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Sample records for acids research vol

  1. NAGWS Research Reports. Vol. III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Marlene, Ed.; Brame, Judith, Ed.

    The emphasis in this collection of research reports is on women athletes, their training, physical characteristics, and mental attitudes. Each article describes a research project on one of these topics, the methodology used to obtain findings, analysis of results, and a summary of applications a teacher or coach may use. (JD)

  2. Swine in biomedical research. Vol. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: hemodynamic characteristics of the conscious resting pig; cardiovascular and metabolic responses to acute and chronic exercise in swine (ILLEGIBLE) a large animal model for studies (ILLEGIBLE) effects of heparin-protamine interaction in swine - intravenous vs. intraarterial; swine as animal models in cardiovascular research; studies of coronary thrombosis in swine with von Willebrand's disease; role of plasma intermediate and low density lipoproteins in early atherogenesis in hyperlipidemic swine; swine as a model in renal physiology and nephrology; the pig as a model for studying kidney disease in man; hypertension of renal origin and the effects of Captopril in miniature pigs; porcine natural killer/killer cell system; the behavior of pig lymphocyte populations in vivo; a review of spontaneous and experimental porcine eperythrozoonosis; and Sinclair swine melanoma.

  3. Acidic precipitation, Vol. 2: Biological and ecological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Adriano, D.C.; Johnson, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Acidic precipitation has its origin in emissions to the atmosphere of numerous compounds from both natural and man-made sources. The chapters in this volume cover a wide array of topics on the biological and ecological effects of acidic precipitation. A chapter on soil productivity emphasizes changes in biological and chemical characters of forest soils impacted by acidic deposition. Additional chapters discuss specific effects on soil microorganisms, trees, and crops. The importance of aluminum in this environmental issue is highlighted by a discussion on the mobility and phytotoxicity of this element in acidic soils. This chapter puts into perspective the biology of Al stressed plants. Two major chapters discuss the effect of acidic precipitation on forest ecosystems; one emphasizing North America, and the other Europe. Effects of soil acidification on key soil processes, including litter decomposition and depletion of essential plant nutrients in the soil profile are emphasized. Finally, three major chapters comprehensively cover limnological ecosystems and their response to acidic perturbation. These chapters discuss the response of stream and lake communities, both floral and faunal, to water acidification, including reduced biodiversity in these systems. Ten chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  4. DGWS Research Reports: Women in Sports. Vol. II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Dorothy V., Ed.

    This volume presents the results of literature reviews and research from physical education and related fields on women in sports. The purpose of the report is to present scientific evidence on which to base decisions relating to physical activity and athletic programs for girls and women. One of its main sections deals with the psychological…

  5. 1973 Advances in Socio-Dental Research. Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, John B., Ed.

    This publication is a collection of abstracts from volumes 6 and 7 (1971 and 1972) of "Oral Research Abstracts," selected because the abstracts contain information relating one of the social sciences with dentistry. The compilation is intended to be useful to epidemiologists, public health workers, and all those who have an interest in the…

  6. Scientist, researchers, and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, L.R. )

    1989-01-01

    The role of the hidden participants in agenda-setting for environmental issues is discussed. These personnel involve academics, researchers, career bureaucrats, congressional staffers, consultants, and administration appointees below the top level. Scientists have been publicly involved in the acid rain issue from the beginning, using the media to dramatize the possible catastrophic consequences of acid rain. Presently, the scientific community is not in consensus about the solutions to the problem. Since the initial enactment of the National Acid Precipitation Act in 1980, not a single acid rain law has been passed, although many bills have been proposed. Spokesman for the coal and utility industries and Reagan administration personnel have used the scientific disagreements to delay abatement actions and refute claims that acid rain is a severe problem. Another result of the confusion is a distrust and even disdain for academic work. One possible solution to the stalemate is an accurate form for resolving scientific disputes that have a strong political component and that the forum should have a mechanism for converging on accurate science. 19 refs.

  7. Research for Better Teaching in Pennsylvania Schools 1970-1971. Vol. II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Association of Teacher Educators.

    An introductory article and ten research reports are presented. The introductory article, "A Challenge To Implement Research," by Ben J. Wiens, discusses how the Pennsylvania Association of Teacher Educators (PATE) is working to encourage much-needed research. The studies are 1) "A Descriptive Summary of Elementary Student Teaching Programs in…

  8. Investigations in Science Education, Vol. 7, No. 1. Expanded Abstracts and Critical Analyses of Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Patricia E., Ed.; Mayer, Victor J., Ed.

    Presented are analytical abstracts, prepared by science educators, of research reports in the areas of instruction, mainstreaming, curriculum, classroom learning environment, and the educational use of planetaria. Each abstract includes bibliographical data, research design and procedure, purpose, research rationale, and an abstractor's analysis…

  9. Kansas Center for Research in Early Childhood Education Annual Report, FY 1972. Vol. II of II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Univ., Lawrence. Kansas Center for Research in Early Childhood Education.

    This volume includes reports of two research projects of the Kansas Center for Research in Early Childhood Education. The first project, entitled Individual Analysis of Reading Prerequisites and Curriculum Content, is represented by two studies: (1) A Study of a Pretraining Program and Its Effect on a Subsequent Program for a Left-Right…

  10. Research Base for Improved Classroom Learning: Brain or Behavior? Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruer, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Implicit in recent Evidence Speaks postings is the need to develop evidence-based interventions for improving student achievement. Comparative analysis of the education research literature versus the educational neuroscience literature suggests that education research, grounded in the behavioral and cognitive sciences, is currently the better…

  11. Update on Research and Leadership. Vol. 20, No. 2. Spring 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D., Ed.: Khan, Sadya, Ed.; Kirby, Catherine, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing rates of remediation in college and the alignment gap between secondary and postsecondary education call for further study of policies and practices to improve college and career readiness. This issue of Update on Research and Leadership features nine articles that highlight current research and practice related to college readiness and…

  12. Completed Research in Health, Physical Education, and Recreation Including International Sources. Vol. 15. 1973 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Robert N., Ed.; Weiss, Raymond A., Ed.

    This compilation lists research completed in the areas of health, physical education, and recreation and allied areas during 1972. It is arranged in three parts: (a) the index lists research topics alphabetically and directs the reader to appropriate citations in the bibliographies of journal articles, theses, and dissertations; (b) the…

  13. Mapping Education Research and Judging Influence. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruer, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Education research is a vast, multi-disciplinary field. In trying to understand it or make judgments about importance, influence, or where the action is, it can be helpful to see the big picture and not be swayed by where we happen to sit in the field. A map of education research derived from citation data can help us see the big picture.…

  14. No More Free Lunch for Education Policymakers and Researchers. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.

    2016-01-01

    The federal Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), like No Child Left Behind before it, requires states to report information on the academic achievement of students in each of their schools, both overall and for various subgroups of students. A subgroup of particular interest to policymakers and researchers is economically disadvantaged students,…

  15. Update on Research and Leadership. Vol. 21, No. 1. Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D., Ed.; Taylor, Jason L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This edition features current research, practice, and policy related to the Joyce Foundation's Shifting Gears initiative beginning with an interview with Whitney Smith, Manager of the Employment Program at the Joyce Foundation. Julie Strawn, Center for Law and Social Policy, presents a national perspective of basic skills reform efforts similar to…

  16. Completed Research in Health, Physical Education, and Recreation Including International Sources, Vol. 14, 1972 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Robert N., Ed.; Weiss, Raymond A., Ed.

    This volume contains research works completed in the areas of health, physical education, recreation, and allied areas during 1971. The publication is divided into three parts: I--Index; II--Bibliography; and III--Theses Abstracts. The Index offers an alphabetical cross-reference by subject for the works found in parts II and III. The Bibliography…

  17. Completed Research in Health, Physical Education, and Recreation Including International Sources, Vol. 13, 1971 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Robert N., Ed.; Weiss, Raymond A., Ed.

    This volume contains research works completed in the areas of health, physical education, recreation, and allied areas during 1970. The publication is divided into three parts: I--Index; II--Bibliography; and III--Theses Abstracts. The Index offers an alphabetical cross-reference by subject for the works found in parts II and III. The Bibliography…

  18. Relevant Research. Scope, Sequence, and Coordination of Secondary School Science. Vol. II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Marcia K., Ed.

    This book is a collection of research papers and respected philosophical statements on how secondary school students learn science best. Taken together, these papers serve as the basis for the Project on Scope, Sequence, and Coordination of Secondary School Science (SS&C). This book explains where the learning ideas of the SS&C Content Core came…

  19. Children of Poverty: Research, Health, and Policy Issues. Reference Books on Family Issues (Vol. 23). Garland Reference Library of Social Science (Vol. 968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 13 papers resulting from roundtable discussions at the 1993 Society for Research in Child Development Meeting. The overall intent of the papers is to plan the course for child health care, public policy, and developmental research into the next century. The book is divided into three parts, each covering one topic. Research…

  20. International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development Vol 1 Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, K. M.; Lakey, L. T.

    1983-07-01

    This document starts with an overview that summarizes nuclear power policies and waste management activities for nations with significant commercial nuclear fuel cycle activities either under way or planned. A more detailed program summary is then included for each country or international agency conducting nuclear fuel cycle and waste management research and development. This first volume includes the overview and the program summaries of those countries listed alphabetically from Argentina to Italy.

  1. Acid Rain Students Do Original Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outdoor Communicator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    At Park Senior High School (Cottage Grove, Minnesota), 46 juniors and seniors planted 384 red pine seedlings in connection with their original research on acid rain, with advice from Dr. Harriet Stubbs, director of the Acid Precipitation Awareness Program (West Saint Paul), which has been developing acid rain teaching materials. (MH)

  2. Temporal perspective on acid deposition research

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G R

    1980-02-20

    This statement presented to the Subcommittee on Natural Resources of the US House of Representatives gives a definition of acid rain, presents new data on the regional and temporal nature of the problem, and discusses research needs. (ACR)

  3. Emerging acid deposition research and monitoring issues

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, R.

    1997-12-31

    The research baselines established for acid rain in the 1980s position scientists and policy makers to evaluate the environmental effectiveness of the acid rain control program and to test the variety of scientific hypotheses made regarding the chemical, transport and biological processes involved in acidic deposition. Several new research questions have evolved. How effective are the emissions reductions? What is the residual risk? How have ecological recovery rates been affected and what other environmental factors influence recovery? What are the critical requirements to measure ecological change including the extent and rate while also capturing the extent and severity of emerging ecological stressors (such as watershed nitrogen saturation)? These and other questions are currently being synthesized within and outside of EPA to develop a long-term strategy to provide guidance to emerging research and monitoring issues.

  4. Influence of the organic component on the geometry and stability of Dy(III) complexes with benzoic and aminobenzoic acids in water-80 vol % DMSO (DMFA) mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashina, Y.G.; Mustafina, A.R.; Devyatov, F.V.

    1995-07-01

    The stability and structure of dysprosium (III) benzoate and aminobenzoate complexes are estimated pH-metrically and magnetooptically in water and water-80 vol% DMSO (DMFA) mixtures. The factors responsible for the structural and stability changes that take place upon transition from water to water-organic solvents are discussed.

  5. [Development of a Japanese version of the Valuation of Life (VOL) scale].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Takeshi; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Masui, Yukie; Ishioka, Yoshiko; Tabuchi, Megumi; Kamide, Kei; Ikebe, Kazunori; Arai, Yasumichi; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2013-04-01

    This study developed a Japanese version of the Valuation of Life (VOL) scale, to measure psychological wellbeing among older adults. In Analysis 1, we conducted a factor analysis of 13 items, and identified two factors: positive VOL and spiritual well-being. These factors had adequate degrees of internal consistency, and were related to positive mental health. In Analysis 2, we examined sociodemographic, social, and health predictors for VOL. The role of social factors was stronger than the role of health factors, and spiritual well-being was more related to moral or religious activities than positive VOL. These results suggest that predictors for VOL vary by culture. In Analysis 3, we investigated the relationship between VOL and desired years of life. Positive VOL significantly predicted more desired years of life, whereas spiritual well-being did not. Positive VOL had acceptable reliability and validity. Future research is required to investigate whether VOL predicts survival duration or end-of-life decisions.

  6. [Research progression of short chain fatty acid].

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao; Wang, Xinying; Li, Ning

    2015-09-01

    With the development of intestinal flora, short chain fatty acid(SCFA), produced by the intestinal microbiota, has been found to be important for the host. It also plays an important role in the part of the occurrence and development of some diseases. The relationship between SCFA produced by intestinal microbiota and the host body has become the research focus in recent years. The physiological function and clinical application of SCFA were reviewed in this article.

  7. Progress in lactic acid bacterial phage research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Research on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has advanced significantly over the past number of decades and these developments have been driven by the parallel advances in technologies such as genomics, bioinformatics, protein expression systems and structural biology, combined with the ever increasing commercial relevance of this group of microorganisms. Some of the more significant and impressive outputs have been in the domain of bacteriophage-host interactions which provides a prime example of the cutting-edge model systems represented by LAB research. Here, we present a retrospective overview of the key advances in LAB phage research including phage-host interactions and co-evolution. We describe how in many instances this knowledge can be pivotal in creating real improvements in the application of LAB cultures in commercial practice. PMID:25185514

  8. Using Research to Improve Education under the Every Student Succeeds Act. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol. 1, #8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Every Student Succeeds Act, the new reauthorization of the federal program designed to support the education of disadvantaged students, requires that states and districts use evidence-based interventions to support school improvement. Researchers have studied the effectiveness of education programs for decades and that effort is now producing…

  9. [SMEAC Newsletters, Science Education, Vol. 2, No. 2--Vol. 2, No. 3, 1969].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, Columbus, OH.

    Each of these newsletters, produced by the ERIC Information Analysis Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, Contains information concerning center publications and activities, as well as other items considered of interest to researchers and educators of various educational levels. One of the emphases in Vol. 2, No. 2, is a…

  10. [SMEAC Newsletters, Science Education, Vol. 1, No. 1--Vol. 2, No. 1, 1967-1968].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, Columbus, OH.

    Each of these newsletters, produced by the ERIC Information Analysis Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, contains information concerning center publications and other items considered of interest to researchers and educators of various education levels. Vol. 1, No. 1 highlights selected bibliographies (no longer produced…

  11. Research for amino acids in lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Rash, J. J.; Aue , W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    The study was primarily directed toward the examination of Apollo 14 lunar fines for indigenous amino acids or materials which could be converted to amino acids on hydrolysis with 6 N hydrochloric acid. Initial experiments were conducted to confirm the integrity of the derivatization reactions and reagents, and to optimize the gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) instrumental and chromatographic system for the separation and flame ionization detection of the amino acid derivatives. In studies on the recovery of amino acids added to lunar fines, low recoveries were obtained when 10 ng of each amino acid were added to 50 mg of virgin fines, but the subsequent addition of 50 ng of each to the previously extracted sample resulted in much higher recoveries.

  12. Capabilities for research on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Manowitz, B.

    1981-05-01

    Acid rain studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are conducted within the Department of Energy and Environment, in the divisions of Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, Land and Freshwater Environmental Sciences, and Biomedical and Environmental Assessment of the National Center for the Analysis of Energy Systems. The capabilities and ongoing activities of each of these organizations which relate to the acid rain problem are summarized here.

  13. Red herring in acid rain research

    SciTech Connect

    Havas, M.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Likens, G.E.

    1984-06-01

    Five common misconceptions, red herrings, regarding the effects of acid deposition on aquatic ecosystems are described in an attempt to clarify some of the confusion they have created. These misconceptions are the following: Bog lakes have been acidic for thousands of years; thus the acidification of lakes is not a recent phenomenon. The early methods for measuring pH are in error; therfore, no statements can be made regarding historical trends. Acidification of lakes and streams results from changed land use practices (forestry, agriculture, animal husbandry) and not acid deposition. The decrease in fish populations is caused by overfishing, disease, and water pollution, not acidification. Because lakes that receive identical rainfall can have considerable different pHs, regional lake acidification cannot be due to acid precipitation. It is easy to suggest a whole series of alternative, and often unlikely, explanations of the causes and consequences of acid deposition. These keep scientists busy for years assembling and examining data only to conclude that the explanation is not valid. These tactics cause, and perhaps are designed to cause, continuous delay in remedial action. They fail to take into account the large body of information that deals with the sources of the acid deposition and the seriousness of its effects.

  14. Penn State researches acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-27

    A brief news item reports that work is being carried out at Penn State University on the effectiveness of sphagnum moss and other marsh-type plants in removing iron from acid mine water. A sphagnum moss bog has been established in a greenhouse at the University and field work is also being undertaken in a natural environment in Clearfield County.

  15. Perfluoroalkyl acids : Recent activities and research progress

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of man-made fluorinated organic chemicals consisting of a carbon backbone typically of four to fourteen in length and a charged functional moiety (primarily carboxylate, sulfonate or phosphonate). The two most widely known PFAAs are ...

  16. Current research on the effects of acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, J.A.

    1984-03-01

    Preliminary research aimed at quantifying relationships between emission and acid deposition and on-the-ground effects indicates that small water supplies fed by surface waters or shallow wells and cistern supplies may be adversely affected by acid deposition. In addition, acid deposition makes water more corrosive, which may result in dangerous quantities of heavy metals in distribution systems. This will not be a problem with relatively hard water or with relatively large supplies, and corrosivity should be treatable at reasonable cost.

  17. [Research on Raman spectra of benzoic acid during decarboxylic process].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Xia; Zheng, Hai-Fei

    2009-12-01

    The present research studied benzoic acid change in water and its Raman spectra in temperature rising period using hydrothermal diamond anvil cell and Raman spectrum technique. The hydrothermal diamond anvil cell is the most useful instrument to observe sample in-situation under high temperature and high pressure. The authors can get effective results from this instrument and pursue further research. The method of Raman spectra is the most useful measure tool and it can detect the material according to the spectrum. The result showed that there was no change in characteristic vibrational Raman peak of benzoic acid in the lower temperature period and there was no reaction between benzoic acid and water. In the process of temperature rising period, the characteristic vibrational Raman peak of benzoic acid became weaker. During the process, benzoic acid began to dissolve in water, but no chemical reaction happened. The reason for weaker Raman peak of benzoic acid is the dissolution. The characteristic vibrational Raman peak of carboxyl disappeared at 150 degrees C, which showed that decarboxylic reaction occurred on benzoic acid. But the main Raman peak of benzoic acid existed which showed that no chemical reaction existed. And then benzoic acid disappeared when temperature ascended to 170 degrees C. When the temperature of system dropped to room temperature, a kind of crystal appeared. The characteristic vibrational Raman peak of this kind of crystal showed that the crystal contained benzene ring, showing that dutrex appeared. At the same time the authors did not find the characteristic vibrational Raman peak of carboxyl, so the crystal was not benzoic acid. The whole research showed that: dutrex can disappear and be regained in the process of dissolution and recrystallization, but carboxyl cannot.

  18. [Research on Raman spectra of benzoic acid during decarboxylic process].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Xia; Zheng, Hai-Fei

    2009-12-01

    The present research studied benzoic acid change in water and its Raman spectra in temperature rising period using hydrothermal diamond anvil cell and Raman spectrum technique. The hydrothermal diamond anvil cell is the most useful instrument to observe sample in-situation under high temperature and high pressure. The authors can get effective results from this instrument and pursue further research. The method of Raman spectra is the most useful measure tool and it can detect the material according to the spectrum. The result showed that there was no change in characteristic vibrational Raman peak of benzoic acid in the lower temperature period and there was no reaction between benzoic acid and water. In the process of temperature rising period, the characteristic vibrational Raman peak of benzoic acid became weaker. During the process, benzoic acid began to dissolve in water, but no chemical reaction happened. The reason for weaker Raman peak of benzoic acid is the dissolution. The characteristic vibrational Raman peak of carboxyl disappeared at 150 degrees C, which showed that decarboxylic reaction occurred on benzoic acid. But the main Raman peak of benzoic acid existed which showed that no chemical reaction existed. And then benzoic acid disappeared when temperature ascended to 170 degrees C. When the temperature of system dropped to room temperature, a kind of crystal appeared. The characteristic vibrational Raman peak of this kind of crystal showed that the crystal contained benzene ring, showing that dutrex appeared. At the same time the authors did not find the characteristic vibrational Raman peak of carboxyl, so the crystal was not benzoic acid. The whole research showed that: dutrex can disappear and be regained in the process of dissolution and recrystallization, but carboxyl cannot. PMID:20210158

  19. [Development of a Japanese version of the Valuation of Life (VOL) scale].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Takeshi; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Masui, Yukie; Ishioka, Yoshiko; Tabuchi, Megumi; Kamide, Kei; Ikebe, Kazunori; Arai, Yasumichi; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2013-04-01

    This study developed a Japanese version of the Valuation of Life (VOL) scale, to measure psychological wellbeing among older adults. In Analysis 1, we conducted a factor analysis of 13 items, and identified two factors: positive VOL and spiritual well-being. These factors had adequate degrees of internal consistency, and were related to positive mental health. In Analysis 2, we examined sociodemographic, social, and health predictors for VOL. The role of social factors was stronger than the role of health factors, and spiritual well-being was more related to moral or religious activities than positive VOL. These results suggest that predictors for VOL vary by culture. In Analysis 3, we investigated the relationship between VOL and desired years of life. Positive VOL significantly predicted more desired years of life, whereas spiritual well-being did not. Positive VOL had acceptable reliability and validity. Future research is required to investigate whether VOL predicts survival duration or end-of-life decisions. PMID:23705232

  20. Microbial physiology vol. 29

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A.H. ); Tempest, D.W. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Hydrogen metabolism in Rhizobium: energetics, regulation, enzymology and genetics; The physiology and biochemistry of pili; Carboxysomes and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; Archaebacteria: the comparative enzymology of their central metabolic pathways; and Physiology of lipoteichoic acids in bacteria.

  1. Swedish scientists take acid-rain research to developing nations

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, T.

    1995-12-01

    In the realm of acid-rain research, Sweden looms large on the world stage. It is the country where scientists first proved more than 30 years ago that airborne chemicals could and did cross international boundaries to acidify lakes and forests far from where the pollution was generated. Now, Swedish scientists are leading an international effort to map acid-rain patterns in the developing countries of Asia, where new industrial activity seems to be recreating problems that European and North American policy makers have already taken steps to solve. Topics covered in this article include acid rain on the rise in Asia; visualizing and validating the data; funding as the key to steady research.

  2. Progress in cybernetics and systems research. Vol. XI. Data base design. International Information Systems. Semiotic Systems. Artificial Intelligence. Cybernetics and Philosophy. Special aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Trappl, R.; Findler, N.V.; Horn, W.

    1982-01-01

    This book covers current research topics in six areas. These are data base design, international information systems, semiotic systems, artificial intelligence, cybernetics and philosophy, and special aspects of systems research. 1326 references.

  3. Recent Developments in Research on Bilingual Education in the United States. Bilingual Education PaAer Series Vol. 6 No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Christina Bratt

    Since many of the concerns motivating research on bilingual education are inherently those of a conflict theory approach, it is not surprising to find increasing dissatisfaction with the traditional quantificational mode of research, as contrasted with the qualitative mode. There is likely to be a close link between research questions, method of…

  4. Acid rain research: a review and analysis of methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    The acidic deposition phenomena, when implicated as a factor potentially responsible for crop and forest yield losses and destruction of aquatic life, has gained increasing attention. The widespread fear that acid rain is having or may have devastating effects has prompted international debates and legislative proposals. An analysis of research on the effects of acid rain, however, reveals serious questions concerning the applicability and validity of conclusions of much of the work and thus conclusive estimations of impacts are lacking. In order to establish cause-effect relationships between rain acidity and the response of a receptor, controlled studies are necessary to verify observations in the field since there are many natural processes that produce and consume acidity and because numerous other environmental variables affect ecosystem response. Only when the response of an entire system is understood (i.e., interactions between plant, soil, soil microbes, and groundwater) can economic impacts be assessed and tolerance thresholds established for the wet deposition of acids. 14 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  5. [Advances in the research of treatment of hydrofluoric acid burn].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-gang; Zhang, Yuan-hai; Han, Chun-mao

    2013-08-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is one of the most common inorganic acids used widely in industrial circle. HF not only causes cutaneous burn, but also induces systemic toxicity by its unique injury mechanism. Accurate and timely diagnosis and treatment are critical after HF burns. To date, the strategies for treating HF burns have been developed, mainly including topical treatments and systematic support. However, there is no standard treatment strategy with wide acceptance in the world. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the advances in the research of strategies for the treatment of HF burns.

  6. Water chlorination Vol. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Bull, R.J.; Davis, W.P.; Katz, S.; Roberts, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book describes the significant original contributions in the field of water chlorination of the last three years. It includes chlorination research, developments and alternatives. Issues covered include: water chlorination; risk; epidemiology; carcinogenic and mutagenic effects; toxicology of disinfectants; aquatic models and tumor induction; environmental effects; disinfection; reaction dynamics; chemical methods; drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment.

  7. Selected Works from the Proceedings of the Annual Communications Research Symposium (9th, Knoxville, Tennessee, April 10-11, 1986). Vol. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Michael W., Ed.

    Featuring 11 articles of original research, this collection presents selected works from the proceedings of the ninth Annual Communications Research Symposium. Following are the titles and authors of the articles included: (1) "Issues in Inferring Media Effects from Surveys" (S. H. Chaffee); (2) "Expectancy Value Theory and Multidimensional…

  8. Recent advances in lead-acid cell research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, E.

    1980-01-01

    The lead-acid battery still is and will be for the foreseeable future the most widely used secondary energy storage system. It will maintain this predominant role because of its highly developed technology, its low costs as compared to other secondary systems and its high reliability. During the last decade it has been demonstrated that the lead-acid system is capable of providing an attractive energy source of sufficient energy and power per unit weight and volume which allows its successful application for electric vehicle propulsion. Basic research has contributed in a worldwide effort to the improvement of active material utilization and cycle life as well. This is shown by a number of typical examples, such as the relationship between active material properties and capacity at high rates of discharge, the effect of acid stratification and others. Simultaneously, the expenditure for the maintenance of lead-acid batteries has been minimized by the development of peripheric equipment, as there are means for central-automatic water refill and recombination devices. It is shown that there is still a considerable potential for further improvement which might again strengthen the unique position of the lead-acid system in the market in comparison to competitive systems.

  9. Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Research Tools in Disease Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Yadava, Pramod K.

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are short sequences of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or peptide molecules which adopt a conformation and bind cognate ligands with high affinity and specificity in a manner akin to antibody-antigen interactions. It has been globally acknowledged that aptamers promise a plethora of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although use of nucleic acid aptamers as targeted therapeutics or mediators of targeted drug delivery is a relatively new avenue of research, one aptamer-based drug “Macugen” is FDA approved and a series of aptamer-based drugs are in clinical pipelines. The present review discusses the aspects of design, unique properties, applications, and development of different aptamers to aid in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment under defined conditions. PMID:25050359

  10. Empirical Research in Theatre, Vol 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addington, David W., Ed.; Kepke, Allen N., Ed.

    This journal provides a focal point for the collection and distribution of systematically processed information about theory and practice in theatre. Part of an irregularly published series, this issue contains investigations of the application of transactional analysis to the theatre, the psychological effect of counterattitudinal acting in…

  11. Index to the Journal of American Indian Education, Vol. 1, No. 1 - Vol. 8, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Charlotte Ann

    All articles (112) that appeared in the "Journal of American Indian Education" (JAIE), Vol. 1., No. 1 (June 1961) through Vol. 8, No 1 (October 1968) are indexed and annotated. The publication is divided into 3 parts: (1) annotations listed in order of appearance in JAIE by volume, number, and page; (2) author index; and (3) subject index. Later…

  12. Research in the field of nucleic acids performed in the "Stefan S. Nicolau" Institute of Virology.

    PubMed

    Popa, L M; Repanovici, R; Iliescu, R

    1985-01-01

    A review is made of the research in the field of nucleic acids performed in the "Stefan S. Nicolau" Institute of Virology. The results obtained as regards the infectivity of viral nucleic acids, the oncogenic capacity of nucleic acids extracted from tumors, the isolation, characterization, physicochemical and biological activity of viral and cellular nucleic acids, as well as some achievements in recombinant DNA technology, are briefly presented. PMID:3907119

  13. Effects of Acid Deposition on Materials. Draft of a Research Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Novakov, T.; Dod, R.L.; Kukacka, L.E.; Lipfert, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    This draft of a Research Plan on the Effects of Acid Deposition on Materials identifies and defines research needs and approaches that should result in a more accurate assessment of materials damage due to various forms of deposition of acidic, acidifying, and other atmospheric species.

  14. Nucleic Acids Research annual Database Issue and the NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection in 2009

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Michael Y.; Cochrane, Guy R.

    2009-01-01

    The current issue of Nucleic Acids Research includes descriptions of 179 databases, of which 95 are new. These databases (along with several molecular biology databases described in other journals) have been included in the Nucleic Acids Research online Molecular Biology Database Collection, bringing the total number of databases in the collection to 1170. In this introductory comment, we briefly describe some of these new databases and review the principles guiding the selection of databases for inclusion in the Nucleic Acids Research annual Database Issue and the Nucleic Acids Research online Molecular Biology Database Collection. The complete database list and summaries are available online at the Nucleic Acids Research web site (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/). PMID:19033364

  15. Recent advances in lead-acid cell research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, E.

    1980-01-01

    During the last decade it was demonstate that the lead-acid system is capable of proving an attractive energy source of sufficient energy and power per unit weight and volume which allows its sucessful application for electric vehicle propulsion. This is shown by a number of typical examples, such as the relationship between active material properties and capacity at high rates of discharge the effect of acid stratification and others. Simultaneously, the expenditure for the maintenance of lead-acid batteries was minimized by the development of peripheric equipment, as there are means for central-automatic water refill and recombination devices. It is shown that there is still a considerable potential for further improvement which might again strengthen the unique position of the lead-acid system in the market in comparison to competitive systems.

  16. CIRF Publications, Vol. 12, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    CIRF Publications, Vol. 12, No. 5 is a collection of 80 abstracts giving particular attention to education, training, and economic growth in developing countries, Iran, Japan, Kenya, the Solomon Islands, and Sri Lanka; vocational rehabilitation in Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the U. S. A.; agriculture in Chad, developing countries, and…

  17. ECUT: Energy Conversion and utilization Technologies program biocatalysis research activity. Generation of chemical intermediates by catalytic oxidative decarboxylation of dilute organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Gupta, A.; Ingham, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A rhodium-based catalyst was prepared and preliminary experiments were completed where the catalyst appeared to decarboxylate dilute acids at concentrations of 1 to 10 vol%. Electron spin resonance spectroscoy was used to characterize the catalyst as a first step leading toward modeling and optimization of rhodium catalysts. Also, a hybrid chemical/biological process for the production of hydrocarbons has been assessed. These types of catalysts could greatly increase energy efficiency of this process.

  18. Classroom Research: GC Studies of Linoleic and Linolenic Fatty Acids Found in French Fries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Janice P.; Deboise, Kristen L.; Marshall, Megan R.; Shaffer, Hannah M.; Zafar, Sara; Jones, Kevin A.; Palko, Nick R.; Mitsch, Stephen M.; Sutton, Lindsay A.; Chang, Margaret; Fromer, Ilana; Kraft, Jake; Meister, Jessica; Shah, Amar; Tan, Priscilla; Whitchurch, James

    2002-07-01

    A study of fatty-acid ratios in French fries has proved to be an excellent choice for an entry-level research class. This research develops reasoning skills and involves the subject of breast cancer, a major concern of American society. Analysis of tumor samples removed from women with breast cancer revealed high ratios of linoleic to linolenic acid, suggesting a link between the accelerated growth of breast tumors and the combination of these two fatty acids. When the ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid was approximately 9 to 1, accelerated growth was observed. Since these fatty acids are found in cooking oils, Wichita Collegiate students, under the guidance of their chemistry teacher, decided that an investigation of the ratios of these two fatty acids should be conducted. A research class was structured using a gas chromatograph for the analysis. Separation of linoleic from linolenic acid was successfully accomplished. The students experienced inductive experimental research chemistry as it applies to everyday life. The structure of this research class can serve as a model for high school and undergraduate college research curricula.

  19. Atmospheric acid deposition damage to paints. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Haynie, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    Available data from laboratory and field studies of damage to paints by erosion were analyzed to develop an atmospheric acid-deposition damage function for exterior house paints containing calcium carbonate or silicate extenders. Regression-analysis coefficients associated with sulfur dioxide levels are consistent with the reaction between the SO/sub 2/ and calcium carbonate to form soluble calcium sulfate. The effect of sulfuric acid in rain on paint is expected to behave similarly. Observed actual household painting frequencies prior to 1970 are consistent with the damage functions calculated from the experimental erosion data obtained in the 1950's, 1960's and early 1970's. Changes in both environmental conditions and types of paints marketed make it necessary to make assumptions when using the damage functions to estimate costs associated with repainting.

  20. Acid rain: Delays and management changes in the federal research program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program is to help resolve the scientific uncertainties associated with acid rain and determine if and how it should be controlled. It has yet to issue its first assessment report originally scheduled for release in 1985. NAPAP officials believe that, by 1990, their ongoing research program will provide sufficient new information about the causes and effects of acid rain to serve as the basis for policy recommendations.

  1. STATE ACID RAIN RESEARCH AND SCREENING SYSTEM - VERSION 1.0 USER'S MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a user's manual that describes Version 1.0 of EPA's STate Acid Rain Research and Screening System (STARRSS), developed to assist utility regulatory commissions in reviewing utility acid rain compliance plans. It is a screening tool that is based on scenario analysis...

  2. Safe use of high intakes of folic acid: research challenges and paths forward.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Abee L; Yetley, Elizabeth A; Thayer, Kristina A; Coates, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    Adequate folic acid intake is an effective dietary-based prevention tool for reducing the risk of neural tube defects. Achieving adequate intake for the prevention of neural tube defects frequently requires the consumption of foods fortified with folic acid and/or the use of folic acid-containing dietary supplements. To date, research on the potential for adverse effects of high intakes of folic acid has been limited. Without such research, it is difficult to define a value for high intake. In May 2015, an expert panel was tasked with examining the available scientific literature and making research recommendations within 4 general categories of potential folate-related adverse health effects: cancer, cognition in conjunction with vitamin B12 deficiency, hypersensitivity-related outcomes, and thyroid and diabetes-related disorders. This article summarizes the expert panel's conclusions, outlines the challenges faced when reviewing the literature, and examines some of the panel's recommendations for research.

  3. Advances in research on cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid: a major functional conjugated linoleic acid isomer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Lee, Hong Gu

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of a group of positional and geometric conjugated isomers of linoleic acid. Since the identification of CLA as a factor that can inhibit mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, thousands of studies have been conducted in the last several decades. Among the many isomers discovered, cis-9, trans-11 CLA is the most intensively studied because of its multiple, isomer-specific effects in humans and animals. This paper provides an overview of the available data on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, including its isomer-specific effects, biosynthesis, in vivo/in vitro research models, quantification, and the factors influencing its content in ruminant products.

  4. Catalyst and electrode research for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, A. C.; King, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of the development status of phosphoric acid fuel cells' high performance catalyst and electrode materials. Binary alloys have been identified which outperform the baseline platinum catalyst; it has also become apparent that pressurized operation is required to reach the desired efficiencies, calling in turn for the use of graphitized carbon blacks in the role of catalyst supports. Efforts to improve cell performance and reduce catalyst costs have led to the investigation of a class of organometallic cathode catalysts represented by the tetraazaannulenes, and a mixed catalyst which is a mixture of carbons catalyzed with an organometallic and a noble metal.

  5. Fungal arachidonic acid-rich oil: research, development and industrialization.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Lu-Jing; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Huang, He; Ouyang, Ping-Kai

    2014-09-01

    Fungal arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil is an important microbial oil that affects diverse physiological processes that impact normal health and chronic disease. In this article, the historic developments and technological achievements in fungal ARA-rich oil production in the past several years are reviewed. The biochemistry of ARA, ARA-rich oil synthesis and the accumulation mechanism are first introduced. Subsequently, the fermentation and downstream technologies are summarized. Furthermore, progress in the industrial production of ARA-rich oil is discussed. Finally, guidelines for future studies of fungal ARA-rich oil production are proposed in light of the current progress, challenges and trends in the field.

  6. Research progress of ursolic acid's anti-tumor actions.

    PubMed

    Zang, Li-li; Wu, Bao-ning; Lin, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Fu, Lei; Tang, Ze-yao

    2014-01-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a sort of pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid purified from natural plant. UA has a series of biological effects such as sedative, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, antiulcer, etc. It is discovered that UA has a broad-spectrum anti-tumor effect in recent years, which has attracted more and more scholars' attention. This review explained anti-tumor actions of UA, including (1) the protection of cells' DNA from different damages; (2) the anti-tumor cell proliferation by the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase signal or of FoxM1 transcription factors, respectively; (3) antiangiogenesis, (4) the immunological surveillance to tumors; (5) the inhibition of tumor cell migration and invasion; (6) the effect of UA on caspase, cytochromes C, nuclear factor kappa B, cyclooxygenase, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or mammalian target of rapamycin signal to induce tumor cell apoptosis respectively, and etc. Moreover, UA has selective toxicity to tumor cells, basically no effect on normal cells. With further studies, UA would be one of the potential anti-tumor agents. PMID:24374755

  7. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Part I. Invited Discourses: 1. The Herschel view of star formation; 2. Past, present and future of Chinese astronomy; 3. The zoo of galaxies; 4. Supernovae, the accelerating cosmos, and dark energy; Part II. Joint Discussion: 5. Very massive stars in the local universe; 6. 3-D views of the cycling Sun in stellar context; 7. Ultraviolet emission in early-type galaxies; 8. From meteors and meteorites to their parent bodies: current status and future developments; 9. The connection between radio properties and high-energy emission in AGNs; 10. Space-time reference systems for future research; Part III. Special Sessions: 11. Origin and complexity of massive star clusters; 12. Cosmic evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; 13. Galaxy evolution through secular processes; 14. New era for studying interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields; 15. The IR view of massive stars: the main sequence and beyond; 16. Science with large solar telescopes; 17. The impact hazard: current activities and future plans; 18. Calibration of star-formation rate measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum; 19. Future large scale facilities; 20. Dynamics of the star-planet relations strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 21. Strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 22. Modern views of the interstellar medium; 23. High-precision tests of stellar physics from high-precision photometry; 24. Communicating astronomy with the public for scientists; 25. Data intensive astronomy; 26. Unexplained spectral phenomena in the interstellar medium; 27. Light pollution: protecting astronomical sites and increasing global awareness through education.

  8. volBrain: An Online MRI Brain Volumetry System.

    PubMed

    Manjón, José V; Coupé, Pierrick

    2016-01-01

    The amount of medical image data produced in clinical and research settings is rapidly growing resulting in vast amount of data to analyze. Automatic and reliable quantitative analysis tools, including segmentation, allow to analyze brain development and to understand specific patterns of many neurological diseases. This field has recently experienced many advances with successful techniques based on non-linear warping and label fusion. In this work we present a novel and fully automatic pipeline for volumetric brain analysis based on multi-atlas label fusion technology that is able to provide accurate volumetric information at different levels of detail in a short time. This method is available through the volBrain online web interface (http://volbrain.upv.es), which is publically and freely accessible to the scientific community. Our new framework has been compared with current state-of-the-art methods showing very competitive results. PMID:27512372

  9. volBrain: An Online MRI Brain Volumetry System.

    PubMed

    Manjón, José V; Coupé, Pierrick

    2016-01-01

    The amount of medical image data produced in clinical and research settings is rapidly growing resulting in vast amount of data to analyze. Automatic and reliable quantitative analysis tools, including segmentation, allow to analyze brain development and to understand specific patterns of many neurological diseases. This field has recently experienced many advances with successful techniques based on non-linear warping and label fusion. In this work we present a novel and fully automatic pipeline for volumetric brain analysis based on multi-atlas label fusion technology that is able to provide accurate volumetric information at different levels of detail in a short time. This method is available through the volBrain online web interface (http://volbrain.upv.es), which is publically and freely accessible to the scientific community. Our new framework has been compared with current state-of-the-art methods showing very competitive results.

