based on biological or chemical function?

    PubMed

    Poudyal, Hemant; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-07-01

    Westernised dietary patterns are characterised by an increased intake of saturated (SFA) and trans fat (TFA) and a high n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio. These changes together with increased sugar intake have been implicated in the progression and development of metabolic syndrome. It is now recognised that the type of dietary fat plays a far more significant role in well-being than the absolute amount. This has led to the generalisations that TFA and SFA are detrimental, MUFA is neutral and PUFA is cardioprotective. However, different dietary fatty acids even within the same chemical class elicit different physiological responses. Thus, generalising fatty acids by the degree of unsaturation or the configuration of double bonds alone is unlikely to predict biological responses. In this review, we have examined the effects of different dietary fatty acids on the cardiometabolic risk factors and propose a revised classification based on current evidence of biological activity, rather than chemical structure. Specifically, we propose that dietary fatty acids be classified into five classes as neutral, reduce one or more cardiometabolic risk factors, increase one or more cardiometabolic risk factor, controversial evidence to allow classification and inadequate research to allow classification as a basis for further discussions. PMID:26205317

  19. Circulating and Dietary Omega‐3 and Omega‐6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Incidence of CVD in the Multi‐Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Wu, Jason H. Y.; Baylin, Ana; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Rich, Stephen S.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Jacobs, David R.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary guidelines support intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish and vegetable oils. However, some controversy remains about benefits of PUFAs, and most prior studies have relied on self‐reported dietary assessment in relatively homogeneous populations. Methods and Results In a multiethnic cohort of 2837 US adults (whites, Hispanics, African Americans, Chinese Americans), plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured at baseline (2000–2002) using gas chromatography and dietary PUFAs estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (including coronary heart disease and stroke; n=189) were prospectively identified through 2010 during 19 778 person‐years of follow‐up. In multivariable‐adjusted Cox models, circulating n‐3 eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were inversely associated with incident CVD, with extreme‐quartile hazard ratios (95% CIs) of 0.49 for eicosapentaenoic acid (0.30 to 0.79; Ptrend=0.01) and 0.39 for docosahexaenoic acid (0.22 to 0.67; Ptrend<0.001). n‐3 Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) was inversely associated with CVD in whites and Chinese, but not in other race/ethnicities (P‐interaction=0.01). No significant associations with CVD were observed for circulating n‐3 alpha‐linolenic acid or n‐6 PUFA (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid). Associations with CVD of self‐reported dietary PUFA were consistent with those of the PUFA biomarkers. All associations were similar across racial‐ethnic groups, except those of docosapentaenoic acid. Conclusions Both dietary and circulating eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, but not alpha‐linolenic acid or n‐6 PUFA, were inversely associated with CVD incidence. These findings suggest that increased consumption of n‐3 PUFA from seafood may prevent CVD development in a multiethnic population. PMID:24351702

  20. Glucokinase regulatory proten genetic variant interacts with omega-3 PUFA to influence insulin resistance and inflammation in metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucokinase Regulatory Protein (GCKR) plays a central role regulating both hepatic triglyceride and glucose metabolism. Fatty acids are key metabolic regulators, which interact with genetic factors and influence glucose metabolism and other metabolic traits. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3...

  1. Transgenic n-3 PUFAs enrichment leads to weight loss via modulating neuropeptides in hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuangshuang; Ge, Yinlin; Gai, Xiaoying; Xue, Meilan; Li, Ning; Kang, Jingxuan; Wan, Jianbo; Zhang, Jinyu

    2016-01-12

    Body weight is related to fat mass, which is associated with obesity. Our study explored the effect of fat-1 gene on body weight in fat-1 transgenic mice. In present study, we observed that the weight/length ratio of fat-1 transgenic mice was lower than that of wild-type mice. The serum levels of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CT), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and blood glucose (BG) in fat-1 transgenic mice were all decreased. The weights of peri-bowels fat, perirenal fat and peri-testicular fat in fat-1 transgenic mice were reduced. We hypothesized that increase of n-3 PUFAs might alter the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes and lead to loss of body weight in fat-1 transgenic mice. Therefore, we measured mRNA levels of appetite neuropeptides, Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Agouti-related peptides (AgRP), Proopiomelanocortin (POMC), Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in hypothalamus by real-time PCR. Compared with wild-type mice, the mRNA levels of CART, POMC and ghrelin were higher, while the mRNA levels of NPY, AgRP and nesfatin-1 were lower in fat-1 transgenic mice. The results indicate that fat-1 gene or n-3 PUFAs participates in regulation of body weight, and the mechanism of this phenomenon involves the expression of appetite neuropeptides and lipoproteins in fat-1 transgenic mice. PMID:26610903

  2. Unusually high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in whale sharks and reef manta rays.

    PubMed

    Couturier, L I E; Rohner, C A; Richardson, A J; Pierce, S J; Marshall, A D; Jaine, F R A; Townsend, K A; Bennett, M B; Weeks, S J; Nichols, P D

    2013-10-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12-17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; 3-10 %). Whale sharks and reef manta rays are regularly observed feeding on surface aggregations of coastal crustacean zooplankton during the day, which generally have FA profiles dominated by n-3 PUFA. The high levels of n-6 PUFA in both giant elasmobranchs raise new questions about the origin of their main food source. PMID:23975574

  3. Nuclear factor kappa B plays a pivotal role in polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-induced expression of human β-defensin 2 in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Omagari, D; Takenouchi-Ohkubo, N; Endo, S; Ishigami, T; Sawada, A; Moro, I; Asano, M; Komiyama, K

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) play an important role in protecting the intestinal surface from invading pathogens by producing effector molecules. IECs are one of the major sources of human beta-defensin 2 (hBD-2), and can produce it in response to a variety of stimuli. Although IECs express Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR-3) and can respond to its ligand, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), hBD-2 expression in response to dsRNA has not been elucidated. In the present study, using an artificial analogue of dsRNA, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), we investigated whether the human IEC line, HT-29, can produce hBD-2 in response to poly I:C. HT-29 cells can express hBD-2 mRNA only when stimulated with poly I:C. The induction of hBD-2 mRNA expression was observed at 3 h after stimulation and peaked at 12 h of post-stimulation. Pre-incubation of the cells with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-specific inhibitor, l-1–4′-tosylamino-phenylethyl-chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) and isohelenine abolished the expression of hBD-2. Detection of the poly I:C signal by TLR-3 on the surface of HT-29 cells was revealed by pre-incubating the cells with anti-TLR-3 antibody. The 5′-regulatory region of the hBD-2 gene contains two NF-κB binding sites. A luciferase assay revealed the importance of the proximal NF-κB binding site for poly I:C-induced expression of hBD-2. Among NF-κB subunits, p65 and p50 were activated by poly I:C stimulation and accumulated in the nucleus. Activation of the p65 subunit was investigated further by determining its phosphorylation status, which revealed that poly I:C stimulation resulted in prolonged phosphorylation of p65. These results indicate clearly that NF-κB plays an indispensable role in poly I:C induced hBD-2 expression in HT-29 cells. PMID:21501152

  4. The n-3 long-chain PUFAs modulate the impact of the GCKR Pro446Leu polymorphism on triglycerides in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Dumont, Julie; Dallongeville, Jean; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; Breidenassel, Christina; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Censi, Laura; Ascensión, Marcos; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Dietary n-3 long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) are associated with improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) is a key protein regulating intracellular glucose disposal. Our aim was to investigate: i) the relationship between the GCKR rs1260326 (Pro446Leu) polymorphism and parameters of the MetS; and ii) a potential influence of n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA levels on this relationship in the HELENA study (1,155 European adolescents). Linear regression analyses were performed to study the association between rs1260326 and the outcomes of interest. Interactions between rs1260326 and LC-PUFA levels on outcomes were explored. The T allele of rs1260326 was associated with higher serum TG concentrations compared with the C allele. In contrast to n-6 LC-PUFA levels, a significant interaction (P = 0.01) between rs1260326 and total n-3 LC-PUFA levels on serum TG concentrations was observed. After stratification on the n-3 LC-PUFA median values, the association between rs1260326 and TG concentration was significant only in the group with high n-3 LC-PUFA levels. In conclusion, this is the first evidence that n-3 LC-PUFAs may modulate the impact of the GCKR rs1260326 polymorphism on TG concentrations in adolescents. Several molecular mechanisms, in link with glucose uptake, could explain these findings. PMID:26136510

  5. The n-3 long-chain PUFAs modulate the impact of the GCKR Pro446Leu polymorphism on triglycerides in adolescents[S

    PubMed Central

    Rousseaux, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Dumont, Julie; Dallongeville, Jean; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; Breidenassel, Christina; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Censi, Laura; Ascensión, Marcos; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A.; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Dietary n-3 long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) are associated with improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) is a key protein regulating intracellular glucose disposal. Our aim was to investigate: i) the relationship between the GCKR rs1260326 (Pro446Leu) polymorphism and parameters of the MetS; and ii) a potential influence of n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA levels on this relationship in the HELENA study (1,155 European adolescents). Linear regression analyses were performed to study the association between rs1260326 and the outcomes of interest. Interactions between rs1260326 and LC-PUFA levels on outcomes were explored. The T allele of rs1260326 was associated with higher serum TG concentrations compared with the C allele. In contrast to n-6 LC-PUFA levels, a significant interaction (P = 0.01) between rs1260326 and total n-3 LC-PUFA levels on serum TG concentrations was observed. After stratification on the n-3 LC-PUFA median values, the association between rs1260326 and TG concentration was significant only in the group with high n-3 LC-PUFA levels. In conclusion, this is the first evidence that n-3 LC-PUFAs may modulate the impact of the GCKR rs1260326 polymorphism on TG concentrations in adolescents. Several molecular mechanisms, in link with glucose uptake, could explain these findings. PMID:26136510

  6. Fatty Acid Composition and Levels of Selected Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Four Commercial Important Freshwater Fish Species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Agnes; Mfilinge, Prosper; Limbu, Samwel M.; Mwita, Chacha J.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) particularly ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play important role in human health. This study aimed to investigate the composition and levels of selected ω3 PUFAs in four commercial fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Tilapia zillii, and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea) from Mwanza Gulf in Lake Victoria. The results indicated that 36 types of FAs with different saturation levels were detected. These FAs were dominated by docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and eicosatetraenoic acids. O. niloticus had the highest composition of FAs (34) compared to L. niloticus (27), T. zillii (26), and R. argentea (21). The levels of EPA differed significantly among the four commercial fish species (F = 6.19,  P = 0.001). The highest EPA levels were found in R. argentea followed by L. niloticus and O. niloticus and the lowest in T. zillii. The DPA levels showed no significant difference among the four fish species studied (F = 0.652,  P = 0.583). The study concluded that all four commercial species collected from Mwanza Gulf are good for human health, but R. argentea is the best for consumption because it contains higher levels of ω3 FAs, mainly EPA. PMID:25610654

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Brian M; Seguin, Jennifer; Sieswerda, Lee E

    2007-01-01

    Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determine whether omega-3 PUFA are likely to be efficacious in these disorders. Results Most trials involved a small number of participants but were largely well designed. Omega-3 PUFA were well tolerated by both children and adults with mild gastrointestinal effects being the only consistently reported adverse event. For schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder we found little evidence of a robust clinically relevant effect. In the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders, most trials showed at most small benefits over placebo. A limited meta-analysis of these trials suggested that benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be greater in a classroom setting than at home. Some evidence indicates that omega-3 PUFA may reduce symptoms of anxiety although the data is preliminary and inconclusive. The most convincing evidence for beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA is to be found in mood disorders. A meta-analysis of trials involving patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder provided evidence that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces symptoms of depression. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis suggests that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid may be more beneficial in mood disorders than with docosahexaenoic acid, although several confounding factors prevented a definitive conclusion being made regarding which species of omega-3 PUFA is most beneficial. The mechanisms underlying the apparent efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in mood

  8. p38 MAPK Is Activated but Does Not Play a Key Role during Apoptosis Induction by Saturated Fatty Acid in Human Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Šrámek, Jan; Němcová-Fürstová, Vlasta; Balušíková, Kamila; Daniel, Petr; Jelínek, Michael; James, Roger F.; Kovář, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Saturated stearic acid (SA) induces apoptosis in the human pancreatic β-cells NES2Y. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are unclear. We showed that apoptosis-inducing concentrations of SA activate the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in these cells. Therefore, we tested the role of p38 MAPK signaling pathway activation in apoptosis induction by SA in NES2Y cells. Crosstalk between p38 MAPK pathway activation and accompanying ERK pathway inhibition after SA application was also tested. The inhibition of p38 MAPK expression by siRNA silencing resulted in a decrease in MAPKAPK-2 activation after SA application, but it had no significant effect on cell viability or the level of phosphorylated ERK pathway members. The inhibition of p38 MAPK activity by the specific inhibitor SB202190 resulted in inhibition of MAPKAPK-2 activation and noticeable activation of ERK pathway members after SA treatment but in no significant effect on cell viability. p38 MAPK overexpression by plasmid transfection produced an increase in MAPKAPK-2 activation after SA exposure but no significant influence on cell viability or ERK pathway activation. The activation of p38 MAPK by the specific activator anisomycin resulted in significant activation of MAPKAPK-2. Concerning the effect on cell viability, application of the activator led to apoptosis induction similar to application of SA (PARP cleavage and caspase-7, -8, and -9 activation) and in inhibition of ERK pathway members. We demonstrated that apoptosis-inducing concentrations of SA activate the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and that this activation could be involved in apoptosis induction by SA in the human pancreatic β-cells NES2Y. However, this involvement does not seem to play a key role. Crosstalk between p38 MAPK pathway activation and ERK pathway inhibition in NES2Y cells seems likely. Thus, the ERK pathway inhibition by p38 MAPK activation does not also seem to be essential for SA-induced apoptosis. PMID:26861294

  9. Multifunctional lactobionic acid-modified dendrimers for targeted drug delivery to liver cancer cells: investigating the role played by PEG spacer.

    PubMed

    Fu, Fanfan; Wu, Yilun; Zhu, Jingyi; Wen, Shihui; Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2014-09-24

    We report the development of a lactobionic acid (LA)-modified multifunctional dendrimer-based carrier system for targeted therapy of liver cancer cells overexpressing asialoglycoprotein receptors. In this study, generation 5 (G5) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were sequentially modified with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI) and LA (or polyethylene glycol (PEG)-linked LA, PEG-LA), followed by acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amines. The synthesized G5.NHAc-FI-LA or G5.NHAc-FI-PEG-LA conjugates (NHAc denotes acetamide groups) were used to encapsulate a model anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). We show that both conjugates are able to encapsulate approximately 5.0 DOX molecules within each dendrimer and the formed dendrimer/DOX complexes are stable under different pH conditions and different aqueous media. The G5.NHAc-FI-PEG-LA conjugate appears to have a better cytocompatibility, enables a slightly faster DOX release rate, and displays better liver cancer cell targeting ability than the G5.NHAc-FI-LA conjugate without PEG under similar experimental conditions. Importantly, the developed G5.NHAc-FI-PEG-LA/DOX complexes are able to specifically inhibit the growth of the target cells with a better efficiency than the G5.NHAc-FI-LA/DOX complexes at a relatively high DOX concentration. Our results suggest a key role played by the PEG spacer that affords the dendrimer platform with enhanced targeting and therapeutic efficacy of cancer cells. The developed LA-modified multifunctional dendrimer conjugate with a PEG spacer may be used as a delivery system for targeted liver cancer therapy and offers new opportunities in the design of multifunctional drug carriers for targeted cancer therapy applications. PMID:25185074

  10. How do n-3 fatty acid (short-time restricted vs unrestricted) and n-6 fatty acid enriched diets affect the fatty acid profile in different tissues of German Simmental bulls?

    PubMed

    Herdmann, A; Martin, J; Nuernberg, G; Wegner, J; Dannenberger, D; Nuernberg, K

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of n-6 (control group) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supply (treatment group unrestricted) and a short-time feed restriction for n-3 PUFA supply (treatment group restricted) on intramuscular fat content and the total fatty acid composition in different tissues (muscle, subcutaneous fat, liver, serum and erythrocytes) and lipid classes of intramuscular fat of German Simmental bulls (n=25). Exogenous n-3 PUFA caused a higher concentration of the sum of all single n-3 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) in all analysed tissues. Feed restriction compared to control feeding induced a significant decrease of C18:1cis-9 in the phospholipid fraction of longissimus muscle and in subcutaneous fat. The concentration of C18:3n-3 in liver of treatment groups was between 34 and 44% higher compared to control. PUFA in serum and the sum of n-3 PUFA in erythrocytes were significantly higher in both treatment groups compared to control. The synthesis and deposition of n-3 LC PUFA seems to be tissue dependent according to different relative amounts. PMID:20650572

  11. Lack of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Causes Synapse Dysfunction in the Drosophila Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Anna B.; Ménagé, Cindy; Grégoire, Stéphane; Garcia, Thibault; Ferveur, Jean-François; Bretillon, Lionel; Grosjean, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients for animals and necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system. A lack of PUFAs can result from the consumption of a deficient diet or genetic factors, which impact PUFA uptake and metabolism. Both can cause synaptic dysfunction, which is associated with numerous disorders. However, there is a knowledge gap linking these neuronal dysfunctions and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Because of its genetic manipulability and its easy, fast, and cheap breeding, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an excellent model organism for genetic screens, helping to identify the genetic bases of such events. As a first step towards the understanding of PUFA implications in Drosophila synaptic physiology we designed a breeding medium containing only very low amounts of PUFAs. We then used the fly’s visual system, a well-established model for studying signal transmission and neurological disorders, to measure the effects of a PUFA deficiency on synaptic function. Using both visual performance and eye electrophysiology, we found that PUFA deficiency strongly affected synaptic transmission in the fly’s visual system. These defects were rescued by diets containing omega-3 or omega-6 PUFAs alone or in combination. In summary, manipulating PUFA contents in the fly’s diet was powerful to investigate the role of these nutrients on the fly´s visual synaptic function. This study aims at showing how the first visual synapse of Drosophila can serve as a simple model to study the effects of PUFAs on synapse function. A similar approach could be further used to screen for genetic factors underlying the molecular mechanisms of synaptic dysfunctions associated with altered PUFA levels. PMID:26308084

  12. Lack of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Causes Synapse Dysfunction in the Drosophila Visual System.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Anna B; Ménagé, Cindy; Grégoire, Stéphane; Garcia, Thibault; Ferveur, Jean-François; Bretillon, Lionel; Grosjean, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients for animals and necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system. A lack of PUFAs can result from the consumption of a deficient diet or genetic factors, which impact PUFA uptake and metabolism. Both can cause synaptic dysfunction, which is associated with numerous disorders. However, there is a knowledge gap linking these neuronal dysfunctions and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Because of its genetic manipulability and its easy, fast, and cheap breeding, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an excellent model organism for genetic screens, helping to identify the genetic bases of such events. As a first step towards the understanding of PUFA implications in Drosophila synaptic physiology we designed a breeding medium containing only very low amounts of PUFAs. We then used the fly's visual system, a well-established model for studying signal transmission and neurological disorders, to measure the effects of a PUFA deficiency on synaptic function. Using both visual performance and eye electrophysiology, we found that PUFA deficiency strongly affected synaptic transmission in the fly's visual system. These defects were rescued by diets containing omega-3 or omega-6 PUFAs alone or in combination. In summary, manipulating PUFA contents in the fly's diet was powerful to investigate the role of these nutrients on the fly´s visual synaptic function. This study aims at showing how the first visual synapse of Drosophila can serve as a simple model to study the effects of PUFAs on synapse function. A similar approach could be further used to screen for genetic factors underlying the molecular mechanisms of synaptic dysfunctions associated with altered PUFA levels. PMID:26308084

  13. Experimental Evidence of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Modulation of Inflammatory Cytokines and Bioactive Lipid Mediators: Their Potential Role in Inflammatory, Neurodegenerative, and Neoplastic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Calviello, Gabriella; Su, Hui-Min; Weylandt, Karsten H.; Fasano, Elena; Serini, Simona; Cittadini, Achille

    2013-01-01

    A large body of evidence has emerged over the past years to show the critical role played by inflammation in the pathogenesis of several diseases including some cardiovascular, neoplastic, and neurodegenerative diseases, previously not considered inflammation-related. The anti-inflammatory action of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), as well as their potential healthy effects against the development and progression of the same diseases, has been widely studied by our and others' laboratories. As a result, a rethinking is taking place on the possible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of ω-3 PUFAs against these disorders, and, in particular, on the influence that they may exert on the molecular pathways involved in inflammatory process, including the production of inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators active in the resolving phase of inflammation. In the present review we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding the modulating effects of ω-3 PUFAs on the production of inflammatory cytokines and proresolving or protective lipid mediators in the context of inflammatory, metabolic, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases. PMID:23691510

