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Sample records for acids tfa sources

  1. Rainwater trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in Guangzhou, South China: levels, wet deposition fluxes and source implication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiaoyun; Wang, Xinming; Ding, Xiang

    2014-01-15

    The origin of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) occurring in hydrosphere has long been a controversial issue. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs/HFCs) as replacements of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are precursors of TFA in the atmosphere, their contribution to rainwater TFA is a concern as their ambient mixing ratios are continually growing. Here we present rainwater TFA monitored from April 2007 to March 2008 in urban Guangzhou, a central city in south China's highly industrialized and densely populated Pearl River Delta region. Rainwater TFA levels ranged 45.8-974 ng L(-1) with a median of 166 ng L(-1). TFA levels negatively correlated with rainfall amount, the yearly rainfall-weighted average for TFA was 152 ng L(-1). The annual TFA wet deposition flux was estimated to be 229 g km(-2) yr(-1), and the total wet deposition of TFA reached ~1.7 tyr(-1) in Guangzhou. The Two-Box model was applied to estimate attributions of HCFCs/HFCs and fluoropolymers to rainwater TFA assuming TFA generated was proportional to gross domestic product (GDP), gross industrial product (GIP) or number of private cars. The results revealed that the degradation of HCFCs/HFCs and fluoropolymers could explain 131.5-152.4 ng L(-1) rainwater TFA, quite near the observed rainfall-weighted annual mean of 152 ng L(-1), suggesting rainwater TFA in Guangzhou was predominantly originated from these anthropogenic precursors. HCFCs/HFCs accounted for 83.3-96.5% of rainwater TFA observed, while fluoropolymers' contributions were minor (~5%). HFC-134a alone could explain 55.9-90.0% of rainwater TFA, and its contribution would be greatly enhanced with its wide use in mobile air conditioning systems and rapid increase in ambient mixing ratios. © 2013.

  2. Trans fatty acids (tFA): sources and intake levels, biological effects and content in commercial Spanish food.

    PubMed

    Fernández-San Juan, P-M

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies of dietary habits in children and adolescents performed in Spain show that a high percentage of the daily energy intake corresponds to fat (42.0-43.0%). These findings show an excessive contribution of saturated fatty acids and also a considerable supply of trans fatty acids. These compounds are formed generally during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats. Also, in some cases naturally occurring trans fatty acids in smaller amounts in meat and dairy products from ruminants (cows, sheep), these trans fatty acids are produced by the action of bacteria in the ruminant stomach by reactions of biohydrogenation. On the other hand, metabolic studies have clearly shown that trans fatty acids increase LDL cholesterol and reduce HDL cholesterol. Our results show that major sources of trans fatty acids in commercial Spanish foods are fast-food (hamburger, French fries), snacks, bakery products (cakes, donuts, biscuits), margarines and dehydrated soups.

  3. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) mixture toxicity to the macrophytes Myriophyllum spicatum and Myriophyllum sibiricum in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mark L; Sibley, Paul K; Mabury, Scott A; Solomon, Keith R; Muir, Derek C G

    2002-02-21

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) have been detected together in environmental water samples throughout the world. TCA may enter into aquatic systems via rainout as the degradation product of chlorinated solvents, herbicide use, as a by-product of water disinfection and from emissions of spent bleach liquor of kraft pulp mills. Sources of TFA include degradation of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) refrigerants and pesticides. These substances are phytotoxic and widely distributed in aquatic environments. A study to assess the risk of a binary mixture of TCA and TFA to macrophytes in aquatic microcosms was conducted as part of a larger study on haloacetic acids. M. spicatum and M. sibiricum were exposed to 0.1, 1, 3 and 10 mg/l of both TCA and TFA (neutralized with sodium hydroxide) in replicate (n = 3) 12000 l aquatic microcosms for 49 days in an one-way analysis of variance design. Each microcosm was stocked with 14 individual apical shoots per species. The plants were sampled at regular intervals and assessed for the somatic endpoints of plant length, root growth, number of nodes and wet and dry mass and the biochemical endpoints of chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, carotenoid content and citric acid levels. Results indicate that there were statistically significant effects of the TCA/TFA mixture on certain pigment concentrations immediately after the start of exposure (2-7 days), but the plants showed no signs of stress thereafter. These data suggest that TCA/TFA mixtures at environmentally relevant concentrations do not pose a significant risk to these aquatic macrophytes.

  4. Application of hydrophilic interaction chromatography retention coefficients for predicting peptide elution with TFA and methanesulfonic acid ion-pairing reagents.

    PubMed

    Wujcik, Chad E; Tweed, Joseph; Kadar, Eugene P

    2010-03-01

    Hydrophilic retention coefficients for 17 peptides were calculated based on retention coefficients previously published for TSKgel silica-60 and were compared with the experimental elution profile on a Waters Atlantis HILIC silica column using TFA and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as ion-pairing reagents. Relative peptide retention could be accurately determined with both counter-ions. Peptide retention and chromatographic behavior were influenced by the percent acid modifier used with increases in both retention and peak symmetry observed at increasing modifier concentrations. The enhancement of net peptide polarity through MSA pairing shifted retention out by nearly five-fold for the earliest eluting peptide, compared with TFA. Despite improvements in retention and efficiency (N(eff)) for MSA over TFA, a consistent reduction in calculated selectivity (alpha) was observed. This result is believed to be attributed to the stronger polar contribution of MSA masking and diminishing the underlying influence of the amino acid residues of each associated peptide. Finally, post-column infusion of propionic acid and acetic acid was evaluated for their potential to recover signal intensity for TFA and MSA counter-ions for LC-ESI-MS applications. Acetic acid generally yielded more substantial signal improvements over propionic acid on the TFA system while minimal benefits and some further reductions were noted with MSA.

  5. Trans fatty acid intakes and food sources in the U.S. population: NHANES 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P; Petersen, Barbara; Fleming, Jennifer; Flickinger, Brent D

    2012-10-01

    Because of efforts to decrease trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply, intake should be assessed in the population to establish a baseline TFA intake. The 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used to identify a benchmark for TFA intake. TFA was estimated by mean, median, and quintile of intake, TFA intake data were weighted using the NHANES 4-year sample weights. The main outcome measures included TFA intake in grams per day and percentage of energy in the top 25 food sources of TFA. Data are reported for 16,669 individuals ≥ 3 years of age. Median TFA intake was 2.3 % of calories (5 g/day) with 0.9-4.5 % of energy (1.5-13.1 g/day) over different quintiles of intake. Mean TFA intake was 2.5 % of energy (6.1 g/day). The range of TFA intake in the fifth quintile was very large, i.e., 3.5-12.5 % of energy or 8.8-92.4 g/day. Increasing quintiles of TFA intake were associated with increases in total fat (26.7-37.6 % of energy), saturated fat (7.6-10.5 % of energy), and calories (for those >20 years of age: 2,416-2,583 for men and 1,679-1,886 for women). Major food sources of dietary TFA were cakes, cookies, pies, and pastries. Based on current dietary guidance to consume as little industrial TFA as possible, much progress is needed to attain this goal, including food industry efforts to remove TFA from the food supply and educating the public about making healthy food choices.

  6. Short-term effects of trans fatty acids from ruminant and industrial sources on surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk in healthy men and women: A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Thomas; Schmid, Alexandra; Trepp, Anja; Dähler, Frieda; Coslovsky, Michael; Eser, Prisca; Wilhelm, Matthias; Saner, Hugo

    2017-03-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine short-term effects of trans fatty acid (TFA) intake from ruminant and industrial sources on surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk in the context of a balanced diet with 30-36% of daily energy from fat. Design Prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-design study. Methods In this study, 142 healthy volunteers aged 45 to 69 years were randomly allocated to three different diets: either a diet enriched with 2% of daily energy intake from ruminant TFA (rTFA) or with industrial TFA (iTFA), or a diet without TFA (wTFA), for a duration of four weeks. The primary outcome parameter was endothelial function measured by brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD). Secondary outcome parameters included biomarkers for inflammation, coagulation and endothelial function and lipid profiles. One hundred and twenty-nine participants completed the study. Results Neither alpine butter with TFA from ruminant source nor margarine with industrially produced TFA showed significant effects on brachial artery FMD (FMD% differences: rTFA vs. iTFA 0.04 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 0.98), rTFA vs. wTFA -0.98 (-2.00 to 0.04) and iTFA vs. wTFA -1.04 (-2.38 to 0.30). With rTFA, there was a small but significant increase of total cholesterol: rTFA over wTFA 1.04 (1.00 to 1.07 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol: rTFA over wTFA 1.08 (1.03 to 1.14 mmol/l) without concomitant increase of biomarkers for inflammation or coagulation. Conclusions Short-term intake of TFA at 2% of total daily energy intake from neither ruminant nor industrially produced sources does not have any negative impact on brachial artery FMD, inflammation and coagulation markers in healthy subjects.

  7. Dynamic and thermodynamic mechanisms of TFA adsorption by particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junyu; Zhai, Zihan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ziyuan; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Jianbo

    2017-06-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the atmosphere is produced by degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons. In recent years, TFA has attracted global attention because of increased environmental concentrations, biological toxicity and accumulation in aqueous environments. This study focused on the mechanisms underlying the adsorption of TFA by particulate matter to identify the appropriate descriptive model for this process and thus improve estimation of TFA adsorption in future environmental monitoring. Onsite gas and particle phase sampling in Beijing, China, and subsequent measurement of TFA concentrations indicated that the TFA concentration in the gas phase (1396 ± 225 pg m(-3)) was much higher than that in the particle phase (62 ± 8 pg m(-3)) and that monthly concentrations varied seasonally with temperature. Based on the field results and analysis, an adsorption experiment of TFA on soot was then conducted at three different temperatures (293, 303, and 313 K) to provide parameters for kinetic and thermodynamic modelling. The proportion of atmospheric TFA concentration in the gas phase increased with temperature, indicating that temperature affected the phase distribution of TFA. The subsequent kinetic and thermodynamic modelling showed that the adsorption of TFA by soot could be described well by the Bangham kinetic model. The adsorption was controlled by diffusion, and the key mechanism was physical adsorption. The adsorption behavior can be well described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ΔG° (-2.34, -1.25, and -0.15 kJ mol(-1) at 293, 303, and 313 K, respectively), ΔH° (-34.34 kJ mol(-1)), and ΔS° (-109.22 J mol(-1) K(-1)) for TFA adsorption by soot were negative, indicating that adsorption was a spontaneous, exothermic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Trans fatty acids: has all the evidence been considered?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High intakes of industrially-produced trans fatty acids (iTFA) have been shown to increase circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, which has implicated iTFA in coronary heart disease risk (CHD). Partially hydrogenated oils (PHO) became a predominant source of iTFA when marga...

  9. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids: health aspects

    PubMed Central

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources – industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60% of the fatty acids in trans form compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally does not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreased during the recent decade due to societal pressure and a legislative ban, whereas the intake of RP-TFA has remained stable. In spite of this decrease we have found that in many countries consumption >20 g of IP-TFA in a one-meal menu consisting of some popular foods is possible, even though the average intake of IP-TFA in these countries is low. Subgroups of the populations may therefore, on average, consume >5 g IP-TFA per day. This level of consumption is generally not possible for RP-TFA. A daily intake of 5 g TFA (primarily IP-TFA) is associated with a 29% increased risk of coronary heart disease. Such an association is not found for RP-TFA up to a daily intake of 4 g. The high amount of IP-TFA in popular foods, the evidence of a more harmful effect on health by IP-TFA than by RP-TFA, and the feasibility of eliminating IP-TFA from foods without side effects for the population, suggest that a selective elimination of IP-TFA from our food is a ‘low hanging fruit’ in the quest for a more healthy diet for subgroups of the population. PMID:19109659

  10. Light enhanced the accumulation of total fatty acids (TFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga Crypthecodinium sp. SUN.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongzhe; Zhang, Zhao; Mao, Xuemei; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, light illumination was found to be efficient in elevating the total fatty acid content in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga, Crypthecodinium sp. SUN. Under light illumination, the highest total fatty acid and DHA contents were achieved at 96h as 24.9% of dry weight and 82.8mgg(-1) dry weight, respectively, which were equivalent to 1.46-fold and 1.68-fold of those under the dark conditions. The elevation of total fatty acid content was mainly contributed by an increase of neutral lipids at the expense of starches. Moreover, light was found to alter the cell metabolism and led to a higher specific growth rate, higher glucose consumption rate and lower non-motile cell percentage. This is the first report that light can promote the total fatty acids accumulation in Crypthecodinium without growth inhibition.

  11. Classification of Human Milks Based on Their Trans 18:1 Fatty Acid Profile and Effect of Maternal Diet.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cortés, Pilar; de la Fuente, Miguel Angel

    2017-05-01

    The diet of breastfeeding women influences the trans fatty acid (TFA) composition of the milk excreted. However, the effects associated to TFA are isomer-dependent and diverse TFA profiles may have different nutritional implications. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether certain TFA patterns in human milk fat can be used as indicators of TFA intake from different sources. Milk fat from 60 women were examined and classified based on their TFA profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) contents by principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA of the data allowed the classification of the women into 3 groups depending on milk TFA content and profile. From the 60 subjects, 19 presented a TFA profile characteristic of ruminant products intake, 10 a typical TFA profile of industrial trans fats consumption and 31 a negligible trans content. Superimposed on this, 21 women presented high amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) which was related to fish intake. The present research overcome problems associated to heterogeneous groups in nutritional experiments by a statistical classification of lactating subjects based on the TFA composition of their milk. This classification could be extrapolated to other nutritional studies dealing with TFA analysis and samples of different nature as biological samples or foodstuffs.

  12. Food sources of individual plasma phospholipid trans fatty acid isomers: the Cardiovascular Health Study12345

    PubMed Central

    King, Irena B; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Rimm, Eric B; Sacks, Frank; Song, Xiaoling; Siscovick, David S; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2010-01-01

    Background: The overall consumption of trans fatty acids (TFAs) increases the risk of coronary artery disease. However, multiple TFA isomers exist, each with potentially different health effects. Different food sources of these specific TFA isomers are not well established. Objective: Our objective was to determine the major independent food sources of specific TFA isomers. Design: We investigated relations of major potential food sources of TFAs, as assessed by serial food-frequency questionnaires, with 10 plasma phospholipid TFA isomers [5 trans (t-) 18:1, 3 t-18:2, and 2 t-16:1] in 3330 older adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based multicenter cohort. Stepwise regression was used to identify independent major food sources of individual plasma phospholipid TFA isomers, which were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Results: All 5 t-18:1 isomers were similarly associated with foods commonly made with partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs), including biscuits (0.51 higher SD of total 18:1 fatty acid concentrations per serving/d, P < 0.01), chips and/or popcorn (0.33 higher SD per serving/d, P = 0.02), margarine (0.32 higher SD per serving/d, P < 0.001), fried foods (0.32 higher SD per serving/d, P = 0.04), and bakery foods (0.23 higher SD per serving/d, P = 0.02). Each of the t-18:2 isomers were associated only with bakery foods (0.50 higher SD of total 18:2 fatty acid concentrations per serving/d, P < 0.001). Ruminant foods were major correlates of t-16:1n−7, including red meats (0.72 higher SD per serving/d, P < 0.001), butter (0.43 higher SD per serving/d, P < 0.001), and higher-fat dairy (0.37 higher SD per serving/d, P < 0.001). In contrast, t-16:1n−9 were derived mainly from margarine (0.31 higher SD per serving/d, P < 0.001). Conclusions: t-18:1 Isomers are similarly derived from multiple PHVO-containing foods. In contrast, t-18:2 and t-16:1n−9 isomers are derived from more-specific types of PHVO

  13. Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Alexander; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manuela; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Santa Marina, Loreto; Irazabal, Amaia; Romaguera, Dora; Guxens, Mònica; Julvez, Jordi; Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Vioque, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4–5 (n = 1793). TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day) intake (β 45.5) and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3). Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children. PMID:27735864

  14. Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4-5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Alexander; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manuela; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Santa Marina, Loreto; Irazabal, Amaia; Romaguera, Dora; Guxens, Mònica; Julvez, Jordi; Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Vioque, Jesus

    2016-10-10

    Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4-5 (n = 1793). TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day) intake (β 45.5) and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3). Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children.

  15. Effects of ruminant trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease and cancer: a comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are two predominant sources of dietary trans fatty acids in the food supply, those formed during the industrial partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils (iTFA) and those formed by biohydrogenation in ruminants (rTFA), including vaccenic acid and (VA) and rumenic acid [RA, a conjugated linoleic ...

  16. Sources, fates, toxicity, and risks of trifluoroacetic acid and its salts: Relevance to substances regulated under the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Keith R; Velders, Guus J M; Wilson, Stephen R; Madronich, Sasha; Longstreth, Janice; Aucamp, Pieter J; Bornman, Janet F

    2016-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a breakdown product of several hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), regulated under the Montreal Protocol (MP), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) used mainly as refrigerants. Trifluoroacetic acid is (1) produced naturally and synthetically, (2) used in the chemical industry, and (3) a potential environmental breakdown product of a large number (>1 million) chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and polymers. The contribution of these chemicals to global amounts of TFA is uncertain, in contrast to that from HCFC and HFC regulated under the MP. TFA salts are stable in the environment and accumulate in terminal sinks such as playas, salt lakes, and oceans, where the only process for loss of water is evaporation. Total contribution to existing amounts of TFA in the oceans as a result of the continued use of HCFCs, HFCs, and hydrofluoroolefines (HFOs) up to 2050 is estimated to be a small fraction (<7.5%) of the approximately 0.2 μg acid equivalents/L estimated to be present at the start of the millennium. As an acid or as a salt TFA is low to moderately toxic to a range of organisms. Based on current projections of future use of HCFCs and HFCs, the amount of TFA formed in the troposphere from substances regulated under the MP is too small to be a risk to the health of humans and environment. However, the formation of TFA derived from degradation of HCFC and HFC warrants continued attention, in part because of a long environmental lifetime and due many other potential but highly uncertain sources.

  17. Effective role of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) to enhance the photocatalytic activity of F-doped TiO2 prepared by modified sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsudin, Emy Marlina; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Juan, Joon Ching; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Kandjani, Ahmad Esmaielzadeh; Bhargava, Suresh K.

    2016-03-01

    Highly photoactive mesoporous F-doped TiO2 with improved physico-chemical characteristics is achieved using modified sol-gel method. The usage of trifluoroacetic as fluorine precursor significantly modifies the morphology, size, pore shape, crystal phase, crystal structure, surface chemical state and to a lesser extent, {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} facets. The accessibility of fluoride ions on Tisbnd Osbnd Ti polymer chains during crystal growth during the sol-gel process remarkably influences the properties of catalyst. To the best of our knowledge, preparation of F-doped TiO2 using modified sol-gel and trifluoroacetic acid are limited, and still not enough. Thus this work provides additional insight by using an approach which is less hazardous, less costly and practical for large scale agile development in the photocatalysis industry.

  18. The trans fatty acid content in human milk and its association with maternal diet among lactating mothers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Daud, Akmar Zuraini; Mohd-Esa, Norhaizan; Azlan, Azrina; Chan, Yoke Mun

    2013-01-01

    Excessive intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) could reduce the fat density of human milk and impair the desaturation of essential fatty acids. Because the mammary glands are unable to synthesize TFA, it is likely that the TFA in human milk come from dietary intake. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the sources of TFA intake for lactating mothers in one of the urban areas in Selangor. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric measurements, FFQ including 7 food groups and dietary consumption data were collected from 101 lactating mothers. Five major TFA isomers (palmitoelaidic acid (16:1t9), petroselaidic acid (18:1t6), elaidic acid (18:1t9), vaccenic acid (18:1t11) and linoelaidic acid (18:2t9,12) in human milk were measured by gas chromatography (GC). The relationship between food consumption and TFA levels was assessed using the non-parametric Spearman's rho test. The TFA content in human milk was 2.94±0.96 (SEM) % fatty acid; this is considered low, as it is lower than 4%. The most abundant TFA isomer was linoelaidic acid (1.44±0.60% fatty acid). A sub-experiment (analyzing 3 days of composite food consumption) was conducted with 18 lactating mothers, and the results showed that linoelaidic acid was the most common TFA consumed (0.07±0.01 g/100 g food). Only 10 food items had an effect on the total TFA level and the isomers found in human milk. No association was found between TFA consumption and the TFA level in human milk.

  19. TFA Tanks Focus Area Midyear Review Report FY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    SN Schlata

    1999-05-21

    The purpose of the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Midyear Review was to improve the quality and responsiveness of TFA technical solutions to identified user needs. This review goal was achieved through executing a multi-phased review approach

  20. Trans fatty acids in human milk are an indicator of different maternal dietary sources containing trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mueller, A; Thijs, C; Rist, L; Simões-Wüst, A P; Huber, M; Steinhart, H

    2010-03-01

    The trans fatty acid (TFA) patterns in the fats of ruminant meat and dairy products differ from those found in other (processed) fats. We have evaluated different TFA isomers in human breast milk as an indicator of dietary intake of ruminant and dairy fats of different origins. Breast milk samples were collected 1 month postpartum from 310 mothers participating in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study (The Netherlands). The study participants had different lifestyles and consumed different amounts of dairy products. Fatty acid methyl esters were determined by GC-FID and the data were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA), ANOVA/Post Hoc test and linear regression analysis. The two major principal components were (1) 18:1 trans-isomers and (2) markers of dairy fat including 15:0, 17:0, 11(trans)18:1 and 9(cis),11(trans)18:2 (CLA). Despite similar total TFA values, the 9(trans)18:1/11(trans)18:1-ratio and the 10(trans)18:1/11(trans)18:1-ratio were significantly lower in milk from mothers with high dairy fat intake (40-76 g/day: 0.91 +/- 0.48, P < 0.05) compared to low dairy fat intake (0-10 g/day: 1.59 +/- 0.48), and lower with strict organic meat and dairy use (>90% organic: 0.92 +/- 0.46, P < 0.05) compared to conventional origin of meat and dairy (1.40 +/- 0.61). Similar results were obtained for the 10(trans)18:1/11(trans)18:1-ratio. We conclude that both ratios are indicators of different intake of TFA from ruminant and dairy origin relative to other (including industrial) sources.

  1. Effects of Ruminant trans Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: A Comprehensive Review of Epidemiological, Clinical, and Mechanistic Studies123

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, Sarah K.; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Lamarche, Benoît; Lock, Adam L.; Proctor, Spencer D.; Baer, David J.

    2011-01-01

    There are 2 predominant sources of dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply, those formed during the industrial partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils (iTFA) and those formed by biohydrogenation in ruminants (rTFA), including vaccenic acid (VA) and the naturally occurring isomer of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11-CLA). The objective of this review is to evaluate the evidence base from epidemiological and clinical studies to determine whether intake of rTFA isomers, specifically VA and c9,t11-CLA, differentially affects risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer compared with iTFA. In addition, animal and cell culture studies are reviewed to explore potential pro- and antiatherogenic mechanisms of VA and c9,t11-CLA. Some epidemiological studies suggest that a positive association with coronary heart disease risk exists between only iTFA isomers and not rTFA isomers. Small clinical studies have been conducted to establish cause-and-effect relationships between these different sources of TFA and biomarkers or risk factors of CVD with inconclusive results. The lack of detection of treatment effects reported in some studies may be due to insufficient statistical power. Many studies have used doses of rTFA that are not realistically attainable via diet; thus, further clinical studies are warranted. Associations between iTFA intake and cancer have been inconsistent, and associations between rTFA intake and cancer have not been well studied. Clinical studies have not been conducted investigating the cause-and-effect relationship between iTFA and rTFA intake and risk for cancers. Further research is needed to determine the health effects of VA and c9,t11-CLA in humans. PMID:22332075

  2. TFA from HFO-1234yf: accumulation and aquatic risk in terminal water bodies.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mark H; Hoogeweg, Gerco; Webster, Eva M; Ellis, David A; Waterland, Robert L; Hoke, Robert A

    2012-09-01

    A next-generation mobile automobile air-conditioning (MAC) refrigerant, HFO-1234yf (CF(3) CF = CH(2)), is being developed with improved environmental characteristics. In the atmosphere, it ultimately forms trifluoroacetic acid (TFA(A); CF(3)COOH), which is subsequently scavenged by precipitation and deposited on land and water as trifluoroacetate (TFA; CF(3)COO(-)). Trifluoroacetate is environmentally stable and has the potential to accumulate in terminal water bodies, that is, aquatic systems receiving inflow but with little or no outflow and with high rates of evaporation. Previous studies have estimated the emission rates of HFO-1234yf and have modeled the deposition concentrations and rates of TFA across North America. The present study uses multimedia modeling and geographic information system (GIS)-based modeling to assess the potential concentrations of TFA in terminal water bodies over extended periods. After 10 years of emissions, predicted concentrations of TFA in terminal water bodies across North America are estimated to range between current background levels (i.e., 0.01-0.22 µg/L) and 1 to 6 µg/L. After 50 years of continuous emissions, aquatic concentrations of 1 to 15 µg/L are predicted, with extreme concentrations of up to 50 to 200 µg/L in settings such as the Sonoran Desert along the California/Arizona (USA) border. Based on the relative insensitivity of aquatic organisms to TFA, predicted concentrations of TFA in terminal water bodies are not expected to impair aquatic systems, even considering potential emissions over extended periods.

  3. TFA and EPA Productivities of Nannochloropsis salina Influenced by Temperature and Nitrate Stimuli in Turbidostatic Controlled Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Maren; Marxen, Kai; Schulz, Rüdiger; Vanselow, Klaus Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    The influence of different nitrate concentrations in combination with three cultivation temperatures on the total fatty acids (TFA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content of Nannochloropsis salina was investigated. This was done by virtue of turbidostatic controlled cultures. This control mode enables the cultivation of microalgae under defined conditions and, therefore, the influence of single parameters on the fatty acid synthesis of Nannochloropsis salina can be investigated. Generally, growth rates decreased under low nitrate concentrations. This effect was reinforced when cells were exposed to lower temperatures (from 26 °C down to 17 °C). Considering the cellular TFA concentration, nitrate provoked an increase of TFA under nitrate limitation up to 70% of the biological dry mass (BDM). In contrast to this finding, the EPA content decreased under low nitrate concentrations. Nevertheless, both TFA and EPA contents increased under a low culture temperature (17 °C) compared to moderate temperatures of 21 °C and 26 °C. In terms of biotechnological production, the growth rate has to be taken into account. Therefore, for both TFA and EPA production, a temperature of 17 °C and a nitrate concentration of 1800 μmol L−1 afforded the highest productivities. Temperatures of 21 °C and 26 °C in combination with 1800 μmol L−1 nitrate showed slightly lower TFA and EPA productivities. PMID:20948904

  4. Current issues surrounding the definition of trans-fatty acids: implications for health, industry and food labels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Proctor, Spencer D

    2013-10-01

    The definition of trans-fatty acids (TFA) was established by the Codex Alimentarius to guide nutritional and legislative regulations to reduce TFA consumption. Currently, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is excluded from the TFA definition based on evidence (primarily preclinical studies) implying health benefits on weight management and cancer prevention. While the efficacy of CLA supplements remains inconsistent in randomised clinical trials, evidence has emerged to associate supplemental CLA with negative health outcomes, including increased subclinical inflammation and oxidative stress (particularly at high doses). This has resulted in concerns regarding the correctness of excluding CLA from the TFA definition. Here we review recent clinical and preclinical literature on health implications of CLA and ruminant TFA, and highlight several issues surrounding the current Codex definition of TFA and how it may influence interpretation for public health. We find that CLA derived from ruminant foods differ from commercial CLA supplements in their isomer composition/distribution, consumption level and bioactivity. We conclude that health concerns associated with the use of supplemental CLA do not repudiate the exclusion of all forms of CLA from the Codex TFA definition, particularly when using the definition for food-related purposes. Given the emerging differential bioactivity of TFA from industrial v. ruminant sources, we advocate that regional nutrition guidelines/policies should focus on eliminating industrial forms of trans-fat from processed foods as opposed to all TFA per se.

  5. Teach for Australia (TFA): Can It Overcome Educational Disadvantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an alternative teacher certification pathway known as Teach for Australia (TFA) that is currently operating in the Australian state of Victoria. A discursive approach informed by critical theory is used in the paper to critically examine the specific case of TFA as an alternative teacher certification pathway charged with…

  6. Dietary stearic acid and risk of cardiovascular disease: intake, sources, digestion, and absorption.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Griel, Amy E; Psota, Tricia L; Gebauer, Sarah K; Zhang, Jun; Etherton, Terry D

    2005-12-01

    Individual FA have diverse biological effects, some of which affect the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the context of food-based dietary guidance designed to reduce CVD risk, fat and FA recommendations focus on reducing saturated FA (SFA) and trans FA (TFA), and ensuring an adequate intake of unsaturated FA. Because stearic acid shares many physical properties with the other long-chain SFA but has different physiological effects, it is being evaluated as a substitute for TFA in food manufacturing. For stearic acid to become the primary replacement for TFA, it is essential that its physical properties and biological effects be well understood.

  7. Progress towards elimination of trans-fatty acids in foods commonly consumed in four Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Jacoby, Enrique; Alfaro, Thelma; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças; Villalpando, Salvador; Bernal, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    To assess progress towards the elimination of trans-fatty acids (TFA) in foods after the 2008 Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) recommendation of virtual elimination of TFA in Latin America. A descriptive, comparative analysis of foods that were likely to contain TFA and were commonly consumed in four cities in Latin America. San José (Costa Rica), Mexico City (Mexico), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Foods from each city were sampled in 2011; TFA content was analysed using GC. TFA of selected foods was also monitored in 2016. In 2011-2016, there was a significant decrease in the content of TFA in the sampled foods across all sites, particularly in Buenos Aires (from 12·6-34·8 % range in 2011-2012 to nearly 0 % in 2015-2016). All sample products met the recommended levels of TFA content set by the PAHO. TFA were replaced with a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fats. Our results indicate a virtual elimination of TFA from major food sources in the cities studied. This could be due to a combination of factors, including recommendations by national and global public health authorities, voluntary and/or mandatory food reformulation made by the food industry.

  8. Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Site Needs Assessment FY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    RW Allen

    1999-05-03

    This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This is the fifth edition of the TFA site needs assessment. As with previous editions, this edition serves to provide the basis for accurately defining the TFA program for the upcoming fiscal year (FY), and adds definition to the program for up to 4 additional outyears. Therefore, this version distinctly defines the FY 2000 progrti and adds further definition to the FY 2001- FY 2004 program. Each year, the TFA reviews and amends its program in response to site users' science and technology needs.

  9. Cultivating Political Powerhouses: TFA Corps Members Experiences That Shape Local Political Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Rebecca; White, Rachel; Reckhow, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Teach for America (TFA) has invested in developing corps members as leaders. Although TFA asks corps members for a two-year commitment, TFA celebrates the achievements of alumni who have gone on to careers in politics, public policy, and advocacy. Thus, many community leaders see the arrival of TFA corps members as having a…

  10. N-3 fatty acids reduced trans fatty acids retention and increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in the brain.

    PubMed

    Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; González, Marcela Aída

    2017-09-01

    The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. These parameters were also investigated in the liver, considering that LC-PUFA are mainly bioconverted from their dietary precursors in this tissue and transported by serum to the brain. Also, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expressions were evaluated. Male CF1 mice were fed (16 weeks) diets containing different oils (olive, corn, and rapeseed) with distinct proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA (55.2/17.2/0.7, 32.0/51.3/0.9, and 61.1/18.4/8.6), respectively, substituted or not with 0.75% of TFA. FA composition of the brain, liver, and serum was assessed by gas chromatography. TFA were incorporated into, and therefore retained in the brain, liver, and serum. However, the magnitude of retention was dependent on the tissue and type of isomer. In the brain, total TFA retention was lower than 1% in all diets. Dietary n-3 PUFA decreased TFA retention and increased DHA accretion in the brain. The results underscore the importance of the type of dietary FA on the retention of TFA in the brain and also on the changes of the FA profile.

  11. TFA Tanks Focus Area midyear review report FY 2000

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder-Smith

    2000-05-02

    In accordance with EM's office of Science and Technology (OST), the TFA is committed to assessing the maturity of technology development projects and ensuring their readiness for implementation and subsequent deployment. The TFA conducts an annual Midyear Review to document the status of ongoing projects, reaffirm and document user commitment to selected projects, and to improve the effective deployment of technology by determining and documenting the readiness of selected projects to move ahead. Since 1995, OST has used a linear technology maturation model that spans through seven defined stages of maturity, from basic research to implementation. Application of this Stage/Gate model to technology development resulted in prescriptive and somewhat cumbersome review procedures, resulting in limited and inconsistent use. Subsequently, in February 2000, OST issued revised guidance in an effort to streamline the technology tracking and review process. While the new OST guidance reinforces peer review requirements and the use of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for independent reviews, it also implements a simplified Gate model. The TFA is now responsible for providing auditable documentation for passing only three stages of technology maturity: ready for research (Gate 0); ready for development (Gate 2); ready for demonstration (Gate 5). The TFA Midyear Review is a key element in the overall review procedure, as the tracking evidence for all active projects is required to be available at this time. While the Midyear Report contains an overview of the status of all TFA reviews and projects, not all the reviews were conducted during the Midyear Review. The TFA used a phased approach to accomplish the Midyear Review requirements.

  12. Spatiotemporal distribution and source apportionment of low molecular weight organic acids in wet precipitation at a coastal city, China.

    PubMed

    Du, Wenjiao; Hong, Zhenyu; Chen, Yanting; Deng, Junjun; Chen, Jinsheng; Xu, Lingling; Hong, Youwei; Xiao, Hang

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the characteristics and sources of low molecular weight (LMW) organic acids in wet precipitation at a coastal city, Xiamen, a total of 313 rainwater samples were collected at seven different functional areas from September 2012 to August 2013. Spatiotemporal characteristics of LMW organic acids as well as pH and electrical conductivity were analyzed. Meanwhile, air mass clusters in different seasons and the positive matrix factorization (PMF) source apportion model were comprehensively used to identify the sources of organic acids. In conclusion, the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of formic (3.20 μmol/L), acetic (1.84 μmol/L), lactic (0.44 μmol/L), and oxalic acid (0.53 μmol/L) were obtained, which jointly contributed to 4.33% of the total free acidity (TFA). At the same time, the highest wet deposition flux of LMW organic acids and contribution of that to TFA were achieved at the forest protection area during growing season in Xiamen. In addition, biogenic emissions (77.12%), sea salts (13.77%), regional agriculture activities (3.92%), soil emissions (2.56%), biomass burning (1.47%), and secondary aerosols (1.15%) were determined as the source of LMW organic acids. Besides, the dominancy of biomass burning via long-range transport in non-growing season (NGS) and the contribution of biogenic emission in growing season (GS) were recognized. Finally, the considerable influence of sea salts on the LMW organic acids (13.77%) in Xiamen was quantified, especially for oxalic acid.

  13. Marriage Counseling and the TFA Model: An Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Paul L.; MohdZain, A. Zaidy

    2000-01-01

    Client demands for immediate relief plus restrictions on the duration of therapy brought about by managed care are pressures that influence the marriage counselor. This article discusses the use of the TFA model as a viable, solution-focused approach to marriage counseling. (Contains 19 references.) (Author)

  14. Impact of WHO recommendations to eliminate industrial trans-fatty acids from the food supply in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Campos, Hannia

    2014-08-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has deemed that there is enough evidence to recommend the elimination of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the food supply. This article evaluates government-led public health strategies in countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and factors perceived to affect following WHO's recommendation to eliminate industrially produced TFA. Descriptive, prospective multiple case studies integrated data from open-ended questionnaires to representatives of ministries of health, and systematic review of internal and publicly available documents in 13 LAC countries. Overall, government efforts to follow WHO recommendations have not been well co-ordinated throughout the region. Evidence for this includes the lack of standardization of TFA definitions. For example, some countries exclude naturally occurring TFA from the definitions, whereas others leave the option open to their inclusion. As a consequence, the criteria for trans-free nutrient claims and labelling requirements are inconsistent across the region. Government-led strategies varied from banning or limiting TFA content in the food supply to voluntary labelling of TFA. The identified challenges to the implementation of policies to reduce TFA include the shortage of information on TFA content of diets and foods, consumer unawareness of TFA and lack of monitoring and surveillance. The identified enabling factors were intersectoral collaboration with industry, mandatory labelling regulation and international and national visibility of the topic, which facilitated reduction of TFA content. A co-ordinated effort is required to achieve virtual elimination of all TFA in the region, as recommended by WHO. Standardization of the definition of TFA across the region would facilitate regulation, consumer education efforts and monitoring and surveillance efforts. Simultaneously, countries need to determine their level of exposure to TFA through the implementation of

  15. Portrait of a "Teach for All" (TFA) Teacher: Media Narratives of the Universal TFA Teacher in 12 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gautreaux, Michelle; Delgado, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article employs narrative analysis to examine how the media in 12 different countries characterize the "Teach for All" (TFA) teacher. Examining mass media narratives in these 12 countries illustrates that there are some remarkable commonalities in the narratives and character portraits co-constructed and propagated by the media. At…

  16. TFaNS-Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System: Users' Manual TFaNS Version 1.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topol, David A.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    TFaNS is the Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System developed by Pratt & Whitney under contract to NASA Glenn. The purpose of this system is to predict tone noise emanating from a fan stage including the effects of reflection and transmission by the rotor and stator and by the duct inlet and nozzle. The first version of this design system was developed under a previous NASA contract. Several improvements have been made to TFaNS. This users' manual shows how to run this new system. TFaNS consists of the codes that compute the acoustic properties (reflection and transmission coefficients) of the various elements and writes them to files, CUP3D Fan Noise Coupling Code that reads these files, solves the coupling problem, and outputs the desired noise predictions, and AWAKEN CFD/Measured Wake Postprocessor which reformats CFD wake predictions and/or measured wake data so they can be used by the system. This report provides information on code input and file structure essential for potential users of TFaNS.

  17. trans Fatty Acids in Colostrum, Mature Milk and Diet of Lactating Adolescents.

    PubMed

    de Souza Santos da Costa, Roseli; da Silva Santos, Flavia; de Barros Mucci, Daniela; de Souza, Tânia Vignuda; de Carvalho Sardinha, Fátima Lucia; Moutinho de Miranda Chaves, Célia Regina; das Graças Tavares do Carmo, Maria

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the trans fatty acids (TFA) content and distribution in colostrum, mature milk, and diet of adolescent mothers, after TFA declaration in food labels became mandatory in Brazil. Participants were healthy adolescents (n 54, 15-19 years, 1-90 days postpartum) practicing exclusive breastfeeding. Milk samples were collected 3 days after delivery (colostrum) and in the third month postpartum (mature milk) by hand expression. The fatty acid composition of the milk samples was determined by gas chromatography. TFA intake corresponded to 1.23 % of total energy value. Total 18:2 TFA accounted for less than 0.5 % of the energy intake. The amount of total 18:1 TFA (mean ± SEM) was 1.9 % ± 0.14 in colostrum and 1.5 % ± 0.2 in mature milk. The total content of n-3 PUFA was inversely correlated with the total content of 18:1 TFA in colostrum. Both in colostrum and in mature milk, vaccenic acid (11t-18:1) was found to be the most abundant 18:1 trans isomer, followed by elaidic acid (9t-18:1), whereas rumenic acid (9c,11t-18:2 CLA) was the predominant 18:2 trans isomer. In conclusion, the levels of TFA of industrial sources found in the mother's diet and breast milk (colostrum and mature milk) showed a decrease in relation to those observed in studies conducted prior to the TFA labeling resolution in Brazil. However, the current low intake levels of n-3 LCPUFA and DHA content in the milk of lactating adolescents may be insufficient for supporting adequate neurological development of the infants.

  18. Chemical characteristics and sources of organic acids in precipitation at a semi-urban site in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Lee, X. Q.; Cao, F.

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the chemical characteristics and sources of organic acids in precipitation in Southwest China, 105 rainwater samples were collected at a semi-urban site in Anshun from June 2007 to June 2008. Organic acids and major anions were analyzed along with pH and electrical conductivity. The pH values varied from 3.57 to 7.09 for all the rainfall events sampled, with an average of 4.67 which was typical acidic value. Formic, acetic and oxalic acids were found to be the predominant carboxylic acids and their volume weighted average (VWA) concentrations were 8.77, 6.93 and 2.84 μmol l -1, respectively. These organic acids were estimated to account for 8.1% to the total free acidity (TFA) in precipitation. The concentrations of the majority organic acids at studied site had a clear seasonal pattern, reaching higher levels during the non-growing season than those in growing season, which was attributed to dilution effect of heavy rainfall during the growing season. The seasonal variation of wet deposition flux of these organic acids confirmed higher source strength of biogenic emissions from vegetation during the growing season. Formic-to-acetic acids ratio (F/A), an indicator of primary versus secondary sources of these organic acids, suggested that primary sources from vehicular emission, biomass burning, soil and vegetation emissions were dominant sources. In addition, the lowest concentrations of organic acids were found under type S, when air masses originated from the marine (South China Sea) during Southern Asian Monsoon period. And the highest concentrations were observed in precipitation events from Northeast China (type NE), prevailing mostly during winter with the lowest rainfall.