  10. volBrain: An Online MRI Brain Volumetry System

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Coupé, Pierrick

    2016-01-01

    The amount of medical image data produced in clinical and research settings is rapidly growing resulting in vast amount of data to analyze. Automatic and reliable quantitative analysis tools, including segmentation, allow to analyze brain development and to understand specific patterns of many neurological diseases. This field has recently experienced many advances with successful techniques based on non-linear warping and label fusion. In this work we present a novel and fully automatic pipeline for volumetric brain analysis based on multi-atlas label fusion technology that is able to provide accurate volumetric information at different levels of detail in a short time. This method is available through the volBrain online web interface (http://volbrain.upv.es), which is publically and freely accessible to the scientific community. Our new framework has been compared with current state-of-the-art methods showing very competitive results. PMID:27512372

  11. Preparing for a healthy future today: Folic acid formative research with young Latina adults.

    PubMed

    Flores, Alina L; Prue, Christine E; Panissidi, Paula; Lira, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Young Latina adults require targeted health messages to meet the unique needs of this life stage. Folic acid messages for the prevention of neural tube defects that are effective for other women might not be relevant to this group. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and motivators to folic acid consumption for this population and develop educational materials and messages that address their needs. This article presents 3 phases of formative research that formed the basis for the development of Spanish-language print materials and radio advertisements aimed at promoting folic acid consumption among young Latina adults.

  12. Progress, prospects, and research needs on the health effects of acid aerosols.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, M

    1989-02-01

    Research on human exposure to acidic aerosols and the health effects of such exposures has substantially strengthened the hypothesis that such aerosols are a causal factor for excesses in human mortality and morbidity that have been previously associated with crude exposure indices such as British Smoke, total suspended particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide. Research reported at this symposium also showed that combined exposures to acid aerosols and other ubiquitous air pollutants such as O3, NO2, HNO3, and SO2 produce greater effects in both humans and animals than exposures to each agent separately. The responses reported ranged from physiological functions to lung structure. Furthermore, some of the effects were cumulative with increasing duration of daily exposure and number of repetitive exposures. Critical areas for further research include better definition of the critical temporal parameters affecting exposure and response, effects of mixed pollutant exposures, and pathogenetic mechanisms for acid aerosol-induced chronic lung damage.

  13. But I've already had a healthy baby: folic acid formative research with Latina mothers.

    PubMed

    Prue, Christine E; Flores, Alina L; Panissidi, Paula; Lira, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    Each year, approximately 3000 pregnancies in the United States are affected by neural tube defects (NTDs), serious birth defects of the brain and spine. Daily periconceptional consumption of folic acid can reduce the incidence of NTDs by 50%-70%. This study was designed to understand Latina mothers' folic acid awareness, knowledge, and behaviors and to capture their reactions to advertising concepts and draft educational materials. The goal of the materials was to increase folic acid consumption through the use of a daily multivitamin. This study presents three phases of research that led to the development of Spanish language print advertisements, posters, a brochure, and radio ads that promote folic acid consumption in a manner that addresses the needs of Latina mothers.

  14. But I've already had a healthy baby: folic acid formative research with Latina mothers.

    PubMed

    Prue, Christine E; Flores, Alina L; Panissidi, Paula; Lira, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    Each year, approximately 3000 pregnancies in the United States are affected by neural tube defects (NTDs), serious birth defects of the brain and spine. Daily periconceptional consumption of folic acid can reduce the incidence of NTDs by 50%-70%. This study was designed to understand Latina mothers' folic acid awareness, knowledge, and behaviors and to capture their reactions to advertising concepts and draft educational materials. The goal of the materials was to increase folic acid consumption through the use of a daily multivitamin. This study presents three phases of research that led to the development of Spanish language print advertisements, posters, a brochure, and radio ads that promote folic acid consumption in a manner that addresses the needs of Latina mothers. PMID:18752460

  15. An overview of a 5-year research program on acid deposition in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; He, K.; Xu, X.; Zhang, P.; Bai, Y.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Duan, L.; Li, W.; Chai, F.

    2011-12-01

    Despite concerted research and regulative control of sulfur dioxide in China, acid rain remained a serious environmental issue, due to a sharp increase in the combustion of fossil fuel in the 2000s. In 2005, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China funded a five-year comprehensive research program on acid deposition. This talk will give an overview of the activities and the key findings from this study, covering emission, atmospheric processes, and deposition, effects on soil and stream waters, and impact on typical trees/plants in China. The main results include (1) China still experiences acidic rainfalls in southern and eastern regions, although the situation has stabilized after 2006 due to stringent control of SO2 by the Chinese Government; (2) Sulfate is the dominant acidic compound, but the contribution of nitrate has increased; (3) cloud-water composition in eastern China is strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions; (4) the persistent fall of acid rain in the 30 years has lead to acidification of some streams/rivers and soils in southern China; (5) the studied plants have shown varying response to acid rain; (6) some new insights have been obtained on atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric transport, soil chemistry, and ecological impacts, some of which will be discussed in this talk. Compared to the situation in North America and Europe, China's acid deposition is still serious, and continued control of sulfur and nitrogen emission is required. There is an urgent need to establish a long-term observation network/program to monitor the impact of acid deposition on soil, streams/rivers/lakes, and forests.

  16. Index to the "Journal of American Indian Education", Vol. 1, No. 1, 1961 - Vol. 13, No. 2, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, George A., Ed.

    Articles that appear in the "Journal of American Indian Education", Vol. 1, No. 1 (June 1961) through Vol. 13, No. 2 (January 1974), inclusive, are annotated in this index. Each of the approximately 190 citations gives: (1) title of article/manuscript, (2) author(s), (3) volume, number, pages, and date, and (4) subject annotation. Although most of…

  17. Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 2), Manchester, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 2), Manchester, 1873 (PL XXIX top); illustration of full milll, as enlarged to south. - Harmony Manufacturing Company, Mill Number 3, 100 North Mohawk Street, Cohoes, Albany County, NY

  18. Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 1), Manchester, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 1), Manchester, 1873 (PL XXI); illustration of turbine and belt system. - Harmony Manufacturing Company, Mill Number 3, 100 North Mohawk Street, Cohoes, Albany County, NY

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy from Harpers, vol. 20 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy from Harpers, vol. 20 1859 Courtesy of Library of Congress NORTH AND EAST FRONTS - United States General Post Office, Between Seventh, Eighth, E, & F Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. The 2016 database issue of Nucleic Acids Research and an updated molecular biology database collection.

    PubMed

    Rigden, Daniel J; Fernández-Suárez, Xosé M; Galperin, Michael Y

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research starts with overviews of the resources provided by three major bioinformatics centers, the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) and Swiss Institute for Bioinformatics (SIB). Also included are descriptions of 62 new databases and updates on 95 databases that have been previously featured in NAR plus 17 previously described elsewhere. A number of papers in this issue deal with resources on nucleic acids, including various kinds of non-coding RNAs and their interactions, molecular dynamics simulations of nucleic acid structure, and two databases of super-enhancers. The protein database section features important updates on the EBI's Pfam, PDBe and PRIDE databases, as well as a variety of resources on pathways, metabolomics and metabolic modeling. This issue also includes updates on popular metagenomics resources, such as MG-RAST, EBI Metagenomics, and probeBASE, as well as a newly compiled Human Pan-Microbe Communities database. A significant fraction of the new and updated databases are dedicated to the genetic basis of disease, primarily cancer, and various aspects of drug research, including resources for patented drugs, their side effects, withdrawn drugs, and potential drug targets. A further six papers present updated databases of various antimicrobial and anticancer peptides. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/). The NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection, http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/c/, has been updated with the addition of 88 new resources and removal of 23 obsolete websites, which brought the current listing to 1685 databases. PMID:26740669

  1. The 2016 database issue of Nucleic Acids Research and an updated molecular biology database collection

    PubMed Central

    Rigden, Daniel J.; Fernández-Suárez, Xosé M.; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research starts with overviews of the resources provided by three major bioinformatics centers, the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) and Swiss Institute for Bioinformatics (SIB). Also included are descriptions of 62 new databases and updates on 95 databases that have been previously featured in NAR plus 17 previously described elsewhere. A number of papers in this issue deal with resources on nucleic acids, including various kinds of non-coding RNAs and their interactions, molecular dynamics simulations of nucleic acid structure, and two databases of super-enhancers. The protein database section features important updates on the EBI's Pfam, PDBe and PRIDE databases, as well as a variety of resources on pathways, metabolomics and metabolic modeling. This issue also includes updates on popular metagenomics resources, such as MG-RAST, EBI Metagenomics, and probeBASE, as well as a newly compiled Human Pan-Microbe Communities database. A significant fraction of the new and updated databases are dedicated to the genetic basis of disease, primarily cancer, and various aspects of drug research, including resources for patented drugs, their side effects, withdrawn drugs, and potential drug targets. A further six papers present updated databases of various antimicrobial and anticancer peptides. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/). The NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection, http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/c/, has been updated with the addition of 88 new resources and removal of 23 obsolete websites, which brought the current listing to 1685 databases. PMID:26740669

  2. The 2016 database issue of Nucleic Acids Research and an updated molecular biology database collection.

    PubMed

    Rigden, Daniel J; Fernández-Suárez, Xosé M; Galperin, Michael Y

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research starts with overviews of the resources provided by three major bioinformatics centers, the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) and Swiss Institute for Bioinformatics (SIB). Also included are descriptions of 62 new databases and updates on 95 databases that have been previously featured in NAR plus 17 previously described elsewhere. A number of papers in this issue deal with resources on nucleic acids, including various kinds of non-coding RNAs and their interactions, molecular dynamics simulations of nucleic acid structure, and two databases of super-enhancers. The protein database section features important updates on the EBI's Pfam, PDBe and PRIDE databases, as well as a variety of resources on pathways, metabolomics and metabolic modeling. This issue also includes updates on popular metagenomics resources, such as MG-RAST, EBI Metagenomics, and probeBASE, as well as a newly compiled Human Pan-Microbe Communities database. A significant fraction of the new and updated databases are dedicated to the genetic basis of disease, primarily cancer, and various aspects of drug research, including resources for patented drugs, their side effects, withdrawn drugs, and potential drug targets. A further six papers present updated databases of various antimicrobial and anticancer peptides. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/). The NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection, http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/c/, has been updated with the addition of 88 new resources and removal of 23 obsolete websites, which brought the current listing to 1685 databases.

  3. Additional insights. Commentary on “the musical stroop effect: opening a new avenue to research on automatisms” by l. Grégoire, P. Perruchet, and B. Poulin-Charronnat (Experimental Psychology, 2013, vol. 60, pp. 269–278).

    PubMed

    Akiva-Kabiri, Lilach; Henik, Avishai

    2014-01-01

    In their paper "The Musical Stroop Effect: Opening a New Avenue to Research on Automatisms," Grégoire, Perruchet, and Poulin-Charronnat (2013) use a musical Stroop-like task to demonstrate the automaticity of musical note naming in musicians. In addition, the authors suggest that music training can serve as a tool in order to study the acquisition of automaticity. In the following commentary, we aim to address three main issues concerning the paper by Grégoire et al. (2013). First, we will suggest some additional interpretations of the results; specifically, we will relate to the association between music and space. Second, we will discuss a methodological issue dealing with interference, facilitation, and the role of the neutral condition. We suggest that the study by Grégoire et al. (2013) lacks a proper neutral condition and thus it is impossible to assert that the congruency effect is interference based. Third, we will discuss the authors' suggestion of using the musical Stroop effect as a tool for studying automatism. We consider the practical relevance of music training as a tool for studying the acquisition of automaticity by pointing out that music training is highly heterogeneous. PMID:24449650

  4. Additional insights. Commentary on “the musical stroop effect: opening a new avenue to research on automatisms” by l. Grégoire, P. Perruchet, and B. Poulin-Charronnat (Experimental Psychology, 2013, vol. 60, pp. 269–278).

    PubMed

    Akiva-Kabiri, Lilach; Henik, Avishai

    2014-01-01

    In their paper "The Musical Stroop Effect: Opening a New Avenue to Research on Automatisms," Grégoire, Perruchet, and Poulin-Charronnat (2013) use a musical Stroop-like task to demonstrate the automaticity of musical note naming in musicians. In addition, the authors suggest that music training can serve as a tool in order to study the acquisition of automaticity. In the following commentary, we aim to address three main issues concerning the paper by Grégoire et al. (2013). First, we will suggest some additional interpretations of the results; specifically, we will relate to the association between music and space. Second, we will discuss a methodological issue dealing with interference, facilitation, and the role of the neutral condition. We suggest that the study by Grégoire et al. (2013) lacks a proper neutral condition and thus it is impossible to assert that the congruency effect is interference based. Third, we will discuss the authors' suggestion of using the musical Stroop effect as a tool for studying automatism. We consider the practical relevance of music training as a tool for studying the acquisition of automaticity by pointing out that music training is highly heterogeneous.

  5. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Heath, Robert R; Vazquez, Aime; Schnell, Elena Q; Villareal, Janett; Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D

    2009-12-01

    Several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are captured in traps baited with the protein bait NuLure combined with borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) in an aqueous solution, typically 9% NuLure (vol:vol) with 3% borax (wt:vol). NuLure is an acid hydrolysate of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline, and increase in alkalinity results in increase of ammonia release from the bait solution. This is a very dynamic system, with resultant pH affected by factors such as the amount of borax added, the pH of the water used for preparation, the age of the bait solution, and the development of microbial growth. Problems with borax include amount needed to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions, which creates difficulties in disposing of spent bait in fruit fly trapping programs. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate NaOH as an alternative method to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions. Laboratory experiments compared effect of NaOH versus borax for pH modification on changes in pH and ammonia content of NuLure solutions over time. Although NuLure/NaOH solutions could be adjusted to a more alkaline pH than NuLure/borax solutions, borax plays a critical role in pH stability over time. However, the pH of NuLure/NaOH is stabilized when propylene glycol (10% vol:vol) was used to prepare the bait solution. The use of NaOH can provide an alternative to the use of borax to increase bait solution alkalinity. PMID:20069869

  6. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Heath, Robert R; Vazquez, Aime; Schnell, Elena Q; Villareal, Janett; Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D

    2009-12-01

    Several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are captured in traps baited with the protein bait NuLure combined with borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) in an aqueous solution, typically 9% NuLure (vol:vol) with 3% borax (wt:vol). NuLure is an acid hydrolysate of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline, and increase in alkalinity results in increase of ammonia release from the bait solution. This is a very dynamic system, with resultant pH affected by factors such as the amount of borax added, the pH of the water used for preparation, the age of the bait solution, and the development of microbial growth. Problems with borax include amount needed to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions, which creates difficulties in disposing of spent bait in fruit fly trapping programs. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate NaOH as an alternative method to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions. Laboratory experiments compared effect of NaOH versus borax for pH modification on changes in pH and ammonia content of NuLure solutions over time. Although NuLure/NaOH solutions could be adjusted to a more alkaline pH than NuLure/borax solutions, borax plays a critical role in pH stability over time. However, the pH of NuLure/NaOH is stabilized when propylene glycol (10% vol:vol) was used to prepare the bait solution. The use of NaOH can provide an alternative to the use of borax to increase bait solution alkalinity.

  7. [The retrospection of nucleic acids metabolism research before the 1950s].

    PubMed

    Zhang, He

    2015-09-01

    People found the guanine in the 1840s and the nucleic acid in the 1860s. But they did not know the relationship between them. Later, people found various bases, confirmed the relationship between bases and nucleic acids, and understood the three basic processes of katabolic metabolism of nucleic acids by a number of scientists, especially with Kossel's efforts. In the 1940s, Kalckar isolated and identified some key enzymes of nucleotides metabolism, as well as Buchanan and Greenberg found the two processes of synthesis of nucleotides. The model of DNA double helix came out in 1953. Kornberg proved DNA is self-replicating in 1956. Stahl, Meselson and Vinograd found the semiconservative replication mechanism of DNA in 1958. At the same time, Ochoa found the polynucleotide phosphorylase, the enzyme can catalyze the synthesis of RNA, and synthesized RNA in 1955. Kornberg synthesized DNA on the basis of Ochoa's work in 1956. So far people found the processes of genetic information flow from DNA to RNA. It contributed to the comprehensive recognition and exploration of the pathways of genetic information and made the research of gene expression and regulation possible.

  8. Journal of Undergraduate Psychological Research, Vol. 1, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Sandra L., Ed.; Hughmanick, Michael, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Articles resulting from studies conducted by college undergraduates in all areas of experimental psychology are provided, together with abstracts of other papers authored by students in the field of study. The articles are: The Influence of SET on Solving Hidden-Word Problems by Lana I. Boutacoff; Violation of Personal Space in Deviant Adolescents…

  9. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP (VOL. 71)

    SciTech Connect

    KHARZEEV, D.; STASTO, A.; TUCHIN, K.; VOGELSANG, W.

    2005-03-07

    The high energy limit of Quantum Chromodynamics is one of the most fascinating areas in the theory of strong interactions. Over a decade ago the HERA experiment at DESY in Hamburg provided strong evidence for the rise of the proton structure function at small values of the Bjorken variable x. This behavior can be explained as an increase of the gluon density of the proton with energy or correspondingly with smaller values of x. This increase can be attributed on the other hand to the large probability of gluon splitting in QCD. The natural framework for describing the gluon dynamics at small x is the Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov formalism developed some 30 years ago. It predicts that the gluon density grows very fast with increasing energy, as a power with a large intercept. This increase has to be tamed in order to satisfy the unitarily bound. Over two decades ago, Gribov, Levin and Ryskin proposed the mechanism called the parton saturation, which slows down the fast rise of the gluon density. This formalism accounts for an additional gluon recombination apart from the pure gluon splitting. It leads to the very interesting non-linear modification of the evolution equations for the gluon distributions. Since then, much progress has been made in the theoretical formulation of the parton saturation. Currently the most complete theory for parton saturation is the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) with the corresponding renormalization group functional evolution equation, the JIMWLK equation, which describes the nonlinear evolution of the gluon density at small values of x and in the regime where gluon fields are strong. The simpler form of the JIMWLK equation, the Balitskii-Kovchegov (BK) equation has been successfully used to explain the experimental data on proton structure function. The models, which include the parton saturation, have been applied to explain the experimental data at Tevatron and RHIC. In the latter case the Color Glass Condensate can be thought of as an initial stage for the subsequent formation of the Quark Gluon Plasma. Despite its success in describing various observables, the parton saturation phenomenon still needs deeper understanding and improvements; in particular, the existence or limitations on geometrical scaling, the edge effects in the high energy collisions, or impact parameter dependence. In particular it has been recently realized that the current evolution equations of CGC, the JWIWLK equations miss some of the important contributions coming from the resummation of the so-called Pomeron loops. These terms are known to provide sizeable corrections to the asymptotic high energy behavior. Also, the CGC formalism was constructed within the leading logarithmic approximation, and it is known that the corrections which go beyond this order are large.

  10. Research in space commercialization, technology transfer and communications, vol. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, D. A.; Agnew, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Spectrum management, models for evaluating communications systems, and implications of communications regulations for NASA are considered as major parts of communications policy. Marketing LANDSAT products in developing countries, a political systems analysis of LANDSAT, and private financing and operation of the space operations center (space station) are discussed. Investment requirements, risks, government support, and other primary business and management considerations are examined.

  11. The 2015 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue and molecular biology database collection.

    PubMed

    Galperin, Michael Y; Rigden, Daniel J; Fernández-Suárez, Xosé M

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue contains 172 papers that include descriptions of 56 new molecular biology databases, and updates on 115 databases whose descriptions have been previously published in NAR or other journals. Following the classification that has been introduced last year in order to simplify navigation of the entire issue, these articles are divided into eight subject categories. This year's highlights include RNAcentral, an international community portal to various databases on noncoding RNA; ValidatorDB, a validation database for protein structures and their ligands; SASBDB, a primary repository for small-angle scattering data of various macromolecular complexes; MoonProt, a database of 'moonlighting' proteins, and two new databases of protein-protein and other macromolecular complexes, ComPPI and the Complex Portal. This issue also includes an unusually high number of cancer-related databases and other databases dedicated to genomic basics of disease and potential drugs and drug targets. The size of NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection, http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/a/, remained approximately the same, following the addition of 74 new resources and removal of 77 obsolete web sites. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research web site (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/).

  12. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program: Acidic deposition: An inventory of non-Federal research, monitoring, and assessment information

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The Acid Precipitation Act of 1990 (Title VII of the Energy Security Act of 1980, P.L. 96-294) established the Interagency Task Force on Acid Precipitation to develop and implement the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The information included in the document was provided to NAPAP's Task Group Leaders and State-of-Science and State-of-Technology authors in July 1989. The early release was intended to assure that the authors would be aware of the information at an early phase in the assessment production process.

  13. The 2014 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue and an updated NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Suárez, Xosé M.; Rigden, Daniel J.; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue includes descriptions of 58 new molecular biology databases and recent updates to 123 databases previously featured in NAR or other journals. For convenience, the issue is now divided into eight sections that reflect major subject categories. Among the highlights of this issue are six databases of the transcription factor binding sites in various organisms and updates on such popular databases as CAZy, Database of Genomic Variants (DGV), dbGaP, DrugBank, KEGG, miRBase, Pfam, Reactome, SEED, TCDB and UniProt. There is a strong block of structural databases, which includes, among others, the new RNA Bricks database, updates on PDBe, PDBsum, ArchDB, Gene3D, ModBase, Nucleic Acid Database and the recently revived iPfam database. An update on the NCBI’s MMDB describes VAST+, an improved tool for protein structure comparison. Two articles highlight the development of the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database: one describes SCOPe, which automates assignment of new structures to the existing SCOP hierarchy; the other one describes the first version of SCOP2, with its more flexible approach to classifying protein structures. This issue also includes a collection of articles on bacterial taxonomy and metagenomics, which includes updates on the List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN), Ribosomal Database Project (RDP), the Silva/LTP project and several new metagenomics resources. The NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection, http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/c/, has been expanded to 1552 databases. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/). PMID:24316579

  14. The 2014 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue and an updated NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Suárez, Xosé M; Rigden, Daniel J; Galperin, Michael Y

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue includes descriptions of 58 new molecular biology databases and recent updates to 123 databases previously featured in NAR or other journals. For convenience, the issue is now divided into eight sections that reflect major subject categories. Among the highlights of this issue are six databases of the transcription factor binding sites in various organisms and updates on such popular databases as CAZy, Database of Genomic Variants (DGV), dbGaP, DrugBank, KEGG, miRBase, Pfam, Reactome, SEED, TCDB and UniProt. There is a strong block of structural databases, which includes, among others, the new RNA Bricks database, updates on PDBe, PDBsum, ArchDB, Gene3D, ModBase, Nucleic Acid Database and the recently revived iPfam database. An update on the NCBI's MMDB describes VAST+, an improved tool for protein structure comparison. Two articles highlight the development of the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database: one describes SCOPe, which automates assignment of new structures to the existing SCOP hierarchy; the other one describes the first version of SCOP2, with its more flexible approach to classifying protein structures. This issue also includes a collection of articles on bacterial taxonomy and metagenomics, which includes updates on the List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN), Ribosomal Database Project (RDP), the Silva/LTP project and several new metagenomics resources. The NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection, http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/c/, has been expanded to 1552 databases. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/).

  15. Oral administration of docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaeinoic acids is not anticonvulsant in rats: implications for translational research.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Niccolo; Lecointe, Cécile; Bordet, Regis; Vallée, Louis; Galabert, Claude; Gressens, Pierre; Auvin, Stéphane

    2011-12-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are dietary fatty acids that are involved in a myriad of physiological processes in the brain. Although experimental data have shown that PUFAs have anticonvulsant properties, the outcomes of clinical trials have been controversial. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a PUFA which has been reported to exert anticonvulsant effects. Here we studied anticonvulsant potential of a mixture of enriched n-3 PUFA upon their oral administration in rats. We did not observe an anticonvulsant effect of n-3 PUFA in the i.v. pentylentetrazol threshold test. n-3 PUFA component was increased in the plasma of rats treated with the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/DHA mix (275 mg/kg/d/400 mg/kg/d) due to the increase of both DHA and EPA. We also found modification of PUFA composition in the brain. Despite PUFA profiles modified both in plasma and in the brain, we did not find any anticonvulsant effect of orally administered DHA. Further studies are needed to define the type and the amount of fatty acids that would possess anticonvulsant properties. As the existing literature suggests that the route of administration of PUFA may be crucial, future studies should involve oral administration to provide relevant clinical information.

  16. Technical comparison between Hythane, GNG and gasoline fueled vehicles. [Hythane = 85 vol% natural gas, 15 vol% H[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    This interim report documents progress on this 2-year Alternative Fuel project, scheduled to end early 1993. Hythane is 85 vol% compressed natural gas (CNG) and 15 vol% hydrogen; it has the potential to meet or exceed the California Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standard. Three USA trucks (3/4 ton pickup) were operated on single fuel (unleaded gasoline, CNG, Hythane) in Denver. The report includes emission testing, fueling facility, hazard and operability study, and a framework for a national hythane strategy.

  17. The styrene-maleic acid copolymer: a versatile tool in membrane research.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Jonas M; Scheidelaar, Stefan; Koorengevel, Martijn C; Dominguez, Juan J; Schäfer, Marre; van Walree, Cornelis A; Killian, J Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    A new and promising tool in membrane research is the detergent-free solubilization of membrane proteins by styrene-maleic acid copolymers (SMAs). These amphipathic molecules are able to solubilize lipid bilayers in the form of nanodiscs that are bounded by the polymer. Thus, membrane proteins can be directly extracted from cells in a water-soluble form while conserving a patch of native membrane around them. In this review article, we briefly discuss current methods of membrane protein solubilization and stabilization. We then zoom in on SMAs, describe their physico-chemical properties, and discuss their membrane-solubilizing effect. This is followed by an overview of studies in which SMA has been used to isolate and investigate membrane proteins. Finally, potential future applications of the methodology are discussed for structural and functional studies on membrane proteins in a near-native environment and for characterizing protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions. PMID:26639665

  18. The research progress of antitumorous effectiveness of Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide in north of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yun; Wang, Bao-Lei

    2009-03-01

    The sea cucumbers growing in the estuary of the Pohai of northern China are called Stichopus japonicus and are the orthodox holothurians in traditional Chinese medicine. There are multiple biological active ingredients in S. japonicus, and S. japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide (SJAMP) is one of the important ingredients. SJAMP has multiple pharmacologic actions, such as antitumor, immunologic regulation, anticoagulated blood, and antivirus. The research on antitumor has been carried out by way of animal experiments aiming at studying internal tumor-inhibiting effect of SJAMP, and the route of administration is usually peritoneal or intragastric. Additionally, sea cucumbers have been widely recognized and applied as medicated food or therapeutic prescriptions during and after the treatment of some tumors.

  19. Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 1), Manchester, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 1), Manchester, 1873 (PL XX); illustration used by eminent British textile engineer to exemplify the ultimate development in American cotton mill technology. - Harmony Manufacturing Company, Mill Number 3, 100 North Mohawk Street, Cohoes, Albany County, NY

  20. 14. Photocopy of engraving from History of Westchester County, Vol. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of engraving from History of Westchester County, Vol. 2, by L.E. Preston & Company, Philadelphia, 1886 ALEXANDER SMITH AND SONS CARPET COMPANY, DETAIL, SPINNING AND PRINT MILLS, - Moquette Row Housing, Moquette Row North & Moquette Row South, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  1. 13. Photocopy of engraving from History of Westchester County, Vol. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of engraving from History of Westchester County, Vol. 2, by J. Thomas Scharf, published by L.E. Preston & Company, Philadelphia, 1886 ALEXANDER SMITH AND SONS CARPET COMPANY, MOQUETTE MILLS, WEAVING MILLS, SPINNING AND PRINT MILLS - Moquette Row Housing, Moquette Row North & Moquette Row South, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  2. 15. Photocopy of engraving from History of Westchester County, Vol. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of engraving from History of Westchester County, Vol. 2, by J. Thomas Scharf, published by L.E. Preston ALEXANDER SMITH AND SONS CARPET COMPANY, DETAIL, MOQUETTE MILLS - Moquette Row Housing, Moquette Row North & Moquette Row South, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  3. 3. Photocopy form Western Architect, Vol, 19, No. 8, August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy form Western Architect, Vol, 19, No. 8, August 1913, following page 80. 'TOWN AND COMMUNITY PLANNING, WALTER BURLEY GRIFFEN.' ORIGINAL PRESENTATION DRAWING AT NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, ART DEPARTMENT. - Joshua G. Melson House, 56 River Heights Drive, Mason City, Cerro Gordo County, IA

  4. Synthesis, spectral, thermal and thermodynamic studies of oxovanadium(IV) complexes of Schiff bases derived from 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid with salicylaldehyde derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Niad, Mahmood; Irandoost, Amene

    2013-04-15

    Synthesis and evaluation of three new oxovanadium(IV) complexes, formed by the interaction of vanadyl acetylacetonate and the Schiff bases: 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (L(1)), 3,4-bis-((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (L(2)) and 3,4-bis((E)-2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (L(3)) in methanol. The complexes have been characterized and studied by IR spectra, UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetry in order to evaluate their thermal stability and thermal decomposition. According to the results discussed from TG curves, the order of thermal stability for the complexes is VOL(3)>VOL(1)>VOL(2). Their formation constants (Kf) were obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopic titration at 15, 25, 35 and 45 °C in methanol by SQUAD software. The trend of formation constants of the complexes as follows: VOL(3)>VOL(2)>VOL(1).

  5. Synthesis, spectral, thermal and thermodynamic studies of oxovanadium(IV) complexes of Schiff bases derived from 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid with salicylaldehyde derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Niad, Mahmood; Irandoost, Amene

    2013-04-01

    Synthesis and evaluation of three new oxovanadium(IV) complexes, formed by the interaction of vanadyl acetylacetonate and the Schiff bases: 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (L1), 3,4-bis-((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (L2) and 3,4-bis((E)-2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (L3) in methanol. The complexes have been characterized and studied by IR spectra, UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetry in order to evaluate their thermal stability and thermal decomposition. According to the results discussed from TG curves, the order of thermal stability for the complexes is VOL3 > VOL1 > VOL2. Their formation constants (Kf) were obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopic titration at 15, 25, 35 and 45 °C in methanol by SQUAD software. The trend of formation constants of the complexes as follows: VOL3 > VOL2 > VOL1.

  6. Child Language Newsletter. Vol. 1, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, David, Ed.

    The purpose of this newsletter is to report current activities concerning the study of child language. Each issue will offer reports of ongoing research, announcements of upcoming meetings and conferences and reports on those recently held, and news of recent publications concerning language acquisition. This issue's research report is "Child…

  7. Youth Studies Abstracts, Vol. 3 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1984

    1984-01-01

    These abstracts summarize 73 research projects that were conducted in Australia during 1982 and 1983 to investigate various issues related to youth employment and unemployment. Included among the topics addressed in the individual research projects are the following: economic developments, education and rural communities; employment (changing…

  8. Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 29, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Mark R., Ed.; Porter, Lyman W., Ed.

    The volume contains 20 scholarly essays on current research in representative areas of the field of psychology. Most of the authors are professors and researchers at universities in the United States, representing departments of psychology, management, social ecology, human development, education, psychiatry, and medicine. A few private research…

  9. Sensitization of Listeria monocytogenes to Low pH, Organic Acids, and Osmotic Stress by Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Clive; Park, Simon F.

    2001-01-01

    The killing of Listeria monocytogenes following exposure to low pH, organic acids, and osmotic stress was enhanced by the addition of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol. At pH 3, for example, the presence of this agent stimulated killing by more than 3 log units in 40 min of exposure. The rate of cell death at pH 3.0 was dependent on the concentration of ethanol. Thus, while the presence 10% (vol/vol) ethanol at pH 3.0 stimulated killing by more than 3 log units in just 5 min, addition of 1.25% (vol/vol) ethanol resulted in less than 1 log unit of killing in 10 min. The ability of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol to stimulate killing at low pH and at elevated osmolarity was also dependent on the amplitude of the imposed stress, and an increase in the pH from 3.0 to 4.0 or a decrease in the sodium chloride concentration from 25 to 2.5% led to a marked reduction in the effectiveness of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol as an augmentative agent. Combinations of organic acids, low pH, and ethanol proved to be particularly effective bactericidal treatments; the most potent combination was pH 3.0, 50 mM formate, and 5 % (vol/vol) ethanol, which resulted in 5 log units of killing in just 4 min. Ethanol-enhanced killing correlated with damage to the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:11282610

  10. Irish Educational Studies, Vol. 3 No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKernan, Jim, Ed.

    Research problems and issues of concern to educators in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland are discussed in 21 papers. Papers fall into the general categories of educational history and current practices. Papers in the first category cover the following topics: a history of the Education Inquiry of 1824-1826, the "hedge" or private…

  11. T & D Publications. Vol. 13. No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The sixth dispatch of T & D abstracts contains 42 abstracts of international scope which focus on education, training, and work patterns, and on training in rural areas. Brief abstracts are presented under the following headings: conferences and exhibitions, new policies, new institutions, management, research, training standards, agriculture,…

  12. Quantum Cosmology - The Supersymmetric Perspective - Vol. 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniz, Paulo Vargas

    What is this book about? What is quantum cosmology with supersymmetry? How is supersymmetry implemented? Is it through the use of (recent developments in) a superstring theory? Why should the very early universe be explored in that manner? Are there enticing and interesting research problems left to solve? How relevant would it be to address and solve them?

  13. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of 76 projects (most of which were conducted in Australia and New Zealand) concerned with programs for youth and with social and educational developments affecting youth. The abstracts are arranged in the following two categories: (1) Social and Educational Developments: Policy, Analysis, Research; and (2) Programs:…

  14. Irish Educational Studies. Vol. 4 no. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKernan, Jim, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The following papers dealing with education in Ireland are presented: "The Fortunes of Education as a Subject of Study and of Research in Ireland" (John Coolahan); "The Irish Charter Schools: The Grand Design in Principle and Practice" (Kenneth Milne); "Quaker Education in 18th and 19th Century Ireland" (Cyril G. Brannigan); "Images of Women in…

  15. Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy Vol. 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Andre

    2006-12-01

    This book is the seventh volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series covers a large range of fields and themes: in practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, series of conferences, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and sometimes enlightening 'lessons learned' sections. The book concludes with an updated bibliography of publications related to socio-astronomy and to the interactions of the astronomy community with the society at large. This volume will be most usefully read by researchers, editors, publishers, librarians, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as by students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space sciences.

  16. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Research programs on lead-acid batteries are reported that cover active materials utilization, active material integrity, and some technical support projects. Processing problems were encountered and corrected. Components and materials, a lead-plastic composite grid, cell designs, and deliverables are described. Cell testing is discussed, as well as battery subsystems, including fuel gage, thermal management, and electrolyte circulation. (LEW)

  17. [Reliability of % vol. declarations on labels of wine bottles].

    PubMed

    Schütz, Harald; Erdmann, Freidoon; Verhoff, Marcel A; Weiler, Günter

    2005-01-01

    The Council Regulation (EC) no. 1493/1999 of 17 May 1999 on the common organisation of the market in wine (Abl. L 179 dated 14/7/1999) and the GMO Wine 2000 (Annex VII A) stipulates that the labels of wine bottles have to indicate, among others, information on the sales designation of the product, the nominal volume and the alcoholic strength. The latter must not differ by more than 0.5% vol. from the alcoholic strength as established by analysis. Only when quality wines are stored in bottles for more than three years, the accepted tolerance limits are +/- 0.8% vol. The presented investigation results show that deviations have to be taken into account which may be highly relevant for forensic practice.

  18. [Reliability of % vol. declarations on labels of wine bottles].

    PubMed

    Schütz, Harald; Erdmann, Freidoon; Verhoff, Marcel A; Weiler, Günter

    2005-01-01

    The Council Regulation (EC) no. 1493/1999 of 17 May 1999 on the common organisation of the market in wine (Abl. L 179 dated 14/7/1999) and the GMO Wine 2000 (Annex VII A) stipulates that the labels of wine bottles have to indicate, among others, information on the sales designation of the product, the nominal volume and the alcoholic strength. The latter must not differ by more than 0.5% vol. from the alcoholic strength as established by analysis. Only when quality wines are stored in bottles for more than three years, the accepted tolerance limits are +/- 0.8% vol. The presented investigation results show that deviations have to be taken into account which may be highly relevant for forensic practice. PMID:15887778

  19. Teller Award Acceptance Speech (LIRPP Vol. 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrory, Robert L.

    2016-10-01

    It is indeed an honor to receive an award named for such an accomplished and famous physicist who is present with us today, Dr. Edward Teller. In thinking over what to say on this occasion, I noted that the Teller Award was given for pioneering research in controlled fusion, in controlling fusion for the benefit of mankind. I think everyone in this audience certainly would agree that this lofty goal is truly one of the unconquered, grand challenges in applied physics...

  20. [Primary research on anti-tumor activity of panaxadiol fatty acid esters].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Hong; Zhang, Lian-Xue; Li, Xiang-Gao; Gao, Yu-Gang; Liu, Ya-Jing

    2006-11-01

    For making use of Ginseng resources and finding new anti-tumor drugs, the anti-tumor activity of three kinds of new panaxadiol fatty acid ester derivates: 3beta-acetoxy panaxadiol (I), 3beta-palmitic acid aceloxy panaxadiol (II), 3beta-octadecanoic acid aceloxy panaxadiol (Ill) and panaxaiol were compared through the method of cell stain and counting. Tumor cell was Vero cell line. Positive control was 5-FU. Blank was RPM11640 culture medium. Negative control was RPM11640 culture medium and the solvent for subjected drugs. The result showed that compound I had the strongest anti-tumor activity, second was panaxadiol, II and III had the same and the weakest antitumor activity. Furthermore, the anti-tumor activities of panaxadiol fatty acid ester derivates showed positive correlation with subjects' concentrations, but no relationship with molecular weight of fatty acid. PMID:17228662

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammation: a perspective on the challenges of evaluating efficacy in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a common underpinning of many diseases. There is a strong pre-clinical evidence base demonstrating the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for ameliorating inflammation and thereby reducing disease burden. Clinically, C-reactive protein (CRP) serves as both a reliable marker for monitoring inflammation and a modifiable endpoint for studies of anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals. However, clinical omega-3 fatty acid supplementation trials have not replicated pre-clinical findings in terms of consistent CRP reductions. Methodological differences present numerous challenges in translating pre-clinical evidence to clinical results. It is crucial that future clinical nutrition research clearly distinguish between the reversal of established inflammation and preventing the development of inflammation. Future clinical studies evaluating the ability of omega-3 fatty acids to attenuate an excessive inflammatory response, may be advanced by employing new statistical approaches and utilizing models of induced inflammation, such as low-dose human endotoxemia.

  2. [Research progress and application prospect of near-infrared spectroscopy in analysis of food amino acid].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Ning; He, Yong

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the progress and application of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) used to detect amino acids in the growth of crops and food processing process. With online searching databases including ISI (Web of Knowledge), CNKI (China Knowledge Network), summarize the detection of chemical value using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and chemometric methods involved in the application of NIR used to analyze amino acids in food, meanwhile summarize the data, materials and main topics in relevant original literature. Overview the methods of chemical value detection using HPLC and chemometric analysis, their applications in detecting the quality of crops, determining the content of water, amino acids and polyphenol in green tea, detecting the quality of feed and determining the content of amino acids in cheese, ham and meat products, We forecasted the application of NIR in determining the content of amino acids in food and analyzed its merits and drawbacks. The development of NIR's application in amino acids detection should be based on the HPLC detection, and the problem of model transfer mainly restricts its large-scale promotion currently. Online analysis can monitor the entire reaction and change process from raw materials to products and thus meets the needs of real-time monitoring food quality from production to sales, and it will be an important direction for future.

  3. Sustainable source of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid from metabolically engineered Yarrowia lipolytica: from fundamental research to commercial production.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dongming; Jackson, Ethel N; Zhu, Quinn

    2015-02-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids, cis-5, 8, 11, 14, and 17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA) and cis-4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19-docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; DHA), have wide-ranging benefits in improving heart health, immune function, mental health, and infant cognitive development. Currently, the major source for EPA and DHA is from fish oil, and a minor source of DHA is from microalgae. With the increased demand for EPA and DHA, DuPont has developed a clean and sustainable source of the omega-3 fatty acid EPA through fermentation using metabolically engineered strains of Yarrowia lipolytica. In this mini-review, we will focus on DuPont's technology for EPA production. Specifically, EPA biosynthetic and supporting pathways have been introduced into the oleaginous yeast to synthesize and accumulate EPA under fermentation conditions. This Yarrowia platform can also produce tailored omega-3 (EPA, DHA) and/or omega-6 (ARA, GLA) fatty acid mixtures in the cellular lipid profiles. Fundamental research such as metabolic engineering for strain construction, high-throughput screening for strain selection, fermentation process development, and process scale-up were all needed to achieve the high levels of EPA titer, rate, and yield required for commercial application. Here, we summarize how we have combined the fundamental bioscience and the industrial engineering skills to achieve large-scale production of Yarrowia biomass containing high amounts of EPA, which led to two commercial products, New Harvest™ EPA oil and Verlasso® salmon.