  14. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation of Adipocyte FADS1 and FADS2 Expression and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, Jessica C.; Matravadia, Sarthak; Gaudio, Nicholas; Holloway, Graham P.; Mutch, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) regulate fatty acid desaturase (FADS1, FADS2) expression in the liver; however, it is unknown whether PUFAs regulate FADS in adipocytes. This is important to study considering reports that link altered desaturase activity with adipose tissue PUFA profiles, body weight, and whole-body glucose homeostasis. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the direct effects of PUFAs on FADS expression in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with either α-linolenic (ALA), linoleic (LA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), or arachidonic acid (AA). Gene expression, protein abundance, and cellular PUFA content were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and gas chromatography, respectively. Results Fads1 and Fads2 gene expression was reduced by EPA and AA, but not ALA or LA. Reductions in gene expression were reflected in FADS2 protein levels, but not FADS1. Treating cells with ALA and LA led to significant increases in the cellular content of downstream PUFAs. Neither ALA nor EPA changed docosahexaenoic acid content. Conclusions Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes have a functional FADS pathway that can be regulated by PUFA. Therefore, this common adipocyte model is suitable to study dietary regulation of the FADS pathway. PMID:25755223

  15. The amount of dietary cholesterol changes the mode of effects of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid on lipoprotein cholesterol in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Huei; Lu, Shao-Chun; Huang, Po-Chao; Liu, Young-Chau; Liu, Shyun-Yeu

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of the interaction between dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and different dietary cholesterol content on plasma and liver cholesterol in hamsters. Male Syrian hamsters consumed diets containing an incremental increase in dietary cholesterol content (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%, w/w) with either (n-3) PUFA (21 g/100 g fatty acids) or (n-6) PUFA (37.4 g/100 g fatty acids) fat for 6 weeks. In hamsters fed the nonatherogenic diet (0 or 0.025% dietary cholesterol), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol levels in the (n-3) PUFA group were not significantly different from those in the (n-6) PUFA group, and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels in the (n-3) PUFA group were significantly lower than those in the (n-6) PUFA group. In contrast, in hamsters fed the atherogenic diet (0.1 or 0.2% dietary cholesterol), VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels in the (n-3) PUFA group were significantly higher than those in the (n-6) PUFA group, in a dose-dependent manner. When the hamsters were fed with 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2% (w/w) dietary cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration was significantly lower in the (n-3) PUFA group than those in the (n-6) PUFA group. Hepatic cholesteryl esters were significantly lower, while hepatic microsomal acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity and VLDL-cholesteryl esters were significantly higher in hamsters fed (n-3) PUFA with the atherogenic diet (0.1 or 0.2% dietary cholesterol) than in those fed (n-6) PUFA with the atherogenic diet. Our results demonstrate that the amount of dietary cholesterol is an important factor in determining the mode and extent of effects of dietary (n-3) PUFA, especially on VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels. When dietary cholesterol intake was above 0.1% (w/w), the plasma cholesterol-lowering effect of (n-3) PUFA disappeared, and instead, it showed a cholesterol-increasing effect. However, the

  16. Dietary long-chain PUFA in the form of TAG or phospholipids influence lymph lipoprotein size and composition in piglets.

    PubMed

    Amate, Laura; Gil, Angel; Ramírez, María

    2002-10-01

    Several sources of long-chain PUFA (LCP) are currently available for infant formula supplementation. These oils differ in their FA composition, the chemical form of the FA esters [TAG or phospholipids (PL)], and presence of other lipid components. These differences may affect LCP absorption, distribution, and metabolic fate after ingestion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different chemical forms of dietary LCP on the composition of lymph lipoproteins. Eighteen pigs (5 d old) were bottle-fed different diets for 2 wk: a control diet (C), a diet containing LCP as TAG from tuna and fungal oils (TF-TAG), or a diet containing LCP as PL from egg yolk (E-PL). We measured lipid and FA composition of lymph, main lymph fractions (TAG or PL), and the particle size of lymph lipoproteins. The average diameter of lymph lipoproteins was significantly lower in the E-PL group compared with the control and TF-TAG groups (C: 3902 +/- 384 A; TF-TAG: 3773 +/- 384 A; E-PL: 2370 +/- 185 A). Arachidonic acid and DHA contents in lymph and lymph-TAG were significantly higher in the TF-TAG group compared to the E-PL group (0.50 +/- 0.03 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 g/100 g vs. 0.29 +/- 0.04 and 0.12 +/- 0.03 g/100 g, respectively). The addition to the diet of LCP in the form of TAG or PL affected the size of intestinal lipoproteins and also led to a different distribution of these FA in lymph lipoproteins. PMID:12530557

  17. Polyunsaturated fatty acid relatively decreases cholesterol content in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cell: partly correlates with expression profile of CIDE and PAT members

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have positive effect on the regulation of plasma lipids. But the mechanism for them to modulate lipid homeostasis in macrophage is still unclear. In this study, we employed PUFA to pretreat macrophages and evaluated the variations of lipid droplet (LD) content, lipid composition, and expressions of LD-associated genes in macrophage-derived foam cells. Method THP-1-derived macrophages or human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages were pre-treated with four non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) separately: saturated fatty acid (SFA)-palmitic acid (PA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)-oleic acid (OA), PUFAs-linoleic acid (LA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Intracellular lipid content and cholesterol efflux were analyzed in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Related gene expressions were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Results PUFA pre-treatment reduced cholesterol content in foam cells and increased cholesterol efflux to lipid-free apoAI in conditioned medium compared with PA or OA group. Cell death-inducing DFF45 like effector (CIDE) and Perilipin-Adipophilin-TIP47 (PAT) family members, as LD-associated proteins, showed specific gene expression profiles after PUFA pre-treatment. These results may help to explain the process of lipid metabolism within foam cells. Conclusion PUFA (LA or EPA) had a potential protective effect against cholesterol accumulation. The specific expressions of CIDE and PAT genes may provide clues to explore the protective mechanism of PUFA in foam cells. PMID:23879935

  18. Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hop bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may influence bone health. Our objective was to examine associations between plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) PUFA concentrations and hip measures: 1) femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD) (n=765); 2) 4-y change in FN-BMD (n=556); and 3) hip fracture risk (n=76...

  19. Effects of light and nutrients on periphyton and the fatty acid composition and somatic growth of invertebrate grazers in subtropical streams.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fen; Kainz, Martin J; Sheldon, Fran; Bunn, Stuart E

    2016-06-01

    Algal polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), essential for somatic growth and reproduction of aquatic animals, are influenced by ambient environmental conditions, including light and nutrients. Few studies have addressed the extent to which changes in algal PUFA can influence stream herbivore PUFA profiles and the implications for stream food webs. We manipulated subtropical stream periphyton by applying two light levels (open and shaded canopy) and two nutrient regimes (ambient and enriched) to investigate the response of PUFA and somatic growth in stream herbivores. After 6 weeks, the relative content of periphyton PUFA (%) changed distinctly and differed among treatments. Periphyton in the control treatment with open canopy showed a decline in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) relative to initial conditions, whereas shading increased EPA and total highly unsaturated FA (HUFA), but decreased α-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid and total C18 PUFA. The interaction of open canopy and added nutrients increased periphyton ALA compared with initial conditions, while the combined effects of shading and added nutrients led to greater total HUFA. FA similarity between stream grazers (the mayfly Austrophlebioides and caddisfly Helicopsyche) and periphyton increased with periphyton HUFA content. In addition, the growth of large instars of both grazers also increased in response to increased periphyton HUFA %. Our findings show that environmental changes, associated with riparian canopy and nutrients, can lead to changes in periphyton PUFA composition that in turn affect growth and PUFA composition in stream grazers. PMID:26883960

  20. Involvement of omega-3 fatty acids in emotional responses and hyperactive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lavialle, Monique; Denis, Isabelle; Guesnet, Philippe; Vancassel, Sylvie

    2010-10-01

    Biochemical evidence suggests a role for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the regulation of behavioral disturbances. A number of studies have revealed an association between reduced n-3 PUFA levels and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or depression. Here, we summarize the main findings regarding the association between n-3 PUFA and hyperactive and emotional disorders, and discuss potential mechanisms of action. Because the basal ganglia are involved in the control of locomotion and emotion, we examined published data regarding the role of n-3 PUFA in dopamine (DA) regulation in the basal ganglia. These results are discussed in the light of recent data from our laboratory suggesting an association between the drop in melatonin in the pineal gland and the increase in DA in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of n-3 PUFA-deprived rodents. PMID:20434321

  1. Peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by lipoxygenases drives ferroptosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan Seok; Kim, Katherine J; Gaschler, Michael M; Patel, Milesh; Shchepinov, Mikhail S; Stockwell, Brent R

    2016-08-23

    Ferroptosis is form of regulated nonapoptotic cell death that is involved in diverse disease contexts. Small molecules that inhibit glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), a phospholipid peroxidase, cause lethal accumulation of lipid peroxides and induce ferroptotic cell death. Although ferroptosis has been suggested to involve accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lipid environments, the mediators and substrates of ROS generation and the pharmacological mechanism of GPX4 inhibition that generates ROS in lipid environments are unknown. We report here the mechanism of lipid peroxidation during ferroptosis, which involves phosphorylase kinase G2 (PHKG2) regulation of iron availability to lipoxygenase enzymes, which in turn drive ferroptosis through peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) at the bis-allylic position; indeed, pretreating cells with PUFAs containing the heavy hydrogen isotope deuterium at the site of peroxidation (D-PUFA) prevented PUFA oxidation and blocked ferroptosis. We further found that ferroptosis inducers inhibit GPX4 by covalently targeting the active site selenocysteine, leading to accumulation of PUFA hydroperoxides. In summary, we found that PUFA oxidation by lipoxygenases via a PHKG2-dependent iron pool is necessary for ferroptosis and that the covalent inhibition of the catalytic selenocysteine in Gpx4 prevents elimination of PUFA hydroperoxides; these findings suggest new strategies for controlling ferroptosis in diverse contexts. PMID:27506793

  2. Peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by lipoxygenases drives ferroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wan Seok; Kim, Katherine J.; Gaschler, Michael M.; Patel, Milesh; Shchepinov, Mikhail S.

    2016-01-01

    Ferroptosis is form of regulated nonapoptotic cell death that is involved in diverse disease contexts. Small molecules that inhibit glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), a phospholipid peroxidase, cause lethal accumulation of lipid peroxides and induce ferroptotic cell death. Although ferroptosis has been suggested to involve accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lipid environments, the mediators and substrates of ROS generation and the pharmacological mechanism of GPX4 inhibition that generates ROS in lipid environments are unknown. We report here the mechanism of lipid peroxidation during ferroptosis, which involves phosphorylase kinase G2 (PHKG2) regulation of iron availability to lipoxygenase enzymes, which in turn drive ferroptosis through peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) at the bis-allylic position; indeed, pretreating cells with PUFAs containing the heavy hydrogen isotope deuterium at the site of peroxidation (D-PUFA) prevented PUFA oxidation and blocked ferroptosis. We further found that ferroptosis inducers inhibit GPX4 by covalently targeting the active site selenocysteine, leading to accumulation of PUFA hydroperoxides. In summary, we found that PUFA oxidation by lipoxygenases via a PHKG2-dependent iron pool is necessary for ferroptosis and that the covalent inhibition of the catalytic selenocysteine in Gpx4 prevents elimination of PUFA hydroperoxides; these findings suggest new strategies for controlling ferroptosis in diverse contexts. PMID:27506793

  3. Preservation Methods for Retaining n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Alaska Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fillets were processed using five different methods (smoking, canning, freezing, acidifying, and salting) to evaluate the effect of preservation choice on the quality of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Salmon preserved by smoking, canning, or freezing retained ...

  4. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk. PMID:26277315

  5. Intake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Distal Large Bowel Cancer Risk in Whites and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangmi; Sandler, Dale P.; Galanko, Joseph; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may have antineoplastic properties in the colon. The authors examined the association between intakes of different PUFAs and distal large bowel cancer in a population-based case-control study of 1,503 whites (716 cases; 787 controls) and 369 African Americans (213 cases; 156 controls) in North Carolina (2001–2006). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for distal large bowel cancer risk in relation to quartiles of PUFA intake. Increased consumption of long-chain ω-3 PUFAs was associated with reduced risk of distal large bowel cancer in whites (multivariable odds ratios = 0.88 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 1.22), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.98), and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.71) for second, third, and highest vs. lowest quartile) (Ptrend < 0.01). Intake of individual eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids was inversely related to distal large bowel cancer risk, whereas the ratio of ω-6 to long-chain ω-3 PUFAs was associated with increased risk of distal large bowel cancer in whites, but not among African Americans (Pinteraction < 0.05). Study results support the hypothesis that long-chain ω-3 PUFAs have beneficial effects in colorectal carcinogenesis. Whether or not the possible benefit of long-chain ω-3 PUFAs varies by race warrants further evaluation. PMID:20392864

  6. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Oleaginous Marine Diatom Fistulifera sp. Strain JPCC DA0580

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yue; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Muto, Masaki; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Studies of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in microalgae are of great importance for many reasons, including the production of biofuel and variable omega 3-long chain PUFAs. The elucidation of the PUFA biosynthesis pathway is necessary for bioengineering to increase or decrease PUFA content in certain microalgae. In this study, we identified the PUFA synthesis pathway in the oleaginous marine diatom, Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580, a promising candidate for biodiesel production. The data revealed not only the presence of the desaturases and elongases involved in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) synthesis, but also the unexpected localization of ω3-desaturase expression in the chloroplast. This suggests that this microalga might perform the final step of EPA synthesis in the chloroplast and not in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) like other diatoms. The detailed fatty acid profile suggests that the EPA was synthesized only through the ω6-pathway in this strain, which was also different from other diatoms. Finally, the transcriptome analysis demonstrated an overall down-regulation of desaturases and elongases over incubation time. These genetic features might explain the decrease of PUFA percentage over incubation time in this strain. The important insights into metabolite synthesis acquired here will be useful for future metabolic engineering to control PUFA content in this diatom. PMID:24335525

  7. Effect of dietary fatty acids on metabolic rate and nonshivering thermogenesis in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2014-02-01

    Hibernating rodents prior to winter tend to select food rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Several studies found that such diet may positively affect their winter energy budget by enhancing torpor episodes. However, the effect of composition of dietary fatty acids (FA) on metabolism of normothermic heterotherms is poorly understood. Thus we tested whether diets different in FA composition affect metabolic rate (MR) and the capacity for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) in normothermic golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were housed in outdoor enclosures from May 2010 to April 2011 and fed a diet enriched with PUFA (i.e., standard food supplemented weekly with sunflower and flax seeds) or with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA/MUFA, standard food supplemented with mealworms). Since diet rich in PUFA results in lower MR in hibernating animals, we predicted that PUFA-rich diet would have similar effect on MR of normothermic hamsters, that is, normothermic hamsters on the PUFA diet would have lower metabolic rate in cold and higher NST capacity than hamsters supplemented with SFA/MUFA. Indeed, in winter resting metabolic rate (RMR) below the lower critical temperature was higher and NST capacity was lower in SFA/MUFA-supplemented animals than in PUFA-supplemented ones. These results suggest that the increased capacity for NST in PUFA-supplemented hamsters enables them lower RMR below the lower critical temperature of the thermoneural zone. PMID:24151228

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity: Implications for Multi-Targeted Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    D’Eliseo, Donatella; Velotti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major disease worldwide. Despite progress in cancer therapy, conventional cytotoxic therapies lead to unsatisfactory long-term survival, mainly related to development of drug resistance by tumor cells and toxicity towards normal cells. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), can exert anti-neoplastic activity by inducing apoptotic cell death in human cancer cells either alone or in combination with conventional therapies. Indeed, n-3 PUFAs potentially increase the sensitivity of tumor cells to conventional therapies, possibly improving their efficacy especially against cancers resistant to treatment. Moreover, in contrast to traditional therapies, n-3 PUFAs appear to cause selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells with little or no toxicity on normal cells. This review focuses on studies investigating the cytotoxic activity of n-3 PUFAs against cancer cells via apoptosis, analyzing the molecular mechanisms underlying this effective and selective activity. Here, we highlight the multiple molecules potentially targeted by n-3 PUFAs to trigger cancer cell apoptosis. This analysis can allow a better comprehension of the potential cytotoxic therapeutic role of n-3 PUFAs against cancer, providing specific information and support to design future pre-clinical and clinical studies for a better use of n-3 PUFAs in cancer therapy, mainly combinational therapy. PMID:26821053

  9. Serum fatty acids and breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Järvinen, Ritva; Salminen, Irma; Hakulinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may be essential to the development of breast cancer. We studied the ability of several fatty acids of serum total lipids to predict breast cancer incidence in a case-control study nested within a longitudinal population study. The proportions of fatty acids in serum total lipids were determined from stored serum samples collected at baseline for 127 incident breast cancer cases and 242 matched controls. Women with a higher proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum had a reduced risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio (OR) between the highest and lowest tertiles of serum PUFA was 0.31 (95% confidence interval, CI = 0.12-0.77). This association was mainly due to n-6 PUFAs and especially to linoleic acid. The ORs were 0.35 (CI = 0.14-0.84) and 0.29 (CI = 0.12-0.73), respectively. Of the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), higher trans-11-18:1 levels were related to an increased breast cancer risk (OR = 3.69, CI = 1.35-10.06). The association was stronger in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. The present study suggests that higher serum proportions of the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid and lower proportions of the MUFA trans-11-18:1 fatty acid predict a reduced incidence of breast cancer. PMID:12881010

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reviewed results from published studies regarding the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake on insulin resistance (IR) in human subjects. Evidence has been gathered from epidemiological, cross-sectional and interventions studies. Increased intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) inc...

  11. Fish oil–derived n–3 PUFA therapy increases muscle mass and function in healthy older adults1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon I; Julliand, Sophie; Reeds, Dominic N; Sinacore, David R; Klein, Samuel; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age-associated declines in muscle mass and function are major risk factors for an impaired ability to carry out activities of daily living, falls, prolonged recovery time after hospitalization, and mortality in older adults. New strategies that can slow the age-related loss of muscle mass and function are needed to help older adults maintain adequate performance status to reduce these risks and maintain independence. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of fish oil–derived n–3 (ω-3) PUFA therapy to slow the age-associated loss of muscle mass and function. Design: Sixty healthy 60–85-y-old men and women were randomly assigned to receive n–3 PUFA (n = 40) or corn oil (n = 20) therapy for 6 mo. Thigh muscle volume, handgrip strength, one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lower- and upper-body strength, and average power during isokinetic leg exercises were evaluated before and after treatment. Results: Forty-four subjects completed the study [29 subjects (73%) in the n–3 PUFA group; 15 subjects (75%) in the control group]. Compared with the control group, 6 mo of n–3 PUFA therapy increased thigh muscle volume (3.6%; 95% CI: 0.2%, 7.0%), handgrip strength (2.3 kg; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.7 kg), and 1-RM muscle strength (4.0%; 95% CI: 0.8%, 7.3%) (all P < 0.05) and tended to increase average isokinetic power (5.6%; 95% CI: −0.6%, 11.7%; P = 0.075). Conclusion: Fish oil–derived n–3 PUFA therapy slows the normal decline in muscle mass and function in older adults and should be considered a therapeutic approach for preventing sarcopenia and maintaining physical independence in older adults. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01308957. PMID:25994567

  12. FADS genetic variants and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in a homogeneous island population[S

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Rasika A.; Vergara, Candelaria; Gao, Li; Rafaels, Nicholas; Hand, Tracey; Campbell, Monica; Bickel, Carol; Ivester, Priscilla; Sergeant, Susan; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Chilton, Floyd H.