  19. Fast and reliable bacterial identification direct from positive blood culture using a new TFA sample preparation protocol and the Vitek® MS system.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Jussimara; Inoue, Fernanda Matsiko; Lobo, Ana Paula T; Sugawara, Eduardo K; Boaretti, Fabiana M; Tufik, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    A simple and reliable protocol using 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) was developed to identify bacteria directly from blood cultures on the Vitek® MS system. Results presented a correlation of 99% for Gram-negative bacteria at species level, and 86.3% and 82.3% of Gram-positive bacteria at the genus and species levels, respectively.

  20. The α-linolenic acid content of flaxseed can prevent the atherogenic effects of dietary trans fat.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Chantal M C; McCullough, Richelle S; Edel, Andrea L; Patenaude, Amanda; LaVallee, Renee K; Pierce, Grant N

    2011-12-01

    Dietary intake of industrially hydrogenated trans fatty acids (TFA) has been associated with coronary heart disease. Dietary flaxseed can inhibit atherosclerosis induced by dietary cholesterol. The aim of this study was to determine whether supplementing the diet with flaxseed could protect against atherosclerosis induced by a diet enriched in TFA. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice were fed 1 of 14 experimental diets for 14 wk containing one of two fat sources [regular (pork/soy) or trans fat] at two concentrations (4 or 8%) and supplemented with or without dietary cholesterol (2%), whole ground flaxseed, or one of the components of flaxseed [α-linolenic acid (ALA), defatted fiber, or lignan]. Adding flaxseed to the diet partially mitigated the rise in circulating cholesterol levels induced by the cholesterol-enriched diet. Atherosclerosis was stimulated by TFA and/or cholesterol. Including milled flaxseed to an atherogenic diet significantly reduced atherosclerosis compared with the groups that consumed cholesterol and/or TFA. ALA was the only component within flaxseed that could inhibit the atherogenic action of cholesterol and/or TFA on its own. Dietary flaxseed protects against atherosclerotic development induced by TFA and cholesterol feeding through its content of ALA.

  1. A Racio-Economic Analysis of Teach for America: Counterstories of TFA Teachers of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapayese, Yvette V.; Aldana, Ursula S.; Lara, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses Teach for America (TFA), one of the alternative education programs of the U.S. Department of Education designed to address the achievement gap of students of color in the country. Topics explored in this research include issues of racism and race in the recruitment and support of its teacher corp; how TFA educators of color…

  2. Unfinishedness: Striving for a Viable Partnership between TFA and Its University Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Barbara; Fisher, Teresa R.; Alicea, Monica; Bloxson, Kolt M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Teach For America (TFA) affiliates with universities in most of its 40 regions nationally; however, few researchers intentionally study the content and processes of a partnership between TFA and a college of education. Purpose/Research Question/Focus of Study: To ensure that investments both organizations were making had a…

  3. Unfinishedness: Striving for a Viable Partnership between TFA and Its University Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Barbara; Fisher, Teresa R.; Alicea, Monica; Bloxson, Kolt M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Teach For America (TFA) affiliates with universities in most of its 40 regions nationally; however, few researchers intentionally study the content and processes of a partnership between TFA and a college of education. Purpose/Research Question/Focus of Study: To ensure that investments both organizations were making had a…

  4. Pd layer on cube-textured substrates for MOD-TFA and PLD YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, A.; Celentano, G.; Galluzzi, V.; Rufoloni, A.; Vannozzi, A.; Augieri, A.; Ciontea, L.; Petrisor, T.; Gambardella, U.; Longo, G.; Cricenti, A.

    2008-01-01

    Pd films were deposited on rolling assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS) Ni-5 at.% W in order to exploit the Pd effect of the texture sharpening with respect to that of the substrate, for the development of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coated conductors. The Pd sharpening effect was relevant in the out-of-plane direction where the reduction for the ω-scans' full width at half maximum (FWHM) ranged from 55 to 65%, depending on the substrate roughness. The obtained minimum values of the FWHM in the transverse rolling direction of the (002) Pd ω-scan and in the (111) Pd phi-scan were of about 2.5° and 5°, respectively. The CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 (YSZ is Y2O3-stabilised ZrO2) heterostructure of the buffer layer was developed by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In order to transfer the sharp orientation of the Pd film, both the seed CeO2 layer and the YSZ layer were deposited at low temperatures (450 °C), low enough to avoid Pd/Ni-W interdiffusion. The YBCO, films deposited by both PLD and metal-organic deposition (MOD) using metal trifluoroacetate acid (TFA), exhibited rolling direction (005) ω-scan and the (113) phi-scan FWHM values of about 2° and 5°, respectively. In spite of the complete interdiffusion between Ni and Pd during the YBCO film deposition, the coated conductors exhibit good adherence, as well as a smooth and crack-free surface. A zero-resistance critical temperature (TC0) of 90.8 K for the MOD-TFA YBCO films and critical current-density (JC) up to 2.2 MA cm-2 at 77 K and self-field for PLD YBCO films have been obtained.

  5. Acid rain: the impact of local sources

    SciTech Connect

    Spaite, P.; Esposito, M.P.; Szabo, M.F.; Devitt, T.W.

    1980-11-24

    It has been assumed that acid rain is predominantly a problem of long-range transport of pollutants from large fossil fuel combustion sources, namely coal-fired utilities. However, close examination of fuel use information and source emission characteristics in the Adirondacks, Florida, and California suggests that local oil burning and automotive sources may be major contributors to the occurrence of acid rain in these areas. This report describes the possible role of local combustion sources in the production of acid rain, discusses the implications of the findings, and their relevance to alternative control strategies for acid rain. Oil-fired boilers, especially the smaller commercial, industrial, and residential units, produce at least 3 to 10 times as much primary sulfate per unit of sulfur content as coal-fired units. Moreover, oil-fired units emit comparatively large quantities of catalytic compounds capable of rapidly converting still more sulfur oxide to sulfate in the atmosphere. Thus, in areas where large quantities of oil are burned, the direct impact from locally generated sulfates may equal or even exceed that produced by imported sulfates derived from distant coal-burning sources. Fuel consumption data show that large quantities of oil are being consumed in areas experiencing acid rain. Forty percent of the residual and 36 percent of the distillate oil burned in the United States is consumed in the eight-state area surrounding the Adirondacks. California is the next largest oil-consuming area and Florida is third. Nitric acid is responsible for about 30 percent of rainfall acidity in the Northeast and Florida, and for about 30 to 75 percent of the rainfall acidity in California.

  6. Comparative studies of cutins from lime (Citrus aurantifolia) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) after TFA hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Hernández Velasco, Brenda Liliana; Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Cortez Sotelo, Pedro Iván; Méndez-Méndez, Juan Vicente; Berdeja Martínez, Blanca Margarita; Gómez-Patiño, Mayra Beatriz

    2017-09-09

    Grapefruit and lime cutins were analyzed and compared in order to obtain information about their cutin architecture. This was performed using a sequential hydrolysis, first with trifluoroacetic acid to remove most of the polysaccharides present in the cutins, followed by an alkaline hydrolysis in order to obtain the main aliphatic compounds. Analysis by CPMAS (13)C NMR and ATR FT-IR of the cutins after 2.0 M TFA revealed that grapefruit cutin has independent aliphatic and polysaccharide domains while in the lime cutin these components could be homogeneously distributed. These observations were in agreement with an AFM analysis of the cutins obtained in the hydrolysis reactions. The main aliphatic compounds were detected and characterized as 16-hydroxy-10-oxo-hexadecanoic acid and 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. These were present in grapefruit cutin at 35.80% and 21.86% and in lime cutin at 20.44% and 40.36% respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of Low AC Loss TFA-MOD Coated Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, K.; Machi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Takagi, Y.; Nakaoka, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    TFA-MOD process is expected to be promising for future applications since it can produce high performance YBCO coated conductors (CCs) with low cost. Applying YBCO CCs to the power electric devices such as transformers and power cables, the reduction of alternating current (AC) loss for long wire is necessary. Multi-filamentation process, which is one of the most effective approaches for AC loss reduction, has been developed by the scribing process. We have developed the filamentation process using chemical etching. MOD derived CCs are, however, easily damaged in the chemical etching process due to existence of pores in a YBCO layer, resulting in critical current (Ic)-degradation and weak delamination strength. Consequently, it is difficult to scribe MOD derived CCs into 1mm-wide filaments for long length using the chemical etching process. Accordingly, we have studied a scribing process using an excimer laser without chemical etching. We defined P' value in this study as a function of irradiated laser power [J] divided by processing speed[m/s]. We studied relationship between the P' value and the results of scribing. It was found that we could scribe the C.C. with a sufficient depth in the condition of large P' value. Furthermore, we found that the Ic was degraded with further increase of the P' value. A 5 mm wide short sample was divided into 10 filaments by the excimer laser scribing process at the P' of 9[J/(m/s)]. The sample revealed reduction of the hysteresis loss down to 1/10 which could be expected from a theoretical prediction using the numbers of the filaments. Ic-degradation was suppressed as 28%, which was smaller than that of the scribed sample using chemical etching (Ic degradation was 38%). Subsequently, we applied the technique to a 100m long YBCO CC. The hysteresis loss of the 100m long MOD derived CC was reduced down to 1/10 (1/the number of filaments) after the multi-filamentation.

  8. Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evidence of the adverse effects of industrially-produced trans fatty acids (iTFA) on risk of cardiovascular disease is consistent and well documented in the scientific literature; however, the cardiovascular effects of naturally-occurring TFA synthesized in ruminant animals (rTFA), such as vaccenic ...

  9. Microstructure of YBCO thin films prepared by TFA-MOD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagino, I.; Matsumoto, K.; Adachi, H.; Miyata, S.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2010-11-01

    The microstructure of the recently developed coated conductors was investigated by using electron back scatter diffraction pattern (EBSP). We prepared TFA (trifluoroacetates)-MOD (metal organic deposition) derived YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films on CeO2/LaMnO3/IBAD-MgO/Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy C276 substrates of 1 cm-width. The EBSP observation showed that there was a difference of surface microstructure between the midsection and the end of TFA-MOD YBCO film layer in the direction of width. This is attributed not to the local difference of the biaxial texture of CeO2 top layer but to the local difference of growth condition during TFA-MOD process.

  10. DFT study of Rb-TFA structure after high-pressure action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtzová, Eva

    2011-12-01

    The pressure-induced A-B phase transition of synthetic Rb-tetra-ferri-annite (Rb-TFA) mica was studied theoretically by means of Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. The calculations show that Rb-TFA keeps a Franzini A-type structure up to at least 5.39 GPa of pressure, whereas at higher pressure, it transforms to a Franzini B-type structure. The negative value of the tetrahedral rotation angle α = -4.68° has appeared at 5.56 GPa of calculated pressure. This result is in a relatively good agreement with experimentally estimated phase transition area in the range of 3.36-3.84 GPa. The energy difference between the A and B structures is very small (ΔE = 8 kJ/mol). The detailed analysis of the optimized structural data shows minimal changes in the structure of Rb-TFA after the pressure-induced phase transition.

  11. Essential oils and fatty acids composition of Tunisian and Indian cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bettaieb, Iness; Bourgou, Soumaya; Sriti, Jezia; Msaada, Kamel; Limam, Ferid; Marzouk, Brahim

    2011-08-30

    Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds of two geographic origins, Tunisia (TCS) and India (ICS), were studied regarding their fatty acid and essential oil composition. Oil yields were 17.77 and 15.40% for TCS and ICS respectively. Petroselinic acid (C18:1n-12) was the major fatty acid in both varieties, with a higher proportion being found in TCS (55.90% of total fatty acids (TFA)) than in ICS (41.42% TFA). Moreover, the most predominant fatty acids were palmitic, petroselenic and linoleic acids, accounting for more than 91% TFA in both varieties. The unsaturated fatty acid content was high: 70.95% TFA in TCS and 62.17% TFA in ICS. Essential oil yields differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the two varieties: 1.21 and 1.62% for ICS and TCS respectively. A total of 40 compounds were identified, 34 of which were present in both essential oils. The two varieties displayed different chemotypes: γ-terpinene/1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol for TCS and cuminaldheyde/γ-terpinene for ICS. The study revealed that the biochemical composition of cumin seeds is origin-dependent and that cumin seeds are rich in an unusual fatty acid, petroselinic acid. Besides, cumin essential oil is a rich source of many compounds, including cuminaldehyde and γ-terpinene. The overall results suggest the exploitation of cumin seeds as a low-cost renewable source for industrial processing in the fields of cosmetics, perfumes and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. National Affiliation or Local Representation: When TFA Alumni Run for School Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Rebecca; Linkow, Tamara Wilder

    2014-01-01

    Historically power to govern public schools has been delegated to local school boards. However, this arrangement of power has been shifting over the past half century and increasingly, local school boards are targeted as ineffective and antiquated. Teach For America (TFA), typically examined for its placement of teachers, also seeks to develop…

  13. Trans-fatty acid content of food products in Spain in 2015.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Dal Re Saavedra, María Ángeles; Villar Villalba, Carmen; Robledo de Dios, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the content of trans-fatty acids (TFA) in food products in Spain in 2015 and assess trends in TFA content since 2010. We analysed the fat content of 277 food products purchased in Spanish supermarkets in 2015 and calculated both the total fat and TFA content and the proportion of TFA to total fats. The results obtained in 2015 were compared to those yielded by a similar study in 2010. In 2015, the majority of food products studied had a TFA content of less than 0.2g/100g product, and a TFA/total fat ratio of less than 2%. No significant increases were found compared to 2010. Food groups with a higher TFA content were dairy products of possible natural origin. TFA content in Spain is low and has significantly fallen since 2010. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System (TFaNS) at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    1999-01-01

    Version 1.4 of TFaNS, the Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System. has recently been evaluated at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Data from tests of the Allison Ultra High Bypass Fan (UHBF) were used to compare to predicted farfield directivities for the radial stator configuration. There was good agreement between measured and predicted directivities at low fan speeds when rotor effects were neglected in the TFaNS calculations. At higher fan speeds, TFaNS is shown to be useful in predicting overall trends rather than absolute sound pressure levels.

  15. YeTFaSCo: a database of evaluated yeast transcription factor sequence specificities

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Carl G.; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a prevalent system for the analysis of transcriptional networks. As a result, multiple DNA-binding sequence specificities (motifs) have been derived for most yeast transcription factors (TFs). However, motifs from different studies are often inconsistent with each other, making subsequent analyses complicated and confusing. Here, we have created YeTFaSCo (The Yeast Transcription Factor Specificity Compendium, http://yetfasco.ccbr.utoronto.ca/), an extensive collection of S. cerevisiae TF specificities. YeTFaSCo differs from related databases by being more comprehensive (including 1709 motifs for 256 proteins or protein complexes), and by evaluating the motifs using multiple objective quality metrics. The metrics include correlation between motif matches and ChIP-chip data, gene expression patterns, and GO terms, as well as motif agreement between different studies. YeTFaSCo also features an index of ‘expert-curated’ motifs, each associated with a confidence assessment. In addition, the database website features tools for motif analysis, including a sequence scanning function and precomputed genome-browser tracks of motif occurrences across the entire yeast genome. Users can also search the database for motifs that are similar to a query motif. PMID:22102575

  16. Acid rain: the relationship between sources and receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Calvert, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Acid Rain: The Relationship Between Sources and Receptors consists of a collection of papers and discussions from the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse. The conference, held in December 1986, was supported by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research Institute, and the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP).

  17. Study on sources of charging lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; Iagăr, A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the general characteristics of lead acid batteries and two charging methods of these batteries. For charging of lead batteries was used an intelligent power source K 8012 (from Velleman). The power source allows fixing the level of the battery voltage and battery capacity. The intelligent power source uses the joint method (at constant current and, then, at constant voltage) and warning that indicates different situations in the charging process. Other method of charging presented in the paper is at constant voltage using a stabilized power source. In the paper experimental measurements were carried out using data acquisition card SER 10 BIT (from Conrad) for charging/ discharging of a lead acid battery 12V/9Ah (using an intelligent power source) and charging of another high capacity lead acid battery 12V/47Ah/390 A (using a stabilized power source). At the discharging of the lead acid batteries it were used automotive lamps as electric loads.

  18. Trans fatty acid content in Malaysian supermarket foods: a field-to-laboratory approach in assessing food risk.

    PubMed

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Tan, Hui Kuen; Ong, Wei Wen; Tan, Choon Heen; Sundram, Kalyana

    2014-01-01

    The extent of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply is unknown in Malaysia, whilst TFA disclosure on food labels is not mandatory by Malaysian food standards. Supermarket foods such as dairy products, fats and oils, meat products, snack foods, soups, and confectionery are commonly cited to be major contributors of TFA in the diet. A consumer survey (n = 622) was used to develop a food listing of these 'high risk' foods. TFA content of high-risk foods were analysed by gas chromatography. Food samples (n = 158) were analysed and their total TFA content were compared with Malaysian Food Standards. A wide variation in TFA content within food categories was indicated. Of the foods containing TFA, many food labels did not cite TFA content or the use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) as an ingredient. Hypothesised estimates of TFA intake from these supermarket foods in a sample day's menu providing 2000 kcal projected a minimum intake of 0.5 g and a maximum intake of 5.2 g TFA. This study found there was no voluntary disclosure of TFA content on food labels or identifying PHVO as an ingredient. It appears that health education targeting consumers to minimise TFA consumption is required supported by mandatory PHVO disclosure on the food label.

  19. Water-tunnel study results of a TF/A-18 and F/A-18 canopy flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven A.; Fisher, David F.

    1990-01-01

    A water tunnel study examining the influence of canopy shape on canopy and leading edge extension flow patterns was initiated. The F/A-18 single-place canopy model and the TF/A-18 two place canopy model were the study subjects. Plan view and side view photographs showing the flow patterns created by injected colored dye are presented for 0 deg and 5 deg sideslip angles. Photographs taken at angle of attack and sideslip conditions correspond to test departure points found in flight test. Flight experience has shown that the TF/A-18 airplane departs in regions where the F/A-18 airplane is departure-resistant. The study results provide insight into the differences in flow patterns which may influence the resulting aerodynamics of the TF/A-18 and F/A-18 aircraft. It was found that at 0 deg sideslip, the TF/A-18 model has more downward flow on the sides of the canopy than the F/A-18 model. This could be indicative of flow from the leading edge extension (LEX) vortexes impinging on the sides of the wider TF/A-18 canopy. In addition, the TF/A-18 model has larger areas of asymmetric separated and unsteady flow on the LEXs and fuselage, possibly indicating a lateral and directional destabilizing effect at the conditions studied.

  20. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dietary reference values, some meals exceeded SFA and TFA recommendations from just one meal. Takeaway food would be an obvious target to reduce SFA and TFA contents and increase the potential of meeting UK recommendations. Strategies such as reformulation and smaller takeaway portion sizes warrant investigation.

  1. TFA Tank Focus Area - multiyear program plan FY98-FY00

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 80 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE`s Office of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) national technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE`s technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE`s four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across organizations that fund tank technology development EM, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30), Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and Science and Technology (EM-50).

  2. TFA Tanks Focus Area Multiyear Program Plan FY00-FY04

    SciTech Connect

    BA Carteret; JH Westsik; LR Roeder-Smith; RL Gilchrist; RW Allen; SN Schlahta; TM Brouns

    1999-10-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 68 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked contamination to the soil. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) national technology development program. for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE's technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE's five major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) (New York). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across EM organizations that fund tank technology development, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30

  3. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis.

  4. Inverse Temperature-Dependent Pathway of Cellulose Decrystallization in Trifluoroacetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Haibo; Holladay, John E.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2007-05-17

    Abstract An unusual inverse temperature-dependent pathway was observed during cellulose decrystallization in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Decreasing the TFA treatment temperature accelerated the cellulose decrystallization process. It took only 100 minutes to completely decrystallize cellulose at 0 °C in TFA, a result not achieved in 48 hours at 25°C in the same medium. There was neither cellulose esterification nor a change of cellulose macrofibril morphology by TFA treatment at 0 °C. Our IR data suggest that TFA molecules are present as cyclic dimers when they penetrate into crystalline cellulose regions, transforming crystalline cellulose to amorphous cellulose. The TFA cyclic dimer does not form strong hydrogen bonds with cellulose since the IR vibration frequency of the carbonyl group of the dimer molecule remained unchanged after the dimer diffused into the cellulose matrix. On the other hand, the rate of TFA penetration into the cellulose matrix was greatly retarded at higher temperatures where monomeric TFA esterification took place on the external surface of crystalline cellulose. At elevated temperatures esterification of TFA monomers with cellulose, as well as water released from the esterification reaction, inhibit the diffusion rate of TFA into the cellulose crystalline region and decreases the TFA swelling capability. Based on experimental observations, our study indicates that cellulose decrystallization does not require that solvent molecules form strong hydrogen bonds with cellulose.

  5. Coal is a potential source of naphthenic acids in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Scott, Angela C; Whittal, Randy M; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2009-03-15

    Naphthenic acids, with the general formula C(n)H(2n+Z)O(2), are found in conventional petroleums and oil sands ores. These acids are toxic to aquatic life, so their discharge from petroleum processing into receiving waters must be avoided. In a previous study, naphthenic acids were putatively identified in groundwaters from two domestic wells that were distant from petroleum sources. However, coal deposits were near these wells. In this study, waters from the two wells were extracted and analyzed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to unequivocally confirm the presence of naphthenic acids and other organic acids. In addition, distilled water was percolated through three crushed coal samples and the leachates were shown to contain a variety of organic acids, including naphthenic acids. These results clearly demonstrate that coal is a source of naphthenic acids and that the naphthenic acids can leach into groundwaters. Thus, the presence of naphthenic acids in waters cannot be solely attributed to petroleum or petroleum industry activities.

  6. Growth mechanism of Y123 film by MOD-TFA process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, Ryo; Fuji, Hiroshi; Honjo, Tetsuji; Nakamura, Yuichi; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh; Shibata, Junko; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Yoshimura, Masahiro

    2002-10-01

    In order to clarify the growth mechanism of Y123 film in the metal organic deposition (MOD) process using TFA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of the quenched samples and measurement of the growth rate under several different conditions were carried out. TEM observation showed that the Y 2Cu 2O 5, BaF 2 and CuO are converted into Y123 by release of HF with supplying H 2O at the reaction interface. The MOD-TFA process using the multi-coating method was applied to form thicker Y123 films on LaAlO 3 substrates, and the growth mechanism for the Y123 crystallization was investigated. In order to evaluate the growth rate, the electrical resistance of the precursor films during the crystallization was measured by the DC four-probe method. It was observed that the thickness of the Y123 linearly increases with increasing annealing time. This result suggests that the growth rate is limited by the HF diffusion in the boundary layer and/or growing interface kinetics. According to the results from the gas flow rate dependence of the growth rate, it was suggested that the growth of Y123 films in this process might be limited by both the diffusion in boundary layer and the interface kinetics. Then, the growth model, which includes the two limiting systems, was developed. This model reveals a basic idea of the mechanism to determine the steady state growth rate.

  7. WRF/Chem study of dry and wet deposition of trifluoroacetic acid produced from the atmospheric degradation of a few short-lived HFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the prevalent (used in >80% passenger cars and commercial vehicles worldwide) refrigerant in automobile air conditioning units (MACs). With an atmospheric lifetime of ~14 years and a global warming potential (GWP) of 1430 on a 100-year time horizon, HFC-134a does not meet current and expected requirements for MAC refrigerants in many parts of the world. Therefore, substitutes with lower GWP are being sought. One of the simplest way to achieve lower GWP is to use chemicals with shorter atmospheric lifetimes. In this work, we investigate the dry and wet deposition and the rainwater concentration of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) produced by the atmospheric oxidation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The WRF/Chem model was used to calculate dry and wet TFA deposition over the contiguous USA during the May-September 2006 period that would result from replacing HFC-134a in MACs with a 1:1 molar ratio mixture of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The simulation is evaluated by comparing observations of precipitation and sulfate wet deposition at stations of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). Simulated precipitation and sulfate wet deposition correlate well with the observations, but exhibit a positive bias for precipitation and a negative bias for sulfate wet deposition. Atmospheric lifetimes of TFP and PFP against oxidation by the hydroxyl radical OH, a prognostic species in WRF/Chem, are ~5 and ~4 days in the simulation, respectively. The model setup allows the attribution of dry and wet TFA deposition to individual source regions (California, Houston, Chicago, and the remaining contiguous USA in this work). TFA deposition is highest in the eastern USA because of numerous large sources and high precipitation in the region. West of the Continental Divide, TFA deposition is significantly lower, and its origin is dominated by emissions from

  8. Membrane-based continuous remover of trifluoroacetic acid in mobile phase for LC-ESI-MS analysis of small molecules and proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhigui; Zhang, Jialing; Xing, Jiawei; Bai, Yu; Liao, Yiping; Liu, Huwei

    2012-07-01

    We developed a "continuous" trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) remover based on electrodialysis with bipolar membrane for online coupling of liquid chromatography (LC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) using TFA containing mobile phase. With the TFA remover as an interface, the TFA anion in the mobile phase was removed based on electrodialysis mechanism, and meanwhile, the anion exchange membrane was self-regenerated by the hydroxide ions produced by the bipolar membrane. So the remover could continuously work without any additional regeneration process. The established LC-TFA remover-MS system has been successfully applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of small molecules as well as proteins.

  9. Membrane-Based Continuous Remover of Trifluoroacetic Acid in Mobile Phase for LC-ESI-MS Analysis of Small Molecules and Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhigui; Zhang, Jialing; Xing, Jiawei; Bai, Yu; Liao, Yiping; Liu, Huwei

    2012-07-01

    We developed a "continuous" trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) remover based on electrodialysis with bipolar membrane for online coupling of liquid chromatography (LC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) using TFA containing mobile phase. With the TFA remover as an interface, the TFA anion in the mobile phase was removed based on electrodialysis mechanism, and meanwhile, the anion exchange membrane was self-regenerated by the hydroxide ions produced by the bipolar membrane. So the remover could continuously work without any additional regeneration process. The established LC-TFA remover-MS system has been successfully applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of small molecules as well as proteins.

  10. Questionnaire for Persons with a Transfemoral Amputation (Q-TFA): initial validity and reliability of a new outcome measure.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Kerstin; Brånemark, Rickard; Hägg, Olle

    2004-09-01

    The Questionnaire for Persons with a Transfemoral Amputation (Q-TFA) is a new self-report measure developed for nonelderly transfemoral amputees using a socket- or osseointegrated prosthesis to reflect use, mobility, problems, and global health, each in a separate score (0-100). This paper describes the initial measurement properties of the Q-TFA as completed by 156 persons with a transfemoral amputation using a socket prosthesis (67% male, 92% nonvascular cases, mean age 51 years). Criterion validity was determined by associations between scores of the Q-TFA and the Short-Form 36 (SF-36)-Item Health Survey. Reliability was assessed by retest (n = 48) and by determination of the internal consistency. Correlations between Q-TFA and SF-36-Item Health Survey scales matched hypothesized patterns. Intraclass correlations were between 0.89 and 0.97, and measurement error ranged from 10 to 19 points. Cronbach's alpha revealed good internal consistency, with no values less than 0.7. This study shows that the Q-TFA, applied to persons using a transfemoral socket prosthesis, has adequate initial validity and reliability.

  11. Bimetallic Trifluoroacetates as Single-Source Precursors for Alkali-Manganese Fluoroperovskites.

    PubMed

    Dhanapala, B Dulani; Munasinghe, Hashini N; Suescun, Leopoldo; Rabuffetti, Federico A

    2017-10-10

    Alkali-manganese(II) trifluoroacetates were synthesized, and their potential as single-source precursors for the solid-state and solution-phase synthesis of AMnF3 fluoroperovskites (A = Na, K, Rb, Cs) was demonstrated. Crystals of Na2Mn2(tfa)6(tfaH), K2Mn2(tfa)6(tfaH)2·H2O, Rb2Mn2(tfa)6·H2O, and CsMn(tfa)3 (tfa = trifluoroacetato) were grown via solvent evaporation and their crystal structures solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical purity was confirmed using thermal analyses (TGA/DTA) and Rietveld analysis of powder XRD patterns. Thermal decomposition of Na2Mn2(tfa)6(tfaH), K2Mn2(tfa)6(tfaH)2·H2O, Rb2Mn2(tfa)6·H2O, and CsMn(tfa)3 in both the solid state and solution phase yielded crystalline, single-phase NaMnF3, KMnF3, RbMnF3, and CsMnF3 fluoroperovskites, respectively. Nanocrystals (<100 nm) and submicrocrystals (<500 nm) were obtained in a mixture of high-boiling-point organic solvents. Crystal structures of bimetallic trifluoroacetates displayed a variety of building blocks, coordination environments of the alkali atoms, and coordination modes of the trifluoroacetato ligand. Alkali-fluorine interactions ranging from chemical bonds to short contacts were observed throughout the series. The coordination flexibility of the trifluoroacetato ligand was attributed to the ability of the -CF3 groups to interact with alkali atoms over a broad range of distances. The synthetic approach described in this investigation provides a starting point to expand the library of fluorinated single-source precursors suitable for solution-phase routes to mixed-metal fluorides.

  12. Towards sustainable sources for omega-3 fatty acids production.

    PubMed

    Adarme-Vega, T Catalina; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-04-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docohexaenoic acid (DHA), provide significant health benefits for brain function/development and cardiovascular conditions. However, most EPA and DHA for human consumption is sourced from small fatty fish caught in coastal waters and, with depleting global fish stocks, recent research has been directed towards more sustainable sources. These include aquaculture with plant-based feeds, krill, marine microalgae, microalgae-like protists and genetically-modified plants. To meet the increasing demand for EPA and DHA, further developments are needed towards land-based sources. In particular large-scale cultivation of microalgae and plants is likely to become a reality with expected reductions in production costs, yield increasese and the adequate addressing of genetically modified food acceptance issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. On the source of organic acid aerosol layers above clouds.

    PubMed

    Sorooshian, Armin; Lu, Miao-Ling; Brechtel, Fred J; Jonsson, Haflidi; Feingold, Graham; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2007-07-01

    During the July 2005 Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) and the August-September 2006 Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS), the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter probed aerosols and cumulus clouds in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of northern California and in southeastern Texas, respectively. An on-board particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) quantified inorganic and organic acid species with < or = 5-min time resolution. Ubiquitous organic aerosol layers above cloud with enhanced organic acid levels were observed in both locations. The data suggest that aqueous-phase reactions to produce organic acids, mainly oxalic acid, followed by droplet evaporation is a source of elevated organic acid aerosol levels above cloud. Oxalic acid is observed to be produced more efficiently relative to sulfate as the cloud liquid water content increases, corresponding to larger and less acidic droplets. As derived from large eddy simulations of stratocumulus underthe conditions of MASE, both Lagrangian trajectory analysis and diurnal cloudtop evolution provide evidence that a significant fraction of the aerosol mass concentration above cloud can be accounted for by evaporated droplet residual particles. Methanesulfonate data suggest that entrainment of free tropospheric aerosol can also be a source of organic acids above boundary layer clouds.

  14. Contribution of Trans-Fatty Acid Intake to Coronary Heart Disease Burden in Australia: A Modelling Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jason H Y; Zheng, Miaobing; Catterall, Elise; Downs, Shauna; Thomas, Beth; Veerman, Lennert; Barendregt, Jan J

    2017-01-18

    Trans-fatty acids (TFAs) intake has been consistently associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. We provided an updated assessment of TFA intake in Australian adults in 2010 and conducted modeling to estimate CHD mortality attributable to TFA intake. Data of the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was used to assess TFA intake. The CHD burden attributable to TFA was calculated by comparing the current level of TFA intake to a counterfactual setting where consumption was lowered to a theoretical minimum distribution of 0.5% energy. The average TFA intake among adults was 0.59% energy, and overall 10% of adults exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limit of 1% energy. Education and income were moderately and inversely associated with TFA intake (p-value ≤ 0.001), with one in seven adults in the lowest income and education quintile having >1% energy from TFA. Australia had 487 CHD deaths (95% uncertainty interval, 367-615) due to TFA exposure, equivalent to 1.52% (95% uncertainty limits: 1.15%-1.92%) of all CHD mortality. The relative impact of TFA exposure on CHD mortality in Australia is limited, but, in absolute terms, still substantial. Policies aimed at reducing industrial TFA exposure can reduce socioeconomic inequalities in health and may therefore be desirable.

  15. Contribution of Trans-Fatty Acid Intake to Coronary Heart Disease Burden in Australia: A Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jason H. Y.; Zheng, Miaobing; Catterall, Elise; Downs, Shauna; Thomas, Beth; Veerman, Lennert; Barendregt, Jan J.

    2017-01-01

    Trans-fatty acids (TFAs) intake has been consistently associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. We provided an updated assessment of TFA intake in Australian adults in 2010 and conducted modeling to estimate CHD mortality attributable to TFA intake. Data of the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was used to assess TFA intake. The CHD burden attributable to TFA was calculated by comparing the current level of TFA intake to a counterfactual setting where consumption was lowered to a theoretical minimum distribution of 0.5% energy. The average TFA intake among adults was 0.59% energy, and overall 10% of adults exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limit of 1% energy. Education and income were moderately and inversely associated with TFA intake (p-value ≤ 0.001), with one in seven adults in the lowest income and education quintile having >1% energy from TFA. Australia had 487 CHD deaths (95% uncertainty interval, 367–615) due to TFA exposure, equivalent to 1.52% (95% uncertainty limits: 1.15%–1.92%) of all CHD mortality. The relative impact of TFA exposure on CHD mortality in Australia is limited, but, in absolute terms, still substantial. Policies aimed at reducing industrial TFA exposure can reduce socioeconomic inequalities in health and may therefore be desirable. PMID:28106762

  16. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids.

  17. Acetic Acid bacteria: physiology and carbon sources oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Dhouha; Gullo, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are obligately aerobic bacteria within the family Acetobacteraceae, widespread in sugary, acidic and alcoholic niches. They are known for their ability to partially oxidise a variety of carbohydrates and to release the corresponding metabolites (aldehydes, ketones and organic acids) into the media. Since a long time they are used to perform specific oxidation reactions through processes called "oxidative fermentations", especially in vinegar production. In the last decades physiology of AAB have been widely studied because of their role in food production, where they act as beneficial or spoiling organisms, and in biotechnological industry, where their oxidation machinery is exploited to produce a number of compounds such as l-ascorbic acid, dihydroxyacetone, gluconic acid and cellulose. The present review aims to provide an overview of AAB physiology focusing carbon sources oxidation and main products of their metabolism.

  18. Development and application of a method for analyzing trifluoroacetic acid in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Zehavi, D.; Seiber, J.N.; Wujcik, C.

    1995-12-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a stable end-product from the oxidative degradation of halocarbon refrigerants proposed for replacement of chlorofluorocarbons. The potential accumulation of TFA in the environment is of concern as halocarbons such as HCFC-123 (CCl{sub 2}HCF{sub 3}), HCFC-124 (CClHFCF{sub 3}) and HFC-134a (CF{sub 3}CFH{sub 2}) become more widely used. We developed a method for analyzing TFA in air, atmospheric water, and surface water, based upon (1) methylation of TFA with dimethylsulfate in sulfuric acid and (2) head-space gas chromatographic determination of TFA as its methyl ester using electron capture or mass selective detection. TFA levels at 50 ppt or less may be detected in water subjected to evaporative concentration, and at 1 ng/m{sup 3} or less in air sampled through a glycerine-bicarbonate denuder. Results from analyses of samples from Nevada and California will be presented.

  19. Regional source-receptor relationships for atmospheric acidity and acid deposition in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karamchandani, P.; Pilinis, C.; Shah, J.

    1993-12-01

    The report describes the results of a database management and semi-empirical modeling study that was performed to evaluate regional soure-receptor relationships (SRRs) for atmospheric acidity and acidic deposition in California. The objectives of the study were to quantify the contributions of the various source regions in California to acidic deposition at selected receptors in the state and to estimate the uncertainties in the derived values.

  20. Trends in trans fatty acids reformulations of US supermarket and brand-name foods from 2007 through 2011.

    PubMed

    Otite, Fadar O; Jacobson, Michael F; Dahmubed, Aspan; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-05-23

    Although some US food manufacturers have reduced trans fatty acids (TFA) in their products, it is unknown how much TFA is being reduced, whether pace of reformulation has changed over time, or whether reformulations vary by food type or manufacturer. In 2007, we identified 360 brand-name products in major US supermarkets that contained 0.5 g TFA or more per serving. In 2008, 2010, and 2011, product labels were re-examined to determine TFA content; ingredients lists were also examined in 2011 for partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO). We assessed changes in TFA content among the 270 products sold in all years between 2007 and 2011 and conducted sensitivity analyses on the 90 products discontinued after 2007. By 2011, 178 (66%) of the 270 products had reduced TFA content. Most reformulated products (146 of 178, 82%) reduced TFA to less than 0.5 g per serving, although half of these 146 still contained PHVO. Among all 270 products, mean TFA content decreased 49% between 2007 and 2011, from 1.9 to 0.9 g per serving. Yet, mean TFA reduction slowed over time, from 30.3% (2007-2008) to 12.1% (2008-2010) to 3.4% (2010-2011) (P value for trend < .001). This slowing pace was due to both fewer reformulations among TFA-containing products at start of each period and smaller TFA reductions among reformulated products. Reformulations also varied substantially by both food category and manufacturer, with some eliminating or nearly eliminating TFA and others showing no significant changes. Sensitivity analyses were similar to main findings. Some US products and food manufacturers have made progress in reducing TFA, but substantial variation exists by food type and by parent company, and overall progress has significantly slowed over time. Because TFA consumption is harmful even at low levels, our results emphasize the need for continued efforts toward reformulating or discontinuing foods to eliminate PHVO.

  1. Trends in Trans Fatty Acids Reformulations of US Supermarket and Brand-Name Foods From 2007 Through 2011

    PubMed Central

    Otite, Fadar O.; Jacobson, Michael F.; Dahmubed, Aspan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although some US food manufacturers have reduced trans fatty acids (TFA) in their products, it is unknown how much TFA is being reduced, whether pace of reformulation has changed over time, or whether reformulations vary by food type or manufacturer. Methods In 2007, we identified 360 brand-name products in major US supermarkets that contained 0.5 g TFA or more per serving. In 2008, 2010, and 2011, product labels were re-examined to determine TFA content; ingredients lists were also examined in 2011 for partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO). We assessed changes in TFA content among the 270 products sold in all years between 2007 and 2011 and conducted sensitivity analyses on the 90 products discontinued after 2007. Results By 2011, 178 (66%) of the 270 products had reduced TFA content. Most reformulated products (146 of 178, 82%) reduced TFA to less than 0.5 g per serving, although half of these 146 still contained PHVO. Among all 270 products, mean TFA content decreased 49% between 2007 and 2011, from 1.9 to 0.9 g per serving. Yet, mean TFA reduction slowed over time, from 30.3% (2007–2008) to 12.1% (2008–2010) to 3.4% (2010–2011) (P value for trend < .001). This slowing pace was due to both fewer reformulations among TFA-containing products at start of each period and smaller TFA reductions among reformulated products. Reformulations also varied substantially by both food category and manufacturer, with some eliminating or nearly eliminating TFA and others showing no significant changes. Sensitivity analyses were similar to main findings. Conclusions Some US products and food manufacturers have made progress in reducing TFA, but substantial variation exists by food type and by parent company, and overall progress has significantly slowed over time. Because TFA consumption is harmful even at low levels, our results emphasize the need for continued efforts toward reformulating or discontinuing foods to eliminate PHVO. PMID:23701722

  2. The effect of the regulation on trans fatty acid content in Danish food.

    PubMed

    Leth, Torben; Jensen, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Aase Aerendahl; Bysted, Anette

    2006-05-01

    The content of trans fatty acids (TFA) in Danish food has been monitored for the last 30 years. In margarines and shortenings the content of TFA has steadily declined from about 10 g/100 g margarine in the seventies to practically no TFA in margarines in 1999. In order to efficiently reduce the health risk related to TFA, Denmark decided to impose a maximum level of 2 g/100 g fat on industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA) with the Danish Order no. 160 of March 2003, as labelling was deemed insufficient to protect the consumers, especially risk groups like children or people with high intake of fast foods. A broader range of food was monitored with 253 samples in 2003 and 148 samples in 2005 after the Danish regulation was in effect. The investigations show that the TFA content has been reduced or removed from the products with high TFA content originally, like French fries, microwave oven popcorn and various bakery products, so IP-TFA are now without any significance for the intake of TFA in Denmark.

  3. Evaluation of the Impact of Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids on Human Health: Important Aspects to Consider.