  4. Metrology for ocean salinity and acidity- the European Metrology Research Project ENV05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, Petra; Seitz, Steffen; Lago, Simona; Stoica, Daniela; Mariassy, Michal; Clough, Robert; Camões, Maria Filomena

    2013-04-01

    An overview and status report on the EMRP (European Metrology Research Project) "Metrology for ocean salinity and acidity" will be given. The project has been started in September 2011. The consortium consists of partners from ten European metrology institutes and two universities. Need for the project The project covers the thermodynamic quantities salinity, conductivity, density, speed of sound, and temperature, and the chemical quantities pH, oxygen content and composition. It aims to develop methods, standards and tools to improve the databases used for climate models. Measurement standards with well characterized uncertainties will enable calibration of in-situ observing sensor networks and satellite systems traceable to SI units. The results will improve the metrological infrastructure required for a reliable monitoring and modelling of ocean processes. This will allow scientists to measure more accurately small changes in long-term oceanographic data series. Expected results and potential impact The basis for data at higher pressure of up to 70 MPa and in a temperature range between 0 ° C and 40 ° C for the Equation of State will be improved by measurements of density, salinity and speed of sound. A novel primary conductivity sensor which can be used at high pressure will be developed, tested and linked to primary improved density measurements at the same high pressure. Improved and robust speed of sound measurement data for both high accuracy laboratory and in situ measurements of seawater, will provided by means of an ultrasonic double-reflector pulse-echo overlap technique. This also includes improved temperature measurements with an uncertainty of 5 mK. The determination of dissolved oxygen measurement methods will be optimised for the special requirements of seawater. A reduction of the uncertainty by a least a factor of three is anticipated. Harmonised pH measurement procedures will be provided to underpin the traceability of the pH data of seawater

  5. Acid rain and related air-pollution research. A directory of USDA and state projects in CRIS. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The directory is a listing of the ongoing and recently completed research projects from the Current Research Information System (CRIS) database of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which deal with acid rain and the related effects of air pollutants on crops and livestock. The projects were identified in March 1986, and include research active as of October 1982. The CRIS database contains projects conducted or sponsored by the USDA, State agricultural experiment stations and land-grant institutions, State forestry schools and other cooperating State institutions. CRIS is operated by the Cooperative State Research Service, USDA. Project abstracts appear in the main entry section, which is organized into chapters based upon plant, animal and natural resource categories used for classifying projects in the CRIS database. Projects assigned more than one category are repeated in each of the applicable chapters. Additional points of access are provided by a keyword/title index, investigator index, and performing institution index.

  6. Vibration test methods and their experimental research on the performance of the lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Baoxiang; Wang, Hua; He, Xie

    2014-12-01

    As we know, Lead-acid battery is difficult to balance many factors such as the accuracy and the on-line testing requirement. The detecting system, as stated in this article, is based on the vibration test procedure, dynamically following the electrochemical process of the Lead-acid Battery, and collects the real-time state parameters for calculation, analysis and judgment. It also quantizes precisely the degradation and chargeability of the battery and therefore self-adapts to the ideal target values. During the test, it has not charged and discharged large current to the lead-acid battery, it only plus a smaller and shorter time of impulse voltage signal on both ends of lead-acid battery, so the battery measured is damage free, and the system energy consumption is small; Using the load compensation technology, it has solved the influence of load on the test results. What's more, the load characteristics are improved at the same time, it realized the online detection. The vibration detection is based on the adaptive fuzzy inference model which has taken various factors into account, concerning the choices of input aspects which may influence the output value. It realized a number of Lead-acid Battery voltage self-adaption and accomplished a variety of high-precise tests.

  7. Initial results from the Pawnee Eddy Correlation system for dry acid-deposition research. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Zeller, K.; Massman, W.; Stocker, D.; Fox, D.G.; Stedman, D.

    1988-01-01

    The Pawnee Grassland Eddy Correlation Dry Deposition Project is described. Instrumentation, methods of analysis, and initial data and research findings are presented. Data from this eddy correlation system show agreement with: previously observations of deposition velocities for atmospheric ozone, NO/sub 2/ and NOx; micrometeorological theory; micrometeorological site characteristics.

  8. Temperament Research: Where We Are, Where We Are Going.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Alexander

    1984-01-01

    The research papers in the current Merrill-Palmer Quarterly (Vol. 30, No. 2) invitational issue on temperament are examined from the perspective of previous research and the indications they provide for critical unsolved issues concerning temperament. (Author)

  9. Research on the acid rain under the short-term environment control measures of the Youth Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Qing, W.; Chen, Y.; Peng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Northern China emits the most part of acid pollution of the whole nation but turns out to be in a light acid precipitation extent. Research shows that it is the carbonate particles from dust that neutralize the acid in the rainfall. Construction in southern China becomes more and more active so that alkaline dusts from construction are receiving an increasing attention. Nanjing hosts the Youth Olympic Games in 2015 and implements a strict plan to control the emission of construction dust. Thus, The Youth Olympic Games provides a good opportunity to analyze the neutralization of alkaline dusts emitted from construction in Nanjing. Experiment is conducted by collecting the total of rainfall events from June to September in 2015, besides, TSP (total suspended particles) before and after each rainfall events is collected due to find the collaboration with rainfall. Ca2+,Mg2+,K+,Na+,Sr2+,F-,Cl-,SO42-,NO3- concentrations in rain water and water soluble fraction of TSP are analyzed using ICP-OES and ICS in Nanjing University. Results showed that Ca2+and SO42- makes the major part of total ions, indicating the fact that Nanjing is suffering from a severe acid rainfall and alkaline dusts which mainly consist of Ca2+ neutralize a large number of acid particles. pH of rainfall has a good correlation with the flux of TSP. pH of rainfall keeps falling as the YOG plan starts and picking up after the YOG, which indicates that the declination of artificial alkaline dust in TSP reduces the neutralization on the acid rainfall.

  10. The long and winding road from the research laboratory to industrial applications of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Martin Bastian; Iversen, Stig Lykke; Sørensen, Kim Ib; Johansen, Eric

    2005-08-01

    Research innovations are constantly occurring in universities, research institutions and industrial research laboratories. These are reported in the scientific literature and presented to the scientific community in various congresses and symposia as well as through direct contacts and collaborations. Conversion of these research results to industrially useful innovations is, however, considerably more complex than generally appreciated. The long and winding road from the research laboratory to industrial applications will be illustrated with two recent examples from Chr. Hansen A/S: the implementation in industrial scale of a new production technology based on respiration by Lactococcus lactis and the introduction to the market of L. lactis strains constructed using recombinant DNA technology.

  11. Introductory Course Based on a Single Problem: Learning Nucleic Acid Biochemistry from AIDS Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Neena

    2004-01-01

    In departure from the standard approach of using several problems to cover specific topics in a class, I use a single problem to cover the contents of the entire semester-equivalent biochemistry classes. I have developed a problem-based service-learning (PBSL) problem on HIV/AIDS to cover nucleic acid concepts that are typically taught in the…

  12. Mortality of Pratylenchus penetrans by Volatile Fatty Acids from Liquid Hog Manure

    PubMed Central

    Mahran, A.; Tenuta, M.; Hanson, M. L.; Daayf, F.

    2008-01-01

    As part of our research program assessing the use of liquid hog manure (LHM) to control root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus penetrans, a series of acute toxicity tests was conducted to: (i) examine if non-ionized forms of volatile fatty acids (VFA) are responsible for the mortality of P. penetrans exposed to LHM under acidic conditions, (ii) determine if Caenorhabditis elegans can be a surrogate for P. penetrans in screening tests by comparing their sensitivities to VFA, (iii) characterize the nematicidal effect of individual VFA in LHM to P. penetrans, and (iv) determine whether individual VFA in LHM interact in their toxicity to P. penetrans. LHM was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) more toxic to P. penetrans than a mixture of its main VFA components at concentrations of 5% and 10% (vol. VFA or LHM /vol. in buffer). Pratylenchus penetrans was more sensitive to acetic acid than C. elegans, whereas the sensitivity of both nematode species to n-caproic acid was similar. Individual VFA vary in their lethality to P. penetrans. n-valeric acid was the most toxic (LC95= 6.8 mM), while isobutyric acid was the least toxic (LC95 = 45.7 mM). Individual VFA did not interact in their toxicity to P. penetrans, and their effects were considered additive. VFA account for the majority of the lethal effect of LHM to P. penetrans under acidic conditions. Caenorhabditis elegans cannot be used as a surrogate to P. penetrans in toxicity studies using VFA. The efficacy of LHM to control P. penetrans can be evaluated by assessing its VFA content prior to application, and this evaluation is facilitated by the fact that the interaction of individual VFA appears to be simply additive. PMID:19259528

  13. Limitations in the use of commercial humic acids in water and soil research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malcolm, R.L.; MacCarthy, P.

    1986-01-01

    Seven samples of commercial "humic acids", purchased from five different suppliers, were studied, and their characteristics were compared with humic and fulvic acids isolated from streams, soils, peat, leonardite, and a dopplerite sample. Cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning 13C NMR spectroscopy clearly shows pronounced differences between the commercial materials and all other samples. Elemental and infrared spectroscopic data do not show such clear-cut differences but can be used as supportive evidence, with the 13C NMR data, to substantiate the above distinctions. As a result of these differences and due to the general lack of information relating to the source, method of isolation, or other pretreatment of the commercial materials, these commercial products are not considered to be appropriate for use as analogues of true soil and water humic substances, in experiments designed to evaluate the nature and reactivity of humic substances in natural waters and soils.

  14. Bioorganic research of Galactites tomentosa Moench. Honey extracts: enantiomeric purity of chiral marker 3-phenyllactic acid.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Roje, Marin; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kasum, Ana; Obradović, Marina

    2014-08-01

    Thistle (Galactites tomentosa Moench.) honey organic extracts were obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID and GC-MS) for the first time. Most abundant headspace compounds were terpenes, particularly linalool derivatives (hotrienol was predominant with a range of 38.6-57.5%). 3-Phenyllactic acid dominated in the solvent extracts (77.4-86.4%) followed by minor percentages of other shikimate pathway derivatives. After determination of an adequate enantioseparation protocol on Chirallica PST-4 column, the honey solvent extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chiral analysis revealed high enantiomeric excess (>95%) of (-)-3-phenyllactic acid in all samples. Therefore, previous findings of chemical markers of thistle honey were extended, providing new potential for advanced chemical fingerprinting (optical pure chemical marker). PMID:24850411

  15. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report describes work performed from October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. The approach for development of both the Improved State-of-the-Art (ISOA) and Advanced lead-acid batteries is three pronged. This approach concentrates on simultaneous optimization of battery design, materials, and manufacturing processing. The 1979 fiscal year saw the achievement of significant progress in the program. Some of the major accomplishments of the year are outlined. 33 figures, 13 tables. (RWR)

  16. Pure enantiomers of 2-arylpropionic acids: tools in pain research and improved drugs in rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Brune, K; Geisslinger, G; Menzel-Soglowek, S

    1992-10-01

    The mode of action of aspirinlike drugs in pain is widely referred to as inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Salicylic acid, however, at low doses, is an analgesic but not a potent anti-inflammatory agent. This "enigma" may be resolved by recent findings employing 2-arylpropionic acids. Pure enantiomers of these chiral drugs show a different pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile. Using pure enantiomers of flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, and ketoprofen, we could show that (1) R-enantiomers of these drugs are inverted to S-enantiomers to a different degree in different species, including humans, (2) the pharmacokinetic parameters of both pure enantiomers differ in a drug- and a species-specific manner, and (3) both enantiomers exert differential analgesic effects. It appears particularly interesting that R-flurbiprofen, for instance, which is not or only to a small extent inverted in humans and rats, is practically devoid of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition in vitro. Consequently, in line with current thinking, R-flurbiprofen is not toxic to the gastrointestinal tract and shows no anti-inflammatory effects. In contrast to current concepts, however, this enantiomer does exert analgesic activity in different models of pain and nociception. It is concluded that R-flurbiprofen and, possibly, other R-enantiomers of 2-arylpropionic acids may exert novel analgesic effects independently of peripheral prostaglandin synthesis inhibition in inflamed tissue.

  17. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report has four parts: they discuss acid rain in relation to acid soils, agriculture, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Among findings: modern sources of acid deposition from the atmosphere for all the acid soils in the world, nor even chiefly responsible for those of northern U.S. Agriculture has its problems, but acid precipitation is probably not one of them. More research is needed to determine to what extent acid precipitation is responsible for forest declines and for smaller detrimental effects on forest growth where no damage to the foliage is evident. Many lakes and streams are extremely sensitive to added acids.

  18. Thirty-five years of research into ribozymes and nucleic acid catalysis: where do we stand today?

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Sabine; Appel, Bettina; Balke, Darko; Hieronymus, Robert; Nübel, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first catalytic RNA in 1981, the field of ribozyme research has developed from the discovery of catalytic RNA motifs in nature and the elucidation of their structures and catalytic mechanisms, into a field of engineering and design towards application in diagnostics, molecular biology and medicine. Owing to the development of powerful protocols for selection of nucleic acid catalysts with a desired functionality from random libraries, the spectrum of nucleic acid supported reactions has greatly enlarged, and importantly, ribozymes have been accompanied by DNAzymes. Current areas of research are the engineering of allosteric ribozymes for artificial regulation of gene expression, the design of ribozymes and DNAzymes for medicinal and environmental diagnostics, and the demonstration of RNA world relevant ribozyme activities. In addition, new catalytic motifs or novel genomic locations of known motifs continue to be discovered in all branches of life by the help of high-throughput bioinformatic approaches. Understanding the biological role of the catalytic RNA motifs widely distributed in diverse genetic contexts belongs to the big challenges of future RNA research. PMID:27408700

  19. Acid deposition in Maryland. Summary of research and monitoring results compiled through 1991 and a discussion of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Report for 1991-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.; Mountain, D.

    1992-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report submitted under Maryland legislative requirements. The report focuses on more than a decade of acid deposition research conducted in Maryland. In addition, the report discusses Title IV - Acid Deposition Control of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and its potential impacts on Maryland.

  20. Design of an experimental viscoelastic food model system for studying Zygosaccharomyces bailii spoilage in acidic sauces.

    PubMed

    Mertens, L; Geeraerd, A H; Dang, T D T; Vermeulen, A; Serneels, K; Van Derlinden, E; Cappuyns, A M; Moldenaers, P; Debevere, J; Devlieghere, F; Van Impe, J F

    2009-11-01

    Within the field of predictive microbiology, the number of studies that quantify the effect of food structure on microbial behavior is very limited. This is mainly due to impracticalities related to the use of a nonliquid growth medium. In this study, an experimental food model system for studying yeast spoilage in acid sauces was developed by selecting a suitable thickening/gelling agent. In a first step, a variety of thickening/gelling agents was screened, with respect to the main physicochemical (pH, water activity, and acetic acid and sugar concentrations) and rheological (weak gel viscoelastic behavior and presence of a yield stress) characteristics of acid sauces. Second, the rheological behavior of the selected thickening/gelling agent, Carbopol 980, was extensively studied within the following range of conditions: pH 4.0 to 5.0, acetic acid concentration of 0 to 1.0% (vol/vol), glycerol concentration of 0 to 15% (wt/vol), and Carbopol concentration of 1.0 to 1.5% (wt/vol). Finally, the applicability of the model system was illustrated by performing growth experiments in microtiter plates for Zygosaccharomyces bailii at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (wt/vol) Carbopol, 5% (wt/vol) glycerol, 0% (vol/vol) acetic acid, and pH 5.0. A shift from planktonic growth to growth in colonies was observed when the Carbopol concentration increased from 0.5 to 1.0%. The applicability of the model system was illustrated by estimating mu(max) at 0.5% Carbopol from absorbance detection times.

  1. Report on the materials effects research review meeting of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Joyner, K.C.; Schnell, M.H.

    1986-10-01

    Invited panels of scientists and other technical experts reviewed 30 projects, basing their evaluations on oral presentations at the meeting and written summaries received by the reviewers before the meeting. Projects were reviewed for quality of science as well as relevance to the overall program objectives for use by NAPAP program and research managers to improve and coordinate current research and set priorities for research between 1988 and 1990 in the following: economics and behavior; cultural inventory; construction inventory; air quality; damage functions, paint; damage functions, metal; and damage functions, stone. In addition, three generalist reviewers were asked to comment on the overall Task Group VII effort including its various components. This document is a compilation of the summary reports, consisting of general comments and comments on individual projects, submitted by each review panel, and the written comments from the generalist reviewers.

  2. Research progress on the anticarcinogenic actions and mechanisms of ellagic acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hao; Xu, Hao; Chen, Wen-Wen; Tao, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer treatments by chemotherapeutic agents, surgery, and radiation have not been highly effective in reducing the incidence of cancers and increasing the survival rate of cancer patients. In recent years, plant-derived compounds have attracted considerable attention as alternative cancer remedies for enhancing cancer prevention and treatment because of their low toxicities, low costs, and low side effects. Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural phenolic constituent. Recent in vitro and in vivo experiments have revealed that EA elicits anticarcinogenic effects by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, breaking DNA binding to carcinogens, blocking virus infection, and disturbing inflammation, angiogenesis, and drug-resistance processes required for tumor growth and metastasis. This review enumerates the anticarcinogenic actions and mechanisms of EA. It also discusses future directions on the applications of EA. PMID:25009751

  3. Research and development of advanced lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, M. G.; Bowman, D. E.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose was to develop an advanced lead-acid battery based on the concept of forced flow of electrolyte through porous electrodes for enhanced battery performance. The objectives were: specific energy of 42 Wh/kg, energy density of 70 Wh/l, and cycle life of 100 cycles. Accomplishments were: 35 flow-through cells with reduced construction time, higher fiber content in the positive active materials (PAM) with increased strength by a factor of 3, high-density PAM for increased life without utilization losses, confirmation of solid-state relaxation theory, methods for measuring permeability, 31 cycles achieved in C-450, oxygen recombination in many test cells, electrolyte reservoir can be below the top of the cells, and completed designs for positive and negative flow-through grids and for the injection molds to produce the grid/plastic laminates.

  4. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The progress and status of Eltra's Electric Vehicle Battery Program during FY-80 are presented under five divisional headings: Research on Components and Processes; Development of Cells and Modules for Electric Vehicle Propulsion; Sub-Systems; Pilot Line Production of Electric Vehicle Battery Prototypes; and Program Management.

  5. Initial results from the Pawnee eddy correlation system for acid deposition research

    SciTech Connect

    Zeller, K.; Massman, W.; Stocker, D.; Fox, D.G.; Stellman, D.; Hazlett, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Pawnee grassland eddy correlation dry deposition project is described. Instrumentation, methods of analysis, and initial data and research findings are presented. Data from this eddy correlation system show agreement with previous observations of deposition velocities for atmospheric ozone, NO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}; micrometeorological theory; and micrometeorological site characteristics.

  6. [Research on ursolic acid production of Eriobotrya japonica cell suspension culture in WAVE bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-hua; Yao, De-heng; Xu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Chang, Qiang; Su, Ming-hua

    2015-05-01

    Through scale-up cultivation of Eriobotrya japonica suspension cells using WAVE bioreactor, the cell growth and ursolic acid (UA) accumulation were studied. The comparison test was carried out in the flask and the reactor with cell dry weight (DW) and UA content as evaluation indexes. The culture medium, DW and UA content were compared in 1 L and 5 L working volumes of bioreactor. The orthogonal test with main actors of inoculation amount, speed and angle of rotation was developed to find the optimal combination, in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. DW of the cell growth and the UA content in bioreactor were higher than those of the shaker by 105.5% and 27.65% respectively. In bioreactor, the dynamic changes of elements in the fluid culture, the dry weight of the cell growth and the UA content in 1 L and 5 L working volumes were similar. Inoculation of 80 g, rotational speed of 26 r · min(-1), and angle of 6 ° was the optimal combination, and the cell biomass of 19.01 g · L(-1) and the UA content of 27.750 mg · g(-1) were achieved after 100 h cultivation in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. WAVE Bioreactor is more suitable than flasks for the E. japonica cell suspension culture, and culture parameters can be achieved from 1 L to 5 L amplification.

  7. Study of natural wetlands associated with acid mine drainage. Final research report Jul 87-Dec 90

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, L.R.

    1990-12-01

    Thirty-five natural wetlands impacted by acid mine drainage (mostly in western PA) were surveyed for abiotic and biotic parameters in relation to water quality. Using treatment efficiency and area-adjusted mass retention as wetland performance indices, correlation analyses and multiple regression techniques were employed to evaluate the influence of the wetland parameters on the mitigation of pH, Fe, Mn, and Al. Elevation of pH was correlated with large, broad, low-flow wetlands with shallow, non-channelized surface water, inlet alkalinity, and dense populations of vascular plants and bryophytes. Moderate and high iron concentrations interfered with the mitigation of pH. High Fe treatment efficiencies were correlated to low flows, large areas, broad shapes, non-channelized flows, exposed locations, a diverse and dense vegetative cover, and inlet alkalinity. Large wetlands having lush vascular plant cover and receiving alkaline waters low in total iron concentrations were implicated in significant Mn treatment. Outlet Fe concentrations were usually in compliance in wetlands that significantly lowered Mn concentrations. Algae tolerate manganese but probably do not play an active role in its elimination. Reliable indices of wetland performance include area-adjusted mass retention (for pH) and treatment efficiency (for metals).

  8. [Research on ursolic acid production of Eriobotrya japonica cell suspension culture in WAVE bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-hua; Yao, De-heng; Xu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Chang, Qiang; Su, Ming-hua

    2015-05-01

    Through scale-up cultivation of Eriobotrya japonica suspension cells using WAVE bioreactor, the cell growth and ursolic acid (UA) accumulation were studied. The comparison test was carried out in the flask and the reactor with cell dry weight (DW) and UA content as evaluation indexes. The culture medium, DW and UA content were compared in 1 L and 5 L working volumes of bioreactor. The orthogonal test with main actors of inoculation amount, speed and angle of rotation was developed to find the optimal combination, in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. DW of the cell growth and the UA content in bioreactor were higher than those of the shaker by 105.5% and 27.65% respectively. In bioreactor, the dynamic changes of elements in the fluid culture, the dry weight of the cell growth and the UA content in 1 L and 5 L working volumes were similar. Inoculation of 80 g, rotational speed of 26 r · min(-1), and angle of 6 ° was the optimal combination, and the cell biomass of 19.01 g · L(-1) and the UA content of 27.750 mg · g(-1) were achieved after 100 h cultivation in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. WAVE Bioreactor is more suitable than flasks for the E. japonica cell suspension culture, and culture parameters can be achieved from 1 L to 5 L amplification. PMID:26323131

  9. Research, development, and demonstration of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    A cost and design study was conducted on the production of lead-acid batteries. The major conclusions with regard to a mature level of production, 1000 man-work hours (MWH) per year in 100 MWH installations, are the following: using vertically integrated, automated plants, and a 14 KAH cell design, it is projected that the 100 MWH battery can be manufactured for $76 per kilowatt hour (KWH). The large 10 and 14 kilowatt amphere hour (KAH) cells were found to be more economical than the small 3.4 KAH (6.5 KWH) cell. It is inferred that batteries prepared from large, cell sizes (10 and 14 KAH) will be inherently more reliable due to the reduced number of intercell connections and reduced number of cells requiring maintenance operations, compared to batteries made with small cells (3400 AH). The battery footprint energy density goal can be achieved with tiering of the 14 KAH cell and the specification of somewhat reduced aisle widths on the outside of the strings. Sensitivity studies were performed on the impact of lead price, design cycle life, materials cost reductions, and increase in active materials utilization on the cost of the 100 MWH battery.

  10. Concentrations of higher dicarboxylic acids C5-C13 in fresh snow samples collected at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch during CLACE 5 and 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterhalter, R.; Kippenberger, M.; Williams, J.; Fries, E.; Sieg, K.; Moortgat, G. K.

    2009-03-01

    Samples of freshly fallen snow were collected at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) in February and March 2006 and 2007, during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiments (CLACE) 5 and 6. In this study a new technique has been developed and demonstrated for the measurement of organic acids in fresh snow. The melted snow samples were subjected to solid phase extraction and resulting solutions analysed for organic acids by HPLC-MS-TOF using negative electrospray ionization. A series of linear dicarboxylic acids from C5 to C13 and phthalic acid, were identified and quantified. In several samples the biogenic acid pinonic acid was also observed. In fresh snow the median concentration of the most abundant acid, adipic acid, was 0.69 μg L-1 in 2006 and 0.70 μg L-1 in 2007. Glutaric acid was the second most abundant dicarboxylic acid found with median values of 0.46 μg L-1 in 2006 and 0.61 μg L-1 in 2007, while the aromatic acid phthalic acid showed a median concentration of 0.34 μg L-1 in 2006 and 0.45 μg L-1 in 2007. The concentrations in the samples from various snowfall events varied significantly, and were found to be dependent on the back trajectory of the air mass arriving at Jungfraujoch. Air masses of marine origin showed the lowest concentrations of acids whereas the highest concentrations were measured when the air mass was strongly influenced by boundary layer air.

  11. Concentrations of higher dicarboxylic acids C5-C13 in fresh snow samples collected at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch during CLACE 5 and 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterhalter, R.; Kippenberger, M.; Williams, J.; Fries, E.; Sieg, K.; Moortgat, G. K.

    2008-10-01

    Samples of freshly fallen snow were collected at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) in February and March 2006 and 2007, during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiments (CLACE) 5 and 6. In this study a new technique has been developed and demonstrated for the measurement of organic acids in fresh snow. The melted snow samples were subjected to solid phase extraction and resulting solution analysed for organic acids by HPLC-MS-TOF using negative electrospray ionization. A series of linear dicarboxylic acids from C5 to C13 and phthalic acid, were identified and quantified. In several samples the biogenic acid pinonic acid was also observed. In fresh snow the median concentration of the most abundant acid, adipic acid, was 0.69 μg L-1 in 2006 and 0.70 μg L-1 in 2007. Glutaric acid was the second most abundant dicarboxylic acid found with median values of 0.46 μg L-1 in 2006 and 0.61 μg L-1 in 2007, while the aromatic acid phthalic acid showed a median concentration of 0.34 μg L-1 in 2006 and 0.45 μg L-1 in 2007. The concentrations in the samples from various snowfall events varied significantly, and were found to be dependent on the back trajectory of the air mass arriving at Jungfraujoch. Air masses of marine origin showed the lowest concentrations of acids whereas the highest concentrations were measured when the air mass was strongly influenced by boundary layer air.

  12. Identification of research relating to the critical loads concept and its potential application to the regulation of acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, N.

    1993-12-01

    The overwhelming majority of strategies currently implemented to regulate acidic deposition have focused on source-based or emission-control techniques. In the past few years, however, the fact that such source-based. strategies may not be sufficient to prevent adverse ecological effects and may therefore need to be supplemented with other control options, such as receptor-based strategies, has become apparent. Partly in response to this insufficiency of regulatory controls, the US Congress has required the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program to determine (1) what deposition levels are needed to prevent such ecological damage, (2) whether such safe deposition levels (i.e., critical loads) can realistically be identified, and (3) what the costs and benefits of attaining such deposition levels are. This report reviews and culls the existing research on these alternative control strategies, emphasizing the critical loads concept, to determine the advantages and limitations and the cost-benefit relationships associated with receptor-based control options. The results of this study indicate that in spite of the significant limitations associated with the critical loads concept, this strategy dominates all discussions of non-source-based control options and offers considerable advantages, including cost-effectiveness, over the more traditional source-based control methods. Summaries of 10 of the most relevant studies dealing with alternative control strategies and the costs and benefits associated with them are also presented in this report.

  13. LOSS-OF-COOLANT ACIDENT SIMULATIONS IN THE NATIONAL RESEARCH UNIVERSAL REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, W D; Goodman, R L; Heaberlin, S W; Hesson, G M; Nealley, C; Kirg, L L; Marshall, R K; McNair, G W; Meitzler, W D; Neally, G W; Parchen, L J; Pilger, J P; Rausch, W N; Russcher, G E; Schreiber, R E; Wildung, N J; Wilson, C L

    1981-02-01

    Pressurized water reactor loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) phenomena are being simulated with a series of experiments in the U-2 loop of the National Research Universal Reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. The first of these experiments includes up to 45 parametric thermal-hydraulic tests to establish the relationship among the reflood delay time of emergency coolant, the reflooding rate, and the resultant fuel rod cladding peak temperature. Subsequent experiments establish the fuel rod failure characteristics at selected peak cladding temperatures. Fuel rod cladding pressurization simulates high burnup fission gas pressure levels of modern PWRs. This document contains both an experiment overview of the LOCA simulation program and a review of the safety analyses performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to define the expected operating conditions as well as to evaluate the worst case operating conditions. The primary intent of this document is to supply safety information required by the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), to establish readiness to proceed from one test phase to the next and to establish the overall safety of the experiment. A hazards review summarizes safety issues, normal operation and three worst case accidents that have been addressed during the development of the experiment plan.

  14. [Research conducted at the Stefan S. Nicolau Institute of Virology of Bucharest in the area of nucleic acids and genetic engineering].

    PubMed

    Popa, L M; Repanovici, R; Iliescu, R

    1989-01-01

    A brief review is done of some of the most important studies realised by the "Stefan S. Nicolau" Institute researchers in the field of nucleic acids. It is worth mentioning among these the investigations about interactions between nucleic acids and some biologically active substances, the recombinant DNA, as well as the most recent works on DNA-DNA hybridization in the avidine-biotine system. PMID:2699967

  15. Acid Mine Drainage Research in Gauteng Highlighting Impacts on Infrastructure and Innovation of Concrete-Based Remedial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, S.; Ekolu, S.; Azene, F.

    2013-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is presently one of the most important environmental problems in in the densely populated Gauteng Province, South Africa. The threat of acid mine drainage has demanded short-term interventions (some of which are being implemented by government) but more importantly sustainable long-term innovative solutions. There have been moments of public apprehension with some media reports dubbing the current scenario as a future 'nightmare of biblical proportions' and 'South Africa's own Chernobyl' that could cause dissolving of concrete foundations of buildings and reinforcement steel, leading to collapse of structures. In response to the needs of local and provincial authorities, this research was conducted to (1) generate scientific understanding of the effects of AMD on infrastructure materials and structures, and (2) propose innovative long-term remedial systems based on cementitious materials for potential AMD treatment applications of engineering scale. Two AMD solutions from the goldfields and two others from the coalfields were used to conduct corrosion immersion tests on mild steel, stainless steel, mortars, pastes and concretes. Results show that AMD water from the gold mines is more corrosive than that from the coal mines, the corrosion rate of the former being about twice that of the latter. The functionality of metal components of mild steel can be expected to fail within one month of exposure to the mine water. The investigation has also led to development of a pervious concrete filter system of water-cement ratio = 0.27 and cement content = 360 kg/m3, to be used as a permeable reactive barrier for AMD treatment. Early results show that the system was effective in removing heavy metal contaminants with removal levels of 30% SO4, 99% Fe, 50-83% Mn, 85% Ca, and 30% TDS. Further work is on-going to improve and optimise the system prior to field demonstration studies.

  16. Civil Rights, Education Research, and the Courts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ancheta, Angelo N.

    2006-01-01

    This commentary was designed to accompany a series of articles in "Educational Researcher," vol. 35, no. 1, a theme issue entitled "Moving Beyond "Gratz" and "Grutter"--The Next Generation of Research." The author discusses the role of education research in civil rights litigation, drawing on historical roots established in "Brown v. Board of…

  17. Stationary table CT dosimetry and anomalous scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol}

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Robert L.; Boone, John M.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Anomalous, scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol} for stationary phantom/table protocols (having elevated values of CTDI{sub vol} over 300% higher than the actual dose to the phantom) have been observed; which are well-beyond the typical accuracy expected of CTDI{sub vol} as a phantom dose. Recognition of these outliers as “bad data” is important to users of CT dose index tracking systems (e.g., ACR DIR), and a method for recognition and correction is provided. Methods: Rigorous methods and equations are presented which describe the dose distributions for stationary-table CT. A comparison with formulae for scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol} clearly identifies the source of these anomalies. Results: For the stationary table, use of the CTDI{sub 100} formula (applicable to a moving phantom only) overestimates the dose due to extra scatter and also includes an overbeaming correction, both of which are nonexistent when the phantom (or patient) is held stationary. The reported DLP remains robust for the stationary phantom. Conclusions: The CTDI-paradigm does not apply in the case of a stationary phantom and simpler nonintegral equations suffice. A method of correction of the currently reported CTDI{sub vol} using the approach-to-equilibrium formula H(a) and an overbeaming correction factor serves to scale the reported CTDI{sub vol} values to more accurate levels for stationary-table CT, as well as serving as an indicator in the detection of “bad data.”.

  18. Analysis of Small RNAs in Streptococcus mutans under Acid Stress-A New Insight for Caries Research.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanshan; Tao, Ye; Yu, Lixia; Zhuang, Peilin; Zhi, Qinghui; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Huancai

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the major clinical pathogen responsible for dental caries. Its acid tolerance has been identified as a significant virulence factor for its survival and cariogenicity in acidic conditions. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are recognized as key regulators of virulence and stress adaptation. Here, we constructed three libraries of sRNAs with small size exposed to acidic conditions for the first time, followed by verification using qRT-PCR. The levels of two sRNAs and target genes predicted to be bioinformatically related to acid tolerance were further evaluated under different acid stress conditions (pH 7.5, 6.5, 5.5, and 4.5) at three time points (0.5, 1, and 2 h). Meanwhile, bacterial growth characteristics and vitality were assessed. We obtained 1879 sRNAs with read counts of at least 100. One hundred and ten sRNAs were perfectly mapped to reported msRNAs in S. mutans. Ten out of 18 sRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The survival of bacteria declined as the acid was increased from pH 7.5 to 4.5 at each time point. The bacteria can proliferate under each pH except pH 4.5 with time. The levels of sRNAs gradually decreased from pH 7.5 to 5.5, and slightly increased in pH 4.5; however, the expression levels of target mRNAs were up-regulated in acidic conditions than in pH 7.5. These results indicate that some sRNAs are specially induced at acid stress conditions, involving acid adaptation, and provide a new insight into exploring the complex acid tolerance for S. mutans. PMID:27649155

  19. Analysis of Small RNAs in Streptococcus mutans under Acid Stress—A New Insight for Caries Research

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shanshan; Tao, Ye; Yu, Lixia; Zhuang, Peilin; Zhi, Qinghui; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Huancai

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the major clinical pathogen responsible for dental caries. Its acid tolerance has been identified as a significant virulence factor for its survival and cariogenicity in acidic conditions. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are recognized as key regulators of virulence and stress adaptation. Here, we constructed three libraries of sRNAs with small size exposed to acidic conditions for the first time, followed by verification using qRT-PCR. The levels of two sRNAs and target genes predicted to be bioinformatically related to acid tolerance were further evaluated under different acid stress conditions (pH 7.5, 6.5, 5.5, and 4.5) at three time points (0.5, 1, and 2 h). Meanwhile, bacterial growth characteristics and vitality were assessed. We obtained 1879 sRNAs with read counts of at least 100. One hundred and ten sRNAs were perfectly mapped to reported msRNAs in S. mutans. Ten out of 18 sRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The survival of bacteria declined as the acid was increased from pH 7.5 to 4.5 at each time point. The bacteria can proliferate under each pH except pH 4.5 with time. The levels of sRNAs gradually decreased from pH 7.5 to 5.5, and slightly increased in pH 4.5; however, the expression levels of target mRNAs were up-regulated in acidic conditions than in pH 7.5. These results indicate that some sRNAs are specially induced at acid stress conditions, involving acid adaptation, and provide a new insight into exploring the complex acid tolerance for S. mutans. PMID:27649155

  20. A Review of Soviet Studies in the Psychology of Learning and Teaching Mathematics (6 Volumes). Proceedings of the National Academy of Education, Vol. 4, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Bruggen, Johan C.; Freudenthal, Hans

    The English translations of the first six volumes of Studies on the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in the Soviet Union are viewed in this document. The contents of each volume are briefly described: vol. 1, The Learning of Mathematical Concepts; vol. 2, The Structure of Mathematical Abilities; vol. 3, Problem Solving in Arithmetic and…

  1. 19. Photocopied December 1977, from 'Report of J.B.J.', Vol I, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopied December 1977, from 'Report of J.B.J.', Vol I, Jervis Library. CROSS SECTION OF CROTON DAM AS ORIGINALLY BUILT, SHOWING FORE-EMBANKMENT AND 1 TO 1-1/4 SLOPE ON DOWN RIVER SIDE. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  2. 1. Photocopied December 1977, from original in 'Report of J.B.J.,'Vol. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied December 1977, from original in 'Report of J.B.J.,'Vol. I, Jervis Library. ELEVATION OF SING SING KILL BRIDGE, SHOWING ORIGINAL PLAN FOR AN 80-FOOT ARCH. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  3. 10. Fifth floor plan,published in 'Architectural Record',Vol 31,No. 4, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Fifth floor plan,published in 'Architectural Record',Vol 31,No. 4, April 1912,p. 356 (?),courtesy of Art Institute of Chicago, permission to duplicate courtesy of 'Architectural Record' - Chicago City Hall, 121 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. 9. First floor plan,published in 'Architectural Record',Vol 31,No. 4, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. First floor plan,published in 'Architectural Record',Vol 31,No. 4, April 1912,p 356,courtesy of the Art Institute of Chicago,permission to duplicate courtesy of'Architectural Record' - Chicago City Hall, 121 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. Effects of acid and metal solutions on seedling foliage of two western conifers. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, J.; Weaver, T.; Cole, D.M.

    1994-11-01

    A greenhouse study tested the effects of three acids and five metals on foliage of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugs menziesii) seedlings. The seedlings were treated with a single immersion of foliage into solutions of three acids (HCL, H2S04, and HN3) and five metal chlorides (ZnC12, CdC12, HgC12, CuC12, and PbC12) each at five different concentration levels. Injury to the foliage was recorded after 5 weeks by counting needles that were chlorotic (yellow) or dead. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) effects were observed for both acids and metals. The effects of metals were far greater than the effects of acids for both species.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey research in Handcart Gulch, Colorado—An alpine watershed with natural acid-rock drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Caine, Jonathan Saul; Verplanck, Philip L.; Bove, Dana J.; Kahn, Katherine G.

    2009-01-01

    Handcart Gulch is an alpine watershed along the Continental Divide in the Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range. It contains an unmined mineral deposit typical of many hydrothermal mineral deposits in the intermountain west, composed primarily of pyrite with trace metals including copper and molybdenum. Springs and the trunk stream have a natural pH value of 3 to 4. The U.S. Geological Survey began integrated research activities at the site in 2003 with the objective of better understanding geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic controls on naturally occurring acid-rock drainage in alpine watersheds. Characterizing the role of groundwater was of particular interest because mountain watersheds containing metallic mineral deposits are often underlain by complexly deformed crystalline rocks in which groundwater flow is poorly understood. Site infrastructure currently includes 4 deep monitoring wells high in the watershed (300– 1,200 ft deep), 4 bedrock (100–170 ft deep) and 5 shallow (10–30 ft deep) monitoring wells along the trunk stream, a stream gage, and a meteorological station. Work to date at the site includes: geologic mapping and structural analysis; surface sample and drill core mineralogic characterization; geophysical borehole logging; aquifer testing; monitoring of groundwater hydraulic heads and streamflows; a stream tracer dilution study; repeated sampling of surface and groundwater for geochemical analyses, including major and trace elements, several isotopes, and groundwater age dating; and construction of groundwater flow models. The unique dataset collected at Handcart Gulch has yielded several important findings about bedrock groundwater flow at the site. Most importantly, we find that bedrock bulk permeability is nontrivial and that bedrock groundwater apparently constitutes a substantial fraction of the hydrologic budget. This means that bedrock groundwater commonly may be an underappreciated component of the hydrologic system in studies of

  7. Machine learning: An artificial intelligence approach. Vol. II

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, R.S.; Carbonell, J.G.; Mitchell, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book reflects the expansion of machine learning research through presentation of recent advances in the field. The book provides an account of current research directions. Major topics covered include the following: learning concepts and rules from examples; cognitive aspects of learning; learning by analogy; learning by observation and discovery; and an exploration of general aspects of learning.

  8. Buildings for Education, Vol. 1, No. 3, September 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Regional Inst. for School Building Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka).