    2010-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) orchestrate immunity and inflammation through their capacity to be converted to potent inflammatory mediators. We assessed associations of FADS gene cluster polymorphisms and fasting serum PUFA concentrations in a fully ascertained, geographically isolated founder population of European descent. Concentrations of 22 PUFAs were determined by gas chromatography, of which ten fatty acids and five ratios defining FADS1 and FADS2 activity were tested for genetic association against 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 224 individuals. A cluster of SNPs in tight linkage disequilibrium in the FADS1 gene (rs174537, rs174545, rs174546, rs174553, rs174556, rs174561, rs174568, and rs99780) were strongly associated with arachidonic acid (AA) (P = 5.8 × 10−7 – 1.7 × 10−8) among other PUFAs, but the strongest associations were with the ratio measuring FADS1 activity in the ω-6 series (P = 2.11 × 10−13 – 1.8 × 10−20). The minor allele across all SNPs was consistently associated with decreased ω-6 PUFAs, with the exception of dihomo-γ-linoleic acid (DHGLA), where the minor allele was consistently associated with increased levels. Our findings in a geographically isolated population with a homogenous dietary environment suggest that variants in the Δ-5 desaturase enzymatic step likely regulate the efficiency of conversion of medium-chain PUFAs to potentially inflammatory PUFAs, such as AA. PMID:20562440

  13. The ability of walnut extract and fatty acids to protect against the deleterious effects of oxidative stress and inflammation in hippocampal cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walnuts contain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), specifically the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (LA) as well as the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which can be metabolized to generate eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Previous research from our lab h...

  14. Lipid metabolism and the risk factors of cardiovascular disease: implication of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Kayode A

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a complicated and multifarious disease, and is the number one cause of mortality worldwide. The pathogenesis of CVD is attributed to the interaction between genetics and environment. There are numerous data that support the cardioprotective properties of omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); however, there are also controversial reports. Considering the reported sex and age differences in the pathophysiology of CVD and the metabolism of n-3 PUFA, it is imperative to consider these factors in the cardioprotective effects of n-3 PUFA. The current thesis investigated the effects of n-3 PUFA on the risk factors of CVD, such as dyslipidemia and obesity, with a particular focus on how sex, age, and dose of n-3 PUFA affect lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins of C57BL/6 mice offspring at weaning and 16 weeks postweaning were chosen as study outcomes to assess the sex, age, and dose-specific effects of n-3 PUFA on markers of dyslipidemia, a well-known risk factor of CVD. A longer exposure to a postnatal diet high in n-3 PUFA increased plasma concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the offspring in a sex-specific manner; however, the profile of this increase was less atherogenic, as the high n-3 PUFA group had a lower plasma concentration of very small LDL particles in both males and females. There was no effect of high n-3 PUFA diet observed on plasma concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; however, the high n-3 PUFA group had a higher cholesterol efflux in the male offspring but not in female offspring. Lipidomic analyses revealed that high n-3 PUFA diet led to higher hepatic and plasma concentrations of n-3 PUFA-containing bioactive lipids, such a phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine and free fatty acids, which could positively influence pathways involved in cardioprotection. The effects of dietary n-3 PUFA on obesity at the cellular

  15. Encapsulation of ployunsaturated fatty acid esters with solid lipid particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as a-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are known to improve cardiovascular and nervous system health. These compounds are increasingly used in food and animal feed formulations. However, the high degree of unsaturation in these structures can...

  16. Fatty acid transport by vectorial acylation in mammals: roles played by different isoforms of rat long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fumin; Black, Paul N; Coleman, Rosalind A; DiRusso, Concetta C

    2006-03-01

    Mammals express multiple isoforms of acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL1 and ACSL3-6) in various tissues. These enzymes are essential for fatty acid metabolism providing activated intermediates for complex lipid synthesis, protein modification, and beta-oxidation. Yeast in contrast express four major ACSLs, which have well-defined functions. Two, Faa1p and Faa4p, are specifically required for fatty acid transport by vectorial acylation. Four ACSLs from the rat were expressed in a yeast faa1delta faa4delta strain and their roles in fatty acid transport and trafficking characterized. All four restored ACS activity yet varied in substrate preference. ACSL1, 4, and 6 were able to rescue fatty acid transport activity and triglyceride synthesis. ACSL5, however, was unable to facilitate fatty acid transport despite conferring robust oleoyl-CoA synthetase activity. This is the first study evaluating the role of the mammalian ACSLs in fatty acid transport and supports a role for ACSL1, 4, and 6 in transport by vectorial acylation. PMID:16466685

  17. Critical appraisal of omega-3 fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment.

    PubMed

    Königs, Anja; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. The classical treatment of ADHD where stimulant medication is used has revealed severe side effects and intolerance. Consequently, the demand to search for alternative treatment has increased rapidly. When comparing levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in ADHD patients with those in age-matching controls, lower levels are found in ADHD patients' blood. ω-3 PUFAs are essential nutrients and necessary for a proper brain function and development. Additionally, there are strong indications that ω-3 PUFA supplements could have beneficial effects on ADHD. However, the results of ω-3 PUFA supplementation studies show a high variability. Therefore, we reviewed recent studies published between 2000 and 2015 to identify effective treatment combinations, the quality of design, and safety and tolerability of ω-3-containing food supplements. We searched the databases MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science with keywords such as "ADHD" and "ω-3/6 PUFA" and identified 25 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results of these ω-3 PUFA studies are contradictory but, overall, show evidence for a successful treatment of ADHD symptoms. Tolerability of the given supplements was high, and only mild side effects were reported. In conclusion, there is evidence that a ω-3 PUFA treatment has a positive effect on ADHD. It should be added that treatment could be more effective in patients with mild forms of ADHD. Moreover, the dosage of stimulant medication could be reduced when used in combination with ω-3 PUFA supplements. Further studies are necessary to investigate underlying mechanisms that can lead to a reduction of ADHD symptoms due to ω-3 PUFA treatments and also to determine the optimal concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, whether used as single treatment or in combination with other medication. PMID:27555775

  18. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation enhances hippocampal functionality in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, Debora; De Bartolo, Paola; Caporali, Paola; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; Ronci, Maurizio; Rossi, Claudia; Neri, Cristina; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    As major components of neuronal membranes, omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA) exhibit a wide range of regulatory functions, modulating from synaptic plasticity to neuroinflammation, from oxidative stress to neuroprotection. Recent human and animal studies indicated the n-3 PUFA neuroprotective properties in aging, with a clear negative correlation between n-3 PUFA levels and hippocampal deficits. The present multidimensional study was aimed at associating cognition, hippocampal neurogenesis, volume, neurodegeneration and metabolic correlates to verify n-3 PUFA neuroprotective effects in aging. To this aim 19 month-old mice were given n-3 PUFA mixture, or olive oil or no dietary supplement for 8 weeks during which hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions were tested. At the end of behavioral testing morphological and metabolic correlates were analyzed. n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibited better object recognition memory, spatial and localizatory memory, and aversive response retention, without modifications in anxiety levels in comparison to controls. These improved hippocampal cognitive functions occurred in the context of an enhanced cellular plasticity and a reduced neurodegeneration. In fact, n-3 PUFA supplementation increased hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic arborization of newborn neurons, volume, neuronal density and microglial cell number, while it decreased apoptosis, astrocytosis and lipofuscin accumulation in the hippocampus. The increased levels of some metabolic correlates (blood Acetyl-L-Carnitine and brain n-3 PUFA concentrations) found in n-3 PUFA supplemented mice also pointed toward an effective neuroprotection. On the basis of the present results n-3 PUFA supplementation appears to be a useful tool in health promotion and cognitive decline prevention during aging. PMID:25202271

  19. Novel Simplified and Rapid Method for Screening and Isolation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Producing Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tilay, Ashwini; Annapure, Uday

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a potential biotechnological approach for production of valuable nutraceuticals. Reliable method for screening of number of strains within short period of time is great need. Here, we report a novel simplified method for screening and isolation of PUFA-producing bacteria by direct visualization using the H2O2-plate assay. The oxidative stability of PUFAs in growing bacteria towards added H2O2 is a distinguishing characteristic between the PUFAs producers (no zone of inhibition) and non-PUFAs producers (zone of inhibition) by direct visualization. The confirmation of assay results was performed by injecting fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by selected marine bacteria to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). To date, this assay is the most effective, inexpensive, and specific method for bacteria producing PUFAs and shows drastically reduction in the number of samples thus saves the time, effort, and cost of screening and isolating strains of bacterial PUFAs producers. PMID:22934188

  20. The Molecular Basis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Interactions with the Shaker Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Samira; Stein, Matthias; Elinder, Fredrik; Andersson, Magnus; Lindahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels are membrane proteins that respond to changes in membrane potential by enabling K+ ion flux across the membrane. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce channel opening by modulating the voltage-sensitivity, which can provide effective treatment against refractory epilepsy by means of a ketogenic diet. While PUFAs have been reported to influence the gating mechanism by electrostatic interactions to the voltage-sensor domain (VSD), the exact PUFA-protein interactions are still elusive. In this study, we report on the interactions between the Shaker KV channel in open and closed states and a PUFA-enriched lipid bilayer using microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. We determined a putative PUFA binding site in the open state of the channel located at the protein-lipid interface in the vicinity of the extracellular halves of the S3 and S4 helices of the VSD. In particular, the lipophilic PUFA tail covered a wide range of non-specific hydrophobic interactions in the hydrophobic central core of the protein-lipid interface, while the carboxylic head group displayed more specific interactions to polar/charged residues at the extracellular regions of the S3 and S4 helices, encompassing the S3-S4 linker. Moreover, by studying the interactions between saturated fatty acids (SFA) and the Shaker KV channel, our study confirmed an increased conformational flexibility in the polyunsaturated carbon tails compared to saturated carbon chains, which may explain the specificity of PUFA action on channel proteins. PMID:26751683

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, cognition and literacy in children with ADHD with and without learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Milte, Catherine M; Sinn, Natalie; Buckley, Jonathan D; Coates, Alison M; Young, Ross M; Howe, Peter Rc

    2011-12-01

    Suboptimal omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) levels may contribute to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related developmental problems. Associations between n-3 and omega-6 (n-6) PUFA levels in red blood cells (erythrocytes) and learning and behaviour were investigated in 75 children aged 7-12 with ADHD. Children provided blood samples and underwent cognitive assessments. Parents completed questionnaires and Conners' Rating Scales. Controlling for covariates, higher n-3 PUFA predicted lower anxiety/shyness (β = -.27), higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) better word reading (β = .22), and higher n-6 PUFA poorer reading (β = -.34), vocabulary (β = .-.26), spelling (β = -.30) and attention (β = -.30). Thirty-six per cent of the sample with learning difficulties had lower DHA than those without (M = 3.26 ± 0.54 vs M = 3.68 ± 0.76, p = .02). This study is the first to compare erythrocyte PUFAs (a measure of PUFA status) in children who have ADHD with and without learning difficulties, and supports emerging indications that the former may be more likely responders to n-3 PUFAs. PMID:21828168

  2. The Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in the Control of Obesity and Metabolic Derangements in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria Ida; Monti, Massimo; Arcieri, Stefano; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity represents a major under-recognized preventable risk factor for cancer development and recurrence, including breast cancer (BC). Healthy diet and correct lifestyle play crucial role for the treatment of obesity and for the prevention of BC. Obesity is significantly prevalent in western countries and it contributes to almost 50% of BC in older women. Mechanisms underlying obesity, such as inflammation and insulin resistance, are also involved in BC development. Fatty acids are among the most extensively studied dietary factors, whose changes appear to be closely related with BC risk. Alterations of specific ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly low basal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, appear to be important in increasing cancer risk and its relapse, influencing its progression and prognosis and affecting the response to treatments. On the other hand, DHA supplementation increases the response to anticancer therapies and reduces the undesired side effects of anticancer therapies. Experimental and clinical evidence shows that higher fish consumption or intake of DHA reduces BC cell growth and its relapse risk. Controversy exists on the potential anticancer effects of marine ω-3 PUFAs and especially DHA, and larger clinical trials appear mandatory to clarify these aspects. The present review article is aimed at exploring the capacity of DHA in controlling obesity-related inflammation and in reducing insulin resistance in BC development, progression, and response to therapies. PMID:27058527

  3. The Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in the Control of Obesity and Metabolic Derangements in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria Ida; Monti, Massimo; Arcieri, Stefano; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity represents a major under-recognized preventable risk factor for cancer development and recurrence, including breast cancer (BC). Healthy diet and correct lifestyle play crucial role for the treatment of obesity and for the prevention of BC. Obesity is significantly prevalent in western countries and it contributes to almost 50% of BC in older women. Mechanisms underlying obesity, such as inflammation and insulin resistance, are also involved in BC development. Fatty acids are among the most extensively studied dietary factors, whose changes appear to be closely related with BC risk. Alterations of specific ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly low basal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, appear to be important in increasing cancer risk and its relapse, influencing its progression and prognosis and affecting the response to treatments. On the other hand, DHA supplementation increases the response to anticancer therapies and reduces the undesired side effects of anticancer therapies. Experimental and clinical evidence shows that higher fish consumption or intake of DHA reduces BC cell growth and its relapse risk. Controversy exists on the potential anticancer effects of marine ω-3 PUFAs and especially DHA, and larger clinical trials appear mandatory to clarify these aspects. The present review article is aimed at exploring the capacity of DHA in controlling obesity-related inflammation and in reducing insulin resistance in BC development, progression, and response to therapies. PMID:27058527

  4. Altered erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile in typical Rett syndrome: effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Cinzia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Guerranti, Roberto; Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Marcello; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-11-01

    This study mainly aims at examining the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FAs) profile in Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disease. Early reports suggest a beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on disease severity in RTT. A total of 24 RTT patients were assigned to ω-3 PUFAs-containing fish oil for 12 months in a randomized controlled study (average DHA and EPA doses of 72.9, and 117.1mg/kgb.w./day, respectively). A distinctly altered FAs profile was detectable in RTT, with deficient ω-6 PUFAs, increased saturated FAs and reduced trans 20:4 FAs. FAs changes were found to be related to redox imbalance, subclinical inflammation, and decreased bone density. Supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs led to improved ω-6/ω-3 ratio and serum plasma lipid profile, decreased PUFAs peroxidation end-products, normalization of biochemical markers of inflammation, and reduction of bone hypodensity as compared to the untreated RTT group. Our data indicate that a significant FAs abnormality is detectable in the RTT erythrocyte membranes and is partially rescued by ω-3 PUFAs. PMID:25240461

  5. The Lipid domain Phase diagram in a Dipalmitoyl-PC/Docosahaexnoic Acid-PE/Cholesterol System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lor, Chai; Hirst, Linda

    2011-03-01

    Lipid domains in bilayer membrane and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are thought to play an important role in cellular activities. In particular, lipids containing docosahaexnoic acid are an interesting class of PUFAs due to their health benefits. In this project, we perform oxidation measurements of DHA-PE to determine the rate of oxidation in combination with antioxidants. A ternary diagram of DPPC/DHA-PE/cholesterol is mapped out to identify phase separation phenomena using atomic force microscope (AFM). Fluorescence microscopy is also used to image lipid domains in a flat bilayer with fluorescent labels. As expected, we observe the phase, shape, and size of lipid domains changes with varying composition. Moreover, we find that the roughness of the domains changes possibly due to overpacking of cholesterol in domains. This model study provides further understanding of the role of cholesterol in the bilayer membrane leading towards a better understanding of cell membranes. NSF award # DMR 0852791, ``CAREER: Self-Assembly of Polyunsaturated Lipids and Cholesterol In The Cell Membrane.''

  6. Antibacterial activity of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Desbois, Andrew P; Lawlor, Keelan C

    2013-11-01

    New compounds are needed to treat acne and superficial infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus due to the reduced effectiveness of agents used at present. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are attracting attention as potential new topical treatments for Gram-positive infections due to their antimicrobial potency and anti-inflammatory properties. This present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effects of six LC-PUFAs against P. acnes and S. aureus to evaluate their potential to treat infections caused by these pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined against P. acnes and S. aureus, and the LC-PUFAs were found to inhibit bacterial growth at 32-1024 mg/L. Generally, P. acnes was more susceptible to the growth inhibitory actions of LC-PUFAs, but these compounds were bactericidal only for S. aureus. This is the first report of antibacterial activity attributed to 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-OHEPA) and 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE), while the anti-P. acnes effects of the six LC-PUFAs used herein are novel observations. During exposure to the LC-PUFAs, S. aureus cells were killed within 15-30 min. Checkerboard assays demonstrated that the LC-PUFAs did not antagonise the antimicrobial potency of clinical agents used presently against P. acnes and S. aureus. However, importantly, synergistic interactions against S. aureus were detected for combinations of benzoyl peroxide with 15-OHEPA, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and HETrE; and neomycin with 15-OHEPA, DGLA, eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid and HETrE. In conclusion, LC-PUFAs warrant further evaluation as possible new agents to treat skin infections caused by P. acnes and S. aureus, especially in synergistic combinations with antimicrobial agents already used clinically. PMID:24232668

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Desbois, Andrew P.; Lawlor, Keelan C.

    2013-01-01

    New compounds are needed to treat acne and superficial infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus due to the reduced effectiveness of agents used at present. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are attracting attention as potential new topical treatments for Gram-positive infections due to their antimicrobial potency and anti-inflammatory properties. This present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effects of six LC-PUFAs against P. acnes and S. aureus to evaluate their potential to treat infections caused by these pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined against P. acnes and S. aureus, and the LC-PUFAs were found to inhibit bacterial growth at 32–1024 mg/L. Generally, P. acnes was more susceptible to the growth inhibitory actions of LC-PUFAs, but these compounds were bactericidal only for S. aureus. This is the first report of antibacterial activity attributed to 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-OHEPA) and 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE), while the anti-P. acnes effects of the six LC-PUFAs used herein are novel observations. During exposure to the LC-PUFAs, S. aureus cells were killed within 15–30 min. Checkerboard assays demonstrated that the LC-PUFAs did not antagonise the antimicrobial potency of clinical agents used presently against P. acnes and S. aureus. However, importantly, synergistic interactions against S. aureus were detected for combinations of benzoyl peroxide with 15-OHEPA, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and HETrE; and neomycin with 15-OHEPA, DGLA, eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid and HETrE. In conclusion, LC-PUFAs warrant further evaluation as possible new agents to treat skin infections caused by P. acnes and S. aureus, especially in synergistic combinations with antimicrobial agents already used clinically. PMID:24232668

  8. Chronic Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Treatment Variably Affects Cellular Repolarization in a Healed Post-MI Arrhythmia Model

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Ingrid M.; Nishijima, Yoshinori; Vargas-Pinto, Pedro; Baine, Stephen H.; Sridhar, Arun; Li, Chun; Billman, George E.; Carnes, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the last 40 years omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to be anti-arrhythmic or pro-arrhythmic depending on the method and duration of administration and model studied. We previously reported that omega-3 PUFAs do not confer anti-arrhythmic properties and are pro-arrhythmic in canine model of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Here, we evaluated the effects of chronic omega-3 PUFA treatment in post-MI animals susceptible (VF+) or resistant (VF−) to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Methods: Perforated patch clamp techniques were used to measure cardiomyocyte action potential durations (APD) at 50 and 90% repolarization and short term variability of repolarization. The early repolarizing transient outward potassium current Ito was also studied. Results: Omega-3 PUFAs prolonged the action potential in VF− myocytes at both 50 and 90% repolarization. Short term variability of repolarization was increased in both untreated and treated VF− myocytes vs. controls. Ito was unaffected by omega-3 PUFA treatment. Omega-3 PUFA treatment attenuated the action potential prolongation in VF+ myocytes, but did not return repolarization to control values. Conclusions: Omega-3 PUFAs do not confer anti-arrhythmic properties in the setting of healed myocardial infarction in a canine model of SCD. In canines previously resistant to ventricular fibrillation (VF−), omega-3 PUFA treatment prolonged the action potential in VF− myocytes, and may contribute to pro-arrhythmic responses. PMID:27378936

  9. N-terminal basic amino acid residues of Beet black scorch virus capsid protein play a critical role in virion assembly and systemic movement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Beet black scorch virus (BBSV) is a small single-stranded, positive-sense RNA plant virus belonging to the genus Necrovirus, family Tombusviridae. Its capsid protein (CP) contains a 13 amino acid long basic region at the N-terminus, rich in arginine and lysine residues, which is thought to interact with viral RNA to initiate virion assembly. Results In the current study, a series of BBSV mutants containing amino acid substitutions as well as deletions within the N-terminal region were generated and examined for their effects on viral RNA replication, virion assembly, and long distance spread in protoplasts and whole host plants of BBSV. The RNA-binding activities of the mutated CPs were also evaluated in vitro. These experiments allowed us to identify two key basic amino acid residues in this region that are responsible for initiating virus assembly through RNA-binding. Proper assembly of BBSV particles is in turn needed for efficient viral systemic movement. Conclusions We have identified two basic amino acid residues near the N-terminus of the BBSV CP that bind viral RNA with high affinity to initiate virion assembly. We further provide evidence showing that systemic spread of BBSV in infected plants requires intact virions. This study represents the first in-depth investigation of the role of basic amino acid residues within the N-terminus of a necroviral CP. PMID:23786675