    PubMed

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Degen, Christian; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2016-09-09

    The definition and evaluation of trans fatty acids (TFA) with regard to foodstuffs and health hazard are not consistent. Based on the current situation, the term should be restricted only to TFA with isolated double bonds in trans-configuration. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) should be separately assessed. Ideally, the origin of the consumed fat should be declared, i.e., ruminant TFA (R-TFA) and industrial TFA (non-ruminant; I-TFA). In ruminant fat, more than 50% of R-TFA consists of vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11). In addition, natural CLA, i.e., c9,t11 CLA is also present. Both are elevated in products from organic farming. In contrast to elaidic acid (t9) and t10, which occur mainly in partially hydrogenated industrial fat, t11 is partially metabolized into c9,t11 CLA via Δ9-desaturation. This is the major metabolic criterion used to differentiate between t11 and other trans C18:1. t11 indicates health beneficial effects in several studies. Moreover, CLA in milk fat is associated with the prevention of allergy and asthma. An analysis of the few studies relating to R-TFA alone makes clear that no convincing adverse physiological effect can be attributed to R-TFA. Only extremely high R-TFA intakes cause negative change in blood lipids. In conclusion, in most European countries, the intake of R-TFA is assessed as being low to moderate. Restriction of R-TFA would unjustifiably represent a disadvantage for organic farming of milk.

  4. A large and ubiquitous source of atmospheric formic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, D. B.; Baasandorj, M.; Farmer, D. K.; Thornton, J. A.; Baumann, K.; Brophy, P.; Chaliyakunnel, S.; de Gouw, J. A.; Graus, M.; Hu, L.; Koss, A.; Lee, B. H.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Neuman, J. A.; Paulot, F.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Warneke, C.; Williams, B. J.; Xu, J.

    2015-02-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant acids in the atmosphere, with an important influence on precipitation chemistry and acidity. Here we employ a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to interpret recent airborne and ground-based measurements over the US Southeast in terms of the constraints they provide on HCOOH sources and sinks. Summertime boundary layer concentrations average several parts-per-billion, 2-3× larger than can be explained based on known production and loss pathways. This indicates one or more large missing HCOOH sources, and suggests either a key gap in current understanding of hydrocarbon oxidation or a large, unidentified, direct flux of HCOOH. Model-measurement comparisons implicate biogenic sources (e.g., isoprene oxidation) as the predominant HCOOH source. Resolving the unexplained boundary layer concentrations based: (i) solely on isoprene oxidation would require a 3× increase in the model HCOOH yield, or (ii) solely on direct HCOOH emissions would require approximately a 25× increase in its biogenic flux. However, neither of these can explain the high HCOOH amounts seen in anthropogenic air masses and in the free troposphere. The overall indication is of a large biogenic source combined with ubiquitous chemical production of HCOOH across a range of precursors. Laboratory work is needed to better quantify the rates and mechanisms of carboxylic acid production from isoprene and other prevalent organics. Stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCIs) provide a large model source of HCOOH, while acetaldehyde tautomerization accounts for ~ 15% of the simulated global burden. Because carboxylic acids also react with SCIs and catalyze the reverse tautomerization reaction, HCOOH buffers against its own production by both of these pathways. Based on recent laboratory results, reaction between CH3O2 and OH could provide a major source of atmospheric HCOOH; however, including this chemistry degrades the model simulation of CH3OOH and NOx:CH3OOH

  5. A large and ubiquitous source of atmospheric formic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, D. B.; Baasandorj, M.; Farmer, D. K.; Thornton, J. A.; Baumann, K.; Brophy, P.; Chaliyakunnel, S.; de Gouw, J. A.; Graus, M.; Hu, L.; Koss, A.; Lee, B. H.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Neuman, J. A.; Paulot, F.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Warneke, C.; Williams, B. J.; Xu, J.

    2015-06-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant acids in the atmosphere, with an important influence on precipitation chemistry and acidity. Here we employ a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem CTM) to interpret recent airborne and ground-based measurements over the US Southeast in terms of the constraints they provide on HCOOH sources and sinks. Summertime boundary layer concentrations average several parts-per-billion, 2-3× larger than can be explained based on known production and loss pathways. This indicates one or more large missing HCOOH sources, and suggests either a key gap in current understanding of hydrocarbon oxidation or a large, unidentified, direct flux of HCOOH. Model-measurement comparisons implicate biogenic sources (e.g., isoprene oxidation) as the predominant HCOOH source. Resolving the unexplained boundary layer concentrations based (i) solely on isoprene oxidation would require a 3× increase in the model HCOOH yield, or (ii) solely on direct HCOOH emissions would require approximately a 25× increase in its biogenic flux. However, neither of these can explain the high HCOOH amounts seen in anthropogenic air masses and in the free troposphere. The overall indication is of a large biogenic source combined with ubiquitous chemical production of HCOOH across a range of precursors. Laboratory work is needed to better quantify the rates and mechanisms of carboxylic acid production from isoprene and other prevalent organics. Stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCIs) provide a large model source of HCOOH, while acetaldehyde tautomerization accounts for ~ 15% of the simulated global burden. Because carboxylic acids also react with SCIs and catalyze the reverse tautomerization reaction, HCOOH buffers against its own production by both of these pathways. Based on recent laboratory results, reaction between CH3O2 and OH could provide a major source of atmospheric HCOOH; however, including this chemistry degrades the model simulation of CH3OOH and NOx

  6. Sources of acidity in lakes and streams of the United States.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, P R; Herlihy, A T; Baker, L A

    1992-01-01

    Acidic (acid neutralizing capacity [ANC] < or = 0) surface waters in the United States sampled in the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS) were classified into three groups according to their probable sources of acidity: (1) organic-dominated waters (organic anions > SO4*; (2) watershed sulphate-dominated waters (watershed sulphate sources > deposition sulphate sources); and (3) deposition-dominated waters (anion chemistry dominated by inputs of sulphate and nitrate derived from deposition). The classification approach is highly robust; therefore, it is a useful tool in segregating surface waters into chemical categories. An estimated 75% (881) of acidic lakes and 47% (2190) of acidic streams are dominated by acid anions from deposition and are probably acidic due to acidic deposition. In about a quarter of the acidic lakes and streams, organic acids were the dominant source of acidity. In the remaining 26% of the acidic streams, watershed sources of sulphate, mainly from acid mine drainage, were the dominant source of acidity.

  7. A biogenic source of oxalic acid in marine aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, M.; Rinaldi, M.; Ceburnis, D.; O'Dowd, C.; Sciare, J.; Burrows, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    Oxalic acid has been often observed in marine aerosol, nevertheless, given the ubiquitous character and the high concentrations found in polluted environments, its origin has often been attributed to continental sources. In this work, we present the results of oxalic acid analyses, on aerosol samples collected at Mace Head (Ireland, 53°20’N, 9°54’W) and Amsterdam Island (Indian Ocean, 37°48’S, 77°34’E), supporting the existence of a biogenic source of oxalic acid over the oceans. Measurements cover the year 2006, at the Northern Hemisphere site, and the period 2003-2007, at the Southern Hemisphere one. Aerosol oxalic acid was detected in clean marine air masses in concentrations ranging from 2.7 to 39 ng m-3, at Mace Head, and from 0.31 to 17 ng m-3, at Amsterdam Island. In both hemispheres, oxalic acid concentration showed a clear seasonal trend, with maxima in spring-summer and minima in the fall-winter period, in analogy with other marine biogenic aerosol components (e.g., MSA and amines). Oxalic acid was distributed along the whole aerosol size spectrum, with the major contribution given by the 1.0-2.0 µm size range, and by the lower accumulation mode (0.25-0.5 µm). Given the observed size distributions, marine aerosol oxalic acid can be assumed as the result of the combination of different formation processes, among which in-cloud oxidation of gaseous precursors [1] and photochemical degradation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids [2] are likely the most important. Among aerosol oxalic acid precursors, glyoxal is the most likely candidate in the marine boundary layer, as a source of glyoxal over the oceans has recently been discovered by satellite observations [3] and confirmed by in situ measurements [4]. In support of this hypothesis, SCIAMACHY satellite retrieved glyoxal column concentrations, over the two sampling sites, resulted characterized by a clear seasonal trend, resembling the aerosol oxalic acid one. [1] Warneck, Atmospheric

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids: cardiovascular benefits, sources and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lee, John H; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J; Harris, William S

    2009-12-01

    The evidence for the cardioprotective nature of omega-3 fatty acids is abundant, and currently available data indicate that patients with known coronary heart disease should consume at least 1 g daily of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from either oily fish or fish-oil supplements, and that individuals without disease should consume at least 250-500 mg daily. However, this area of research poses two questions. Firstly, which is the best source of omega-3 fatty acids-fish or fish-oil supplements? Secondly, are recommendations for omega-3 supplementation warranted in view of the rapid depletion of world fish stocks? The argument that eating fish is better than taking fish-oil supplements stems from the fact that several important nutrients, such as vitamin D, selenium, and antioxidants, are missing from the supplements. However, three major prevention trials have clearly indicated that omega-3 fatty acid capsules confer cardiovascular benefits and, therefore, that both are cardioprotective. Sustainable sources of omega-3 fatty acids will need to be identified if long-term cardiovascular risk reduction is to be achieved at the population level.

  9. The intake of high fat diet with different trans fatty acid levels differentially induces oxidative stress and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trans-fatty acids (TFA) are known as a risk factor for coronary artery diseases, insulin resistance and obesity accompanied by systemic inflammation, the features of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the effects on the liver induced by lipids and also few studies are focused on the effect of foods rich in TFAs on hepatic functions and oxidative stress. This study investigates whether high-fat diets with different TFA levels induce oxidative stress and liver dysfunction in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 12/group): C receiving standard-chow; Experimental groups that were fed high-fat diet included 20% fresh soybean oil diet (FSO), 20% oxidized soybean oil diet (OSO) and 20% margarine diet (MG). Each group was kept on the treatment for 4 weeks. Results A liver damage was observed in rats fed with high-fat diet via increase of liver lipid peroxidation and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase). The intake of oxidized oil led to higher levels of lipid peroxidation and a lower concentration of plasma antioxidants in comparison to rats fed with FSO. The higher inflammatory response in the liver was induced by MG diet. Liver histopathology from OSO and MG groups showed respectively moderate to severe cytoplasm vacuolation, hypatocyte hypertrophy, hepatocyte ballooning, and necroinflammation. Conclusion It seems that a strong relationship exists between the consumption of TFA in the oxidized oils and lipid peroxidation and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The extent of the peroxidative events in liver was also different depending on the fat source suggesting that feeding margarine with higher TFA levels may represent a direct source of oxidative stress for the organism. The present study provides evidence for a direct effect of TFA on NAFLD. PMID:21943357

  10. TRANS FATTY ACIDS MODIFY NUTRITIONAL PARAMETERS AND TRIACYLGLYCEROL METABOLISM IN RATS: DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS AT RECOMMENDED AND HIGH-FAT LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Illesca, Paola Guadalupe; Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Gerstner, Carolina Daniela; González, Marcela Aída; Bernal, Claudio Adrián

    2015-08-01

    there is still little evidence on the metabolic trans fatty acids (TFA) effects at recommended fat levels. to investigate the differential TFA effects on some nutritional parameters, TFA retention, and triacylglycerol (TAG) regulation in rats fed recommended and high-fat diets. male Wistar rats were fed (30 days) diets containing recommended (7%,w/w) or high-fat (20%,w/w) levels, supplemented or not with TFA (C7, C20, TFA7 and TFA20). TFA7 (vs.C7) rats showed an increased body weight associated with higher fat pads and liver and serum TAG. The hypertriacylglyceridaemia was related to a decreased muscle LPL activity, while the higher hepatic TAG content was associated with both an increased SREBP-1c gene expression and ACC activity, and a reduced CPT-Ia gene expression. The TFA20 diet did not potentiate the higher body weight, fat pads and TAG levels induced by the C20 diet. Although the hepatic TAG-secretion rate (TAG-SR) increased by TFA20 vs. C20, the same triacylglyceridaemia was associated with a compensatory increase of the adipose tissue LPL activity. The attenuated hepatic TAG accretion in TFA20 was related to an increase of TAG-SR and to a lower increase of SREBP-1c and SCD1 mRNA expressions, paralleled to a relative decrease of SCD1 index and ACC activity. TFA alters nutritional parameters and lipid metabolism in rats. However, different responses to the TFA on TAG levels and their regulation were observed between rats fed recommended and high-fat diets. These divergences might be related to different tissue TFA retentions and rumenic acid bioconversion. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Translating research into action: a case study on trans fatty acid research and nutrition policy in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Lindsay, Ana C; Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Greaney, Mary L; Campos, Hannia; Peterson, Karen E

    2007-11-01

    Mounting epidemiologic evidence worldwide has fostered policy regulation of industrially made trans fatty acids (TFA) in several developed countries. Despite country-specific evidence about the effects of TFA on cardiovascular disease in Costa Rica, policy regulation has yet to occur. This qualitative study uses a conceptual framework to identify factors that may impede or promote the process of translation of scientific evidence about TFA into policy in the specific context of Costa Rica. We used single case-study methodology to integrate two sources of data: review of relevant internal documents and in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 21 respondents purposively sampled from three sectors: the cooking oil and food industries, research and academia, and government entities. Content analysis, guided by a conceptual framework of research utilization, revealed 68 emergent themes divided across four categories of analysis. In brief, study participants perceived the political context suitable for discussing policies related to healthy fats. Nevertheless, TFA regulation was not part of the Costa Rican political agenda. Barriers perceived by respondents that impede knowledge translation included: (1) lack of awareness of in-country scientific studies on health effects of TFA; (2) lack of consensus or information about policy options (nutrition labelling, dietary guidelines, legislative mandates); (3) perceived distrust and disparate attitudes between sectors, believed by study participants to result in (4) limited collaboration across sectors. Commissioned task forces and other mechanisms to foster research engagement and facilitate sustained interaction and systematic collaboration among government, food industry and researcher sectors appear crucial in the consideration and adoption of nutrition policy in Costa Rica and other emerging economies.

  12. High critical current YBCO thick films by TFA-MOD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Yoshitaka; Fuji, Hiroshi; Teranishi, Ryo; Shibata, Junko; Asada, Sigenobu; Honjo, Tetsuji; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh; Iijima, Yasuhiro; Saitoh, Takashi

    2003-10-01

    As a method of the fabrication processes of YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x (YBCO), the metalorganic deposition (MOD) process using metal trifluoroacetete (TFA) is considered to be a strong candidate due to its low cost fabrication process for coated conductors with high Jc. In our previous work, a triple coated film with 1 μm in thickness was fabricated on a CeO 2/IBAD-YSZ layer buffered Hastelloy substrate by optimizing the condition of heat treatments such as P H 2O in the multi-coating method [Physica C 378-381 (2002) 1013]. The Jc value of 1.6 MA/cm 2 (77 K in self-field) in this film patterned 100 μm width and the Ic* value of 153 A/cm-width at 77 K in self-field were achieved. In order to obtain a thicker film with high overall Ic* for 1 cm width, the influence of the heat treatment conditions of P H 2O , P O 2, and the temperature in the MOD process was investigated. Subsequently, a 5 times coated film was obtained on a CeO 2/IBAD-Zr 2Gd 2O 7 layer buffered Hastelloy substrate by optimizing the conditions of heating and dip coating. As a result, the overall transport Ic value was improved to 210 A and Jc value of 1.53 MA/cm 2 was obtained (77 K in self-field).

  13. Nucleation Mechanism OF YBa2Cu3O7 by CSD using TFA Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gázquez, J.; González, J. C.; Coll, M.; Castaño, O.; Romà, N.; Pomar, A.; Sandiumenge, F.; Mestres, N.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.

    2006-06-01

    The heteroepitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films prepared by the trifluoracetate TFA route was characterized by TEM/EELS, µ-Raman spectroscopy and X-Ray diffraction of specimens quenched from various temperatures. We find that after the pyrolysis, the film consists of a homogeneous, partly amorphous, nanocrystalline matrix of Ba1-xYxF2 + x and CuO. Upon heating, such a precursor undergoes a strong phase segregation on a length scale of 100 nm. Simultaneously, the Ba1-xYxF2 + x solid solution is decomposed into BaF2 and Y2O3, and part of this Y2O3 eventually reacts with the CuO to give Y2Cu2O5. Our results make evident that the nucleation of YBCO takes place exclusively at the interface with the substrate, within the fluoride phase. The fluoride phase appears highly textured from the early stages of phase evolution, above 600 °C, and determines the orientation of the YBCO. The microstructural heterogeneity of the precursor film prior to the nucleation of YBCO strongly suggests that more than one reaction path may operate simultaneously.

  14. Characterization of French Coriander Oil as Source of Petroselinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Uitterhaegen, Evelien; Sampaio, Klicia A; Delbeke, Elisabeth I P; De Greyt, Wim; Cerny, Muriel; Evon, Philippe; Merah, Othmane; Talou, Thierry; Stevens, Christian V

    2016-09-08

    Coriander vegetable oil was extracted from fruits of French origin in a 23% yield. The oil was of good quality, with a low amount of free fatty acids (1.8%) and a concurrently high amount of triacylglycerols (98%). It is a rich source of petroselinic acid (C18:1n-12), an important renewable building block, making up 73% of all fatty acids, with also significant amounts of linoleic acid (14%), oleic acid (6%), and palmitic acid (3%). The oil was characterized by a high unsaponifiable fraction, comprising a substantial amount of phytosterols (6.70 g/kg). The main sterol markers were β-sitosterol (35% of total sterols), stigmasterol (24%), and Δ⁷-stigmastenol (18%). Squalene was detected at an amount of 0.2 g/kg. A considerable amount of tocols were identified (500 mg/kg) and consisted mainly of tocotrienols, with γ-tocotrienol as the major compound. The phospholipid content was low at 0.3%, of which the main phospholipid classes were phosphatidic acid (33%), phosphatidylcholine (25%), phosphatidylinositol (17%), and phosphatidylethanolamine (17%). About 50% of all phospholipids were non-hydratable. The β-carotene content was low at 10 mg/kg, while a significant amount of chlorophyll was detected at about 11 mg/kg. An iron content of 1.4 mg/kg was determined through element analysis of the vegetable oil. The influence of fruit origin on the vegetable oil composition was shown to be very important, particularly in terms of the phospholipids, sterols, and tocols composition.

  15. Serum fatty acid, lipid profile and dietary intake of Hong Kong Chinese omnivores and vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Lee, H Y; Woo, J; Chen, Z Y; Leung, S F; Peng, X H

    2000-10-01

    To examine the serum fatty acid and lipid profiles and dietary intake of Hong Kong Chinese omnivores and vegetarians with respect to cardiovascular health. Random population survey stratified by age and sex. One-hundred and ninety-four omnivore subjects (81 men, 113 women) age 25-70 y, and 60 ovo-lacto-vegetarian adults (15 men, 45 women) age 30-55 y. Nutrient quantitation was by a food frequency method. Serum fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography, and serum lipid by standard laboratory methods. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians had higher serum concentrations of polyunsaturated (PUFA) and monosaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and lower saturated fatty acids (SFA), long chain omega-3 and trans fatty acids (TFA). They also had lower serum cholesterol and higher apoA-1 concentrations, but the LDL/HDL ratio was not different. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids intake was higher in vegetarians. Compared with results from populations with higher incidences of coronary heart disease, while lower myristic and palmitic acid concentrations and higher eicosapentaneoic (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) may partly account for the difference in incidence, linoleic acid concentration was higher. Although the Chinese vegetarian diet may be beneficial for heart health in that antioxidant and fibre intakes are higher and saturated fat lower, the low EPA and DHA due to omission from dietary source and suppressed formation by high linoleic acid level, and the presence of TFA in the diet, may exert an opposite effect. There are some favourable features in the serum fatty acid profile in the Hong Kong Chinese population with respect to cardiovascular health, but the consumption of TFA is of concern. The Chinese vegetarian diet also contains some adverse features.

  16. Intake of trans fatty acid in Japanese university students.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Terue; Shigemitsu, Sachiko; Adachi, Naoko; Hagiwara, Chie; Miyagi, Shigeji; Shinjo, Sumie; Maruyama, Takenori; Sugano, Michihiro

    2010-01-01

    Because trans fatty acids (TFAs) are a potent risk factor for coronary heart disease, it is important to know the amount of TFA consumed. We estimated TFA intakes of Japanese university students by direct measurement. Subjects included 118 students (57 males and 61 females) in two regions of Japan: Kanto (Tokyo area) and Okinawa. A dietary survey was conducted over six consecutive days using dietary records and photographic records. A single-day meal in the survey period was reproduced to measure TFA content by gas chromatography. The median values of TFA intakes (and energy percentage) estimated by the contents of reproduced meals for men were 0.43 g/d (0.22%) in Kanto and 0.30 g/d (0.14%) in Okinawa. Corresponding values for women were 0.49 g/d (0.29%) and 0.73 g/d (0.35%), respectively. Compared to the group with a low TFA intake, the subjects with a high TFA intake consumed significantly more energy from total fat and saturated fatty acids, and had a high ratio of TFA/linoleic acid. In addition, multiple regression analysis showed the intakes of TFA were positively associated with those of saturated fatty acids and groups of nonessential groceries such as cookies, cakes and pastries. In conclusion, the TFA intakes of these survey subjects were relatively lower than the WHO recommended energy ratio (<1%). However, nutritional education on dietary habits seems indispensable for those subjects who are consuming high volumes of TFA.

  17. Combined biomimetic and inorganic acids hydrolysis of hemicellulose in Miscanthus for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Zhang, Yuanhui; Ha, Suk-Jin; Jin, Yong-Su; Morgenroth, Eberhard

    2012-04-01

    Combined acid catalysis was employed as a pretreatment alternative with combined acid catalysts blending sulfuric acid with two biomimetic acids, trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and maleic acid (MA), respectively. The influences of acid blending ratio, temperature, and acid dosage on pretreatment performance were investigated. A synergistic effect on hemicellulose decomposition was observed in the combined acid hydrolysis, which greatly increased xylose yield, although TFA/MA would induce more total phenols. Besides, combined TFA pretreatment could efficiently prevent xylose degradation. Fermentation tests of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysates with overliming showed that compared to H(2)SO(4) pretreatment, TFA and MA pretreatments improved overall ethanol yield with an increase by 27-54%. Combined acid catalysis was shown as a feasible pretreatment method for its improved sugar yield, reduced phenols production and catalyst costs.

  18. Aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexenone catalyzed by Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2: evidence for ligand-controlled chemoselectivity.

    PubMed

    Diao, Tianning; Pun, Doris; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-06-05

    The dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones affords cyclohexenones or phenols via removal of 1 or 2 equiv of H2, respectively. We recently reported several Pd(II) catalyst systems that effect aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones with different product selectivities. Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 is unique in its high chemoselectivity for the conversion of cyclohexanones to cyclohexenones, without promoting subsequent dehydrogenation of cyclohexenones to phenols. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of these reactions reveal the key role of the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) ligand in controlling this chemoselectivity. DMSO has minimal kinetic influence on the rate of Pd(TFA)2-catalyzed dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexenone, while it strongly inhibits the second dehydrogenation step, conversion of cyclohexenone to phenol. These contrasting kinetic effects of DMSO provide the basis for chemoselective formation of cyclohexenones.

  19. Uprooting an abscisic acid paradigm: Shoots are the primary source.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Manzi, Matías; Ross, John J; Brodribb, Timothy J; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2016-06-02

    In the past, a conventional wisdom has been that abscisic acid (ABA) is a xylem-transported hormone that is synthesized in the roots, while acting in the shoot to close stomata in response to a decrease in plant water status. Now, however, evidence from two studies, which we have conducted independently, challenges this root-sourced ABA paradigm. We show that foliage-derived ABA has a major influence over root development and that leaves are the predominant location for ABA biosynthesis during drought stress.

  20. 76 FR 63878 - New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ10 New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants AGENCY... source performance standards (NSPS) for nitric acid plants. Nitric acid plants include one or more nitric acid production units. These proposed revisions include a change to the nitrogen oxides (NO X...

  1. Health effects of trans-fatty acids: experimental and observational evidence.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, D; Aro, A; Willett, W C

    2009-05-01

    Growing evidence indicates that trans-fatty acids (TFA) adversely affect cardiovascular health. As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) Scientific Update on TFA, we reviewed the evidence for effects of TFA consumption on coronary heart disease (CHD). We searched Medline publications examining TFA consumption and CHD risk factors or outcomes, emphasizing results of studies in humans. We evaluated and synthesized evidence from both controlled feeding trials evaluating risk factors and long-term observational studies evaluating risk factors or clinical outcomes, each of which have complementary strengths and limitations, to enable the most robust and reliable inferences of effects. The effects of TFA consumption on risk factors most consistently seen in both controlled trials and observational studies included adverse lipid effects (for example [upward arrow] low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, [downward arrow] high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), [upward arrow] total/HDL-C ratio), proinflammatory effects (for example [upward arrow] tumor necrosis factor-alpha activity, [upward arrow] interleukin-6, [upward arrow] C-reactive protein) and endothelial dysfunction. These effects were most prominent in comparison with cis unsaturated fats; adverse effects on total/HDL-C and endothelial function were also seen in comparison with saturated fatty acids (SFA). TFA may also worsen insulin sensitivity, particularly among individuals predisposed to insulin resistance; possible effects on weight gain and diabetes incidence require further confirmation. Five retrospective case-control studies and four prospective cohort studies demonstrated positive associations between TFA consumption and CHD events. A meta-analysis of prospective studies indicated 24, 20, 27 and 32% higher risk of myocardial infarction (MI) or CHD death for every 2% energy of TFA consumption isocalorically replacing carbohydrate, SFA, cis monounsaturated fatty acids and cis polyunsaturated fatty

  2. Characterization of haloacetic acid precursors in source water.

    PubMed

    Kanokkantapong, Vorapot; Marhaba, Taha F; Pavasant, Prasert; Panyapinyophol, Bunyarit

    2006-08-01

    Raw water from the Bangkok (Thailand) main municipal water supply canal was examined for its natural organic composition by fractionation with adsorption resins. DAX-8 resin was the first resin employed to fractionate the hydrophobic fractions. Fractionation at neutral pH resulted in the separation of the hydrophobic neutral components; at a high pH level (approx. 10) separation of the hydrophobic base components occurred; and at a low pH level (approx. 2) the hydrophobic acid components were separated. AG-MP-50 cationic resin was then used to separate the hydrophilic base components, and WA-10, a weak anionic resin, was applied finally to fractionate the hydrophilic acid and neutral components. Subsequently, each fraction was tested for its chlorine disinfection by-product (DBP) formation potential. The HAA formation tests demonstrated that the various organic fractions had different reactivity levels for the formation of haloacetic acids (HAAs). For this source water, the hydrophilic neutral fraction dominated over the other five fractions in being the main organic component and the most significant precursor of HAAs formation. On the other hand, in terms of specific HAA formation potential (FP), the hydrophobic and hydrophilic base fractions were the most reactive precursors to the formation of HAAs. In all cases, the quantity of HAAs formed depended linearly upon the amount of organic constituents in the water sample.

  3. Nutritional quality of fresh and heated Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seed oil: trans-fatty acid isomers profiles and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Dhibi, Madiha; Issaoui, Manel; Brahmi, Faten; Mechri, Beligh; Mnari, Amira; Cheraif, Imed; Skhiri, Fathia; Gazzah, Noureddine; Hammami, Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have focused on trans fatty acids (TFA) technologically produced by partial hydrogenation of oils. However, TFA can also be present in fresh oils. For this reason, cis fatty acid (CFA), TFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) of fresh and heated Aleppo pine seed oil (APSO) at frying temperature (180 °C) were evaluated and correlated with the antioxidant characteristics. Results showed that fresh APSO had a low oleic/linoleic ratio O/L (0.4). Total TFA in fresh APSO reached 1%. The predominant TFA was 18:2 n-6 (t9, t12) in both fresh and heated APSO. Individual TFA increased with significant differences (p < 0.05) with heating time. CLA occurred after 4 h and significantly increased (p < 0.05) accounting 10% of total TFA after 10 h. Total TFA are negatively correlated with α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol (p < 0.05) and carotenoïds (p < 0.01) and positively correlated with remaining DPPH. Oil stability index (OSI) showed significant negative correlation with TFA (r = -0.925; p = 0.008). A principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear discrimination between fresh and heated oils. Temperature, heating time, unsaturation degree and antioxidants are combined factors which significantly affect the isomerization rate and nutritional quality of APSO.

  4. Degradation and Isotope Source Tracking of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Joshi, Sunendra R; Jaisi, Deb P

    2016-01-27

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine], an active ingredient of the herbicide Roundup, and its main metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), have been frequently reported to be present in soils and other environments and thus have heightened public concerns on their potential adverse effects. Understanding the fate of these compounds and differentiating them from other naturally occurring compounds require a toolbox of methods that can go beyond conventional methods. Here, we applied individual isotope labeling technique whereby each compound or mineral involved in the glyphosate and AMPA degradation reaction was either synthesized or chosen to have distinct (18)O/(16)O ratios so that the source of incorporated oxygen in the orthophosphate generated and corresponding isotope effect during C-P bond cleavage could be identified. Furthermore, we measured original isotope signatures of a few commercial glyphosate sources to identify their source-specific isotope signatures. Our degradation kinetics results showed that the rate of glyphosate degradation was higher than that of AMPA in all experimental conditions, and both the rate and extent of degradation were lowest under anoxic conditions. Oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)OP) of orthophosphate generated from glyphosate and AMPA degradation suggested that one external oxygen atom from ambient water, not from dissolved oxygen or mineral, was incorporated into orthophosphate with the other three oxygen atoms inherited from the parent molecule. Interestingly, δ(18)OP values of all commercial glyphosate products studied were found to be the lightest among all orthophosphates known so far. Furthermore, isotope composition was found to be unaffected due to variable degradation kinetics, light/dark, and oxic/anoxic conditions. These results highlight the importance of phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a nonconventional tool to potentially distinguish glyphosate sources and products from other organophosphorus compounds

  5. 77 FR 48433 - New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ10 New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants AGENCY... performance standards (NSPS) for nitric acid plants. Nitric acid plants include one or more nitric acid... standards for nitric acid plants, contact Mr. Nathan Topham, Sector Policies and Program Division, Office of...

  6. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid sources and evaluation of their nutritional and functional properties

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, Elahe; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have clearly shown the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (as essential fatty acids) and their nutritional value for human health. In this review, various sources, nutritional properties, and metabolism routes of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are introduced. Since the conversion efficiency of linoleic acid (LA) to arachidonic acid (AA) and also α-linolenic acid (ALA) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosatetraenoic acid (EPA) is low in humans, looking for the numerous sources of AA, EPA and EPA fatty acids. The sources include aquatic (fish, crustaceans, and mollusks), animal sources (meat, egg, and milk), plant sources including 20 plants, most of which were weeds having a good amount of LC-PUFA, fruits, herbs, and seeds; cyanobacteria; and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, microalgae, and diatoms). PMID:25473503

  7. Changes in Trans Fatty Acid Profiles for Selected Snack Foods in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historically, many snack foods had been formulated with partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, the primary contributor of trans fatty acids (TFA) in the US diet. Health concerns about TFA and saturated fat intake and increased risk for chronic health disorders have prompted some manufacturers to ref...

  8. Changes in Trans Fatty Acid Profiles for Selected Snack Foods in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    : Historically, many snack foods had been formulated with partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, the primary contributor of trans fatty acids (TFA) in the US diet. Health concerns about TFA and saturated fat intake and increased risk for chronic health disorders have prompted some manufacturers to r...

  9. Trans fatty acids: effects on metabolic syndrome, heart disease and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Micha, Renata; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2009-06-01

    The major dietary sources of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in most countries are partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. TFA consumption is a modifiable dietary risk factor for metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease. Here, we review the available data on various effects of TFAs, including metabolic and signaling pathways that mediate these effects, affected tissues, and relationships with clinical end points. TFA consumption causes metabolic dysfunction: it adversely affects circulating lipid levels, triggers systemic inflammation, induces endothelial dysfunction, and, according to some studies, increases visceral adiposity, body weight, and insulin resistance. Dietary TFAs influence the function of multiple cell types, including hepatocytes, adipocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells. Among dietary fats and nutrients, TFAs seem to have a unique cardiometabolic imprint that is linked to insulin-resistance and metabolic-syndrome pathways. Consistent with these adverse physiological effects, consumption of even small amounts of TFAs (2% of total energy intake) is consistently associated with a markedly increased incidence of coronary heart disease. Relationships between TFA consumption and diabetes mellitus have been less consistent, possibly owing to differences in study designs. Nevertheless, the documented adverse effects of TFAs underscore their potential to cause harm and the importance of policy measures to minimize consumption of industrially produced TFAs.

  10. Trans fatty acids in the Portuguese food market

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Nádia; Cruz, Rebeca; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Casal, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence exist on the harmful health effects of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA). In order to have accurate data on TFA intake and implement adequate measures to reduce their intake, each country should have updated estimates of TFA content in the diet. The objective of the present study was to provide data on the TFA content in food commercialized in the Portuguese market. The results on the TFA content of 268 samples acquired between October and December 2013 are reported. Samples were categorized as margarines and shortenings (n = 16), spreadable chocolate fats (n = 6), fried potatoes and chips (n = 25), industrial bakery (n = 4), breakfast cereals (n = 3), pastry products (n = 120), seasonings (n = 5), instant soups (n = 5), instant desserts (n = 6), chocolate snacks (n = 4), microwave popcorn (n = 4), cookies, biscuits and wafers (n = 53), and fast-food (n = 13), with butter (n = 4) included for comparison purposes. TFA were quantified by gas chromatography. Total TFA content in the fat ranged from 0.06% to 30.2% (average 1.9%), with the highest average values in the “biscuits, wafers and cookies” group (3.4% TFA), followed by the pastry group (2.0%). Fifty samples (19%) had TFA superior to 2% in the fat. These findings highlight there is still much need for improvement in terms of the TFA content in Portuguese foods, particularly in traditional pastry. PMID:27274619

  11. Trans fatty acids in the Portuguese food market.

    PubMed

    Costa, Nádia; Cruz, Rebeca; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Casal, Susana

    2016-06-01

    Consistent evidence exist on the harmful health effects of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA). In order to have accurate data on TFA intake and implement adequate measures to reduce their intake, each country should have updated estimates of TFA content in the diet. The objective of the present study was to provide data on the TFA content in food commercialized in the Portuguese market. The results on the TFA content of 268 samples acquired between October and December 2013 are reported. Samples were categorized as margarines and shortenings (n = 16), spreadable chocolate fats (n = 6), fried potatoes and chips (n = 25), industrial bakery (n = 4), breakfast cereals (n = 3), pastry products (n = 120), seasonings (n = 5), instant soups (n = 5), instant desserts (n = 6), chocolate snacks (n = 4), microwave popcorn (n = 4), cookies, biscuits and wafers (n = 53), and fast-food (n = 13), with butter (n = 4) included for comparison purposes. TFA were quantified by gas chromatography. Total TFA content in the fat ranged from 0.06% to 30.2% (average 1.9%), with the highest average values in the "biscuits, wafers and cookies" group (3.4% TFA), followed by the pastry group (2.0%). Fifty samples (19%) had TFA superior to 2% in the fat. These findings highlight there is still much need for improvement in terms of the TFA content in Portuguese foods, particularly in traditional pastry.

  12. [Compositions of organic acids in PM10 emission sources in Xiamen urban atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-Yu; Huang, Xing-Xing; Zheng, An; Liu, Bi-Lian; Wu, Shui-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The possible organic acid emission sources in PM10 in Xiamen urban atmosphere such as cooking, biomass burning, vehicle exhaust and soil/dust were obtained using a re-suspension test chamber. A total of 15 organic acids including dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids and aromatic acids were determined using GC/MS after derivatization with BF3/n-butanol. The results showed that the highest total concentration of 15 organic acids (53%) was found in cooking emission and the average concentration of the sum of linoleic acid and oleic acid was 24% +/- 14%. However, oxalic acid was the most abundant species followed by phthalic acid in gasoline vehicle exhaust. The ratios of adipic to azelaic acid in gasoline combustion emissions were significantly higher than those in other emission sources, which can be used to qualitatively differentiate anthropogenic and biological source of dicarboxylic acids in atmospheric samples. The ratios of malonic to succinic acid in source emissions (except gasoline generator emissions) were lower (0.07-0.44) than ambient PM10 samples (0.61-3.93), which can be used to qualitatively differentiate the primary source and the secondary source of dicarboxylic acids in urban PM10.

  13. Animal Rennets as Sources of Dairy Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cruciata, Margherita; Sannino, Ciro; Ercolini, Danilo; Scatassa, Maria L.; De Filippis, Francesca; Mancuso, Isabella; La Storia, Antonietta; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The microbial composition of artisan and industrial animal rennet pastes was studied by using both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Pyrosequencing targeting the 16S rRNA gene allowed to identify 361 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to the genus/species level. Among lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Streptococcus thermophilus and some lactobacilli, mainly Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus reuteri, were the most abundant species, with differences among the samples. Twelve groups of microorganisms were targeted by viable plate counts revealing a dominance of mesophilic cocci. All rennets were able to acidify ultrahigh-temperature-processed (UHT) milk as shown by pH and total titratable acidity (TTA). Presumptive LAB isolated at the highest dilutions of acidified milks were phenotypically characterized, grouped, differentiated at the strain level by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis, and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Only 18 strains were clearly identified at the species level, as Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Streptococcus thermophilus, while the other strains, all belonging to the genus Enterococcus, could not be allotted into any previously described species. The phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains might represent different unknown species. All strains were evaluated for their dairy technological performances. All isolates produced diacetyl, and 10 of them produced a rapid pH drop in milk, but only 3 isolates were also autolytic. This work showed that animal rennet pastes can be sources of LAB, mainly enterococci, that might contribute to the microbial diversity associated with dairy productions. PMID:24441167

  14. Animal rennets as sources of dairy lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cruciata, Margherita; Sannino, Ciro; Ercolini, Danilo; Scatassa, Maria L; De Filippis, Francesca; Mancuso, Isabella; La Storia, Antonietta; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2014-04-01

    The microbial composition of artisan and industrial animal rennet pastes was studied by using both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Pyrosequencing targeting the 16S rRNA gene allowed to identify 361 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to the genus/species level. Among lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Streptococcus thermophilus and some lactobacilli, mainly Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus reuteri, were the most abundant species, with differences among the samples. Twelve groups of microorganisms were targeted by viable plate counts revealing a dominance of mesophilic cocci. All rennets were able to acidify ultrahigh-temperature-processed (UHT) milk as shown by pH and total titratable acidity (TTA). Presumptive LAB isolated at the highest dilutions of acidified milks were phenotypically characterized, grouped, differentiated at the strain level by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis, and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Only 18 strains were clearly identified at the species level, as Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Streptococcus thermophilus, while the other strains, all belonging to the genus Enterococcus, could not be allotted into any previously described species. The phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains might represent different unknown species. All strains were evaluated for their dairy technological performances. All isolates produced diacetyl, and 10 of them produced a rapid pH drop in milk, but only 3 isolates were also autolytic. This work showed that animal rennet pastes can be sources of LAB, mainly enterococci, that might contribute to the microbial diversity associated with dairy productions.

  15. Effect of humic acid source on humic acid adsorption onto titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Erhayem, Mohamed; Sohn, Mary

    2014-02-01

    In many studies, different humic acid (HA) sources are used interchangeably to evaluate the effect of organic matter on geochemical processes in the environment. This research looks more specifically at the effect of HA source on HA adsorption onto nano-TiO2 and how HA adsorption affects the fate and transport of nano-TiO2. In this study, six humic acids (HAs) were studied which were derived from soils (SLHA), or from sediments (SDHA) all originating from the state of Florida. Humic acid adsorption onto titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and the sedimentation of HA-coated and uncoated nano-TiO2 were monitored by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Synchronous scan fluorescence (SSF) spectroscopy was used to complement the study of HA adsorption onto nano-TiO2. Phosphate buffer was found to reduce the amount of HA adsorbed onto nano-TiO2 relative to solutions of NaCl of the same pH and ionic strength. Adsorption constant values (Kads) for HAs varied in the order SLHA>FSDHA (freshwater sedimentary HA)>ESDHA (estuarine sedimentary HA). SSF results suggested that the more highly conjugated fractions of HA, which are more prevalent in SLHAs versus SDHAs, were preferentially adsorbed. In order to better understand the relationship between adsorption and aggregation, sedimentation studies were conducted and it was found that the percentage of nano-TiO2 sedimentation was preferentially enhanced in the order of the presence of SLHA>FSDHA>ESDHA. The extent of nano-TiO2 sedimentation was decreased with increasing HA concentration. TEM imaging of nano-TiO2 confirmed that nano-TiO2 was aggregated in the presence of HAs. The findings in this study suggest that HAs from different sources influence the fate and transport of nano-TiO2 in the environment differently.

  16. Organic Acids as Hetrotrophic Energy Sources in Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windman, T. O.; Zolotova, N.; Shock, E.