    A quarterly review of school building research in Ceylon including a technical note on school space, and abstracts of publications concerned with educational facilities. Included are subject and author/title indexes for the abstracts. The Asian Regional Research Institute is UNESCO-sponsored and offers technical assistance to developing nations.…

  9. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and smelters in the Ohio River Valley. Immediate corrective action and appropriate research are needed to reduce acid precipitation. Short-term programs that will define the rate of environmental deterioration, remaining environmental capacity to resist sudden deterioration, mechanisms of acid rain formation, and costs of various control options must be developed. (3 maps, 13 references, 1 table)

  10. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  11. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen

    In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

  12. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  13. Metal speciation and immobilization reactions affecting the true efficiency of artificial wetlands to treat acid mine drainage. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Karathanasis, A.D.; Thompson, Y.L.

    1990-08-01

    The ability of constructed wetlands to lower total Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations and organically complex the metals in acid mine drainage (AMD) was investigated under greenhouse and field conditions. In the greenhouse study, Typha plants grown in six different substrates received simulated acid mine drainage of low metal load for five months. Most effluents, especially those from ground flows, showed significant decreases in acidity and metal concentrations. The pine needle and hay substrates most effectively reduced acidity and total Al levels. The metal concentration and acidity of a very high metal load AMD were also reduced substantially during the first six months of treatment with a wetland which was constructed by the U.S. Forest Service in McCreary County, KY and used mushroom compost as a substrate. After 8 months of operation, however, and during periods of high flow rates (> 10 gallons/min) the efficiency of the wetland was drastically reduced, apparently due to reduced residence time, insufficient size and metal overloading. The metals in Fe, Mn, and Zn showed the highest tendency for residual retention, while Al and especially Cu showed high affinity for organic retention. Exchangeable and sorbed forms were present in very small concentrations and in many cases were almost negligible.

  14. In vivo diagnostic assessment of dentinal caries utilizing acid red and povidone-iodine dyes.

    PubMed

    Maupomé, G; Hernández-Guerrero, J C; García-Luna, M; Trejo-Alvarado, A; Hernández-Pérez, M; Díez-de-Bonilla, J

    1995-01-01

    In order to compare the clinical utilization of diagnostic dyes to identify carious dentin, the present in vivo study compared two caries-detector dyes, acid red (1% acid red in propylene glycol wt/wt) and povidone-iodine (8% povidone-iodine in water wt/vol). A total of 221 cavities prepared by 19 senior dental students under the supervision of two teachers at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Dental School were used. Dyes were applied double-blind under standardized conditions to at least two teeth of the same patient. Data were analyzed using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test and a test of proportions. Results showed that molars or premolars did not appear to be positively stained more frequently by one dye or another. Also, 36.7% of teeth tested positive to either one of the two dyes. Prudent utilization of either acid red or povidone-iodine appeared to be equally useful in assisting clinical decisions concerning cavity size while restoring dentinal lesions. However, povidone-iodine may be preferred in clinical settings where acid red is expensive and/or difficult to obtain. Further research is necessary to establish accurately the mechanism of staining by povidone-iodine.

  15. Views on Inertial Fusion Energy Development (lirpp Vol. 11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, S.

    2016-10-01

    It is my great honor to receive the Edward Teller Award. Representing the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, I would like to appreciate your favorite recognition on our achievements in laser fusion research...

  16. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  17. Workpapers in Teaching English as a Second Language. Vol. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, T. P., Ed.

    This is the seventh volume in a continuing series of working papers on teaching English as a second language. The 13 papers included here represent work in progress and cover a wide variety of subjects. In the first paper, E. Hatch summarizes research on reading a second language. S. J. A. Garcia discusses some of the areas of controversy in the…

  18. Investigations in Science Education. Vol. 8, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Patricia E., Ed.; Mayer, Victor J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Abstractor's analyses of 12 science education research studies focusing on science instruction are presented. These include: (1) use of Learning Environment Inventory in junior high school classrooms organized for individualized instruction; (2) microteaching and strategy analysis as used in a science methods course; (3) comparison of two…

  19. Proceedings of the Ninth International Vaccinium Symposium Vol. 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ISHS 9th International Vaccinium Symposium had 51 oral and 86 poster presentations. Scientists from 35 countries participated in the meeting. From these 120 manuscripts were published in this book. This book contains the state of blueberry research and breeding from a global view. Volume 1 conta...

  20. Irish Educational Studies, Vol. 8, Nos. 1 and 2, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKernan, Jim, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The 14 papers that make up the first of two documents, focus on a variety of topics. John Marshall's presidential address describes how educational psychological research can contribute to strategies of discipline in the classroom. John Logan reports on a study to determine pupils' participation in schooling in Ireland during the last century.…

  1. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  2. Neutralization of an acidic surface mine lake using organic additives. Final research report, 1 July 1991-1 October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brugam, R.B.

    1993-10-01

    We added 9.1 metric tons of manure to a pH 2.9 acid coal mine lake in Southern Illinois to test whether the added organic matter would support sulfate and iron reduction by anaerobic bacteria resulting in the production of alkalinity and a rise in pH. The added organic matter did cause a rise in pH in the deep water of the lake, but the effect did not increase the pH of the whole lake. Experiments in laboratory microcosms at 23 C show that lake sediment treated with manure can permanently raise the pH of acid mine drainage. In the open lake diffusion of oxygen into the anaerobic zones of the water column and low water temperatures in the winter limited the effects of sulfate and iron reduction to the deep water of the lake during summer thermal stratification.

  3. Histomorphological researches on large porous hydroxyapatite cylinder tubes with polylactic acid surface coating in different nonskeletal sites in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Huang, Peng; Weng, Jie; Zhi, Wei; Hu, Yonghe; Feng, Huaizhi; Yao, Yimin; Li, Shuo; Xia, Tian

    2012-05-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic cylinder tubes coated with polylactic acid on the exposed surfaces were implanted in four nonskeletal sites (omentum, peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur). Six months postoperatively, proper amount of Chinese ink was injected to dye the implanting areas. Decalcified and nondecalcified sections were observed under inverted microscope. The results showed that the soft tissues around the HA cylinder tubes in peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur groups appeared visible black. Some small blacked vascular architectures were also discernible. However in omentum group, only small number of blacked vessels existed. Histological observations indicated that vascularization and ossification occurred in peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur groups. In omentum group, there was no any sign of vascularization and ossification. A conclusion could be made in this study that excepting bones and muscles, parietal peritoneum could serve as a potential spot for culturing histoengineering hydroxyapatite (HA)-polylactic acid (PLA) ceramic bone substitutes.

  4. Histomorphological researches on large porous hydroxyapatite cylinder tubes with polylactic acid surface coating in different nonskeletal sites in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Huang, Peng; Weng, Jie; Zhi, Wei; Hu, Yonghe; Feng, Huaizhi; Yao, Yimin; Li, Shuo; Xia, Tian

    2012-05-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic cylinder tubes coated with polylactic acid on the exposed surfaces were implanted in four nonskeletal sites (omentum, peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur). Six months postoperatively, proper amount of Chinese ink was injected to dye the implanting areas. Decalcified and nondecalcified sections were observed under inverted microscope. The results showed that the soft tissues around the HA cylinder tubes in peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur groups appeared visible black. Some small blacked vascular architectures were also discernible. However in omentum group, only small number of blacked vessels existed. Histological observations indicated that vascularization and ossification occurred in peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur groups. In omentum group, there was no any sign of vascularization and ossification. A conclusion could be made in this study that excepting bones and muscles, parietal peritoneum could serve as a potential spot for culturing histoengineering hydroxyapatite (HA)-polylactic acid (PLA) ceramic bone substitutes. PMID:22344718

  5. Research on the Changes to the Lipid/Polymer Membrane Used in the Acidic Bitterness Sensor Caused by Preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yuhei; Noda, Junpei; Yatabe, Rui; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A taste sensor that uses lipid/polymer membranes can evaluate aftertastes felt by humans using Change in membrane Potential caused by Adsorption (CPA) measurements. The sensor membrane for evaluating bitterness, which is caused by acidic bitter substances such as iso-alpha acid contained in beer, needs an immersion process in monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution, called "MSG preconditioning". However, what happens to the lipid/polymer membrane during MSG preconditioning is not clear. Therefore, we carried out three experiments to investigate the changes in the lipid/polymer membrane caused by the MSG preconditioning, i.e., measurements of the taste sensor, measurements of the amount of the bitterness substance adsorbed onto the membrane and measurements of the contact angle of the membrane surface. The CPA values increased as the preconditioning process progressed, and became stable after 3 d of preconditioning. The response potentials to the reference solution showed the same tendency of the CPA value change during the preconditioning period. The contact angle of the lipid/polymer membrane surface decreased after 7 d of MSG preconditioning; in short, the surface of the lipid/polymer membrane became hydrophilic during MSG preconditioning. The amount of adsorbed iso-alpha acid was increased until 5 d preconditioning, and then it decreased. In this study, we revealed that the CPA values increased with the progress of MSG preconditioning in spite of the decrease of the amount of iso-alpha acid adsorbed onto the lipid/polymer membrane, and it was indicated that the CPA values increase because the sensor sensitivity was improved by the MSG preconditioning. PMID:26891299

  6. The Principal as Convener of Organizational Change. Research Reports in Educational Administration, Vol. II, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuck, Richard A.; Nelson, Jack E.

    The authors propose that a principal, instead of making all decisions himself, should convene faculty, staff, and student groups to help bring conflict into the open and to work on organizational problems systematically. This "team-leader" role assumes that team members are intelligent, competent, and want to perform well; and that an open…

  7. Tactual Hearing Experiment with Deaf and Hearing Subjects. Research Bulletin Vol. 14, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelmann, Siegfried; Rosov, Robert J.

    Four hearing Ss (20- to 30-years old) and 4 deaf Ss (8- to 14-years old) trained in speech discrimination using a vocoder (a device which converts speech into tactual vibrations received through the skin). Hearing Ss (artificially deafened by white noise transmitted through headphones) received from 20 to 80 hours of training in isolated words…

  8. Reactor safety research programs. Quarterly report, October-December 1983. Vol. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S.K.

    1984-05-01

    Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation include investigating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems and examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics. Accelerated pellet-cladding interaction modeling is being conducted to predict the probability of fuel rod failure under normal operating conditions. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision making regarding pipe-to-pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Experimental data and validated models are being used to determine a method for evaluating the acceptance of welded or weld-repaired stainless steel piping. Thermal-hydraulic models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. High-temperature materials property tests are being conducted to provide data on severe core damage fuel behavior. Severe fuel damage accident tests are being conducted at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; an instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program is being performed at Halden, Norway; and fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility.

  9. Reactor safety research programs. Quarterly report, April-June 1983. Vol. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S.K.

    1983-12-01

    This document summarizes work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory from April 1 through June 30, 1983, for the Division of Accident Evaluation and the Division of Engineering Technology, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision making regarding pipe-to-pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Experimental data and validated models are being used to determine a method for evaluating the acceptance of welded or weld-repaired stainless steel piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior or full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. High-temperature materials property tests are being conducted to provide data on severe core damage fuel behavior. Severe fuel damage accident tests are being conducted at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; and an instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program is being performed at Halden, Norway. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities, including fuel rod deformation and severe fuel damage tests for the Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  10. Instructional Assistance Program. Final Report, 1972-73. Research and Development Report, Vol. 7, No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addy, Polly; DeBovis, Martin

    The Georgia Instructional Assistance Program (IAP) earmarked $3,200,000 in grants to local school systems for supplemental instructors and aides in the form of additional certificated and/or noncertificated personnel to provide assistance in the elementary grades to classroom teachers. It was anticipated that through the intensive instruction and…

  11. 1975 State Education Legislation. A Survey of the States. Research Brief, Vol. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayas, Denise Kale; Ross, Doris M.

    This publication is a state-by-state compilation of state educational legislation enacted in 1976. Brief summaries of each new law are listed by individual states. In addition, all entries are cross-referenced and indexed by subject. Most of the legislation listed deals with elementary secondary education or is too broad to be identified by level;…

  12. Center for Bilingual Multicultural Education Research and Service. Monograph Series, Vol. 1 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Moya, Rodolfo, Ed.

    The first of three papers in this publication describes the Harrison School District Bilingual Demonstration Project, a modified curriculum and instructional program which builds on the children's experiences and extends their culture and their view of it in a bilingual, multicultural school environment available to both English speaking and…

  13. Student Freedom of Expression: A Limited First Amendment Right. Research Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundt, Whitney R.

    The Supreme Court has ruled in several cases that schools must formulate rules and regulations that do not infringe on a student's right to free and unrestricted expression as guaranteed to them under the First Amendment. In two separate cases, the Court decided that students may wear buttons or armbands that express a particular position on an…

  14. Theoretical and experimental research on the self-assembled system of molecularly imprinted polymers formed by salbutamol and methacrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Jun-Bo, Liu; Yang, Shi; Shan-Shan, Tang; Rui-Fa, Jin

    2015-03-01

    The quantum chemical method was applied for screening functional monomers in the rational design of salbutamol-imprinted polymers. Salbutamol was the template molecule, and methacrylic acid was the single functional monomer. The LC-WPBE/6-31G(d,p) method was used to investigate the geometry optimization, active sites, natural bond orbital charges, binding energies of the imprinted molecule, and solvation energy. The mechanism of action between salbutamol and methacrylic acid was also discussed. The theoretical results show that salbutamol interacts with functional monomers by hydrogen bonds, and the salbutamol-imprinted polymers with a ratio of 1:4 (salbutamol/methacrylic acid) in acetonitrile had the highest stability. The salbutamol-imprinted polymers were prepared by precipitation polymerization. The experimental results indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity for salbutamol toward molecularly imprinted polymers was 7.33 mg/g, and the molecularly imprinted polymers had a higher selectivity for salbutamol than for norepinephrine and terbutaline sulfate. Herein, the studies can provide theoretical and experimental references for the salbutamol molecular imprinted system.

  15. Oak Ridge National Laboratory REVIEW, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.

    2001-11-14

    The titles in the table of contents for this journal are: Editorial: ORNL Could Be DOE Leader in Carbon Management; Managing Carbon: ORNL's Research Roles; Building Energy Use and Carbon Management; Producing and Detecting Hydrogen; New Hydrogen-Producing Reaction Could Lead to Micropower Sources; Fuel Cells: Clean Power Source for Homes and Cars; Capturing Carbon the ORNL Way; Boosting Bioenergy and Carbon Storage in Green Plants; Land Use and Climate Change; Plunging into Carbon Sequestration Research; Methane Hydrates: A Carbon Management Challenge; Adapting to Climate Change; High-Carbon Tree Growth Rate Falls; Reshaping the Bottle for Fusion Energy; Building a Transistor That Doesn't Forget; New Type of Radioactivity Discovered at ORNL; Forecasting Epileptic Seizures; Lynne Parker's Cooperative Robots; Mercury Beyond Oak Ridge; A Disrupted Organic Film: Could Memories Be Made of This?; ORNL's Powerful Tools for Scientific Discovery; and Breaking a Record for Analysis of Atoms.

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory REVIEW, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C

    2001-11-14

    The titles in the table of contents for this journal are: Editorial: Basic Research at ORNL; ORNL's Search for Rare Isotopes; ORNL Theorists and the Nuclear Shell Model; Beam Technologies Enable HRIBF Experiments; Neutrons, ''Stripes,'' and Superconductivity; ORNL's Neutron Sources and Nuclear Astrophysics; Modeling Magnetic Materials for Electronic Devices; In Quest of a Quark: ORNL's Role in the PHENIX Particle Detector; New Hope for the Blind from a Spinach Protein; Human Susceptibility and Mouse Biology; Modeling a Fusion Plasma Heating Process and Stellarator; Neutron Sources and Nanoscale Science; Quantum-Dot Arrays for Computation; Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers: The Self-Assembly Challenge; Incredible Shrinking Labs: Weighing a Move to the Nanoscale; Basic Geochemical Research Supports Energy Industries; Fermi Award Winner Opened New Fields in Atomic Physics; Improving the Internet's Quality of Service; and QOS for Wireless Communication.

  17. 1995 Edward Teller Lecture Patience and Optimism (LIRPP Vol. 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.

    2016-10-01

    Remarks made in the author's acceptance lecture for the 1995 Edward Teller Medal are presented and expanded. Topics covered include research on nuclear-pumped lasers, the first direct e-beam-pumped laser, direct energy conversion and advanced fuel fusion, plus recent work on inertial electrostatic confinement. "Patience" and "optimism" are viewed as essential elements needed by scientists following the "zig-zag" path to fusion energy production.

  18. Advances in space biology and medicine. Vol. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Topics discussed include the effects of prolonged spaceflights on the human body; skeletal responses to spaceflight; gravity effects on reproduction, development, and aging; neurovestibular physiology in fish; and gravity perception and circumnutation in plants. Attention is also given to the development of higher plants under altered gravitational conditions; the techniques, findings, and theory concerning gravity effects on single cells; protein crystal growth in space; and facilities for animal research in space.

  19. 78 FR 48845 - Hydrofluorosilicic Acid in Drinking Water; TSCA Section 21 Petition; Reasons for Agency Response

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    .... Association of silicofluoride treated water with elevated blood lead. Neurotoxicology. Vol. 21, pp. 1091-1099... Copper; Final Rule. Federal Register (56 FR 26460, June 7, 1991). 12. American Water Works Association... AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I Hydrofluorosilicic Acid in Drinking Water; TSCA Section 21 Petition; Reasons...

  20. Rural Education: Issues and Practice. Source Books on Education, Vol. 25. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 473.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J., Ed.

    This collection of essays on rural education in the United States aims to fill a gap in the educational literature by highlighting the available research on rural schools and their contexts. The three sections of the book focus on the historical, social, political, and economic contexts of rural education; topics of practical interest for rural…

  1. The Long way Towards Inertial Fusion Energy (lirpp Vol. 13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    In 1955 the first Geneva Conference was held in which two important events took place. Firstly, the announcement by President Eisenhower of the Program Atoms for Peace declassifying the information concerning nuclear fission reactors. Secondly, it was forecast that due to the research made on stellerators and magnetic mirrors, the first demo fusion facility would be in operation within ten years. This forecasting, as all of us know today, was a mistake. Forty years afterwards, we can say that probably the first Demo Reactor will be operative in some years more and I sincerely hope that it will be based on the inertial fusion concept...

  2. Path To Ignition: US Indirect Target Physics (LIRPP Vol. 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cray, M.; Campbell, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    The United States ICF Program has been pursuing an aggressive research program in preparation for an ignition demonstration on the National Ignition Facility. Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories have collaborated on resolving indirect drive target physics issues on the Nova laser at Livermore National Laboratory. This combined with detailed modeling of laser heated indirectly driven targets likely to achieve ignition, has provided the basis for planning for the NIF. A detailed understanding of target physics, laser performance, and target fabrication is required for developing robust ignition targets. We have developed large-scale computational models to simulate complex physics which occurs in an indirectly driven target. For ignition, detailed understanding of hohlraum and implosion physics is required in order to control competing processes at the few percent level. From crucial experiments performed by Los Alamos and Livermore on the Nova laser, a comprehensive indirect drive database has been assembled. Time integrated and time dependent measurements of radiation drive and symmetry coupled with a detailed set of plasma instability measurements have confirmed our ability to predict hohlraum energetics. Implosion physics campaigns are focused on underdstanding detailed capsule hydrodynamics and instability growth. Target fabrication technology is also an active area of research at Los Alamos, Livermore, and General Atomics for NIF. NIF targets require developing technology in cryogenics and manufacturing in such areas as beryllium shell manufacture. Descriptions of our NIF target designs, experimental results, and fabrication technology supporting NIF target performance predictions will be given.

  3. Empirical Studies of Behavioural Patterns at the United Nations. Peace Research Reviews, Vol. VII, No. 4, May 1978 [And] Vol. VII, No. 5, May 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Alan G., Ed.; Newcombe, Hanna, Ed.

    These volumes present the findings of four studies of behavioral patterns of delegates at the United Nations (UN). UN voting records, delegate questionnaires, and national, political, social, and geographic variables were analyzed. The first study, "Exploring Delegate Attitudes at the United Nations," reports delegates' reactions to issues such as…

  4. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory REVIEW, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C

    2001-11-14

    The titles in the table of contents from this journal are: Editorial: Unraveling Complex Biological Systems; Systems Biology: New Views of Life; Genes and Proteins: A Primer; Complex Biological Systems in Mice; Gene Chip Engineers; Searching for Mouse Models of Human Disorders; Mouse Models for the Human Disease of Chronic Hereditary Tyrosinemia; Obesity-related Gene in Mouse Discovered at ORNL; MicroCAT ''Sees'' Hidden Mouse Defects; Curing Cancer in Mice; Search for Signs of Inflammatory Disease; Surprises in the Mouse Genome; Protein Identification by Mass Spectrometry; Rapid Genetic Disease Screening Possible Using Laser Mass Spectrometry; Lab on a Chip Used for Protein Studies; The Mouse House: From Old to New; Human Genome Analyzed Using Supercomputer; Protein Prediction Tool Has Good Prospects; Microbe Probe: Studying Bacterial Genomes; SNS and Biological Research; Accessing Information on the Human Genome Project; A Model Fish for Pollutant Studies; Controlling Carbon in Hybrid Poplar Trees; and Disease Detectives.

  6. Mitsubishi Juko Giho, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Table of Contents includes: Coal technology and coal-related experience of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Research and development of a COM Carrier; Unmanned operation of spreader stoker coal-fired ship; Prediction of coal-dust saltation and dispersion; Development of large coal-storage silos with wedge-shaped Hopper Systems; 1,000 MW Supercritical sliding pressure; Operation boiler fired with various types of coals; Conversion of heavy-oil, Gas-firing boiler into coal-firing boiler; Planning and operational result of Yokosuka No. 1 and 2 Boilers; COM Conversion; Development of high-performance Mitsubishi-CE Bowl Mill; Operating performance and updated technology of flue-gas desulfurization system for coal-firing thermal power plants; Current technology on electrostatic precipitator for coal-fired boiler; Ash-treatment system in coal-firing thermal plant; RandD of CWM combustion; Development of de-ashing method for coal fine particles; Tangential corner-fired boiler with low-volatile-matter content coals; Design of large-capacity pressurized two-stage entrained-flow-type coal gasifier for utility power plant; Technical observation on gas turbines burning coal gas; Evaluation technique of wear properties of imported coals for world wide countries; Studies on upgrading of low-grade coals by heat treatment; Evaluation of coal-liquefaction process; Research and development of deashing and hydrocracking technology for coal-derived liquid-solvent deashing and ebullated bed reactor;application of laser-measurement technologies to coal-water mixture combustion studies.

  7. Gasification of Simplex briquets: briquet production. Vol. 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    A 7-ton/hr briquetting plant was installed at International Briquetting in Baltimore, Maryland, and used to produce 360 tons of Simplex briquets from Pittsburgh No. 8 seam, Champion No. 1 mine caking coal and shredded, air-classified Baltimore County refuse. The production of these briquets was funded by the Department of Energy, through the US Bureau of Mines, and a consortium comprised of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Company. This report describes the briquetting plant and discusses the problems that were encountered in producing the briquets. The following modifications are recommended for future Simplex briquetting plants: drying equipment should be installed on the RDF feed system to ensure that the RDF moisture is below 18%; the crushed coal must be dried to less than 4% moisture to ensure its free flow in the bins; magnets should be installed above the coal and RDF feed conveyors to remove any tramp metal; a 3/4-inch screen should be installed over the coal feed bin to remove any oversize rocks or lump coal; the RDF handling system and turbulizer discharge to the press should all be enclosed for dust control (the enclosures should be vented to a baghouse); only heavy duty apron conveyors should be used where belt conveyors are needed; briquetts should be cured if they are going to be stored in containers where they might sweat; and a screen with 1 1/4-inch openings should be used to remove the fines from 2 1/4-inch briquets (this screen should be sufficiently large to prevent briquets from crowding together on the screen).

  8. The feasibility of a regional CTDI{sub vol} to estimate organ dose from tube current modulated CT exams

    SciTech Connect

    Khatonabadi, Maryam; Kim, Hyun J.; Lu, Peiyun; McMillan, Kyle L.; Cagnon, Chris H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; DeMarco, John J.

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: In AAPM Task Group 204, the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) was developed by providing size adjustment factors which are applied to the Computed Tomography (CT) standardized dose metric, CTDI{sub vol}. However, that work focused on fixed tube current scans and did not specifically address tube current modulation (TCM) scans, which are currently the majority of clinical scans performed. The purpose of this study was to extend the SSDE concept to account for TCM by investigating the feasibility of using anatomic and organ specific regions of scanner output to improve accuracy of dose estimates. Methods: Thirty-nine adult abdomen/pelvis and 32 chest scans from clinically indicated CT exams acquired on a multidetector CT using TCM were obtained with Institutional Review Board approval for generating voxelized models. Along with image data, raw projection data were obtained to extract TCM functions for use in Monte Carlo simulations. Patient size was calculated using the effective diameter described in TG 204. In addition, the scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} (CTDI{sub vol,global}) was obtained for each patient, which is based on the average tube current across the entire scan. For the abdomen/pelvis scans, liver, spleen, and kidneys were manually segmented from the patient datasets; for the chest scans, lungs and for female models only, glandular breast tissue were segmented. For each patient organ doses were estimated using Monte Carlo Methods. To investigate the utility of regional measures of scanner output, regional and organ anatomic boundaries were identified from image data and used to calculate regional and organ-specific average tube current values. From these regional and organ-specific averages, CTDI{sub vol} values, referred to as regional and organ-specific CTDI{sub vol}, were calculated for each patient. Using an approach similar to TG 204, all CTDI{sub vol} values were used to normalize simulated organ doses; and the ability of each normalized

  9. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The first development effort in improving lead-acid batteries fore electric vehicles was the improvement of electric vehicle batteries using flat pasted positive plates and the second was for a tubular long life positive plate. The investigation of 32 component variables based on a flat pasted positive plate configuration is described. The experiment tested 96 - six volt batteries for characterization at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C and for cycle life capability at the 3 hour discharge rate with a one cycle, to 80% DOD, per day regime. Four positive paste formulations were selected. Two commercially available microporous separators were used in conjunction with a layer of 0.076 mm thick glass mat. Two concentrations of battery grade sulfuric acid were included in the test to determine if an increase in concentration would improve the battery capacity sufficient to offset the added weight of the more concentrated solution. Two construction variations, 23 plate elements with outside negative plates and 23 plate elements with outside positive plates, were included. The second development effort was an experiment designed to study the relationship of 32 component variables based on a tubular positive plate configuration. 96-six volt batteries were tested at various discharge rates at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C along with cycle life testing at 80% DOD of the 3 hour rate. 75 batteries remain on cycle life testing with 17 batteries having in excess of 365 life cycles. Preliminary conclusions indicate: the tubular positive plate is far more capable of withstanding deep cycles than is the flat pasted plate; as presently designed 40 Whr/kg can not be achieved, since 37.7 Whr/kg was the best tubular data obtained; electrolyte circulation is impaired due to the tight element fit in the container; and a redesign is required to reduce the battery weight which will improve the Whr/kg value. This redesign is complete and new molds have been ordered.

  10. Educational Research: A Three-Year Review (1968-70)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, T.

    1973-01-01

    Purpose of the selective survey is to review the 1968, 1969, and 1970 issues (Vols. 10.2 to 13.1 inclusive) of Educational Research, the official journal of the National Foundation for Educational Research in England and Wales. (Author/CB)

  11. Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 18)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2003-01-01

    33 footnotes). The 3-page paper on Grienberger is followed by a 50-page paper on Kordenbusch. Hans Gaab presents a thoroughly researched biography of the Nuremberg astronomer Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch (1731-1802). Educated as a doctor of medicine, he nevertheless became teacher of mathematics and physics at the Egidien gymnasium, attempted to revitalize the Nuremberg Observatory, and issued a second edition of Johann Leonard Rost's Astronomisches Handbuch (1718), the first compendium of astronomy written in German. He also edited and translated some French works (star maps, a description of globes, and an elementary book on cosmography). Dietmar Fürst (Berlin), who has already published in this series three articles on the foundation of Königsberg Observatory, now presents the first part of the history of the Königsberg heliometer, an instrument which is famous since it was used by Bessel to determine the trigonometric parallax of 61 Cygni. Fürst informs us about the purchase and the putting in operation of the instrument, which was endangered by Fraunhofer's death and delayed by (unavoidably counterproductive?) administrative activities. Reinhold Haefner, astronomer at Munich Observatory, and Rolf Riekher, optician in Berlin, have joined forces to present some pioneers of stellar spectroscopy in "the astro-spectroscopic researches by Fraunhofer and Lamont". It is well known that Fraunhofer observed the solar spectrum with high enough resolution to detect the Fraunhofer lines, but it is less known that he also observed bright planets and fixed stars at the Munich Observatiory, with the assistance of its director Soldner. A publication of 1823 gives only a short summary of this stellar work, and Fraunhofer's early death, three years later, was possibly the cause that no detailed article ever appeared. Interestingly, the second director of the observatory, Johann von Lamont, used the new large refractor (aperture: 28 cm, focal length about 5 m) to observe stellar

  12. Dose equations for tube current modulation in CT scanning and the interpretation of the associated CTDI{sub vol}

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Robert L.; Boone, John M.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} for automatic tube current modulation (TCM) has a different physical meaning from the traditional CTDI{sub vol} at constant mA, resulting in the dichotomy “CTDI{sub vol} of the first and second kinds” for which a physical interpretation is sought in hopes of establishing some commonality between the two.Methods: Rigorous equations are derived to describe the accumulated dose distributions for TCM. A comparison with formulae for scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} clearly identifies the source of their differences. Graphical dose simulations are also provided for a variety of TCM tube current distributions (including constant mA), all having the same scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol}.Results: These convolution equations and simulations show that the local dose at z depends only weakly on the local tube current i(z) due to the strong influence of scatter from all other locations along z, and that the “local CTDI{sub vol}(z)” does not represent a local dose but rather only a relative i(z) ≡ mA(z). TCM is a shift-variant technique to which the CTDI-paradigm does not apply and its application to TCM leads to a CTDI{sub vol} of the second kind which lacks relevance.Conclusions: While the traditional CTDI{sub vol} at constant mA conveys useful information (the peak dose at the center of the scan length), CTDI{sub vol} of the second kind conveys no useful information about the associated TCM dose distribution it purportedly represents and its physical interpretation remains elusive. On the other hand, the total energy absorbed E (“integral dose”) as well as its surrogate DLP remain robust between variable i(z) TCM and constant current i{sub 0} techniques, both depending only on the total mAs =t{sub 0}=i{sub 0} t{sub 0} during the beam-on time t{sub 0}.

  13. Research strategies for pain in lumbar radiculopathy focusing on acid-sensing ion channels and their toxins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiann-Her; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In lumbar radiculopathy, the dorsal root or dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are compressed or affected by herniated discs or degenerative spinal canal stenosis. The disease is multi-factorial and involves almost all types of pain, such as ischemic, inflammatory, mechanical, and neuropathic pain. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) activated by extracellular acidosis play an important role in pain generation, and the effects of ASICs are widespread in lumbar radiculopathy. ASICs may be involved in the disc degeneration process, which results in disc herniation and, therefore, the compression of the dorsal roots or DRG. ASIC3 is involved in inflammatory pain and ischemic pain, and, likely, mechanical pain. ASIC1a and ASIC3 may have an important effect on control of the vascular tone of the radicular artery. In the central nervous system, ASIC1a modulates the central sensitization of the spinal dorsal horn. Thus, toxins targeting ASICs, because of their specificity, may help elucidate the roles of ASICs in lumbar radiculopathy and could be developed as novel analgesic agents.

  14. Biomonitoring study of a constructed wetland site treating acid mine drainage. Research report, July 1990-June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, B.A.; Halverson, H.G.; Taylor, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from an underground coal mine in the Jones Branch watershed in McCreary County, KY, substantially reduced water quality in Jones Branch. Downstream from the mine seeps, the pH was routinely below 4.5 and concentrations of most heavy metals, especially iron, were elevated. A cattail wetland (1,022 m2) was constructed on Jones Branch in 1989 to obviate the effects of the AMD. Monthly chemical monitoring was performed on the water from above, from below, and from the 26 cells within the wetland. Based on chemical monitoring, the wetland initially improved water quality, increasing the pH and removing substantial amounts of heavy metals. Beginning in the spring of 1991, water quality at the wetland outfall began to decline, and has not improved to date. To augment the chemical monitoring, a biomonitoring study was initiated in the spring of 1990. Acute 48-hr. static tests were conducted with newly hatched fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Median lethal concentration (LC50) values determined monthly reflects the decline in water quality at the outfall over time.

  15. A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C.; Borland, Anne M.; Edwards, Erika; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Owen, Nick; Griffiths, Howard; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cestari De Paoli, Henrique; Weston, David; Cottingham, Robert; Hartwell, James; Davis, Sarah C.; Silvera, Katia; Ming, Ray; Schlauch, Karen; Abraham, Paul E.; Stewart, J. Ryan; Guo, Hao -Bo; Nair, Sujithkumar S.; Ranjan, Priya; Palla, Kaitlin J.; Yin, Hengfu; Albion, Rebecca; Ha, Jungmin; Lim, Sung Don; Wone, Bernard W. M.; Yim, Won Cheol; Garcia, Travis; Mayer, Jesse A.; Petereit, Juli; Casey, Erin; Hettich, Robert L.; Ceusters, John; Ranjan, Priya; Palla, Kaitlin J.; Yin, Hengfu; Reyes-Garcia, Casandra; Andrade, Jose Luis; Freschi, Luciano; Beltran, Juan D.; Dever, Louisa V.; Boxall, Susanna F.; Waller, Jade; Davies, Jack; Bupphada, Phaitun; Kadu, Nirja; Winter, Klaus; Sage, Rowan F.; Aguilar, Cristobal N.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jenkins, Jerry; Holtum, Joseph A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that features nocturnal CO₂ uptake, facilitates increased water-use efficiency (WUE), and enables CAM plants to inhabit water-limited environments such as semi-arid deserts or seasonally dry forests. Human population growth and global climate change now present challenges for agricultural production systems to increase food, feed, forage, fiber, and fuel production. One approach to meet these challenges is to increase reliance on CAM crops, such as Agave and Opuntia, for biomass production on semi-arid, abandoned, marginal, or degraded agricultural lands. Major research efforts are now underway to assess the productivity of CAM crop species and to harness the WUE of CAM by engineering this pathway into existing food and bioenergy crops. An improved understanding of CAM gained through intensive and expanded research efforts has potential for high returns on research investment in the foreseeable future. To help realize the potential of sustainable dryland agricultural systems, it is necessary to address scientific questions related to the genomic features, regulatory mechanisms, and evolution of CAM; CAM-into-C3 engineering; and the production of CAM crops. Answering these questions requires collaborative efforts to build infrastructure for CAM model systems, field trials, mutant collections, and data management.

  16. A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C.; Borland, Anne M.; Edwards, Erika; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Owen, Nick; Griffiths, Howard; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cestari De Paoli, Henrique; et al

    2015-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that features nocturnal CO₂ uptake, facilitates increased water-use efficiency (WUE), and enables CAM plants to inhabit water-limited environments such as semi-arid deserts or seasonally dry forests. Human population growth and global climate change now present challenges for agricultural production systems to increase food, feed, forage, fiber, and fuel production. One approach to meet these challenges is to increase reliance on CAM crops, such as Agave and Opuntia, for biomass production on semi-arid, abandoned, marginal, or degraded agricultural lands. Major research efforts are now underway to assess the productivity of CAMmore » crop species and to harness the WUE of CAM by engineering this pathway into existing food and bioenergy crops. An improved understanding of CAM gained through intensive and expanded research efforts has potential for high returns on research investment in the foreseeable future. To help realize the potential of sustainable dryland agricultural systems, it is necessary to address scientific questions related to the genomic features, regulatory mechanisms, and evolution of CAM; CAM-into-C3 engineering; and the production of CAM crops. Answering these questions requires collaborative efforts to build infrastructure for CAM model systems, field trials, mutant collections, and data management.« less

  17. Physics of laser fusion. Vol. I. Theory of the coronal plasma in laser-fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C.E.

    1981-12-01

    This monograph deals with the physics of the coronal region in laser fusion targets. The corona consists of hot plasma which has been evaporated from the initially solid target during laser heating. It is in the corona that the laser light is absorbed by the target, and the resulting thermal energy is conducted toward cold high-density regions, where ablation occurs. The topics to be discussed are theoretical mechanisms for laser light absorption and reflection, hot-electron production, and the physics of heat conduction in laser-produced plasmas. An accompanying monograph by H. Ahlstrom (Vol.II) reviews the facilities, diagnostics, and data from recent laser fusion experiments.

  18. A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C; Borland, Anne M; Edwards, Erika J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Tuskan, Gerald A; Owen, Nick A; Griffiths, Howard; Smith, J Andrew C; De Paoli, Henrique C; Weston, David J; Cottingham, Robert; Hartwell, James; Davis, Sarah C; Silvera, Katia; Ming, Ray; Schlauch, Karen; Abraham, Paul; Stewart, J Ryan; Guo, Hao-Bo; Albion, Rebecca; Ha, Jungmin; Lim, Sung Don; Wone, Bernard W M; Yim, Won Cheol; Garcia, Travis; Mayer, Jesse A; Petereit, Juli; Nair, Sujithkumar S; Casey, Erin; Hettich, Robert L; Ceusters, Johan; Ranjan, Priya; Palla, Kaitlin J; Yin, Hengfu; Reyes-García, Casandra; Andrade, José Luis; Freschi, Luciano; Beltrán, Juan D; Dever, Louisa V; Boxall, Susanna F; Waller, Jade; Davies, Jack; Bupphada, Phaitun; Kadu, Nirja; Winter, Klaus; Sage, Rowan F; Aguilar, Cristobal N; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jenkins, Jerry; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2015-08-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that features nocturnal CO2 uptake, facilitates increased water-use efficiency (WUE), and enables CAM plants to inhabit water-limited environments such as semi-arid deserts or seasonally dry forests. Human population growth and global climate change now present challenges for agricultural production systems to increase food, feed, forage, fiber, and fuel production. One approach to meet these challenges is to increase reliance on CAM crops, such as Agave and Opuntia, for biomass production on semi-arid, abandoned, marginal, or degraded agricultural lands. Major research efforts are now underway to assess the productivity of CAM crop species and to harness the WUE of CAM by engineering this pathway into existing food, feed, and bioenergy crops. An improved understanding of CAM has potential for high returns on research investment. To exploit the potential of CAM crops and CAM bioengineering, it will be necessary to elucidate the evolution, genomic features, and regulatory mechanisms of CAM. Field trials and predictive models will be required to assess the productivity of CAM crops, while new synthetic biology approaches need to be developed for CAM engineering. Infrastructure will be needed for CAM model systems, field trials, mutant collections, and data management. PMID:26153373

  19. A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C; Borland, Anne M; Edwards, Erika J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Tuskan, Gerald A; Owen, Nick A; Griffiths, Howard; Smith, J Andrew C; De Paoli, Henrique C; Weston, David J; Cottingham, Robert; Hartwell, James; Davis, Sarah C; Silvera, Katia; Ming, Ray; Schlauch, Karen; Abraham, Paul; Stewart, J Ryan; Guo, Hao-Bo; Albion, Rebecca; Ha, Jungmin; Lim, Sung Don; Wone, Bernard W M; Yim, Won Cheol; Garcia, Travis; Mayer, Jesse A; Petereit, Juli; Nair, Sujithkumar S; Casey, Erin; Hettich, Robert L; Ceusters, Johan; Ranjan, Priya; Palla, Kaitlin J; Yin, Hengfu; Reyes-García, Casandra; Andrade, José Luis; Freschi, Luciano; Beltrán, Juan D; Dever, Louisa V; Boxall, Susanna F; Waller, Jade; Davies, Jack; Bupphada, Phaitun; Kadu, Nirja; Winter, Klaus; Sage, Rowan F; Aguilar, Cristobal N; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jenkins, Jerry; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2015-08-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that features nocturnal CO2 uptake, facilitates increased water-use efficiency (WUE), and enables CAM plants to inhabit water-limited environments such as semi-arid deserts or seasonally dry forests. Human population growth and global climate change now present challenges for agricultural production systems to increase food, feed, forage, fiber, and fuel production. One approach to meet these challenges is to increase reliance on CAM crops, such as Agave and Opuntia, for biomass production on semi-arid, abandoned, marginal, or degraded agricultural lands. Major research efforts are now underway to assess the productivity of CAM crop species and to harness the WUE of CAM by engineering this pathway into existing food, feed, and bioenergy crops. An improved understanding of CAM has potential for high returns on research investment. To exploit the potential of CAM crops and CAM bioengineering, it will be necessary to elucidate the evolution, genomic features, and regulatory mechanisms of CAM. Field trials and predictive models will be required to assess the productivity of CAM crops, while new synthetic biology approaches need to be developed for CAM engineering. Infrastructure will be needed for CAM model systems, field trials, mutant collections, and data management.