  10. Active synthesis of C24:5, n-3 fatty acid in retina.

    PubMed Central

    Rotstein, N P; Pennacchiotti, G L; Sprecher, H; Aveldaño, M I

    1996-01-01

    The formation of 14C-labelled long-chain and very-long-chain (n-3) pentaenoic and hexaenoic fatty acids was studied in bovine retina by following the metabolism of. [14C]-docosapentaenoate [C22:5, n-3 fatty acid (22:5 n-3)], [14C]-docosahexaenoate (22:6 n-3), and [14C]acetate. With similar amounts of 22:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 as substrates, the former was actively transformed into 24:5 n-3, whereas the latter was virtually unmodified. Labelled 24:5, 26:5, 24:6 and 22:6 were formed from [1-14C]22:5 n-3, showing that pentaenoic fatty acids including 24:5 n-3 can be elongated and desaturated within the retina. When retinal microsomes were incubated with [1-14C]22:5 n-3, 24:5 n-3 was the only fatty acid formed. In retinas incubated with [14C]acetate, 24:5 n-3 was the most highly labelled fatty acid among the polyenes synthesized, 24:6 n-3 being a minor product. Such selectivity in the elongation of two fatty acids identical in length, 22:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3, despite the fact that 22:5 is a minor and 22:6 a major fatty acid constituent of retina, suggests that the active formation of 24:5 n-3 plays a key role in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism. This compound might give rise to even longer pentaenes via elongation, and to the major PUFAs of retina, 22:6 n-3, by 6-desaturation and chain shortening. Of all retinal lipids, a minor component, triacylglycerol (TG), incorporated the largest amounts of [14C]22:5 and 22:6. TG also concentrated most of the [14C]24:5 formed in retina, whether from [14C]22:5 n-3 or from [14C]acetate, suggesting an important role for this lipid in supporting PUFA metabolism and the synthesis of 22:6 n-3. PMID:8670163

  11. A novel unsaturated fatty acid hydratase toward C16 to C22 fatty acids from Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Akiko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Park, Si-Bum; Takeuchi, Michiki; Kitamura, Nahoko; Ogawa, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxy FAs, one of the gut microbial metabolites of PUFAs, have attracted much attention because of their various bioactivities. The purpose of this study was to identify lactic acid bacteria with the ability to convert linoleic acid (LA) to hydroxy FAs. A screening process revealed that a gut bacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus NTV001, converts LA mainly into 13-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid and resulted in the identification of the hydratase responsible, fatty acid hydratase 1 (FA-HY1). Recombinant FA-HY1 was purified, and its enzymatic characteristics were investigated. FA-HY1 could convert not only C18 PUFAs but also C20 and C22 PUFAs. C18 PUFAs with a cis carbon-carbon double bond at the Δ12 position were converted into the corresponding 13-hydroxy FAs. Arachidonic acid and DHA were converted into the corresponding 15-hydroxy FA and 14-hydroxy FA, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a bacterial FA hydratase that can convert C20 and C22 PUFAs into the corresponding hydroxy FAs. These novel hydroxy FAs produced by using FA-HY1 should contribute to elucidating the bioactivities of hydroxy FAs. PMID:25966711

  12. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b played similar but irreplaceable roles in regulating the biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yangyun; Sun, Wei; Chen, Junfeng; Tan, Hexin; Xiao, Ying; Li, Qing; Ji, Qian; Gao, Shouhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Wansheng

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which contains tanshinones and phenolic acids as major classes of bioactive components, is one of the most widely used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Production of tanshinones and phenolic acids is enhanced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Transcription factor MYC2 is the switch of jasmontes signaling in plants. Here, we focused on two novel JA-inducible genes in S. miltiorrhiza, designated as SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b, which were localized in the nucleus. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b were also discovered to interact with SmJAZ1 and SmJAZ2, implying that the two MYC2s might function as direct targets of JAZ proteins. Ectopic RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown experiments suggested that SmMYC2a/b affected multiple genes in tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway. Besides, the accumulation of tanshinones and phenolic acids was impaired by the loss of function in SmMYC2a/b. Meanwhile, SmMYC2a could bind with an E-box motif within SmHCT6 and SmCYP98A14 promoters, while SmMYC2b bound with an E-box motif within SmCYP98A14 promoter, through which the regulation of phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway might achieve. Together, these results suggest that SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b are JAZ-interacting transcription factors that positively regulate the biosynthesis of tanshinones and Sal B with similar but irreplaceable effects. PMID:26947390

  13. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b played similar but irreplaceable roles in regulating the biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yangyun; Sun, Wei; Chen, Junfeng; Tan, Hexin; Xiao, Ying; Li, Qing; Ji, Qian; Gao, Shouhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Wansheng

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which contains tanshinones and phenolic acids as major classes of bioactive components, is one of the most widely used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Production of tanshinones and phenolic acids is enhanced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Transcription factor MYC2 is the switch of jasmontes signaling in plants. Here, we focused on two novel JA-inducible genes in S. miltiorrhiza, designated as SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b, which were localized in the nucleus. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b were also discovered to interact with SmJAZ1 and SmJAZ2, implying that the two MYC2s might function as direct targets of JAZ proteins. Ectopic RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown experiments suggested that SmMYC2a/b affected multiple genes in tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway. Besides, the accumulation of tanshinones and phenolic acids was impaired by the loss of function in SmMYC2a/b. Meanwhile, SmMYC2a could bind with an E-box motif within SmHCT6 and SmCYP98A14 promoters, while SmMYC2b bound with an E-box motif within SmCYP98A14 promoter, through which the regulation of phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway might achieve. Together, these results suggest that SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b are JAZ-interacting transcription factors that positively regulate the biosynthesis of tanshinones and Sal B with similar but irreplaceable effects. PMID:26947390

  14. Effect of dietary Fatty acids on human lipoprotein metabolism: a comprehensive update.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Esther M M; Watts, Gerald F; Ng, Theodore W K; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2015-06-01

    Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dietary fatty-acid composition regulates lipids and lipoprotein metabolism and may confer CVD benefit. This review updates understanding of the effect of dietary fatty-acids on human lipoprotein metabolism. In elderly participants with hyperlipidemia, high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty-acids (PUFA) consumption diminished hepatic triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) secretion and enhanced TRL to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) conversion. n-3 PUFA also decreased TRL-apoB-48 concentration by decreasing TRL-apoB-48 secretion. High n-6 PUFA intake decreased very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations by up-regulating VLDL lipolysis and uptake. In a study of healthy subjects, the intake of saturated fatty-acids with increased palmitic acid at the sn-2 position was associated with decreased postprandial lipemia. Low medium-chain triglyceride may not appreciably alter TRL metabolism. Replacing carbohydrate with monounsaturated fatty-acids increased TRL catabolism. Trans-fatty-acid decreased LDL and enhanced high-density lipoprotein catabolism. Interactions between APOE genotype and n-3 PUFA in regulating lipid responses were also described. The major advances in understanding the effect of dietary fatty-acids on lipoprotein metabolism has centered on n-3 PUFA. This knowledge emphasizes the importance of regulating lipoprotein metabolism as a mode to improve plasma lipids and potentially CVD risk. Additional studies are required to better characterize the cardiometabolic effects of other dietary fatty-acids. PMID:26043038

  15. Direct supplementation of diet is the most efficient way of enriching broiler meat with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T; Lordelo, M M; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Costa, P; Lemos, J P C; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Prates, J A M

    2013-01-01

    1. Concentrations of beneficial omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) in poultry meat can be improved by increasing the concentration of n-3 PUFA in poultry diets. 2. A decrease in flavour quality is, however, usually associated with the dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA, which is due to the susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation. 3. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of introducing two different n-3 fatty acid sources (extruded linseed and DHA Gold™, a proprietary algal product rich in docosahexaenoic acid), either separately or together, on broiler productive performance, and meat quality, oxidative stability, sensory traits and LC-PUFA profile. 4. Birds given the algal product displayed better productive performances than animals from other groups. 5. The data revealed an improvement in the fatty acid nutritional value of meat from birds receiving the algal product and an inefficient conversion of α-linolenic acid (LNA) into LC-PUFA. 6. Metabolisation of LNA in vivo is not sufficient to improve meat quality in n-3 LC-PUFA and direct supplementation of the diet with n-3 LC-PUFA is a better alternative to modulate an increase in beneficial fatty acids of broiler meat. 7. The overall acceptability of meat was negatively affected by the dietary supplementation with 7.4% of DHA, in contrast to the supplementation with 3.7% of DHA, which showed to be efficient in improving LC-PUFA meat content without affecting its sensory properties. PMID:24397512

  16. Fatty acid composition of Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    The information of trophic relationship is important for studying the Southern Ocean ecosystems. In this study, three dominant krill species, Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias, were collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during austral summer of 2009/2010. The composition of fatty acids in these species was studied. E. superba and T. macrura showed a similar fatty acid composition which was dominated by C14:0, C16:0, EPA (eicosapentenoic acid) and DHA (decosahexenoic acid) while E. crystallorophias showed higher contents of C18:1(n-9), C18:1(n-7), DHA and EPA than the former two. Higher fatty acid ratios of C18:1(n-9)/18:1(n-7), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid)/SFA (saturated fatty acid), and 18PUFA/16PUFA indicated that E. crystallorophias should be classified as a typical omnivore with a higher trophic position compared with E. superba and T. macrura.

  17. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognitive Functions and Neural Substrates: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, Debora; Pagani, Marco; Caporali, Paola; Galbusera, Alberto; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; Neri, Cristina; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Human and experimental studies have revealed putative neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in aging, evidencing positive correlations between peripheral n-3 PUFA levels and regional grey matter (GM) volume, as well as negative correlations between dietary n-3 PUFA levels and cognitive deficits. We recently showed that n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibit better hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions, along with enhanced cellular plasticity and reduced neurodegeneration, thus supporting a role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in preventing cognitive decline during aging. To corroborate these initial results and develop new evidence on the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on brain substrates at macro-scale level, here we expanded behavioral analyses to the emotional domain (anxiety and coping skills), and carried out a fine-grained regional GM volumetric mapping by using high-resolution MRI-based voxel-based morphometry. The behavioral effects of 8 week n-3 PUFA supplementation were measured on cognitive (discriminative, spatial and social) and emotional (anxiety and coping) abilities of aged (19 month-old at the onset of study) C57B6/J mice. n-3 PUFA supplemented mice showed better mnesic performances as well as increased active coping skills. Importantly, these effects were associated with enlarged regional hippocampal, retrosplenial and prefrontal GM volumes, and with increased post mortem n-3 PUFA brain levels. These findings indicate that increased dietary n-3 PUFA intake in normal aging can improve fronto-hippocampal GM structure and function, an effect present also when the supplementation starts at late age. Our data are consistent with a protective role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in counteracting cognitive decline, emotional dysfunctions and brain atrophy. PMID:26973513

  18. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognitive Functions and Neural Substrates: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, Debora; Pagani, Marco; Caporali, Paola; Galbusera, Alberto; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; Neri, Cristina; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Human and experimental studies have revealed putative neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in aging, evidencing positive correlations between peripheral n-3 PUFA levels and regional grey matter (GM) volume, as well as negative correlations between dietary n-3 PUFA levels and cognitive deficits. We recently showed that n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibit better hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions, along with enhanced cellular plasticity and reduced neurodegeneration, thus supporting a role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in preventing cognitive decline during aging. To corroborate these initial results and develop new evidence on the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on brain substrates at macro-scale level, here we expanded behavioral analyses to the emotional domain (anxiety and coping skills), and carried out a fine-grained regional GM volumetric mapping by using high-resolution MRI-based voxel-based morphometry. The behavioral effects of 8 week n-3 PUFA supplementation were measured on cognitive (discriminative, spatial and social) and emotional (anxiety and coping) abilities of aged (19 month-old at the onset of study) C57B6/J mice. n-3 PUFA supplemented mice showed better mnesic performances as well as increased active coping skills. Importantly, these effects were associated with enlarged regional hippocampal, retrosplenial and prefrontal GM volumes, and with increased post mortem n-3 PUFA brain levels. These findings indicate that increased dietary n-3 PUFA intake in normal aging can improve fronto-hippocampal GM structure and function, an effect present also when the supplementation starts at late age. Our data are consistent with a protective role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in counteracting cognitive decline, emotional dysfunctions and brain atrophy. PMID:26973513

  19. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer. PMID:26595162

  20. Comparison of natural antioxidants and their effects on omega-3 fatty acid oxidation in fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been found to offer a variety of health benefits including cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory effect and human development. It is known that fish and algae o...

  1. The role played by acid and basic centers in the activity of biomimetic catalysts of the catalase, peroxidase, and monooxidase reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magerramov, A. M.; Nagieva, I. T.

    2010-11-01

    The acid-basic centers of heterogeneous carriers of catalase, peroxidase, and monooxigenase biomimetics, in particular, iron protoporphyrin deposited on active or neutral aluminum magnesium silicate, were studied. The catalytic activity of biomimetics was stabilized, which allowed us not only to synthesize fairly effective biomimetics but also to clarify certain details of the mechanism of their action and perform a comparative analysis of the functioning of biomimetics and the corresponding enzymes.

  2. Use of natural antioxidants from lyophilized water extracts of Borago officinalis in dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Ciriano, Mikel García-Iñiguez de; García-Herreros, Cecilia; Larequi, Eduardo; Valencia, Idoia; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2009-10-01

    An evaluation of the capacity of a lyophilized water extract of borage leaves to delay the lipid oxidation process in dry fermented sausages enriched with ω-3 PUFAs has been performed. Lyophilized extract (340ppm) showed an antioxidant capacity equivalent to 200ppm of a butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) mixture. Two batches of dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA were developed. One of them was supplemented with a synthetic antioxidants mixture (200ppm of BHA+BHT) and the other one with natural antioxidants (340ppm of lyophilized water extract of borage leaves). Furthermore, a traditional formulation of this type of dry fermented sausage (Control), was also manufactured. The natural extract gave rise to lower amount of volatile compounds (including hexanal), than the mixture of synthetic antioxidants (2202 and 2713ng dodecane/g dry matter, respectively). TBARS and Cholesterol Oxidation Products (COPs) did not show significant differences between products with different antioxidants. The sensorial analysis showed that lyophilized water extracts of borage leaves did not affect the sensorial properties of the products. From the economical and safety standpoints, the use of a by-product (borage leaves) and water as extracting solvent are valuable alternatives for obtaining natural antioxidants to be added to dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA. PMID:20416739

  3. Delta 5 fatty acid desaturase upregulates the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kun-Tao; Zheng, Cun-Ni; Xue, Jiao; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Bai, Weibin; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-09-01

    Microalgae are important primary producers in the marine ecosystem and excellent sources of lipids and other bioactive compounds. The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum accumulates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) as its major component of fatty acids. To improve the EPA production, delta 5 desaturase, which plays a role in EPA biosynthetic pathway, was characterized in P. tricornutum. An annotated delta 5 desaturase PtD5b gene was cloned and overexpressed in P. tricornutum. The transgene was integrated into the genome demonstrated by Southern blot, and the overexpression of PtD5b was verified by qPCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid composition exhibited a significant increase in the unsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) showed an increase of 75% and 64%, respectively. In particular, EPA showed an increase of 58% in engineered microalgae. Meanwhile, neutral lipid content showed an increase up to 65% in engineered microalgae. More importantly, engineered cells showed a similar growth rate with the wild type, thus keeping high biomass productivity. This work provides an effective way to improve the production of microalgal value-added bioproducts by metabolic engineering. PMID:25109502

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intervention Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Weight Loss in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying-Hua; Li, Xiang-Yong; Chen, Chih-Yu; Zhang, Hong-Man; Kang, Jing X.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis is a critical medical condition, characterized by a severe systemic inflammation and rapid loss of muscle mass. Preventive and therapeutic strategies for this complex disease are still lacking. Here, we evaluated the effect of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intervention on LPS-challenged mice with respect to inflammation, body weight and the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway components. LPS administration induced a dramatic loss of body weight within two days. Treatment with n-3 PUFA not only stopped loss of body weight but also gradually reversed it back to baseline levels within one week. Accordingly, the animals treated with n-3 PUFA exhibited markedly lower levels of inflammatory cytokines or markers in plasma and tissues, as well as down-regulation of TLR4 pathway components compared to animals without n-3 PUFA treatment or those treated with omega-6 PUFA. Our data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA intervention can suppress LPS-induced inflammation and weight loss via, at least in part, down-regulation of pro-inflammatory targets of the TLR4 signaling pathway, and highlight the therapeutic potential of n-3 PUFA in the management of sepsis. PMID:25689565

  5. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Structural and Functional Effects on the Vascular Wall

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Michela; Grillo, Andrea; Losurdo, Pasquale; Panizon, Emiliano; Mearelli, Filippo; Cattin, Luigi; Barazzoni, Rocco; Carretta, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Increasing evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on arterial wall properties is progressively emerging. We reviewed the recent available evidence for the cardiovascular effects of n-3 PUFA focusing on structural and functional properties of the vascular wall. In experimental studies and clinical trials n-3 PUFA have shown the ability to improve arterial hemodynamics by reducing arterial stiffness, thus explaining some of its cardioprotective properties. Recent studies suggest beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on endothelial activation, which are likely to improve vascular function. Several molecular, cellular, and physiological pathways influenced by n-3 PUFA can affect arterial wall properties and therefore interfere with the atherosclerotic process. Although the relative weight of different physiological and molecular mechanisms and the dose-response on arterial wall properties have yet to be determined, n-3 PUFA have the potential to beneficially impact arterial wall remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes by targeting arterial wall stiffening and endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26301252

  6. Transgenic expression of delta-6 and delta-15 fatty acid desaturases enhances omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which contain two or more double bonds in their backbone, are the focus of intensive global research, because of their nutritional value, medicinal applications, and potential use as biofuel. However, the ability to produce these economically important compounds is limited, because it is both expensive and technically challenging to separate omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) from natural oils. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microalgal ω-3 PUFAs have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between fatty acid desaturase content and fatty acid synthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is incomplete. Results We constructed a series of homologous vectors for the endogenous and exogenous expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases under the control of the photosynthesis psbA2 promoter in transgenic Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We generated six homologous recombinants, harboring various fatty acid desaturase genes from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mortierella alpina. These lines produced up to 8.9 mg/l of α-linolenic acid (ALA) and 4.1 mg/l of stearidonic acid (SDA), which are more than six times the corresponding wild-type levels, at 20°C and 30°C. Thus, transgenic expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases enhances the accumulation of specific ω-3 PUFAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Conclusions In the blue-green alga Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, overexpression of endogenous and exogenous genes encoding PUFA desaturases markedly increased accumulation of ALA and SDA and decreased accumulation of linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid. This study lays the foundation for increasing the fatty acid content of cyanobacteria and, ultimately, for producing nutritional and medicinal products with high levels of essential ω-3 PUFAs. PMID:24581179

  7. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Forouhi, Nita G.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Kröger, Janine; Wang, Laura Yun; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Affret, Aurélie; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Scalbert, Augustin; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Riboli, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. Methods and Findings Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88–0.98), but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA) (0.80; 95% CI 0.77–0.83) and eicosadienoic acid (EDA) (0.89; 95% CI 0.85–0.94) were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA) was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA), and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA), with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs. Conclusions These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA) but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) with T2D. Moreover, they

  8. The role of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in reducing lipid peroxidation among elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lai Kuan; Shahar, Suzana; Rajab, NorFadilah; Yusoff, Noor Aini Mohd; Jamal, Rahman A; Then, Sue Mian

    2013-05-01

    The present work explores the effect of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intake on lipid peroxidation among mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. The plasma lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) levels in 67 MCI patients were compared to those of 134 healthy elderly controls. Omega-3 PUFA intake was assessed using an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Apolipoprotein E genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion. The association between various confounders and lipid peroxidation was evaluated using regression analysis. The influence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) intake on LPO level was investigated. The results revealed that LPO levels were significantly higher in the MCI group than in the control group. Inverse correlations were found between DHA and EPA intake and LPO level among the MCI group. LPO levels decreased significantly with increasing DHA and EPA intake. In summary, the findings revealed that DHA and EPA can play a role in alleviating oxidative stress and reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22898566

  9. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26796668

  10. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease.