    2004-12-01

    Many thermophilic microbes are heterotrophs, but little is known about the organic compounds present in hydrothermal ecosystems. More is known about what these organisms will metabolize in lab experiments than what they do metabolize in nature. In an effort to bridge this gap, we have begun to incorporate organic analyses into ongoing research on Yellowstone hydrothermal ecosystems. After filtering at least a liter of hot spring water to minimize contamination, samples were collected into sixty-milliliter serum vials containing ultra-pure phosphoric acid, sodium hydroxide, or benzalkonium chloride. Approximately 80 sites were sampled spanning temperatures from 60 to 90°C and pH values from 2 to 9. Analytical data for organic acid anions (including formate, acetate, lactate, and succinate) were obtained by ion chromatography. Preliminary results indicate that concentrations of organic acids anions range from 5 to 300 ppb. These results can be used with other field and lab data (sulfate, sulfide, nitrate, ammonia, bicarbonate, pH, hydrogen) in thermodynamic calculations to evaluate the amounts of energy available in heterotrophic reactions. Preliminary results of such calculations show that sulfate reduction to sulfide coupled to succinate oxidation to bicarbonate yields about 6 kcal per mole of electrons transferred. When formate oxidation to bicarbonate or hydrogen oxidation to water is coupled to sulfate reduction there is less energy available by approximately a factor of two. A comparison with nitrate reduction to ammonia involving succinate and/or formate oxidation reveals several similarities. Using formate to reduce nitrate can yield about as much energy as nitrate reduction with hydrogen (typically 12 to 14 kcal per mole of electrons transferred), but using succinate can yield more than twice as much energy. In fact, reduction of nitrate with succinate can provide more energy than any of the inorganic nitrate reduction reactions involving sulfur, iron

  17. TFaNS Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System. Volume 2; User's Manual; 1.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topol, David A.; Eversman, Walter

    1999-01-01

    TFaNS is the Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System developed by Pratt & Whitney under contract to NASA Lewis (presently NASA Glenn). The purpose of this system is to predict tone noise emanating from a fan stage including the effects of reflection and transmission by the rotor and stator and by the duct inlet and nozzle. These effects have been added to an existing annular duct/isolated stator noise prediction capability. TFaNS consists of: the codes that compute the acoustic properties (reflection and transmission coefficients) of the various elements and write them to files. CUP3D: Fan Noise Coupling Code that reads these files, solves the coupling problem, and outputs the desired noise predictions. AWAKEN: CFD/Measured Wake Postprocessor which reformats CFD wake predictions and/or measured wake data so it can be used by the system. This volume of the report provides information on code input and file structure essential for potential users of TFANS. This report is divided into three volumes: Volume 1. System Description, CUP3D Technical Documentation, and Manual for Code Developers; Volume 2. User's Manual, TFANS Vers. 1.4; Volume 3. Evaluation of System Codes.

  18. Satellite evidence for a large source of formic acid from boreal and tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.-F.; Peeters, J.; Razavi, A.; Clarisse, L.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Hurtmans, D.; de Mazière, M.; Vigouroux, C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Jones, N.; Paton-Walsh, C.

    2012-01-01

    Formic acid contributes significantly to acid rain in remote environments. Direct sources of formic acid include human activities, biomass burning and plant leaves. Aside from these direct sources, sunlight-induced oxidation of non-methane hydrocarbons (largely of biogenic origin) is probably the largest source. However, model simulations substantially underpredict atmospheric formic acid levels, indicating that not all sources have been included in the models. Here, we use satellite measurements of formic acid concentrations to constrain model simulations of the global formic acid budget. According to our simulations, 100-120Tg of formic acid is produced annually, which is two to three times more than that estimated from known sources. We show that 90% of the formic acid produced is biogenic in origin, and largely sourced from tropical and boreal forests. We suggest that terpenoids--volatile organic compounds released by plants--are the predominant precursors. Model comparisons with independent observations of formic acid strengthen our conclusions, and provide indirect validation for the satellite measurements. Finally, we show that the larger formic acid emissions have a substantial impact on rainwater acidity, especially over boreal forests in the summer, where formic acid reduces pH by 0.25-0.5.

  19. The trans fatty acids content of selected foods in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Akmar, Z D; Norhaizan, M E; Azimah, R; Azrina, A; Chan, Y M

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of information on the trans fatty acid (TFA) content in Malaysian foods. The objective of this study is to determine the TFA content of bakery products, snacks, dairy products, fast foods, cooking oils and semisolid fats, and breakfast cereals and Malaysian fast foods. This study also estimated the quantity of each isomer in the foods assayed. The trans fatty acid content of each food sample was assessed in duplicate by separating the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in a gas chromatography system equipped with HP-88 column (USA: split ratio 10: 1) for cis/trans separation. Five major TFA isomers, palmitoelaidic acid (16: 1t9), petroselaidic acid (18:1t6), elaidic acid (18:1t9), vaccenic acid (18: 1t11) and linoelaidic acid (18:2t9, 12), were measured using gas chromatography (GC) and the data were expressed in unit values of g/100 g lipid or g/100 g food. The total TFA contents in the studied foods were < 0.001 g-8.77 g/100 g lipid or < 0.001 g-5.79 g/100 g foods. This value falls within the standard and international recommendation level for TFA. The measured range of specific TFA isomers were as follows: palmitoelaidic acid (< 0.001 g-0.26 g/100 g lipid), petroselaidic acid (< 0.001 g - 3.09 g/100 g lipid), elaidic acid (< 0.001 g-0.87 g/100 g lipid), vaccenic acid (< 0.001 g-0.41 g/100 g lipid) and linoelaidic acid (< 0.001 g-6.60 g/100 g lipid). These data indicate that most of the tested foods have low TFA contents (< 1 g/100 g lipid).

  20. Macrocyclic lactones: A versatile source for omega radiohalogenated fatty acid analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, A.H.; Lyster, D.M.; Robertson, K.A.; Vincent, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    For each omega halogenated fatty acid there exists a potential omega hydroxy fatty acid and the corresponding macrocyclic lactone. The authors have utilized such lactones as starting materials for omega /sup 123/I fatty acid analogs intended for myocardial imaging. Macrocyclic musk lactones are industrially available; 120 analogs are described in the literature. The preparation requires saponification, tosylation, and radio-iodide substitution. Iodo-fatty acids are readily separated from tosylate fatty acids on TLC. While providing a secure source of 16-iodo-hexadecanoic acid and 17-iodo-heptadecanoic acid, the scheme allows ready access to a large number of untried fatty acid analogs. Examples presented are 16-iodo-hexadecanoic acid, 16-iodo-7-hexadecanoic acid, 16-iodo-12-oxa-hexadecanoic acid, 15-iodo-pentadecanoic acid, and 15-iodo-12-keto-pentadecanoic acid. Metabolic studies are in progress in mice and dogs to assess the utility of these analogs for myocardial imaging.

  1. Preliminary investigation of the application of on-line membrane extraction of trifluoroacetic acid as an aid to improvement of negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    New, A P; Wolff, J C; Crabtree, S; Freitas do Santos, L; Okafo, G; Lee, J; Divan, K

    2001-04-13

    We have recently investigated the biodegradation of a number of acidic aromatic compounds that give excellent chromatography using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) based HPLC methods. Unfortunately HPLC methods using TFA are not usually compatible with detection by negative ion mass spectrometry as TFA suppresses ionisation of the analyte during the electrospray process. We present a preliminary investigation of the use of an anion-exchange micro-membrane suppressor to remove TFA on-line post column with the aim of improvement of mass spectral data using an aromatic acid as an example, Thus LC-MS using a TFA based HPLC method with negative ion mass spectral detection is shown to be possible with good sensitivity.

  2. Naturally occurring fatty acids: Source, chemistry, and uses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  3. Omega-3 fatty acid production from enzyme saccharified hemp hydrolysate using a novel marine thraustochytrid strain.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Adarsha; Abraham, Reinu E; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a newly isolated marine thraustochytrid strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3, was used for omega-3 fatty acid production by growing on lignocellulose biomass obtained from local hemp hurd (Cannabis sativa) biomass. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, hemp was pretreated with sodium hydroxide to open the biomass structure for the production of sugar hydrolysate. The thraustochytrid strain was able to grow on the sugar hydrolysate and accumulated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). At the lowest carbon concentration of 2%, the PUFAs productivity was 71% in glucose and 59% in the sugars hydrolysate, as a percentage of total fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) levels were highest at about 49% of TFA using 6% glucose as the carbon source. SFAs of 41% were produced using 2% of SH. This study demonstrates that SH produced from lignocellulose biomass is a potentially useful carbon source for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in thraustochytrids, as demonstrated using the new strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3.

  4. Aqueous-phase source of formic acid in clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chameides, W. L.; Davis, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The coupled gas- and aqueous-phase cloud chemistry of HCOOH were examined for controlling factors in the acidity of cloud and rainwater. Attention was given to the aqueous OH/HO2 system that yields an OH species that is highly reactive with other species, notably SO2 and the formaldehyde/formic acid complex. A numerical model was developed to simulate the cloud chemistry in the remote troposphere, with considerations given to CH4-CO-NO(x)-O3-H(x)O(y) system. It was determined that aqueous phase OH radicals can produce and destroy formic acid droplets in daylight conditions, as well as control formic acid levels in rainwater. It is sugested that the same types of reactions may be involved in the control of acetic acid and other organic acids.

  5. Fe(II) Oxidation and Sources of Acidity on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Peretyazkho, T. S.; Sutter, B.

    2017-01-01

    There is an apparent paradox be-tween the evidence that aqueous environments on Mars were predominantly acidic, and the fact that Mars is predominantly a basaltic (and olivine-rich) planet. The problem being that basalt and olivine will act to neutralize acidic solutions they come into contact with, and that there is a lot more basaltic crust on Mars than water or acid. This is especially true if there is an appreciable amount of water available to bring the acid in contact with the basaltic crust. Several hypotheses for ancient mar-tian environments call on long lived groundwater and aqueous systems.

  6. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid in vegetarians and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Conquer, J A; Holub, B J

    1997-03-01

    The utilization of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) via retroconversion was investigated in both vegetarians and omnivores. For this purpose, an EPA-free preparation of DHA was given as a daily supplement (1.62 g DHA) over a period of 6 wk. The dietary supplement provided for a marked increase in DHA levels in both serum phospholipid (from 2.1 to 7.1 mol% in vegetarians and 2.2 to 7.6 mol% in omnivores) and platelet phospholipid (from 1.1 to 3.4 mol% in vegetarians and 1.4 to 3.9 mol% in omnivores). EPA levels rose to a significant but much lesser extent, while 20:4n-6, 22:5n-6, and 22:5n-3 all decreased. Based on the serum phospholipid data, the retroconversion of DHA to EPA in vivo was estimated to be 9.4% overall with no significant difference between omnivores and vegetarians.

  7. Trans-Himalayan Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. root: a novel source of dietary amino acids, fatty acids and minerals.

    PubMed

    Tayade, Amol B; Dhar, Priyanka; Kumar, Jatinder; Sharma, Manu; Chaurasia, Om P; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2017-02-01

    Roots of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew from Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert known for their nutritional and medicinal attributes were evaluated for the dietary amino acids, fatty acids and mineral composition. Nine essential and twelve non-essential amino acids were quantified. The contents ranged between 91.33 and 1640.67 µg/g. Histidine (1434.33 µg/g), lysine (1329.33 µg/g) and threonine (1015.67 μg/g) were dominant essential amino acids, while glycine (1640.67 µg/g), proline (1263.67 µg/g), alanine (1142.33 µg/g), cystine HCL (1136.33 μg/g) and nor leucine (1038.67 μg/g) were major non essential amino acids. The total lipid was found to be rich source of saturated fatty acids such as capric acid (19.91%), caproic acid (10.87%), palmitic acid (9.42%), lignoceric acid (6.16%) and behenic acid (5.71%), which together constituted 52% of the lipid content. Linoleic acid (15.06%), oleic acid (12.38%), arachidonic acid (8.38%), linolelaidic acid (6.11%) and docosadienoic acid (5.99%) were prominent unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). Mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were 35.64% and 12.33% of the lipid content respectively. Calcium (11034.17 mg/kg), potassium (2143.25 mg/kg), iron (1441.17 mg/kg), magnesium (581.99 mg/kg), phosphorous (376.72 mg/kg) and sodium (109.75 mg/kg) were detected as the major dietary minerals.

  8. Laboratory and field measurements to constrain atmospheric sources of acetic and formic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baasandorj, M.; Hu, L.; Mitroo, D.; Martinez, R.; Walker, M.; Williams, B. J.; Millet, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Acetic and formic acids are the most abundant organic acids in the atmosphere. They play an important role in atmospheric aqueous chemistry as they can influence the acidity of precipitation, cloud droplets, and atmospheric aerosols. Sources of these acids are highly uncertain, but include secondary production from VOC oxidation, direct emissions, and possibly organic aerosol aging. Here we present measurements of formic and acetic acid, along with a suite of other gas and particle phase species, from a field study in St. Louis during summer 2013. Calibration procedures and results are discussed, and we interpret the ambient formic and acetic acid measurements in terms of patterns of variability and implied constraints on sources. Finally, we present results from oxidative aging experiments on both ambient and test organic aerosol designed to assess the importance of this mechanism as a source of gas-phase carboxylic acids.

  9. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 2. Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing-capacity streams

    SciTech Connect

    Herlihy, A.T.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Mitch, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probable sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern United States. Acidic streams that had almost no organic influence (less than 10% of total anions) and sulfate and nitrate concentrations indicative of evaporative concentration of atmospheric deposition were classified as acidic due to acidic deposition. These acidic streams were located in small forested watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (an estimated 1950 km of stream length) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (1250 km). Acidic streams affected primarily by acidic deposition but also influenced by naturally occurring organic anions accounted for another 1180 km of acidic stream length and were located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, plateau tops in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands, and the Florida Panhandle. The total length of streams acidic due to acid mine drainage in the NSS (4590 km) was about the same as the total length of acidic streams likely affected by acidic deposition (4380 km). Acidic streams whose acid anion composition was dominated by organics were located in Florida and the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Florida, most of the acidic streams were organic dominated, whereas about half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain were organic dominated. Organic-dominated acidic streams were not observed in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands.

  10. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States, 2, Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlihy, Alan T.; Kaufmann, Philip R.; Mitch, Mark E.

    1991-04-01

    We examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probable sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern United States. Acidic streams that had almost no organic influence (less than 10% of total anions) and sulfate and nitrate concentrations indicative of evaporative concentration of atmospheric deposition were classified as acidic due to acidic deposition. These acidic streams were located in small (<30 km2) forested watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (an estimated 1950 km of stream length) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (1250 km). Acidic streams affected primarily by acidic deposition but also influenced by naturally occurring organic anions accounted for another 1180 km of acidic stream length and were located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, plateau tops in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands, and the Florida Panhandle. The total length of streams acidic due to acid mine drainage in the NSS (4590 km) was about the same as the total length of acidic streams likely affected by acidic deposition (4380 km). Acidic streams whose acid anion composition was dominated by organics were located in Florida and the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Florida, most of the acidic streams were organic dominated, whereas about half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain were organic dominated. Organic-dominated acidic streams were not observed in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands.

  11. Mechanism of proton transport in ionic-liquid-doped perfluorosulfonic acid membranes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Milan; Venkatnathan, Arun

    2013-11-21

    Ionic-liquid-doped perfluorosulfonic acid membranes (PFSA) are promising electrolytes for intermediate/high-temperature fuel cell applications. In the present study, we examine proton-transport pathways in a triethylammonium-triflate (TEATF) ionic liquid (IL)-doped Nafion membrane using quantum chemistry calculations. The IL-doped membrane matrix contains triflic acid (TFA), triflate anions (TFA(-)), triethylamine (TEA), and triethylammonium cations (TEAH(+)). Results show that proton abstraction from the sulfonic acid end groups in the membrane by TFA(-) facilitates TEAH(+) interaction with the side-chains. In the IL-doped PFSA membrane matrix, proton transfer from TFA to TEA and TFA to TFA(-) occurs. However, proton transfer from a tertiary amine cation (TEAH(+)) to a tertiary amine (TEA) does not occur without an interaction with an anion (TFA(-)). An anion interaction with the amine increases its basicity, and as a consequence, it takes a proton from a cation either instantly (if the cation is freely moving) or with a small activation energy barrier of 2.62 kcal/mol (if the cation is interacting with another anion). The quantum chemistry calculations predict that anions are responsible for proton-exchange between cations and neutral molecules of a tertiary amine. Results from this study can assist the experimental choice of IL to provide enhanced proton conduction in PFSA membrane environments.

  12. Trans fatty acids affect cellular viability of human intestinal Caco-2 cells and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Kloetzel, Marianne; Ehlers, Anke; Niemann, Birgit; Buhrke, Thorsten; Lampen, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are hypothesized to have an impact not only on coronary heart diseases but also on the development of colon cancer. To analyze if TFA exhibit cellular and molecular effects which could be involved in colon tumor progression, cells of the human colorectal adenocarcinoma-derived cell line Caco-2 were treated with various TFA isomers differing in the number and position of trans double bonds. The TFA tested in this study did not increase cellular proliferation but displayed growth-inhibitory effects at concentrations higher than 500 μM. In case of the TFA isomer C18:3 t9, t11, t13, an IC50 value of 23 μM was estimated for cytotoxicity indicating a high cytotoxic potential of this compound. In addition to the cytotoxicity studies, the TFA isomers were tested for their ability to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) by taking advantage of a PPAR-dependent reporter gene assay. In contrast to PPARγ that was not activated by the TFA isomers tested in this study, the substances were shown to moderately activate PPARα, and strong activation was observed for PPARδ. The putative impact of TFA on colon cancer development with respect to PPARδ activation is being discussed.

  13. Trans fatty acid contents in selected dietary fats in the Estonian market.

    PubMed

    Meremäe, Kadrin; Roasto, Mati; Kuusik, Sirje; Ots, Meelis; Henno, Merike

    2012-08-01

    In response to public concern, this study assessed the fatty acid (FA) composition of blended spreads, margarines and shortenings in the Estonian retail market in 2011. Special attention was paid to the trans fatty acids (TFA) composition. The changes in these characteristics of selected dietary fats in the market over recent years are also presented. Twenty-six edible fat brands, available in the Estonian retail market in 2011, were purchased and FA compositions were analyzed by chromatography. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were the dominant group of FAs for all blended spreads (49.6 to 65.8%), and for the majority of shortenings (from 21.1 to 54.6%). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the dominant group of FAs for the majority of margarines, ranging from 25.3% to 50.5%. The total TFA for blended spreads varied from 1.18% to 9.08%, for margarines from 0.04% to 34.96% and for shortenings from 0.14% to 39.50%. Octadecenoic (C18:1) isomers were the main TFA found. Compared to 2008/2009, the industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA) content in several of the dietary fat brands was much reduced in 2011. This voluntary reformulation was probably a response to consumer demand associated with a public health campaign directed against IP-TFA in Estonian foods, and were mainly achieved by replacing TFA with SFA C12:0-C16:0. Present paper is directed toward public health related institutions and food industries producing foods with potentially high contents of trans fatty acids (TFA). According to the public concern TFA content in domestic blended spreads has declined significantly over the past 3 y in Estonia. The reduction in the TFA content was achieved by replacing TFA with saturated fatty acids (SFA) (C12:0-C16:0). To shift food composition toward healthier product formulations, mandatory labeling of the sum of IP-TFA and SFA (C12:0-C16:0) was recommended. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Influence of dietary phytic acid and source of microbial phytase on ileal endogenous amino acid flows in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cowieson, A J; Ravindran, V; Selle, P H

    2008-11-01

    The effects of phytic acid and 2 sources of exogenous phytase (bacterial vs. fungal) on the flow of endogenous amino acids at the terminal ileum of broilers were assessed using the enzyme-hydrolyzed casein method. Phytic acid (as the sodium salt) was included in a purified diet at 8.5 and 14.5 g/kg, and each diet was fed without or with a fungal (Aspergillus niger-derived) or a bacterial (Escherichia coli-derived) microbial phytase at 500 phytase units/kg of diet. Increasing the concentration of phytic acid in the diet from 8.5 to 14.5 g/kg increased (P < 0.001) the flow of all measured amino acids by an average of 68%, with a range from 17% for proline to 145% for phenylalanine. The flow of endogenous aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and histidine were increased by more than the mean, indicating changes in the composition of endogenous protein in response to the presence of higher concentrations of phytic acid. Supplementation of both phytases reduced (P < 0.001) the flow of endogenous amino acids, but the reduction (P = 0.06) was greater for the bacterial phytase compared with the fungal phytase. These data suggest that a substantial part of the amino acid and energy responses observed following phytase supplementation in broiler chickens stems from reduced endogenous amino acid flows and that the capacity of different phytases to counteract the antinutritive properties of phytic acid vary.

  15. TFaNS Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System. Volume 1; System Description, CUP3D Technical Documentation and Manual for Code Developers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topol, David A.

    1999-01-01

    TFaNS is the Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System developed by Pratt & Whitney under contract to NASA Lewis (presently NASA Glenn). The purpose of this system is to predict tone noise emanating from a fan stage including the effects of reflection and transmission by the rotor and stator and by the duct inlet and nozzle. These effects have been added to an existing annular duct/isolated stator noise prediction capability. TFaNS consists of: The codes that compute the acoustic properties (reflection and transmission coefficients) of the various elements and write them to files. Cup3D: Fan Noise Coupling Code that reads these files, solves the coupling problem, and outputs the desired noise predictions. AWAKEN: CFD/Measured Wake Postprocessor which reformats CFD wake predictions and/or measured wake data so it can be used by the system. This volume of the report provides technical background for TFaNS including the organization of the system and CUP3D technical documentation. This document also provides information for code developers who must write Acoustic Property Files in the CUP3D format. This report is divided into three volumes: Volume I: System Description, CUP3D Technical Documentation, and Manual for Code Developers; Volume II: User's Manual, TFaNS Vers. 1.4; Volume III: Evaluation of System Codes.

  16. Yearly trend of dicarboxylic acids in organic aerosols from south of Sweden and source attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyder, Murtaza; Genberg, Johan; Sandahl, Margareta; Swietlicki, Erik; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2012-09-01

    Seven aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (C3-C9) along with phthalic acid, pinic acid and pinonic acid were determined in 35 aerosol (PM10) samples collected over the year at Vavihill sampling station in south of Sweden. Mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (ratio 1:3) was preferred over water for extraction of samples and extraction was assisted by ultrasonic agitation. Analytes were derivatized using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethylsilyl chloride and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Among studied analytes, azelaic acid was found maximum with an average concentration of 6.0 ± 3.6 ng m-3 and minimum concentration was found for pimelic acid (1.06 ± 0.63 ng m-3). A correlation coefficients analysis was used for defining the possible sources of analytes. Higher dicarboxylic acids (C7-C9) showed a strong correlation with each other (correlation coefficients (r) range, 0.96-0.97). Pinic and pinonic acids showed an increase in concentration during summer. Lower carbon number dicarboxylic acids (C3-C6) and phthalic acid were found strongly correlated, but showed a poor correlation with higher carbon number dicarboxylic acids (C7-C9), suggesting a different source for them. Biomass burning, vehicle exhaust, photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (natural and anthropogenic emissions) were possible sources for dicarboxylic acids.

  17. Fish Lipids as a Valuable Source of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merdzhanova, Albena; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Dobreva, Diana A.; Makedonski, Lyubomir

    2017-03-01

    This article presents information about omega-3 (h-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents in a broad range of commercially important fish species available on Bulgarian fish markets. The aim is to raise consumers' awareness and encourage them to eat fish. Fish species from the Black Sea coast have relatively high proportion of n-3 PUFAs, of which more than 80% is by EPf (eicosapentaenoic acid, C 20:5 n-3) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, C 22:6 n-3). Extensive epidemiological studies show that fish consumption is inversely associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), stroke and the functioning of the brain. About 0.5 g of omega-3 (EPA+DHA) a day or two savings of oily fish a week are required to reduce the risk of death from CVD. PUFAs needs should be satisfied not only with food additives but with fish lipids containing food.

  18. Effect of different polyphenol sources on the efficiency of ellagic acid release by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Leonardo; de la Cruz, Reynaldo; Buenrostro, José Juan; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan Alberto; Aguilera-Carbó, Antonio Francisco; Prado, Arely; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noé

    2016-01-01

    Fungal hydrolysis of ellagitannins produces hexahydroxydiphenic acid, which is considered an intermediate molecule in ellagic acid release. Ellagic acid has important and desirable beneficial health properties. The aim of this work was to identify the effect of different sources of ellagitannins on the efficiency of ellagic acid release by Aspergillus niger. Three strains of A. niger (GH1, PSH and HT4) were assessed for ellagic acid release from different polyphenol sources: cranberry, creosote bush, and pomegranate used as substrate. Polyurethane foam was used as support for solid-state culture in column reactors. Ellagitannase activity was measured for each of the treatments. Ellagic acid was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. When pomegranate polyphenols were used, a maximum value of ellagic acid (350.21 mg/g) was reached with A. niger HT4 in solid-state culture. The highest amount of ellagitannase (5176.81 U/l) was obtained at 8h of culture when cranberry polyphenols and strain A. niger PSH were used. Results demonstrated the effect of different polyphenol sources and A. niger strains on ellagic acid release. It was observed that the best source for releasing ellagic acid was pomegranate polyphenols and A. niger HT4 strain, which has the ability to degrade these compounds for obtaining a potent bioactive molecule such as ellagic acid. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying sources of acidity and spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils in the Anglesea River catchment, southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Vanessa; Yau, Chin; Kennedy, David

    2015-04-01

    Globally, coastal and estuarine floodplains are frequently underlain by sulfidic sediments. When exposed to oxygen, sulfidic sediments oxidise to form acid sulfate soils, adversely impacting on floodplain health and adjacent aquatic ecoystems. In eastern Australia, our understanding of the formation of these coastal and estuarine floodplains, and hence, spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils, is relatively well established. These soils have largely formed as a result of sedimentation of coastal river valleys approximately 6000 years BP when sea levels were one to two metres higher. However, our understanding of the evolution of estuarine systems and acid sulfate soil formation, and hence, distribution, in southern Australia remains limited. The Anglesea River, in southern Australia, is subjected to frequent episodes of poor water quality and low pH resulting in closure of the river and, in extreme cases, large fish kill events. This region is heavily reliant on tourism and host to a number of iconic features, including the Great Ocean Road and Twelve Apostles. Poor water quality has been linked to acid leakage from mining activities and Tertiary-aged coal seams, peat swamps and acid sulfate soils in the region. However, our understanding of the sources of acidity and distribution of acid sulfate soils in this region remains poor. In this study, four sites on the Anglesea River floodplain were sampled, representative of the main vegetation communities. Peat swamps and intertidal marshes were both significant sources of acidity on the floodplain in the lower catchment. However, acid neutralising capacity provided by carbonate sands suggests that there are additional sources of acidity higher in the catchment. This pilot study has highlighted the complexity in the links between the floodplain, upper catchment and waterways with further research required to understand these links for targeted acid management strategies.

  20. Plasma Phospholipid Trans‐Fatty Acids Levels, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Total Mortality: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianyi; Imamura, Fumiaki; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Rimm, Eric B.; Wang, Molin; King, Irena B.; Song, Xiaoling; Siscovick, David; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    Background While self‐reported trans–fatty acid (TFA) consumption is linked to coronary heart disease (CHD), relationships between objective biomarkers of TFA subtypes (t‐16:1n9, total t‐18:1, and cis/trans‐(c/t‐), t/c‐ and t/t‐18:2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or total mortality are not well established. Methods and Results We evaluated 2742 adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study, aged 74±5 years and free of prevalent CVD, with plasma phospholipid TFA measures in 1992. Incident fatal and nonfatal CHD events, CVD and non‐CVD mortality, and total mortality were centrally adjudicated through 2010. Risks were assessed using Cox proportional hazards. During 31 494 person‐years, 1735 total deaths and 639 total CHD events occurred. In the multivariate model including mutual adjustment for the 5 TFA subtypes, circulating t/t‐18:2 was associated with higher total mortality (extreme quintile hazard ratio (HR)=1.23, 95% CI=1.04 to 1.44, P‐trend=0.01), CVD mortality (HR=1.40, 95% CI=1.05 to 1.86, P‐trend=0.02), and total CHD (HR=1.39, 95% CI=1.06 to 1.83, P‐trend=0.01). t/c‐18:2 was positively related to total mortality (HR=1.19, P‐trend=0.05), total CHD (HR=1.67, P‐trend=0.002), and nonfatal CHD (HR=2.06, P‐trend=0.002) after mutual adjustment; these associations were insignificant without mutual adjustment. Neither t‐16:1n9 nor t‐18:1 was significantly associated with total mortality or CVD, nor was c/t‐18:2 if we excluded early cases. Conclusions Among circulating TFAs, t/t‐18:2 was most adversely associated with total mortality, mainly due to the increased risk of CVD. t/c‐18:2 was also positively associated with total mortality and CHD, but only after adjustment for other TFAs. These results highlight the need for further investigation of dietary sources, nondietary determinants, and health effects of specific TFA subtypes, especially t‐18:2 isomers. PMID:25164946

  1. Predicted changes in fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease risk following replacement of trans fatty acid-containing soybean oil with application-appropriate alternatives.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D

    2012-10-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)--containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 24-hour dietary recalls for 1999-2002, we selected 25 food categories, accounting for 86 % of soybean oil (SBO) and 79 % of TFA intake for replacement modeling. Before modeling, those in the middle quintile had a mean PHSBO TFA intake of 1.2 % of energy. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring thermal stability by either low-linolenic acid SBO or mid-oleic, low-linolenic acid SBO decreased TFA intake by 0.3 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 0.7-0.8 %. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring functional properties with palm-based oils reduced TFA intake by 0.8 % of energy, increased palmitic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and reduced predicted CVD risk by 0.4 %, whereas replacement with fully hydrogenated interesterified SBO reduced TFA intake by 0.7 % of energy, increased stearic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and decreased predicted CVD risk by 1.2 %. PHSBO replacement in both thermal and functional applications reduced TFA intake by 1.0 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 1.5 %. Based solely on changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins, all PHSBO replacement models reduced estimated CVD risk, albeit less than previously reported using simpler replacement models.

  2. A large underestimate of the pyrogenic source of formic acid inferred from space-borne measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaliyakunnel, S.; Millet, D. B.; Wells, K. C.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Shephard, M.

    2015-12-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere, and a dominant source of acidity in the global troposphere. Recent work has revealed a major gap in our present understanding of the atmospheric formic acid budget, with observed concentrations much larger than can be reconciled with current estimates of its sources. In this work, we employ new space-based observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite instrument with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to better quantify the source of atmospheric formic acid from biomass burning, and assess the degree to which this source can help close the large budget gap for this species. The space-based formic acid data reveal a severe model underestimate for HCOOH that is most prominent over tropical biomass burning regions, indicating a major missing source of organic acids from fires. Based on two independent methods for inferring the fractional contribution of fires to the measured HCOOH abundance, we find that the pyrogenic HCOOH:CO enhancement ratio measured by TES (including direct emissions plus secondary production) is 5-10 times higher than current estimates of the direct emission ratio, providing evidence of substantial secondary production of HCOOH in fire plumes. We further show that current models significantly underestimate (by a factor of 2-6) the total primary and secondary source of HCOOH from tropical fires.

  3. Effect of traditional Chinese cooking methods on fatty acid profiles of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yamin; Hao, Pengfei; Liu, Bingjie; Meng, Xianghong

    2017-10-15

    The effect of four frying processes (vegetable salad, stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying) on fatty acid composition of ten vegetable oils (peanut oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower seed oil, rice bran oil, olive oil, sesame oil, linseed oil, and peony seed oil) was investigated using GC-MS. The result showed that trans-fatty acid (TFA) was produced during all processes. Rapeseed oil had the highest TFA content in vegetable salad oil with 2.88% of total fatty acid. The TFA content of sunflower seed oil was 0.00% in vegetable salad oil, however, after stir frying and pan frying, it increased to 1.53% and 1.29%, respectively. Peanut oil had the lowest TFA content after deep frying for 12h with 0.74mg/g. It was concluded that a healthy cooking process could be acquired by a scientific collocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stearidonic acid as a supplemental source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to enhance status for improved human health.

    PubMed

    Walker, Celia G; Jebb, Susan A; Calder, Philip C

    2013-02-01

    There is substantial evidence to show that consumption and increased blood levels of the very long-chain (VLC) ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with health benefits. The consumption of oily fish is an effective way of increasing EPA and DHA intake and status, but intake in most Western countries remains below the levels recommended for optimal health. The reasons for this include not liking the taste, a concern about sustainability of fish supplies, or potential chemical and heavy metal contamination. Alternative dietary sources of ω-3 fatty acids to enhance EPA and DHA status in the body would therefore be beneficial. There are many non-fish food sources of the essential plant-derived ω-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid, but conversion from this to longer-chain EPA and especially to DHA is poor. Stearidonic acid (SDA) is an intermediate fatty acid in the biosynthetic pathway from α-linolenic acid to VLC ω-3 PUFAs and the conversion from SDA is more efficient than from α-linolenic acid. However, there are few food sources rich in SDA. Oil crops naturally rich in SDA or enriched through genetic modification may offer an alternative supplemental oil to boost the population status of VLC ω-3 PUFAs. This review discusses the currently available evidence that increased SDA consumption can increase red blood cell EPA content, although this is less than the effect of supplementation directly with EPA. There is now a need for trials specifically designed to assess whether an increased SDA consumption would translate into improved human health outcomes.

  5. Fatty acid profiles of four filamentous green algae under varying culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junzhuo; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Although benthic filamentous algae are interesting targets for wastewater treatment and biotechnology, relatively little is known about their biochemical composition and variation in response to growth conditions. Fatty acid composition of four benthic filamentous green algae was determined in different culture conditions. Although the response was partly species-dependent, increasing culture age, nitrogen deprivation and dark exposure of stationary phase greatly increased both total fatty acid content (TFA) from 12-35 to 40-173mgg(-1) dry weight (DW) and the relative proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from 21-58% to 55-87% of TFA, with dark exposure having the greatest effect. However, the main variation in fatty acid composition was between species, with Uronema being rich in C16:0 (2.3% of DW), Klebsormidium in C18:2ω6 (5.4% of DW) and Stigeoclonium in C18:3ω3 (11.1% of DW). This indicates the potential of the latter two species as potential sources of these PUFAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trans Fatty Acids Suppress TNF-α-Induced Inflammatory Gene Expression in Endothelial (HUVEC) and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Marine S; Julien, Pierre; Bilodeau, Jean-François; Barbier, Olivier; Rudkowska, Iwona

    2017-04-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) intake has been linked to cardiovascular diseases and liver diseases; yet the effect of TFA on inflammation remains controversial. Accordingly, the objective of this paper was to determine the in vitro effects of TFA on inflammatory gene expression. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were treated for 24 h with either trans-vaccenic acid (tVA), trans-palmitoleic acid (tPA) or elaidic acid (EA) at concentrations of 5-150 µM, or with a mixture of tVA and tPA (150/50 µM). All TFA were highly incorporated into cell membranes, as determined by gas chromatography, representing 15-20% of total fatty acids in HUVEC and 3-8% in HepG2 cells. Incorporation of EA, a common industrial TFA, increased the ratio of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1), a key enzyme involved in fatty acid metabolism. Ruminant TFA, including tVA, tPA and the mixture of tVA and tPA, significantly reduced the TNF-α-induced gene expression of TNF, VCAM-1 and SOD2 in HUVEC, as well as TNF and IL-8 in HepG2 cells. EA also decreased inflammatory gene expression in HUVEC, but not in HepG2 cells. The inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ did not influence the effects of TFA on gene expression. Overall, physiological and supraphysiological concentrations of TFA, especially tVA and tPA, prevented inflammatory gene expression in vitro. This effect is independent of PPAR-γ activation and may be due to an alteration of fatty acid metabolism in cell membranes caused by the high incorporation of TFA.

  7. 'Trophic' and 'source' amino acids in trophic estimation: a likely metabolic explanation.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, T C

    2017-06-01

    Amino acid nitrogen isotopic analysis is a relatively new method for estimating trophic position. It uses the isotopic difference between an individual's 'trophic' and 'source' amino acids to determine its trophic position. So far, there is no accepted explanation for the mechanism by which the isotopic signals in 'trophic' and 'source' amino acids arise. Yet without a metabolic understanding, the utility of nitrogen isotopic analyses as a method for probing trophic relations, at either bulk tissue or amino acid level, is limited. I draw on isotopic tracer studies of protein metabolism, together with a consideration of amino acid metabolic pathways, to suggest that the 'trophic'/'source' groupings have a fundamental metabolic origin, to do with the cycling of amino-nitrogen between amino acids. 'Trophic' amino acids are those whose amino-nitrogens are interchangeable, part of a metabolic amino-nitrogen pool, and 'source' amino acids are those whose amino-nitrogens are not interchangeable with the metabolic pool. Nitrogen isotopic values of 'trophic' amino acids will reflect an averaged isotopic signal of all such dietary amino acids, offset by the integrated effect of isotopic fractionation from nitrogen cycling, and modulated by metabolic and physiological effects. Isotopic values of 'source' amino acids will be more closely linked to those of equivalent dietary amino acids, but also modulated by metabolism and physiology. The complexity of nitrogen cycling suggests that a single identifiable value for 'trophic discrimination factors' is unlikely to exist. Greater consideration of physiology and metabolism should help in better understanding observed patterns in nitrogen isotopic values.

  8. Uapaca genus (Euphorbiaceae), a good source of betulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Nyasse, Barthelemy; Nono, Jean-Jules; Nganso, Yves; Ngantchou, Igor; Schneider, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Betulinic acid, isolated in substantial amounts from stem barks of five distinct species of Uapaca could be considered as an important chemotaxomic marker of the Uapaca genus. It inhibited Trypanosoma brucei GAPDH with an IC(50) value of 240 microM and has been shown to be a competitive reversible inhibitor (Ki=200+/-10 microM) of this enzyme with respect to its cofactor NAD(+).

  9. Iron dissolution of dust source materials during simulated acidic processing: the effect of sulfuric, acetic, and oxalic acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H

    2013-09-17

    Atmospheric organic acids potentially display different capacities in iron (Fe) mobilization from atmospheric dust compared with inorganic acids, but few measurements have been made on this comparison. We report here a laboratory investigation of Fe mobilization of coal fly ash, a representative Fe-containing anthropogenic aerosol, and Arizona test dust, a reference source material for mineral dust, in pH 2 sulfuric acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid, respectively. The effects of pH and solar radiation on Fe dissolution have also been explored. The relative capacities of these three acids in Fe dissolution are in the order of oxalic acid > sulfuric acid > acetic acid. Oxalate forms mononuclear bidentate ligand with surface Fe and promotes Fe dissolution to the greatest extent. Photolysis of Fe-oxalate complexes further enhances Fe dissolution with the concomitant degradation of oxalate. These results suggest that ligand-promoted dissolution of Fe may play a more significant role in mobilizing Fe from atmospheric dust compared with proton-assisted processing. The role of atmospheric organic acids should be taken into account in global-biogeochemical modeling to better access dissolved atmospheric Fe deposition flux at the ocean surface.

  10. Fact Sheet: Revisions to New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Nitric Acid Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a May 2012 fact sheet with information regarding the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Nitric Acid Plants. This document provides a summary of the information for this NSPS.

  11. Effective synthesis of optically active trifluoromethyldiazirinyl homophenylalanine and aroylalanine derivatives with the Friedel-Crafts reaction in triflic acid.

    PubMed

    Murashige, Ryo; Murai, Yuta; Hatanaka, Yasumaru; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2009-06-01

    The Friedel-Crafts reaction with 3-(3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirine and optically active N-TFA-Asp(Cl)-OMe in triflic acid afforded homophenylalanine derivatives without any loss of the optical purity.

  12. Ethyl oleate-containing nanostructured lipid carriers improve oral bioavailability of trans-ferulic acid ascompared with conventional solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongtai; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Gang; Wang, Zhi; Zhao, Jihui; Hu, Rongfeng; Feng, Nianping

    2016-09-10

    trans-Ferulic acid (TFA) has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective effects, but its poor solubility in water results in unsatisfactory oral bioavailability when administered conventionally at a standard dosage. However, the limited bioavailability of TFA can be overcome by delivering it in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). In this study, a microemulsion (ME)-based method was used to prepare NLCs with ethyl oleate as the liquid lipid component and glyceryl behenate as the solid lipid component. These NLCs and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were then used as vehicles for TFA. Their entrapment efficiencies (EE), stability during storage, in vitro release profiles, and in vivo pharmacokinetics were compared. The NLC formulation afforded a drug entrapment efficiency that was significantly greater than that of the SLN formulation, which was made using a single solid lipid. Furthermore, the TFA that was dispersed in the disordered binary lipid matrix of the NLC formulation was more stable than that in the SLN formulation, and thus showed less expulsion from the vehicle during storage. In in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, the NLC TFA formulation yielded a greater Cmax and AUC than that produced by the SLN formulation and an aqueous TFA suspension. This showed that the oral bioavailability of TFA was markedly improved by packaging in NLCs. NLCs are thus a promising vehicle for oral TFA administration, with significant advantages over SLNs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Formic acid measurements from space: Retrieval strategy, evaluation, and initial constraints on primary and secondary sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, D. B.; Chaliyakunnel, S.; Wells, K. C.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Shephard, M. W.; Luo, M.; Paulot, F.