  20. Improved texture of polycrystalline hexaferrites using gluconic acid dispersant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obi, O.; Burns, L.; Andalib, P.; Chang, H.; Chen, Y.; Harris, V. G.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, gluconic acid (GA), a low molecular weight, inexpensive and environmentally friendly solvent, was systematically investigated to determine its viability in enhancing the orientation of ferrite particles. Submicron-scale barium hexaferrite (BaM) powders were thoroughly dispersed via sonication for 30 min in various concentrations of GA (0, 2, 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 vol. %) in deionized water. An increase of ˜18% in squareness (SQ) and ˜69% in energy product ((BH)max) was observed with increase in GA concentration from 0 to 5 vol. %. However, further increase in GA concentration led to a decrease in SQ and (BH)max confirming that the effect of GA stems from an improved viscosity of the dispersant, which balances the freely rotating and stationary particles under dynamic compaction within a magnetic field.

  1. Sequential Mixed Cultures: From Syngas to Malic Acid.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Florian; Dörsam, Stefan; Veith, Nicolas; Zwick, Michaela; Neumann, Anke; Ochsenreither, Katrin; Syldatk, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation using acetogenic bacteria is an approach for production of bulk chemicals like acetate, ethanol, butanol, or 2,3-butandiol avoiding the fuel vs. food debate by using carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen from gasification of biomass or industrial waste gases. Suffering from energetic limitations, yields of C4-molecules produced by syngas fermentation are quite low compared with ABE fermentation using sugars as a substrate. On the other hand, fungal production of malic acid has high yields of product per gram metabolized substrate but is currently limited to sugar containing substrates. In this study, it was possible to show that Aspergilus oryzae is able to produce malic acid using acetate as sole carbon source which is a main product of acetogenic syngas fermentation. Bioreactor cultivations were conducted in 2.5 L stirred tank reactors. During the syngas fermentation part of the sequential mixed culture, Clostridium ljungdahlii was grown in modified Tanner medium and sparged with 20 mL/min of artificial syngas mimicking a composition of clean syngas from entrained bed gasification of straw (32.5 vol-% CO, 32.5 vol-% H2, 16 vol-% CO2, and 19 vol-% N2) using a microsparger. Syngas consumption was monitored via automated gas chromatographic measurement of the off-gas. For the fungal fermentation part gas sparging was switched to 0.6 L/min of air and a standard sparger. Ammonia content of medium for syngas fermentation was reduced to 0.33 g/L NH4Cl to meet the requirements for fungal production of dicarboxylic acids. Malic acid production performance of A. oryzae in organic acid production medium and syngas medium with acetate as sole carbon source was verified and gave YP∕S values of 0.28 g/g and 0.37 g/g respectively. Growth and acetate formation of C. ljungdahlii during syngas fermentation were not affected by the reduced ammonia content and 66 % of the consumed syngas was converted to acetate. The overall conversion

  2. Sequential Mixed Cultures: From Syngas to Malic Acid.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Florian; Dörsam, Stefan; Veith, Nicolas; Zwick, Michaela; Neumann, Anke; Ochsenreither, Katrin; Syldatk, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation using acetogenic bacteria is an approach for production of bulk chemicals like acetate, ethanol, butanol, or 2,3-butandiol avoiding the fuel vs. food debate by using carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen from gasification of biomass or industrial waste gases. Suffering from energetic limitations, yields of C4-molecules produced by syngas fermentation are quite low compared with ABE fermentation using sugars as a substrate. On the other hand, fungal production of malic acid has high yields of product per gram metabolized substrate but is currently limited to sugar containing substrates. In this study, it was possible to show that Aspergilus oryzae is able to produce malic acid using acetate as sole carbon source which is a main product of acetogenic syngas fermentation. Bioreactor cultivations were conducted in 2.5 L stirred tank reactors. During the syngas fermentation part of the sequential mixed culture, Clostridium ljungdahlii was grown in modified Tanner medium and sparged with 20 mL/min of artificial syngas mimicking a composition of clean syngas from entrained bed gasification of straw (32.5 vol-% CO, 32.5 vol-% H2, 16 vol-% CO2, and 19 vol-% N2) using a microsparger. Syngas consumption was monitored via automated gas chromatographic measurement of the off-gas. For the fungal fermentation part gas sparging was switched to 0.6 L/min of air and a standard sparger. Ammonia content of medium for syngas fermentation was reduced to 0.33 g/L NH4Cl to meet the requirements for fungal production of dicarboxylic acids. Malic acid production performance of A. oryzae in organic acid production medium and syngas medium with acetate as sole carbon source was verified and gave YP∕S values of 0.28 g/g and 0.37 g/g respectively. Growth and acetate formation of C. ljungdahlii during syngas fermentation were not affected by the reduced ammonia content and 66 % of the consumed syngas was converted to acetate. The overall conversion

  3. Sequential Mixed Cultures: From Syngas to Malic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Florian; Dörsam, Stefan; Veith, Nicolas; Zwick, Michaela; Neumann, Anke; Ochsenreither, Katrin; Syldatk, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation using acetogenic bacteria is an approach for production of bulk chemicals like acetate, ethanol, butanol, or 2,3-butandiol avoiding the fuel vs. food debate by using carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen from gasification of biomass or industrial waste gases. Suffering from energetic limitations, yields of C4-molecules produced by syngas fermentation are quite low compared with ABE fermentation using sugars as a substrate. On the other hand, fungal production of malic acid has high yields of product per gram metabolized substrate but is currently limited to sugar containing substrates. In this study, it was possible to show that Aspergilus oryzae is able to produce malic acid using acetate as sole carbon source which is a main product of acetogenic syngas fermentation. Bioreactor cultivations were conducted in 2.5 L stirred tank reactors. During the syngas fermentation part of the sequential mixed culture, Clostridium ljungdahlii was grown in modified Tanner medium and sparged with 20 mL/min of artificial syngas mimicking a composition of clean syngas from entrained bed gasification of straw (32.5 vol-% CO, 32.5 vol-% H2, 16 vol-% CO2, and 19 vol-% N2) using a microsparger. Syngas consumption was monitored via automated gas chromatographic measurement of the off-gas. For the fungal fermentation part gas sparging was switched to 0.6 L/min of air and a standard sparger. Ammonia content of medium for syngas fermentation was reduced to 0.33 g/L NH4Cl to meet the requirements for fungal production of dicarboxylic acids. Malic acid production performance of A. oryzae in organic acid production medium and syngas medium with acetate as sole carbon source was verified and gave YP∕S values of 0.28 g/g and 0.37 g/g respectively. Growth and acetate formation of C. ljungdahlii during syngas fermentation were not affected by the reduced ammonia content and 66 % of the consumed syngas was converted to acetate. The overall conversion

  4. A Multicenter Prospective Study to Investigate the Diagnostic Accuracy of the SeHCAT Test in Measuring Bile Acid Malabsorption: Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Janet; Coker, Bola; McMillan, Viktoria; Lewis, Cornelius; Keevil, Stephen; Sherwood, Roy; Vivian, Gill; Logan, Robert; Summers, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is one possible explanation for chronic diarrhea. BAM may be idiopathic, or result from ileal resection or inflammation including Crohn’s disease, or may be secondary to other conditions, including cholecystectomy, peptic ulcer surgery, and chronic pancreatitis. No “gold standard” exists for clinical diagnosis of BAM, but response to treatment with a bile acid sequestrant (BAS) is often accepted as confirmation. The SeHCAT (tauroselcholic [selenium-75] acid) test uses a radiolabeled synthetic bile acid and provides a diagnostic test for BAM, but its performance against “trial of treatment” is unknown. Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19) and 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) also offer potential new biomarkers of BAM. Objective This protocol describes a multicenter prospective study to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of SeHCAT and 2 biomarkers in predicting BAM as assessed by trial of treatment. Methods Participating gastroenterology centers should have a minimum workload of 30 SeHCAT patients per annum. Patients should not be pregnant, on medication that could confound follow-up, or have any severe comorbidity. All eligible patients attending a gastrointestinal appointment will be invited to participate. On attending the SeHCAT test, blood and fecal samples will be collected for analysis of FGF-19 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and for C4 and fractionated bile acids by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. A capsule containing radiolabeled SeHCAT will be administered orally and a scan performed to measure SeHCAT activity. Patients will return on day 7 to undergo a second scan to measure percentage SeHCAT retention. The test result will be concealed from clinicians and patients. BAS will be dispensed to all patients, with a follow-up gastroenterologist appointment at 2 weeks for clinical assessment of treatment response and adherence. Patients responding positively will continue treatment for a

  5. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1996, Vol. 2, Rev. 5

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 5, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1996. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels.

  6. Elevated-temperature-delayed failure of alumina reinforced with 20 vol% silicon carbide whiskers

    SciTech Connect

    Becher, P.F.; Angelini, P.; Warwick, W.H.; Tiegs, T.N. . Metals and Ceramics Div.)

    1990-01-01

    Alumina composites reinforced with 20 vol% SiC whiskers were exposed to applied stresses in four- point flexure at temperatures of 1000{degrees}, 1100{degrees}, and 1200{degrees}C in air for periods of up to 14 weeks. At 1000{degrees} and 1100{degrees}C, an apparent fatigue limit was established at stresses of {approx}75% of the fast fracture strength. However, after long-term ({gt}6 weeks) tests at 1100{degrees}C, some evidence of crack generation as a result of creep cavitation was detected. At 1200{degrees}C applied stresses as low as 38% of the 1200{degrees}C fracture strength were sufficient to promote creep deformation and accompanying cavitation and crack generation and growth resulting in failures in times of {lt}250 h.

  7. Perfluoroalkyl acids: recent research highlights

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds are organic chemicals in which all hydrogen molecules of the carbon-chain are substituted by fluorine molecules. Generally, there are two types of perfluorinated compounds, the perfluoroalkanes that are primarily used clinically for oxygenation and respir...

  8. Combination of nucleic acid and protein isolation with tissue array construction: using defined histologic regions in single frozen tissue blocks for multiple research purposes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Sun, Yuan; Kong, Qing-You; Zhang, Kai-Li; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Qian; Liu, Jia

    2003-09-01

    Precise dissection of defined histological regions for nucleic acid and protein isolation is a precedent step in finding out cancer-related alterations, and high quality tissue microarrays are demanded in the validation of screened genetic alterations by multiple in situ approaches. In this study, a combined technique was developed by which sample isolation and tissue array construction could be performed on the defined morphological region(s) in single tissue block. The RNA and protein samples generated from the selected portions were of good quality and sufficient for multiple experimental purposes. The frozen tissue arrays constructed on a novel recipient are suitable for multiple in situ evaluations including immunohistochemical staining and mRNA hybridisation. In most cases, the data obtained from in situ assays coincided well with the ones revealed by RT-PCR and Western blot hybridisation. The potential experimental bias caused by cell contamination can be amended by tissue array-based retrospective examination. The combination of tissue-selective sample preparations with tissue array construction thus provide a tool by which comprehensive cancer research can be performed on defined histological regions in a series of single frozen tissue blocks.

  9. Ethics and nursing research. 2: Examination of the research process.

    PubMed

    Noble-Adams, R

    In this article, the second in a series on ethics in nursing research, the author explores the relationship between the guiding ethical principles and the steps of the research process. In the first article (Vol 8(13): 888-92) the two dominant theories of ethics, utilitarianism and deontology, along with the guiding principles of beneficence/non-maleficence and respect for human dignity, justice, informed consent and vulnerable subjects were discussed as they relate to the rights of individuals undergoing the research. In this article, the author describes the association between these principles and the elemental steps of the research process which are: the selection of the research problem; data collection; sampling; informed consent; data analysis; and research presentation. The ethical conduct of many of these research steps is guided by ethics committees but for those that are not nurses need to rely on their own integrity, honesty and committment to the current prevailing ethical principles.

  10. Large-scale production of poly(3-hydroxyoctanoic acid) by Pseudomonas putida GPo1 and a simplified downstream process.

    PubMed

    Elbahloul, Yasser; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    The suitability of Pseudomonas putida GPo1 for large-scale cultivation and production of poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) (PHO) was investigated in this study. Three fed-batch cultivations of P. putida GPo1 at the 350- or 400-liter scale in a bioreactor with a capacity of 650 liters were done in mineral salts medium containing initially 20 mM sodium octanoate as the carbon source. The feeding solution included ammonium octanoate, which was fed at a relatively low concentration to promote PHO accumulation under nitrogen-limited conditions. During cultivation, the pH was regulated by addition of NaOH, NH(4)OH, or octanoic acid, which was used as an additional carbon source. Partial O(2) pressure (pO(2)) was adjusted to 20 to 40% by controlling the airflow and stirrer speed. Under the optimized conditions, P. putida GPo1 was able to grow to cell densities as high as 18, 37, and 53 g cells (dry mass) (CDM) per liter containing 49, 55, and 60% (wt/wt) of PHO, respectively. The resulting 40 kg CDM from these three cultivations was used directly for extraction of PHO. Three different methods of extraction of PHO were applied. From these, only acetone extraction showed better performance and resulted in 94% recovery of the PHO contents of cells. A novel mixture of precipitation solvents composed of 70% (vol/vol) methanol and 70% (vol/vol) ethanol was identified in this study. The ratio of PHO concentrate to the mixture was 0.2:1 (vol/vol) and allowed complete precipitation of PHO as white flakes. However, at a ratio of 1:1 (vol/vol) of the solvent mixture to PHO concentrate, a highly purified PHO was obtained. Precipitation yielded a dough-like polymeric material which was cast into thin layers and then shredded into small strips to allow evaporation of the remaining solvents. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed a purity of about 99% +/- 0.2% (wt/wt) of the polymer, which consisted mainly of 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid (96 mol%). PMID:19047387

  11. An intercomparison of measurement systems for vapor and particulate phase concentrations of formic and acetic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keene, William C.; Talbot, Robert W.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Beecher, Kristene; Berresheim, Harold

    1989-01-01

    During June 1986, eight systems for measuring vapor phase and four for measuring particulate phase concentrations of formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) were intercompared in central Virginia. HCOOH and CH3COOH vapors were sampled by condensate, mist, Chromosorb 103 GC resin, NaOH-coated annular denuders, NaOH-impregnated quartz filters, K2CO3 and NaCO3-impregnated cellulose filters, and Nylasorb membranes. Atmospheric aerosol was collected on Teflon and Nuclepore filters using both hi-vol and lo-vol systems to measure particulate phase concentrations. Performances of the mist chamber and K2CO3-impregnated filter techniques were evaluated using zero air and ambient air spiked with HCOOH(g) and CH3COOH(g), and formaldehyde from permeation sources. The advantages and drawbacks of these methods are reported and discussed.

  12. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  13. A new and fast methodology to assess oxidative damage in cardiovascular diseases risk development through eVol-MEPS-UHPLC analysis of four urinary biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Berta; Silva, Pedro; Mendonça, Isabel; Pereira, Jorge; Câmara, José S

    2013-11-15

    In this work, a new, fast and reliable methodology using a digitally controlled microextraction by packed sorbent (eVol(®)-MEPS) followed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis with photodiodes (PDA) detection, was developed to establish the urinary profile levels of four putative oxidative stress biomarkers (OSBs) in healthy subjects and patients evidencing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This data was used to verify the suitability of the selected OSBs (uric acid-UAc, malondialdehyde-MDA, 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil-5-HMUra and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine-8-oxodG) as potential biomarkers of CVDs progression. Important parameters affecting the efficiency of the extraction process were optimized, particularly stationary phase selection, pH influence, sample volume, number of extraction cycles and washing and elution volumes. The experimental conditions that allowed the best extraction efficiency, expressed in terms of total area of the target analytes and data reproducibility, includes a 10 times dilution and pH adjustment of the urine samples to 6.0, followed by a gradient elution through the C8 adsorbent with 5 times 50 µL of 0.01% formic acid and 3×50 µL of 20% methanol in 0.01% formic acid. The chromatographic separation of the target analytes was performed with a HSS T3 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm in particle size) using 0.01% formic acid 20% methanol at 250 µL min(-1). The methodology was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, instrumental limit of detection (LOD), method limit of quantification (LOQ), matrix effect, accuracy and precision (intra-and inter-day). Good results were obtained in terms of selectivity and linearity (r(2)>0.9906), as well as the LOD and LOQ, whose values were low, ranging from 0.00005 to 0.72 µg mL(-1) and 0.00023 to 2.31 µg mL(-1), respectively. The recovery results (91.1-123.0%), intra-day (1.0-8.3%), inter-day precision (4.6-6.3%) and the matrix effect (60.1-110.3%) of eVol

  14. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  15. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  16. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  17. Structure of the magnetite-oleic acid-decalin magnetic fluid from small-angle neutron scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagornyi, A. V.; Petrenko, V. I.; Bulavin, L. A.; Avdeev, M. V.; Almásy, L.; Rosta, L.; Aksenov, V. L.

    2014-01-01

    Structural parameters of the magnetite-oleic acid-decalin magnetic fluid at various excesses of oleic acid (up to 25 vol %) have been determined using small-angle neutron scattering. Based on the comparison of the behavior of oleic acid in the magnetic fluid and in the pure solvent (decalin), it has been concluded that the interaction between the molecules of free (unadsorbed) surfactant changes in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles. However, the system remains stable and does not form aggregates of magnetic particles or free oleic acid. These results are compared with the previously presented data for similar benzene-based magnetic fluids.

  18. NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) results on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.

  19. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al6061-31vol.% B4C Composites Prepared by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Yajiang; Pang, Xiaoxuan; He, Shixiong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2015-10-01

    Fabrication of durable and usable composites with high content of B4C (up to 31vol.%) is quite challenging in several aspects including blending, cold isostatic pressing, and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and especially the optimal HIP process is essential to achieve the metal matrix composite with desirable properties. The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al6061-31vol.% B4C with different particle sizes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile testing, respectively. SEM analysis and quantitative measurements of the particle distribution reveal that B4C particles were uniformly distributed in the matrix without agglomeration when the HIP treatment temperature was about 580 °C, and x-ray diffraction also identified a dispersion of B4C particles as well as reaction products (AlB2 and Al3BC) in the composites. Microhardness of Al6061-31vol.% B4C composites was improved with B4C particle size, and the tensile strength of all the samples declined with an increase in B4C particle size. The contribution from different strengthening mechanisms was also discussed.

  20. Effect of sintering temperature and time intervals on morphological and hardness behaviour of Al-20 vol% Sn matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badarulzaman, N. A.; Karim, S. R.; Lajis, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    Aluminium (Al) alloys are widely used in various industries, such as automotive and aerospace. The production processes in these sectors create large amount of Al residues. In this paper, a new method of recycling Al chip is presented. Metal matrix composite (MMCs) of Al-20 vol% Sn was prepared by using solid state direct conversion method of recycled Al 6061 alloy. Constant pressure (10 ton) was used to implement the cold forging process. The differences of sintering temperature (200 °C, 250 °C, 300 °C and 350 °C) and time intervals (1h, 2h, 3h, 4h and 5h) were studied to obtain the optimum hardness, strength and surface integrity of Al-20 vol% Sn. The results showed that, hardness and strength of Al-20 vol% Sn was decreased by additional temperature and increase with time interval of sintering. Sintering temperature at 350 °C produces better morphology structure of Al-Sn composites.

  1. Starch composites with aconitic acid.

    PubMed

    Gilfillan, William Neil; Doherty, William O S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this project is to examine the effectiveness of using aconitic acid (AcA), a tricarboxylic acid which contains a carbon/carbon double bond (CC), to enhance the properties of starch-based films. Starch/glycerol cast films were prepared with 0, 2, 5, 10 and 15wt% AcA (starch wt% basis) and the properties analysed. It was shown that AcA acted as both a cross-linking agent and also a strong plasticising agent. The 5wt% AcA derived starch films were the most effectively cross-linked having the lowest solubility (28wt%) and decreased swelling coefficient (35vol.%) by approximately 3 times and 2.4 times respectively compared to the control film submerged in water (23°C). There was also a significant increase in the film elongation at break by approximately 35 times (compared to the control) with the addition of 15wt% AcA, emphasising the plasticising effect of AcA. However, generally there was a reduced tensile strength, softening of the film, and reduced thermal stability with increased amounts of AcA. PMID:26876996

  2. The influence of naturally-occurring organic acids on model estimates of lakewater acidification using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). Summary of research conducted during year 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.; Cosby, B.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; Hemond, H.F.; Charles, D.F.; Norton, S.A.

    1993-03-05

    A project for the US Department of Energy, entitled ``Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and Testing of the Revised Model UsingIndependent Data Sources`` was initiated by E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. in March, 1992. Major components of the project include: improving the MAGIC model by incorporating a rigorous organic acid representation, based on empirical data and geochemical considerations, and testing the revised model using data from paleolimnological hindcasts of preindustrial chemistry for 33 Adirondack Mountain lakes, and the results of whole-catchment artificial acidification projects in Maine and Norway. The ongoing research in this project involves development of an organic acid representation to be incorporated into the MAGIC modeland testing of the improved model using three independent data sources. The research during Year 1 has included conducting two workshops to agree on an approach for the organic acid modeling, developing the organic subroutine and incorporating it into MAGIC (Task 1), conducing MAGIC hindcasts for Adirondack lakes and comparing the results with paleolimnological reconstructions (Task 2), and conducting site visits to the manipulation project sites in Maine and Norway. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the work that has been conducted on this project during Year 1. Tasks 1 and 2 have now been completed.

  3. Solidification of Magnesium (AM50A) / vol%. SiCp composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Hu, H.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium matrix composite is one of the advanced lightweight materials with high potential to be used in automotive and aircraft industries due to its low density and high specific mechanical properties. The magnesium composites can be fabricated by adding the reinforcements of fibers or/and particles. In the previous literature, extensive studies have been performed on the development of matrix grain structure of aluminum-based metal matrix composites. However, there is limited information available on the development of grain structure during the solidification of particulate-reinforced magnesium. In this work, a 5 vol.% SiCp particulate-reinforced magnesium (AM50A) matrix composite (AM50A/SiCp) was prepared by stir casting. The solidification behavior of the cast AM50A/SiCp composite was investigated by computer-based thermal analysis. Optical and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) were employed to examine the occurrence of nucleation and grain refinement involved. The results indicate that the addition of SiCp particulates leads to a finer grain structure in the composite compared with the matrix alloy. The refinement of grain structure should be attributed to both the heterogeneous nucleation and the restricted primary crystal growth.

  4. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  5. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  6. Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixing; Cao, Yusheng

    2010-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects, and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent years, because lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. They have been extensively used in food industry. The production of lactic acid bacterial gamma-aminobutyric acid is safe and eco-friendly, and this provides the possibility of production of new naturally fermented health-oriented products enriched in gamma-aminobutyric acid. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing species of lactic acid bacteria and their isolation sources, the methods for screening of the strains and increasing their production, the enzymatic properties of glutamate decarboxylases and the relative fundamental research are reviewed in this article. And the potential applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria were also referred to.

  7. Comparative researches on two direct transmethylation without prior extraction methods for fatty acids analysis in vegetal matrix with low fat content

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of our work was to compare two methods, both based on direct transmethylation with different reagents, BF3/MeOH (boron trifluoride in methanol) or HCl/MeOH (hydrochloride acid in methanol), in acid catalysis, without prior extraction, to find the fast, non-expensive but enough precise method for 9 principal fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arahidic and behenic acids) analysis in vegetal matrix with low fat content (forage from grassland), for nutrition and agrochemical studies. Results Comparatively, between the average values obtained for all analysed fatty acids by the two methods based on direct transmethylation without prior extraction no significantly difference was identified (p > 0.05). The results of fatty acids for the same forage sample were more closely to their average value, being more homogenous for BF3/MeOH than HCl/MeOH, because of the better accuracy and repeatability of this method. Method that uses BF3/MeOH reagent produces small amounts of interfering compounds than the method using HCl/MeOH reagent, results reflected by the better statistical parameters. Conclusion The fast and non-expensive BF3/methanol method was applied with good accuracy and sensitivity for the determination of free or combined fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) in forage matrix with low fat content from grassland. Also, the final extract obtained by this method, poorer in interfering compounds, is safer to protect the injector and column from contamination with heavy or non-volatile compounds formed by transmethylation reactions. PMID:22269394

  8. Whither acid rain?

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, P

    2001-04-01

    Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  9. Phenylacetic acid stimulation of cellulose digestion by Ruminococcus albus 8

    SciTech Connect

    Stack, R.J.; Hungate, R.E.; Opsahl, W.P.

    1983-09-01

    The rate of cellulose digestion by Ruminococcus albus 8 grown on a defined medium could be increased by adding a minimum of 6.6% (vol/vol) rumen fluid. Strain 8 was grown on half this concentration, and the culture medium before and after growth was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine which components of the rumen fluid were used. Phenylacetic acid was identified as the component needed to make the defined medium nutritionally equivalent to one supplemented with rumen fluid. (/sup 14/C)phenylacetic acid fed to cultures of strain 8 was primarily incorporated into protein. Hydrolysis of protein samples and separation of the resulting amino acids showed that only phenylalanine was labeled. The results indicate that cellulose digestion by strain 8 was probably limited by phenylalanine biosynthesis in our previously reported medium. The data obtained on the utilization of other rumen fluid components, as well as on the production of metabolites, illustrate the potential usefulness of this method in formulating defined media to simulate those in nature. 14 references.

  10. Research on the interaction of hydrogen-bond acidic polymer sensitive sensor materials with chemical warfare agents simulants by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Huang, Feng; Qin, Molin; Guo, Chenghai; Ding, Mingyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper.

  11. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Huang, Feng; Qin, Molin; Guo, Chenghai; Ding, Mingyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper. PMID:26043177

  12. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  13. Acid deposition in Maryland: Implications of the results of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuro, J.; Bowmann, M.; Ross, J.; Blundell, C.; Price, R.

    1991-07-01

    Acid deposition, commonly referred to as 'acid rain,' is a major global environmental concern. Acid deposition has reportedly resulted in damage to aquatic, terrestrial, and physical resources and has potentially adverse effects on human health. A component of the Maryland acid deposition program is the preparation of an annual report that summarizes yearly activities and costs of ongoing acid deposition research and monitoring programs.

  14. [Research of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives. XXX. Synthesis and properties of (imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazolyl-2)acetic acid derivatives].

    PubMed

    Anisimova, V A; Tolpygin, I E; Spasov, A A; Serdiuk, T S; Sukhov, A G

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl esters of (9-subtituted-imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazolyl-2)acetic acids were synthesized. The chemical properties of these esters (hydrolysis, decarboxylation, hydrazinolysis) and biological activity (fungicidal, antimicrobial, antiarrhythmic activity, and also affects on the brain rhythmogenesis) of the prepared compounds were studied.

  15. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  16. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  17. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  18. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  19. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  20. Dose equations for shift-variant CT acquisition modes using variable pitch, tube current, and aperture, and the meaning of their associated CTDI{sub vol}

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Robert L.; Boone, John M.; Kraft, Robert A.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: With the increasing clinical use of shift-variant CT protocols involving tube current modulation (TCM), variable pitch or pitch modulation (PM), and variable aperture a(t), the interpretation of the scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} is called into question. This was addressed for TCM in their previous paper published by Dixon and Boone [Med. Phys. 40, 111920 (14pp.) (2013)] and is extended to PM and concurrent TCM/PM as well as variable aperture in this work. Methods: Rigorous convolution equations are derived to describe the accumulated dose distributions for TCM, PM, and concurrent TCM/PM. A comparison with scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} formulae clearly identifies the source of their differences with the traditional CTDI{sub vol}. Dose distribution simulations using the convolution are provided for a variety of TCM and PM scenarios including a helical shuttle used for perfusion studies (as well as constant mA)—all having the same scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol}. These new convolution simulations for TCM are validated by comparison with their previous discrete summations. Results: These equations show that PM is equivalent to TCM if the pitch variation p(z) is proportional to 1/i(z), where i(z) is the local tube current. The simulations show that the local dose at z depends only weakly on the local tube current i(z) or local pitch p(z) due to scatter from all other locations along z, and that the “local CTDI{sub vol}(z)” or “CTDI{sub vol} per slice” do not represent a local dose but rather only a relative i(z) or p(z). The CTDI-paradigm does not apply to shift-variant techniques and the scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} for the same lacks physical significance and relevance. Conclusions: While the traditional CTDI{sub vol} at constant tube current and pitch conveys useful information (the peak dose at the center of the scan length), CTDI{sub vol} for shift-variant techniques (TCM or PM) conveys no useful information about the associated dose

  1. An Evaluation of Policy Related Research on Programs for Mid-Life Career Redirection: Vol. 1--Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascal, Anthony H.

    The report is concerned with the evaluation of existing literature on alternative programs to facilitate mid-life redirection of careers, with a view to identifying how literature in relevant fields can be used by policy makers. The report is a condensed and abbreviated version of the material in Volume 2, Major Findings. Some 300 items of…

  2. Minorities in Engineering School: A Data Base for Retention Efforts. NACME Research Letter. Vol. 1, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Douglas L.

    The National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering (NACME), in cooperation with the Center for the Advancement of Science, Engineering and Technology (CASET), undertook a national survey of underrepresented minority students in engineering to assess their college experiences in relation to academic performance. Professionals at the college…

  3. A Study of Continuing Education Course Credit Strategy. Office of College & Community Research, Vol. XV, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakshis, Robert; Saracco, Bonnie

    In October, 1979, a survey of students enrolled in noncredit Data Processing (DP) and Secretarial Science (SS) courses at Triton Community College was conducted to determine if conversion of noncredit adult education courses to regular college credit status would result in a substantial loss of students. Responses were obtained from 474 SS…

  4. The Case for Linguistic Determinism in Social Research. Papers from the Michigan Linguistic Society Meeting, Vol. 1, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nanette J.

    Social scientists have tended to neglect the relationship of language and "reality" in their formulations of mind, self, and society. Recently, however, a flurry of studies dealing with the congruence of language, cognition, and society has emerged. The initial sources of this concern may be traced to the rich tradition of the French school of…

  5. ACT Profiles of 1974-75 Graduates of Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Research Report Vol. 7, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, W. L., Jr.

    The study is a simple statistical analysis of the ACT scores of the 1974-75 Louisiana State University-Baton Rouge graduates. Graduate students awarded advanced degrees are not included. For each college and field of study and for each of five ACT tests, these data are given: number of students, mean, middle two-thirds; range, standard deviation,…

  6. Louisiana Public School Art Teachers: Profile, Preparation, and Opinions. Research Report, Vol. 7, No. 7, October, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, C. Robert; And Others

    One hundred and thirty-four certified public school art teachers in Louisiana responded to a questionnaire to gather data for a teacher profile which would describe the personal and educational characteristics and professional opinions of these teachers. Data indicate that the average public school art teacher in Louisiana is a married Caucasian…

  7. Implementing and Sustaining School Improvement. Principal's Research Review: Supporting the Principal's Data-Informed Decisions. Vol. 6, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    School improvement can be a complex, messy business. At its most basic, school improvement is change--change that might require people to abandon long-held beliefs and practices, shift roles, and learn new skills. Kilgore and Reynolds (2011) suggested that successful change requires that people change their perceptions as well as their actions.…

  8. Workplace Conditions That Matter to Teachers. Principal's Research Review: Supporting the Principal's Data-Informed Decisions. Vol. 6, No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Much of the conversation in recent years about how to attract and retain high-quality teachers has focused on salaries--how much teachers are paid, the possibilities of differentiated pay scales, and pay for performance. But it has become increasingly clear that teachers take much more than salary into account when tallying up working conditions.…

  9. NASSP: Curriculum Report, Vol. 8, No. 5. Research/Ideas/Practice. Religions in the Public Schools Legal and Desirable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lee; Bodin, Wes

    Key aspects of the issue of religion in public schools are reviewed and several innovative programs in specific schools are described. In 1962 two U.S. Supreme Court cases (Abington School District vs. Schempp and Engle vs. Vitale) prohibited the practice of Bible reading in public schools. It was believed that activities such as Bible reading…

  10. Do Principals Need Guidelines on First Amendment Rights of the Student Press? Research Report Vol. 7, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmon, C. Robert; Broussard, E. Joseph

    A sample of high school principals, sponsors/advisers, and student editors were surveyed concerning their knowledge of communication law in relation to freedom of the press under the First Amendment. The sample of 126 schools was drawn by random numbers from 202 schools in 31 states. Related court decisions were selected and adapted into ten…

  11. Effect of propionic acid on Campylobacter jejuni attached to chicken skin during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    González-Fandos, Elena; Maya, Naiara; Pérez-Arnedo, Iratxe

    2015-09-01

    The ability of propionic acid to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken legs was evaluated. Chicken legs were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni. After dipping legs in either water (control), 1% or 2% propionic acid solution (vol/vol), they were stored at 4ºC for 8 days. Changes in C. jejuni, psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts were evaluated. Washing in 2% propionic acid significantly reduced C. jejuni counts compared to control legs, with a decrease of about 1.62 log units after treatment. Treatment of chicken legs with 1 or 2% propionic acid significantly reduced numbers of psychrotrophs 1.01 and 1.08 log units and Pseudomonas counts 0.75 and 0.96 log units, respectively, compared to control legs. The reduction in psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas increased throughout storage. The highest reductions obtained for psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts in treated legs were reached at the end of storage, day 8, being 3.3 and 2.93 log units, respectively, compared to control legs. Propionic acid treatment was effective in reducing psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts on chicken legs throughout storage. It is concluded that propionic acid is effective for reducing C. jejuni populations in chicken. PMID:27036744

  12. Effect of propionic acid on Campylobacter jejuni attached to chicken skin during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    González-Fandos, Elena; Maya, Naiara; Pérez-Arnedo, Iratxe

    2015-09-01

    The ability of propionic acid to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken legs was evaluated. Chicken legs were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni. After dipping legs in either water (control), 1% or 2% propionic acid solution (vol/vol), they were stored at 4ºC for 8 days. Changes in C. jejuni, psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts were evaluated. Washing in 2% propionic acid significantly reduced C. jejuni counts compared to control legs, with a decrease of about 1.62 log units after treatment. Treatment of chicken legs with 1 or 2% propionic acid significantly reduced numbers of psychrotrophs 1.01 and 1.08 log units and Pseudomonas counts 0.75 and 0.96 log units, respectively, compared to control legs. The reduction in psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas increased throughout storage. The highest reductions obtained for psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts in treated legs were reached at the end of storage, day 8, being 3.3 and 2.93 log units, respectively, compared to control legs. Propionic acid treatment was effective in reducing psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts on chicken legs throughout storage. It is concluded that propionic acid is effective for reducing C. jejuni populations in chicken.

  13. An investigation of the thermal cycling damage of 25 vol. pct SiCw/alumina ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, William D.; Taya, Minoru

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was made of the thermal cycling damage of a 25 vol pct SiC whisker/alumina (SiCw/Al2O3) composite. Thermal cycling tests were conducted by subjecting a composite specimen to two different fluidized beds. After thermal cycling the composite specimens were subjected to elastic modulus and effective fracture toughness measurements. The thermal cycled specimens were investigated with SEM and TEM studies. It was found that this composite has a relatively high resistance to thermal cycling.

  14. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  15. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as soybeans, garbanzo beans, and lentils Peanuts, almonds, walnuts, and flaxseeds Animal ...

  16. Dehydrogenation of Formic Acid by Heterogeneous Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhu, Qi-Long; Xu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Formic acid has recently been considered as one of the most promising hydrogen storage materials. The basic concept is briefly discussed and the research progress is detailledly reviewed on the dehydrogenation of aqueous formic acid by heterogeneous catalysts. PMID:26507481

  17. [Analysis of the vol atiles from pigeon's excrement with capillary gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    He, F; Sun, Y; Huang, A; Sun, Y

    1997-01-01

    The volatiles from pigeon's excrement were obtained with a simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) equipment. The chemical composition of the volatiles was examined by means of capillary gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Forty seven constitutents of the volatiles were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Of these compounds, thirty nine were further identified by measuring their temperature-programmed retention indexes or retention times on OV-1 and PEG-20M columns and making comparison with those of the corresponding authentic samples. The total compounds identified make 57% of the total peak areas. The compound classes consist of alcohols (4), aldehydes (11), ketones(4), acids (8), esters (5), and phenols (2), amounting to 43.68% of the total peak areas. The ten compounds with highest contents are, hexadecanoic acid (9.03%), ethyl acetate (6.85%), ethanol (4.03%), 1-ethoxy-2-methylpropane (3.87%), acetic acid (3.23%), heptadecane-(8)-carbonic acid (3.20%), (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (3.18%), nonanal (2.85%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic, dibutyl ester (2.65%), and acetaldehyde (2.32%). Pigeon's excrement has long been used as a Chinese traditional medicine for the therapeutic treatment of haemorrhoid. Some of the constituents identified in the work have been reported to have antibacterial activities.

  18. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  19. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  20. Usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K

    2002-12-01

    Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale.

  1. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  2. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  3. How Acidic Is Carbonic Acid?

    PubMed

    Pines, Dina; Ditkovich, Julia; Mukra, Tzach; Miller, Yifat; Kiefer, Philip M; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Hynes, James T; Pines, Ehud

    2016-03-10

    Carbonic, lactic, and pyruvic acids have been generated in aqueous solution by the transient protonation of their corresponding conjugate bases by a tailor-made photoacid, the 6-hydroxy-1-sulfonate pyrene sodium salt molecule. A particular goal is to establish the pK(a) of carbonic acid H2CO3. The on-contact proton transfer (PT) reaction rate from the optically excited photoacid to the carboxylic bases was derived, with unprecedented precision, from time-correlated single-photon-counting measurements of the fluorescence lifetime of the photoacid in the presence of the proton acceptors. The time-dependent diffusion-assisted PT rate was analyzed using the Szabo-Collins-Kimball equation with a radiation boundary condition. The on-contact PT rates were found to follow the acidity order of the carboxylic acids: the stronger was the acid, the slower was the PT reaction to its conjugate base. The pK(a) of carbonic acid was found to be 3.49 ± 0.05 using both the Marcus and Kiefer-Hynes free energy correlations. This establishes H2CO3 as being 0.37 pK(a) units stronger and about 1 pK(a) unit weaker, respectively, than the physiologically important lactic and pyruvic acids. The considerable acid strength of intact carbonic acid indicates that it is an important protonation agent under physiological conditions. PMID:26862781

  4. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  5. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  6. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  7. ABRF-MARG RESEARCH STUDY: EVALUATION OF SMALL SAMPLE NUCLEIC ACID AMPLIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microarrays have had a significant impact on many areas of biology. However, there are still many fertile research areas that would benefit from microarray analysis but are limited by the amount of biological material that can be obtained (e.g. samples obtained by small biopsy, f...

  8. Chicoric acid: chemistry, distribution, and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jungmin; Scagel, Carolyn

    2013-12-01

    Though chicoric acid was first identified in 1958, it was largely ignored until recent popular media coverage cited potential health beneficial properties from consuming food and dietary supplements containing this compound. To date, plants from at least 63 genera and species have been found to contain chicoric acid, and while the compound is used as a processing quality indicator, it may also have useful health benefits. This review of chicoric acid summarizes research findings and highlights gaps in research knowledge for investigators, industry stakeholders, and consumers alike. Additionally, chicoric acid identification and quantification methods, biosynthesis, processing improvements to increase chicoric acid retention, and potential areas for future research are discussed.

  9. Chicoric acid: chemistry, distribution, and production

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungmin; Scagel, Carolyn F.

    2013-01-01

    Though chicoric acid was first identified in 1958, it was largely ignored until recent popular media coverage cited potential health beneficial properties from consuming food and dietary supplements containing this compound. To date, plants from at least 63 genera and species have been found to contain chicoric acid, and while the compound is used as a processing quality indicator, it may also have useful health benefits. This review of chicoric acid summarizes research findings and highlights gaps in research knowledge for investigators, industry stakeholders, and consumers alike. Additionally, chicoric acid identification, and quantification methods, biosynthesis, processing improvements to increase chicoric acid retention, and potential areas for future research are discussed. PMID:24790967

  10. The Model Intercomparison Project on the Climatic Response to Volcanic Forcing (VolMIP): Experimental Design and Forcing Input Data for CMIP6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanchettin, Davide; Khodri, Myriam; Timmreck, Claudia; Toohey, Matthew; Schmidt, Anja; Gerber, Edwin P.; Hegerl, Gabriele; Robock, Alan; Pausata, Francesco; Ball, William T.; Bauer, Susanne E.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    The enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer by volcanic eruptions induces a complex set of responses causing global and regional climate effects on a broad range of timescales. Uncertainties exist regarding the climatic response to strong volcanic forcing identified in coupled climate simulations that contributed to the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). In order to better understand the sources of these model diversities, the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP) has defined a coordinated set of idealized volcanic perturbation experiments to be carried out in alignment with the CMIP6 protocol. VolMIP provides a common stratospheric aerosol data set for each experiment to minimize differences in the applied volcanic forcing. It defines a set of initial conditions to assess how internal climate variability contributes to determining the response. VolMIP will assess to what extent volcanically forced responses of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system are robustly simulated by state-of-the-art coupled climate models and identify the causes that limit robust simulated behavior, especially differences in the treatment of physical processes. This paper illustrates the design of the idealized volcanic perturbation experiments in the VolMIP protocol and describes the common aerosol forcing input data sets to be used.