  11. Composition of fatty acids in the Varroa destructor mites and their hosts, Apis mellifera drone-prepupae.

    PubMed

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Zalewski, Kazimierz; Raczkowski, Marek; Żółtowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) profile of lipids extracted from the Varroa destructor parasitic mite and its host, drone-prepupae of Apis mellifera, was determined by gas chromatography (GC). The percentages of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were generally similar in parasites and their hosts. Fatty acids were arranged in the following descending order based on their content: MUFAs (ca. 52-55%), SFAs (ca. 41%) and PUFAs (ca. 3%). The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (46% in mites, 44% in prepupae) and palmitic acid (23% and 30%, respectively). Varroa parasites differed from their hosts in the quantity of individual FAs and in their FA profiles. Three PUFAs noted in the host were not observed in parasitic mites, whereas the presence of C21:0, C24:0 and C22:1 FAs was reported in mites, but not in drones. PMID:25911034

  12. Genes Related to Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Play a Role in the Functional Decline of the Drosophila Brain with Age

    PubMed Central

    Laranjeira, António; Schulz, Joachim; Dotti, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    In living organisms, ageing is widely considered to be the result of a multifaceted process consisting of the progressive accumulation of damage over time, having implications both in terms of function and survival. The study of ageing presents several challenges, from the different mechanisms implicated to the great diversity of systems affected over time. In the current study, we set out to identify genes involved in the functional decline of the brain with age and study its relevance in a tissue dependent manner using Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Here we report the age-dependent upregulation of genes involved in the metabolic process of fatty acid β-oxidation in the nervous tissue of female wild-type flies. Downregulation of CG10814, dHNF4 and lipid mobilizing genes bmm and dAkh rescues the functional decline of the brain with age, both at the cellular and behaviour level, while over-expression worsens performance. Our data proposes the occurrence of a metabolic alteration in the fly brain with age, whereby the process of β-oxidation of fatty acids experiences a genetic gain-of-function. This event proved to be one of the main causes contributing to the functional decline of the brain with age. PMID:27518101

  13. Alterations in the Intestinal Assimilation of Oxidized PUFAs Are Ameliorated by a Polyphenol-Rich Grape Seed Extract in an In Vitro Model and Caco-2 Cells123

    PubMed Central

    Maestre, Rodrigo; Douglass, John D.; Kodukula, Sarala; Medina, Isabel; Storch, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The (n-3) PUFAs 20:5 (n-3) (EPA) and 22:6 (n-3) (DHA) are thought to benefit human health. The presence of prooxidant compounds in foods, however, renders them susceptible to oxidation during both storage and digestion. The development of oxidation products during digestion and the potential effects on intestinal PUFA uptake are incompletely understood. In the present studies, we examined: 1) the development and bioaccessibility of lipid oxidation products in the gastrointestinal lumen during active digestion of fatty fish using the in vitro digestive tract TNO Intestinal Model-1 (TIM-1); 2) the mucosal cell uptake and metabolism of oxidized compared with unoxidized PUFAs using Caco-2 intestinal cells; and 3) the potential to limit the development of oxidation products in the intestine by incorporating antioxidant polyphenols in food. We found that during digestion, the development of oxidation products occurs in the stomach compartment, and increased amounts of oxidation products became bioaccessible in the jejunal and ileal compartments. Inclusion of a polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (GSE) during the digestion decreased the amounts of oxidation products in the stomach compartment and intestinal dialysates (P < 0.05). In Caco-2 intestinal cells, the uptake of oxidized (n-3) PUFAs was ~10% of the uptake of unoxidized PUFAs (P < 0.05) and addition of GSE or epigallocatechin gallate protected against the development of oxidation products, resulting in increased uptake of PUFAs (P < 0.05). These results suggest that addition of polyphenols during active digestion can limit the development of (n-3) PUFA oxidation products in the small intestine lumen and thereby promote intestinal uptake of the beneficial, unoxidized, (n-3) PUFAs. PMID:23325921

  14. Play Therapy: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  15. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of review. This review focuses on the effect(s) of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on gene transcription as determined from data generated using cDNA microarrays. Introduced within the past decade, this methodology allows detection of the expression of thousands of genes simultaneo...

  16. miR-17 is involved in the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in vertebrates: effects on liver expression of a fatty acyl desaturase in the marine teleost Siganus canaliculatus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghao; Xie, Dizhi; Wang, Shuqi; You, Cuihong; Monroig, Oscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2014-07-01

    Biosynthesis in vertebrates of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as arachidonic (ARA; 20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) acids requires the catalysis by fatty acyl desaturases (Fads). A vertebrate Fad with Δ4 activity catalyzing the direct conversion of 22:5n-3 to DHA was discovered in the marine teleost rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus. Recent studies in vertebrates have shown that miRNAs may participate in the regulation of lipid metabolism at post-transcription level. However, their roles in LC-PUFA biosynthesis were not known. In the present study, in silico analysis predicts that the rabbitfish Δ4 Fad may be a target of miR-17 and thus we cloned miR-17, which is located at the forepart of the miR-17-92 cluster. Dual luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-17 targeted the 3'UTR of Δ4 Fad directly. Furthermore, the expression level of miR-17 displayed an inverse pattern with that of Δ4 Fad mRNA in gill, liver and eyes, and also the Δ4 Fad protein quantity in rabbitfish liver. Incubation of rabbitfish primary hepatocytes with linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), α-linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3n-3), EPA or DHA showed differential effects on miR-17, Δ4 Fad and Δ6/Δ5 Fad expression. LNA promoted the expression of miR-17 and Δ6/Δ5 Fad, but suppressed the expression of Δ4 Fad. In contrast, LA and EPA decreased the expression of miR-17 and Δ6/Δ5 Fad, but had no effect on Δ4 Fad. However, all the above were down-regulated by DHA. These data indicate that miR-17 was involved in the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in rabbitfish liver by targeting Δ4 Fad. PMID:24681164

  17. Comparison between omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in young children

    PubMed Central

    Orton, Heather D.; Szabo, Nancy J.; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Norris, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We conducted a dietary validation study in youth aged 1 to 11 years by comparing dietary intake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as assessed by a parent-completed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) over time to erythrocyte membrane composition of the same fatty acids. Design The study population included youth aged 1 to 11 years who were participants in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY), a longitudinal study in Denver, Colorado that is following a cohort of youth at risk for developing Type I diabetes. Four hundred four children who had erythrocyte membrane fatty acid data matched to an FFQ corresponding to the same time frame for a total of 917 visits (matches) were included. PUFA intake was expressed as both g/day (adjusted for total energy) and as percent of total fat intake. We used mixed models to test the association and calculate the correlation between the erythrocyte membrane estimates and PUFA intake using all records of data for each youth. Results Intakes of total omega-3 fatty acids (β=0.52, p<0.0001, ρ=0.23) and marine PUFAs (β=1.62, p<0.0001, ρ=0.42), as a percent of total fat in the diet, were associated with percent of omega-3 and marine PUFAs in the erythrocyte membrane. Intakes of omega-6 PUFAs (β=0.04, p=0.418, ρ=0.05) and arachidonic acid (β=0.31, p=0.774, ρ=0.01) were not associated. Conclusions In these young children, a FFQ using parental report provided estimates of average long-term intakes of marine PUFAs that correlated well with their erythrocyte cell membrane fatty acid status. PMID:17440518

  18. Impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids on hepato-pancreatic prostaglandin and leukotriene concentration in ductal pancreatic cancer -- is there a correlation to tumour growth and liver metastasis?

    PubMed

    Heukamp, I; Kilian, M; Gregor, J I; Kiewert, C; Schimke, I; Kristiansen, G; Walz, M K; Jacobi, C A; Wenger, F A

    2006-04-01

    Type and composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are suspected to play an important role in carcinogenesis. Thus we investigated the effects of n-3, n-6 and n-9 PUFAs on tumour growth, liver metastasis and concentration of prostaglandins (PG) and leukotrienes (LT) in experimental ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Ninety male hamsters were randomised into six groups (Gr.) (n=15). While Gr. 1-3 were healthy control groups, Gr. 4-6 weekly received subcutaneous injections of 10mg N-nitrosobis-2-oxypropylamine (BOP)/kg body weight for 12 weeks in order to induce ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Between week 1 and 16 all animals were fed with a standard diet with a raw fat content of 2.9%. In week 17 Gr. 1-6 were allocated to three types of diets: Gr. 1: standard high fat (=SHF diet, rich in n-6 PUFAs)/Gr. 2: FISH-OIL (rich in n-3 PUFAs)/Gr. 3: SMOF (=mixture of n-3, n-6 and n-9 PUFAs)/Gr. 4: BOP+SHF/Gr. 5: BOP+SMOF/Gr. 6: BOP+FISH-OIL. After 32 weeks all animals were sacrificed and pancreas as well as liver were analysed histologically. Furthermore pancreatic and hepatic concentrations of prostaglandins (PGF1alpha, PGE(2)) and LT were measured. FISH-OIL decreased number of macroscopically visible pancreatic tumours (Gr. 4-6: 54.5% vs. 45.5% vs. 9.1%, P<0.05) as well as incidence of liver metastasis (Gr. 4-6: 90.9% vs. 72.7% vs. 36.4%, P<0.05). Furthermore concentration of PGF(1)(alpha), PGE(2) and LT were significantly increased in pancreatic carcinoma compared to tumour-free tissue. Moreover levels of PGF(1)(alpha) and PGE(2) were higher in liver metastasis than in extrametastatic hepatic tissue. However, in Gr. 6 (FISH-OIL) intrametastatic concentration of LT was significantly lower than in non-metastatic hepatic tissue as well as in Gr. 4 and Gr. 5. FISH-OIL decreased number of visible pancreatic tumours and incidence of histological proven liver metastasis. This effect might be caused by a decrease of intrametastatic concentration of LT compared to

  19. Filled hydrogel particles as a delivery system for n-3 long chain PUFA in low-fat frankfurters: Consequences for product characteristics with special reference to lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    This article examines the suitability of filled hydrogel particles for use as a delivery system for n-3 long chain PUFAs in low-fat frankfurters. Their effects on product characteristics over chilled storage were compared with those of frankfurters containing all-pork fat (control) or a comparable amount of fish oil (n-3 LCPUFA) incorporated in liquid form or in an oil-in-water emulsion. In modified samples n-3 fatty acids ranged between 801.34 to 996.37 mg/100g as opposed to 66 mg/100g in all-pork fat product. As compared with the control, hardness and chewiness values were similar (P>0.05) in filled hydrogel frankfurter. The presence of fish oil favoured lipid oxidation to varying degrees depending on delivery system, in descending order: direct oil addition>oil-in-water emulsion>hydrogels. Sensory evaluation demonstrated the advantages, from a sensory point of view, of hydrogel filled particles as n-3 delivery systems in frankfurters. PMID:26232749

  20. Omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and allergic diseases in infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    There may be a causal relationship between intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and childhood allergic diseases. This can be explained by plausible biological mechanisms involving eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Long chain n-3 PUFAs are found in fish and fish oils. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n-6 PUFAs. Thus, it is considered that n-3 PUFAs will lower the risk of developing allergic diseases. In support of this, protective associations have been reported between maternal fish intake during pregnancy and allergic outcomes in infants and children from those pregnancies. However, studies of fish intake during infancy and childhood and allergic outcomes in those infants or children are inconsistent, although some reported a protective association. Supplementing pregnant women with fish oil can induce immunologic changes in cord blood. This supplementation has been reported in some studies to decrease sensitisation to common food allergens and to lower the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis in the first year of life. The protective effect of maternal n-3 PUFAs may last until adolescence of the offspring. Fish oil supplementation in infancy may decrease the risk of developing some manifestations of allergic disease, although this benefit may not persist. Whether fish oil is a useful therapy in children with asthma receiving standard therapy is not clear from studies performed to date and this requires further exploration. PMID:23701554

  1. Insulin-Sensitizing Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Lost in Translation?

    PubMed Central

    Lalia, Antigoni Z.; Lanza, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) of marine origin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been long studied for their therapeutic potential in the context of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and glucose homeostasis. Glaring discordance between observations in animal and human studies precludes, to date, any practical application of n-3 PUFA as nutritional therapeutics against insulin resistance in humans. Our objective in this review is to summarize current knowledge and provide an up-to-date commentary on the therapeutic value of EPA and DHA supplementation for improving insulin sensitivity in humans. We also sought to discuss potential mechanisms of n-3 PUFA action in target tissues, in specific skeletal muscle, based on our recent work, as well as in liver and adipose tissue. We conducted a literature search to include all preclinical and clinical studies performed within the last two years and to comment on representative studies published earlier. Recent studies support a growing consensus that there are beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on insulin sensitivity in rodents. Observational studies in humans are encouraging, however, the vast majority of human intervention studies fail to demonstrate the benefit of n-3 PUFA in type 2 diabetes or insulin-resistant non-diabetic people. Nevertheless, there are still several unanswered questions regarding the potential impact of n-3 PUFA on metabolic function in humans. PMID:27258299

  2. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Dulce Alves; Custódio, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Pereira, Hugo; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Varela, João; Abu-Salah, Khalid M.

    2013-01-01

    The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented. PMID:23807546

  3. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Alzheimer's disease: key questions and partial answers.

    PubMed

    Calon, F

    2011-08-01

    The current rise in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unfortunately not matched by new treatment options. In the last 10 years, epidemiological, preclinical and clinical data have enlightened the possible preventive action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in AD and other diseases. While the contribution of recent studies to our general knowledge is priceless, many important new questions have been raised. In the present review, we aim at addressing some of these timely interrogations. First, the transport of n-3 PUFA across the blood-brain barrier is underscored based on preclinical data. Second, the relative contribution of two neuroactive n-3 PUFA found in fish oil, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3), remains unclear and is reviewed. Third, clinical trials on neurodegenerative diseases consistently remind us that treating early is critical, and this is likely to be the case with n-3 PUFA in AD as well. Fourth, we draw attention to the possibility that the current knowledge translation approach to make health recommendations might have to be adapted to non-patentable endogenous compounds like n-3 PUFA. We propose that answers to these critical questions will be instrumental toward a rational use of n-3 PUFA in AD. PMID:21605051

  4. Genotype, production system and sex effects on fatty acid composition of meat from goat kids.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mustafa; Demirel, Gulcan; Yakan, Akın; Ekiz, Bülent; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2015-02-01

    Two trials were performed to assess the meat fatty acid profile of goat kids from different genotypes, production systems and sex. In the first trial, genotype effect was determined in 24 suckling male kids from Turkish Saanen, Maltese and Gokceada breeds. In the second trial, male and female Gokceada Goat kids were used to compare the effect of extensive and semi-intensive production systems on fatty acid composition of meat. Significant genotype effect was observed in the percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3), despite no differences on the ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) and n-6/n-3 (P > 0.05). The effect of production system had also significant effects on fatty acids, but sex only influenced significantly stearic acid (C18:0), C18:1 n-9 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids and total PUFA level and PUFA/SFA ratio. This study confirms that dairy breeds are prone to produce higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their muscle. Meanwhile, meat from Gokceada goat kids, which is one of the indigenous breeds in Turkey, had similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios to Turkish Saanen and Maltase. PMID:25186278

  5. Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Plays a Critical Role in Naive and Effector Murine T Cells but Not Natural Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ramadan A; Camick, Christina; Wiles, Katherine; Walseth, Timothy F; Slama, James T; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Giovannucci, David R; Wall, Katherine A

    2016-02-26

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), the most potent Ca(2+) mobilizing second messenger discovered to date, has been implicated in Ca(2+) signaling in some lymphomas and T cell clones. In contrast, the role of NAADP in Ca(2+) signaling or the identity of the Ca(2+) stores targeted by NAADP in conventional naive T cells is less clear. In the current study, we demonstrate the importance of NAADP in the generation of Ca(2+) signals in murine naive T cells. Combining live-cell imaging methods and a pharmacological approach using the NAADP antagonist Ned-19, we addressed the involvement of NAADP in the generation of Ca(2+) signals evoked by TCR stimulation and the role of this signal in downstream physiological end points such as proliferation, cytokine production, and other responses to stimulation. We demonstrated that acidic compartments in addition to the endoplasmic reticulum were the Ca(2+) stores that were sensitive to NAADP in naive T cells. NAADP was shown to evoke functionally relevant Ca(2+) signals in both naive CD4 and naive CD8 T cells. Furthermore, we examined the role of this signal in the activation, proliferation, and secretion of effector cytokines by Th1, Th2, Th17, and CD8 effector T cells. Overall, NAADP exhibited a similar profile in mediating Ca(2+) release in effector T cells as in their counterpart naive T cells and seemed to be equally important for the function of these different subsets of effector T cells. This profile was not observed for natural T regulatory cells. PMID:26728458

  6. Current Evidence Supporting the Link Between Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Shatha; Pu, Shuaihua; Jones, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Lack of consensus exists pertaining to the scientific evidence regarding effects of various dietary fatty acids on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this article is to review current evidence concerning cardiovascular health effects of the main dietary fatty acid types; namely, trans (TFA), saturated (SFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA; n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Accumulating evidence shows negative health impacts of TFA and SFA; both may increase CVD risk. Policies have been proposed to reduce TFA and SFA consumption to less than 1 and 7 % of energy intake, respectively. Cardiovascular health might be promoted by replacing SFA and TFA with n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, or MUFA; however, the optimal amount of PUFA or MUFA that can be used to replace SFA and TFA has not been defined yet. Evidence suggests of the potential importance of restricting n-6 PUFA up to 10 % of energy and obtaining an n-6/n-3 ratio as close as possible to unity, along with a particular emphasis on consuming adequate amounts of essential fatty acids. The latest evidence shows cardioprotective effects of MUFA-rich diets, especially when MUFA are supplemented with essential fatty acids; namely, docosahexaenoic acid. MUFA has been newly suggested to be involved in regulating fat oxidation, energy metabolism, appetite sensations, weight maintenance, and cholesterol metabolism. These favorable effects might implicate MUFA as the preferable choice to substitute for other fatty acids, especially given the declaration of its safety for up to 20 % of total energy. PMID:26719191

  7. Heterologous Reconstitution of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Park, Jong-Sug; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kang, Han-Chul; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Reconstitution of nonnative, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA) biosynthetic pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana was undertaken. The introduction of three primary biosynthetic activities to cells requires the stable coexpression of multiple proteins within the same cell. Herein, we report that C22 VLC-PUFAs were synthesized from C18 precursors by reactions catalyzed by Δ6-desaturase, an ELOVL5-like enzyme involved in VLC-PUFA elongation, and Δ5-desaturase. Coexpression of the corresponding genes (McD6DES, AsELOVL5, and PtD5DES) under the control of the seed-specific vicilin promoter resulted in production of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) and docosatetraenoic acid (22:4 n-6) as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) in Arabidopsis seeds. The contributions of the transgenic enzymes and endogenous fatty acid metabolism were determined. Specifically, the reasonable synthesis of omega-3 stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3) could be a useful tool to obtain a sustainable system for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in seeds of a transgenic T3 line 63-1. The results indicated that coexpression of the three proteins was stable. Therefore, this study suggests that metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce VLC-PUFAs is feasible. PMID:26339641

  8. Do we need 'new' omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids formulations?

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Morbini, Martino; Borghi, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    The therapeutic value of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly (but not only) found in fish oils, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively), has been extensively studied in a wide variety of disease conditions, predominantly in cardiovascular disease. However, the significant difference in efficacy observed in various conditions with different dosages seems to be at least partly related to the large discrepancy in quality of the product and to the bioavailability of the omega-3 PUFA. The research of new sources (e.g., from arctic Krill oil) and pharmaceutical forms of omega-3 PUFA (e.g., omega-3 carboxylic acids) is needed in order to detect the one with the best bioavailability and efficacy, and with a parallel reduction in the production costs. There is also the need to understand if long-term PUFA supplementation could increase the efficacy of the already-available evidence-based therapies for cardiovascular disease prevention and for the management of the diseases where the use of PUFA could have a possible improving effect. PMID:25474717