    2012-12-01

    Formic acid is a major contributor to acidity in the global atmosphere, and recent work suggests that its sources are significantly underestimated. New space-borne measurements from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), onboard EOS Aura, offer valuable global data for investigating this issue, and for quantifying primary and secondary formic acid sources to the atmosphere. In this presentation, we describe the TES formic acid retrieval strategy along with a series of sensitivity studies to test its reliability. We present initial global results showing the seasonal and spatial distribution of formic acid in the lower troposphere, and apply a 3D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to i) evaluate the TES retrievals against a collection of airborne and ground-based observations, and ii) assess what constraints the satellite data can provide on the budget of atmospheric formic acid.

  14. Atmospheric photooxidation of fluoroacetates as a source of fluorocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M B; Bejan, I; Barnes, I; Wiesen, P; Teruel, Mariano A

    2010-04-01

    A 1080 L environmental chamber with in situ FTIR spectroscopy detection was used to study the product distribution and the mechanism of the Cl-initiated photooxidation of a series of fluoroacetates. The gas-phase reactions of Cl atoms with ethyl trifluoroacetate (CF(3)C(O)OCH(2)CH(3)), methyl trifluoroacetate (CF(3)C(O)OCH(3)), and methyl difluoroacetate (CF(2)HC(O)OCH(3)) were investigated at 296 +/- 2 K and atmospheric pressure (approximately 760 Torr) of synthetic air. The fate of the fluoroalkoxy radicals formed in the reaction with Cl atoms mainly occurs through (i) an H-atom abstraction by reaction with O(2,) to produce the corresponding fluoroanhydride and (ii) an alpha-ester rearrangement via a five-membered ring intermediate to give the corresponding fluoroacetic acid. The yields of fluoroacids (CF(2)XC(O)OH, with X = H, F) obtained were as follows: 78 +/- 5, 23 +/- 2, and 30 +/- 5% for CF(3)C(O)OCH(2)CH(3), CF(3)C(O)OCH(3), and CF(2)HC(O)OCH(3,), respectively. Yields of acid yields observed for the different fluoroacetates. Atmospheric implications, especially with regard to the fluorocarboxylic acid formation, are discussed.

  15. Use of palm-oil by-products in chicken and rabbit feeds: effect on the fatty acid and tocol composition of meat, liver and plasma.

    PubMed

    Tres, A; Nuchi, C D; Magrinyà, N; Guardiola, F; Bou, R; Codony, R

    2012-06-01

    This study was undertaken in the framework of a larger European project dealing with the characterization of fat co- and by-products from the food chain, available for feed uses. In this study, we compare the effects, on the fatty acid (FA) and tocol composition of chicken and rabbit tissues, of the addition to feeds of a palm fatty acid distillate, very low in trans fatty acids (TFA), and two levels of the corresponding hydrogenated by-product, containing intermediate and high levels of TFA. Thus, the experimental design included three treatments, formulated for each species, containing the three levels of TFA defined above. Obviously, due to the use of hydrogenated fats, the levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) show clear differences between the three dietary treatments. The results show that diets high in TFA (76 g/kg fat) compared with those low in TFA (4.4 g/kg fat) led to a lower content of tocopherols and tocotrienols in tissues, although these differences were not always statistically significant, and show a different pattern for rabbit and chicken. The TFA content in meat, liver and plasma increased from low-to-high TFA feeds in both chicken and rabbit. However, the transfer ratios from feed were not proportional to the TFA levels in feeds, reflecting certain differences according to the animal species. Moreover, feeds containing fats higher in TFA induced significant changes in tissue SFA, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids composition, but different patterns can be described for chicken and rabbit and for each type of tissue.

  16. Petroleum pollution bioremediation using water-insoluble uric acid as the nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Koren, Omry; Knezevic, Vishnia; Ron, Eliora Z; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2003-10-01

    The biodegradation of hydrocarbon pollutants in open systems is limited by the availability of a utilizable nitrogen source. This limitation can be overcome by using uric acid. Enrichment cultures grown on crude oil-uric acid media yielded mixed and pure cultures that degraded petroleum. In a simulated open system, uric acid bound to crude oil and was available for bacterial growth and petroleum biodegradation.

  17. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 2. Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity streams

    SciTech Connect

    Herlihy, A.T.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Mitch, M.E. )

    1991-04-01

    The authors examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probably sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern US. Acidic streams that had almost no organic influence (less than 10% of total anions) and sulfate and nitrate concentrations indicative of evaporative concentration of atmospheric deposition were classified as acidic due to acidic deposition. These acidic streams were located in small (<30 km{sup 2}) forested watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (an estimated 1,950 km of stream length) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (1,250 km). Acidic streams affected primarily by acidic deposition but also influenced by naturally occurring organic anions accounted for another 1,180 km of acidic stream length, and were located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, plateau tops in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands, and the Florida Panhandle. The total length of streams acidic due to acid mine drainage in the NSS (4,590 km) was about the same as the total length of acidic streams likely affected by acidic deposition (4,380 km). Acidic streams whose acid anion composition was dominated by organics were located in Florida and the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Florida, most of the acidic streams were organic dominated, whereas about half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain were organic dominated. Organic-dominated acidic streams were not observed in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands.

  18. Trifluoroacetic Acid from Degradation of HCFCs and HFCs: A Three-Dimensional Modeling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotamarthi, V. R.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Tromp, T. K.; Sze, N. D.

    1998-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA; CF3COOH) is produced by the degradation of the halocarbon replacements HFC-134a, HCFC-124, and HCFC-123. The formation of TFA occurs by HFC/HCFC reacting with OH to yield CF3COX (X = F or CI), followed by in-cloud hydrolysis of CF3COX to form TFA. The TFA formed in the clouds may be reevaporated but is finally deposited onto the surface by washout or dry deposition. Concern has been expressed about the possible long-term accumulation of TFA in certain aquatic environments, pointing to the need to obtain information on the concentrations of TFA in rainwater over scales ranging from local to continental. Based on projected concentrations for HFC-134a, HCFC-124, and HCFC-123 of 80, 10, and 1 pptv in the year 2010, mass conservation arguments imply an annually averaged global concentration of 0.16 micro g/L if washout were the only removal mechanism for TFA. We present 3-D simulations of the HFC/HCFC precursors of TFA that include the rates of formation and deposition of TFA based on assumed future emissions. An established (GISS/Harvard/ UCI) but coarse-resolution (8 deg latitude by 10 deg longitude) chemical transport model was used. The annually averaged rainwater concentration of 0.12 micro g/L (global) was calculated for the year 2010, when both washout and dry deposition are included as the loss mechanism for TFA from the atmosphere. For some large regions in midnorthern latitudes, values are larger, 0.15-0.20 micro g/L. The highest monthly averaged rainwater concentrations of TFA for northern midlatitudes were calculated for the month of July, corresponding to 0.3-0.45 micro g/L in parts of North America and Europe. Recent laboratory experiments have suggested that a substantial amount of vibrationally excited CF3CHFO is produced in the degradation of HFC-134a, decreasing the yield of TFA from this compound by 60%. This decrease would reduce the calculated amounts of TFA in rainwater in the year 2010 by 26%, for the same projected

  19. Trifluoroacetic Acid from Degradation of HCFCs and HFCs: A Three-Dimensional Modeling Study. Appendix P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotamarthi, V. R.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Tromp, T. K.; Sze, N. D.; Prather, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA; CF3 COOH) is produced by the degradation of the halocarbon replacements HFC-134a, HCFC-124, and HCFC-123. The formation of TFA occurs by HFC/HCFC reacting with OH to yield CF3COX (X = F or CI), followed by in-cloud hydrolysis of CF to form TFA. The TFA formed in the clouds may be reevaporated but is finally deposited onto the surface by washout or dry deposition. Concern has been expressed about the possible long-term accumulation of TFA in certain aquatic environments, pointing to the need to obtain information on the concentrations of TFA in rainwater over scales ranging from local to continental. Based on projected concentrations for HFC-134a, HCFC-124, and HCFC-123 of 80, 10, and 1 pptv in the year 2010, mass conservation arguments imply an annually averaged global concentration of 0.16 micro g/L if washout were the only removal mechanism for TFA. We present 3-D simulations of the HFC/HCFC precursors of TFA that include the rates of formation and deposition of TFA based on assumed future emissions. An established (GISS[Harvard/ UCI) but coarse-resolution (8 deg latitude by 10 deg longitude) chemical transport model was used. The annually averaged rainwater concentration of 0.12 micro g/L (global) was calculated for the year 2010, when both washout and dry deposition are included as the loss mechanism for TFA from the atmosphere. For some large regions in midnorthern latitudes, values are larger. 0.15-0.20 micro g/L. The highest monthly averaged rainwater concentrations of TFA for northern midlatitudes were calculated for the month of July, corresponding to 0.3 - 0.45 micro g/L in parts of North America and Europe. Recent laboratory experiments have suggested that a substantial amount of vibrationally excited CF3CHFO is produced in the degradation of HFC-134a, decreasing the yield of TFA from this compound by 60%. This decrease would reduce the calculated amounts of TFA in rainwater in the year 2010 by 26%, for the same projected

  20. Trifluoroacetic Acid from Degradation of HCFCs and HFCs: A Three-dimensional Modeling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotamarthi, V. R.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Tromp, T. K.; Sze, N. D.

    1998-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA; CF3 COOH) is produced by the degradation of the halocarbon replacements HFC-134a, HCFC-124, and HCFC-123. The formation of TFA occurs by HFC/HCFC reacting with OH to yield CF3COX (X = F or CI), followed by in-cloud hydrolysis of CF3COX to form TFA. The TFA formed in the clouds may be reevaporated but is finally deposited onto the surface by washout or dry deposition. Concern has been expressed about the possible long-term accumulation of TFA in certain aquatic environments, pointing to the need to obtain information on the concentrations of TFA in rainwater over scales ranging from local to continental. Based on projected concentrations for HFC-134a, HCFC-124, and HCFC-123 of 80, 10, and 1 pptv in the year 2010, mass conservation arguments imply an annually averaged global concentration of 0.16 microg/L if washout were the only removal mechanism for TFA. We present 3-D simulations of the HFC/HCFC precursors of TFA that include the rates of formation and deposition of TFA based on assumed future emissions. An established (GISS/Harvard/ UCI) but coarse-resolution (8 deg latitude by 10 deg longitude) chemical transport model was used. The anually averaged rainwater concentration of 0.12 gg/L (global) was calculated for the year 2010, when both washout and dry deposition are included as the loss mechanism for TFA from the atmosphere. For some large regions in midnorthern latitudes, values are larger, 0.15-0.20 microg/L. The highest monthly averaged rainwater concentrations of TFA for northern midlatitudes were calculated for the month of July, corresponding to 0.3-0.45 microg/L in parts of North America and Europe. Recent laboratory experiments have suggested that a substantial amount of vibrationally excited CF3CHFO is produced in the degradation of HFC-134a, decreasing the yield of TFA from this compound by 60%. This decrease would reduce the calculated amounts of TFA in rainwater in the year 2010 by 26%, for the same projected

  1. Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from different sources affect fat and fatty acid excretions in rats.

    PubMed

    Amate, L; Gil, A; Ramírez, M

    2001-12-01

    Several sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) have been evaluated for infant-formula supplementation. These sources differ in their chemical structure [triglyceride (TG) or phospholipid (PL)], arrangement of fatty acids on the TG or PL backbone, fatty acid composition and presence of other lipid components. All of these characteristics influence fat digestion, may affect fat and fatty acid absorption, and hence, LCP bioavailability and metabolism in infancy. The main objective of this work was to establish the influence of different dietary LCP sources on overall fat and LCP absorption in early life. We compared fat and fatty acid excretions at weaning in rats fed control diets or diets supplemented with LCP as TG or PL. Two separate experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, weanling rats were fed for 3 wk a control diet (C1), a diet with TG from tuna and fungal oils (TF-TG) or a diet with PL from pig brain concentrate (PB-PL). In Experiment 2, weanling rats were fed for 3 wk a control diet (C2), a diet containing egg-TG (EG-TG) or a diet containing egg-PL (EG-PL). Fat, mineral and saturated fatty acid excretions in feces were higher in rats fed PB-PL compared with those fed TF-TG diet. In Experiment 2, groups did not differ in fat and mineral excretions. However, the EG-PL group had lower fecal excretions of saturated fatty acids than the C2 and EG-TG groups. The 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6) and 22:6(n-3) levels in feces were higher in the EG-TG group than in the EG-PL group. In summary, total fat and LCP excretions differed among rats fed diets supplemented with LCP from different sources.

  2. Alternate method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry: No electrodeposition, no hydrofluoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosaki, Hiromu; Mueller, Rebecca J.; Lambert, Susan B.; Rao, Govind R.

    2016-07-15

    An alternate method of preparing actinide alpha counting sources was developed in place of electrodeposition or lanthanide fluoride micro-precipitation. The method uses lanthanide hydroxide micro-precipitation to avoid the use of hazardous hydrofluoric acid. Lastly, it provides a quicker, simpler, and safer way of preparing actinide alpha counting sources in routine, production-type laboratories that process many samples daily.

  3. Alternate method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry: No electrodeposition, no hydrofluoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosaki, Hiromu; Mueller, Rebecca J.; Lambert, Susan B.; Rao, Govind R.

    2016-07-15

    An alternate method of preparing actinide alpha counting sources was developed in place of electrodeposition or lanthanide fluoride micro-precipitation. The method uses lanthanide hydroxide micro-precipitation to avoid the use of hazardous hydrofluoric acid. Lastly, it provides a quicker, simpler, and safer way of preparing actinide alpha counting sources in routine, production-type laboratories that process many samples daily.

  4. Margarines and Fast-Food French Fries: Low Content of trans Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Astiasarán, Iciar; Abella, Elena; Gatta, Giulia; Ansorena, Diana

    2017-01-01

    The lipid fraction of margarines and fast food French fries, two types of foods traditionally high in trans fatty acids (TFA), is assessed. TFA data reported worldwide during the last 20 years have been gathered and show that some countries still report high TFA amounts in these products. The content of TFA was analysed in margarines (two store and four premium brands) and French-fries from fast-food restaurants (five chains). All samples were collected in Pamplona (Navarra, Spain). The margarines showed mean values of 0.68% and 0.43% (g TFA/100 g fat) for the store and premium brands, respectively. The French fries’ values ranged from 0.49% to 0.89%. All samples were lower than the 2% set by some European countries as the maximum legal content of TFA in fats, and contained less than 0.5 g/serving, so they could also be considered “trans free products”. This work confirmed that the presence of TFA is not significant in the two analysed products and contributes updated food composition tables, key tools for epidemiological and nutrition studies. PMID:28657612

  5. Margarines and Fast-Food French Fries: Low Content of trans Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Astiasarán, Iciar; Abella, Elena; Gatta, Giulia; Ansorena, Diana

    2017-06-28

    The lipid fraction of margarines and fast food French fries, two types of foods traditionally high in trans fatty acids (TFA), is assessed. TFA data reported worldwide during the last 20 years have been gathered and show that some countries still report high TFA amounts in these products. The content of TFA was analysed in margarines (two store and four premium brands) and French-fries from fast-food restaurants (five chains). All samples were collected in Pamplona (Navarra, Spain). The margarines showed mean values of 0.68% and 0.43% (g TFA/100 g fat) for the store and premium brands, respectively. The French fries' values ranged from 0.49% to 0.89%. All samples were lower than the 2% set by some European countries as the maximum legal content of TFA in fats, and contained less than 0.5 g/serving, so they could also be considered "trans free products". This work confirmed that the presence of TFA is not significant in the two analysed products and contributes updated food composition tables, key tools for epidemiological and nutrition studies.

  6. Bioengineered Plants Can Be a Useful Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Shan-Wu

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs) need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) are the primary marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Marine fishes are high in omega-3 fatty acids, yet high consumption of those fishes will cause a shortage of fish stocks existing naturally in the oceans. An alternative source to achieve the recommended daily intake of EFAs is the demand of today. In this review article, an attempt has, therefore, been made to discuss the importance of omega-3 fatty acids and the recent developments in order to produce these fatty acids by the genetic modifications of the plants. PMID:28316988

  7. Bioengineered Plants Can Be a Useful Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Amjad Khan, Waleed; Chun-Mei, Hu; Khan, Nadeem; Iqbal, Amjad; Lyu, Shan-Wu; Shah, Farooq

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs) need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) are the primary marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Marine fishes are high in omega-3 fatty acids, yet high consumption of those fishes will cause a shortage of fish stocks existing naturally in the oceans. An alternative source to achieve the recommended daily intake of EFAs is the demand of today. In this review article, an attempt has, therefore, been made to discuss the importance of omega-3 fatty acids and the recent developments in order to produce these fatty acids by the genetic modifications of the plants.

  8. Dietary sources of omega 3 fatty acids: public health risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Tur, J A; Bibiloni, M M; Sureda, A; Pons, A

    2012-06-01

    Omega 3 fatty acids can be obtained from several sources, and should be added to the daily diet to enjoy a good health and to prevent many diseases. Worldwide, general population use omega-3 fatty acid supplements and enriched foods to get and maintain adequate amounts of these fatty acids. The aim of this paper was to review main scientific evidence regarding the public health risks and benefits of the dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids. A systematic literature search was performed, and one hundred and forty-five articles were included in the results for their methodological quality. The literature described benefits and risks of algal, fish oil, plant, enriched dairy products, animal-derived food, krill oil, and seal oil omega-3 fatty acids.

  9. Direct, one-pot reductive alkylation of anilines with functionalized acetals mediated by triethylsilane and TFA. Straightforward route for unsymmetrically substituted ethylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Righi, Marika; Bedini, Annalida; Piersanti, Giovanni; Romagnoli, Federica; Spadoni, Gilberto

    2011-01-21

    A new, robust, and reliable method has been developed for the selective reductive N-alkylation of primary and secondary aromatic amines with some functionalized acetals using TFA/Et(3)SiH as a reagent combination. A variety of unsymmetrically substituted ethylenediamines can be synthesized in a one-pot procedure in excellent yields at room temperature. This new procedure offers significant advantages over previous synthetic approaches, including brevity, mild reaction conditions, excellent yields, and high functional group tolerance.

  10. Primary and Secondary Sources of Gas-Phase Organic Acids from Diesel Exhaust.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Beth; Link, Michael F; Fulgham, S Ryan; Brophy, Patrick; Galang, Abril; Brune, William H; Jathar, Shantanu H; Farmer, Delphine K

    2017-09-19

    Organic acids have primary and secondary sources in the atmosphere, impact ecosystem health, and are useful metrics for identifying gaps in organic oxidation chemistry through model-measurement comparisons. We photooxidized (OH oxidation) primary emissions from diesel and biodiesel fuel types under two engine loads in an oxidative flow reactor. formic, butyric, and propanoic acids, but not methacrylic acid, have primary and secondary sources. Emission factors for these gas-phase acids varied from 0.3-8.4 mg kg(-1) fuel. Secondary chemistry enhanced these emissions by 1.1 (load) to 4.4 (idle) × after two OH-equivalent days. The relative enhancement in secondary organic acids in idle versus loaded conditions was due to increased precursor emissions, not faster reaction rates. Increased hydrocarbon emissions in idle conditions due to less complete combustion (associated with less oxidized gas-phase molecules) correlated to higher primary organic acid emissions. The lack of correlation between organic aerosol and organic acid concentrations downstream of the flow reactor indicates that the secondary products formed on different oxidation time scales and that despite being photochemical products, organic acids are poor tracers for secondary organic aerosol formation from diesel exhaust. Ignoring secondary chemistry from diesel exhaust would lead to underestimates of both organic aerosol and gas-phase organic acids.

  11. Metabolic engineering of Mortierella alpina for arachidonic acid production with glycerol as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guangfei; Chen, Haiqin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2015-12-23

    Although some microorganisms can convert glycerol into valuable products such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, the yields are relative low due primarily to an inefficient assimilation of glycerol. Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus which preferentially uses glucose over glycerol as the carbon source for fatty acid synthesis. In the present study, we metabolically engineered M. alpina to increase the utilization of glycerol. Glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase control the first two steps of glycerol decomposition. GK overexpression increased the total fatty acid content by 35%, whereas G3PD1, G3PD2 and G3PD3 had no significant effect. Overexpression of malic enzyme (ME1) but not glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase or isocitrate dehydrogenase significantly increased fatty acid content when glycerol was used as carbon source. Simultaneous overexpression of GK and ME1 enabled M. alpina to accumulate fatty acids efficiently, with a 44% increase in fatty acid content (% of dry weight), a 57% increase in glycerol to fatty acid yield (g/g glycerol) and an 81% increase in fatty acid production (g/L culture). A repeated batch process was applied to relieve the inhibitory effect of raw glycerol on arachidonic acid synthesis, and under these conditions, the yield reached 52.2 ± 1.9 mg/g. This study suggested that GK is a rate-limiting step in glycerol assimilation in M. alpina. Another restricting factor for fatty acid accumulation was the supply of cytosolic NADPH. We reported a bioengineering strategy by improving the upstream assimilation and NADPH supply, for oleaginous fungi to efficiently accumulate fatty acid with glycerol as carbon source.

  12. Haloacetic acids in the aquatic environment. Part I: macrophyte toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mark L; Solomon, Keith R

    2004-08-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are contaminants of aquatic ecosystems with numerous sources, both anthropogenic and natural. The toxicity of HAAs to aquatic plants is generally uncharacterized. Laboratory tests were conducted with three macrophytes (Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum sibiricum and Myriophyllum spicatum) to assess the toxicity of five HAAs. Myriophyllum spp. has been proposed as required test species for pesticide registration in North America, but few studies have been conducted under standard test conditions. The HAAs in the present experiments were monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA). MCA was the most toxic to Myriophyllum spp. with EC50 values ranging from 8 to 12.4 mg/l depending on the endpoint, followed by DCA (EC50 range 62-722.5 mg/l), TCA (EC50 range 49.5-1702.6 mg/l), CDFA (EC50 range 105.3 to >10,000 mg/l) and with TFA (EC50 range 222.1 to 10,000 mg/l) the least toxic. Generally, L. gibba was less sensitive to HAA toxicity than Myriophyllum spp., with the difference in toxicity between them approximately threefold. The range of toxicity within Myriophyllum spp. was normally less than twofold. Statistically, plant length and node number were the most sensitive endpoints as they had the lowest observed coefficients of variation, but they were not the most sensitive to HAA toxicity. Toxicological sensitivity of endpoints varied depending on the measure of effect chosen and the HAA, with morphological endpoints usually an order of magnitude more sensitive than pigments for all plant species. Overall, mass and root measures tended to be the most sensitive indicators of HAA toxicity. The data from this paper were subsequently used in an ecological risk assessment for HAAs and aquatic plants. The assessment found HAAs to be of low risk to aquatic macrophytes and the results are described in the second manuscript of this series.

  13. Evaluation of single cell sources of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid: a 4-week oral safety study in rats.

    PubMed

    Wibert, G J; Burns, R A; Diersen-Schade, D A; Kelly, C M

    1997-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are secreted in human milk and consumed by the nursing neonate but are not present in infant formulas currently available in the US. Supplementation of formulas with DHA and ARA may be particularly important for premature infants, who have less accretion of these fatty acids in utero than term infants. Some experts suggest that DHA and ARA should be added to infant formulas. Common sources of these fatty acids (e.g. fish oils, egg yolk lipids) are not optimal for infants in that they contain disproportionate amounts of other fatty acids. This 4-wk study examined the safety of a high-DHA algal oil and a high-ARA fungal oil, blended so that the DHA:ARA ratio approximates that in human milk. Rats were fed the blend at levels representing three, 11 and 22 times the anticipated infant exposure. Control animals were fed either a high-fat diet (13.1%, w/w; equivalent to the fat content of the treated groups) or a low-fat diet (5%, w/w). There were no treatment-related differences in body weight, food intake, organ weights, haematology or clinical chemistry. Thus, this study indicates that a blend of algal and fungal oils is a safe source of DHA and ARA as it produced no adverse effects in rats when administered for 4 wk at levels up to 22 times the expected infant exposure.

  14. Learning from international policies on trans fatty acids to reduce cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries, using Mexico as a case study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ferrer, Carolina; Lock, Karen; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and are consumed in large quantities in low- and middle-income countries as they are used to produce low cost, commonly eaten processed food products. International organizations agree that evidence linking TFA and CVD is strong enough to warrant public health action. This study investigates barriers and opportunities that exist for TFA policy development in low- and middle-income countries, through a literature review of international TFA policy and stakeholder analysis. Previous national policy responses have mostly been in developed countries. Voluntary reduction of TFA by the food industry, following food labelling and/or consumer lobbying, has been the approach in several countries but with varying levels of success, and resulting in major differences in formulation of products between countries. Canada and New York have now moved from voluntary to mandatory approaches. Only three countries have regulated the TFA content of food. Common factors for successful TFA reduction include increased consumer and political awareness of the health impacts of TFA and the need for champion consumer organizations. A stakeholder analysis, using the Mexican policy context as a case study, explored contextual issues influencing implementation of TFA regulation in low- or middle-income countries. Although the public health context seemed to be appropriate to promote TFA policy, the issue is not on the political agenda because it lacks legitimacy and support as a health or regulatory issue. The food industry and government resist the need for regulation, and there is no organized health or consumer lobby to counter this. This is likely to be the case in other middle- and low-income countries.

  15. Effect of heating oils and fats in containers of different materials on their trans fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Kala, A L Amrutha; Joshi, Vishal; Gurudutt, K N

    2012-08-30

    The nature of the container material and temperature employed for deep-frying can have an influence on the development of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in the fat used. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of heating vegetable oils and partially hydrogenated vegetable fats with different initial TFA content in stainless steel, Hindalium (an aluminium alloy), cast iron and glass containers. Ground nut oil (oil 1), refined, bleached and deodorised (RBD) palmolein (oil 2) and two partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with low (fat 1) and high (fat 2) TFA content were uniformly heated at 175-185 °C over a period of 12 h. An increase in TFA content to 20 g kg⁻¹ was observed in oil 2 in the cast iron container, while a decrease in TFA content of 20-30 g kg⁻¹ was observed in fat 2 in all containers. The heating process of fats and oils also led to an increase in Butyro refractometer reading and colour values. This study showed that the TFA 18:1t content of oil 1, oil 2 and fat 1 increased with repeated or prolonged heating. The cast iron container showed the highest increase in TFA 18:1t for RBD palmolein (oil 2). The amount of linoleic acid trans isomers formed in the heating process was negligible. Fat 2 with high initial TFA content showed a decrease in TFA 18:1 and 18:2 on heating in all containers. Oils heated in glass and stainless steel containers showed less TFA 18:1t formation. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Safety evaluation of sources of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid for use in infant formulas in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Russell J; Auestad, Nancy; Kruger, Claire; Buchanan, Sally

    2003-06-01

    Human milk provides small quantities of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA), usually less than 1% of total fatty acids. Vegetable oil blends commonly used in infant formulas have, until recently, provided the essential fatty acid precursors for these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), but no preformed DHA and ARA. This study evaluated the safety of ingredient sources of DHA and ARA for use in infant formulas in a neonatal piglet model. Newborn piglets were allowed to suckle for 3 days and then divided into 4 feeding groups of 6 males and 6 females. Piglets were bottle-fed at frequent feeding intervals until 19 days of age. The composition of the piglet formulas was modeled after standard milk-based formulas for human infants while meeting nutritional requirements for piglets. Formulas were a control formula (no added DHA or ARA), a DHA formula providing 55 mg DHA/100 Cal, an ARA formula providing 96 mg/100 Cal ARA, and a DHA+ARA formula providing 34 mg DHA and 62 mg ARA/100 Cal. All formulas were equal in fat content and provided approximately 1000 Cal/l. The ARA-rich oil was from a fermentation product of Mortierella alpina (40 wt.% fatty acids as ARA) and DHA was from high DHA tuna oil (25 wt.% fatty acids as DHA). There were no test article related effects of DHA and/or ARA indicative of an adverse health consequence to the animals seen in the clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, clinical chemistry, hematology, organ weights or gross or histopathology. The findings in this neonatal animal study support the safety of these ingredient oil sources of DHA and ARA for use in infant formulas.

  17. [Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA)--natural sources and biological activity].

    PubMed

    Białek, Agnieszka; Teryks, Marta; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2014-11-06

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have a wide range of biological activity. Among them conjugated fatty acids are of great interest. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), which exert a multidirectional health-benefiting influence, and conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA) are examples of this group of fatty acids. CLnA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of octadecatrienoic acid (C18:3), which possess double bonds at positions 9, 11, 13 or 8, 10, 12 of their chain. Some vegetable oils are rich sources of CLnA, e.g. bitter melon oil (from Momordica charantia seeds) and pomegranate oil (from Punica granatum seeds). The aim of this paper was to present information concerning natural sources and health-promoting activities of conjugated linolenic acids. The presented data reveal that conjugated linolenic acids may be very useful in prevention and treatment of many diseases, especially diabetes, arteriosclerosis , obesity and cancers (mammary, prostate and colon cancer). Among many potential mechanisms of their action, the fact that some CLnA are converted by oxidoreductases into CLA is very important. It seems to be very reasonable to conduct research concerning the possibility of CLnA use in prevention of many diseases.

  18. Sources of alkalinity and acidity along an acid mine drainage remediated stream in SE Ohio: Hewett Fork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleich, K. L.; Lopez, D. A.; Bowman, J. R.; Kruse, N. A.; Mackey, A. L.; VanDervort, D.; Korenowsky, R.

    2013-12-01

    In the remediation of acid mine drainage impacted streams, it is important to locate and quantify the sources of acidity and alkalinity inputs. These parameters affect the long-term recovery of the stream habitat. Previous studies have focused on treating the remediation of AMD as point source pollution, targeting the main acid seep for remediation. However, in the interest of biological and chemical recovery, it is important to understand how sources of alkalinity and acidity, throughout the stream, affect water and sediment quality. The Hewett Fork watershed in Southeastern Ohio is impacted by AMD from the AS-14 mine complex in Carbondale, Ohio. In attempts to remediate the stream, the water is being treated with a continuous alkaline input from a calcium oxide doser. While the section of watershed furthest downstream from the doser is showing signs of recovery, the water chemistry and aquatic life near the doser are still impacted. The objective of this study is to examine and model the chemistry of the tributaries of Hewett Fork to see how they contribute to the alkalinity and acidity budgets of the main stem of the stream. By examining the inputs of tributaries into the main stem, this project aims to understand processes occurring during remediation throughout the entire stream. Discharge was measured during a dry period in October, 2012 and at a high flow in May, 2013. Field parameters such as pH, TDS, DO, alkalinity and acidity were also determined. Low flow data collected during fall sampling shows variable flow along the stream path, the stream gains water from ground water at some points while it loses water at others, potentially due to variable elevation of the water table. Flow data collected during spring sampling shows that Hewett Fork is a gaining stream during that period with inputs from groundwater contributing to increasing flow downstream. When using this data to calculate the net alkalinity load along the stream, there are areas with alkaline

  19. Evaluation of glutamic acid and glycine as sources of nonessential amino acids for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii).

    PubMed

    Hughes, S G

    1985-01-01

    A semi-purified test diet which contained either glutamic acid or glycine as the major source of nonessential amino acids (NEAA) was fed to lake and rainbow trout. Trout fed the diet containing glutamic acid consistently showed better growth and feed conversion efficiencies than those fed the diets containing glycine. The data indicate that these trout utilize glutamic acid more efficiently than glycine when no other major sources of NEAA are present.

  20. Sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over central Amazonia. II - Wet season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Potential sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over the Amazon forest were investigated using a photochemical model and data collected on gas phase concentrations of these acids in the forest canopy, boundary layer, and free troposphere over the central Amazon Basin during the 1987 wet season. It was found that the atmospheric reactions previously suggested in the literature as sources of carboxylic acids (i.e., the gas phase decomposition of isoprene, the reaction between CH3CO3 and a peroxide, and aqueous phase oxidation of CH2O) appear to be too slow to explain the observed concentrations, suggesting that other atmospheric reactions, so far unidentified, could make a major contribution to the carboxylic acid budgets.

  1. Acidic and total primary sulfates: development of emission factors for major stationary combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goklamy, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    This paper develops 'best estimates' of emission factors for major sources of acidic and total primary sulphates for use in the compilation of emission inventories for the eastern US, which may, in turn, be used for modelling acidic or sulphate deposition. The authors conclude that much of the existing data on primary sulphates from stationary combustion sources are probably significantly biased upward and, therefore, inappropriate for the derivation of emission factors. Existing estimates of primary sulphate emissions for these source categories are probably substantially inflated. It also concludes that for most source categories, very little confidence can be attached to the best estimates because of the paucity of data obtained from measurement techniques which are likely to be free of systematic bias.

  2. Functionalised carboxylic acids in atmospheric particles: An annual cycle revealing seasonal trends and possible sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teich, Monique; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    acids. The high concentrations in summer could lead to the conclusion that these acids are mostly formed during photochemical processes in the atmosphere. However, the concentrations in autumn were often exceeded by the ones in winter. Therefore probably other sources beside photochemical processes have to be considered. The second group consists of aromatic compounds. Because of the high concentrations in winter it can be concluded that photochemical formation plays a minor role and primary emission sources e.g., wood combustion are likely. Further evidence in determining sources of the carboxylic acids could be obtained from the air mass origin. In general, air masses transported from East have a more anthropogenic influence than the air mass inflow from West. For all aromatic carboxylic acids higher concentrations were determined during eastern inflow, indicating anthropogenic sources. This presumption is supported by high correlations with the elemental carbon (EC). Regarding the aliphatic carboxylic there is one group with higher concentrations when the air mass is transported from West and one with higher concentrations when air mass is transported from East. In summary the findings of this study reveal a clear difference in the seasonal trends of the single target acids indicating a variety of different sources.

  3. Direct and remarkably efficient conversion of methane into acetic acid catalyzed by amavadine and related vanadium complexes. A synthetic and a theoretical DFT mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Kirillova, Marina V; Kuznetsov, Maxim L; Reis, Patrícia M; da Silva, José A L; da Silva, João J R Fraústo; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2007-08-29

    Vanadium(IV or V) complexes with N,O- or O,O-ligands, i.e., [VO{N(CH2CH2O)3}], Ca[V(HIDPA)2] (synthetic amavadine), Ca[V(HIDA)2], or [Bu4N]2[V(HIDA)2] [HIDPA, HIDA = basic form of 2,2'-(hydroxyimino)dipropionic or -diacetic acid, respectively], [VO(CF3SO3)2], Ba[VO(nta)(H2O)]2 (nta = nitrilotriacetate), [VO(ada)(H2O)] (ada = N-2-acetamidoiminodiacetate), [VO(Hheida)(H2O)] (Hheida = 2-hydroxyethyliminodiacetate), [VO(bicine)] [bicine = basic form of N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine], and [VO(dipic)(OCH2CH3)] (dipic = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate), are catalyst precursors for the efficient single-pot conversion of methane into acetic acid, in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) under moderate conditions, using peroxodisulfate as oxidant. Effects on the yields and TONs of various factors are reported. TFA acts as a carbonylating agent and CO is an inhibitor for some systems, although for others there is an optimum CO pressure. The most effective catalysts (as amavadine) bear triethanolaminate or (hydroxyimino)dicarboxylates and lead, in a single batch, to CH3COOH yields > 50% (based on CH4) or remarkably high TONs up to 5.6 x 103. The catalyst can remain active upon multiple recycling of its solution. Carboxylation proceeds via free radical mechanisms (CH3* can be trapped by CBrCl3), and theoretical calculations disclose a particularly favorable process involving the sequential formation of CH3*, CH3CO*, and CH3COO* which, upon H-abstraction (from TFA or CH4), yields acetic acid. The CH3COO* radical is formed by oxygenation of CH3CO* by a peroxo-V complex via a V{eta1-OOC(O)CH3} intermediate. Less favorable processes involve the oxidation of CH3CO* by the protonated (hydroperoxo) form of that peroxo-V complex or by peroxodisulfate. The calculations also indicate that (i) peroxodisulfate behaves as a source of sulfate radicals which are methane H-abstractors, as a peroxidative and oxidizing agent for vanadium, and as an oxidizing and coupling agent for CH3CO* and that (ii) TFA is

  4. n-Alkanoic monocarboxylic acid concentrations in urban and rural aerosols: Seasonal dependence and major sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannigrahi, Ardhendu S.; Pettersson, Jan B. C.; Langer, Sarka; Arrhenius, Karine; Hagström, Magnus; Janhäll, Sara; Hallquist, Mattias; Pathak, Ravi Kant

    2014-06-01

    We report new data on the abundance and distribution of n-monocarboxylic acids (n-MCAs) in fine- and coarse-mode aerosols in rural and urban areas of Sweden, and determine their possible sources. Overall, C6-C16n-MCAs accounted for ~ 0.5-1.2% of the total PM10 (particulate matter ≤ 10 μm) mass. In general, the C12-C16 fraction was the most abundant (> 75%), with the exception of wintertime samples from a rural site, where C6-C11 acids accounted for 65% of the total C6-C16n-MCA mass. Positive matrix factorization analysis revealed four major sources of n-MCAs: traffic emissions, wood combustion, microbial activity, and a fourth factor that was dominated by semi-volatile n-MCAs. Traffic emissions were important in the urban environment in both seasons and at the rural site during winters, and were a major source of C9-C11 acids. Wood combustion was a significant source at urban sites during the winter and also to some extent at the rural site in both seasons. This is consistent with the use of wood for domestic heating but may also be related to meat cooking. Thus, during the winter, traffic, wood combustion and microbial activity were all important sources in the urban environment, while traffic was the dominant source at the rural site. During the summer, there was considerable day-to-day variation in n-MCA concentrations but microbial activity was the dominant source. The semi-volatile low molecular weight C6-C8 acids accounted for a small (~ 5-10%) fraction of the total mass of n-MCAs. This factor is unlikely to be linked to a single source and its influence instead reflects the partitioning of these compounds between the gas and particle phases. This would explain their greater contribution during the winter.

  5. Encapsulation of vegetable oils as source of omega-3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortiz Vazquez, Elizabeth De La Luz; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-05-03

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs), a functional component present in vegetable oils, are generally recognized as being beneficial to health. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds and unsaturated in nature; this attribute makes them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and unfit for incorporation into long shelf life foods. The microencapsulation of oils in a polymeric matrix (mainly polysaccharides) offers the possibility of controlled release of the lipophilic functional ingredient and can be useful for the supplementation of foods with PUFAs. The present paper provides a literature review of different vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, the functional effects of omega-3 fatty acids, different microencapsulation methods that can possibly be used for the encapsulation of oils, the properties of vegetable oil microcapsules, the effect of encapsulation on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils, and the incorporation of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  6. Florets of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): potential new sources of dietary fiber and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qiang; Cui, Jun; Li, Hang; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Guohua

    2013-04-10

    Ray florets (Rf) and disc florets (Df) are agricultural byproducts of sunflower seeds. Their nutrition-related compounds were determined. The dietary fiber contents in Rf and Df were 42.90 mg/100 g and 58.97 mg/100 g. In both florets, palmitic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were identified as the three most abundant fatty acids, and the saturated ones constitute approximately two-thirds (w/w) of the total fatty acids. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in both florets by World Health Organization standards. Sixteen phenolic compounds, nine free and eight bound, mainly depsides, were identified in florets by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-TOF-MS. The free and bound phenolic compounds in Df were higher than in Rf. 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the predominant free phenolic compound in both florets. The present study revealed that the florets of sunflower are rich sources of dietary fiber, Fe, and phenols.

  7. Streptococcus pneumoniae Can Utilize Multiple Sources of Hyaluronic Acid for Growth

    PubMed Central

    Marion, Carolyn; Stewart, Jason M.; Tazi, Mia F.; Burnaugh, Amanda M.; Linke, Caroline M.; Woodiga, Shireen A.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which Streptococcus pneumoniae obtains carbohydrates for growth during airway colonization remain to be elucidated. The low concentration of free carbohydrates in the normal human airway suggests that pneumococci must utilize complex glycan structures for growth. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid is present on the apical surface of airway epithelial cells. As pneumococci express a hyaluronate lyase (Hyl) that cleaves hyaluronic acid into disaccharides, we hypothesized that during colonization pneumococci utilize the released carbohydrates for growth. Hyaluronic acid supported significant pneumococcal growth in an hyl-dependent manner. A phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) and an unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase (Ugl) encoded downstream of hyl are also essential for growth on hyaluronic acid. This genomic arrangement is present in several other organisms, suggesting conservation of the utilization mechanism between species. In vivo experiments support the hypothesis that S. pneumoniae utilizes hyaluronic acid as a carbon source during colonization. We also demonstrate that pneumococci can utilize the hyaluronic acid capsule of other bacterial species for growth, suggesting an alternative carbohydrate source for pneumococcal growth. Together, these data support a novel function for pneumococcal degradation of hyaluronic acid in vivo and provide mechanistic details of growth on this glycosaminoglycan. PMID:22311922

  8. Streptococcus pneumoniae can utilize multiple sources of hyaluronic acid for growth.

    PubMed

    Marion, Carolyn; Stewart, Jason M; Tazi, Mia F; Burnaugh, Amanda M; Linke, Caroline M; Woodiga, Shireen A; King, Samantha J

    2012-04-01

    The mechanisms by which Streptococcus pneumoniae obtains carbohydrates for growth during airway colonization remain to be elucidated. The low concentration of free carbohydrates in the normal human airway suggests that pneumococci must utilize complex glycan structures for growth. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid is present on the apical surface of airway epithelial cells. As pneumococci express a hyaluronate lyase (Hyl) that cleaves hyaluronic acid into disaccharides, we hypothesized that during colonization pneumococci utilize the released carbohydrates for growth. Hyaluronic acid supported significant pneumococcal growth in an hyl-dependent manner. A phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) and an unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase (Ugl) encoded downstream of hyl are also essential for growth on hyaluronic acid. This genomic arrangement is present in several other organisms, suggesting conservation of the utilization mechanism between species. In vivo experiments support the hypothesis that S. pneumoniae utilizes hyaluronic acid as a carbon source during colonization. We also demonstrate that pneumococci can utilize the hyaluronic acid capsule of other bacterial species for growth, suggesting an alternative carbohydrate source for pneumococcal growth. Together, these data support a novel function for pneumococcal degradation of hyaluronic acid in vivo and provide mechanistic details of growth on this glycosaminoglycan.