  11. [Book review] Developments in biological standardization (Vol. 49): Fish Biologics: Seriodiagnostics and Vaccines, edited by W. Hennessen and D. P. Andersen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.P.

    1981-01-01

    Review of: Developments in Biologicals, Vol. 49. Fish Biologics: Serodiagnostics and Vaccines. International Symposium, Leetown, W.Va., April 1981. Editor(s): Hennessen, W. (Bern); Andersen, D.P. (Leetown, W.Va.); Society/Societies: International Association of Biological Standardization, XII + 496 p., 90 fig., 110 tab., soft cover, 1981. ISBN: 978-3-8055-3471-0.

  12. The Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP): experimental design and forcing input data for CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchettin, Davide; Khodri, Myriam; Timmreck, Claudia; Toohey, Matthew; Schmidt, Anja; Gerber, Edwin P.; Hegerl, Gabriele; Robock, Alan; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Ball, William T.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bekki, Slimane; Dhomse, Sandip S.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Mann, Graham W.; Marshall, Lauren; Mills, Michael; Marchand, Marion; Niemeier, Ulrike; Poulain, Virginie; Rozanov, Eugene; Rubino, Angelo; Stenke, Andrea; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Tummon, Fiona

    2016-08-01

    The enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer by volcanic eruptions induces a complex set of responses causing global and regional climate effects on a broad range of timescales. Uncertainties exist regarding the climatic response to strong volcanic forcing identified in coupled climate simulations that contributed to the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). In order to better understand the sources of these model diversities, the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP) has defined a coordinated set of idealized volcanic perturbation experiments to be carried out in alignment with the CMIP6 protocol. VolMIP provides a common stratospheric aerosol data set for each experiment to minimize differences in the applied volcanic forcing. It defines a set of initial conditions to assess how internal climate variability contributes to determining the response. VolMIP will assess to what extent volcanically forced responses of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system are robustly simulated by state-of-the-art coupled climate models and identify the causes that limit robust simulated behavior, especially differences in the treatment of physical processes. This paper illustrates the design of the idealized volcanic perturbation experiments in the VolMIP protocol and describes the common aerosol forcing input data sets to be used.

  13. Optimisation des trajectoires d'un systeme de gestion de vol d'avions pour la reduction des couts de vol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidibe, Souleymane

    The implementation and monitoring of operational flight plans is a major occupation for a crew of commercial flights. The purpose of this operation is to set the vertical and lateral trajectories followed by airplane during phases of flight: climb, cruise, descent, etc. These trajectories are subjected to conflicting economical constraints: minimization of flight time and minimization of fuel consumed and environmental constraints. In its task of mission planning, the crew is assisted by the Flight Management System (FMS) which is used to construct the path to follow and to predict the behaviour of the aircraft along the flight plan. The FMS considered in our research, particularly includes an optimization model of flight only by calculating the optimal speed profile that minimizes the overall cost of flight synthesized by a criterion of cost index following a steady cruising altitude. However, the model based solely on optimization of the speed profile is not sufficient. It is necessary to expand the current optimization for simultaneous optimization of the speed and altitude in order to determine an optimum cruise altitude that minimizes the overall cost when the path is flown with the optimal speed profile. Then, a new program was developed. The latter is based on the method of dynamic programming invented by Bellman to solve problems of optimal paths. In addition, the improvement passes through research new patterns of trajectories integrating ascendant cruises and using the lateral plane with the effect of the weather: wind and temperature. Finally, for better optimization, the program takes into account constraint of flight domain of aircrafts which utilize the FMS.

  14. Research of smooth muscle cells response to fluid flow shear stress by hyaluronic acid micro-pattern on a titanium surface.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingan; Zhang, Kun; Yang, Ping; Liao, Yuzhen; Wu, Liangliang; Chen, Jialong; Zhao, Ansha; Li, Guicai; Huang, Nan

    2013-10-15

    The morphology of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the normal physiological state depends on cytoskeletal distribution and topology beneath, and presents vertical to the direction of blood flow shear stress (FFSS) although SMCs physiologically are not directly exposed to the shear conditions of blood flow. However, this condition is relevant for arteriosclerotic plaques and the sites of a vascular stent, and little of this condition in vitro has been studied and reported till now. It is unclear what will happen to SMC morphology, phenotype and function when the direction of the blood flow changed. In this paper, the distribution of SMCs in a specific area on Ti surface was regulated by micro-strips of hyaluronic acid (HA). Cell morphology depended on the distribution of the cytoskeleton extending along the micrographic direction. Simulated vascular FFSS was perpendicular or parallel to the direction of the cytoskeleton distribution. Based on investigating the morphology, apoptotic number, phenotypes and functional factors of SMCs, it was obtained that SMCs of vertical groups showed more apoptosis, expressed more contractile types and secreted less TGF-β1 factor compared with SMCs of parallel groups, the number of ECs cultured by medium from SMCs of parallel groups was larger than vertical groups. This study could help to understand the effect of direction change of FFSS on patterned SMC morphology, phenotype and function. PMID:23831491

  15. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. PMID:26227050

  16. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  17. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  18. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  19. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  20. Oxidant and acid aerosol exposure in healthy subjects and subjects with asthma. Part 1. Effects of oxidants, combined with sulfuric or nitric acid, on the pulmonary function of adolescents with asthma. Part 2. Effects of sequential sulfuric acid and ozone exposures on the pulmonary function of healthy subjects and subjects with asthma. Research report, February 1989-April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.; Covert, D.S.; Pierson, W.E.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V.

    1994-11-01

    The study investigated the pulmonary effects of acid summer haze in a controlled laboratory setting. Of 28 adolescent subjects with allergic asthma, exercise-induced bronchospasm, and a positive response to a standardized methacholine challenge enrolled in the study, 22 completed the study. For two consecutive days each subject inhaled each of four test atmospheres by mouthpiece. The order of exposure to the four test atmospheres was assigned via a random protocol; air, oxidants (0.12 parts per million (ppm) ozone plus 0.30 ppm nitrogen dioxide), oxidants plus sulfuric acid at 70 micro/m3 of air, or oxidants plus 0.05 ppm nitric acid. Exposure to each of the different atmospheres was separated by at least one week. A postexposure methacholine challenge was performed on Day 3.

  1. The Dual Language Process in Young Children. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 1, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thonis, Eleanor

    A review of available research supports the observation that the young child who lives and grows in the midst of dual language opportunities may enjoy benefits of mental flexibility or may suffer burdens of mental confusion. Further research must explore the language-thought relationship, consider the effects of dual language learning on cognitive…

  2. Development of Training Resources for Educational Extension Services Personnel. Vol. 3, Trainees' Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Colin; And Others

    The rapid growth of educational research and development in America has widened the gap between average classroom practice and "best available" validated practices resulting from research and development at educational laboratories, universities, and school-based practice improvement projects. The extension agent system was chosen to change the…

  3. National Clearinghouse on Transition from School. Newsletter Part 1 and Part 2. Vol. 2. No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, D. S.; Blakers, C.

    1983-01-01

    This newsletter contains articles, policy statements, and reports of research concerning the transition from school to work as well as youth education issues, especially in the United Kingdom. This issue of the journal is organized into two parts. Part 1 contains reports on research projects on student retention in a forest farm community project,…

  4. Use of oleic acid to reduce the population of the bacterial flora of poultry skin.

    PubMed

    Hinton, A; Ingram, K D

    2000-09-01

    The effect of oleic acid on native bacterial flora of poultry skin was examined. Skin from commercial broiler carcasses was washed once or twice in solutions of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10% (wt/vol) oleic acid and rinsed in peptone water. Aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci in the rinsates were enumerated. Significantly fewer aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci were recovered from rinsates of skin washed in oleic acid than from control samples. Additionally, fewer bacteria were recovered from rinsates of skin washed in higher concentrations of oleic acid than from skin washed in lower concentrations of the fatty acid. In most cases, there was no significant difference in the number of bacteria recovered from rinsates of skin washed once or twice in solutions of oleic acid. Washing skin samples twice in 10% solutions of oleic acid significantly reduced the number of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci that remained attached to the skin. Campylobacter sp., Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes isolates possessed the least resistance to the antibacterial activity of oleic acid in vitro, while Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed higher resistance. Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Salmonella Typhimurium had the greatest resistance to the antibacterial activity of oleic acid. Findings indicate that oleic acid reduces the number of bacteria on the skin of processed broilers and that the fatty acid is bactericidal to several spoilage and pathogenic bacteria associated with poultry.

  5. Researcher / Researched: Repositioning Research Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerwald, Agnes May Lin

    2013-01-01

    "Researcher / Researched" calls for a complementary research methodology by proposing autoethnography as both a method and text that crosses the boundaries of conventional and alternative methodologies in higher education. Autoethnography rearticulates the researcher / researched positions by blurring the boundary between them. This…

  6. Fuel Cell Demonstration Project - 200 kW - Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Power Plant Located at the National Transportation Research Center: FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, JB

    2005-05-06

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researches and develops distributed generation technology for the Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Distributed Energy Program. This report describes installation and operation of one such distributed generation system, a United Technology Corporation fuel cell located at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee. Data collected from June 2003 to June of 2004, provides valuable insight regarding fuel cell-grid compatibility and the cost-benefit of the fuel cell operation. The NTRC fuel cell included a high-heat recovery option so that use of thermal energy improves project economics and improves system efficiency to 59% year round. During the year the fuel cell supplied a total of 834MWh to the NTRC and provided 300MBtu of hot water. Installation of the NTRC fuel cell was funded by the Distributed Energy Program with partial funding from the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buy Down Program, administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. On-going operational expenses are funded by ORNL's utility budget and are paid from operational cost savings. Technical information and the benefit-cost of the fuel cell are both evaluated in this report and sister reports.

  7. Cost Effective Bioethanol via Acid Pretreatment of Corn Stover, Saccharification, and Conversion via a Novel Fermentation Organism: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number: CRD-12-485

    SciTech Connect

    Dowe, N.

    2014-05-01

    This research program will convert acid pretreated corn stover to sugars at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and then transfer these sugars to Honda R&D and its partner the Green Earth Institute (GEI) for conversion to ethanol via a novel fermentation organism. In phase one, NREL will adapt its pretreatment and saccharification process to the unique attributes of this organism, and Honda R&D/GEI will increase the sugar conversion rate as well as the yield and titer of the resulting ethanol. In later phases, NREL, Honda R&D, and GEI will work together at NREL to optimize and scale-up to pilot-scale the Honda R&D/GEI bioethanol production process. The final stage will be to undertake a pilot-scale test at NREL of the optimized bioethanol conversion process.

  8. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Measurements of Ordinary Chondrite (OC) Meteorites from Antarctica Indicate Distinct Terrestrial Carbonate Species using a Stepped Acid Extraction Procedure Impacting Mars Carbonate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. E.; Niles, P. B.; Locke, D.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the stable isotope values of terrestrial, secondary carbonate minerals from five OC meteorites collected in Antarctica. These samples were selected for analysis based upon their size and collection proximity to known Martian meteorites. They were also selected based on petrologic type (3+) such that they were likely to be carbonate-free before falling to Earth. This study has two main tasks: 1) characterize the isotopic composition of terrestrial, secondary carbonate minerals formed on meteorites in Antarctica, and 2) study the mechanisms of carbonate formation in cold and arid environments with Antarctica as an analog for Mars. Two samples from each meteorite, each ~0.5g, was crushed and dissolved in pure phosphoric acid for 3 sequential reactions: a) Rx0 for 1 hour at 30°C, b) Rx1 for 18 hours at 30°C, and c) Rx2 for 3 hours at 150°C. CO2 was distilled by freezing with liquid nitrogen from each sample tube, then separated from organics and sulfides with a TRACE GC using a Restek HayeSep Q 80/100 6' 2mm stainless column, and then analyzed on a Thermo MAT 253 IRMS in Dual Inlet mode. This system was built at NASA/JSC over the past 3 years and proof tested with known carbonate standards to develop procedures, assess yield, and quantify expected uncertainties. Two distinct species of carbonates are found based on the stepped extraction technique: 1) Ca-rich carbonate released at low temperatures, and 2) Mg, or Fe-rich carbonate released at high temperatures. Preliminary results indicate that most of the carbonates present in the ordinary chondrites analyzed have δ13C=+5‰, which is consistent with formation from atmospheric CO2 δ13C=-7‰ at -20°C. The oxygen isotopic compositions of the carbonates vary between +4‰ and +34‰ with the Mg-rich and/or Fe-rich carbonates possessing the lowest δ18O values. This suggests that the carbonates formed under a wide range of temperatures. However, the carbonate oxygen

  9. Pyridine nucleotide coenzymes: Chemical, biological, and medical aspects. Vol. 2, Pt. A

    SciTech Connect

    Dolphin, D.; Poulson, R.; Avramovic, O.

    1987-01-01

    This text contains the following: History of the Pyridine Nucleotides Nomenclature; Evolution of Pyridine Nucleotide; Relationship Between Biosynthesis and Evolution; Crystal Structure; Coenzyme Conformations; Protein Interactions; Optical Spectroscopy of the Pyridine Nucleotides; Excited States of Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Pyridine Nucleotides; Mass Spectrometry of Pyridine Nucleotides; Mechanism of Action of the Pyridine Nucleotides; Chemical Stability and Reactivity of Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes; Stereochemistry of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis and Metabolism; Kinetics of Pyridine Nucleotide-Utilizing Enzymes; Preparation and Properties of NAD and NADP Analogs; Model Studies and Biological Activity of Analogs; and Spin-Labeled Pyridine Nucleotide Derivatives.

  10. In-situ measurements of chlorine activation, nitric acid redistribution and ozone depletion in the Antarctic lower vortex aboard the German research aircraft HALO during TACTS/ESMVal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkat, Tina; Voigt, Christiane; Kaufmann, Stefan; Schlage, Romy; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Ziereis, Helmut; Hoor, Peter; Bozem, Heiko; Müller, Stefan; Zahn, Andreas; Schlager, Hans; Oelhaf, Hermann; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Dörnbrack, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In-situ measurements of stratospheric chlorine compounds are rare and exhibit the potential to gain insight into small scale mixing processes where stratospheric air masses of different origin and history interact. In addition, the relationship with chemically stable trace gases helps to identify regions that have been modified by chemical processing on polar stratospheric clouds. To this end, in-situ measurements of ClONO2, HCl, HNO3, NOy, N2O and O3 have been performed in the Antarctic Polar Vortex in September 2012 aboard the German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and Long Rang research aircraft) during the TACTS/ESMVal (Transport and Composition in the UTLS/Earth System Model Validation) mission. With take-off and landing in Capetown, HALO sampled vortex air with latitudes down to 65°S, at altitudes between 8 and 14.3 km and potential temperatures between 340 and 390 K. Before intering the vortex at 350 K potential temperature, HALO additionally sampled mid-latitude stratospheric air. The trace gas distributions at the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex show distinct signatures of processed upper stratospheric vortex air and chemically different lower stratospheric / upper tropospheric air. Diabatic descend of the vortex transports processed air into the lower stratosphere. Here small scale filaments of only a few kilometers extension form at the lower vortex boundary due to shear stress, ultimately leading to transport and irreversible mixing. Comparison of trace gas relationships with those at the beginning of the polar winter reveals substantial chlorine activation, ozone depletion de- and renitrification with high resolution. Furthermore, the measurements are compared to the chemistry climate models EMAC and supported by ECMWF analysis. Finally, we compare the Antarctic measurements with new measurements of ClONO2, HCl and HNO3 aboard HALO obtained during the Arctic mission POLSTRACC (POLar STratosphere in a Changing Climate) based in Kiruna (Sveden

  11. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  12. Short communication: Flavor and flavor stability of cheese, rennet, and acid wheys.

    PubMed

    Smith, S; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2016-05-01

    Dried whey ingredients are valuable food ingredients but potential whey sources are underutilized. Previous work has established flavor and flavor stability differences in Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys, but little work has compared these whey sources to acid or rennet wheys. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare flavor and flavor stability among cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. Full-fat and fat-free Cheddar, rennet and acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt fluid wheys were manufactured in triplicate. Wheys were fat separated and pasteurized followed by compositional analyses and storage at 4°C for 48 h. Volatile compound analysis and descriptive sensory analysis were evaluated on all liquid wheys initially and after 24 and 48 h. Greek yogurt whey contained almost no true protein nitrogen (0.02% wt/vol) whereas other wheys contained 0.58%±0.4% (wt/vol) true protein nitrogen. Solids and fat content were not different between wheys, with the exception of Greek yogurt whey, which was also lower in solids content than the other wheys (5.6 vs. 6.5% wt/vol, respectively). Fresh wheys displayed sweet aromatic and cooked milk flavors. Cheddar wheys were distinguished by diacetyl/buttery flavors, and acid wheys (acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt) by sour aromatic flavor. Acid casein whey had a distinct soapy flavor, and acid and Greek yogurt wheys had distinct potato flavor. Both cultured acid wheys contained acetaldehyde flavor. Cardboard flavor increased and sweet aromatic and buttery flavors decreased with storage in all wheys. Volatile compound profiles were also distinct among wheys and changed with storage, consistent with sensory results. Lipid oxidation aldehydes increased in all wheys with storage time. Fat-free Cheddar was more stable than full-fat Cheddar over 48h of storage. Uncultured rennet casein whey was the most stable whey, as exhibited by the lowest increase in lipid oxidation products over time. These results

  13. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 6 of 6: Temperature Measurement of Galvanneal Steel

    SciTech Connect

    S.W. Allison; D.L. Beshears; W.W. Manges

    1999-06-30

    This report describes the successful completion of the development of an accurate in-process measurement instrument for galvanneal steel surface temperatures. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is a part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S> Department of Energy and fifteen North American Steelmakers. This three-year project entitled ''Temperature Measurement of Galvanneal Steel'' uses phosphor thermography, and outgrowth of Uranium enrichment research at Oak Ridge facilities. Temperature is the controlling factor regarding the distribution of iron and zinc in the galvanneal strip coating, which in turn determines the desired product properties

  14. IHI (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries) Engineering Review, Vol. 18, No. 3, July 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Contents include: a study on vibration phenomena of long-span gates; microcracks in high-current mig welding of aluminum alloy and their preventions; research of coal consolidation; combustion characteristics of petroleum coke; mobile Arctic caisson rig: Molikpaq for Gulf Canada Resource Inc. (Canada); recent improvement of hydro-abrasion type descaler-ishiclean method; very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactor critical facility for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute; truck-mounted concrete pump with 27-m-long boom (ipf100b-6n27); and features on IHI new products.

  15. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  16. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  17. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  18. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  19. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  20. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  1. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  2. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  3. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  4. [Hyaluronic acid].

    PubMed

    Pomarede, N

    2008-01-01

    Hyaluronic Acid (HA) is now a leader product in esthetic procedures for the treatment of wrinkles and volumes. The structure of HA, its metabolism, its physiological function are foremost breaking down then its use in aesthetic dermatology: steps of injection, possible side effects, benefits and downsides of the use of HA in aesthetic dermatology.

  5. Current topics in the biotechnological production of essential amino acids, functional amino acids, and dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    Amino acids play important roles in both human and animal nutrition and in the maintenance of health. Here, amino acids are classified into three groups: first, essential amino acids, which are essential to nutrition; second, functional amino acids, recently found to be important in the promotion of physiological functions; and third, dipeptides, which are used to resolve problematic features of specific free amino acids, such as their instability or insolubility. This review focusses on recent researches concerning the microbial production of essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), functional amino acids (histidine and ornithine), and a dipeptide (L-alanyl-L-glutamine). PMID:24679256

  6. Acid rain control: the costs of compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Gilleland, D.S.; Swisher, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This document is the proceedings from a conference sponsored by the Illinois Energy Resources Commission and the Coal Extraction and Utilization Research Center, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale and held in Carbondale on March 18, 1984. Topics addressed include: the sources and impacts of acid rain, the problems inherent in modeling the impacts of acid rain legislation, the effects of acid rain legislation on the socio-economic sector, compliance costs, and the impact of acid rain legislation on related industries (railroads).

  7. Engineering Lecture Discourse and Listening Comprehension. Practical Papers in English Language Education, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Dermot F.; Candlin, Christopher N.

    The interactive processes of university engineering lectures are analyzed from five points of view. Although the research is applicable to the study of lecturing in general, it is intended to have specific application to programs for students for whom English is a second language. A discourse analysis is based on models by Sinclair/Coulthard and…

  8. Newsletter EIC-FET; Vol. 1 No. 2. Information Review Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsletter EIC-FET, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter of the European Information Centre of the Charles University for Further Education of Teachers (EIC-FET) reports on the problems of research and information priorities in the field of further education of teachers. Participants in the meeting held in Prague on September 21-22, 1977, represented Poland, the German…

  9. Selected Bibliography of Yugoslav Educational Materials, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yugoslav Inst. for Educational Research, Belgrade.

    This bibliography on the Yugoslavian educational system is divided into the following topics: history and development of education, education research, school reform, teacher training and teaching staff, schools and institutions, curricula and syllabi, audiovisual aids, polytechnical education, physical education, problems in education, hostels,…

  10. Appalachia's People, Problems, Alternatives. An Introductory Social Science Reader, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peoples Appalachian Research Collective, Morgantown, WV.

    Compiled by the Peoples Appalachian Research Collective, this social science reader on Appalachia was designed to enable students, teachers, workers, and all people to understand the Appalachian region. The document consists of selected readings classified under the following major headings: An Introduction to the Appalachian region (why…

  11. Generations: Western Gerontological Society, Quarterly Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 3, Fall 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    This issue of Generations spotlights the rural elderly. The articles first cover a basic overview of the rural aged. Next is a range of policy issues related to rural service delivery followed by articles on research projects of concern to policy makers and service delivery personnel. Several fund raising and service programs are described.…

  12. On Negative Effects of Vouchers. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on statewide voucher programs in Louisiana and Indiana has found that public school students that received vouchers to attend private schools subsequently scored lower on reading and math tests compared to similar students that remained in public schools. The magnitudes of the negative impacts were large. A case to use taxpayer…

  13. Causative Verbs in Formosan Languages. Preliminary Version. Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 5, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starosta, Stanley

    This research is the result of 10 weeks of field work in Taiwan during the summer of 1972. It consists of a description, analysis, and comparison of the morphologically marked causative verbs in Rukai, Bunun, Tsou, Anis, Seedig, and Saisiyat. The theoretical framework employed is a type of case grammar referred to as "lexicase," a generative but…

  14. Investing in People: A Strategy to Address America's Workforce Crisis. Background Papers. Vols. I-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Commission on Workforce Quality and Labor Market Efficiency.

    The 49 papers in these two volumes were prepared to assist the Commission on Workforce Quality and Labor Market Efficiency in making recommendations for improving the U.S. work force. The papers summarize existing research and make recommendations on subjects reflecting seven Commission tasks: (1) examine the roles and effectiveness of privately…

  15. A Study of Alternatives in American Education, Vol. V: Diversity in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Pierce; And Others

    An examination of the variation among educational programs in the Alum Rock Union Elementary School District, San Jose (California), during the fourth year of its educational voucher demonstration project addresses the issue of whether alternative systems can generate significant diversity in public school education. The research questions (How do…

  16. The Academic Labour Market: Economic and Social Aspects of a Profession. Studies on Education; Vol. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gareth L.; And Others

    The expansion of higher education in Great Britain since World War II has been accompanied by a corresponding growth in research and publications analyzing its causes and consequences. Many have seen it as a forerunner of a type of social organization, the "post-industrial society," one in which educational and scientific training and knowledge…

  17. Report on the Instructional Use of the Computer. Vol. 1, Types of Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Guy; Gateau, Bernard

    The different uses of computers in education were surveyed. Three major uses were defined: as a laboratory tool, as an instructional management tool, and as a teaching instrument. As a laboratory tool the computer is used as electronic equipment, a calculator, an automaton, a simulator, and a research and development tool. Instructional management…

  18. Mastery Learning: A Comprehensive Bibliography. Fall 1982; Vol. 1, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymel, Glenn M.

    A clearinghouse on mastery learning (CML) has been established at Loyola University (New Orleans, Louisiana) to accommodate the informational needs of mastery learning researchers, practitioners, and policymakers. Manual and computer searches on this topic have been conducted in the following databases: ERIC, Education Index, Psychological…

  19. The environmental consequences of nuclear war (SCOPE 28), Vol. 2: Ecological, agricultural, and human effects

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Offerred in this book is an appraisal of the possible environmental consequences of nuclear war. It presents a consensus among leading scientists of the effects on climate, ecosystems, and food supply. Volume 2 reviews ecosystems structure and function relevant to nuclear war effects, plant and animal responses and recovery, agricultural productivity, vulnerability of world food production and storage, estimated population affected, and research needs.

  20. Selected Bibliography of Egyptian Educational Materials, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    This annotated bibliography identifies 137 selected educational materials from Egypt published during 1977. The materials are drawn from Egyptian newspapers, journals, government publications, and university research reports. Entries are organized into 80 categories, including Agricultural Education, Child Psychology, Children's Culture,…

  1. National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings. Project Data Summaries. Vol. II: Demonstration Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Brief abstracts of projects funded by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and conducted under the National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings are presented in three volumes. This, the second volume, identifies the major efforts currently underway in support of the national program. The National Aeronautics and…

  2. Acid Precipitation: Scientific Progress and Public Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowling, Ellis B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes certain perspectives on scientific research and on the public debates about acid deposition and its effects. Although primary attention is given to European/North American research, the ideas developed are relevant in any world region sensitive to acid deposition resulting from intense industrialization. (Author/JN)

  3. 76 FR 80371 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...) Goffard, N. and Weiller, G., Nucleic Acids Research, 2007, 35L:W176-W181, and (3) Chuang, L.-Y., Yang, C.... and Weiller, G., Nucleic Acids Research, 2007, 35L:W176-W181. Retracted: Retracted administratively by... text was plagiarized from Goffard, N. and Weiller, G., Nucleic Acids Research, 2007,...

  4. Human saliva and taste responses to acids varying in anions, titratable acidity, and pH.

    PubMed

    Norris, M B; Noble, A C; Pangborn, R M

    1984-02-01

    Twenty subjects recorded perceived sourness of solutions of citric + fumaric and of citric + tartaric acids, at pH 3.5 and titratable acidity (TiA) of 4.0 g/l on a moving chart, while parotid saliva flow was recorded via a sialometer . Sourness intensity and flow were greater when citric was the minor acid than when it was dominant. Subjects varied widely in calculated volume of saliva reservoir, but not flow rate (time to 2/3 reservoir vol.). In tartaric-fumaric acid mixtures varying in pH (3.0-3.75) at a constant TiA of 4.0 g/l, and varying in TiA (3.7-4.6 g/l) at a constant pH of 3.5, sourness intensity and parotid flow increased with acidity and decreased with pH. However, eight subjects with a high flow (HF = 1.2 +/- 0.28 g/2 min) and nine subjects with a low flow (LF = 0.43 +/- 0.11 g/2 min) differed widely: (a) In response to variation in stimulus pH and TiA, HF demonstrated marked alteration in flow, but little change in sourness ; LF responded at a lower absolute level, but showed marked changes in sourness and little change in flow; (b) Salivary pH was higher and Na+ was three times greater for the HF than for the LF subjects; and (c) Salivary Ca++ showed a direct relationship with flow and pH among the HF, but an inverse relationship for the LF subjects.

  5. Advocacy, partnership and political commitment for TB vaccine research.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Ole F; Chan, Sharon; Chappell, Janice; Guo, Yan; Leite, Luciana C C

    2016-08-01

    The 4th Global Forum on TB Vaccines, convened in Shanghai, China, from 21 - 24 April 2015, brought together a wide and diverse community involved in tuberculosis vaccine research and development to discuss the current status of, and future directions for this critical effort. This paper summarizes the sessions on Advancing the Pipeline: A Vision for the Next Decade, Engaging the BRICS: Basic Research to Manufacturing, and Regulatory and Access Issues for New TB Vaccines. Summaries of all sessions from the 4th Global Forum are compiled in a special supplement of Tuberculosis. [August 2016, Vol 99, Supp S1, S1-S30]. PMID:27402313

  6. Advocacy, partnership and political commitment for TB vaccine research.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Ole F; Chan, Sharon; Chappell, Janice; Guo, Yan; Leite, Luciana C C

    2016-08-01

    The 4th Global Forum on TB Vaccines, convened in Shanghai, China, from 21 - 24 April 2015, brought together a wide and diverse community involved in tuberculosis vaccine research and development to discuss the current status of, and future directions for this critical effort. This paper summarizes the sessions on Advancing the Pipeline: A Vision for the Next Decade, Engaging the BRICS: Basic Research to Manufacturing, and Regulatory and Access Issues for New TB Vaccines. Summaries of all sessions from the 4th Global Forum are compiled in a special supplement of Tuberculosis. [August 2016, Vol 99, Supp S1, S1-S30].

  7. Fluorescence Microscopy and Fluorescent Probes, Vol. 2, Edited by Jan Slavík 1998. Plenum Press, New York and London. 292 pages. (hardback, $95.00).

    PubMed

    Herman, Brian

    1999-03-01

    In June of 1995, the first conference on Fluorescent Microscopy and Fluorescent Probes was held in the beautiful city of Prague in the Czech Republic and the proceedings of that meeting were published by Plenum Press in 1996 (Fluorescence Microscopy and Fluorescent Probes, Vol. 1, edited by Jan Slavík). Based on the success of the first conference, a second conference was held two years later again in Prague, and this book is the proceedings of that meeting.

  8. Fluorescence Microscopy and Fluorescent Probes, Vol. 2, Edited by Jan Slavík 1998. Plenum Press, New York and London. 292 pages. (hardback, $95.00)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Brian

    1999-03-01

    In June of 1995, the first conference on Fluorescent Microscopy and Fluorescent Probes was held in the beautiful city of Prague in the Czech Republic and the proceedings of that meeting were published by Plenum Press in 1996 (Fluorescence Microscopy and Fluorescent Probes, Vol. 1, edited by Jan Slavik). Based on the success of the first conference, a second conference was held two years later again in Prague, and this book is the proceedings of that meeting.

  9. Environmental Energy Technologies Division Newsletter, Fall 2007,Vol.4, No. 4)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allan

    2007-12-14

    This issue's special focus is on advanced lithium ionbatteries for hybrid electric vehicle applications. The four articlesaddressing this area explore the modeling of lithium ion batterychemistries; the use of advanced diagnostic methods to study the physicsand chemistry of battery materials; a laboratory for advanced batterytesting; and approaches for improving battery safety. EETD's research isfunded by the Department of Energy's BATT (Batteries for AdvancedTransportation Technologies) program, FreedomCar and Vehicle TechnologiesProgram.

  10. Microbial production of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Eiteman, Mark A; Ramalingam, Subramanian

    2015-05-01

    Lactic acid is an important commodity chemical having a wide range of applications. Microbial production effectively competes with chemical synthesis methods because biochemical synthesis permits the generation of either one of the two enantiomers with high optical purity at high yield and titer, a result which is particularly beneficial for the production of poly(lactic acid) polymers having specific properties. The commercial viability of microbial lactic acid production relies on utilization of inexpensive carbon substrates derived from agricultural or waste resources. Therefore, optimal lactic acid formation requires an understanding and engineering of both the competing pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism, as well as pathways leading to potential by-products which both affect product yield. Recent research leverages those biochemical pathways, while researchers also continue to seek strains with improved tolerance and ability to perform under desirable industrial conditions, for example, of pH and temperature.

  11. Acid soil and acid rain, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the basic chemical processes involved in acidification in order to better assess their long-term effects on the status of soils, the health of plants and other living species that depend on them. It also discusses acidity, pH and protons their significance in bioenergetics and the consequent role of autotrophic organisms in acidifying ecosystems. This edition incorporates and integrates recent findings that render more explanations of the causes of the environmental impacts of acidity, especially in forests and lakes. Also explores current research into acid rain and soil in order to devise appropriate measures for their amelioration.

  12. Effect of alumina nanoparticles on hot strength and deformation behaviour of AI-5vol% Al2O3 nanocomposite: experimental study and modelling.

    PubMed

    Hesabi, Z Razavi; Sanjari, M; Simchi, A; Reihani, S M Seyed; Simancik, F

    2010-04-01

    Hot deformation behaviour of as-extruded Al-5vol% Al2O3 nanocomposite was investigated at temperatures range 350 to 450 degrees C and initial strain rates of 5.5 x 10(-4) to 10(-1) s(-1) and compared with those of monolithic (unreinforced) aluminium. Both extruded materials exhibited work-softening during hot deformation. The results showed that with the addition of 5 vol% alumina nanoparticles with an average particle size of 35 nm, a significant increase in compressive strength of aluminium was obtained. For instance, at 350 degrees C an abrupt rise of approximately 340% in hot strength of the nanocomposite relative to monolithic aluminium was achieved. TEM investigation of microstructure of the nanocomposite after hot deformation showed formation of equiaxed grains from elongated ones indicating the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. Considering experimental data, deformation behaviour of Al-5vol% Al2O3 nanocomposite and monolithic Al was modelled via trained artificial neural network (ANN). The results showed that ANN can predict complex flow behaviour of the nanocomposite as well as the monolithic aluminium. PMID:20355477

  13. Folic acid absorption determined by a single stool sample test--a double-isotope technique. The folic acid absorption capacity in children

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelt, K. )

    1989-10-01

    The fractional folic acid absorption (FAFol) was determined in 66 patients with various gastrointestinal diseases by a double-isotope technique, employing a single stool sample test (SSST) as well as a complete stool collection. The age of the patients ranged from 2.5 months to 16.8 years (mean 6.3 years). The test dose was administered orally and consisted of 50 micrograms of (3H)folic acid (monoglutamate) (approximately 20 muCi), carmine powder, and 2 mg 51CrCl3 (approximately 1.25 muCi) as the unabsorbable tracer. The whole-body radiation given to a 1-year-old child averaged 4.8 mrad only. The stool and napkin contents were collected and homogenized by the addition of 300 ml chromium sulfuric acid. A 300-ml sample of the homogenized stool and napkin contents, as well as 300 ml chromium sulfuric acid (75% vol/vol) containing the standards, were counted for the content of 51Cr in a broad-based well counter. The quantity of (3H)folic acid was determined by liquid scintillation, after duplicate distillation. Estimated by SSST, the FAFol, which employs the stool with the highest content of 51Cr corresponding to the most carmine-colored stool, correlated closely with the FAFol based on complete stool collection (r = 0.96, n = 39, p less than 0.0001). The reproducibility of FAFol determined by SSST was assessed from repeated tests in 18 patients. For a mean of 81%, the SD was 4.6%, which corresponded to a coefficient of variation of 5.7%.

  14. [Bile acids in coronary arteriosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Malaia, L T; Shelest, A N; Volkov, V I; Cherevatov, B G

    1984-10-01

    Seventy-six patients with chronic coronary heart disease of the atherosclerotic genesis were examined using clinical laboratory and instrumental research methods. The blood serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoproteins and bile acids were measured throughout the course of treatment. When hyperlipoproteinemias were divided according to phenotypes, type II hyperlipoproteinemia proved to be most commonly occurring (65.8%). The patients exhibited lower blood serum levels of bile acids as compared to control.

  15. Ribonucleic acid purification.

    PubMed

    Martins, R; Queiroz, J A; Sousa, F

    2014-08-15

    Research on RNA has led to many important biological discoveries and improvement of therapeutic technologies. From basic to applied research, many procedures employ pure and intact RNA molecules; however their isolation and purification are critical steps because of the easy degradability of RNA, which can impair chemical stability and biological functionality. The current techniques to isolate and purify RNA molecules still have several limitations and the requirement for new methods able to improve RNA quality to meet regulatory demands is growing. In fact, as basic research improves the understanding of biological roles of RNAs, the biopharmaceutical industry starts to focus on them as a biotherapeutic tools. Chromatographic bioseparation is a high selective unit operation and is the major option in the purification of biological compounds, requiring high purity degree. In addition, its application in biopharmaceutical manufacturing is well established. This paper discusses the importance and the progress of RNA isolation and purification, considering RNA applicability both in research and clinical fields. In particular and in view of the high specificity, affinity chromatography has been recently applied to RNA purification processes. Accordingly, recent chromatographic investigations based on biorecognition phenomena occurring between RNA and amino acids are focused. Histidine and arginine have been used as amino acid ligands, and their ability to isolate different RNA species demonstrated a multipurpose applicability in molecular biology analysis and RNA therapeutics preparation, highlighting the potential contribution of these methods to overcome the challenges of RNA purification. PMID:24951289

  16. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  17. Wine and five percent ethanol are potent stimulants of gastric acid secretion in humans.

    PubMed

    Lenz, H J; Ferrari-Taylor, J; Isenberg, J I

    1983-11-01

    Previous studies reported that intragastric ethanol was not a stimulus of gastric acid secretion in humans. The effect of 240 ml of 5%, 10%, and 20% ethanol (vol/vol), equicaloric-equiosmolar control solutions, white wine (12% ethanol), bourbon whiskey (1:4 dilution with water, 10% ethanol), and water on gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin concentrations were evaluated in 8 healthy subjects. Also, to stimulate the before-meal cocktail, white wine, whiskey, or water was administered 30 min before a 50-g liquid protein meal. Five percent ethanol and white wine significantly (p less than 0.01) increased basal secretion to 58% and 82%, respectively, of the peak pentagastrin response (24.2 +/- 1.6 mmol/h). After each of the 5%, 10%, and 20% ethanol solutions, 3-h acid outputs were significantly greater than their respective equicaloric-equiosmolar controls, but only the responses to 5% and 10% ethanol were significantly greater than water alone. Total 3-h responses to white wine, 5% ethanol, and 10% whiskey, respectively, were 5, 4.5, and 2 times greater than water (p less than 0.05). Although serum gastrin was not altered by any of the ethanol solutions or bourbon whiskey, white wine significantly increases serum gastrin concentration, similar to the 50-g protein meal. These results indicate that 5% ethanol and 10% bourbon whiskey increase gastric acid secretion by a mechanism other than gastrin release. White wine markedly stimulates both an increase in acid secretion and serum gastrin concentration. The constituent(s) in wine responsible for the marked acid secretory and gastrin response is unknown.

  18. Influence of biochar application methods on the phytostabilization of a hydrophobic soil contaminated with lead and acid tar.

    PubMed

    Edenborn, S L; Edenborn, H M; Krynock, R M; Haug, K L Zickefoose

    2015-03-01

    A hardwood biochar was examined for its potential use as an amendment to aid in the phytostabilization of a severely-contaminated soil at a former sulfuric acid recycling factory site. The soil, which has remained unvegetated for nearly a century, contained high pseudo-total concentrations of lead, arsenic and antimony and was both highly acidic and hydrophobic due to the presence of petroleum-based acid tar. Three application approaches were tested with 10 and 20% (vol/vol) biochar: Incorporation into soil, top-dressing on the surface, and layering within the soil. The results suggest that the homogeneous mixing of the hardwood biochar into soil would not promote the long-term restoration at this site due to its inherently low alkalinity relative to the very high net acidity of the existing soil. In contrast, surface application of biochar resulted in the most successful growth of Canada wild-rye grass by exploiting the properties inherent to biochar alone. PMID:25514537

  19. 100 years of Elementary Particles [Beam Line, vol. 27, issue 1, Spring 1997

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Pais, Abraham; Weinberg, Steven; Quigg, Chris; Riordan, Michael; Panofsky, Wolfgang K. H.; Trimble, Virginia

    1997-04-01

    This issue of Beam Line commemorates the 100th anniversary of the April 30, 1897 report of the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson and the ensuing discovery of other subatomic particles. In the first three articles, theorists Abraham Pais, Steven Weinberg, and Chris Quigg provide their perspectives on the discoveries of elementary particles as well as the implications and future directions resulting from these discoveries. In the following three articles, Michael Riordan, Wolfgang Panofsky, and Virginia Trimble apply our knowledge about elementary particles to high-energy research, electronics technology, and understanding the origin and evolution of our Universe.