  9. Magnetoliposomes Loaded with Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids as Novel Theranostic Anti-Inflammatory Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Calle, Daniel; Negri, Viviana; Ballesteros, Paloma; Cerdán, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    We describe the preparation, physico-chemical characterization and anti-inflammatory properties of liposomes containing the superparamagnetic nanoparticle Nanotex, the fluorescent dye Rhodamine-100 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl ester (ω-3 PUFA-EE), as theranostic anti-inflammatory agents. Liposomes were prepared after drying chloroform suspensions of egg phosphatidylcholine, hydration of the lipid film with aqueous phases containing or not Nanotex, Rhodamine-100 dye or ω-3 PUFA-EE, and eleven extrusion steps through nanometric membrane filters. This resulted in uniform preparations of liposomes of approximately 200 nm diameter. Extraliposomal contents were removed from the preparation by gel filtration chromatography. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning 1H NMR Spectroscopy of the liposomal preparations containing ω-3 PUFA-EE revealed well resolved 1H resonances from highly mobile ω-3 PUFA-EE, suggesting the formation of very small (ca. 10 nm) ω-3 PUFA-EE nanogoticules, tumbling fast in the NMR timescale. Chloroform extraction of the liposomal preparations revealed additionally the incorporation of ω-3 PUFA-EE within the membrane domain. Water diffusion weighted spectra, indicated that the goticules of ω-3 PUFA-EE or its insertion in the membrane did not affect the average translational diffusion coefficient of water, suggesting an intraliposomal localization, that was confirmed by ultrafiltration. The therapeutic efficacy of these preparations was tested in two different models of inflammatory disease as inflammatory colitis or the inflammatory component associated to glioma development. Results indicate that the magnetoliposomes loaded with ω-3 PUFA-EE allowed MRI visualization in vivo and improved the outcome of inflammatory disease in both animal models, decreasing significantly colonic inflammation and delaying, or even reversing, glioma development. Together, our results indicate that magnetoliposomes loaded with ω-3 PUFA-EE may become

  10. Magnetoliposomes loaded with poly-unsaturated fatty acids as novel theranostic anti-inflammatory formulations.

    PubMed

    Calle, Daniel; Negri, Viviana; Ballesteros, Paloma; Cerdán, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    We describe the preparation, physico-chemical characterization and anti-inflammatory properties of liposomes containing the superparamagnetic nanoparticle Nanotex, the fluorescent dye Rhodamine-100 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl ester (ω-3 PUFA-EE), as theranostic anti-inflammatory agents. Liposomes were prepared after drying chloroform suspensions of egg phosphatidylcholine, hydration of the lipid film with aqueous phases containing or not Nanotex, Rhodamine-100 dye or ω-3 PUFA-EE, and eleven extrusion steps through nanometric membrane filters. This resulted in uniform preparations of liposomes of approximately 200 nm diameter. Extraliposomal contents were removed from the preparation by gel filtration chromatography. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (1)H NMR Spectroscopy of the liposomal preparations containing ω-3 PUFA-EE revealed well resolved (1)H resonances from highly mobile ω-3 PUFA-EE, suggesting the formation of very small (ca. 10 nm) ω-3 PUFA-EE nanogoticules, tumbling fast in the NMR timescale. Chloroform extraction of the liposomal preparations revealed additionally the incorporation of ω-3 PUFA-EE within the membrane domain. Water diffusion weighted spectra, indicated that the goticules of ω-3 PUFA-EE or its insertion in the membrane did not affect the average translational diffusion coefficient of water, suggesting an intraliposomal localization, that was confirmed by ultrafiltration. The therapeutic efficacy of these preparations was tested in two different models of inflammatory disease as inflammatory colitis or the inflammatory component associated to glioma development. Results indicate that the magnetoliposomes loaded with ω-3 PUFA-EE allowed MRI visualization in vivo and improved the outcome of inflammatory disease in both animal models, decreasing significantly colonic inflammation and delaying, or even reversing, glioma development. Together, our results indicate that magnetoliposomes loaded with ω-3 PUFA-EE may

  11. Critical appraisal of omega-3 fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment

    PubMed Central

    Königs, Anja; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. The classical treatment of ADHD where stimulant medication is used has revealed severe side effects and intolerance. Consequently, the demand to search for alternative treatment has increased rapidly. When comparing levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in ADHD patients with those in age-matching controls, lower levels are found in ADHD patients’ blood. ω-3 PUFAs are essential nutrients and necessary for a proper brain function and development. Additionally, there are strong indications that ω-3 PUFA supplements could have beneficial effects on ADHD. However, the results of ω-3 PUFA supplementation studies show a high variability. Therefore, we reviewed recent studies published between 2000 and 2015 to identify effective treatment combinations, the quality of design, and safety and tolerability of ω-3-containing food supplements. We searched the databases MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science with keywords such as “ADHD” and “ω-3/6 PUFA” and identified 25 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results of these ω-3 PUFA studies are contradictory but, overall, show evidence for a successful treatment of ADHD symptoms. Tolerability of the given supplements was high, and only mild side effects were reported. In conclusion, there is evidence that a ω-3 PUFA treatment has a positive effect on ADHD. It should be added that treatment could be more effective in patients with mild forms of ADHD. Moreover, the dosage of stimulant medication could be reduced when used in combination with ω-3 PUFA supplements. Further studies are necessary to investigate underlying mechanisms that can lead to a reduction of ADHD symptoms due to ω-3 PUFA treatments and also to determine the optimal concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, whether used as single treatment or in combination with other medication. PMID:27555775

  12. Transgenesis of humanized fat1 promotes n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in goat cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yixuan; Ren, Caifang; Wang, Zhibo; Jia, Ruoxin; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Guomin; Wan, Yongjie; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-15

    The n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene fat1 codes for the n-3 desaturase enzyme, which can convert n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to n-3 PUFAs. The n-3 PUFAs are essential components required for normal cellular function and have preventive and therapeutic effects on many diseases. Goat is an important domestic animal for human consumption of meat and milk. To elevate the concentrations of n-3 PUFAs and examine the regulatory mechanism of fat1 in PUFA metabolism in goat cells, we successfully constructed a humanized fat1 expression vector and confirmed the efficient expression of fat1 in goat ear skin-derived fibroblast cells (GEFCs) by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid analysis showed that fat1 overexpression significantly increased the levels of total n-3 PUFAs and decreased the levels of total n-6 PUFAs in GEFCs. In addition, qRT-PCR results indicate that the FADS1 and FADS2 desaturase genes, ELOV2 and ELOV5 elongase genes, ACO and CPT1 oxidation genes, and PPARa and PPARγ transcription factors are up-regulated, and transcription factors of SREBP-1c gene are down-regulated in the fat1 transgenic goat cells. Overall, fat1-overexpression resulted in an increase in the n-3 fatty acids and altered expression of PUFA synthesis related genes in GEFCs. This work lays a foundation for both the production of fat1 transgenic goats and further study of the mechanism of fat1 function in the PUFAs metabolism. PMID:26474750

  13. The quantitative assessment of the role played by basic amino acid clusters in the nuclear uptake of human ribosomal protein L7

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Lin-Ru; Chou, Chang-Wei; Lee, I-Fang; Kirby, Ralph; Lin, Alan

    2013-02-15

    In this study, we used a multiple copy (EGFP){sub 3} reporter system to establish a numeric nuclear index system to assess the degree of nuclear import. The system was first validated by a FRAP assay, and then was applied to evaluate the essential and multifaceted nature of basic amino acid clusters during the nuclear import of ribosomal protein L7. The results indicate that the sequence context of the basic cluster determines the degree of nuclear import, and that the number of basic residues in the cluster is irrelevant; rather the position of the pertinent basic residues is crucial. Moreover, it also found that the type of carrier protein used by basic cluster has a great impact on the degree of nuclear import. In case of L7, importin β2 or importin β3 are preferentially used by clusters with a high import efficiency, notwithstanding that other importins are also used by clusters with a weaker level of nuclear import. Such a preferential usage of multiple basic clusters and importins to gain nuclear entry would seem to be a common practice among ribosomal proteins in order to ensure their full participation in high rate ribosome synthesis. - Highlights: ► We introduce a numeric index system that represents the degree of nuclear import. ► The rate of nuclear import is dictated by the sequence context of the basic cluster. ► Importin β2 and β3 were mainly responsible for the N4 mediated nuclear import.

  14. ROS-Mediated Autophagy Induced by Dysregulation of Lipid Metabolism Plays a Protective Role in Colorectal Cancer Cells Treated with Gambogic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Lei, Yunlong; Yuan, Ping; Li, Lingjun; Luo, Chao; Gao, Rui; Tian, Jun; Feng, Zuohua; Nice, Edouard C.; Sun, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gambogic acid (GA), the main active component of gamboge resin, has potent antitumor activity both in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found that GA could initiate autophagy in colorectal cancer cells, and inhibition of the autophagy process accelerated the effect of proliferative inhibition and apoptotic cell death induced by GA, implying a protective role of autophagy. Two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics showed that GA treatment altered the expression of multiple proteins involved in redox signaling and lipid metabolism. Functional studies revealed that GA-induced dysregulation of lipid metabolism could activate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), resulting in intracellular ROS accumulation, followed by inhibition of Akt-mTOR signaling and autophagy initiation. Finally, results using a xenograft model suggested ROS-induced autophagy protect against the antitumor effect of GA. Taken together, these data showed new biological activities of GA against colorectal cancer underlying the protective role of ROS-induced autophagy. This study will provide valuable insights for future studies regarding the anticancer mechanisms of GA. PMID:24810758

  15. Echium oil increased the expression of a Δ4 Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase and the deposition of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in comparison with linseed oil in striped snakehead (Channa striata) muscle.

    PubMed

    Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Kuah, Meng-Kiat

    2016-08-01

    Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion. Experimental diets were designed containing fish oil (FO), EO or linseed oil (LO) (100FO, 100EO, 100LO), and diets which comprised equal mixtures of the designated oils (50EOFO and 50EOLO) were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial involving striped snakeheads (Channa striata). There was no significant difference in growth and feed conversion efficiency. The hepatic fatty acid composition and higher expression of fads2 and elovl5 genes in fish fed EO-based diets indicate the utilization of dietary SDA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, this resulted in a higher deposition of muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) compared to LO-based diets. Dietary EO improved the ratio of n-3 LC-PUFA to n-6 LC-PUFA in fish muscle, which is desirable for human populations with excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA. This study validates the contribution of SDA in improving the content of n-3 LC-PUFA and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in a freshwater carnivorous species. PMID:26842427

  16. Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies of the Rare 21:4 n-7 Acid and Other Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from the Marine Opisthobranch Scaphander lignarius, Isolated Using Bioassay Guided Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Vasskog, Terje; Andersen, Jeanette H.; Hansen, Espen; Svenson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The marine opisthobranch Scaphander lignarius has been analyzed in the systematic search for novel bioactive compounds in Arctic marine organisms using bioassay guided fractionation. A number of highly cytotoxic fractions were shown to contain mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Selected PUFAs were isolated and identified using both liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It was shown that the opisthobranch contained unusual PUFAs such as several ω3 fatty acids and the ω7 heneicosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoic acid (21:4 n-7) not isolated before. The organism was shown to be a very rich source of PUFAs and the activity of the isolated compounds against a range of human cancer cell lines (melanoma, colon carcinoma and breast carcinoma) is further reported. The ω7 PUFA was significantly more cytotoxic in comparison with reference ω6 arachidonic and ω3 eicosapentaenoic acid. A noteworthy non-selective cytotoxicity against normal lung fibroblasts was also established. The paper contains isolation protocols in addition to cytotoxicity data of the isolated compounds. The potential of marine mollusks as a source for rare PUFAs is also discussed. PMID:23342390

  17. The Denial of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    Well meaning parents and teachers often use children's play for the purposes of literacy and socialization. Yet, these attempts may deny play to children by subordinating play to some other concept. Evidence shows that even when parents play with their very young children they generally play games like shopping, cooking, and eating; whereas when…

  18. Three-Year Breeding Cycle of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Plant-Based Diet, Totally Free of Marine Resources: Consequences for Reproduction, Fatty Acid Composition and Progeny Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Leprevost, Amandine; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients), or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils). Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22%) at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance. PMID:25658483

  19. Three-year breeding cycle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-based diet, totally free of marine resources: consequences for reproduction, fatty acid composition and progeny survival.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Leprevost, Amandine; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients), or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils). Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22%) at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance. PMID:25658483

  20. STAT5 plays a critical role in regulating the 5'-flanking region of the porcine whey acidic protein gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Mi-Ran; Lee, Sang In; Jang, Ye-Jin; Jeon, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Jeom Sun; Kim, Kyung-Woon; Park, Jin-Ki; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Jeon, Ik-Soo; Kwon, Dae-Jin; Park, Choon-Keun; Byun, Sung June

    2015-12-01

    The mammary gland serves as a valuable bioreactor system for the production of recombinant proteins in lactating animals. Pharmaceutical-grade recombinant protein can be harvested from the milk of transgenic animals that carry a protein of interest under the control of promoter regions genes encoding milk proteins. Whey acidic protein (WAP), for example, is predominantly expressed in the mammary gland and is regulated by lactating hormones during pregnancy. We cloned the 5'-flanking region of the porcine WAP gene (pWAP) to confirm the sequence elements in its promoter that are required for gene-expression activity. In the present study, we investigated how lactogenic hormones--including prolactin, hydrocortisone, and insulin--contribute to the transcriptional activation of the pWAP promoter region in mammalian cells, finding that these hormones activate STAT5 signaling, which in turn induce gene expression via STAT5 binding sites in its 5'-flanking region. To confirm the expression and hormonal regulation of the 5'-flanking region of pWAP in vivo, we generated transgenic mice expressing human recombinant granulocyte colony stimulating factor (hCSF2) in the mammary gland under the control of the pWAP promoter. These mice secreted hCSF2 protein in their milk at levels ranging from 242 to 1,274.8 ng/ml. Collectively, our findings show that the pWAP promoter may be useful for confining the expression of foreign proteins to the mammary gland, where they can be secreted along with milk. PMID:26256125

  1. The secreted purple acid phosphatase isozymes AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 play a pivotal role in extracellular phosphate-scavenging by Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Plaxton, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Orthophosphate (Pi) is an essential but limiting macronutrient for plant growth. Extensive soil P reserves exist in the form of organic P (Po), which is unavailable for root uptake until hydrolysed by secretory acid phosphatases (APases). The predominant purple APase (PAP) isozymes secreted by roots of Pi-deficient (–Pi) Arabidopsis thaliana were recently identified as AtPAP12 (At2g27190) and AtPAP26 (At5g34850). The present study demonstrated that exogenous Po compounds such as glycerol-3-phosphate or herring sperm DNA: (i) effectively substituted for Pi in supporting the P nutrition of Arabidopsis seedlings, and (ii) caused upregulation and secretion of AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 into the growth medium. When cultivated under –Pi conditions or supplied with Po as its sole source of P nutrition, an atpap26/atpap12 T-DNA double insertion mutant exhibited impaired growth coupled with >60 and >30% decreases in root secretory APase activity and rosette total Pi concentration, respectively. Development of the atpap12/atpap26 mutant was unaffected during growth on Pi-replete medium but was completely arrested when 7-day-old Pi-sufficient seedlings were transplanted into a –Pi, Po-containing soil mix. Both PAPs were also strongly upregulated on root surfaces and in shoot cell-wall extracts of –Pi seedlings. It is hypothesized that secreted AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 facilitate the acclimation of Arabidopsis to nutritional Pi deficiency by: (i) functioning in the rhizosphere to scavenge Pi from the soil’s accessible Po pool, while (ii) recycling Pi from endogenous phosphomonoesters that have been leaked into cell walls from the cytoplasm. Thus, AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 are promising targets for improving crop P-use efficiency. PMID:23125358

  2. Omega-3 Fatty acids and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, Timothy D; Ionescu, Alina A; Rundell, Kenneth W

    2004-12-01

    Despite the progress that has been made in the treatment of asthma, the prevalence and burden of this disease has continued to increase. Exercise is a powerful trigger of asthma symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction and may result in the avoidance of physical activity by patients with asthma, resulting in detrimental consequences to their health. Approximately 90% of patients with asthma are hyperresponsive to exercise and experience exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). While pharmacologic treatment of asthma is usually highly effective, medications often have significant side-effects or exhibit tachyphylaxis. Alternative therapies for treatment (complementary medicine) that reduce the dose requirements of pharmacologic interventions would be beneficial, and could potentially reduce the public health burden of this disease. There is accumulating evidence that dietary modification has potential to influence the severity of asthma and reduce the prevalence and incidence of this condition. A possible contributing factor to the increased incidence of asthma in Western societies may be the consumption of a proinflammatory diet. In the typical Western diet, 20- to 25-fold more omega- 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than omega-3 PUFA are consumed, which causes the release of proinflammatory arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotrienes and prostanoids). This review analyzes the existing literature on omega-3 PUFA supplementation as a potential modifier of airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma and includes studies concerning the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA supplementation in EIB. While clinical data evaluating the effect of omega-3 PUFA supplementation in asthma has been equivocal, it has recently been shown that pharmaceutical-grade fish oil (omega-3 PUFA) supplementation reduces airway hyperresponsiveness after exercise, medication use, and proinflammatory mediator generation in nonatopic elite athletes with EIB. These findings are provocative and suggest that

  3. Plasma concentrations of trans fatty acids in persons with Type 2 diabetes between September 2002 and April 2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TransFatty acids (TFAs) increase cardiovascular disease risk. TFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the food supply may be declining, with reciprocal increases in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs). We sought to determine whether plasma 18-carbon TFA a...

  4. War, Conflict and Play. Debating Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyder, Tina

    2004-01-01

    Young refugees from many parts of the world are increasingly present in UK early years settings. This book explores the crucial importance of play for young refugee children's development. It considers the implications of war and conflict on young children and notes how opportunities for play are denied. It provides a framework for early years…

  5. Playing the Play: What the Children Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Jo Anne

    2006-01-01

    Playing the Play describes the experiences of a storyteller and teacher of literature who created a literature-based literacy program at Concourse House, a homeless shelter in Bronx, New York, for women and their young children. This program is based on the belief that pleasure is the primary reason children want to learn to read, and that where…

  6. Bibliography on Play Therapy and Children's Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary Brown; L'Abate, Luciano

    The references listed are: (1) journals, (2) dissertation abstracts, (3) books, (4) reports, and (5) monographs. The main subjects covered are: (1) children's play, (2) psychotherapy with disturbed children through the medium of play therapy, and (3) various aspects of child development, both normal and abnormal. The materials listed date from…

  7. A mechanism underlying the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Lei; Shi, Wei; Song, Ning; Yu, Karu; Gu, Yuchun

    2012-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women. Evidence suggests that the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) affect breast cancer proliferation, differentiation and prognosis. However, the mechanism still remains unclear. In this study, the expression of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)3 was detected throughout the cell cytoplasm and at the cell surface of MCF-7 cells. Ca(2+) entry was induced in these cells via activated TRPC3 by either the diacylglycerol analogue (OAG) or by intracellular Ca(2+) store depletion. TRPC-mediated Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by PUFAs including arachidonic acid (AA) and linolenic acid (LA) but not saturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the PUFA degradation enzyme, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), enhanced capacitative Ca(2+) entry. In addition, inhibition of COX2 reduced [Ca(2+)](i). Nevertheless, inhibition of TRPC reduced the cell cycle S phase and cell migration, implicating a functional role for TRP-mediated Ca(2+) entry in cell proliferation and invasion. Exogenous PUFA as well as a TRPC3 antagonist consistently attenuated breast cancer cell proliferation and migration, suggesting a mechanism in which PUFA restrains the breast cancer partly via its inhibition of TRPC channels. Additionally, our results also suggest that TRPC3 appears as a new mediator of breast cancer cell migration/invasion and represents a potential target for a new class of anticancer agent. PMID:22692672

  8. Biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid and beta-carotene by Zygomycetes fungi.

    PubMed

    Klempova, Tatiana; Basil, Eva; Kubatova, Alena; Certik, Milan

    2013-07-01

    Due to increasing demand for natural sources of both polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and beta-carotene, 28 Zygomycetes fungal soil isolates were screened for their potential to synthesize these biologically active compounds. Although all fungi produced C18 PUFAs, only nine strains also formed beta-carotene. Although Actinomucor elegans CCF 3218 was the best producer of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (251 mg/L), Umbelopsis isabellina CCF 2412 was found to be the most valuable fungus because of the dual production of GLA (217 mg/L) and beta-carotene (40.7 mg/L). The calculated ratio of formed PUFAs provided new insight into activities of individual fatty acid desaturases involved in biosynthetic pathways for various types of PUFAs. The maximal activity of delta-9 desaturase was accompanied by high accumulation of storage lipids in fungal cells. On the other hand, maximal activity of delta-15 desaturase was found in strains synthesizing low amounts of oleic acid due to diminished delta-9 desaturase. Activities of delta-6 desaturase showed competition for fatty acids engaged in n3, n6, and n9 biosynthetic pathways. Such knowledge about fatty acid desaturase activities provides new challenges for the regulation of biotechnological production of PUFAs by Zygomycetes fungi. PMID:23625863

  9. Searching for health beneficial n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Degen, Christian; Jaudszus, Anke; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2012-02-01