  9. Voluntary reduction of trans-fatty acids in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Jacoby, Enrique; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2011-02-01

    As part of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Trans-Fat-Free Americas initiative, 12 representatives from food industries in Latin America and the Caribbean signed a declaration stating their intention to voluntarily eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the Americas. A year later, in order to document the extent of the voluntary reduction, each declarant was asked to describe all reformulations and reductions in the TFA content of their products. After up to six requests for data, only three declarants provided such information in detail, and three others offered an overall summary of their reformulations. Additionally, three declarants reported the barriers that limit this process: availability of oil substitutes, cost, and consumers' sensory acceptance. The content of TFA and saturated fat in the food supply in the Americas should be regulated and strictly monitored in order to adequately evaluate a reduction of TFA in the region.

  10. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-12-16

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  11. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  12. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a fundamental fatty acid for the brain: New dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Francisca; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Catalina Hernandez-Rodas, María; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2017-09-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (C22: 6n-3, DHA) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid of marine origin fundamental for the formation and function of the nervous system, particularly the brain and the retina of humans. It has been proposed a remarkable role of DHA during human evolution, mainly on the growth and development of the brain. Currently, DHA is considered a critical nutrient during pregnancy and breastfeeding due their active participation in the development of the nervous system in early life. DHA and specifically one of its derivatives known as neuroprotectin D-1 (NPD-1), has neuroprotective properties against brain aging, neurodegenerative diseases and injury caused after brain ischemia-reperfusion episodes. This paper discusses the importance of DHA in the human brain given its relevance in the development of the tissue and as neuroprotective agent. It is also included a critical view about the ways to supply this noble fatty acid to the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  14. Nitrogen fixation by microbial cultures with sodium salt of organic acids as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, K; Tripathi, P

    1976-01-01

    The best source of carbon, when used as the sodium salt of organic acids, is sodium salicylate which shows highest nitrogen fixation and also appreciably large amounts of nitrogen fixed per g carbon consumed. Next in order is sodium benzoate, then oxalate. Sodium citrate is followed by sowium acetate in the order of decreasing efficiency.

  15. USE OF FATTY ACID STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIO TO INDICATE MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCE IN TROPICAL SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory


    We use measurements of the concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio of individual microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils as indicators of live microbial biomass levels, broad microbial community structure, and microbial carbon source. For studies of soil o...

  16. USE OF FATTY ACID STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIO TO INDICATE MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCE IN TROPICAL SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory


    We use measurements of the concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio of individual microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils as indicators of live microbial biomass levels, broad microbial community structure, and microbial carbon source. For studies of soil o...

  17. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  18. pH of Aerosols in a Polluted Atmosphere: Source Contributions to Highly Acidic Aerosol.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guoliang; Xu, Jiao; Peng, Xing; Xiao, Zhimei; Chen, Kui; Tian, Yingze; Guan, Xinbei; Feng, Yinchang; Yu, Haofei; Nenes, Athanasios; Russell, Armistead G

    2017-04-18

    Acidity (pH) plays a key role in the physical and chemical behavior of PM2.5. However, understanding of how specific PM sources impact aerosol pH is rarely considered. Performing source apportionment of PM2.5 allows a unique link of sources pH of aerosol from the polluted city. Hourly water-soluble (WS) ions of PM2.5 were measured online from December 25th, 2014 to June 19th, 2015 in a northern city in China. Five sources were resolved including secondary nitrate (41%), secondary sulfate (26%), coal combustion (14%), mineral dust (11%), and vehicle exhaust (9%). The influence of source contributions to pH was estimated by ISORROPIA-II. The lowest aerosol pH levels were found at low WS-ion levels and then increased with increasing total ion levels, until high ion levels occur, at which point the aerosol becomes more acidic as both sulfate and nitrate increase. Ammonium levels increased nearly linearly with sulfate and nitrate until approximately 20 μg m(-3), supporting that the ammonium in the aerosol was more limited by thermodynamics than source limitations, and aerosol pH responded more to the contributions of sources such as dust than levels of sulfate. Commonly used pH indicator ratios were not indicative of the pH estimated using the thermodynamic model.

  19. Kinetic and process studies on free and solid acid catalyzed hydrolysis of biomass substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Abasaeed, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) was tested as a catalyst for cellulose hydrolysis. Eighty percent conversion of cellulose into glucose was obtained with concentrated TFA. The kinetics of TFA catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis was investigated. The reaction was found to follow first order kinetics for both hydrolysis and decomposition. The kinetic parameters were determined from experimental data covering conditions of 160-180 C, 10-30% acid, and 1:2 solid to liquid ratio. The hydrolysis reaction was found to be more sensitive to temperature than the decomposition reaction. Use of TFA was further investigated as a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. A two-fold increase in sugar yields was obtained for TFA pretreated samples in comparison to untreated ones. The kinetics of hydrolysis of prehydrolyzed wood by sulfuric acid was investigated. The substrate was first treated with 0.75% acid at 184 C for 4 minutes to remove hemicellulose. The kinetic parameters were determined in the range of 198-215 C and 1-3% acid. A heterogeneous kinetic model was developed to study the effect of particle size on acid hydrolysis of cellulose. It was found that as the chip size increases, maximum glucose yield decreases and reaction time at which maximum yield occurs increases. Acidic zeolites (LZ-M-8) were investigated as catalysts for hydrolysis reaction of inulin into fructose. The hydrolysis reaction was found to follow first order kinetics. Products containing 96 and 75% fructose were obtained upon hydrolysis respectively from inulin and extract.

  20. Weak acid extractable metals in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia: temporal behaviour, enrichment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-02-15

    Sediment samples were taken from six sampling sites in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia between February and November in 2012. They were analysed for a range of heavy metals including Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ce, Th, U, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb. Fraction analysis, Enrichment Factors and Principal Component Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) were carried out in order to assess metal pollution, potential bioavailability and source apportionment. Cr and Ni exceeded the Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines at some sampling sites, while Hg was found to be the most enriched metal. Fraction analysis identified increased weak acid soluble Hg and Cd during the sampling period. Source apportionment via PCA-APCS found four sources of metals pollution, namely, marine sediments, shipping, antifouling coatings and a mixed source. These sources need to be considered in any metal pollution control measure within Bramble Bay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost implications of alternative sources of (n-3) fatty acid consumption in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen T; Luo, Hanqi; Ausman, Lynne M

    2012-03-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 provides authoritative advice on what Americans should eat to stay healthy. These guidelines provide a quantitative recommendation to consume 250 mg/d of (n-3) fatty acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids). To achieve this goal, Americans would need to more than triple the amount of EPA and DHA currently consumed. This paper assessed the cost implications of increased levels of EPA and DHA from marine and nonmarine food sources using data from the 2007-2008 NHANES, USDA nutrient data base, and the USDA Center for the Nutrition Policy and Promotion food price data. Stearidonic acid (SDA)-enhanced soybean oil is a lower cost alternative to commonly consumed marine food as a source of EPA. In addition, given that SDA-enhanced soybean oil is intended to be used as an ingredient in a variety of products, this may enable consumers to increase consumption of EPA through commonly consumed foods.

  2. Magnetic nanoparticles-based extraction and verification of nucleic acids from different sources.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Li, Chuanyan; Wang, Fang; Ma, Ningning; Li, Xiaolong; Li, Zhiyang; Deng, Yan; Wang, Zhifei; Xi, Zhijiang; Tang, Yongjun; Hel, Nongyue

    2013-04-01

    In many molecule biology and genetic technology studies, the amount of available DNA can be one of the important criteria for selecting the samples from different sources. Compared with those genomic DNA methods using organic solvents or other traditional commercial kits, the method based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and adsorption technology has many remarkable advantages like being time-saving and cost effective without the laborious centrifugation or precipitation steps, and more importantly it has the great potential and especially suitable for automated DNA extraction and up-scaling. In this paper, the extraction efficiency of genomic nucleic acids based on magnetic nanoparticles from four different sources including bacteria, yeast, human blood and virus samples are compared and verified. After measurement and verification of the extracted genomic nucleic acids, it was shown that all these genomic nucleic acids extracted using the MNPs method can be of high yield and be available for next molecule biological steps.

  3. Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profile Alters the Fatty Acid Profile and Quality of Beef from Confined Nellore Steers

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Giovani; Lage, Josiane F.; Carvalho, Isabela P. C.; Messana, Juliana D.; Canesin, Roberta. C.; Reis, Ricardo A.; Berchielli, Telma T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of lipid sources with different fatty acids profile on meat fatty acids profile and beef quality traits of Nellore. A total of 45 Nellore animals with an average initial body weight of 419±11 kg (at 15±2 mo) were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of 5 treatments and 9 replicates. The roughage feed was maize silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF), and soybean grains (SG). No effects of lipid sources were observed (p>0.05) on beef color, pH, water-holding capacity, and sarcomere length. Beef from cattle fed PO had greater shear-force values (p<0.05) compared to beef from cattle fed WF. Deposition of main unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic) was greater in treatments WF, SG, and LO, respectively, while the values of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were greater when animals were fed LO. The inclusion of LO in the diet enhances the concentration of CLA in longissimus muscle and subcutaneous fat besides improving the atherogenicity index and elongase activity. As such, LO can be used with the aim to improve the quality of beef from confined Nellore cattle. Conversely, the use of PO is not recommended since it may increase the concentration of undesirable unsaturated fatty acids in muscle and subcutaneous fat, shear-force and the atherogenicity index. PMID:26104402

  4. A biogenic source of oxalic acid and glyoxal in marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, C.; Rinaldi, M.; Ceburnis, D.; O'Dowd, C.; Sciare, J.; Burrows, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of oxalic acid aerosol measurements samples performed at Mace Head (Ireland, 53°20'N, 9°54'W) and Amsterdam Island (Indian Ocean, 37°48'S, 77°34'E), supporting the existence of a biogenic source of oxalic acid over the oceans. Aerosol oxalic acid was detected in clean marine air masses in concentrations ranging from 2.7 to 39 ng m-3, at Mace Head, and from 0.31 to 17 ng m-3, at Amsterdam Island. In both hemispheres, oxalic acid concentration showed a clear seasonal trend, with maxima in spring-summer and minima in the fall-winter period, in analogy with other marine biogenic aerosol components (e.g., MSA and amines). Oxalic acid was distributed along the whole aerosol size spectrum, with the major contribution given by the 1.0-2.0 μm size range, and by the lower accumulation mode (0.25-0.5 μm). Given the observed size distributions, marine aerosol oxalic acid can be assumed as the result of the combination of different formation processes, among which in-cloud oxidation of gaseous precursors [1] and photochemical degradation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids [2] are likely the most important. Among aerosol oxalic acid precursors, glyoxal is the most likely candidate in the marine boundary layer, as a source of glyoxal over the oceans has recently been discovered by satellite observations [3] and confirmed by in situ measurements [4]. In support of this hypothesis, SCIAMACHY satellite retrieved glyoxal column concentrations, over the two sampling sites, resulted characterized by a clear seasonal trend, resembling the aerosol oxalic acid one. [1] Warneck, Atmospheric Environment, 37, 2423-2427, 2003. [2] Kawamura & Sakaguchi, J. Geophys. Res., 104, D3, 3501-3509, 1999. [3] Fu et al., J. Geophys. Res., 113, D15303, doi:10.1029/2007JD009505, 2008 [4] Sinreich et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 10, 15075-15107, 2010.

  5. Modification of egg yolk fatty acids profile by using different oil sources.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Mohsen; Rahimi, Shaban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary oil sources supplementation on laying hens' performance and fatty acids profile of egg yolks. Seventy-two 23-week-old laying hens (Tetra-SL) divided into six experimental diets (four replicates and three birds per replication) in a completely randomized design for nine weeks. Experimental diets were included: 1) control (no oil), 2) 3.00% fish oil, 3) 3.00% olive oil, 4) 3.00% grape seed oil, 5) 3.00% canola oil, and 6) 3.00% soybean oil. The diets were similar in terms of energy and protein. Egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and fatty acid composition of egg yolk were determined at the end of the trial. The results indicated that the performance parameters were not significantly different between treatments in the entire period (p > 0.05). However, fatty acids profiles of yolk were affected by experimental diets (p < 0.05). Fish oil significantly reduced omega-6 fatty acids and increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in egg yolk. Also canola oil increased linolenic acid content in the egg yolk. In conclusion, fish oil increased omega-3 long-chain fatty acids and decreased omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in eggs which may have beneficial effects on human health.

  6. Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2014-08-01

    We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA-MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (<50 m depth) was naturally highly vulnerable to PFAA pollution, PFAAs were also found in old groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50-500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems.

  7. Sources of ions producing acidic rain and visibility impairment at Grand Canyon, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Sisler, J.F.; Malm, W.C.; Gebbart, K.A. )

    1988-01-01

    Effective management of visibility or wet acidic deposition in selected receptor areas requires an understanding of which chemical/aerosol species are responsible for the effect, the sources of these chemical/aerosol species and the relationships between how changes in emissions of chemical precursors result in changes in chemical/aerosol species at receptor sites. This paper addresses the first two issues at Grand Canyon, Arizona. At Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, the National Acid Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) monitoring site has been collocated with the Nation Park Service (NPS) aerosol monitoring site. The monitors were operated simultaneously for nearly three years, allowing a direct comparison between the causes and sources of wet deposition and the causes and sources of fine particulate matter.

  8. A review of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in atmospheric aerosols: Molecular distributions, sources and transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Bikkina, Srinivas

    2016-03-01

    This review aims to update our understanding on molecular distributions of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in atmospheric aerosols with a focus on their geographical variability, size distribution, sources and formation pathways. In general, molecular distributions of diacids in aerosols from the continental sites and over the open ocean waters are often characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic acid (C3) and/or succinic acid (C4), while those sampled over the polar regions often follow the order of C4 ≥ C2 and C3. The most abundant and ubiquitous diacid is oxalic acid, which is principally formed via atmospheric oxidation of its higher homologues of long chain diacids and other pollution-derived organic precursors (e.g., olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons). However, its occurrence in marine aerosols is mainly due to the transport from continental outflows (e.g., East Asian outflow during winter/spring to the North Pacific) and/or governed by photochemical/aqueous phase oxidation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid) and isoprene emitted from the productive open ocean waters. The long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants from mid latitudes to the Arctic in dark winter facilitates to accumulate the reactants prior to their intense photochemical oxidation during springtime polar sunrise. Furthermore, the relative abundances of C2 in total diacid mass showed similar temporal trends with downward solar irradiation and ambient temperatures, suggesting the significance of atmospheric photochemical oxidation processing. Compound-specific isotopic analyses of oxalic acid showed the highest δ13C among diacids whereas azelaic acid showed the lowest value, corroborating the significance of atmospheric aging of oxalic acid. On the other hand, other diacids gave intermediate values between these two diacids, suggesting that aging of oxalic acid is associated with 13C enrichment.

  9. [Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on 5-keto-gluconic acid production].

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhilei; Wang, Hongcui; Wei, Yuqiao; Li, Yanyan; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2014-01-01

    Gluconobacter oxydans is known to oxidize glucose to gluconic acid (GA), and subsequently, to 2-keto-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-gluconic acid (5KGA), while 5KGA can be converted to L-(+)-tartaric acid. In order to increase the production of 5KGA, Gluconobacter oxydans HGI-1 that converts GA to 5KGA exclusively was chosen in this study, and effects of carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose, amylum and glucose) and nitrogen sources (yeast extract, fish meal, corn steep liquor, soybean meal and cotton-seed meal) on 5KGA production were investigated. Results of experiment in 500 mL shake-flask show that the highest yield of 5KGA (98.20 g/L) was obtained using 100 g/L glucose as carbon source. 5KGA reached 100.20 g/L, 109.10 g/L, 99.83 g/L with yeast extract, fish meal and corn steep liquor as nitrogen source respectively, among which the optimal nitrogen source was fish meal. The yield of 5KGA by corn steep liquor is slightly lower than that by yeast extract. For the economic reason, corn steep liquor was selected as nitrogen source and scaled up to 5 L stirred-tank fermentor, and the final concentration of 5KGA reached 93.80 g/L, with its maximum volumetric productivity of 3.48 g/(L x h) and average volumetric productivity of 1.56 g/(L x h). The result obtained in this study showed that carbon and nitrogen sourses for large-scale production of 5KGA by Gluconobacter oxydans HGI-1 were glucose and corn steep liquor, respectively, and the available glucose almost completely (85.93%) into 5KGA.

  10. Recent developments in altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods.

    PubMed

    Shingfield, K J; Bonnet, M; Scollan, N D

    2013-03-01

    There is increasing evidence to indicate that nutrition is an important factor involved in the onset and development of several chronic human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type II diabetes and obesity. Clinical studies implicate excessive consumption of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans-fatty acids (TFA) as risk factors for CVD, and in the aetiology of other chronic conditions. Ruminant-derived foods are significant sources of medium-chain SFA and TFA in the human diet, but also provide high-quality protein, essential micronutrients and several bioactive lipids. Altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods offers the opportunity to align the consumption of fatty acids in human populations with public health policies without the need for substantial changes in eating habits. Replacing conserved forages with fresh grass or dietary plant oil and oilseed supplements can be used to lower medium-chain and total SFA content and increase cis-9 18:1, total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to a variable extent in ruminant milk. However, inclusion of fish oil or marine algae in the ruminant diet results in marginal enrichment of 20- or 22-carbon PUFA in milk. Studies in growing ruminants have confirmed that the same nutritional strategies improve the balance of n-6/n-3 PUFA, and increase CLA and long-chain n-3 PUFA in ruminant meat, but the potential to lower medium-chain and total SFA is limited. Attempts to alter meat and milk fatty acid composition through changes in the diet fed to ruminants are often accompanied by several-fold increases in TFA concentrations. In extreme cases, the distribution of trans 18:1 and 18:2 isomers in ruminant foods may resemble that of partially hydrogenated plant oils. Changes in milk fat or muscle lipid composition in response to diet are now known to be accompanied by tissue-specific alterations in the expression of one or more

  11. Aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to phenol catalyzed by Pd(TFA)2/2-dimethylaminopyridine: evidence for the role of Pd nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pun, Doris; Diao, Tianning; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-06-05

    We have carried out a mechanistic investigation of aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones and cyclohexenones to phenols with a Pd(TFA)2/2-dimethylaminopyridine catalyst system. Numerous experimental methods, including kinetic studies, filtration tests, Hg poisoning experiments, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering, provide compelling evidence that the initial Pd(II) catalyst mediates the first dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexenone, after which it evolves into soluble Pd nanoparticles that retain catalytic activity. This nanoparticle formation and stabilization is facilitated by each of the components in the catalytic reaction, including the ligand, TsOH, DMSO, substrate, and cyclohexenone intermediate.

  12. Batch fermentation model of propionic acid production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici in different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Coral, Jefferson; Karp, Susan Grace; Porto de Souza Vandenberghe, Luciana; Parada, José Luis; Pandey, Ashok; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2008-12-01

    Propionic acid (PA) is widely used as additive in animal feed and also in the manufacturing of cellulose-based plastics, herbicides, and perfumes. Salts of propionic acid are used as preservative in food. PA is mainly produced by chemical synthesis. Nowadays, PA production by fermentation of low-cost industrial wastes or renewable sources has been an interesting alternative. In the present investigation, PA production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 4965 was studied using a basal medium with sugarcane molasses (BMSM), glycerol or lactate (BML) in small batch fermentation at 30 and 36 degrees C. Bacterial growth was carried out under low dissolved oxygen concentration and without pH control. Results indicated that P. acidipropionici produced more biomass in BMSM than in other media at 30 degrees C (7.55 g l(-1)) as well as at 36 degrees C (3.71 g l(-1)). PA and biomass production were higher at 30 degrees C than at 36 degrees C in all cases studied. The best productivity was obtained by using BML (0.113 g l(-1) h(-1)), although the yielding of this metabolite was higher when using glycerol as carbon source (0.724 g g(-1)) because there was no detection of acetic acid. By the way, when using the other two carbon sources, acetic acid emerged as an undesirable by-product for further PA purification.

  13. Lipids and Fatty Acids of Nudibranch Mollusks: Potential Sources of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Zhukova, Natalia V.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular diversity of chemical compounds found in marine animals offers a good chance for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds of unique structures and diverse biological activities. Nudibranch mollusks, which are not protected by a shell and produce chemicals for various ecological uses, including defense against predators, have attracted great interest for their lipid composition. Lipid analysis of eight nudibranch species revealed dominant phospholipids, sterols and monoalkyldiacylglycerols. Among polar lipids, 1-alkenyl-2-acyl glycerophospholipids (plasmalogens) and ceramide-aminoethyl phosphonates were found in the mollusks. The fatty acid compositions of the nudibranchs differed greatly from those of other marine gastropods and exhibited a wide diversity: very long chain fatty acids known as demospongic acids, a series of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids, including unusual 21:2∆7,13, and an abundance of various odd and branched fatty acids typical of bacteria. Symbiotic bacteria revealed in some species of nudibranchs participate presumably in the production of some compounds serving as a chemical defense for the mollusks. The unique fatty acid composition of the nudibranchs is determined by food supply, inherent biosynthetic activities and intracellular symbiotic microorganisms. The potential of nudibranchs as a source of biologically active lipids and fatty acids is also discussed. PMID:25196731

  14. Dietary starch sources affect net portal appearance of amino acids and glucose in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, T-J; Dai, Q-Z; Yin, Y-L; Zhang, J; Huang, R-L; Ruan, Z; Deng, Z; Xie, M

    2008-05-01

    Four male pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire; average initial (mean ± SEM) BW = 22.5 ± 1.1 kg), fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein, ileal vein and carotid artery, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design to measure the effect of dietary starch sources on the net portal appearance of glucose and amino acids. Dietary starch sources were resistant starch (RS), maize, sticky rice and brown rice. Diets were provided at 0730, 1530 and 2330 h during a 6-day adjustment period and 1-day collection period. On day 7 of each period, blood samples were collected from the portal vein and carotid artery at 0730 h (prior to feeding) and hourly up to 8 h after meal. Blood samples were used to determine glucose, amino acid, packed cell volume and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). When calculated per 100 g feed intake, cumulative portal glucose appearance was lower (P < 0.05) for resistant starch than for maize, sticky rice or brown rice up to 8 h after the meal. Cumulative portal glucose appearance was higher (P < 0.05) for sticky rice and brown rice than for other diets until 4 h after the meal, but maize had higher cumulative glucose appearance after 4 h. Net cumulative portal concentrations of most amino acids for resistant starch were also reduced (P < 0.05) than for the other starch sources. Cumulative portal appearance of amino acid represented 48.39%, 63.76%, 61.80% and 59.18% of dietary intake for resistant starch, maize, sticky rice and brown rice, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that dietary starch sources substantially affect the appearance of amino acids and glucose in the portal circulation.

  15. Acidic and total primary sulfates: development of emission factors for major stationary combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goklany, I.M.; Hoffnagle, G.F.; Brackbill, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    ''Best estimates'' of emission factors for major sources of acidic and total primary sulfates are developed for use in the compilation of emission inventories for the eastern U.S. These may, in turn, be used for modeling of acidic or sulfate deposition. The factors are based upon a critical evaluation of the generic measurement methods used to quantify total and acidic primary sulfate emissions, and an exhaustive review and critique of individual papers and studies available in the open literature which present measurement data on primary sulfate emissions. It develops a qualitative rating scheme which specifies the level of confidence that should be attached to the emission factor determinations. The paper concludes that much of the existing data on primary sulfates from stationary combustion sources are, probably, significantly biased upward and, therefore, inappropriate for the derivation of emission factors. Therefore, existing estimates of primary sulfate emissions for these source categories are, probably, substanitally inflated. It also concludes that, for most source categories, very little confidence can be attached to the best estimates because of the paucity of data obtained from measurement techniques which are likely to be free of systematic bias. 68 references.

  16. Tracing Carbon Sources through Aquatic and Terrestrial Food Webs Using Amino Acid Stable Isotope Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Andersen, Nils; O’Brien, Diane M.; Piatkowski, Uwe; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ13C patterns among amino acids (δ13CAA) could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ13CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ13C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ13CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ13C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ13C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs. PMID:24069196

  17. Daytime sources of nitrous acid (HONO) in the atmospheric boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Kleffmann, Jörg

    2007-06-04

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH), the self-cleaning agent of the atmosphere and a key species in the formation of harmful photooxidants during summer smog. Recent field measurements using very sensitive HONO instruments have shown that daytime HONO concentrations are much higher than has been assumed previously and that the contribution of HONO to the radical formation was underestimated in the past. A strong photochemical HONO source has been proposed, which contributes to the primary OH radical production up to 56 %. These exciting results initiated new laboratory studies, in which new sources of HONO have been identified. It is demonstrated that HONO is photochemically formed 1) on surfaces treated with nitric acid, 2) by reduction of NO(2) on photosensitized organic surfaces like humic acids and c) in the gas phase photolysis of ortho-substituted nitroaromatics. Although significant uncertainties still exist on the exact mechanisms, these additional sources might explain daytime observations in the atmosphere and demonstrate that HONO should be generally measured in field campaigns, besides other radical sources.

  18. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Andersen, Nils; O'Brien, Diane M; Piatkowski, Uwe; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13)C patterns among amino acids (δ(13)CAA) could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13)CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13)C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13)CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13)C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13)C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs.

  19. Culture strategies for lipid production using acetic acid as sole carbon source by Rhodosporidium toruloides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Jia-Nan; Lu, Li-Jun; Peng, Kai-Ming; Yang, Gao-Xiang; Liu, Jia

    2016-04-01

    Rhodosporidium toruloides AS 2.1389 was tested using different concentrations of acetic acid as a low-cost carbon source for the production of microbial lipids, which are good raw materials for biodiesel production. It grew and had higher lipid contents in media containing 4-20 g/L acetic acid as the sole carbon source, compared with that in glucose-containing media under the same culture conditions. At acetic acid concentrations as high as 20 g/L and the optimal carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 200 in a batch culture, the highest biomass production was 4.35 g/L, with a lipid content of 48.2%. At acetic acid concentrations as low as 4 g/L, a sequencing batch culture (SBC) with a C/N of 100 increased biomass production to 4.21 g/L, with a lipid content of 38.6%. These results provide usable culture strategies for lipid production by R. toruloides AS 2.1389 when using diverse waste-derived volatile fatty acids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Source of the arachidonic acid released on stimulation of rat basophilic leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Gil, M.; Siraganian, R.P.

    1986-05-15

    Triggering of rat basophilic leukemia cells for histamine secretion is accompanied by arachidonic acid release. The source of this arachidonic acid released after IgE or calcium ionophore A23187 stimulation was studied. The 48-hr culture of the cells with (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid resulted in labeling of the phospholipids to constant specific activity. After IgE stimulation, 8.8% of the cellular (/sup 14/C)arachidonate was released; this was predominantly from phosphatidylinositol (PI)/phosphatidylserine (PS) (66.3%), less from phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (25.9%), and minimally from phosphatidylcholine (PC). In contrast, after ionophore stimulation the cells released 16.4% of cellular (/sup 14/C)arachidonate, most of this was from PE (55.4%) followed by about equal amounts from PS/PI and PC (24% and 20%, respectively). Therefore, the source of the released arachidonic acid depends on the stimulus. In contrast, the results are different when the cells are cultured for only 2 hr with (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid. The label in phospholipids was in PC (44%), PE (38%), and PI/PS (20%); the stimulation of the cells with IgE or ionophore resulted in the release of the (/sup 14/C)arachidonate from PC (81% and 96%, respectively). This suggests the presence of several pools of phospholipids that are labeled at different rates and have variable proximity and/or accessibility to the phospholipase(s) enzyme(s) activated during cell secretion.

  1. Characterization of the fatty acid composition of lamb commercially available in northern Spain: Emphasis on the trans-18:1 and CLA content and profile.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Lamas, Leire; Barron, Luis J R; Kramer, John K G; Etaio, Iñaki; Aldai, Noelia

    2016-07-01

    A survey of commercially available lamb meat was performed in northern Spain in order to evaluate their fatty acid (FA) composition with emphasis on trans fatty acid (TFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. Samples were collected in spring (n=24) and winter (n=24) of 2013, and were obtained in about equal numbers from grocery stores and butcher-shops. Subcutaneous fat, known to be a sensitive indicator of TFA content in ruminants, was analyzed by GC-FID. In general, very few differences were observed between collection periods and type of stores because of the high variability within the groups that was believed to be associated with differences in genetics and feeding strategies. However, the 10t/11t ratio of all samples showed two clearly identifiable groups irrespective of the source: 1) when 10t/11t was >1, 10t-shifted samples; 2) when 10t/11t was ≤1, non-shifted samples where 11t-18:1 was the predominant isomer. These two groups were clearly identified and associated with distinct FAs using principal component analysis.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Aurantiochytrium species: high docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production by the newly isolated microalga, Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mang; Song, Xiaojin; Feng, Yingang; Li, Wenli; Cui, Qiu

    2013-01-01

    A heterotrophic microalga, strain SD116, with the ability to produce high concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) was isolated from Shuidong Bay, Guangdong Province, China. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 18S rDNA of SD116 showed that the strain has a close phylogenetic relationship to Aurantiochytrium species. The highest rates for growth and DHA accumulation for SD116 were obtained in 6.0% glucose, 2.0% yeast extract, and 50% artificial seawater (ASW) at a pH of 7 at 28°C. The maximum total lipid content reached 56.3% of the dry cell weight (DCW), and the maximum DHA content accounted for 50.9% of the total fatty acid (TFA) content. It was further found that urea may be a potential nitrogen source for industrial fermentation because of its cheap price and ability to induce a relatively high biomass and lipid production capacity. Using 5 L fermenters, the DCW, total lipid content, and DHA yield were found to be 70.43 g L(-1), 71.09% of the DCW, and 17.42 g L(-1) (34.79% of the TFA), respectively. The results show that Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116 is a promising candidate for commercial DHA production and could be useful for the synthesis of biomass-related products.

  3. The proportion of total C18:1 trans-fatty acids in red blood cell membranes relates to carotid plaque prevalence.

    PubMed

    Herreras, Zoe; Cofán, Montserrat; Catalan, Marta; Calvo, Carlos; Pinyol, Montserrat; Amor, Antonio J; Gilabert, Rosa; Ros, Emilio; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Ortega, Emilio

    2016-12-01

    Consistent evidence supports the pro-atherogenic properties of dietary trans-fatty acids (TFAs). However, there are no clinical data on TFA intake and atheroma plaque. We cross sectionally investigated whether the proportion of total C18:1 TFA in red blood cells (RBCs), which mirrors dietary TFA intake, independently relates to carotid plaque prevalence in subjects with new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus without prior cardiovascular disease (n=101, 56% men, mean age 61 years) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=96). RBC fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Plaque (defined as carotid intima-media thickness ≥1.5 mm) was sonographically assessed at three bilateral carotid segments. In multivariate models adjusting for group (diabetes or control) and classical cardiovascular risk factors, for each 0.1% increase in RBC total C18:1 TFA isomers, plaque prevalence increased by 53% (P=.002). In contrast, for each 0.1% increase in RBC alpha-linolenic acid, the vegetable omega-3 fatty acid, plaque prevalence decreased by 43% (P<.001). We conclude that the RBC membrane proportion of total C18:1 TFA, considered a proxy of intake, directly relates to the ultrasound feature that best predicts future cardiovascular events. Our findings support current recommendations to limit TFA intake for cardiovascular health promotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    This project had three major objectives. The first objective was to develop a fossil fuel combustion source inventory (NO/sub x/, SO/sub x/, and hydrocarbon emissions) that would be relatively easy to use and update for analyzing the impact of combustion emissions on acid deposition in the eastern United States. The second objective of the project was to use the inventory data as a basis for selection of a number of areas that, by virtue of their importance in the acid rain issue, could be further studied to assess the impact of local and intraregional combustion sources. The third objective was to conduct an analysis of wet deposition monitoring data in the areas under study, along with pertinent physical characteristics, meteorological conditions, and emission patterns of these areas, to investigate probable relationships between local and intraregional combustion sources and the deposition of acidic material. The combustion source emissions inventory has been developed for the eastern United States. It characterizes all important area sources and point sources on a county-by-county basis. Its design provides flexibility and simplicity and makes it uniquely useful in overall analysis of emission patterns in the eastern United States. Three regions with basically different emission patterns have been identified and characterized. The statistical analysis of wet deposition monitoring data in conjunction with emission patterns, wind direction, and topography has produced consistent results for each study area and has demonstrated that the wet deposition in each area reflects the characteristics of the localized area around the monitoring sites (typically 50 to 150 miles). 8 references, 28 figures, 39 tables.

  5. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid and trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid alter oxylipins profiles in mouse adipose tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diets containing high amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease inflammation and the incidence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease while trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake increases the incidence of these conditions. Some n-3 PUFA-a...

  6. Local indigenous fruit derived juices as alternate source of acidity regulators.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Cassandra; Fernandes, Rosaline; Kudale, Subhash; Naik, Azza Silotry

    2017-09-20

    Acidity regulators are additives that alter and control food acidity. The objective of this study was to explore local indigenous fruits as source of natural acidity regulators. Juices extracted from Garcinia indica (kokum), Embilica officinalis (amla) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind) were used as acidulants for medium such as coconut milk and bottle gourd juice. The buffering capacity (β), acid composition, antioxidant activity and shelf-life study of the acidified media were estimated. Potentiometric titration showed G. indica to possess highest buffering capacity in both ranges. HPLC analysis showed T. indica contained high level of tartaric acid (4.84 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) ) while G. indica had citric acid (22.37 ± 0.84 mg g(-1) ) and E. officinalis had citric acid (2.75 ± 0.02 mg g(-1) ) along with ascorbic acid (2.68 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) ). DPPH scavenging activity was high for E. officinalis (91.24 ± 0.66 %) and T. indica (90.93 ± 0.817 %) and relatively lower for G. indica (34.61 ± 3.66 %). Shelf life study showed total plate count to be within the prescribed limits upto a week in accordance to safety regulations. The present investigation confirmed the suitability of indigenous fruit juices as alternatives to existing acidity regulators. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of fatty acid food reformulations on intake of Dutch young adults.

    PubMed

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Millenaar, Inger L; Van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Westenbrink, Susanne

    2011-12-01

    The Dutch'Task Force for the Improvement of the Fatty Acid Composition' initiated fatty acid reformulations in branches using vegetable oils and fats to reduce the trans (TFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) content of foods. This study estimates the impact of recent reformulations in the task force food groups by estimating changes in median intake of TFA and SFA in Dutch young adults. This is a modelling study with food consumption data of young adults. Intakes were estimated before reformulation using food composition data of 2001 as a reference and while including most recent fatty acid composition of foods for task force food groups. Food composition of other foods and food consumption was assumed unchanged. Average TFA intake significantly decreased from 1.0 E% in the reference to 0.8 E% in the reformulation scenario. Pastry, cakes and biscuits, and snacks contributed most to the decrease of TFA. Estimated SFA intake did not change. When solid baking and spreading fats were additionally replaced with fluid ones, SFA intake decreases from 12.9 E% to 12.1 E%. Fatty acid reformulation in the task force food groups contributed to reductions in TFA intake. For further reductions in SFA intake a different food choice is primordial.

  8. Olives and Olive Oil Are Sources of Electrophilic Fatty Acid Nitroalkenes

    PubMed Central

    Schopfer, Francisco J.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Vitturi, Dario; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso, Juan B.; Radi, Rafael; Freeman, Bruce A.; Rubbo, Homero

    2014-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO) and nitrite (NO2−)-dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA) that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine) in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2− under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA) and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. PMID:24454759

  9. Nitrogen Metabolism of Lemna minor. I. Growth, Nitrogen Sources and Amino Acid Inhibition 1

    PubMed Central

    Joy, K. W.

    1969-01-01

    Lemna minor grown in sterile culture on a minerals-sucrose medium can utilize as nitrogen source, in order of increasing growth rate: ammonia, nitrate, a mixture of glutamic and aspartic acids plus arginine, or a balanced mixture of amino acids (hydrolyzed casein). Maximum growth is found with nitrate plus hydrolyzed casein. Many synthetic mixtures of amino acids are unable to support growth. Many single amino acids are inhibitory, and when added (at 2 mm or less) to cultures, growing in the presence of nitrate, cause a decrease in growth rate or even death of the plants (e.g. with alanine, valine, methionine or leucine). Some of these inhibitory effects are also found when the amino acid is added to cultures growing on ammonia or hydrolyzed casein. Arginine was the only amino acid of those tested which gave a marked stimulation of growth when added to cultures growing with inorganic nitrogen. The rapid rate of growth, sterile nature of tissue, decreased biological variation of samples containing many plants and ability to utilize different culture media make this an attractive organism for studies on higher plant metabolism. PMID:5799046

  10. Development of a gas phase source for perfluoroalkyl acids to examine atmospheric sampling methods.

    PubMed

    MacInnis, John J; VandenBoer, Trevor C; Young, Cora J

    2016-06-21

    An inability to produce environmentally relevant gaseous mixing ratios of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), ubiquitous global contaminants, limits the analytical reliability of atmospheric chemists to make accurate gas and particulate measurements that are demonstrably free of interferences due to sampling artefacts. A gas phase source for PFAAs based on the acid displacement mechanism using perfluoropropionate (PFPrA), perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has been constructed. The displacement efficiency of gas phase perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) is inversely related to chain length. Decreasing displacement efficiencies for PFPrA, PFBA, PFHxA, and PFOA were 90% ± 20%, 40% ± 10%, 40% ± 10%, 9% ± 4%, respectively. Generating detectable amounts of gas phase perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) was not possible. It is likely that lower vapour pressure and much higher acidity play a role in this lack of emission. PFCA emission rates were not elevated by increasing relative humidity (25%-75%), nor flow rate of carrier gas from 33-111 sccm. Overall, reproducible gaseous production of PFCAs was within the error of the production of hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a displacing acid (±20%) and was accomplished using a dry nitrogen flow of 33 ± 2 sccm. A reproducible mass emission rate of 0.97 ± 0.10 ng min(-1) (n = 8) was observed for PFBA. This is equivalent to an atmospheric mixing ratio of 12 ppmv, which is easily diluted to environmentally relevant mixing ratios of PFBA. Conversely, generating gas phase perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) by sublimating the solid acid under the same conditions produced a mass emission rate of 2800 ng min(-1), which is equivalent to a mixing ratio of 18 ppthv and over a million times higher than suspected atmospheric levels. Thus, for analytical certification of atmospheric sampling methods, generating gas phase standards for PFCAs is best accomplished using acid displacement under dry conditions

  11. Mechanistic Studies of Wacker-Type Amidocyclization of Alkenes Catalyzed by (IMes)Pd(TFA)2(H2O): Kinetic and Stereochemical Implications of Proton Transfer†

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xuan; White, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    The stereochemical course of the amidopalladation of alkenes has important implications for the development of enantioselective Pd-catalyzed “Wacker-type” oxidative amination of alkenes. We have recently shown that the addition of base (Na2CO3) can alter the stereochemical course of amidopalladation in the (IMes)Pd(TFA)2(H2O)-catalyzed aerobic oxidative amidation of alkene. In this study, the mechanism of (IMes)Pd(TFA)2(H2O)-catalyzed oxidative heterocyclization of (Z)-4-hexenyltosylamide was investigated in the presence and absence of exogenous base Na2CO3. The results reveal two parallel pathways in the absence of base: a cis-amidopalladation pathway with turnover-limiting deprotonation of the sulfonamide nucleophile, and a trans-amidopalladation pathway with turnover-limiting nucleophilic attack of sulfonamide on the coordinated alkene. The addition of base (Na2CO3) lowers the energy barrier associated with the proton transfer, leading to an overall faster turnover rate and exclusive cis-amidopalladation of alkene. PMID:23157332

  12. Mechanistic studies of Wacker-type amidocyclization of alkenes catalyzed by (IMes)Pd(TFA)2(H2O): kinetic and stereochemical implications of proton transfer.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuan; White, Paul B; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-03-01

    The stereochemical course of the amidopalladation of alkenes has important implications for the development of enantioselective Pd-catalyzed "Wacker-type" oxidative amidation of alkenes. We have recently shown that the addition of base (Na2CO3) can alter the stereochemical course of amidopalladation in the (IMes)Pd(TFA)2(H2O)-catalyzed aerobic oxidative amidation of alkene. In this study, the mechanism of (IMes)Pd(TFA)2(H2O)-catalyzed oxidative heterocyclization of (Z)-4-hexenyltosylamide was investigated in the presence and absence of exogenous base Na2CO3. The results reveal two parallel pathways in the absence of base: a cis-amidopalladation pathway with turnover-limiting deprotonation of the sulfonamide nucleophile and a trans-amidopalladation pathway with turnover-limiting nucleophilic attack of sulfonamide on the coordinated alkene. The addition of base (Na2CO3) lowers the energy barrier associated with the proton transfer, leading to an overall faster turnover rate and exclusive cis-amidopalladation of alkene.