  20. 100 years of elementary particles [Beam Line, vol. 27, issue 1, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Pais, Abraham; Weinberg, Steven; Quigg, Chris; Riordan, Michael; Panofsky, Wolfgang K.H.; Trimble, Virginia

    1997-04-01

    This issue of Beam Line commemorates the 100th anniversary of the April 30, 1897 report of the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson and the ensuing discovery of other subatomic particles. In the first three articles, theorists Abraham Pais, Steven Weinberg, and Chris Quigg provide their perspectives on the discoveries of elementary particles as well as the implications and future directions resulting from these discoveries. In the following three articles, Michael Riordan, Wolfgang Panofsky, and Virginia Trimble apply our knowledge about elementary particles to high-energy research, electronics technology, and understanding the origin and evolution of our Universe.

  1. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS IN CRITICAL ILLNESS

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julie M.; Stapleton, Renee D.

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation of enteral nutritional formulas and parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions with omega-3 fatty acids is a recent area of research in patients with critical illness. It is hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acids may help reduce inflammation in critically ill patients, particularly those with sepsis and acute lung injury. The objective of this article is to review the data on supplementing omega-3 fatty acids during critical illness; enteral and parenteral supplementation are reviewed separately. The results of the research available to date are contradictory for both enteral and parenteral omega-3 fatty acid administration. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may influence the acute inflammatory response in critically ill patients, but more research is needed before definitive recommendations about the routine use of omega-3 fatty acids in caring for critically ill patients can be made. PMID:20796218

  2. Acid rain and environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.S.

    1981-10-01

    Various seemingly paradoxical scientific questions are posed which relate to the problem of acid rain and its effect on the environment and environmental policy. The first paradox discussed concerns the supposed increase in fossil fuel usage over the last several decades, with the resultant increases in emissions of pollutants from the combustion of fuels which cause acid rain. Despite these increases, experts do not agree on whether acidity of rain has increased in eastern North America. The second paradox concerns the effect of acid rain on vegetation. If the rain is supposedly harmful, why have some reports shown increases and others, decreases in the growth of crops and trees with the application of simulated acid rain. The third paradox concerns the effect of acid rains on fish life in lakes. If acid rain falls throughout eastern North America, why have some lakes become acid and lost fish populations while others have not. Since unequivocal answers to these scientific questions are not available, a systematic approach is needed for developing policy which can be useful for solving the problem. It appears that traditional cost-benefit analysis can not be the sole basis for decision-making, but that it will be helpful. Research needs must be identified, and the upper and lower limits for alternative strategies must be determined. 14 references, 1 table.

  3. Engineering evaluation of plant oils as diesel fuel. Final report. Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; Johnson, L.A.; Lepori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1983-09-13

    This project includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil ethyl esters in both direct injection and precombustion chamber design diesel engines. It is one part of a major research program at Texas A and M University to study the technical feasibility of using plant oils or animal fats as alternative diesel fuels. Goals for the overall program are to define physical and chemical characteristics and optimum processing methods required for high quality alternative diesel fuels from plant or animal oils and to investigate effects of engine design on alternative fuel performance. This report describes work done under the current contract which includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil interesterified with ethanol as alternative diesel fuels. 15 figures, 18 tables.

  4. [Progress in glucaric acid].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuying; Fang, Fang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Glucaric acid (GA) is derived from glucose and commonly used in chemical industry. It is also considered as one of the "Top value-added chemicals from biomass" as carbohydrate monomers to produce various synthetic polymers and bioenergy. The demand for GA in food manufacture is increasing. GA has also attracted public attentions due to its therapeutic uses such as regulating hormones, increasing the immune function and reducing the risks of cancers. Currently GA is produced by chemical oxidation. Research on production of GA via microbial synthesis is still at preliminary stage. We reviewed the advances of glucaric acid applications, preparation and quantification methods. The prospects on production of GA by microbial fermentation were also discussed. PMID:26380405

  5. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  6. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  7. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  8. Solid state fermentation: acid protease production in controlled CO2 and O2 environments.

    PubMed

    Villegas, E; Aubague, S; Alcantara, L; Auria, R; Revah, S

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the partial pressure of O(2) and CO(2) on the acid protease production in solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger on wheat bran was studied. A fermentation system was used, which allowed on-line reactor measurements and continuous data acquisition of pH, temperature, gas flow, pressure drop and CO(2) production. Six paired combinations of CO(2) and O(2) concentrations were studied. The results showed a direct relationship between pressure drop, production of CO(2) and temperature increase. The pH evolution patterns were similar in all cases but different if the measurements were made on-line or on a liquid homogenate of the fermented substrate. Acid protease production was increased when the gas had 4% CO(2), (vol/vol), and it reached its highest level, a 43% increase over air, with a mixture of 4% CO(2) and 21% O(2). The protease production was strongly related to the mold metabolic activity as represented by the total CO(2) evolved.

  9. Synthese et validation d'un systeme de commandes de vol robuste et autosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhachemi, Hugo

    Flight control system development remains a very challenging issue due to architectural complexity, stringent performance requirements, and strict certification processes. Such control systems must ensure the global stability and the required performance within the whole flight envelope, even in the presence of modeling errors, parametric uncertainties, environmental fluctuations, and disturbances. As the dynamic behavior of an aircraft is highly nonlinear and varies significantly with the fight condition, controller parameters must be adequately adjusted based on the operating point. Among the viable solutions for this purpose, one can find gain-scheduling control, which is one of the most well-known techniques widely adopted in aerospace industry. In addition, it is of practical interest from an industrial point of view to leverage the legacy accumulated in the past by imposing a priori the controller structure based on classical ight control system architectures. The present research project aims at developing a procedure for the design and the validation of robust gain-scheduled ight control systems with a fixed structure. This problem is located at the junction of three topics in control, namely synthesis of fixed-structure control systems, robust control, and LPV systems control in the gain-scheduling framework. In the first phase of this research project, a nonlinear dynamic model of an aircraft that explicitly takes into account mass and center of gravity (CG) position is established. This model is linearized around a trim condition in cruise ight. A numerical model of the F-16 Fighting Falcon is then derived and the impact of mass and CG position variations on the aircraft dynamics is analyzed. In the second phase, a method for the design of a robust and self-scheduled controller with a predefined architecture is proposed. Based on the multi-model synthesis capability of structured Hinfinity methods, robustness and gain-scheduling issues are both cast into

  10. Addition of fumaric acid and sodium benzoate as an alternative method to achieve a 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Comes, Justin E; Beelman, Robert B

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to develop a preservative treatment capable of the Food and Drug Administration-mandated 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider. Unpreserved apple cider was treated with generally recognized as safe acidulants and preservatives before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 in test tubes and subjected to mild heat treatments (25, 35, and 45 degrees C) followed by refrigerated storage (4 degrees C). Fumaric acid had significant (P < 0.05) bactericidal effect when added to cider at 0.10% (wt/vol) and adjusted to pH 3.3, but citric and malic acid had no effect. Strong linear correlation (R2 = 0.96) between increasing undissociated fumaric acid concentrations and increasing log reductions of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider indicated the undissociated acid to be the bactericidal form. The treatment that achieved the 5-log reduction in three commercial ciders was the addition of fumaric acid (0.15%, wt/vol) and sodium benzoate (0.05%, wt/vol) followed by holding at 25 degrees C for 6 h before 24 h of refrigeration at 4 degrees C. Subsequent experiments revealed that the same preservatives added to cider in flasks resulted in a more than 5-log reduction in less than 5 and 2 h when held at 25 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The treatment also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced total aerobic counts in commercial ciders to populations less than those of pasteurized and raw ciders from the same source (after 5 and 21 days of refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C, respectively). Sensory evaluation of the same ciders revealed that consumers found the preservative-treated cider to be acceptable. PMID:11899046

  11. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  12. The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 2 [of 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, BE

    2003-10-07

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the project and describes the types of equipment used. Volume 1 also discusses the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the remediation effort. Volume 2 consists of the following appendixes, which are referenced in Vol. 1: A--Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; B--Annotated Bibliography; C--GAAT Equipment Matrix; D--Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; and E--Vendor List for the GAAT Remediation Project. The remediation of the GAATs was completed {approx}5.5 years ahead of schedule and {approx}$120,435K below the cost estimated in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the project. These schedule and cost savings were a direct result of the selection and use of state-of-the-art technologies and the dedication and drive of the engineers, technicians, managers, craft workers, and support personnel that made up the GAAT Remediation Project Team.

  13. Elastic-plastic finite element analyses of an unidirectional, 9 vol percent tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanfeliz, Jose G.

    1993-01-01

    Micromechanical modeling via elastic-plastic finite element analyses were performed to investigate the effects that the residual stresses and the degree of matrix work hardening (i.e., cold-worked, annealed) have upon the behavior of a 9 vol percent, unidirectional W/Cu composite, undergoing tensile loading. The inclusion of the residual stress-containing state as well as the simulated matrix material conditions proved to be significant since the Cu matrix material exhibited plastic deformation, which affected the subsequent tensile response of the composite system. The stresses generated during cooldown to room temperature from the manufacturing temperature were more of a factor on the annealed-matrix composite, since they induced the softened matrix to plastically flow. This event limited the total load-carrying capacity of this matrix-dominated, ductile-ductile type material system. Plastic deformation of the hardened-matrix composite during the thermal cooldown stage was not considerable, therefore, the composite was able to sustain a higher stress before showing any appreciable matrix plasticity. The predicted room temperature, stress-strain response, and deformation stages under both material conditions represented upper and lower bounds characteristic of the composite's tensile behavior. The initial deformation stage for the hardened material condition showed negligible matrix plastic deformation while for the annealed state, its initial deformation stage showed extensive matrix plasticity. Both material conditions exhibited a final deformation stage where the fiber and matrix were straining plastically. The predicted stress-strain results were compared to the experimental, room temperature, tensile stress-strain curve generated from this particular composite system. The analyses indicated that the actual thermal-mechanical state of the composite's Cu matrix, represented by the experimental data, followed the annealed material condition.

  14. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Vol. 18. Part 2. Indexes

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. This report is the eighteenth in a series of bibliographies prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been included in Part 1 of the report. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D&D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluations; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues. Within the 16 sections, the citations are sorted by geographic location. If a geographic location is not specified, the citations are sorted according to the document title. In Part 2 of the report, indexes are provided for author, author affiliation, selected title phrase, selected title word, publication description, geographic location, and keyword.

  15. Opening Reproducible Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüst, Daniel; Konkol, Markus; Pebesma, Edzer; Kray, Christian; Klötgen, Stephanie; Schutzeichel, Marc; Lorenz, Jörg; Przibytzin, Holger; Kussmann, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    reproduce the original research and hence recreate the original research results (figures, tables), but also facilitates interaction with them as well as their recombination with new data or methods. Building on existing open standards and software, this project develops standards and tools for ERCs, and will demonstrate and evaluate these, focusing on the geosciences domains. The project goes beyond a technical solution for ERCs by evaluating the system from the perspectives of geoscience researchers as participants in a scientific publication process. It will focus on the statistical environment R, but also evaluate larger run time systems captured in virtual environments (Docker containers). ERCs are built upon and integrate well with both established day-to-day workflows of digital research and the scientific publication process. They make research accessible on different levels at any stage to anyone via open web platforms. Other scientists can transfer a compendium of software and tools to their own local environment and collaborate, while others make minimal changes and compare changed results in a web browser. Building on recent advances in mainstream IT, ORR envisions a new architecture for storing, executing and interacting with the original analysis environment alongside the corresponding research data and text. ORR bridges the gap between long-term archives, practical geoscience researchers, as well as publication media. Consequently, the project team seeks input and feedback from researchers working with geospatial data to ensure usable and useful open access publications as well as a publication process that minimizes effort while maximizing usability and re-usability. {References} Pebesma, E., D. Nüst, R. Bivand, 2012. The R software environment in reproducible geoscientific research. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 93, vol 16, p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2012EO160003{163-164}. Opening Reproducible Research project description and website

  16. Field Research and Laboratory Sample Analysis of Dust-Water-Organics-Life from Mars Analogue Extreme Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; ILEWG EuroMoonMars Team

    2015-08-01

    We describe results from the data analysis from a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns 2009* to 2013) in the extreme environment of the Utah desert relevant to habitability and astrobiology in Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL). We discuss results relevant to the scientific study of the habitability factors influenced by the properties of dust, organics, water history and the diagnostics and characterisation of microbial life. We also discuss perspectives for the preparation of future lander and sample return missions. We deployed at Mars Desert Research station, Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution a ected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. We find high diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with signi cant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples. We compare 2009 campaign results to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life.References * in Foing, Stoker Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International Journal of Astrobiology

  17. 77 FR 125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ..., International Association of Engineers, August 2008 35(3), (2) Goffard, N. and Weiller, G., Nucleic Acids.... Approximately 15%of the text was plagiarized from Goffard, N. and Weiller, G., Nucleic Acids Research, 2007, 35L...., Nucleic Acids Research, 2007, 35L:W176- W18l. Adagarla, B., Lushington, G., Visvanathan, M.,...

  18. Lead/acid battery myths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, P. T.

    The lead/acid battery deserves a more positive image than has been traditional heretofore—particularly with respect to a number of aspects that relate to its utility as a power source for electric vehicles. Recent results from a large internationally coordinated research programme indicate that: (i) with proper attention to construction, valve-regulated lead/acid batteries can be deep-discharged many times without capacity loss; (ii) lead/acid batteries can be recharged extremely rapidly so that long journeys of electric vehicles become a realistic possibility; (iii) ranges of over 150 km between charges are achievable, and (iv) the introduction of significant numbers of lead/acid-powered electric vehicles does offer a beneficial environmental impact.

  19. Two-step synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from soybean oil catalyzed by Yarrowia lipolytica lipase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Enzymatic biodiesel production by transesterification in solvent media has been investigated intensively, but glycerol, as a by-product, could block the immobilized enzyme and excess n-hexane, as a solution aid, would reduce the productivity of the enzyme. Esterification, a solvent-free and no-glycerol-release system for biodiesel production, has been developed, and two-step catalysis of soybean oil, hydrolysis followed by esterification, with Yarrowia lipolytica lipase is reported in this paper. Results First, soybean oil was hydrolyzed at 40°C by 100 U of lipase broth per 1 g of oil with approximately 30% to 60% (vol/vol) water. The free fatty acid (FFA) distilled from this hydrolysis mixture was used for the esterification of FFA to fatty acid ethyl ester by immobilized lipase. A mixture of 2.82 g of FFA and equimolar ethanol (addition in three steps) were shaken at 30°C with 18 U of lipase per 1 gram of FFA. The degree of esterification reached 85% after 3 hours. The lipase membranes were taken out, dehydrated and subjected to fresh esterification so that over 82% of esterification was maintained, even though the esterification was repeated every 3 hours for 25 batches. Conclusion The two-step enzymatic process without glycerol released and solvent-free demonstrated higher efficiency and safety than enzymatic transesterification, which seems very promising for lipase-catalyzed, large-scale production of biodiesel, especially from high acid value waste oil. PMID:21366905

  20. International Lead Zinc Research Organization-sponsored field-data collection and analysis to determine relationships between service conditions and reliability of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in stationary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. A.; Moseley, P. T.; Butler, P. C.

    The International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO), in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories, has initiated a multi-phase project with the following aims: to characterize relationships between valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, service conditions, and failure modes; to establish the degree of correlation between specific operating procedures and PCL; to identify operating procedures that mitigate PCL; to identify best-fits between the operating requirements of specific applications and the capabilities of specific VRLA technologies; to recommend combinations of battery design, manufacturing processes, and operating conditions that enhance VRLA performance and reliability. In the first phase of this project, ILZRO has contracted with Energetics to identify and survey manufacturers and users of VRLA batteries for stationary applications (including electric utilities, telecommunications companies, and government facilities). The confidential survey is collecting the service conditions of specific applications and performance records for specific VRLA technologies. From the data collected, Energetics is constructing a database of the service histories and analyzing the data to determine trends in performance for particular technologies in specific service conditions. ILZRO plans to make the final report of the analysis and a version of the database (that contains no proprietary information) available to ILZRO members, participants in the survey, and participants in a follow-on workshop for stakeholders in VRLA reliability. This paper presents the surveys distributed to manufacturers and end-users, discusses the analytic approach, presents an overview of the responses to the surveys and trends that have emerged in the early analysis of the data, and previews the functionality of the database being constructed.

  1. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    Bohemian (Jesuit) provinces, mainly in Vienna and Neisse (the present Nysa in Silesia, Poland), but no traces of further astronomical activity have survived, if they ever existed. The fourth article, by Hans Gaab, is a very thoroughly researched biography of Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau (1651-1725), an merchant turned astronomer from Nuremberg. Wurzelbau started his activities at Christoph Eimmart's (the director of the painters' academy in Nuremberg) private observatory, and his first published work deals with observations of the great comet of 1680. Furthermore, he observed solar eclipses, Mercury transits, and determined the geographical latitude of Nuremberg. The article also contains a detailed description of Wurzelbau's observatory and its instruments. The fifth paper, by Klaus-Dieter Herbst, deals with Gottfried Kirch's idea of founding an astronomical society - being a vehicle to publishing astronomical observations. Kirch (1639-1710) was a well-known astronomer and calendar manufacturer. Around 1700, Kirch was appointed first astronomer at the Brandenburg society of sciences, and director of the observatory that was to be established with the new Berlin Academy. Herbst shows that Kirch's religious attitude that converged on pietism was a driving force to establish a scientific society. However, the final failure of such a project is due to the emergence of the scientific journal Acta Eruditorum, issued since 1682 in Leipzig, which could serve as an outlet for the publication of astronomical data by Kirch and others, thus fulfilling an essential task of the projected academy. Kirch's occupation with the composition of calendars, which took most of his time, was another reason. The following three shorter articles deal with 19th century astronomy. Peter Brosche describes an early visual photometer employed by Johann Gottfried Koehler (1745-1801) in Dresden, Alberto Meschiari edits and comments letters by Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) to the physicist Gerbi in

  2. Acid rain in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, N.; Streets, D.G. ); Foell, W.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of widespread concern in North America and Europe for more than fifteen years. However, there is an emerging feeling that the problem in Europe and North America is nearing solution, largely as a result of existing and newly enacted legislation, decreased energy use due to conservation and efficiency improvements, and/or trends in energy policy away from fossil fuels. The situation in Asia appears much bleaker. Fossil fuels are already used in large quantities, such that local air pollution is becoming a serious problem and high deposition levels are being measured. Emission regulations in most countries (with the notable exception of Japan) are not very stringent. Energy plans in many countries (particularly PRC, India, Thailand, and South Korea) call for very large increases in coal combustion in the future. Finally, there is not presently a strong scientific or public constituency for action to mitigate the potential effects of acid deposition. These factors imply potentially serious problems in the future for long-range transport and deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species and consequent damage to ecosystems and materials. The political ramifications of transboundary environmental pollution in this region are also potentially serious. The purpose of this paper is to provide background information on the acid deposition situation in Asia, with the intention of laying the foundation for the development of a possible research program for this region. 36 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    Bohemian (Jesuit) provinces, mainly in Vienna and Neisse (the present Nysa in Silesia, Poland), but no traces of further astronomical activity have survived, if they ever existed. The fourth article, by Hans Gaab, is a very thoroughly researched biography of Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau (1651-1725), an merchant turned astronomer from Nuremberg. Wurzelbau started his activities at Christoph Eimmart's (the director of the painters' academy in Nuremberg) private observatory, and his first published work deals with observations of the great comet of 1680. Furthermore, he observed solar eclipses, Mercury transits, and determined the geographical latitude of Nuremberg. The article also contains a detailed description of Wurzelbau's observatory and its instruments. The fifth paper, by Klaus-Dieter Herbst, deals with Gottfried Kirch's idea of founding an astronomical society - being a vehicle to publishing astronomical observations. Kirch (1639-1710) was a well-known astronomer and calendar manufacturer. Around 1700, Kirch was appointed first astronomer at the Brandenburg society of sciences, and director of the observatory that was to be established with the new Berlin Academy. Herbst shows that Kirch's religious attitude that converged on pietism was a driving force to establish a scientific society. However, the final failure of such a project is due to the emergence of the scientific journal Acta Eruditorum, issued since 1682 in Leipzig, which could serve as an outlet for the publication of astronomical data by Kirch and others, thus fulfilling an essential task of the projected academy. Kirch's occupation with the composition of calendars, which took most of his time, was another reason. The following three shorter articles deal with 19th century astronomy. Peter Brosche describes an early visual photometer employed by Johann Gottfried Koehler (1745-1801) in Dresden, Alberto Meschiari edits and comments letters by Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) to the physicist Gerbi in

  4. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Two-Body Abrasive Wear Behavior of Cold-Sprayed 20 vol.% Cubic BN-NiCrAl Nanocomposite Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao-Tao; Yang, Er-Juan; Shang, Fu-Lin; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Chen-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2014-10-01

    20 vol.% cubic boron nitride (cBN) dispersoid reinforced NiCrAl matrix nanocomposite coating was prepared by cold spray using mechanically alloyed nanostructured composite powders. The as-sprayed nanocomposite coating was annealed at a temperature of 750 °C to enhance the inter-particle bonding. Microstructure of spray powders and coatings was characterized. Vickers microhardness of the coatings was measured. Two-body abrasive wear behavior of the coatings was examined on a pin-on-disk test. It was found that, in mechanically alloyed composite powders, nano-sized and submicro-sized cBN particles are uniformly distributed in nanocrystalline NiCrAl matrix. Dense coating was deposited by cold spray at a gas temperature of 650 °C with the same phases and grain size as those of the starting powder. Vickers hardness test yielded a hardness of 1063 HV for the as-sprayed 20 vol.% cBN-NiCrAl coating. After annealed at 750 °C for 5 h, unbonded inter-particle boundaries were partially healed and evident grain growth of nanocrystalline NiCrAl was avoided. Wear resistance of the as-sprayed 20 vol.% cBN-NiCrAl nanocomposite coating was comparable to the HVOF-sprayed WC-12Co coating. Annealing of the nanocomposite coating resulted in the improvement of wear resistance by a factor of ~33% owing to the enhanced inter-particle bonding. Main material removal mechanisms during the abrasive wear are also discussed.

  5. Hydroxamic Acids in Asymmetric Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    Metal-catalyzed stereoselective reactions are a central theme in organic chemistry research. In these reactions, the stereoselection is achieved predominantly by introducing chiral ligands at the metal catalyst’s center. For decades, researchers have sought better chiral ligands for asymmetric catalysis and have made great progress. Nevertheless, to achieve optimal stereoselectivity and to catalyze new reactions, new chiral ligands are needed. Due to their high metal affinity, hydroxamic acids play major roles across a broad spectrum of fields from biochemistry to metal extraction. Dr. K. Barry Sharpless first revealed their potential as chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis in 1977: He published the chiral vanadium-hydroxamic-acid-catalyzed, enantioselective epoxidation of allylic alcohols before his discovery of Sharpless Asymmetric Epoxidation, which uses titanium-tartrate complex as the chiral reagent. However, researchers have reported few highly enantioselective reactions using metal-hydroxamic acid as catalysts since then. This Account summarizes our research on metal-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation using hydroxamic acids as chiral ligands. We designed and synthesized a series of new hydroxamic acids, most notably the C2-symmetric bis-hydroxamic acid (BHA) family. V-BHA-catalyzed epoxidation of allylic and homoallylic alcohols achieved higher activity and stereoselectivity than Sharpless Asymmetric Epoxidation in many cases. Changing the metal species led to a series of unprecedented asymmetric epoxidation reactions, such as (i) single olefins and sulfides with Mo-BHA, (ii) homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols with Zr- and Hf-BHA, and (iii) N-alkenyl sulfonamides and N-sulfonyl imines with Hf-BHA. These reactions produce uniquely functionalized chiral epoxides with good yields and enantioselectivities. PMID:23157425

  6. Acid rain information book. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  7. [Production of surfactants by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4 grown on ethanol with organic acids].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Shevchuk, T A; Konon, A D; Dolotenko, E Iu

    2012-01-01

    The effect of fumarate (C4-dicarboxylic acid, a gluconeogenesis precursor) and citrate (a lipid synthesis regulator) on the production of surfactants by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4 grown on ethanol has been studied. Simultaneous addition of fumarate and citrate to concentrations of 0.01-0.02% at the end of the log phase of K-4 growth in a medium with 2 vol% ethanol increases the nominal surfactant concentration by 45-55% in comparison with a culture without organic acids. The increased level of surfactant production in the presence of fumarate and citrate is determined by the increase in the activities of enzymes involved in the production of glycolipids (phosphoenolpyruvate synthase and trehalose phosphate synthase) and aminolipids (NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase) by factors of 1.7-7, as well as by the simultaneous operation of two anaplerotic pathways: the glyoxylate cycle and the reaction catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase.

  8. gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) suppresses alcohol's motivational properties in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Maccioni, Paola; Pes, Daniela; Fantini, Noemi; Carai, Mauro A M; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2008-03-01

    gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) reduces alcohol drinking, promotes abstinence from alcohol, suppresses craving for alcohol, and ameliorates alcohol withdrawal syndrome in alcoholics. At preclinical level, GHB suppresses alcohol withdrawal signs and alcohol intake in rats. The present study was designed to investigate whether GHB administration was capable of affecting alcohol's motivational properties (the possible animal correlate of human craving for alcohol) in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. To this aim, rats were initially trained to lever press for alcohol (15%, vol/vol) under a procedure of operant, oral alcohol self-administration (fixed ratio 4 in 30-min daily sessions). Once responding for alcohol had stabilized, rats were divided into two groups and allocated to two independent experiments. Experiment 1 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on breakpoint for alcohol, defined as the lowest response requirement not achieved by each rat when exposed to a single-session progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on single-session extinction responding for alcohol (alcohol was absent and unreinforced responding was recorded). Breakpoint and extinction responding for alcohol are reliable indexes of alcohol's motivational strength. In Experiment 1, all doses of GHB reduced--by approximately 20% in comparison to saline-treated rats--breakpoint for alcohol. In Experiment 2, administration of 25, 50, and 100mg/kg GHB reduced--by approximately 25%, 40%, and 50%, respectively, in comparison to saline-treated rats--extinction responding for alcohol. Conversely, no dose of GHB altered breakpoint and extinction responding for sucrose (3%, wt/vol) in two independent subsets of Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Together, these data suggest that GHB administration specifically suppressed alcohol's motivational properties in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats

  9. Anticancer agents derived from natural cinnamic acids.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping; Shi, Yaling; Wang, Jinfeng; Shen, Xiuxiu; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the most dangerous disease that causes deaths all over the world. Natural products have afforded a rich source of drugs in a number of therapeutic fields including anticancer agents. Many significant drugs have been derived from natural sources by structural optimization of natural products. Cinnamic acid has gained great interest due to its antiproliferative, antioxidant, antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic potency. Currently it has been observed that cinnamic acid and its analogs such as caffeic acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and isoferulic acid display various pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulation, anti-inflammation, anticancer and antioxidant. They have served to be the major sources of potential leading anticancer compounds. In this review, we focus on the anticancer potency of cinnamic acid derivatives and novel strategies to design these derivatives. We hope this review will be useful for researchers who are interested in developing anticancer agents.

  10. Two groups challenge US acid rain efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    In its report, Acid Rain Invades Our National Parks, the National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA) says acid rain is being detected at all 27 national park monitoring sites. In 1980, 87 national parks expressed concern in a NPCA survey over acid rain. Repolled in 1986, more than half of the respondents reported that no research on acid rain was under way. The NPCA report concludes that the alarm that was sounded in 1980 fell largely on deaf ears, and calls for the structural and scientific reorganization of the National Park Service. The National Audubon Society shares NPCA's dissatisfaction with federal efforts to tackle the problem of acid rain and has taken testing into its own hands. Through its Citizens Acid Rain Monitoring Network, Audubon volunteers have collected readings of acidity at 64 monitoring stations in 31 states since July.

  11. Fructose and uric acid in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Bjornstad, Petter; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Kosugi, Tomoki; Kume, Shinji; Jalal, Diana; Maahs, David M; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Johnson, Richard J; Nakagawa, Takahiko

    2015-09-01

    Clinical studies have reported associations between serum uric acid levels and the development of diabetic nephropathy, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. There is evidence from animal studies that blocking uric acid production protects the kidney from tubulointerstitial injury, which may suggest a causal role for uric acid in the development of diabetic tubular injury. In turn, when fructose, which is endogenously produced in diabetes via the polyol pathway, is metabolised, uric acid is generated from a side-chain reaction driven by ATP depletion and purine nucleotide turnover. For this reason, uric acid derived from endogenous fructose could cause tubulointerstitial injury in diabetes. Accordingly, our research group recently demonstrated that blocking fructose metabolism in a diabetic mouse model mitigated the development of tubulointerstitial injury by lowering tubular uric acid production. In this review we discuss the relationship between uric acid and fructose as a novel mechanism for the development of diabetic tubular injury. PMID:26049401

  12. Fructose and uric acid in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Bjornstad, Petter; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Ishimoto, Takuji; Kosugi, Tomoki; Kume, Shinji; Jalal, Diana; Maahs, David M.; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have reported associations between serum uric acid levels and the development of diabetic nephropathy, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. There is evidence from animal studies that blocking uric acid production protects the kidney from tubulointerstitial injury, which may suggest a causal role for uric acid in the development of diabetic tubular injury. In turn, when fructose, which is endogenously produced in diabetes via the polyol pathway, is metabolised, uric acid is generated from a side-chain reaction driven by ATP depletion and purine nucleotide turnover. For this reason, uric acid derived from endogenous fructose could cause tubulointerstitial injury in diabetes. Accordingly, our research group recently demonstrated that blocking fructose metabolism in a diabetic mouse model mitigated the development of tubulointerstitial injury by lowering tubular uric acid production. In this review we discuss the relationship between uric acid and fructose as a novel mechanism for the development of diabetic tubular injury. PMID:26049401

  13. Human Ecology: Acid Rain and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1983-01-01

    A connection between science and society can be seen in the human and ecological dimensions of one contemporary problem: acid rain. Introduces a human ecological theme and relationships between acid rain and public policy, considering scientific understanding and public awareness, scientific research and public policy, and national politics and…

  14. Acid Rain: A Student's First Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Beth Ann; And Others

    The purpose of this guide is to help students better understand the science, citizen action, and research issues that are part of the acid rain problem. The guide is designed for students in grades 4-8 and their teachers. Following an introduction, the first seven sections are informative in nature. They include: (1) "Observations about Acidity";…

  15. Precipitation: its acidic nature.

    PubMed

    Frohliger, J O; Kane, R

    1975-08-01

    A comparison of the free hydrogen ion concentration and the total hydrogen ion concentration of rain samples shows that rain is a weak acid. The weak acid nature of rain casts doubt on the concepts that the acidity of rain is increasing and that these increases are due to strong acids such as sulfuric acid.

  16. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Journal of Astrobiology , IJA 2011, 10, vol. 3. 137-305 [1] Foing B. et al. (2011) Field astrobiology research at Moon-Mars analogue site: Instruments and methods, IJA 2011, 10 (3), 141;[2] Clarke, J., Stoker, C. Concretions in exhumed & inverted channels near Hanksville Utah: implications for Mars, (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 162;[3] Thiel et al., (2011) PCR-based analysis of microbial communities during the EuroGeoMars campaign at Mars Desert Research Station, Utah. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 177;[4] Direito et al. (2011). A wide variety of putative extremophiles and large beta-diversity at the Mars Desert Research Station (Utah). (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 191;[5] Orzechowska, G. et al (20110 analysis of Mars Analog soils using solid Phase Microextraction, Organics solvent extraction and GCMS, (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 209; [6] Kotler et al. (2011). Analysis of mineral matrices of planetary soils analogs from the Utah Desert. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 221; [7] Martins et al. (2011). Extraction of amino acids from soils close to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), Utah. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 231; [8] Ehrenfreund et al. (2011) Astrobiology and habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions: trends from investigating minerals, organics and biota. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 239; [9] Stoker C. et al (2011) Mineralogical, Chemical, Organic & Microbial Properties of Subsurface Soil Cores from Mars Desert Research Station, a Phyllosilicate and Sulfate Rich Mars Analog Site, IJA 2011, 10 (3), 269; [10] Rodrigues L. et al (2014, in preparation) Preventing biocontamination during sterile sampling; [11] Rodrigues L. et al (2014, in preparation) Microbial diversity in MDRS rocks and soils; [12] ILEWG EuroMoonMars Team, (2014, special issue in preparation) Results from ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaign 2013 **Acknowledgements: B.H.Foing (1, 2, 6), C. Stoker (3), P. Ehrenfreund (4, 5), I. Rammos (2), L. Rodrigues (2), A. Svendsen (2), D. Oltheten (2), K. Nebergall (6), M. Battler (6, 7), H. v't Houd (8), A. Bruneau (6

  17. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) But Not Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Reverses Trans-10, Cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induced Insulin Resistance in Mice1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: t10, c12-Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induces insulin resistance and fatty liver in mice which can be reversed by fish oils. We determined if it is eicospentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) or docoshexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) that reverses these adverse effects of CLA. Research Design and M...

  18. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  19. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Below are symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning in different parts of the ... urine Decreased urine output No urine output EYES, EARS, ...

  20. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  1. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  2. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  3. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  4. Radiation oncology (Vol. 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.L.; Wara, W.

    1987-01-01

    This volume of the Radiation Oncology series features update reports on the current status of primary therapy for lung cancer and the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of hepatomas. Other articles describe the use of stereotaxic interstitial implantation in the treatment of malignant brain tumors and discuss the indications for and results of radiation as the primary or adjuvant treatment of large bowel cancer. Reports on new technological developments examine the biological basis and clinical potential of local-regional hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy. Included are reviews of the role of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostic evaluation of cancer and of three-dimensional treatment planning for high energy external beam radiotherapy.

  5. Technology 2004, Vol. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Proceedings from symposia of the Technology 2004 Conference, November 8-10, 1994, Washington, DC. Volume 2 features papers on computers and software, virtual reality simulation, environmental technology, video and imaging, medical technology and life sciences, robotics and artificial intelligence, and electronics.

  6. Apache, Vol. II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodiroga, Ronald, Comp.; And Others

    The short stories, poems, songs, and cultural descriptions about American Indians (volume 2 of two) are the result of a combined effort of the 7th grade students of Rice School District (Sacaton, Arizona), their teacher, and the parents and friends of the students of the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation (Arizona). The 24 student contributors…

  7. Apache, Vol. I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodiroga, Ronald, Comp.; And Others

    The short stories, poems, and cultural descriptions about American Indians (volume 1 of two) are the result of a combined effort of the 7th grade students of Rice School District (Sacaton, Arizona), their teacher, and the parents and friends of the students of the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation (Arizona). The 24 student contributors prepared…

  8. Mathematics, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The second of three volumes of a mathematics training course for Navy personnel, this document contains material primarily found at the college level. Beginning with logarithms and trigonometry, the text moves into vectors and static equilibrium (physics). Coordinate geometry, conic sections, and the tangents, normals, and slopes of curves follow.…

  9. Plasma Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Autoantibody Levels during the Acute and Chronic Phases of Traumatic Brain Injury: A Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kevin K W; Yang, Zhihui; Yue, John K; Zhang, Zhiqun; Winkler, Ethan A; Puccio, Ava M; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Lingsma, Hester F; Yuh, Esther L; Mukherjee, Pratik; Valadka, Alex B; Gordon, Wayne A; Okonkwo, David O; Manley, Geoffrey T; Cooper, Shelly R; Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Hricik, Allison J; Inoue, Tomoo; Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Schnyer, David M; Sinha, Tuhin K; Vassar, Mary J

    2016-07-01

    We described recently a subacute serum autoantibody response toward glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and its breakdown products 5-10 days after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we expanded our anti-GFAP autoantibody (AutoAb[GFAP]) investigation to the multicenter observational study Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in TBI Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) to cover the full spectrum of TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale 3-15) by using acute (<24 h) plasma samples from 196 patients with acute TBI admitted to three Level I trauma centers, and a second cohort of 21 participants with chronic TBI admitted to inpatient TBI rehabilitation. We find that acute patients self-reporting previous TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) (n = 43) had higher day 1 AutoAb[GFAP] (mean ± standard error: 9.11 ± 1.42; n = 43) than healthy controls (2.90 ± 0.92; n = 16; p = 0.032) and acute patients reporting no previous TBI (2.97 ± 0.37; n = 106; p < 0.001), but not acute patients reporting previous TBI without LOC (8.01 ± 1.80; n = 47; p = 0.906). These data suggest that while exposure to TBI may trigger the AutoAb[GFAP] response, circulating antibodies are elevated specifically in acute TBI patients with a history of TBI. AutoAb[GFAP] levels for participants with chronic TBI (average post-TBI time 176 days or 6.21 months) were also significantly higher (15.08 ± 2.82; n = 21) than healthy controls (p < 0.001). These data suggest a persistent upregulation of the autoimmune response to specific brain antigen(s) in the subacute to chronic phase after TBI, as well as after repeated TBI insults. Hence, AutoAb[GFAP] may be a sensitive assay to study the dynamic interactions between post-injury brain and patient-specific autoimmune responses across acute and chronic settings after TBI.

  10. Acid rain and drinking water degradation.

    PubMed

    Middleton, P; Rhodes, S L

    1984-03-01

    Acid deposition-induced drinking water degradation is discussed with respect to the geographical extent of and the potential for dealing with possibly adverse human health impacts. Qualitative evidence from the northeastern United States and Sweden strongly suggests the existence of a linkage between these two environmental concerns. It is argued that water treatment and reduction of acid rain as solutions to the problem of water toxicity need closer evaluation. More research into the causal link is warranted since the addition of human health impacts to acid rain's environmental insults could have a significant bearing on discussions relating to acid rain controls.

  11. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  12. Research Visibility: Manpower Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, George L., Ed.

    1969-01-01

    Thirteen research reviews in this issue pertain to manpower research organized under these topics: (1) Manpower and Youth, treating youth unemployment and the youth labor market, (2) Manpower Needs, including an analysis of manpower research since World War II, health manpower planning, the shortage of skilled and technical workers, a projection…

  13. Effect of acidic solutions on the surface degradation of a micro-hybrid composite resin.

    PubMed

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia A; Machado, Raissa M M; Ramos, Tatiana S; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval A; Zanchi, Cesar H

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins may undergo wear by the action of chemical substances (e.g., saliva, alcohol, bacterial acids) of the oral environment, which may affect the material's structure and surface properties. This study evaluated the effect of acidic substances on the surface properties of a micro-hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z-250). Eighty specimens were prepared, and baseline hardness and surface roughness (KMN0 and Ra0, respectively) were measured. The specimens were subjected to sorption (SO) and solubility (SL) tests according to ISO 4049:2009, but using different storage solutions: deionized water; 75/25 vol% ethanol/water solution; lactic acid; propionic acid; and acetic acid. The acids were used in two concentrations: PA and 0.02 N. pH was measured for all solutions and final hardness (KMN1) and surface roughness (Ra1) were measured. Data were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=5%). All solutions decreased hardness and increased the Ra values, except for the specimens stored in water and 0.02 N lactic acid, which maintained the hardness. All solutions produced similar SO and SL phenomena, except for the 0.02 N lactic acid, which caused lower solubility than the other solutions. Ethanol showed the highest pH (6.6) and the 0.02 N lactic acid the lowest one (2.5). The solutions affected negatively the surface properties of the composite resin; in addition, an acidic pH did not seem to be a significant factor that intensifies the surface degradation phenomena. PMID:25250496

  14. (International conference on acidic deposition)

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B. Jr.

    1990-10-05

    The traveler took the opportunity to participate in a mini-sabbatical at the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE) in Edinburgh, Scotland, as a part of planned travel to Glasgow, Scotland, to attend the International Conference on Acidic Precipitation. The purpose of the sabbatical was to provide quality time for study and interchange of ideas with scientists at ITE working on physiological effects of acidic deposition and to allocate significant time for writing and synthesizing of results of physiological studies from the National Forest Response Program's Spruce/Fir Research Cooperative. The study focused on the very significant cytological and physiological effects of calcium deficiency in trees, a response that appears to be amplified in spruce by acidic deposition.

  15. The ability of walnut extract and fatty acids to protect against the deleterious effects of oxidative stress and inflammation in hippocampal cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walnuts contain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), specifically the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (LA) as well as the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which can be metabolized to generate eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Previous research from our lab h...

  16. Psychotherapy as Stochastic Process: Fitting a Markov Chain Model to Interviews of Ellis and Rogers. University of Minnesota Office of Student Affairs Research Bulletin, Vol. 15, No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, James W.; Hummel, Thomas J.