    Various plant seeds have received little attention in fatty acid research. Seeds from 30 species mainly of Boraginaceae and Primulaceae were analysed in order to identify potential new sources of the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) and of the n-6 PUFA γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The fatty acid distribution differed enormously between genera of the same family. Echium species (Boraginaceae) contained the highest amount of total n-3 PUFA (47.1%), predominantly ALA (36.6%) and SDA (10.5%) combined with high GLA (10.2%). Further species of Boraginaceae rich in both SDA and GLA were Omphalodes linifolia (8.4, 17.2%, resp.), Cerinthe minor (7.5, 9.9%, resp.) and Buglossoides purpureocaerulea (6.1, 16.6%, resp.). Alkanna species belonging to Boraginaceae had comparable amounts of ALA (37.3%) and GLA (11.4%) like Echium but lower SDA contents (3.7%). Different genera of Primulaceae (Dodecatheon and Primula) had varying ALA (14.8, 28.8%, resp.) and GLA portions (4.1, 1.5%, resp.), but similar amounts of SDA (4.9, 4.5%, resp.). Cannabis sativa cultivars (Cannabaceae) were rich in linoleic acid (57.1%), but poor in SDA and GLA (0.8, 2.7%, resp.). In conclusion, several of the presented plant seeds contain considerable amounts of n-3 PUFA and GLA, which could be relevant for nutritional purposes due to their biological function as precursors for eicosanoid synthesis. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: N-3 PUFA are important for human health and nutrition. Unfortunately, due to the increasing world population, overfishing of the seas and generally low amounts of n-3 PUFA in major oil crops, there is a demand for new sources of n-3 PUFA. One approach involves searching for potential vegetable sources of n-3 PUFA; especially those rich in ALA and SDA. The conversion of ALA to SDA in humans is dependent on the rate-limiting Δ6-desaturation. Plant-derived SDA is therefore a promising precursor regarding the endogenous synthesis of n-3 long-chain PUFA in humans. The

  10. Searching for health beneficial n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in plant seeds

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Degen, Christian; Jaudszus, Anke; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Various plant seeds have received little attention in fatty acid research. Seeds from 30 species mainly of Boraginaceae and Primulaceae were analysed in order to identify potential new sources of the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) and of the n-6 PUFA γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The fatty acid distribution differed enormously between genera of the same family. Echium species (Boraginaceae) contained the highest amount of total n-3 PUFA (47.1%), predominantly ALA (36.6%) and SDA (10.5%) combined with high GLA (10.2%). Further species of Boraginaceae rich in both SDA and GLA were Omphalodes linifolia (8.4, 17.2%, resp.), Cerinthe minor (7.5, 9.9%, resp.) and Buglossoides purpureocaerulea (6.1, 16.6%, resp.). Alkanna species belonging to Boraginaceae had comparable amounts of ALA (37.3%) and GLA (11.4%) like Echium but lower SDA contents (3.7%). Different genera of Primulaceae (Dodecatheon and Primula) had varying ALA (14.8, 28.8%, resp.) and GLA portions (4.1, 1.5%, resp.), but similar amounts of SDA (4.9, 4.5%, resp.). Cannabis sativa cultivars (Cannabaceae) were rich in linoleic acid (57.1%), but poor in SDA and GLA (0.8, 2.7%, resp.). In conclusion, several of the presented plant seeds contain considerable amounts of n-3 PUFA and GLA, which could be relevant for nutritional purposes due to their biological function as precursors for eicosanoid synthesis. Practical applications N-3 PUFA are important for human health and nutrition. Unfortunately, due to the increasing world population, overfishing of the seas and generally low amounts of n-3 PUFA in major oil crops, there is a demand for new sources of n-3 PUFA. One approach involves searching for potential vegetable sources of n-3 PUFA; especially those rich in ALA and SDA. The conversion of ALA to SDA in humans is dependent on the rate-limiting Δ6-desaturation. Plant-derived SDA is therefore a promising precursor regarding the endogenous synthesis of n-3 long-chain PUFA in humans. The

  11. The Uses of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabaniss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Teaching artists have techniques for keeping play alive and vital in their work. But how do they think of play as TAs? In this article, the author examines the role of play in the work and life of teaching artists.

  12. Rice GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase OsVTC1-1 and OsVTC1-3 play different roles in ascorbic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Deng, Zaian; Zhang, Chuanyu; Wang, Yayun; Wang, Juan; Liu, Hai; Zhang, Zhili; Huang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Zhijin

    2016-02-01

    GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPase) catalyzes the synthesis of GDP-D-mannose, which is a precursor for ascorbic acid (AsA) synthesis in plants. The rice genome encodes three GMPase homologs OsVTC1-1, OsVTC1-3 and OsVTC1-8, but their roles in AsA synthesis are unclear. The overexpression of OsVTC1-1 or OsVTC1-3 restored the AsA synthesis of vtc1-1 in Arabidopsis, while that of OsVTC1-8 did not, indicating that only OsVTC1-1 and OsVTC1-3 are involved in AsA synthesis in rice. Similar to Arabidopsis VTC1, the expression of OsVTC1-1 was high in leaves, induced by light, and inhibited by dark. Unlike OsVTC1-1, the expression level of OsVTC1-3 was high in roots and quickly induced by the dark, while the transcription level of OsVTC1-8 did not show obvious changes under constant light or dark treatments. In OsVTC1-1 RNAi plants, the AsA content of rice leaves decreased, and the AsA production induced by light was limited. In contrast, OsVTC1-3 RNAi lines altered AsA synthesis levels in rice roots, but not in the leaves or under the light/dark treatment. The enzyme activity showed that OsVTC1-1 and OsVTC1-3 had higher GMPase activities than OsVTC1-8 in vitro. Our data showed that, unlike in Arabidopsis, the rice GPMase homologous proteins illustrated a new model in AsA synthesis: OsVTC1-1 may be involved in the AsA synthesis, which takes place in leaves, while OsVTC1-3 may be responsible for AsA synthesis in roots. The different roles of rice GMPase homologous proteins in AsA synthesis may be due to their differences in transcript levels and enzyme activities. PMID:26715595

  13. Cathepsin L Plays a Role in Quinolinic Acid-Induced NF-Κb Activation and Excitotoxicity in Rat Striatal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rong; Wu, Jun-Chao; Liang, Zhong-Qin; Qin, Zheng-Hong; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    The present study seeks to investigate the role of cathepsin L in glutamate receptor-induced transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and excitotoxicity in rats striatal neurons. Stereotaxic administration of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist Quinolinic acid (QA) into the unilateral striatum was used to produce the in vivo excitotoxic model. Co-administration of QA and the cathepsin L inhibitor Z-FF-FMK or 1-Naphthalenesulfonyl-IW-CHO (NaphthaCHO) was used to assess the contribution of cathepsin L to QA-induced striatal neuron death. Western blot analysis and cathepsin L activity assay were used to assess the changes in the levels of cathepsin L after QA treatment. Western blot analysis was used to assess the changes in the protein levels of inhibitor of NF-κB alpha isoform (IκB-α) and phospho-IκB alpha (p-IκBα) after QA treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to detect the effects of Z-FF-FMK or NaphthaCHO on QA-induced NF-κB. Western blot analysis was used to detect the effects of Z-FF-FMK or NaphthaCHO on QA-induced IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation, changes in the levels of IKKα, p-IKKα, TP53, caspase-3, beclin1, p62, and LC3II/LC3I. The results show that QA-induced loss of striatal neurons were strongly inhibited by Z-FF-FMK or NaphthaCHO. QA-induced degradation of IκB-α, NF-κB nuclear translocation, up-regulation of NF-κB responsive gene TP53, and activation of caspase-3 was strongly inhibited by Z-FF-FMK or NaphthaCHO. QA-induced increases in beclin 1, LC3II/LC3I, and down-regulation of p62 were reduced by Z-FF-FMK or NaphthaCHO. These results suggest that cathepsin L is involved in glutamate receptor-induced NF-κB activation. Cathepsin L inhibitors have neuroprotective effects by inhibiting glutamate receptor-induced IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation. PMID:24073275

  14. Fatty acid composition including cis-9, trans-11 CLA of cooked ground lamb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on effect of cooking on beneficial fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The objective of this study was to examine impact of cooking on the FA composition of ground lamb of two different muscles. Samples were p...

  15. The effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in alcohol dependence treatment - a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The lipid fraction of cell membranes consists of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS), and chronic alcohol use alters it, modifying its permeability, what might contribute for the dysfunctional metabolism observed in the central nervous system of alcohol dependent patients. Therefore, the supplementation of PUFAS can be an important adjuvant in alcoholism treatment. Methods This was a placebo controlled, double blind, randomized study where, 80 alcohol dependent patients, according to DSM-IV, were allocated in four groups with 20 patient each: 'PUFAS', 'Naltrexone', 'Naltrexone + PUFAS' and 'Placebo'. Those substances were administered for 90 days and scales were applied to assess patients craving (OCDS) and alcohol dependence severity (SADD) at baseline and after 90 days. PUFAS serum levels were assessed before and after treatment by high performance liquid chromatography assay. Results Forty-three patients completed the trial. There was a significant improvement over time on drinking days, SADD and OCDS scores in all groups (p < 0.001). The drinking days comparison between groups did not show statistical significant difference. The same effect was observed for compulsion (OCDS) and severity of dependence scale (SADD). The serum levels of PUFAS increased in all the supplemented groups after treatment, although not significantly. Conclusions The oral supplementation of 2 g PUFAS for 3 months did not significantly differ from placebo in reducing the amount of alcohol ingestion, or OCDS and SADD scores in a group of alcohol dependent patient. Trial registration NCT01211769 PMID:21787433

  16. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  17. Specific effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the cholesterol-poor membrane domain in a model membrane.

    PubMed

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Hagiwara, Chihiro; Sugibayashi, Ko; Takayama, Kozo

    2008-08-01

    To understand more fully the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on lipid bilayers, we investigated the effects of treatment with fatty acids on the properties of a model membrane. Three kinds of liposomes comprising dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dioleylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and cholesterol (Ch) were used as the model membrane, and the fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and detergent insolubility were determined. Characterization of the liposomes clarified that DPPC, DPPC/Ch, and DPPC/DOPC/Ch existed as solid-ordered phase (L beta), liquid-ordered phase (l o), and a mixture of l o and liquid-disordered phase (L alpha) membranes at room temperature. Treatment with unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (OA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) markedly decreased the fluorescence anisotropy value and detergent insolubility. PUFAs and OA had different effects on the model membranes. In DPPC liposomes, the most prominent change was induced by PUFAs, whereas, in DPPC/Ch and DPPC/DOPC/Ch liposomes, OA had a stronger effect than PUFAs. The effect of PUFAs was strongly affected by the amount of Ch in the membrane, which confirmed a specific effect of PUFAs on the Ch-poor membrane domain. We further explored the effect of fatty acids dispersed in a water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion and found that unsaturated fatty acids acted on the membranes even when incorporated in emulsion form. These findings suggest that treatment with PUFAs increases the segregation of ordered and disordered phase domains in membranes. PMID:18670110

  18. Upregulation of hepatic LDL transport by n-3 fatty acids in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Vasandani, Chandna; Kafrouni, Abdallah I; Caronna, Antonella; Bashmakov, Yuriy; Gotthardt, Michael; Horton, Jay D; Spady, David K

    2002-05-01

    We determined the effects of dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on parameters of plasma lipoprotein and hepatic lipid metabolism in LDL receptor (LDLr) knockout mice. Dietary n-3 PUFA decreased the rate of appearance and increased the hepatic clearance of IDL/LDL resulting in a marked decrease in the plasma concentration of these particles. Dietary n-3 PUFA increased the hepatic clearance of IDL/LDL through a mechanism that appears to involve apolipoprotein (apo)E but is independent of the LDLr, the LDLr related protein (LRP), the scavenger receptor B1, and the VLDLr. The decreased rate of appearance of IDL/VLDL in the plasma of animals fed n-3 PUFA could be attributed to a marked decrease in the plasma concentration of precursor VLDL. Decreased plasma VLDL concentrations were due in part to decreased hepatic secretion of VLDL triglyceride and cholesteryl esters, which in turn was associated with decreased concentrations of these lipids in liver. Decreased hepatic triglyceride concentrations in animals fed n-3 PUFA were due in part to suppression of fatty acid synthesis as a result of a decrease in sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) expression and processing. In conclusion, these studies indicate that n-3 PUFA can markedly decrease the plasma concentration of apoB-containing lipoproteins and enhance hepatic LDL clearance through a mechanism that does not involve the LDLr pathway or LRP. PMID:11971949

  19. Multi-targeted therapy of cancer by omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Berquin, Isabelle M; Edwards, Iris J; Chen, Yong Q

    2008-10-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids necessary for human health. Currently, the Western diet contains a disproportionally high amount of n-6 PUFAs and low amount of n-3 PUFAs, and the resulting high n-6/n-3 ratio is thought to contribute to cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer. Studies in human populations have linked high consumption of fish or fish oil to reduced risk of colon, prostate, and breast cancer, although other studies failed to find a significant association. Nonetheless, the available epidemiological evidence, combined with the demonstrated effects of n-3 PUFAs on cancer in animal and cell culture models, has motivated the development of clinical interventions using n-3 PUFAs in the prevention and treatment of cancer, as well as for nutritional support of cancer patients to reduce weight loss and modulate the immune system. In this review, we discuss the rationale for using long-chain n-3 PUFAs in cancer prevention and treatment and the challenges that such approaches pose in the design of clinical trials. PMID:18479809

  20. N-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy improves endothelial function and affects adiponectin and resistin balance in the first month after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna; Haberka, Maciej; Mizia, Magdalena; Chmiel, Artur; Gieszczyk, Klaudia; Lasota, Bartosz; Janowska, Joanna; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara; Gąsior, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Introduction N-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) exert clinical beneficial effects in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, their exact mechanisms of action are not well recognized yet. Our aim was to evaluate effects of early introduced n-3 PUFA supplementation on endothelial function and serum adipokine concentrations in patients with AMI. Material and methods Thirty-eight patients with AMI and successful coronary stent implantation were randomized to the study group (PUFA group: n = 19; standard therapy + PUFA 1 g daily) and the control group (control group: n = 19; standard therapy). The study group patients were given n-3 PUFA (Omacor 1 g daily) starting from the 3rd day of AMI. Ultrasound vascular indexes (flow-mediated dilatation [FMD], nitroglycerine-mediated dilation [NMD]) and serum concentrations of adiponectin and resistin (ELISA) were evaluated before and after 30 days of pharmacotherapy. Results Comparison of the mean delta values (baseline/after 30 days of therapy) between groups revealed significant differences for delta FMD (PUFA 7.6 ±12.4% vs. control –1.7 ±10.5%, p = 0.019) and delta resistin concentrations (PUFA 1.0 ±3.8pg/ml vs. control –1.6 ±2.9pg/ml, p = 0.028). Multiple linear regression analysis for all subjects revealed the n-3 PUFA supplementation (r = 10.933, p = 0.004) and waist circumference (r = –0.467, p = 0.01) as independent factors associated with delta FMD values (R-adjusted 0.29; p = 0.002). Conclusions Early and short-term n-3 PUFA supplementation in AMI with successful primary PCI and optimal pharmacotherapy improves endothelial function. However, increased resistin serum levels observed after 1-month n-3 PUFA supplementation merits further investigations. PMID:22291823

  1. Attenuation of niacin-induced prostaglandin D2 generation by omega-3 fatty acids in THP-1 macrophages and Langerhans dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    VanHorn, Justin; Altenburg, Jeffrey D; Harvey, Kevin A; Xu, Zhidong; Kovacs, Richard J; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2012-01-01

    Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound that has several cardio-beneficial effects. However, its use is limited due to the induction of a variable flushing response in most individuals. Flushing occurs from a niacin receptor mediated generation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid metabolism. This study examined the ability of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), to attenuate niacin-induced prostaglandins in THP-1 macrophages. Niacin induced both PGD2 and PGE2 generation in a dose-dependent manner. Niacin also caused an increase in cytosolic calcium and activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2. The increase in PGD2 and PGE2 was reduced by both docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, but not by oleic acid. Omega-3 PUFAs efficiently incorporated into cellular phospholipids at the expense of arachidonic acid, whereas oleic acid incorporated to a higher extent but had no effect on arachidonic acid levels. Omega-3 PUFAs also reduced surface expression of GPR109A, a human niacin receptor. Furthermore, omega-3 PUFAs also inhibited the niacin-induced increase in cytosolic calcium. Niacin and/or omega-3 PUFAs minimally affected cyclooxygenase-1 activity and had no effect on cyclooxygenase -2 activity. The effects of niacin on PGD2 generation were further confirmed using Langerhans dendritic cells. Results of the present study indicate that omega-3 PUFAs reduced niacin-induced prostaglandins formation by diminishing the availability of their substrate, as well as reducing the surface expression of niacin receptors. In conclusion, this study suggests that the regular use of omega-3 PUFAs along with niacin can potentially reduce the niacin-induced flushing response in sensitive patients. PMID:22442634

  2. Feeding into old age: long-term effects of dietary fatty acid supplementation on tissue composition and life span in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Smaller mammals, such as mice, possess tissues containing more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than larger mammals, while at the same time live shorter lives. These relationships have been combined in the ‘membrane pacemaker hypothesis of aging’. It suggests that membrane PUFA content might determine an animal’s life span. PUFAs in general and certain long-chain PUFAs in particular, are highly prone to lipid peroxidation which brings about a high rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation of either n-3 or n-6 PUFAs might affect (1) membrane phospholipid composition of heart and liver tissues and (2) life span of the animals due to the altered membrane composition, and subsequent effects on lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we kept female laboratory mice from the C57BL/6 strain on three diets (n-3 PUFA rich, n-6 PUFA rich, control) and assessed body weights, life span, heart, and liver phospholipid composition after the animals had died. We found that while membrane phospholipid composition clearly differed between feeding groups, life span was not directly affected. However, we were able to observe a positive correlation between monounsaturated fatty acids in cardiac muscle and life span. PMID:20981551

  3. Role of T-Cell Polarization and Inflammation and Their Modulation by n-3 Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes and Macrosomia

    PubMed Central

    Hichami, A.; Grissa, O.; Mrizak, I.; Benammar, C.; Khan, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    Th (T helper) cells are differentiated into either Th1 or Th2 phenotype. It is generally considered that Th1 phenotype is proinflammatory, whereas Th2 phenotype exerts anti-inflammatory or protective effects. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with a decreased Th1 phenotype, whereas macrosomia is marked with high expression of Th1 cytokines. Besides, these two pathological situations are marked with high concentrations of inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), known to play a pivotal role in insulin resistance. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may exert a beneficial effect by shifting Th1/Th2 balance to a Th2 phenotype and increasing insulin sensitivity. In this paper, we shed light on the role of T-cell malfunction that leads to an inflammatory and pathophysiological state, related to insulin resistance in GDM and macrosomia. We will also discuss the nutritional management of these pathologies by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). PMID:27313878

  4. Role of T-Cell Polarization and Inflammation and Their Modulation by n-3 Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes and Macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Hichami, A; Grissa, O; Mrizak, I; Benammar, C; Khan, N A

    2016-01-01

    Th (T helper) cells are differentiated into either Th1 or Th2 phenotype. It is generally considered that Th1 phenotype is proinflammatory, whereas Th2 phenotype exerts anti-inflammatory or protective effects. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with a decreased Th1 phenotype, whereas macrosomia is marked with high expression of Th1 cytokines. Besides, these two pathological situations are marked with high concentrations of inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), known to play a pivotal role in insulin resistance. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may exert a beneficial effect by shifting Th1/Th2 balance to a Th2 phenotype and increasing insulin sensitivity. In this paper, we shed light on the role of T-cell malfunction that leads to an inflammatory and pathophysiological state, related to insulin resistance in GDM and macrosomia. We will also discuss the nutritional management of these pathologies by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). PMID:27313878