  13. Plasma concentrations of trans fatty acids in persons with Type 2 diabetes between September 2002 and April 2004

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    TransFatty acids (TFAs) increase cardiovascular disease risk. TFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the food supply may be declining, with reciprocal increases in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs). We sought to determine whether plasma 18-carbon TFA a...

  14. Interaction of dietary high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls and different fat sources in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Viveros, A; Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Rebolé, A; Alzueta, C; Arija, I; Centeno, C; Brenes, A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of dietary fat sources (high-oleic-acid sunflower seeds, HOASS; palm oil, PO; and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil, HOASO) and high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls (HOAS hulls; 40 g/kg of diet) on performance, digestive organ size, fat digestibility, and fatty acid profile in abdominal fat and blood serum parameters was evaluated in chickens (from 1 to 21 d of age). Bird performance and digestive organ size were not affected by either dietary fat source or sunflower hull supplementation. Fat digestibility in birds fed diets enriched (HOASS and HOASO) in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was increased compared with those fed the PO diet. The addition of sunflower hulls did not modify fat digestibility. The fatty acids pattern of abdominal fat reflected the dietary fat profile. The greatest concentrations of C16:0 and C18:0 were found in birds fed PO diets. The C18:1n-9 content was increased in birds that received HOASS and HOASO diets compared with those fed PO diets. The greatest content of C18:2n-6 was observed in birds fed HOASS diets. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to MUFA was significantly increased in birds fed PO diets compared with those fed HOASS or HOASO diets. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets resulted in a decrease of C18:2n-6 and PUFA concentrations and PUFA:MUFA ratio in abdominal fat. Dietary fat sources and sunflower hulls modify blood triglycerides and serum lipoproteins. A decrease in triglyceride concentrations was observed in birds fed HOASS diets compared with those fed PO and HOASO diets. The greatest concentrations of serum high density, very low density (VLDL), and low density lipoproteins were found in birds receiving HOASO, PO, and HOASS diets, respectively. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets caused an increase of serum triglycerides and VLDL concentrations. The MUFA-enriched diets had lower triglyceride and VLDL concentrations than did diets rich in saturated fatty acids. However, the sunflower hull

  15. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Dulce Alves; Custódio, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Pereira, Hugo; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Varela, João; Abu-Salah, Khalid M.

    2013-01-01

    The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented. PMID:23807546

  16. Production of γ-aminobutyric acid by microorganisms from different food sources.

    PubMed

    Hudec, Jozef; Kobida, Ľubomír; Čanigová, Margita; Lacko-Bartošová, Magdaléna; Ložek, Otto; Chlebo, Peter; Mrázová, Jana; Ducsay, Ladislav; Bystrická, Judita

    2015-04-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a potentially bioactive component of foods and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was screen lactic acid bacteria belonging to the Czech Collection of Microorganisms, and microorganisms (yeast and bacteria) from 10 different food sources for GABA production by fermentation in broth or plant and animal products. Under an aerobic atmosphere, very low selectivity of GABA production (from 0.8% to 1.3%) was obtained using yeast and filamentous fungi, while higher selectivity (from 6.5% to 21.0%) was obtained with bacteria. The use of anaerobic conditions, combined with the addition of coenzyme (pyridoxal-5-phosphate) and salts (CaCl2 , NaCl), led to the detection of a low concentration of GABA precursor. Simultaneously, using an optimal temperature of 33 °C, a pH of 6.5 and bacteria from banana (Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae families), surprisingly, a high selectivity of GABA was obtained. A positive impact of fenugreek sprouts on the proteolytic process and GABA production from plant material as a source of GABA precursor was identified. Lactic acid bacteria for the production of new plant and animal GABA-rich products from different natural sources containing GABA precursor can be used. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Carboxylic Acid Photochemistry is a Marine Source of Glyoxal and Other Aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, R.; Gonzalez, L.; Tinel, L.; George, C.; Volkamer, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Glyoxal is a highly water-soluble precursor in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Over land, glyoxal is known to be produced by the oxidation of volatile organic carbon (VOC) from both anthropogenic and natural sources. However, marine sources are still not well understood. Previous studies above the remote Pacific Ocean have detected typical glyoxal mixing ratios of 30-40 pptv, concentrations too high to be explained with current chemical understanding or atmospheric models. Because the lifetime of glyoxal is very short, the glyoxal found must have originated from, rather than been transported to, the open ocean. Furthermore, eddy covariance measurements indicate that an organic surface microlayer may be producing the glyoxal by as yet unknown processes. Here we present laboratory studies of the formation of glyoxal from carboxylic acids. Nonanoic, octanoic, and heptanoic acids floated on water and subjected to ultraviolet light are converted into their equivalent alkenals. Subsequent ozonolysis of the alkenals leads to the formation of glyoxal. We employ a PTR-MS to detect the alkenals, and a cavity-enhanced DOAS to detect the glyoxal. Considering the ubiquitous occurrence of carboxylic acids and their derivatives in the environment, this mechanism has the potential to be a significant source of glyoxal in the atmosphere.

  18. The omega-3 fatty acid nutritional landscape: health benefits and sources.

    PubMed

    Deckelbaum, Richard J; Torrejon, Claudia

    2012-03-01

    Dietary fatty acids (FA) are increasingly recognized as major biologic regulators and have properties that relate to health outcomes and disease. The longer chain, more bioactive (n-6) (or omega-6) FA and (n-3) (or omega-3) FA share similar elongation and desaturation enzymes in their conversion from the essential (n-6) FA, linoleic acid, and (n-3) FA, α-linolenic acid (ALA). Conversion from these essential FA is very inefficient. However, now for the (n-3) FA series, soy oil can be enriched with (n-3) stearidonic acid (SDA) to allow for much more efficient conversion to longer chain EPA. EPA and the longer chain DHA possess distinct physical and biological properties that generally impart properties to cells and tissue, which underlie their ability to promote health and prevent disease. Although active in a number of areas of human biology, mechanisms of action of EPA and DHA are perhaps best defined in cardiovascular disease. There is concern that to reach the intake recommendations of EPA and DHA, their supply from cold water fish will be insufficient. Gaps in understanding mechanisms of action of (n-3) FA in a number of health and disease areas as well as optimal sources and intake levels for each need to be defined by further research. Because of the inefficient conversion of ALA, the appearance of SDA in enriched soy oil offers a biologically effective and cost effective approach to providing a sustainable plant source for (n-3) FA in the future.

  19. Understanding Potential Exposure Sources of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Mary A.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Barton, Catherine A.; Botelho, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper integrates perspectives from analytical chemistry, environmental engineering, and industrial hygiene to better understand how workers may be exposed to perfluorinated carboxylic acids when handling them in the workplace in order to identify appropriate exposure controls. Due to the dramatic difference in physical properties of the protonated acid form and the anionic form, this family of chemicals provides unique industrial hygiene challenges. Workplace monitoring, experimental data, and modeling results were used to ascertain the most probable workplace exposure sources and transport mechanisms for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its ammonium salt (APFO). PFOA is biopersistent and its measurement in the blood has been used to assess human exposure since it integrates exposure from all routes of entry. Monitoring suggests that inhalation of airborne material may be an important exposure route. Transport studies indicated that, under low pH conditions, PFOA, the undissociated (acid) species, actively partitions from water into air. In addition, solid-phase PFOA and APFO may also sublime into the air. Modeling studies determined that contributions from surface sublimation and loss from low pH aqueous solutions can be significant potential sources of workplace exposure. These findings suggest that keeping surfaces clean, preventing accumulation of material in unventilated areas, removing solids from waste trenches and sumps, and maintaining neutral pH in sumps can lower workplace exposures. PMID:20974675

  20. Understanding potential exposure sources of perfluorinated carboxylic acids in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Mary A; Dawson, Barbara J; Barton, Catherine A; Botelho, Miguel A

    2010-11-01

    This paper integrates perspectives from analytical chemistry, environmental engineering, and industrial hygiene to better understand how workers may be exposed to perfluorinated carboxylic acids when handling them in the workplace in order to identify appropriate exposure controls. Due to the dramatic difference in physical properties of the protonated acid form and the anionic form, this family of chemicals provides unique industrial hygiene challenges. Workplace monitoring, experimental data, and modeling results were used to ascertain the most probable workplace exposure sources and transport mechanisms for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its ammonium salt (APFO). PFOA is biopersistent and its measurement in the blood has been used to assess human exposure since it integrates exposure from all routes of entry. Monitoring suggests that inhalation of airborne material may be an important exposure route. Transport studies indicated that, under low pH conditions, PFOA, the undissociated (acid) species, actively partitions from water into air. In addition, solid-phase PFOA and APFO may also sublime into the air. Modeling studies determined that contributions from surface sublimation and loss from low pH aqueous solutions can be significant potential sources of workplace exposure. These findings suggest that keeping surfaces clean, preventing accumulation of material in unventilated areas, removing solids from waste trenches and sumps, and maintaining neutral pH in sumps can lower workplace exposures.

  1. Solubility of iron from combustion source particles in acidic media linked to iron speciation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hongbo; Lin, Jun; Shang, Guangfeng; Dong, Wenbo; Grassian, Vichi H; Carmichael, Gregory R; Li, Yan; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-10-16

    In this study, iron solubility from six combustion source particles was investigated in acidic media. For comparison, a Chinese loess (CL) dust was also included. The solubility experiments confirmed that iron solubility was highly variable and dependent on particle sources. Under dark and light conditions, the combustion source particles dissolved faster and to a greater extent relative to CL. Oil fly ash (FA) yielded the highest soluble iron as compared to the other samples. Total iron solubility fractions measured in the dark after 12 h ranged between 2.9 and 74.1% of the initial iron content for the combustion-derived particles (Oil FA > biomass burning particles (BP) > coal FA). Ferrous iron represented the dominant soluble form of Fe in the suspensions of straw BP and corn BP, while total dissolved Fe presented mainly as ferric iron in the cases of oil FA, coal FA, and CL. Mössbauer measurements and TEM analysis revealed that Fe in oil FA was commonly presented as nanosized Fe(3)O(4) aggregates and Fe/S-rich particles. Highly labile source of Fe in corn BP could be originated from amorphous Fe form mixed internally with K-rich particles. However, Fe in coal FA was dominated by the more insoluble forms of both Fe-bearing aluminosilicate glass and Fe oxides. The data presented herein showed that iron speciation varies by source and is an important factor controlling iron solubility from these anthropogenic emissions in acidic solutions, suggesting that the variability of iron solubility from combustion-derived particles is related to the inherent character and origin of the aerosols themselves. Such information can be useful in improving our understanding on iron solubility from combustion aerosols when they undergo acidic processing during atmospheric transport.

  2. Unexploited Acacia cyanophylla seeds: potential food sources of ω6 fatty acids and antioxidants?

    PubMed

    Youzbachi, Nouha; Elfalleh, Walid; Tlili, Nizar; Gregoire, Stephane; Berdeaux, Olivier; Salles, Christian; Triki, Saida; Khouja, Mohamed-Larbi; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Nasri, Nizar

    2012-05-01

    In order to investigate new sources of dietary phytochemicals, recent studies have focused on underexploited seeds. In this study the total lipid contents, fatty acid profiles and levels of soluble proteins, minerals and antioxidants in seeds from 12 Acacia cyanophylla ecotypes commonly grown in Tunisia were determined. Total lipids averaged 101.7 g kg(-1) on a dry weight basis. Linoleic (61.11-65.45% of total fatty acid content), oleic (19.67-22.85%) and palmitic (9.18-9.98%) acids were the principal fatty acids. Smaller proportions of stearic (1.49-1.82%), vaccenic (1.13-2.05%) and palmitoleic (0.34-0.58%) acids were also quantified. Proteins (by Kjeldahl assay) averaged 107.2 g kg(-1) on a dry weight basis. Total phenolics averaged 1.91 g gallic acid equivalent kg(-1) dry weight (DW) and total flavonoids averaged 0.40 g rutin equivalent kg(-1) DW. The free radical-scavenging activity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay averaged 0.59 mmol L(-1) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), while that determined by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay averaged 0.28 mmol L(-1) TEAC. The findings of this study confirm the presence of ω6 fatty acids at high levels in A. cyanophylla seeds. These metabolites could be used as such and/or extracted for the formulation of supplements and/or ingredients to provide a ratio close to the ideal for the ω3/ω6 balance. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Characterization and acid-mobilization study of iron-containing mineral dust source materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cwiertny, David M.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Hunter, Gordon J.; Laskin, Alexander; Scherer, Michelle M.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-03-01

    Processes that solubilize iron in mineral dust aerosol may increase the amount of iron supplied to ocean surface waters, and thereby stimulate phytoplankton productivity. In particular, the uptake of acids such as H2SO4 and HNO3 on mineral dust surfaces can produce extremely acidic environments that promote iron dissolution. Here, four samples that represent source materials for mineral dust (Saudi Beach sand (SB), Inland Saudi sand (IS), Saharan Sand (SS) and China Loess (CL)) and one commercial reference material (Arizona Test Dust (AZTD)) were characterized, and examined in dissolution studies in solutions of sulfuric, nitric and hydrochloric acid ranging from pH 1 to 3. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed Fe(III) in all samples, whereas SB, CL and AZTD also contained appreciable Fe(II). Spectra suggest that both Fe(II) and Fe(III) were substituted into aluminosilicates, although CL, AZTD and IS also contained Fe(III) oxide phases. Total iron solubility measured after 24 h ranged between 4-16% of the initial iron content for each material, but did not scale with either the specific surface area or the total iron content of the samples. Instead, we show that Fe(II)-containing solid phases such as Fe(II)-substituted aluminosilicates represent a significant, and sometimes dominant, source of soluble Fe in acidic environments. Results of dissolution studies also show that the nature of the acid influences iron solubilization, as elevated concentrations of nitrate encountered from nitric acid at pH 1 suppressed Fe(II) formation. We propose a surface-mediated, non-photochemical redox reaction between nitrate and Fe(II), which may contribute to Fe(II)/Fe(III) cycling in the atmosphere.

  4. Source Tracking and Succession of Kimchi Lactic Acid Bacteria during Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Jeon, Che Ok

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at evaluating raw materials as potential lactic acid bacteria (LAB) sources for kimchi fermentation and investigating LAB successions during fermentation. The bacterial abundances and communities of five different sets of raw materials were investigated using plate-counting and pyrosequencing. LAB were found to be highly abundant in all garlic samples, suggesting that garlic may be a major LAB source for kimchi fermentation. LAB were observed in three and two out of five ginger and leek samples, respectively, indicating that they can also be potential important LAB sources. LAB were identified in only one cabbage sample with low abundance, suggesting that cabbage may not be an important LAB source. Bacterial successions during fermentation in the five kimchi samples were investigated by community analysis using pyrosequencing. LAB communities in initial kimchi were similar to the combined LAB communities of individual raw materials, suggesting that kimchi LAB were derived from their raw materials. LAB community analyses showed that species in the genera Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella were key players in kimchi fermentation, but their successions during fermentation varied with the species, indicating that members of the key genera may have different acid tolerance or growth competitiveness depending on their respective species.

  5. Photochemical processing of diesel fuel emissions as a large secondary source of isocyanic acid (HNCO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, M. F.; Friedman, B.; Fulgham, R.; Brophy, P.; Galang, A.; Jathar, S. H.; Veres, P.; Roberts, J. M.; Farmer, D. K.

    2016-04-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO) is a well-known air pollutant that affects human health. Biomass burning, smoking, and combustion engines are known HNCO sources, but recent studies suggest that secondary production in the atmosphere may also occur. We directly observed photochemical production of HNCO from the oxidative aging of diesel exhaust during the Diesel Exhaust Fuel and Control experiments at Colorado State University using acetate ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Emission ratios of HNCO were enhanced, after 1.5 days of simulated atmospheric aging, from 50 to 230 mg HNCO/kg fuel at idle engine operating conditions. Engines operated at higher loads resulted in less primary and secondary HNCO formation, with emission ratios increasing from 20 to 40 mg HNCO/kg fuel under 50% load engine operating conditions. These results suggest that photochemical sources of HNCO could be more significant than primary sources in urban areas.

  6. Biotechnological Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid Using Aurantiochytrium limacinum: Carbon Sources Comparison And Growth Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Sergi; Turon, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Aurantiochytrium limacinum, a marine heterotrophic protist/microalga has shown interesting yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) when cultured with different carbon sources: glucose, pure and crude glycerol. A complete study in a lab-scale fermenter allowed for the characterization and comparison of the growth kinetic parameters corresponding to each carbon source. Artificial Marine Medium (AMM) with glucose, pure and crude glycerol offered similar biomass yields. The net growth rates (0.10–0.12 h−1), biomass (0.7–0.8 g cells/g Substrate) and product (0.14–0.15 g DHA/g cells) yields, as well as DHA productivity were similar using the three carbon sources. Viable potential applications to valorize crude glycerol are envisioned to avoid an environmental problem due to the excess of byproduct. PMID:26690180

  7. Profiling of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids in plant extracts using in-source CID fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Ádám; Abrankó, László

    2016-12-01

    Hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids (HCQAs) are a major class of phenolic plant secondary metabolites, belonging to the chlorogenic acid family. Various health-beneficial properties of HCQAs have been shown, which has drawn interest for HCQA profiling in plants of human consumption. However, this task remains challenging, because several isomeric HCQAs can be present in the sample with identical molecular formulae and the limited availability of reference standards poses additional challenges to their identification. In the present work, a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS) method accompanied with an effective data filtering protocol is presented, which is shown to be suitable for the identification of HCQAs in plant materials in a non-targeted manner. Both collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation performed in a collision cell and in-source (CID) fragmentation were used to produce accurate mass fragments. It was shown that fragmentation characteristics required for identification of regio-isomers of HCQAs can be achieved with in-source CID fragmentation, enabling the use of a single-stage MS system with in-source fragmentation for convincing identification of HCQAs. Based on a thorough validation of identified HCQA compounds using coffee bean extracts as reference samples, comprehensive profiling of HCQAs in two apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) genotypes ('Preventa' and 'Gönci magyarkajszi') was carried out for the first time and the following 10 HCQAs were shown to be present in apricot fruit: 3-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), cis-3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA, cis-5-CQA, 3,5-diCQA, 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid (pCoQA), 4-pCoQA, 3-feruloylquinic acid (FQA) and cis-3-FQA. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. An HPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS method suitable for the identification of hydroxycinnamoyilquinic acids (HCQAs) in plant material in a non-targeted manner was developed. Single-stage, high

  8. Plant and Soil Emissions of Amines and Amino Acids: A Source of Secondary Aerosol Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. L.; Doskey, P. V.; Pypker, T. G.

    2011-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the most abundant alkaline gas in the atmosphere and forms secondary aerosol by neutralizing sulfuric and nitric acids that are released during combustion of fossil fuels. Ammonia is primarily emitted by cropping and livestock operations. However, C2 and C3 amines (pKb 3.3-3.4), which are stronger bases than NH3 (pKb 4.7) have been observed in nuclei mode aerosol that is the precursor to secondary aerosol. Mixtures of amines and amino acids have been identified in diverse environments in aerosol, fog water, cloud water, the soluble fraction of precipitation, and in dew. Glycine (pKb 4.2), serine (pKb 4.8) and alanine (pKb 3.7 and 4.1 for the D and L forms, respectively) are typically the most abundant species. The only reported values of gas-phase glycine, serine and alanine were in marine air and ranged from 6-14 pptv. The origin of atmospheric amines and amino acids has not been fully identified, although sources are likely similar to NH3. Nitrate assimilation in plants forms glycine, serine, and L-alanine, while D-alanine is present in bacterial cell walls. Glycine is converted to serine during C3 plant photorespiration, producing CO2 and NH3. Bacteria metabolize glycine and alanine to methylamine and ethylamine via decarboxylation. Likely sources of amino acids are plants and bacteria, thus concentrations near continental sources are likely greater than those measured in marine air. The overall goal of the research is to examine seasonal variations and relationships between the exchange of CO2, NH3, amines, and amino acids with a corn/soybean rotation in the Midwest Corn Belt. The study presents gaseous profiles of organic amine compounds from various species of vegetation using a mist chamber trapping technique and analysis of the derivatized species by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Amino acid and amine profiles were obtained for red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharinum), white pine (Pinus

  9. Industrial Trans Fatty Acid and Serum Cholesterol: The Allowable Dietary Level

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Michihiro

    2017-01-01

    Trans fatty acid (TFA) from partially hydrogenated oil is regarded as the worst dietary fatty acid per gram due to its role in coronary heart disease. TFA consumption is decreasing worldwide, but some but not all observational studies indicate that TFA intake has little relevance to serum cholesterol levels in populations with low TFA intake (<1% E [percentage of total energy intake], TFA intake at <1% E does not influence the serum cholesterol level. To establish allowable level, we must consider not only the dietary level of TFAs, but also the composition of dietary fats simultaneously consumed, that is, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. These fatty acids strengthen or counteract the adverse effect of TFAs on serum cholesterol levels. In this review we describe the complex situation of the cardiovascular effects of industrial TFAs. The relationship between dietary industrial TFAs and concentration of plasma cholesterol should be evaluated from the viewpoint of dietary patterns rather than TFAs alone. PMID:28951788

  10. Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Sarah K; Destaillats, Frédéric; Dionisi, Fabiola; Krauss, Ronald M; Baer, David J

    2015-12-01

    Adverse effects of industrially produced trans fatty acids (iTFAs) on the risk of coronary artery disease are well documented in the scientific literature; however, effects of naturally occurring trans fatty acids (TFAs) from ruminant animals (rTFA), such as vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA), are less clear. Although animal and cell studies suggest that VA and c9,t11-CLA may be hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic, epidemiologic data comparing rTFAs and iTFAs are inconsistent, and human intervention studies have been limited, underpowered, and not well controlled. We determined the effects of VA, c9,t11-CLA, and iTFA, in the context of highly controlled diets (24 d each), on lipoprotein risk factors compared with a control diet. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, crossover feeding trial in 106 healthy adults [mean ± SD age: 47 ± 10.8 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 28.5 ± 4.0; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol: 3.24 ± 0.63 mmol/L]. Diets were designed to have stearic acid replaced with the following TFA isomers (percentage of energy): 0.1% mixed isomers of TFA (control), ∼3% VA, ∼3% iTFA, or 1% c9,t11-CLA. Total dietary fat (34% of energy) and other macronutrients were matched. Total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, lipoprotein(a), and apolipoprotein B were higher after VA than after iTFA; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI also were higher after VA. Compared with control, VA and iTFA both increased TC, LDL cholesterol, ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (2-6% change; P < 0.05); VA also increased HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein(a) (2-6% change; P < 0.05), whereas iTFA did not. c9,t11-CLA lowered triacylglycerol (P ≤ 0.01) and had no effect on other lipoprotein risk factors. With respect to risk of cardiovascular disease, these results are consistent with current nutrition labeling guidelines

  11. Optimized Solid-Phase-Assisted Synthesis of Oleic Acid Containing siRNA Nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Sören; Zhang, Wei; Wagner, Ernst

    2017-09-07

    Cationic lipo-oligomers containing unsaturated oleic acid are potent siRNA carriers based on electrostatic and hydrophobic lipo-polyplex formation and endosomal membrane destabilization. Lipo-oligomers can be produced by solid-phase-supported synthesis in sequence-defined form. However, the trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-mediated removal of acid-labile protecting groups and cleavage from the resin can be accompanied by side products caused by the addition of TFA to the double bonds of oleic acid. Under aqueous conditions, these TFA adducts of oleic acid are converted into hydroxystearic acid derivatives. The cleavage protocol was optimized to decrease TFA adducts. The pure oleic acid (C18:1) containing lipo-oligomer was compared with analogous structures containing saturated or modified hydrophobic moieties (stearic acid (C18:0), hydroxystearic acid, and 8-nonanamidooctanoic acid). The structure containing intact oleic acid shows favorable pH dependency of lytic activity, efficient gene silencing, and excellent cell tolerability relative to its counterparts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. World-wide consumption of trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Craig-Schmidt, Margaret C

    2006-05-01

    Dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) originate from commercially hydrogenated oils and from dairy and meat fats. Estimates of dietary TFA consumption vary with dietary habits and food supply as well as methods used to estimate consumption. Methods include: (1) market share data, (2) laboratory analysis of duplicate portions or composite diets, (3) analysis of consumption data of a representative population, and (4) biomarkers, such as human milk. In North America, daily intakes have been estimated by food frequency questionnaire to be 3-4 g/person and by extrapolation of human milk data to be greater than 10 g/person. Diets in northern Europe traditionally have contained more TFA than in Mediterranean countries where olive oil is used. Intakes in Europe range from minimal values in Italy, Portugal, Greece and Spain (1.4-2.1 g/day) to greater values for Germany, Finland, Denmark, Sweden, France, United Kingdom, Belgium, Norway, The Netherlands, and Iceland (2.1-5.4 g/day) Recent decreases in dietary TFA have been observed due to modifications of commercial fats and changes in consumer choices. The impact of legislation restricting use of hydrogenated fats and requiring TFA content on food labels awaits future studies.

  13. Utilization of rice bran as nutrient source for fermentative lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min-Tian; Kaneko, Mio; Hirata, Makoto; Toorisaka, Eiichi; Hano, Tadashi

    2008-06-01

    To reduce nutrient cost for lactic acid production, rice bran, one of agricultural wastes, was chosen as a nutrient source in this study. Although rice bran is rich in protein and vitamins, the use of rice bran without any treatment was inefficient in lactic acid production. Rice bran was treated by acid-hydrolysis before it was put in experiment, when it was hydrolyzed at initial pH 1, 30 g/L rice bran could provide a productivity to that degree of about 8 g/L YE, showing such a desirable result that the use of rice bran as nutrient source would be a solution for reducing nutrient cost. However, the addition of hydrolyzed rice bran prolonged lag phase of fermentation, especially, in the fermentation with rice bran hydrolyzed at initial pH 0.5, a prolonged lag phase of about 40 h was observed. According to the quantitative determination of thiamine, pyridoxine, organic nitrogen and carbon, the prolongation of lag phase might be the result from the destruction of B vitamins and excessive hydrolysis of protein. To shorten the lag phase, combining hydrolyzed rice bran with yeast extract (YE) of small amount was considered to be a solution. When 3g/L YE was combined with 30 g/L rice bran hydrolyzed at initial pH 1, obtained was a productivity 1.6 times higher than that of the control fermentation with 15 g/L YE.

  14. A review of sources, multimedia distribution and health risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Meng, Jing; Liu, Shijie; Lu, Yonglong; Khim, Jong Seong; Giesy, John P

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been recognized as emerging pollutants because of their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment, biota and humans. In order to investigate their sources, fate and environmental effects, a great number of surveys have been carried out over the past several years. In the present review, we summarized the status of sources and emission, concentration, distribution and risks of PFAAs in China. Concentrations of PFAAs, especially perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in various environmental media including water, sediment, soil, rain, snow and organisms, as well as human tissues are summarized based on the available data. Concentrations of PFAAs in aquatic systems are higher in relatively more industrialized and urbanized areas than those from the less populated and remote regions in China, indicating that their emission and distribution are closely related to regional urbanization and industrialization. PFAAs and related products have been widely used over the past several decades, which have brought about high concentrations detected in environmental matrixes, biota and even local residents. Ecological risk assessment of PFAAs is still less developed in China. Most existing studies compared concentrations of PFAAs to guideline values derived for single species to evaluate the risk. In order to reveal the transport, partitioning and degradation of PFAAs in the environment, further studies on their behavior, fate, bioaccumulation and adverse effects in different trophic levels should be conducted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Short-term effects of dietary trans fatty acids compared with saturated fatty acids on selected measures of inflammation, fatty acid profiles, and production in early lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Watts, Jason S; Rezamand, Pedram; Sevier, Dallace L; Price, William; McGuire, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Feeding rations supplemented with fats may provide an opportunity to manipulate the health and performance of dairy cows; however, the relative effects of specific fats, such as trans fatty acids (TFA), are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a ration supplemented with TFA on the fatty acid (FA) profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma lipids, and milk; the gene expression of inflammatory markers; production of acute phase proteins; and production performance in early lactating dairy cows. Trans fat was fed at 0, 1.5, and 3% of dry matter, replacing (1:1 wt:wt) saturated fatty acids (SFA). Multiparous lactating Holstein cows at 7 d in milk (n=12) were randomly assigned to a treatment sequence in a 3 × 3 balanced Latin square design; each period lasted 14 d. Milk and heparinized blood were collected on d 0 (pretreatment) and on d 10 and 14 of each period. Plasma was collected and solid-phase extraction was used to isolate plasma phospholipids and nonesterified fatty acids. Additionally, PBMC were isolated for FA analysis and gene expression analysis by reverse transcription-PCR using bovine RPS9 as the endogenous control. The FA composition of PBMC, plasma lipid fractions, and milk were analyzed by gas chromatography. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). As dietary TFA increased, the percentage of some 18:1 trans isomers increased in PBMC, plasma lipids, and milk. Dietary TFA had no detectable effect on mRNA expression of proinflammatory TNFα or IL6. Expression of IL1β and ICAM1 decreased with increasing TFA. In addition, supplementation of TFA did not affect percentages of milk fat, protein, lactose, or solids-not-fat, or somatic cell count. Overall, dietary TFA increased the trans FA present in PBMC, plasma lipids, and milk; however, dietary TFA decreased PBMC expression of some of the proinflammatory markers tested at the mRNA level compared with SFA in

  16. The effects of trans-fatty acids on TAG regulation in mice depend on dietary unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Saín, Juliana; González, Marcela Aída; Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Scalerandi, María Victoria; Bernal, Claudio Adrián

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trans-fatty acids (TFA) on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice fed diets containing different proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from olive (O), maize (C) or rapeseed (R) oils partially substituted or not with TFA (Ot, Ct and Rt, respectively). Male CF1 mice were fed (30 d) one of these diets. The effects of the partial substitution (1 %, w/w) of different UFA with TFA on the activity and expression of hepatic enzymes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acids oxidation were evaluated, as well as their transcription factor expressions. Some of the mechanisms involved in the serum TAG regulation, hepatic VLDL rich in TAG (VLDL-TAG) secretion rate and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity were assessed. In liver, TFA induced an increase in TAG content in the Ot and Rt groups, and this effect was associated with an imbalance between lipogenesis and β-oxidation. In the Ot group, exacerbated lipogenesis may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the liver steatosis induced by TFA, whereas in Rt it has been related to a decreased β-oxidation, compared with their respective controls. The enhanced hepatic VLDL-TAG secretion in the Ot and Rt groups was compensated with a differential removal of TAG by LPL enzyme in extrahepatic tissues, leading to unchanged serum TAG levels. In brief, the effects of low levels of TFA on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice depend on the dietary proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 UFA.

  17. Tissue accretion and milk content of docosahexaenoic acid in female rats after supplementation with different docosahexaenoic acid sources.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Alfonso; Nieto, Susana; Sanhueza, Julio; Nuñez, María José; Ferrer, Carolina

    2005-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is highly concentrated in the mammalian nervous and visual system. The fatty acid, which is required by the fetus and the newborn, is supplied by the mother from their tissue reservoirs. It has been suggested that mother's supplementation with DHA during pregnancy and even before pregnancy. Different sources of DHA are available for supplementation such as: single-cell algae triglycerides (TG), egg's yolk phospholipids (PL), DHA ethyl esther (EE), and sn-2 DHA monoacylglyceride (MG). We evaluated comparatively the effectiveness of these different DHA sources to produce tissue DHA accretion and to increase milk DHA content. Female Wistar rats fed a diet which provided no DHA, were daily supplemented by 40 days before mating (BM) and during the pregnancy with either TG, PL, EE, or MG to an amount which provided 8 mg/kg b.w. of DHA. Samples of blood plasma, erythrocytes, hepatic and adipose tissue were obtained from rats at the BM condition and after the delivery (AD), and milk samples were also obtained from the gastric content of the pups nursed by the rats at day 3, 11 and 20 of suckling. Samples were processed to assess DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) content by gas-chromatography. TG, PL, EE, and MG supplementation produced a similar intestinal absorption of DHA as estimated from the plasma DHA at the BM condition. However, PL and MG supplementation produced a higher accretion of DHA into erythrocytes, hepatic, and adipose tissue than TG and EE supplementation at the BM condition. AA content was not modified by the different supplementing oils. A reduction of the DHA content of plasma, erythrocytes, hepatic and adipose tissue at the AD condition was observed, and a reduction of AA for the hepatic and adipose tissues was also observed, suggesting the importance of these tissues as DHA and AA reservoirs. Milk secretion from PL and MG supplemented rats showed a higher DHA content than secretion from TG- and EE-supplemented rats. We conclude

  18. A trans European Union difference in the decline in trans fatty acids in popular foods: a market basket investigation.

    PubMed

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    To minimise the intake of industrial trans fatty acids (I-TFA) some countries have introduced labelling, while others have introduced legislative limits on the content of I-TFA in food. However, most countries still rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TFA content in food. The objective of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of these strategies in the EU. The potential consumption of I-TFA was assessed in a market basket investigation by analysing the I-TFA content in popular foods. A standardised purchase methodology was used in 16 EU countries in 2005 and again in 2009. Seventy servings of French fries and chicken nuggets, 90 packages of microwave popcorn, and 442 samples of biscuits/cakes/wafers with 'partially hydrogenated vegetable fat' listed high on the list of ingredients were analysed. A high-trans menu was defined as a large serving of French fries and nuggets, 100 g of microwave popcorn and 100 g of biscuits/wafers/cakes. In 2005, a high-trans menu provided above 30 g of I-TFA in five EU countries in Eastern Europe and 20-30 g in eight EU countries in Western Europe. In 2009 the values in Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic remained high between 10 and 20 g, whereas they were less than 2 g in Germany, France and the UK. In 2009 contents of I-TFA in popular foods in Western Europe appear low but, in spite of some reduction, still high in Eastern European EU countries. These findings suggest that millions of people in the EU still consume I-TFA in amounts that substantially increase their risk of coronary heart disease.

  19. A trans European Union difference in the decline in trans fatty acids in popular foods: a market basket investigation

    PubMed Central

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To minimise the intake of industrial trans fatty acids (I-TFA) some countries have introduced labelling, while others have introduced legislative limits on the content of I-TFA in food. However, most countries still rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TFA content in food. The objective of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of these strategies in the EU. Design The potential consumption of I-TFA was assessed in a market basket investigation by analysing the I-TFA content in popular foods. Setting A standardised purchase methodology was used in 16 EU countries in 2005 and again in 2009. Samples Seventy servings of French fries and chicken nuggets, 90 packages of microwave popcorn, and 442 samples of biscuits/cakes/wafers with ‘partially hydrogenated vegetable fat’ listed high on the list of ingredients were analysed. A high-trans menu was defined as a large serving of French fries and nuggets, 100 g of microwave popcorn and 100 g of biscuits/wafers/cakes. Results In 2005, a high-trans menu provided above 30 g of I-TFA in five EU countries in Eastern Europe and 20–30 g in eight EU countries in Western Europe. In 2009 the values in Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic remained high between 10 and 20 g, whereas they were less than 2 g in Germany, France and the UK. Conclusions In 2009 contents of I-TFA in popular foods in Western Europe appear low but, in spite of some reduction, still high in Eastern European EU countries. These findings suggest that millions of people in the EU still consume I-TFA in amounts that substantially increase their risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:22986123

  20. Detection of sudden structural damage using blind source separation and time-frequency approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morovati, V.; Kazemi, M. T.

    2016-05-01

    Seismic signal processing is one of the most reliable methods of detecting the structural damage during earthquakes. In this paper, the use of the hybrid method of blind source separation (BSS) and time-frequency analysis (TFA) is explored to detect the changes in the structural response data. The combination of the BSS and TFA is applied to the seismic signals due to the non-stationary nature of them. Firstly, the second-order blind identification technique is used to decompose the response signal of structural vibration into modal coordinate signals which will be mono-components for TFA. Then each mono-component signal is analyzed to extract instantaneous frequency of structure. Numerical simulations and a real-world seismic-excited structure with time-varying frequencies show the accuracy and robustness of the developed algorithm. TFA of extracted sources shows that used method can be successfully applied to structural damage detection. The results also demonstrate that the combined method can be used to identify the time instant of structural damage occurrence more sharply and effectively than by the use of TFA alone.

  1. Acyl-acyl carrier protein as a source of fatty acids for bacterial bioluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, D.M.; Meighen, E.A.

    1985-09-01

    Pulse-chase experiments with (/sup 3/H)tetradecanoic acid and ATP showed that the bioluminescence-related 32-kDa acyltransferase from Vibrio harveyi can specifically catalyze the deacylation of a /sup 3/H-labeled 18-kDa protein observed in extracts of this bacterium. The 18-kDa protein has been partially purified and its physical and chemical properties strongly indicate that it is fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP). Both this V. harveyi (/sup 3/H)acylprotein and (/sup 3/H)palmitoyl-ACP from Escherichia coli were substrates in vitro for either the V. harveyi 32-kDa acyltransferase or the analogous enzyme (34K) from Photobacterium phosphoreum. TLC analysis indicated that the hexane-soluble product of the reaction is fatty acid. No significant cleavage of either E. coli or V. harveyi tetradecanoyl-ACP was observed in extracts of these bacteria unless the 32-kDa or 34K acyltransferase was present. Since these enzymes are believed to be responsible for the supply of fatty acids for reduction to form the aldehyde substrate of luciferase, the above results suggest that long-chain acyl-ACP is the source of fatty acids for bioluminescence.

  2. The significance of linoleic acid in food sources for detritivorous benthic invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Vonk, J. Arie; van Kuijk, Bernd F.; van Beusekom, Mick; Hunting, Ellard R.; Kraak, Michiel H. S.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical composition of organic matter (OM) is a key driver for detritus consumption by macroinvertebrates and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content is considered a candidate indicator of food palatability. Since traditionally used complex natural OM covaries in many quality attributes, it remains uncertain whether benthic invertebrates developed an actual preference for PUFA-rich food. Therefore we aimed to test the influence of the PUFA linoleic acid on OM consumption by aquatic macroinvertebrates using standardized surrogate substrates (decomposition and consumption tablet, DECOTAB) with added linoleic acid (PUFA) in comparison to consumption of DECOTAB containing only cellulose (Standard) or ground macrophytes (Plant). In microcosms, we observed a higher consumption rate of PUFA DECOTAB in comparison to Standard DECOTAB in two functionally distinct invertebrate species (Lumbriculus variegatus and Asellus aquaticus). This effect appeared to be overruled in the field due to unknown sources of natural variation. Although we observed higher consumption rates in species-rich ditches compared to species-poor ditches, consumption rates were comparable for all three types of DECOTAB deployed. Upon reduced food quality and palatability, results presented here hint that PUFA like linoleic acid may be a key OM attribute driving the performance of benthic macroinvertebrates and inherent functioning of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27767068

  3. Ammonia production from amino acid-based biomass-like sources by engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Yosuke; Yoneda, Hisanari; Tatsukami, Yohei; Aoki, Wataru; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-12-01

    The demand for ammonia is expected to increase in the future because of its importance in agriculture, industry, and hydrogen transportation. Although the Haber-Bosch process is known as an effective way to produce ammonia, the process is energy-intensive. Thus, an environmentally friendly ammonia production process is desired. In this study, we aimed to produce ammonia from amino acids and amino acid-based biomass-like resources by modifying the metabolism of Escherichia coli. By engineering metabolic flux to promote ammonia production using the overexpression of the ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene (kivd), derived from Lactococcus lactis, ammonia production from amino acids was 351 mg/L (36.6% yield). Furthermore, we deleted the glnA gene, responsible for ammonia assimilation. Using yeast extract as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, the resultant strain produced 458 mg/L of ammonia (47.8% yield) from an amino acid-based biomass-like material. The ammonia production yields obtained are the highest reported to date. This study suggests that it will be possible to produce ammonia from waste biomass in an environmentally friendly process.