    This investigation tested the hypothesis that the probabilistic structure underlying psychotherapy interviews is Markovian. The "goodness of fit" of a first-order Markov chain model to actual therapy interviews was assessed using a x squared test of homogeneity, and by generating by Monte Carlo methods empirical sampling distributions of selected…

  17. ACT Profiles of Louisiana State University--Baton Rouge Graduates and Selected Factors Which Affect Them. Research Report, Vol. 11, No. 2, July 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Walter L., Jr.

    Graduates of Louisiana State University-Baton Rouge (LSU-BR) were assessed in terms of their American College Testing (ACT) program scores and the factors that affect them. All LSU-BR graduates who were awarded the baccalaureate degree during the 1974-75, 1979-80, and 1980-81 academic years were studied. ACT scores were located for 59.1 percent…

  18. A Process to Ensure a Successful School Improvement Project. The Effective School Report from Research and Practice, Vol 2, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, James E.; Knapp, Robert

    1984-01-01

    The Flint (Michigan) Community Schools developed a four-phase School Improvement process model. In Phase 1 (Commitment), school district and administrative support were obtained and pilot schools were selected (one elementary and one middle school). The principals of these schools and one teacher representative from each received training in…

  19. Evaluation of the Camp Project for Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth Graders. Research and Development Report, Vol. V, No. 4, Summer 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Frederick S.; Barnes, Jarvis

    The Title I (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) 1971 Summer Camp Project of the Atlanta Public Schools offered to a group of 427 seventh-, eighth-, and ninth-grade boys and girls of 5 1/2-day camping experience. Camp activities were directed at an attempt to integrate the children's knowledge of the outdoors with actual experience in nature…

  20. A Survey of Opinions of Mississippi School Administrators Regarding Factors Considered Most Important in Hiring Teachers for Their First Teaching Position. Research Report Vol. 5, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Lee

    In order to determine what characteristics are most important in prompting Mississippi's major educational consumers to hire teachers, an opinionnaire was developed and sent to a stratified random sample of elementary, junior high, and senior high principals, and to superintendents. The questionnaire consisted of 11 factors to be ranked according…

  1. An Instructional Plan Integrating a Community Agency Program: Towns Elementary School, 1972-73. Research and Development Report, Vol. 7, No. 49, April 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Helen M.; Evans, Dale

    The community served by Towns Elementary School has changed from a black neighborhood of upper middle class homeowners to a neighborhood where the majority of the houses are now rented to lower socioeconomic status residents. Pupils now, possibly because of their environmental circumstances, exhibit behaviors which indicate needs for remediation…

  2. The Interdependent Learning Model and Achievement: Grant Park Primary School, 1972-73. Research and Development Report, Vol. 7, No. 39, February 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plankenhorn, Andrew; Sylvan, Donna L.

    Grant Park Primary School is located in a small neighborhood where most residents are at the poverty level. The primary goals were to provide an educational program which would meet the needs of the pupils and would correct academic deficiencies in reading. This goal was supported by the following: (1) to provide an environment in which each pupil…

  3. A Total Approach to Learning with an Emphasis on Reading and Math: Carter Elementary School, 1972-73. Research and Development Report, Vol. 7, No. 43, March 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Nora S.; Evans, Dale

    The purpose of this report is to provide data on the educational program at E. R. Carter Elementary School with a focus on several specific programs. Carter is located in close proximity to downtown Atlanta. Its pupil population was entirely Negro while the faculty itself was well integrated. The economic level was generally low. The purpose of…

  4. The Family-School Connection: Theory, Research, and Practice. Issues in Children's and Families' Lives, Vol. 2. The John & Kelly Hartman Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Bruce A., Ed.; And Others

    The nature of the relationships among contemporary family variables and school achievement is examined in this collection of articles. Divided into two parts, the collection examines related processes and issues. In the first part, the chapters and authors are: (1) "The Family-School Relationships Model" (Bruce A. Ryan and Gerald R. Adams); (2)…

  5. Asia and the Pacific: A Survey of Distance Education 1992. Vol. II: Republic of Korea-Vietnam. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Suk-Ying; And Others

    This report is intended to serve as a general reference for people either new to the field or involved in planning and decision-making in the field of distance education, specifically in Asia and the Pacific region. Volume II contains data from 15 countries: the Republic of Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan,…

  6. 1974 State Education Legislation and Activity: General Governance and Administration. A survey of the States. Research Brief, Vol. 3, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayas, Denise Kale; Ross, Doris M.

    This report, fifth in a series, is a collection of information on 1974 state education legislation and activity. The raw data information, rapidly processed for early release, includes 700 legislative items related to general governance and administration of elementary and secondary schools. The legislation from all 50 states reported has been…

  7. The Foundations of Communication: A Theoretical Approach to Imitation, Intermodality and Suggestion in the Child's Early Communicative Actions. Research Bulletin, Vol. XII:III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmlund, Carin

    A newborn child can identify impressions by means of the sense organs with the help of "non-visible" sensory impressions such as tactile and kinesthetic. A communication arises early between different modalities and muscle activities, which make possible an early synchronization, and identity between the infant and its surroundings. Studies…

  8. Acid precipitation. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the research of acid precipitation, and the resultant acidification of land and water. Topics include composition, causes, effects, sources, measurements, and controls of acid precipitation. Worldwide geographical distribution of acid precipitation and acidification are covered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Acid precipitation. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the research of acid precipitation, and the resultant acidification of land and water. Topics include composition, causes, effects, sources, measurements, and controls of acid precipitation. Worldwide geographical distribution of acid precipitation and acidification are covered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Trophic spectra under the lens of amino acid isotopic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in compound specific isotopic ratio analysis (CSIRA) have allowed researchers to measure trophic fractionation of 15N in specific amino acids, namely glutamic acid and phenylalanine. These amino acids have proven useful in food web studies because of the wide and consistent disparity...

  11. Benzoic Acid and Chlorobenzoic Acids: Thermodynamic Study of the Pure Compounds and Binary Mixtures With Water.

    PubMed

    Reschke, Thomas; Zherikova, Kseniya V; Verevkin, Sergey P; Held, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Benzoic acid is a model compound for drug substances in pharmaceutical research. Process design requires information about thermodynamic phase behavior of benzoic acid and its mixtures with water and organic solvents. This work addresses phase equilibria that determine stability and solubility. In this work, Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) was used to model the phase behavior of aqueous and organic solutions containing benzoic acid and chlorobenzoic acids. Absolute vapor pressures of benzoic acid and 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorobenzoic acid from literature and from our own measurements were used to determine pure-component PC-SAFT parameters. Two binary interaction parameters between water and/or benzoic acid were used to model vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria of water and/or benzoic acid between 280 and 413 K. The PC-SAFT parameters and 1 binary interaction parameter were used to model aqueous solubility of the chlorobenzoic acids. Additionally, solubility of benzoic acid in organic solvents was predicted without using binary parameters. All results showed that pure-component parameters for benzoic acid and for the chlorobenzoic acids allowed for satisfying modeling phase equilibria. The modeling approach established in this work is a further step to screen solubility and to predict the whole phase region of mixtures containing pharmaceuticals. PMID:26886302

  12. Modelling of the growth-no growth interface of Issatchenkia occidentalis, an olive spoiling yeast, as a function of the culture media, NaCl, citric and sorbic acid concentrations: study of its inactivation in the no growth region.

    PubMed

    Arroyo López, F N; Quintana, M C Durán; Fernández, A Garrido

    2007-06-30

    A global logistic model incorporating a dummy variable for the growth medium (laboratory media or table olives brine) was used for the estimation of the growth-no growth interface of Issatchenkia occidentalis as a function of NaCl, citric and sorbic acid concentrations. The model permitted the deduction of the region where the combination of citric and sorbic acids in laboratory media (above 0.3% and 0.03% wt/vol, respectively) and brine (above 0.1% and 0.03% wt/vol), at 5% NaCl, inhibited the growth of the yeast. Subsequently, the model was validated in laboratory media within the no growth region by a response surface D-optimal design. Inactivation concentrations of sorbic acid produced a progressive loss of viability in I. occidentalis that followed a first order kinetic or downward concave inactivation curves, depending on environmental variables. These curves were properly described by a (primary) model deduced from the Weibull distribution, whose parameters, first decimal reduction time (D(beta)) and shape (beta), were expressed as a function of sorbic acid concentrations (secondary model). At 5% NaCl and within the experimental region checked, an increase of 0.010% and 0.008% sorbic acid reduced D(beta) in 10 h and decrease beta by 10%. Finally, the model was also validated in real "seasoned" table olives packing reporting a complete inactivation of the yeasts' population.

  13. Development of a process for the extraction of {sup 137}Cs from acidic HLLW based on crown-calix extractant use of di-alkylamide modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Alexova, J.; Sirova, M.; Rais, J.; Suzuki, S.; Hirata, M.; Kimura, T.; Tachimori, S.

    2008-07-01

    Within the framework of the ARTIST project of total fuel retreatment with ecological mixtures of solvents and extractants containing only C, H, O, and N atoms, a process segment of extraction of {sup 137}Cs from acidic stream was developed. The process with 25,27-Bis(1-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown- 6, DOC[4]C6, dissolved at its 0.01 M concentration in a mixture of 90 vol % 1-octanol and 10% dihexyl octanamide, DHOA was proposed as a viable variant due to its good multicycle performance, even with irradiated solvent, and due to the good chemical stability of the chosen combination of solvent mixture. (authors)

  14. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  15. Bioconversions of ferulic acid, an hydroxycinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sindhu; Abraham, T Emilia

    2006-01-01

    Ferulic acid is the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in the plant world and is ester linked to arabinose, in various plant polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans and pectins. It is a precursor to vanillin, one of the most important aromatic flavor compound used in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and perfumes. This article presents an overview of the various biocatalytic routes, focusing on the relevant biotransformations of ferulic acid using plant sources, microorganisms, and enzymes.

  16. Geographical distribution and temporal variation of rain acidity over China

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Xing Wang; Yan-Bo Pang; Guo-An Ding

    1996-12-31

    In recent decade, large areas of acid rain have appeared in China. With the increasing emission of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} year by year, the acidity of precipitation has increased, and the acid rain area is expanding. Presently, the acid rain in China has become the third largest area of acid rain in the world, next to Europe and North America. The Chinese government took action against acid rain and planned a five-year National Acid Deposition Research Project. The space-time distribution and variation of rain acidity described in this paper is a part of this project. China is a large country. The area is almost equal to that of Europe. Its climate varies greatly and spans the tropics, subtropics, temperate and frigid zone. There is a varied topography including mountain, hilly country, desert and plain, on the other hand the distribution of anthropogenic sources are not even. All of the human and natural factors caused different chemical composition in different parts of China, the acidity of precipitation varies also. The acidity of the precipitation is the most important parameter in the acid rain research. In order to obtain the regional representative distribution of rain acidity, National Acidic Deposition Research Monitoring Network with 261 monitoring sites was established in 1992. This paper summarizes the rain acidity of 21355 precipitation samples, and gave the annual, seasonal, and the monthly pH contours. Results show that the acid rain area has expanded from the south during winter. Regional differences of monthly acid precipitation exists, generally, the rain acidity level is higher during summer and fall and lower during winter and spring in the northern provinces. The 9 opposite is the case in the southern provinces. The central areas are in a transitional situation. The geographical distribution and temporal variation of rain acidity are quite different from North America and Europe.

  17. Cinnamic acid derivatives as anticancer agents-a review.

    PubMed

    De, P; Baltas, M; Bedos-Belval, F

    2011-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its phenolic analogues are natural substances. Chemically, in cinnamic acids the 3-phenyl acrylic acid functionality offers three main reactive sites; substitution at the phenyl ring, addition at the α,β- unsaturation and the reactions of the carboxylic acid functionality. Owing to these chemical aspects cinnamic acid derivatives received much attention in medicinal research as traditional as well as recent synthetic antitumor agents. We observed that in spite of their rich medicinal tradition, cinnamic acid derivatives and their anticancer potentials remained underutilized for several decades since the first published clinical use in 1905. In last two decades, there has been huge attention towards various cinnamoyl derivatives and their antitumor efficacy. This review provides a comprehensive and unprecedented literature compilation concerning the synthesis and biological evaluation of various cinnamoyl acids, esters, amides, hydrazides and related derivatives in anticancer research. We envisage that our effort in this review contributes a much needed and timely addition to the literature of medicinal research.

  18. Acid precipitation and human health: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, S.

    1989-08-01

    This report, written for environmental managers in electric utilities, reviews potential indirect human health effects of acid precipitation. Possible exposure routes and materials examined in this review include drinking water contamination (aluminum and mercury), corrosion of metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, selenium, copper, and zinc) and asbestos from water piping, bioaccumulation of mercury and other metals in fish and game, and uptake of mobilized metals in crops. No direct effects (e.g., skin or eye irritation) of human exposure to acid precipitation have been identified, and air pollutant impacts on health are not included in this review, because these pollutants are acid precipitation precursors, not acid precipitation per se. The literature is summarized, presenting results from researchers' studies to support their conclusions. The review discusses potential acid precipitation impacts on metal levels in drinking water and food, summarizes the health effects of ingestion of these materials, and identifies areas of needed research. Metal-metal interactions in humans that may be related to acid precipitation are identified. Current research programs and planned assessments of the indirect human health effects of acid precipitation are summarized. 136 refs., 38 figs., 17 tabs

  19. Effects of casting conditions and deformation processing on A356 aluminum and A356-20 vol. pct SiC composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozak, G. A.; Lewandowski, J. J.; Wallace, J. F.; Altmisoglu, A.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of casting conditions and deformation processing on the mechanical properties of unreinforced A356 aluminum and A356-20 vol pct SiC composite were investigated by tensile properties in these compounds fabricated by either sand casting or squeeze casting techniques followed by hot working to 33, 50, 90, and 95 percent reductions. The evolution of the microstructure and values of tensile properties were evaluated for the cast materials in each of the hot worked conditions. It was found that, while the deformation processing of the sand-cast composite resulted in banding of the Al and SiC particles within the microstructure, such features were not observed in the squeeze-cast microstructure. The tensile strengths of the squeeze cast materials was found to be higher than those of the sand cast materials, for both the unreinforced and composite samples, while increased amounts of deformation were found to improve the ductility of the composite.

  20. Analytical approach to determining human biogenic amines and their metabolites using eVol microextraction in packed syringe coupled to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method with hydrophilic interaction chromatography column.

    PubMed

    Konieczna, Lucyna; Roszkowska, Anna; Synakiewicz, Anna; Stachowicz-Stencel, Teresa; Adamkiewicz-Drożyńska, Elżbieta; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of biogenic amines (BAs) in different human samples provides insight into the mechanisms of various biological processes, including pathological conditions, and thus may be very important in diagnosing and monitoring several neurological disorders and cancerous tumors. In this work, we developed a simple and fast procedure using a digitally controlled microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) coupled to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of biogenic amines, their precursors and metabolites in human plasma and urine samples. The separation of 12 low molecular weight and hydrophilic molecules with a wide range of polarities was achieved with hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) column without derivatization step in 12 min. MEPS was implemented using the APS sorbent in semi-automated analytical syringe (eVol(®)) and small volume of urine and plasma samples, 5 0µL and 100 μL, respectively. We evaluated important parameters influencing MEPS efficiency, including stationary phase selection, sample pH and volume, number of extraction cycles, and washing and elution volumes. In optimized MEPS conditions, the analytes were eluted by 3 × 50 μL of methanol with 0.1% formic acid. The chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on XBridge Amide™ BEH analytical column (3.0mm × 100 mm, 3.5 µm) using gradient elution with mobile phase consisting of phase A: 10mM ammonium formate buffer in water pH 3.0 and phase B: 10mM ammonium formate buffer in acetonitrile pH 3.0. The LC-HILIC-MS method was validated and, in optimum conditions, presented good linearity in concentration range within 10-2000 ng/mL for all the analytes with a determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.999 for plasma and urine samples. Method recovery ranged within 87.6-104.3% for plasma samples and 84.2-98.6% for urine samples. The developed method utilizing polar APS sorbent along with polar HILIC column was applied for

  1. Analytical approach to determining human biogenic amines and their metabolites using eVol microextraction in packed syringe coupled to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method with hydrophilic interaction chromatography column.

    PubMed

    Konieczna, Lucyna; Roszkowska, Anna; Synakiewicz, Anna; Stachowicz-Stencel, Teresa; Adamkiewicz-Drożyńska, Elżbieta; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of biogenic amines (BAs) in different human samples provides insight into the mechanisms of various biological processes, including pathological conditions, and thus may be very important in diagnosing and monitoring several neurological disorders and cancerous tumors. In this work, we developed a simple and fast procedure using a digitally controlled microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) coupled to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of biogenic amines, their precursors and metabolites in human plasma and urine samples. The separation of 12 low molecular weight and hydrophilic molecules with a wide range of polarities was achieved with hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) column without derivatization step in 12 min. MEPS was implemented using the APS sorbent in semi-automated analytical syringe (eVol(®)) and small volume of urine and plasma samples, 5 0µL and 100 μL, respectively. We evaluated important parameters influencing MEPS efficiency, including stationary phase selection, sample pH and volume, number of extraction cycles, and washing and elution volumes. In optimized MEPS conditions, the analytes were eluted by 3 × 50 μL of methanol with 0.1% formic acid. The chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on XBridge Amide™ BEH analytical column (3.0mm × 100 mm, 3.5 µm) using gradient elution with mobile phase consisting of phase A: 10mM ammonium formate buffer in water pH 3.0 and phase B: 10mM ammonium formate buffer in acetonitrile pH 3.0. The LC-HILIC-MS method was validated and, in optimum conditions, presented good linearity in concentration range within 10-2000 ng/mL for all the analytes with a determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.999 for plasma and urine samples. Method recovery ranged within 87.6-104.3% for plasma samples and 84.2-98.6% for urine samples. The developed method utilizing polar APS sorbent along with polar HILIC column was applied for

  2. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  3. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  4. Boronic Acid-Catalyzed, Highly Enantioselective Aza-Michael Additions of Hydroxamic Acid to Quinone Imine Ketals.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Gálvez, Alberto Osuna; Maruoka, Keiji

    2015-12-30

    Boronic acid is one of the most versatile organic molecules in chemistry. Its uses include organic reactions, molecular recognition, assembly, and even medicine. While boronic acid catalysis, which utilizes an inherent catalytic property, has become an important research objective, it still lags far behind other boronic acid chemistries. Here, we report our discovery of a new boronic acid catalysis that enables the aza-Michael addition of hydroxamic acid to quinone imine ketals. By using 3-borono-BINOL as a chiral boronic acid catalyst, this reaction could be implemented in a highly enantioselective manner, paving the way to densely functionalized cyclohexanes.

  5. Nutritional Products from Space Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Six scientists from Martin Marietta who did research for NASA on algae as food supply, oxygen source and a recycling agent for long duration space travel founded Martek Biosciences Corporation. Martek's main product is Formulaid for infants, an algae-based, vegetable-like oil containing two essential polyunsaturated fatty acids known as DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and ARA (arachidonic acid). The acids are found in human milk but not in most infant formulas, and they are believed to be associated with mental and visual development. Formulaid is on the market in two European countries and licensed to the Mead Johnson Division of Bristol-Myers Squibb, American Home Products and others.

  6. Research News

    MedlinePlus

    Research News - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis ... Email Home Research Research News & Progress Research News Research News Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print Read ...

  7. Hydrogen generation during treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a one-fifth scale pilot facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy's DWPF. Five IDMS runs determined the effect of the presence of noble metals in HLW sludge on the H{sub 2} generation rate during the preparation of melter feed with formic acid. Overall, the results clearly showed that H{sub 2} generation in the DWPF SRAT could, at times, exceed the lower flammable limit of H{sub 2} in air (4 vol%), depending on such factors as offgas generation and air inleakage of the DWPF vessels. Therefore, the installation of a forced air purge system and H{sub 2} monitors were recommended to the DWPF to control the generation of H{sub 2} during melter feed preparation by fuel dilution.

  8. Hydrogen generation during treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Hsu, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a one-fifth scale pilot facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy`s DWPF. Five IDMS runs determined the effect of the presence of noble metals in HLW sludge on the H{sub 2} generation rate during the preparation of melter feed with formic acid. Overall, the results clearly showed that H{sub 2} generation in the DWPF SRAT could, at times, exceed the lower flammable limit of H{sub 2} in air (4 vol%), depending on such factors as offgas generation and air inleakage of the DWPF vessels. Therefore, the installation of a forced air purge system and H{sub 2} monitors were recommended to the DWPF to control the generation of H{sub 2} during melter feed preparation by fuel dilution.

  9. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  10. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  11. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  12. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  13. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  14. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  15. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and ... Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in men, and to prevent or treat osteoporosis ...

  16. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  17. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  18. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do ...

  19. Mixed Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-10-26

    Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

  20. Acid deposition in Maryland: a report to the Governor and General Assembly (1986). Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Power Plant Research Program coordinates Maryland's acid-deposition research and reports research results annually. The report evaluates several major topic areas including transport and chemistry of acid deposition, its potential impacts on the State's streams and fish, possible impacts on terrestrial resources such as crops and forests and on materials, the ability of energy-conservation programs to reduce emissions of acid-forming pollutants, and mitigation techniques for neutralizing acid waters.

  1. Acid deposition in Maryland: Summary of results through 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuro, J.; Bowman, M.; Maxwell, C.; Asante-Duah, D.; Meyers, S.

    1990-06-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Research and Monitoring Program coordinates Maryland's acid deposition research and reports research results annually. The report evaluates several major topic areas including transport and chemistry of acid deposition, its potential impacts on the State's streams and fish, possible impacts on terrestrial resources such as crops and forests and on materials, the ability of energy conservation programs to reduce emissions of acid-forming pollutants, and mitigation techniques for neutralizing acid waters.

  2. Acid deposition in Maryland: the status of knowledge in 1987. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Power Plant Research Program coordinates Maryland's acid deposition research and reports research results annually. The report evaluates several major topic areas including transport and chemistry of acid deposition its potential impacts on the State's streams and fish, possible impacts on terrestrial resources such as crops and forests and on materials, the ability of energy-conservation programs to reduce emissions of acid-forming pollutants, and mitigation techniques for neutralizing acid waters.

  3. Acid deposition in Maryland: summary of results through 1988. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Research and Monitoring Program coordinates Maryland's acid-deposition research and reports research results annually. This report evaluates several major topic areas including transport and chemistry of acid deposition its potential impacts on the State's streams and fish, possible impacts on terrestrial resources such as crops and forests and on materials, the ability of energy conservation programs to reduce emissions of acid-forming pollutants, and mitigation techniques for neutralizing acid waters.

  4. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group-Determination of Dissolved Isoxaflutole and Its Sequential Degradation Products, Diketonitrile and Benzoic Acid, in Water Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Michael T.; Lee, Edward A.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of isoxaflutole and its sequential degradation products, diketonitrile and a benzoic acid analogue, in filtered water with varying matrices was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas. Four different water-sample matrices fortified at 0.02 and 0.10 ug/L (micrograms per liter) are extracted by vacuum manifold solid-phase extraction and analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in negative-ion mode with multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM). Analytical conditions for mass spectrometry detection are optimized, and quantitation is carried out using the following MRM molecular-hydrogen (precursor) ion and product (p) ion transition pairs: 357.9 (precursor), 78.9 (p), and 277.6 (p) for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile, and 267.0 (precursor), 159.0 (p), and 223.1 (p) for benzoic acid. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-d3 is used as the internal standard, and alachlor ethanesulfonic acid-d5 is used as the surrogate standard. Compound detection limits and reporting levels are calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures. The mean solid-phase extraction recovery values ranged from 104 to 108 percent with relative standard deviation percentages ranging from 4.0 to 10.6 percent. The combined mean percentage concentration normalized to the theoretical spiked concentration of four water matrices analyzed eight times at 0.02 and 0.10 ug/L (seven times for the reagent-water matrix at 0.02 ug/L) ranged from approximately 75 to 101 percent with relative standard deviation percentages ranging from approximately 3 to 26 percent for isoxaflutole, diketonitrile, and benzoic acid. The method detection limit (MDL) for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile is 0.003 ug/L and 0.004 ug/L for benzoic acid. Method reporting levels (MRLs) are 0.011, 0.010, and 0.012 ug/L for isoxaflutole, diketonitrile, and benzoic acid, respectively. On the basis

  5. Synthesis, characterization, X-ray crystal structure, DFT calculation and antibacterial activities of new vanadium(IV, V) complexes containing chelidamic acid and novel thiourea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Farzanfar, Javad; Ghasemi, Khaled; Rezvani, Ali Reza; Delarami, Hojat Samareh; Ebrahimi, Ali; Hosseinpoor, Hona; Eskandari, Amir; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri; Bruno, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Three new thiourea ligands derived from the condensation of aroyl- and aryl-isothiocyanate derivatives with 2,6-diaminopyridine, named 1,1'-(pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(3-(benzoyl)thiourea) (L1), 1,1'-(pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(3-(2-chlorobenzoyl)thiourea) (L2) and 1,1'-(pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(3-(4-chlorophenyl)thiourea) (L3), their oxido-vanadium(IV) complexes, namely [VO(L1('))(H2O)] (C1), [VO(L2('))(H2O)] (C2) and [VO(L3('))(H2O)] (C3), and also, dioxo-vanadium(V) complex containing 4-hydroxy-2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (chelidamic acid, H2dipic-OH) and metformin (N,N-dimethylbiguanide, Met), named [H2Met][VO2(dipic-OH)]2·H2O (C4), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and (1)H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopies. Proposed structures for free thiourea ligands and their vanadium complexes were corroborated by applying geometry optimization and conformational analysis. Solid state structure of complex [H2Met][VO2(dipic-OH)]2·H2O (triclinic, Pī) was fully determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In this complex, metformin is double protonated and acted as counter ion. The antibacterial properties of these compounds were investigated in vitro against standard Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The experiments showed that vanadium(IV) complexes had the superior antibacterial activities than novel thiourea derivatives and vanadium(V) complex against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. PMID:25770009

  6. Synthesis, characterization, X-ray crystal structure, DFT calculation and antibacterial activities of new vanadium(IV, V) complexes containing chelidamic acid and novel thiourea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Farzanfar, Javad; Ghasemi, Khaled; Rezvani, Ali Reza; Delarami, Hojat Samareh; Ebrahimi, Ali; Hosseinpoor, Hona; Eskandari, Amir; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri; Bruno, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Three new thiourea ligands derived from the condensation of aroyl- and aryl-isothiocyanate derivatives with 2,6-diaminopyridine, named 1,1'-(pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(3-(benzoyl)thiourea) (L1), 1,1'-(pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(3-(2-chlorobenzoyl)thiourea) (L2) and 1,1'-(pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(3-(4-chlorophenyl)thiourea) (L3), their oxido-vanadium(IV) complexes, namely [VO(L1('))(H2O)] (C1), [VO(L2('))(H2O)] (C2) and [VO(L3('))(H2O)] (C3), and also, dioxo-vanadium(V) complex containing 4-hydroxy-2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (chelidamic acid, H2dipic-OH) and metformin (N,N-dimethylbiguanide, Met), named [H2Met][VO2(dipic-OH)]2·H2O (C4), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and (1)H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopies. Proposed structures for free thiourea ligands and their vanadium complexes were corroborated by applying geometry optimization and conformational analysis. Solid state structure of complex [H2Met][VO2(dipic-OH)]2·H2O (triclinic, Pī) was fully determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In this complex, metformin is double protonated and acted as counter ion. The antibacterial properties of these compounds were investigated in vitro against standard Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The experiments showed that vanadium(IV) complexes had the superior antibacterial activities than novel thiourea derivatives and vanadium(V) complex against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.

  7. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  8. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  9. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  10. Coenzyme A transferase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and its role in the uptake of acids

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenborn, D.P.; Rudolph, F.B.; Papoutsakis, E.T. )

    1989-02-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) transferase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was purified 81-fold to homogeneity. This enzyme was stable in the presence of 0.5 M ammonium sulfate and 20% (vol/vol) glycerol, whereas activity was rapidly lost in the absence of these stabilizers. The kinetic binding mechanism was Ping Pong Bi Bi, and the K{sub m} values at pH 7.5 and 30{degree}C for acetate, propionate, and butyrate were, respectively, 1,200, 1,000, and 660 mM, while the K{sub m} value for acetoacetyl-CoA ranged from about 7 to 56{mu}M, depending on the acid substrate. The K{sub m} values for butyrate and acetate were high relative to the intracellular concentrations of these species; consequently, in vivo enzyme activity is expected to be sensitive to changes in those concentrations. In addition to the carboxylic acids listed above, this CoA transferase was able to convert valerate, isobutyrate, and crotonate; however, the conversion of formate, n-caproate, and isovalerate was not detected. The acetate and butyrate conversion reactions in vitro were inhibited by physiological levels of acetone and butanol, and this may be another factor in the in vivo regulation of enzyme activity. The optimum pH of acetate conversion was broad, with at least 80% of maximal activity from pH 5.9 to greater than 7.8. The purified enzyme was a heterotetramer with subunit molecular weights of about 23,000 and 25,000.

  11. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  12. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  13. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  14. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  15. The flocculation mechanism of humic acid hydrosol

    SciTech Connect

    Xuo Xiaofen; Yu Hui

    1997-12-31

    Humic acid solution obtained by extraction from weathered coal, brown coal, and peat is a high molecular hydrosol. It can be flocculated by electrolytes. It is discovered that for monochloride and dichloride or trichloride, the flocculation value variation with humic acid hydrosol concentration has a different curve and different mechanism. For monochloride, the hydrosol is a hydrophilic colloid; it is flocculated by salting out of monochloride. For dichloride or trichloride, the hydrosol is converted into a hydrophilic colloid, and flocculated by compressing the electric double layer of the micellae. The flocculation value variation with humic acid hydrosol pH value is also discussed. The research is valuable for theory and application.

  16. Acid tolerance mechanisms utilized by Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Robert; Cvitkovitch, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1924 by J Clarke, Streptococcus mutans has been the focus of rigorous research efforts due to its involvement in caries initiation and progression. Its ability to ferment a range of dietary carbohydrates can rapidly drop the external environmental pH, thereby making dental plaque inhabitable to many competing species and can ultimately lead to tooth decay. Acid production by this oral pathogen would prove suicidal if not for its remarkable ability to withstand the acid onslaught by utilizing a wide variety of highly evolved acid-tolerance mechanisms. The elucidation of these mechanisms will be discussed, serving as the focus of this review. PMID:20210551

  17. Hyaluronic acid and tendon lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kaux, Jean-François; Samson, Antoine; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction recently, the viscoelastic properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) on liquid connective tissue have been proposed for the treatment of tendinopathies. Some fundamental studies show encouraging results on hyaluronic acid’s ability to promote tendon gliding and reduce adhesion as well as to improve tendon architectural organisation. Some observations also support its use in a clinical setting to improve pain and function. This literature review analyses studies relating to the use of hyaluronic acid in the treatment of tendinopathies. Methods this review was constructed using the Medline database via Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar. The key words hyaluronic acid, tendon and tendinopathy were used for the research. Results in total, 28 articles (in English and French) on the application of hyaluronic acid to tendons were selected for their relevance and scientific quality, including 13 for the in vitro part, 7 for the in vivo animal part and 8 for the human section. Conclusions preclinical studies demonstrate encouraging results: HA permits tendon gliding, reduces adhesions, creates better tendon architectural organisation and limits inflammation. These laboratory observations appear to be supported by limited but encouraging short-term clinical results on pain and function. However, controlled randomised studies are still needed. PMID:26958533

  18. An assessment of acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-12-31

    Airborne particles have long been associated with adverse effects on public health, begin with the notorious air pollution disasters of several decades ago. Although H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was identified early on as a potential causal factors during these episodes (in part because of concern for potential health effects of particle acidity per se has intensified only recently. Most of the recent aerometric research in the US on acid fog has focused on the ability of clouds and fog to deliver acidity to vegetation and ecosystems. Strong acids are characterized chemically by their pH or H{sup +} concentration. For fog, concentrations are referred to the droplet liquid content; for other (i.e., ``clear air``) aerosols, to the volume of air sampled. A useful measure of the relationship between aerosol and fog is obtained by comparing their mass concentrations on the basis of the same volume of air, by multiplying fogwater concentrations by liquid water content (LWC). This paper reviews fog measurement capability, physical properties and chemistry, and presents a simple urban airshed model which is used to simulate the evolution of fog and aerosol concentrations under urban stagnation conditions.

  19. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  20. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  1. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  2. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  3. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  4. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  5. [Safety of folic acid].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Improving dietary folate intake is a central public health goal. However, critical voices have become louder warning of too high intake of folic acid. Safety concerns of a high folic acid exposure are usually limited to synthetic folic acid contained in drugs and food supplements. Against this background, the present article focuses on two matters: (a) How do the absorption and metabolism of synthetic folic acid differ from that of other folates? (b) How has the longterm safety of folic acid to be judged, especially regarding the risk of colorectal cancer, autism, asthma, impaired immune defence, masking vitamin B12 deficiency and interactions with the methotrexate metabolism?

  6. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  7. Amino Acid Analyses of Acid Hydrolysates in Desert Varnish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Randall S.; Staley, James T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Engel, Mike

    2001-01-01

    There has long been a debate as to whether rock varnish deposits are microbially mediated or are deposited by inorganic processes. Varnished rocks are found throughout the world primarily in arid and semi-arid regions. The varnish coats are typically up to 200 microns thick and are composed of clays and alternating layers enriched in manganese and iron oxides. The individual layers range in thickness from 1 micron to greater than 10 microns and may continue laterally for more than a 100 microns. Overlapping botryoidal structures are visible in thin section and scanning electron micrographs. The coatings also include small amounts of organic mater and detrital grains. Amino-acid hydrolysates offer a means of assessing the organic composition of rock varnish collected from the Sonoran Desert, near Phoenix, AZ. Chromatographic analyses of hydrolysates from powdered samples of rock varnish suggest that the interior of rock varnish is relatively enriched in amino acids and specifically in d-alanine and glutamic acid. Peptidoglycan (murein) is the main structural component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. The d-enantiomer of alanine and glutamic acid are specific to peptidoglycan and are consequently an indicator for the presence of bacteria. D-alanine is also found in teichoic acid which is only found in gram-positive bacteria. Several researchers have cultured bacteria from the surface of rock varnish and most have been gram-positive, suggesting that gram-positive bacteria are intimately associated with varnish coatings and may play a role in the formation of varnish coatings.

  8. Degradation of benzoic acid and its derivatives in subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Edward; Yang, Yu

    2011-04-15

    In this research, the stability of benzoic acid and three of its derivatives (anthranilic acid, salicylic acid, and syringic acid) under subcritical water conditions was investigated. The stability studies were carried out at temperatures ranging from 50 to 350°C with heating times of 10-630 min. The degradation of the benzoic acid derivatives increased with rising temperature and the acids became less stable with longer heating time. The three benzoic acid derivatives showed very mild degradation at 150°C. Severe degradation of benzoic acid derivatives was observed at 200°C while their complete degradation occurred at 250°C. However, benzoic acid remained stable at temperatures up to 300°C. The degradation products of benzoic acid and the three derivatives were identified and quantified by HPLC and confirmed by GC/MS. Anthranilic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid, and benzoic acid in high-temperature water underwent decarboxylation to form aniline, phenol, syringol, and benzene, respectively.

  9. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  10. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  11. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  12. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  13. Biotransformation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by plant cell cultures of Eucalyptus perriniana.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hisashi; Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformations of phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were investigated with plant-cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. The plant-cultured cells of E. perriniana converted cinnamic acid into cinnamic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, p-coumaric acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid was converted into 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid, p-coumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, a new compound, caffeic acid, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid. On the other hand, incubation of caffeic acid with cultured E. perriniana cells gave 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, a new compound, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, ferulic acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid. 4-O-β-D-Glucopyranosylferulic acid, ferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester were isolated from E. perriniana cells treated with ferulic acid.

  14. Acid monolayer functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikenberry, Myles

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle functionalization is an area of intensely active research, with applications across disciplines such as biomedical science and heterogeneous catalysis. This work demonstrates the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles with a quasi-monolayer of 11-sulfoundecanoic acid, 10-phosphono-1-decanesulfonic acid, and 11-aminoundecanoic acid. The carboxylic and phosphonic moieties form bonds to the iron oxide particle core, while the sulfonic acid groups face outward where they are available for catalysis. The particles were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), potentiometric titration, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The sulfonic acid functionalized particles were used to catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose at 80° and starch at 130°, showing a higher activity per acid site than the traditional solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15, and comparing well against results reported in the literature for sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous silicas. In sucrose catalysis reactions, the phosphonic-sulfonic nanoparticles (PSNPs) were seen to be incompletely recovered by an external magnetic field, while the carboxylic-sulfonic nanoparticles (CSNPs) showed a trend of increasing activity over the first four recycle runs. Between the two sulfonic ligands, the phosphonates produced a more tightly packed monolayer, which corresponded to a higher sulfonic acid loading, lower agglomeration, lower recoverability through application of an external magnetic field, and higher activity per acid site for the hydrolysis of starch. Functionalizations with 11-aminoundecanoic acid resulted in some amine groups binding to the surfaces of iron oxide nanoparticles. This amine binding is commonly ignored in iron oxide

  15. Nucleic acid based logical systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Da; Kang, Huaizhi; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Cuichen; Zhou, Cuisong; You, Mingxu; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong

    2014-05-12

    Researchers increasingly visualize a significant role for artificial biochemical logical systems in biological engineering, much like digital logic circuits in electrical engineering. Those logical systems could be utilized as a type of servomechanism to control nanodevices in vitro, monitor chemical reactions in situ, or regulate gene expression in vivo. Nucleic acids (NA), as carriers of genetic information with well-regulated and predictable structures, are promising materials for the design and engineering of biochemical circuits. A number of logical devices based on nucleic acids (NA) have been designed to handle various processes for technological or biotechnological purposes. This article focuses on the most recent and important developments in NA-based logical devices and their evolution from in vitro, through cellular, even towards in vivo biological applications.

  16. Palmitic Acid and Health: Introduction.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Moreno, Luis; Shamir, Raanan

    2016-09-01

    Interest in the dietary role and metabolic effect of saturated fatty acids has been recently renewed on the basis of epidemiologic observations and economical approach to health and well-being. Saturated fats may favorably increase blood HDL-Cholesterol levels without significant changes of the total cholesterol/HDL-Cholesterol ratio. Also, the negative effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular diseases risk has recently been challenged. Palmitic acid, among all, may have special structural and functional roles in utero and in infancy, and indeed is it is being delivered in a unique form in human milk. Future research should include objective cost-benefit analyses when disentangling the role of saturated fats in dietary recommendations.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of neutralized extracellular culture filtrates of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a cultured Indian milk product ('dahi').

    PubMed

    Varadaraj, M C; Devi, N; Keshava, N; Manjrekar, S P

    1993-12-01

    Neutralized extracellular culture filtrate obtained from isolates of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbruecki ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis from 'dahi' showed weak to moderate inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when tested by the diffusion agar well assay method. The effective minimum quantity of lactic culture filtrates required to obtain complete inhibition of an inoculum of 10(3) cfu/ml of the bacteria tested was between 20 and 26% (vol/vol), as determined by the agar incorporation method. Neutralized extracellular culture filtrate of these lactic cultures added at a level of 10% in sterile, 10% reconstituted non-fat dry milk was able to either suppress or retard growth of selected bacterial cultures when incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. This study indicated the antimicrobial activity of dahi and the potential of using neutralized extracellular culture filtrate of lactic acid bacteria in the biopreservation of foods.

  18. Bile Acid Responses in Methane and Non-Methane Producers to Standard Breakfast Meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bile acids and their conjugates are important regulators of glucose homeostasis. Previous research has revealed the ratio of cholic acid to deoxycholic acid to affect insulin resistance in humans. Bile acid de-conjugation and intestinal metabolism depend on gut microbes which may be affected by hos...

  19. Malaria Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Malaria > Research Malaria Understanding Research NIAID Role Basic Biology Prevention and Control Strategies Strategic Partnerships and Research ... the malaria parasite. Related Links Global Research​ Vector Biology International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) ...

  20. A hypothesis of inductive drive to explain the sawtooth measurements of tokamak experiment for technology oriented research (TEXTOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, T. K.

    2006-07-01

    A hypothesis, based on the current density profile determined from the principle of minimum dissipation of magnetic energy, is applied to explain the measurement of q (0) and current variation in a sawtooth cycle in tokomak experiment for technology oriented research (TEXTOR) [Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research (IAEA, Vienna, 1985), Vol. I, p. 193]. A sawtooth oscillation is triggered when the on-axis current density in a configuration with m =0 and n =0 symmetry is driven inductively to a limit.