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Oxidative Stress, and Leukocyte Telomere Length: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; Epel, Elissa S.; Belury, Martha A.; Andridge, Rebecca; Lin, Jue; Glaser, Ronald; Malarkey, William B.; Hwang, Beom Seuk; Blackburn, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Shorter telomeres have been associated with poor health behaviors, age-related diseases, and early mortality. Telomere length is regulated by the enzyme telomerase, and is linked to exposure to proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. In our recent randomized controlled trial, omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation lowered the concentration of serum proinflammatory cytokines. This study assessed whether n-3 PUFA supplementation also affected leukocyte telomere length, telomerase, and oxidative stress. In addition to testing for group differences, changes in the continuous n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio were assessed to account for individual differences in adherence, absorption, and metabolism. The double-blind 4-month trial included 106 healthy sedentary overweight middle-aged and older adults who received (1) 2.5 g/day n-3 PUFAs, (2) l.25 g/day n-3 PUFAs, or (3) placebo capsules that mirrored the proportions of fatty acids in the typical American diet. Supplementation significantly lowered oxidative stress as measured by F2-isoprostanes (p=0.02). The estimated geometric mean log-F2-isoprostanes values were 15% lower in the two supplemented groups compared to placebo. Although group differences for telomerase and telomere length were nonsignificant, changes in the n-6:n-3 PUFA plasma ratios helped clarify the intervention’s impact: telomere length increased with decreasing n-6:n-3 ratios, p=0.02. The data suggest that lower n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios can impact cell aging. The triad of inflammation, oxidative stress, and immune cell aging represents important pre-disease mechanisms that may be ameliorated through nutritional interventions. This translational research broadens our understanding of the potential impact of the n-6:n-3 PUFA balance. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00385723 PMID:23010452

  6. Endogenous ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid production confers resistance to obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Li, Fanghong R; Wei, Dong; Jia, Wei; Kang, Jing X; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Dai, Yifan; Zhao, Allan Z

    2014-08-01

    Despite the well-documented health benefits of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), their use in clinical management of hyperglycemia and obesity has shown little success. To better define the mechanisms of ω-3 PUFAs in regulating energy balance and insulin sensitivity, we deployed a transgenic mouse model capable of endogenously producing ω-3 PUFAs while reducing ω-6 PUFAs owing to the expression of a Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 gene encoding an ω-3 fatty acid desaturase. When challenged with high-fat diets, fat-1 mice strongly resisted obesity, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hepatic steatosis. Endogenous elevation of ω-3 PUFAs and reduction of ω-6 PUFAs did not alter the amount of food intake but led to increased energy expenditure in the fat-1 mice. The requirements for the levels of ω-3 PUFAs as well as the ω-6/ω-3 ratios in controlling blood glucose and obesity are much more stringent than those in lipid metabolism. These metabolic phenotypes were accompanied by attenuation of the inflammatory state because tissue levels of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-α were significantly decreased. TNF-α-induced nuclear factor-κB signaling was almost completely abolished. Consistent with the reduction in chronic inflammation and a significant increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activity in the fat-1 liver tissue, hepatic insulin signaling was sharply elevated. The activities of prolipogenic regulators, such as liver X receptor, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 were sharply decreased, whereas the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, a nuclear receptor that facilitates lipid β-oxidation, was markedly increased. Thus, endogenous conversion of ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs via fat-1 strongly protects against obesity, diabetes, inflammation, and dyslipidemia and may represent a novel therapeutic modality to treat these prevalent

  7. Metabolites derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are important for cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kim; Malick, Mandy; Madingou, Ness; Touchette, Charles; Bourque-Riel, Valérie; Tomaro, Leandro; Rousseau, Guy

    2015-12-15

    Although controversial, some data suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are beneficial to cardiovascular diseases, and could reduce infarct size. In parallel, we have reported that the administration of Resolvin D1 (RvD1), a metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 PUFA, can reduce infarct size. The present study was designed to determine if the inhibition of two important enzymes involved in the formation of RvD1 from omega-3 PUFA could reduce the cardioprotective effect of omega-3 PUFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a diet rich in omega-3 PUFA during 10 days before myocardial infarction (MI). Two days before MI, rats received a daily dose of Meloxicam, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, PD146176, an inhibitor of 15-lipoxygenase, both inhibitors or vehicle. MI was induced by the occlusion of the left coronary artery for 40min followed by reperfusion. Infarct size and neutrophil accumulation were evaluated after 24h of reperfusion while caspase-3, -8 and Akt activities were assessed at 30min of reperfusion. Rats receiving inhibitors, alone or in combination, showed a larger infarct size than those receiving omega-3 PUFA alone. Caspase-3 and -8 activities are higher in ischemic areas with inhibitors while Akt activity is diminished in groups treated with inhibitors. Moreover, the study showed that RvD1 restores cardioprotection when added to the inhibitors. Results from this study indicate that the inhibition of the metabolism of Omega-3 PUFA attenuate their cardioprotective properties. Then, resolvins seem to be an important mediator in the cardioprotection conferred by omega-3 PUFA in our experimental model of MI. PMID:26550951

  8. Fatty acid profile of plasma, muscle and adipose tissues in Chilota lambs grazing on two different low quality pasture types in Chiloé Archipelago (Chile).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Maria A; Dannenberger, Dirk; Rivero, Jordana; Pulido, Ruben; Nuernberg, Karin

    2014-11-01

    There is no information about the effect of different pasture types on tissue fatty acid profiles of a native rustic lamb breed of the Chiloe Archipelago, the Chilota. Eight Chilota lambs were grazed on a 'Calafatal' pasture (CP), a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago (Chile) and eight Chilota lambs were located to graze on naturalized pasture (NP) of Chiloé. Botanical, chemical and lipid composition of the two types of pastures and of different lamb tissues (muscle, subcutaneous - and tail adipose tissues) and plasma were performed. Both pasture types induced high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and CLAcis-9,trans-11 proportions in Chilota meat. Thus, in muscle, Chilota lambs grazing CP showed higher sum PUFA, sum n-6 PUFA proportion and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. In tail fats of Chilota lambs grazing CP significantly higher proportions of 18:3n-3, sum saturated fatty acids, sum PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were detected compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. Feeding of different pasture types (CP vs. NP) caused significant differences in fatty acid composition of muscle and the two fat depots in Chilota lambs, but also point to tissue-specific responses of de novo synthesized fatty acid deposition in the tissues. PMID:24964067

  9. Alterations in levels and ratios of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the temporal cortex and liver of vervet monkeys from birth to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leslie R; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R; Seeds, Michael C; Rahbar, Elaheh; Morgan, Timothy M; Welborn, Andrea; Chilton, Sarah M; Gillis, Julianne; Hester, Austin; Rukstalis, Mae; Sergeant, Susan; Chilton, Floyd H

    2016-03-15

    Deficiencies in omega-3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and increases in the ratio of omega-6 (n-6) to n-3 LC-PUFAs in brain tissues and blood components have been associated with psychiatric and developmental disorders. Most studies have focused on n-3 LC-PUFA accumulation in the brain from birth until 2years of age, well before the symptomatic onset of such disorders. The current study addresses changes that occur in childhood and adolescence. Postmortem brain (cortical gray matter, inferior temporal lobe; n=50) and liver (n=60) from vervet monkeys fed a uniform diet from birth through young adulthood were collected from archived tissues. Lipids were extracted and fatty acid levels determined. There was a marked reduction in the ratio of n-6 LC-PUFAs, arachidonic acid (ARA) and adrenic acid (ADR), relative to the n-3 LC-PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in temporal cortex lipids from birth to puberty and then a more gradual decrease though adulthood. This decrease in ratio resulted from a 3-fold accumulation of DHA levels while concentrations of ARA remained constant. Early childhood through adolescence appears to be a critical period for DHA accretion in the cortex of vervet monkeys and may represent a vulnerable stage where lack of dietary n-3 LC-PUFAs impacts development in humans. PMID:26705667

  10. 15-oxoeicosatetraenoic acid is a 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase-derived electrophilic mediator of inflammatory signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Nathaniel W.; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Gao, Yang; Blair, Ian A.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Wendell, Stacy Gelhaus

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive lipids govern cellular homeostasis and pathogenic inflammatory processes. Current dogma holds that bioactive lipids, such as prostaglandins and lipoxins, are inactivated by 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15PGDH). In contrast, the present results reveal that catabolic “inactivation” of hydroxylated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) yields electrophilic α,β-unsaturated ketone derivatives. These endogenously produced species are chemically reactive signaling mediators that induce tissue protective events. Electrophilic fatty acids diversify the proteome through post-translational alkylation of nucleophilic cysteines in key transcriptional regulatory proteins and enzymes that govern cellular metabolic and inflammatory homeostasis. 15PGDH regulates these processes as it is responsible for the formation of numerous electrophilic fatty acids including the arachidonic acid metabolite, 15-oxoeicosatetraenoic acid (15-oxoETE). Herein, the role of 15-oxoETE in regulating signaling responses is reported. In cell cultures, 15-oxoETE activates Nrf2-regulated antioxidant responses (AR) and inhibits NF-κB-mediated pro-inflammatory responses via IKKβ inhibition. Inhibition of glutathione S-transferases using ethacrynic acid incrementally increased the signaling capacity of 15-oxoETE by decreasing 15-oxoETE-GSH adduct formation. This work demonstrates that 15PGDH plays a role in the regulation of cell and tissue homeostasis via the production of electrophilic fatty acid signaling mediators. PMID:25450232

  11. The Play of Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  12. Two people playing together: some thoughts on play, playing, and playfulness in psychoanalytic work.

    PubMed

    Vliegen, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Children's play and the playfulness of adolescents and adults are important indicators of personal growth and development. When a child is not able to play, or an adolescent/adult is not able to be playful with thoughts and ideas, psychotherapy can help to find a more playful and creative stance. Elaborating Winnicott's (1968, p. 591) statement that "psychotherapy has to do with two people playing together," three perspectives on play in psychotherapy are discussed. In the first point of view, the child gets in touch with and can work through aspects of his or her inner world, while playing in the presence of the therapist. The power of play is then rooted in the playful communication with the self In a second perspective, in play the child is communicating aspects of his or her inner world to the therapist as a significant other. In a third view, in "playing together" child and therapist are coconstructing new meanings. These three perspectives on play are valid at different moments of a therapy process or for different children, depending on the complex vicissitudes of the child's constitution, life experiences, development, and psychic structure. Concerning these three perspectives, a parallel can be drawn between the therapist's attitude toward the child's play and the way the therapist responds to the verbal play of an adolescent or adult. We illustrate this with the case of Jacob, a late adolescent hardly able to play with ideas. PMID:20578437

  13. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of 11 species of Queensland (Australia) fish.

    PubMed

    Belling, G B; Abbey, M; Campbell, J H; Campbell, G R

    1997-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of 11 species of fish caught of the northeast coast of Australia was determined. No fatty acid profiles have been previously published for fish from this area nor for nine of these species. Although the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was the same as the calculated average for Australian fish (42.3%), the percentage of n-3 fatty acids was lower (24.4 +/- 5.4% vs. 30.7 +/- 10.1%) and the n-6 fatty acids higher (16.5 +/- 4.5% vs. 11.2 +/- 5.9%), P < 0.001 in each case. The major n-3 PUFA were docosahexaenoic (15.6 +/- 6.3%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (4.3 +/- 1.1%) while the major n-6 PUFA were arachidonic (8.3 +/- 3.2%) and n-6 docosatetraenoic acid (3.1 +/- 1.3%). The second-most abundant class of fatty acid was the saturates (31.6 +/- 3.5%) while the monounsaturates accounted for 17.4 +/- 4.3% of the total fatty acids. The monounsaturate with the highest concentration was octadecenoic acid (11.8 +/- 2.6%). There was a positive correlation between the total lipid content and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (r = 0.675 and 0.567, respectively) and a negative correlation between the total lipid content and PUFA (r = 0.774). PMID:9208391

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched diet therapy for a child with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Rim; Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Heung Dong; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kang, Hoon-Chul

    2014-02-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet with an established efficacy for treating medically refractory epilepsy in children. Fatty acids are the most important constituent of the KD in all aspects of efficacy and complications. Among fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increase anticonvulsant properties and reduce the complications associated with the high-fat diet. Here, we report a 7-year-old boy with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome combined with mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I deficiency, whose medically intractable seizures have been successfully controlled with a PUFA-enriched modified Atkins diet without any significant adverse events. The diet consists of canola oil and diverse menu items like fish and nuts instead of olive oil and has an ideal 1:2.8 ratio of omega-3 to omega-6. In addition, fractionation of this boy's plasma showed normal levels of fatty acids, including omega-3 (alpha-linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid) and omega-6 (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid) as well as monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid). Plasma docosahexanoic acid remained low after PUFA-enriched diet therapy. PUFA-enriched diet therapy is likely to increase the efficacy of diet therapy and reduce complications of a high-fat diet in children with refractory epilepsy. PMID:23465587

  15. High contents of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in different moss species.

    PubMed

    Beike, Anna K; Jaeger, Carsten; Zink, Felix; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2014-02-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important cellular compounds with manifold biological functions. Many PUFAs are essential for the human diet and beneficial for human health. In this study, we report on the high amounts of very long-chain (vl) PUFAs (≥C₂₀) such as arachidonic acid (AA) in seven moss species. These species were established in axenic in vitro culture, as a prerequisite for comparative metabolic studies under highly standardized laboratory conditions. In the model organism Physcomitrella patens, tissue-specific differences in the fatty acid compositions between the filamentous protonema and the leafy gametophores were observed. These metabolic differences correspond with differential gene expression of fatty acid desaturase (FADS)-encoding genes in both developmental stages, as determined via microarray analyses. Depending on the developmental stage and the species, AA amounts for 6-31 %, respectively, of the total fatty acids. Subcellular localization of the corresponding FADS revealed the endoplasmic reticulum as the cellular compartment for AA synthesis. Our results show that vlPUFAs are highly abundant metabolites in mosses. Standardized cultivation techniques using photobioreactors along with the availability of the P. patens genome sequence and the high rate of homologous recombination are the basis for targeted metabolic engineering in moss. The potential of producing vlPUFAs of interest from mosses will be highlighted as a promising area in plant biotechnology. PMID:24170342

  16. Relations of plasma polyunsaturated Fatty acids with blood pressures during the 26th and 28th week of gestation in women of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Chong, Mary; Calder, Philip C; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-03-01

    Observational and intervention studies have reported inconsistent results of the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and hypertension during pregnancy. Here, we examined maternal plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation in relation to blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension.We used data from a birth cohort study of 751 Chinese, Malay, and Indian women. Maternal peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were taken from the brachial arm, and central SBP and pulse pressures (PPs) were derived from radial artery pressure waveforms between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation. Pregnancy-associated hypertension (including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia) was ascertained from medical records. Plasma phosphatidylcholine n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography and expressed as percentage of total fatty acids.Peripheral SBP was inversely associated with total n-3 PUFAs [-0.51 (95% confidence interval, CI, -0.89 to -0.13) mm Hg] and long-chain n-3 PUFAs [-0.52 (CI -0.92 to -0.13) mmHg]. Similar but weaker associations were observed for central SBP and PP. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid was marginally positively associated with peripheral SBP, central SBP, and PP, whereas linoleic acid and total n-6 PUFAs showed no significant associations with blood pressures. We identified 28 pregnancy-associated hypertension cases, and 1% increase in total n-3 PUFAs was associated with a 24% lower odds of pregnancy-associated hypertension (odds ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97). Maternal ethnicity modified the PUFAs-blood pressure relations, with stronger inverse associations with n-3 PUFAs in Chinese women, and stronger positive associations with n-6 PUFAs in Indian women (P values for interaction ranged from 0.02 to 0.07).Higher n-3 PUFAs at midgestation are related to lower maternal blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension in Asian women

  17. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Vanasse, Michel; Spahis, Schohraya; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Lippé, Sarah; l’Heureux, François; Ghadirian, Parviz; Vanasse, Catherine-Marie; Levy, Emile

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although several clinical trials have evaluated the impact of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), changes in plasma PUFA composition were not always assessed following n-3 supplementation. Furthermore, no reports are available on the efficacy of n-3 PUFA in Canadian youth with ADHD. OBJECTIVES: To determine fatty acid (FA) composition, and the efficacy and safety of n-3 PUFA supplementation on ADHD clinical symptoms in French Canadian primary school children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Strengths and Weaknesses in ADHD and Normal Behaviors (SWAN) and Conners’ questionnaires were used to assess changes in ADHD symptoms in 37 children (only 26 children completed the study from zero to 16 weeks). They were divided into two groups (A and B), and participated in a 16-week, double-blind, one-way, crossover randomized study. In the first phase, group A received the n-3 PUFA supplement and group B received n-6 PUFA (sunflower oil) as a placebo. During the second phase, group B received the active n-3 PUFA supplement that was continued in group A. FA composition and lipid profile were assessed during the phases of the study. RESULTS: FA differences between groups were observed in the 26 patients. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in significant increases in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in group A, while group B was enriched with alpha-linolenic, gamma-linolenic and homo-gamma-linolenic acids. The n-3 PUFA supplement was tolerated without any adverse effects. A statistically significant improvement in symptoms was noted based on the parent version of the Conners’ questionnaire from baseline to the end of phase 1, and this amelioration continued from phases 1 to 2, although the latter changes from phases 1 and 2 were not statistically significant in any of the subscales except for the subscale measuring inattention in group B. The improvement was greater in patients from group

  18. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk is associate to weight gain and growth in premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Tinoco, Sandra M Barboza; Sichieri, Rosely; Setta, Cecília L; Moura, Anibal S; Carmo, Maria G Tavares do

    2009-01-01

    Background Linoleic 18:2 (n-6) and α-linolenic 18:3 (n-3) essential fatty acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are essential nutrients for growth and neonatal development. Consumption of preformed n-3 LC-PUFA has been shown to increase gestational duration and to decrease the incidence of premature birth in human studies. This study evaluated the association of essential fatty acids and LC-PUFA in breast milk on the growth of premature children (weight, height and head circumference). Study design Thirty-seven premature infants with a gestational age of 37 weeks or less were followed until 6 months of gestational age, adjusted for prematurity. The milk from mothers, weight, height and head circumference measures of children were collected during the follow up. The breast milk fatty acids were quantified by gas-liquid chromatography. Results Our results showed that total n-3 PUFA was positively associated with weight gain (p = 0.05), height (p = 0.04) and body mass index (BMI) of children (p = 0.05). Our results also indicate that both linoleic acid and total essential fatty acids were positively associated with BMI and head circumference, whereas oleic acid was positively associated only with head circumference. Conclusion These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA composition of milk may be associated with weight gain and growth. Considering the advantages of n-3 LC-PUFA consumption on infant growth and visual function and its association with reduced incidence of premature birth, dietitians should advise pregnant women to increase their intake of foods high in n-3 LC-PUFA. PMID:19558659

  19. Child's Play: Therapist's Narrative

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228

  20. Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

  1. Play: early and eternal.

    PubMed Central

    Mears, C E; Harlow, H F

    1975-01-01

    A systematic 12-week investigation of development of play behavior was conducted with eight socially reared rhesus monkey infants. A new, basic and primary play form termed self-motion play or peragration was identified and examined. This behavior follows a human model which includes a wide range of pleasurable activities involving motion of the body through space, e.g., rocking, swinging, running, leaping, and water or snow skiing. It can be argued that self-motion play is the initial primate play form and because of its persistence constitutes a reinforcing agent for maintaining many complex patterns and even pastimes. Monkey self-motion play in the present study was divided into five separate patterns in order to compare the relative importance of social and individual peragration play, the role of apparatus and the overall developmental relationships between the different individual and social self-motion play patterns. The data showed that from 90 to 180 days of age self-motion play was independent of other forms of play, that individual self-motion play appeared earlier and with significantly greater increases in frequency than did social self-motion play, and that apparatus was a necessary component for significant increases in social self-motion play. Other findings were that self-motion play existed independent of locomotion and, though initiated by exploration, was separate from it. Therapeutic implications of self-motion play were discussed. Images PMID:1057178

  2. Fatty acids and oxidative stability of meat from lambs fed carob-containing diets.

    PubMed

    Gravador, Rufielyn S; Luciano, Giuseppe; Jongberg, Sisse; Bognanno, Matteo; Scerra, Manuel; Andersen, Mogens L; Lund, Marianne N; Priolo, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Male Comisana lambs were individually stalled and, for 56 days, were fed concentrates with 60% barley (n = 8 lambs), or concentrates in which barley was partially replaced by 24% or 35% carob pulp (n = 9 lambs in each group). The intramuscular fatty acids were analyzed and the color stability, lipid and protein oxidation were measured in fresh meat overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film at 0, 3 or 6 days of storage at 4 °C in the dark. Carob pulp increased the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in muscle, including the rumenic acid (P < 0.01), and reduced the saturated fatty acids (P < 0.01) and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (P = 0.01). The meat did not undergo extensive oxidative deterioration and the diet did not affect the oxidative stability parameters. Therefore, carob in lamb diet could increase PUFA in muscle without compromising meat oxidative stability. PMID:25842304

  3. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human brain morphology and function: What is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Bos, Dienke J; van Montfort, Simone J T; Oranje, Bob; Durston, Sarah; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-03-01

    Public opinion and media coverage suggest