  4. Survey of duckweed diversity in Lake Chao and total fatty acid, triacylglycerol, profiles of representative strains.

    PubMed

    Tang, J; Li, Y; Ma, J; Cheng, J J

    2015-09-01

    Lemnaceae (duckweeds) are widely distributed aquatic flowering plants. Their high growth rate, starch content and suitability for bioremediation make them potential feedstock for biofuels. However, few natural duckweed resources have been investigated in China, and there is no information about total fatty acid (TFA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of duckweeds from China. Here, the genetic diversity of a natural duckweed population collected from Lake Chao, China, was investigated using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The 54 strains were categorised into four species in four genera, representing 12 distinct sequence types. Strains representing Lemna aequinoctialis and Spirodela polyrhiza were predominant. Interestingly, a surprisingly high degree of genetic diversification within L. aequinoctialis was observed. The four duckweed species revealed a uniform fatty acid composition, with three fatty acids, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, accounting for more than 80% of the TFA. The TFA in biomass varied among species, ranging from 1.05% (of dry weight, DW) for L. punctata and S. polyrhiza to 1.62% for Wolffia globosa. The four duckweed species contained similar TAG contents, 0.02% mg · DW(-1). The fatty acid profiles of TAG were different from those of TFA, and also varied among the four species. The survey investigated the genetic diversity of duckweeds from Lake Chao, and provides an initial insight into TFA and TAG of four duckweed species, indicating that intraspecific and interspecific variations exist in the content and composition of both TFA and TAG in comparison with other studies. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Production and partial characterization of uric acid degrading enzyme from new source Saccharopolyspora sp. PNR11.

    PubMed

    Khucharoenphaisan, K; Sinma, K

    2011-02-01

    The strain PNR11 was isolated from gut of termite during the screening for uric acid degrading actinomyces. This strain was able to produce an intracellular uricase when cultured in fermentation medium containing uric acid as nitrogen source. Base on its morphological characters and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this strain belong to the genus Saccharopolyspora. This is the first report ofuricase produced from the genus Saccharopolyspora. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different factors on uricase production by new source of Saccharopolyspora. Saccharopolyspora sp. PNR11 was cultured in production medium in order to determine the best cultivation period. The result showed that the time period required for maximum enzyme production was 24 h on a rotary shaker operating at 180 rpm. Optimized composition of the production medium consisted of 1% yeast extract, 1% maltose, 0.1% K2HPO4, 0.05% MgSO4 7H2O, 0.05% NaCl and 1% uric acid. The optimum pH and temperature for uricase production in the optimized medium were pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C, respectively. When the strain was cultured at optimized condition, the uricase activity reached to 216 mU mL(-1) in confidential level of 95%. The crude enzyme had an optimum temperature of uricase was 37 degrees C and it was stable up to 30 degrees C at pH 8.5. The optimum pH ofuricase was 8.5 and was stable in range of pH 7.0-10.0 at 4 degrees C. This strain might be considered as a candidate source for uricase production in the further studies. Present finding could be fulfill the information ofuricase produce from actinomycetes.

  6. Antarctic microorganisms as source of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Ana Clara; Olazábal, Laura; Torre, Alejandra; Loperena, Lyliam

    2014-06-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that belong to the omega-3 group. They are essential fatty acids found in phospholipid of cell membranes. There is strong evidence that these nutrients may also favorably modulate many diseases. Primary sources of omega-3 PUFAs in the human diet are fish and fish-derived products. The fishing industry worldwide, however, is becoming unable to satisfy the growing demand for these PUFAs. A promising cost-effective alternative source of PUFAs is bacterial production. We identified 40 Antarctic marine bacterial isolates by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Fifteen genera in three phyla were represented in the collection. Isolates were tested for ability to produce EPA using a method in which their ability to reduce 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) is determined and by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All isolates could reduce TTC, and GC-MS analysis showed that four produced EPA and that six produced DHA. We show for the first time that isolates identified as Cellulophaga, Pibocella and Polaribacter can produce EPA and DHA, only DHA or only EPA, respectively. One isolate, Shewanella sp. (strain 8-5), is indicated to be a good candidate for further study to optimize growth and EPA production. In conclusion, a rapid method was tested for identification of new EPA producing strains from marine environments. New EPA and DHA producing strains were found as well as a potentially useful PUFA production strain.

  7. Cloud partitioning of isocyanic acid (HNCO) and evidence of secondary source of HNCO in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Wentzell, J. J. B.; Mcdonald, A. M.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Leaitch, W. R.; Modini, R. L.; Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Noone, K. J.; Schroder, J. C.; Bertram, A. K.; Hawkins, L. N.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Liggio, J.

    2014-10-01

    Although isocyanic acid (HNCO) may cause a variety of health issues via protein carbamylation and has been proposed as a key compound in smoke-related health issues, our understanding of the atmospheric sources and fate of this toxic compound is currently incomplete. To address these issues, a field study was conducted at Mount Soledad, La Jolla, CA, to investigate partitioning of HNCO to clouds and fogs using an Acetate Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer coupled to a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor. The first field evidence of cloud partitioning of HNCO is presented, demonstrating that HNCO is dissolved in cloudwater more efficiently than expected based on the effective Henry's law solubility. The measurements also indicate evidence for a secondary, photochemical source of HNCO in ambient air at this site.

  8. Free nitrous acid pretreatment of wasted activated sludge to exploit internal carbon source for enhanced denitrification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Peng, Yongzhen; Wei, Yan; Li, Baikun; Bao, Peng; Wang, Yayi

    2015-03-01

    Using internal carbon source contained in waste activated sludge (WAS) is beneficial for nitrogen removal from wastewater with low carbon/nitrogen ratio, but it is usually limited by sludge disintegration. This study presented a novel strategy based on free nitrous acid (FNA) pretreatment to intensify the release of organic matters from WAS for enhanced denitrification. During FNA pretreatment, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) production kept increasing when FNA increased from 0 to 2.04 mg HNO2-N/L. Compared with untreated WAS, the internal carbon source production increased by 50% in a simultaneous fermentation and denitrification reactor fed with WAS pretreated by FNA for 24 h at 2.04 mg HNO2-N/L. This also increased denitrification efficiency by 76% and sludge reduction by 87.5%. More importantly, greenhouse gas nitrous oxide production in denitrification was alleviated since more electrons could be provided by FNA pretreated WAS.

  9. Investigating diesel engines as an atmospheric source of isocyanic acid in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jathar, Shantanu H.; Heppding, Christopher; Link, Michael F.; Farmer, Delphine K.; Akherati, Ali; Kleeman, Michael J.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Veres, Patrick R.; Roberts, James M.

    2017-07-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO), an acidic gas found in tobacco smoke, urban environments, and biomass-burning-affected regions, has been linked to adverse health outcomes. Gasoline- and diesel-powered engines and biomass burning are known to emit HNCO and hypothesized to emit precursors such as amides that can photochemically react to produce HNCO in the atmosphere. Increasingly, diesel engines in developed countries like the United States are required to use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems to reduce tailpipe emissions of oxides of nitrogen. SCR chemistry is known to produce HNCO as an intermediate product, and SCR systems have been implicated as an atmospheric source of HNCO. In this work, we measure HNCO emissions from an SCR system-equipped diesel engine and, in combination with earlier data, use a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) to simulate the ambient concentrations and source/pathway contributions to HNCO in an urban environment. Engine tests were conducted at three different engine loads, using two different fuels and at multiple operating points. HNCO was measured using an acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The diesel engine was found to emit primary HNCO (3-90 mg kg fuel-1) but we did not find any evidence that the SCR system or other aftertreatment devices (i.e., oxidation catalyst and particle filter) produced or enhanced HNCO emissions. The CTM predictions compared well with the only available observational datasets for HNCO in urban areas but underpredicted the contribution from secondary processes. The comparison implied that diesel-powered engines were the largest source of HNCO in urban areas. The CTM also predicted that daily-averaged concentrations of HNCO reached a maximum of ˜ 110 pptv but were an order of magnitude lower than the 1 ppbv level that could be associated with physiological effects in humans. Precursor contributions from other combustion sources (gasoline and biomass burning) and wintertime

  10. Surface and free tropospheric sources of methanesulfonic acid over the tropical Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuhang; Gray, Burton A.; Gu, Dasa; Mauldin, L.; Cantrell, Chris; Bandy, Alan R.

    2014-07-28

    The production of sulfate aerosols through marine sulfur chemistry is critical to the climate system. However, not all sulfur compounds have been studied in detail. One such compound is methanesulfonic acid (MSA). In this study, we use a one-dimensional chemical transport model to analyze observed vertical profiles of gas-phase MSA during the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment (PASE). The observed sharp decrease in MSA from the surface to 600m implies a surface source of 4.0×107 molecules/cm2/s. Evidence suggests that this source is photolytically enhanced. We also find that the observed large increase of MSA from the boundary layer into the lower free troposphere (1000-2000m) results mainly from the degassing of MSA from dehydrated aerosols. We estimate a source of 1.2×107 molecules/cm2/s through this pathway. This source of soluble MSA potentially provides an important precursor for new particle formation in the free troposphere over tropics, affecting the climate system through aerosol-cloud interactions.

  11. Palladium-catalyzed fluorocarbonylation using N-formylsaccharin as CO source: general access to carboxylic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Tsuyoshi; Konishi, Hideyuki; Manabe, Kei

    2013-10-18

    N-formylsaccharin, an easily accessible crystalline compound, has been employed as an efficient CO source in Pd-catalyzed fluorocarbonylation of aryl halides to afford the corresponding acyl fluorides in high yields. The reactions use a near-stoichiometric amount of the CO source (1.2 equiv) and tolerate diverse functional groups. The acyl fluorides obtained could be readily transformed into various carboxylic acid derivatives such as carboxylic acid, esters, thioesters, and amides in a one-pot procedure.

  12. Supported Palladium Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Carboxylation of Aryl Halides, Alkenylsilanes, and Organoboronic Acids Employing Oxalic Acid as the C1 Source.

    PubMed

    Shil, Arun K; Kumar, Sandeep; Reddy, C Bal; Dadhwal, Sumit; Thakur, Vandna; Das, Pralay

    2015-11-06

    Polystyrene-supported palladium(0) (Pd@PS) nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst have been developed for caboxylation of aryl halides, alkenylsilanes, and organoboronic acids to produce the corresponding carboxylic acids with minor quantities of corresponding aldehydes using bench-stable and inexpensive oxalic acid as the C1 source under focused microwave irradiation. The close vicinity of oxalic acid to Pd@PS maintained through ionic bonding helped to produce CO2 over the catalytic surface that concurrently participated in the carboxylation reaction.

  13. Anthropogenic and natural sources of acidity and metals and their influence on the structure of stream food webs.

    PubMed

    Hogsden, Kristy L; Harding, Jon S

    2012-03-01

    We compared food web structure in 20 streams with either anthropogenic or natural sources of acidity and metals or circumneutral water chemistry in New Zealand. Community and diet analysis indicated that mining streams receiving anthropogenic inputs of acidic and metal-rich drainage had much simpler food webs (fewer species, shorter food chains, less links) than those in naturally acidic, naturally high metal, and circumneutral streams. Food webs of naturally high metal streams were structurally similar to those in mining streams, lacking fish predators and having few species. Whereas, webs in naturally acidic streams differed very little from those in circumneutral streams due to strong similarities in community composition and diets of secondary and top consumers. The combined negative effects of acidity and metals on stream food webs are clear. However, elevated metal concentrations, regardless of source, appear to play a more important role than acidity in driving food web structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary intakes and food sources of phenolic acids in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rothwell, Joseph A; Scalbert, Augustin; Knaze, Viktoria; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Touillaud, Marina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Menéndez, Virginia; Tumino, Rosario; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Palli, Domenico; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sieri, Sabina; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Grote, Verena; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Tsiotas, Konstantinos; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ros, Martine; Peeters, Petra H M; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Ericson, Ulrika; Wallström, Peter; Johansson, Ingegerd; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Wark, Petra; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2013-10-01

    Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites that may have protective effects against oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer in experimental studies. To date, limited data exist on the quantitative intake of phenolic acids. We estimated the intake of phenolic acids and their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Phenolic acid intakes were estimated for 36,037 subjects aged 35-74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000 in ten European countries using a standardised 24 h recall software (EPIC-Soft), and their food sources were identified. Dietary data were linked to the Phenol-Explorer database, which contains data on forty-five aglycones of phenolic acids in 452 foods. The total phenolic acid intake was highest in Aarhus, Denmark (1265·5 and 980·7 mg/d in men and women, respectively), while the intake was lowest in Greece (213·2 and 158·6 mg/d in men and women, respectively). The hydroxycinnamic acid subclass was the main contributor to the total phenolic acid intake, accounting for 84·6-95·3% of intake depending on the region. Hydroxybenzoic acids accounted for 4·6-14·4%, hydroxyphenylacetic acids 0·1-0·8% and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids ≤ 0·1% for all regions. An increasing south-north gradient of consumption was also found. Coffee was the main food source of phenolic acids and accounted for 55·3-80·7% of the total phenolic acid intake, followed by fruits, vegetables and nuts. A high heterogeneity in phenolic acid intake was observed across the European countries in the EPIC cohort, which will allow further exploration of the associations with the risk of diseases.

  15. A medium-chain fatty acid as an alternative energy source in mouse preimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Takanashi, Kazumi; Hamatani, Toshio; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Fukunaga, Tomoko; Ogawa, Seiji; Sugawara, Kana; Shinoda, Kosaku; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kuji, Naoaki; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Tomita, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    To further optimize the culturing of preimplantation embryos, we undertook metabolomic analysis of relevant culture media using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We detected 28 metabolites: 23 embryo-excreted metabolites including 16 amino acids and 5 media-derived metabolites (e.g., octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)). Due to the lack of information on MCFAs in mammalian preimplantation development, this study examined octanoate as a potential alternative energy source for preimplantation embryo cultures. No embryos survived in culture media lacking FAs, pyruvate, and glucose, but supplementation of octanoate rescued the embryonic development. Immunoblotting showed significant expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, important enzymes for ß-oxidation of MCFAs, in preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, CE-TOFMS traced [1-(13)C(8)] octanoate added to the culture media into intermediate metabolites of the TCA cycle via ß-oxidation in mitochondria. These results are the first demonstration that octanoate could provide an efficient alternative energy source throughout preimplantation development.

  16. Branched-chain amino acids as a protein- and energy-source in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Hisataka; Miwa, Yoshiyuki; Tajika, Masahiro; Kato, Masahiko; Fukushima, Hideki; Shiraki, Makoto

    2004-01-09

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common manifestation in cirrhotic patients with reported incidences as high as 65-90%. PEM affects largely the patients' quality of life and survival. Thus, diagnosis of and intervention for PEM is important in the clinical management of liver cirrhosis. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) is indicated to improve protein malnutrition. As an intervention for energy malnutrition, frequent meal or late evening snack has been recently recommended. Plasma amino acid analysis characterizes the patients with liver cirrhosis to have decreased BCAA. Such reduction of BCAA is explained by enhanced consumption of BCAA for ammonia detoxication and for energy generation. Supplementation with BCAA raises in vitro the synthesis and secretion of albumin by cultured rat hepatocytes without affecting albumin mRNA expression. BCAA recover the impaired turnover kinetics of albumin both in rat cirrhotic model and in cirrhotic patients. Longer-term supplementation with BCAA raises plasma albumin, benefits quality of life issues, and finally improves survival in liver cirrhosis. Recent interests focused on the timing of administration of BCAA, since daytime BCAA are usually consumed by energy generation for physical exercise of skeletal muscles. Nocturnal BCAA seem to be more favorable as a source of protein synthesis by giving higher nitrogen balance. This minireview focuses on the basic and clinical aspects of BCAA as a pharmaco-nutritional source to control PEM in liver cirrhosis.

  17. Influence of acid-induced conformational variability on protein separation in reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bobály, Balázs; Tóth, Eszter; Drahos, László; Zsila, Ferenc; Visy, Júlia; Fekete, Jenő; Vékey, Károly

    2014-01-17

    Influence of acid concentration in the mobile phase on protein separation was studied in a wide concentration range using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and formic acid (FA). At low, 0.001-0.01 (v/v%) TFA concentration and appropriate solvent strength proteins elute before the column's dead time. This is explained by the proteins having a structured, but relatively extended conformation in the eluent; and are excluded from the pores of the stationary phase. Above ca. 0.01-0.05 (v/v%) TFA concentration proteins undergo further conformational change, leading to a compact, molten globule-like structure, likely stabilized by ion pairing. Proteins in this conformation enter the pores and are retained on the column. The results suggest a pore exclusion induced separation related to protein conformation. This effect is influenced by the pH and type of acid used, and is likely to involve ion-pair formation. The TFA concentration needed to result in protein folding (and therefore to observe retention on the column) depends on the protein; and therefore can be utilized to improve chromatographic performance. Conformation change was monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy and mass spectrometry; and it was shown that not only TFA but FA can also induce molten globule formation.

  18. Enriched eggs as a source of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for humans.

    PubMed

    Lewis, N M; Seburg, S; Flanagan, N L

    2000-07-01

    Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) decreases the risk of heart disease, inhibits the growth of prostate and breast cancer, delays the loss of immunological functions, and is required for normal fetal brain and visual development. The US has not established a recommended daily intake for n-3 PUFA. However, Canada has established the Canadian Recommended Nutrient Intake (CRNI) at 0.5% of energy. Dietary sources of n-3 PUFA include fish, chicken, eggs, canola oil, and soybean oil. Food consumption studies in the US indicate that the majority of Americans do not meet the CRNI for n-3 PUFA. Mean n-3 PUFA consumption was 78% of the CRNI for Midwestern women during pregnancy. In Midwestern women at risk for breast cancer, the mean n-3 PUFA consumption is approximately 50% of the CRNI. Increased consumption of n-3 PUFA requires identification of a food source that the public would eat in sufficient amounts to meet recommended intake. N-3 PUFA-enriched eggs can be produced by modifying hens diets. When 70 g/kg of cod liver oil, canola oil, or linseed oil are added to a commercial control diet, the n-3 PUFA are increased from 1.2% of egg yolk fatty acids to 6.3, 4.6, and 7.8%, respectively. Feeding flaxseed increases linolenic acid in the egg yolk about 30-fold, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increases nearly fourfold. When individuals are fed four n-3 PUFA-enriched eggs a day for 4 wk, plasma total cholesterol levels and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) do not increase significantly. Plasma triglycerides (TG) are decreased by addition of n-3 PUFA-enriched eggs to the diet. N-3 PUFA may influence LDL particle size, causing a shift toward a less atherogenic particle. Blood platelet aggregation is significantly decreased in participants consuming n-3 PUFA-enriched eggs. Overall results of studies to date demonstrate positive effects and no negative effects from consumption of n-3-enriched eggs. Three n-3 PUFA-enriched eggs provide approximately the

  19. l-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute l-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA)—commonly found in vitamin C containing food products prone to oxidation—was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences in vitamin C accumulation from ascorbate or DHA were observed except for the lowest dose of DHA (0.25 mg/ml in the drinking water), where approximately half of the tissues had slightly yet significantly less vitamin C accumulation than from the ascorbate source. As these results contradicted data from rats, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs—as in humans—is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin C and further suggest that the guinea pig is superior to other rodents in modeling human vitamin C homeostasis. PMID:26609560

  20. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute l-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA)-commonly found in vitamin C containing food products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences in vitamin C accumulation from ascorbate or DHA were observed except for the lowest dose of DHA (0.25mg/ml in the drinking water), where approximately half of the tissues had slightly yet significantly less vitamin C accumulation than from the ascorbate source. As these results contradicted data from rats, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin C and further suggest that the guinea pig is superior to other rodents in modeling human vitamin C homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced fatty acid production in engineered chemolithoautotrophic bacteria using reduced sulfur compounds as energy sources

    DOE PAGES

    Beller, HR; Zhou, P; Jewell, TNM; ...

    2016-12-01

    © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that oxidize reduced sulfur compounds, such as H 2 S, while fixing CO 2 are an untapped source of renewable bioproducts from sulfide-laden waste, such as municipal wastewater. In this study, we report engineering of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans to produce up to 52-fold more fatty acids than the wild-type strain when grown with thiosulfate and CO 2 . A modified thioesterase gene from E. coli ('tesA) was integrated into the T. denitrificans chromosome under the control of P kan or one of two native T. denitrificans promoters. The relative strengthmore » of the two native promoters as assessed by fatty acid production in engineered strains was very similar to that assessed by expression of the cognate genes in the wild-type strain. This proof-of-principle study suggests that engineering sulfide-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic bacteria to overproduce fatty acid-derived products merits consideration as a technology that could simultaneously produce renewable fuels/chemicals as well as cost-effectively remediate sulfide-contaminated wastewater.« less

  2. Enhanced fatty acid production in engineered chemolithoautotrophic bacteria using reduced sulfur compounds as energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, HR; Zhou, P; Jewell, TNM; Goh, EB; Keasling, JD

    2016-12-01

    © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that oxidize reduced sulfur compounds, such as H 2 S, while fixing CO 2 are an untapped source of renewable bioproducts from sulfide-laden waste, such as municipal wastewater. In this study, we report engineering of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans to produce up to 52-fold more fatty acids than the wild-type strain when grown with thiosulfate and CO 2 . A modified thioesterase gene from E. coli ('tesA) was integrated into the T. denitrificans chromosome under the control of P kan or one of two native T. denitrificans promoters. The relative strength of the two native promoters as assessed by fatty acid production in engineered strains was very similar to that assessed by expression of the cognate genes in the wild-type strain. This proof-of-principle study suggests that engineering sulfide-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic bacteria to overproduce fatty acid-derived products merits consideration as a technology that could simultaneously produce renewable fuels/chemicals as well as cost-effectively remediate sulfide-contaminated wastewater.

  3. Presence and sources of anthropogenic perfluoroalkyl acids in high-consumption tap-water based beverages.

    PubMed

    Eschauzier, Christian; Hoppe, Maria; Schlummer, Martin; de Voogt, Pim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the presence and sources of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in tap water and corresponding tap-water based beverages such as coffee and cola collected in the city of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Exposure pathways studies have shown that low concentrations of PFAA in tap water already may pose a high contribution to daily human exposure. Tap water samples (n=4) had higher concentrations of PFAAs than the corresponding post-mixed cola (n=4). The lower PFAA levels in the cola were attributed to the pre-treatment of tap water in the mixing machines and dilution with cola syrup. In coffee samples from a coffee machine perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) at 4 ng L(-1) was the dominating analyte (n=12). The concentrations of PFHpA, PFOA and non branched PFOS were found to be significantly higher in manually (self) brewed coffee than in the corresponding tap water (n=4). The contribution from short-chain PFAA analogs could not be quantified due to low recoveries. Leaching experiments at different temperatures were performed with fluoropolymers-containing tubes to investigate the potential of leaching from tubes used in beverage preparation (n=16). Fluoropolymer tubes showed leaching of PFAAs at high (80°C) temperature but its relevance for contamination of beverages in practice is small. The specific contribution from perfluoropolymer tubing inside the beverage preparation machines could not be assessed since no information was available from the manufacturers. The present study shows that although different beverage preparation processes possibly affect the concentrations of PFAAs encountered in the final consumed product, the water used for preparation remains the most important source of PFAAs. This in turn has implications for areas where drinking water is contaminated. Tap-water based beverages will possibly be an additional source of human exposure to PFAAs and need to be considered in exposure modeling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Polysaccharides isolated from sugar beet pulp by quaternization under acidic conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet pulp was extracted and chemically modified under acidic conditions using glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride in the presence of trifuoroacetic (TFA), HCl or H3PO4. The goal was to find out how the type of acid used and quaternization could affect the yield of soluble polysaccharide, its mo...

  5. Preferential organ distribution of methylselenol source Se-methylselenocysteine relative to methylseleninic acid.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazuo T; Tsuji, Yoshiro; Ohta, Yuki; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2008-02-15

    It has been proposed that Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys) and methylseleninic acid (MSA(IV)) are efficiently transformed through the beta-lyase and reduction reactions, respectively, into methylselenol, the assumed biologically active selenometabolite responsive for the anti-carcinogenicity and anti-oxidant actions of selenium. The bioavailability and distribution of the two selenium sources in major organs/tissues were compared under exactly identical conditions. Namely, labeled selenium sources (76)Se-MeSeCys and (77)Se-MSA(IV), at a single oral dose of 10 microg Se/kg body weight each, were administered simultaneously to rats that had been depleted of natural abundance selenium with a single isotope (78)Se. The same dose of (82)Se-selenite was also administered as a reference selenium source. The distributions of the three labeled selenium isotopes were determined 3 h after the administration in 13 organs/tissues/blood. MeSeCys was taken up more efficiently by most organs, especially the pancreas and duodenum, than MSA(IV) and selenite, the latter two sources being taken up similarly to each other except for in the kidney, liver, and spleen, where the three labeled isotopes were detected at comparable concentrations. The labeled selenium in the liver supernatant was speciated by HPLC inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and it was suggested that MeSeCys was delivered in its intact form to organs, and then transformed into methylselenol. In addition to the known properties of that MeSeCys is chemically more stable than MSA(IV) and is a naturally occurring edible product, and that MeSeCys produces methylselenol much more efficiently than a homologous selenoamino acid selenomethionine, the present study revealed that MeSeCys is more efficiently distributed than MSA(IV) in its intact form, and then produces methylselenol, suggesting that MeSeCys is the best methylselenol source in most organs/tissues.

  6. Opportunities to enhance alternative sources of long-chain n-3 fatty acids within the diet.

    PubMed

    Delarue, Jacques; Guriec, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    Health benefits or advocated health benefits of long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA are better known by medical doctors as well as by consumers, so that consumption increases. In addition, the development of aquaculture requires more fishmeal and fish oil. Humanisation of care of companion animals is also associated with addition of LC n-3 PUFA in pet foods. The risk of the increased demand for LC n-3 PUFA is the excess harvesting of natural sources, especially of marine origin (oily fishes, krill). In order to improve sustainability, alternative sources of LC n-3 PUFA have been developed. These alternative sources are: (a) terrestrial plants naturally or genetically enriched in stearidonic acid (SDA), which bypasses the first limiting step of (i.e. ∆6 desaturase) of the biosynthesis of LC n-3 PUFA; (b) single-cell oils rich in LC n-3 PUFA (microalgae, Escherichia coli) and krill. Currently, plants rich in SDA are expensive, metabolic engineering is unfavourably accepted by consumers in many countries, cultivation of microalgae is very expensive even though their ability (for some of them) to synthesise biofuels could induce a decrease in industrial costs, and Antarctic krill harvest must be restricted. Thus, it is difficult to predict their real development in the future.

  7. The first experimental observation of the higher-energy trans conformer of trifluoroacetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apóstolo, R. F. G.; Bazsó, Gábor; Bento, R. R. F.; Tarczay, G.; Fausto, R.

    2016-12-01

    We report here the first experimental observation of the higher-energy conformer of trifluoroacetic acid (trans-TFA). The new conformer was generated by selective narrowband near-infrared vibrational excitation of the lower-energy cis-TFA conformer isolated in cryogenic matrices (Ar, Kr, N2) and shown to spontaneously decay to this latter form in the various matrix media, by tunneling. The decay rates in the different matrices were measured and compared with those of the trans conformers of other carboxylic acids in similar experimental conditions. The experimental studies received support from quantum chemistry calculations undertaken at various levels of approximation, which allowed a detailed characterization of the relevant regions of the potential energy surface of the molecule and the detailed assignment of the infrared spectra of the two conformers in the various matrices. Noteworthly, in contrast to cis-TFA that has its trifluoromethyl group eclipsed with the Cdbnd O bond of the carboxylic moiety, trans-TFA has the trifluoromethyl group eclipsed with the Csbnd O bond. This unusual structure of trans-TFA results from the fact that the relative orientation of the CF3 and COOH groups in this geometry facilitates the establishment of an intramolecular hydrogen-bond-like interaction between the OH group and the closely located in-plane fluorine atom of the CF3 moiety.

  8. Development and Validation of an Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Process for Source Water

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Throughout Northern Appalachia and surrounding regions, hundreds of abandoned mine sites exist which frequently are the source of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). AMD typically contains metal ions in solution with sulfate ions which have been leached from the mine. These large volumes of water, if treated to a minimum standard, may be of use in Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) or other industrial processes. This project’s focus is to evaluate an AMD water treatment technology for the purpose of providing treated AMD as an alternative source of water for HF operations. The HydroFlex™ technology allows the conversion of a previous environmental liability into an asset while reducing stress on potable water sources. The technology achieves greater than 95% water recovery, while removing sulfate to concentrations below 100 mg/L and common metals (e.g., iron and aluminum) below 1 mg/L. The project is intended to demonstrate the capability of the process to provide AMD as alternative source water for HF operations. The second budget period of the project has been completed during which Battelle conducted two individual test campaigns in the field. The first test campaign demonstrated the ability of the HydroFlex system to remove sulfate to levels below 100 mg/L, meeting the requirements indicated by industry stakeholders for use of the treated AMD as source water. The second test campaign consisted of a series of focused confirmatory tests aimed at gathering additional data to refine the economic projections for the process. Throughout the project, regular communications were held with a group of project stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives with industry requirements. Finally, the process byproduct generated by the HydroFlex process was evaluated for the treatment of produced water against commercial treatment chemicals. It was found that the process byproduct achieved similar results for produced water treatment as the chemicals currently in use. Further

  9. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

  10. Association between trans fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk factors in Europe: the TRANSFAIR study.

    PubMed

    van de Vijver, L P; Kardinaal, A F; Couet, C; Aro, A; Kafatos, A; Steingrimsdottir, L; Amorim Cruz, J A; Moreiras, O; Becker, W; van Amelsvoort, J M; Vidal-Jessel, S; Salminen, I; Moschandreas, J; Sigfússon, N; Martins, I; Carbajal, A; Ytterfors, A; Poppel, G

    2000-02-01

    High intakes of trans fatty acids (TFA) have been found to exert an undesirable effect on serum lipid profiles, and thus may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Investigation of the association between TFA intake and serum lipids. Cross-sectional study in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Iceland, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden) among 327 men and 299 women (50-65 y). Using a dietary history method, food consumption was assessed and TFA intake was calculated with recent figures on TFA levels of foods, collected in the TRANSFAIR study. Mean (+/-s.d.) TFA intake was 2.40+/-1.53 g/day for men and 1.98+/-1.49 g/day for women (0.87+/-0.48% and 0. 95+/-0.55% of energy, respectively), with the highest consumption in Iceland and the lowest in the Mediterranean countries. No associations were found between total TFA intake and LDL, HDL or LDL/HDL ratio after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Additional adjustment for other fatty acid clusters resulted in a significant inverse trend between total TFA intake and total cholesterol (Ptrend<0.03). The most abundantly occurring TFA isomer, C18:1 t, contributed substantially to this inverse association. The TFA isomers C14:1 t9, C16:1 t9 and C22:1 t were not associated or were positively associated with LDL or total cholesterol. From this study we conclude that at the current European intake levels of trans fatty acids they are not associated with an unfavourable serum lipid profile. Unilever Research Laboratorium, the Dutch Dairy Foundation on Nutrition and Health, Cargill BV, the Institute of Food Research Norwich Laboratory, the Nutrition Branch of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, the International Fishmeal and Oil Manufacturers' Association, Kraft Foods, NV Vandemoortele Coordination Center, Danone Group, McDonalds Deutschland Inc, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Valio Ltd, Raisio Group. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 126-135

  11. Use of corn steep liquor as an economical nitrogen source for biosuccinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, J. P.; Jahim, J. M.; Wu, T. Y.; Harun, S.; Mumtaz, T.

    2016-06-01

    Expensive raw materials are the driving force that leads to the shifting of the petroleum-based succinic acid production into bio-based succinic acid production by microorganisms. Cost of fermentation medium is among the main factors contributing to the total production cost of bio-succinic acid. After carbon source, nitrogen source is the second largest component of the fermentation medium, the cost of which has been overlooked for the past years. The current study aimed at replacing yeast extract- a costly nitrogen source with corn steep liquor for economical production of bio-succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. In this study, a final succinic acid concentration of 20.6 g/L was obtained from the use of corn steep liquor as the nitrogen source, which was comparable with the use of yeast extract as the nitrogen source that had a final succinate concentration of 21.4 g/l. In terms of economical wise, corn steep liquor was priced at 200 /ton, which was one fifth of the cost of yeast extract at 1000 /ton. Therefore, corn steep liquor can be considered as a potential nitrogen source in biochemical industries instead of the costly yeast extract.

  12. Saturated and trans fatty acids content in unpackaged traditional bakery products in Santa Fe city, Argentina: nutrition labeling relevance.

    PubMed

    Negro, Emilse; González, Marcela Aída; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; Williner, María Rosa

    2016-12-20

    Studies have reported the relationship between the excessive intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans fatty acids (t-FA) and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Since 2006, the MERCOSUR countries require that the mandatory nutrition labeling should include information not only about the content of SFA but also about the content of t-FA. This does not apply to fractionated products at the point of retail, such as bakery products. This paper aimed to determine the total fat content and the fatty acid profile in unpackaged traditional bakery products (breads, biscuits and pastries) in Santa Fe, Argentina. Except for French bread, the contribution of t-FA and SFA to the total FA consumption from baked products was high. On the other hand, due to the high variability detected in the FA composition of bakery products between bakeries, it would be necessary to implement regulations making nutrition labeling mandatory in these products.

  13. Sources of Nitrous Acid, Formaldehyde, and Hydroxyl Radical in Doha, Qatar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Luis; Rappenglueck, Bernhard; Ayoub, Mohammed

    2017-04-01

    One of the most important species in the atmosphere is the hydroxyl radical (OH), due to its role controlling the oxidizing capacity of an air shed. The main formation processes of OH include the photolysis of ozone (O3), nitrous acid (HONO), formaldehyde (HCHO), and the ozonolysis of alkenes. Still, the sources of HONO in the atmosphere are not sufficiently well known, with indications that heterogeneous reactions on surfaces may contribute to the observed concentrations. The city of Doha in Qatar presents a unique opportunity to explore photochemical processes including the effects of high particulates concentrations under extreme weather conditions (high temperatures and humidity) and complex emission sources. Two Intensive Observational Periods (IOP) were conducted in Doha in 2016, one during the winter and the other during the summer. These consisted of meteorological measurements, ozone (O3), nitrous acid (HONO), formaldehyde (HCHO), nitrogen monoxide (NO), direct nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), as well as particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm and 2.5 μm (PM10 and PM2.5). In addition photolysis rates of HONO, HCHO, NO2, and singlet oxygen (O1D) were measured. The photostationary state concentration of OH was calculated from its known sources and sinks. The maximum hourly average concentration of OH was determined to be around 1.1 ppt for summer and 0.5 ppt for winter IOP. For the 24-hr average, the photolysis of HONO was the main precursor for OH production with 54.3 % and 72.7 % (summer and winter IOP), while the photolysis of O3 was responsible for 23.8 % and 19.7 % and the photolysis of HCHO accounted for 21.9 % and 7.6 % (summer and winter IOP, respectively). In this study we present source apportionment analysis for the radical precursors HONO and HCHO during the winter and summer IOP and its diurnal variation and elucidate their impact on OH production. We also infer NOx vs VOC limitation of O3

  14. Nitric acid in polar stratospheric clouds - Similar temperature of nitric acid condensation and cloud formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Snetsinger, Kenneth G.; Hamill, Patrick; Goodman, Jindra K.; Mccormick, M. Patrick

    1990-01-01

    As shown independently by two different techniques, nitric acid aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) both form below similar threshold temperatures. This supports the idea that the PSC particles involved in chlorine activation and ozone depletion in the winter polar stratosphere are composed of nitric acid. One technique used to show this is the inertial impaction of nitric acid aerosols using an Er-2 aircraft; the other method is remote sensing of PSCs by the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM II) satellite borne optical sensor. Both procedures were in operation during the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition in 1989, and the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment in 1987. Analysis of Arctic particles gathered in situ indicates the presence of nitric acid below a 'first appearance' temperature Tfa = 202 K. This is the same highest temperature at which PSCs are seen by the SAM II satellite. In comparison, a 'first appearance' temperature Tfa = 198 K as found for the Antarctic samples.

  15. Seasonal variations and source identification of selected organic acids associated with PM10 in the coastal area of Southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shui-Ping; Schwab, James; Liu, Bi-Lian; Li, Tsung-Chang; Yuan, Chung-Shin

    2015-03-01

    component analysis results provide evidence that photochemical oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and volatile organic compounds is the most important source of diacids. In this analysis, primary sources were found to be minor (traffic and food cooking) or non-existent (biomass burning and crustal dust). Components with high loadings of Ph and unsaturated fatty acids can be regarded as representative of primary traffic emissions.

  16. Perfluoroalkylation of Unactivated Alkenes with Acid Anhydrides as the Perfluoroalkyl Source.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Shintaro; Sodeoka, Mikiko

    2016-07-18

    An efficient perfluoroalkylation of unactivated alkenes with perfluoro acid anhydrides was developed. Copper salts play a crucial role as a catalyst to achieve allylic perfluoroalkylation with the in situ generated bis(perfluoroacyl) peroxides. Furthermore, carboperfluoroalkylation of alkene bearing an aromatic ring at an appropriate position on the carbon side chain was found to proceed under metal-free conditions to afford carbocycles or heterocycles bearing a perfluoroalkyl group. This method, which makes use of readily available perfluoroalkyl sources, offers a convenient and powerful tool for introducing a perfluoroalkyl group onto an sp(3) carbon to construct synthetically useful skeletons. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Traditional Indian fermented foods: a rich source of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Satish Kumar, R; Kanmani, P; Yuvaraj, N; Paari, K A; Pattukumar, V; Arul, V

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the diversity of Indian fermented food and its significance as a potential source of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Fermented foods consumed in India are categorized based upon their base material. Fermented foods such as dahi, gundruk, sinki, iniziangsang, iromba, fermented rai, kanjika and handua were reported to have significant medicinal properties. Some fermented products such as koozh, dahi and kanjika are consumed unknowingly as, probiotic drinks, by local people. There are very few reports regarding isolation of LAB from Indian fermented foods available in the past; however, due to growing consciousness about potential health benefits of LAB, we now have scores of reports in this field. There is an abundant opportunity available for food microbiologists to explore the Indian fermented foods for the isolation of new LAB strains for their potential role in probiotic research.

  18. Synthesis of methylphosphonic acid by marine microbes: a source for methane in the aerobic ocean.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, William W; Griffin, Benjamin M; Cicchillo, Robert M; Gao, Jiangtao; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Cooke, Heather A; Circello, Benjamin T; Evans, Bradley S; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Stahl, David A; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2012-08-31

    Relative to the atmosphere, much of the aerobic ocean is supersaturated with methane; however, the source of this important greenhouse gas remains enigmatic. Catabolism of methylphosphonic acid by phosphorus-starved marine microbes, with concomitant release of methane, has been suggested to explain this phenomenon, yet methylphosphonate is not a known natural product, nor has it been detected in natural systems. Further, its synthesis from known natural products would require unknown biochemistry. Here we show that the marine archaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus encodes a pathway for methylphosphonate biosynthesis and that it produces cell-associated methylphosphonate esters. The abundance of a key gene in this pathway in metagenomic data sets suggests that methylphosphonate biosynthesis is relatively common in marine microbes, providing a plausible explanation for the methane paradox.

  19. Exploring water catalysis in the reaction of thioformic acid with hydroxyl radical: a global reaction route mapping perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Vikas

    2014-06-12

    Hydrogen abstraction pathways, in the gas-phase reaction of tautomers of thioformic acid (TFA), TFA(thiol), and TFA(thione), with hydroxyl radical in the presence and absence of single water molecule acting as a catalyst, is investigated with high-level quantum mechanical calculations at CCSD(T)/6-311++G(2d,2p)//MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p), CCSD(T)/6-311++G(d,p)//DFT/BHandHLYP/6-311++G(d,p), and DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p) levels of the theory. A systematic and automated search of the potential energy surface (PES) for the reaction pathways is performed using the global reaction route mapping (GRRM) method that employs an uphill walking technique to search prereaction complexes and transition states. The computations reveal significant lowering of the PES and substantial reduction in the activation energy for the hydrogen abstraction pathway in the presence of water, thereby proving water as an efficient catalyst in the reaction of both the TFA tautomers with OH radical. The hydrogen-bonding interactions are observed to be responsible for the large catalytic effect of water. Notably, in the case of TFA(thiol), formyl hydrogen abstraction is observed to be kinetically more favorable, while acidic hydrogen abstraction is observed to be thermodynamically more feasible. Interestingly, in the case of TFA(thione), reaction pathways involving only formyl hydrogen abstraction were observed to be feasible. The water-catalyzed hydrogen abstraction reaction of TFA with hydroxyl radical, investigated in this work, can provide significant insights into the corresponding reaction in the biological systems.

  20. Neonatal and fetal exposure to trans-fatty acid retards early growth and adiposity while adversely affecting glucose in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Sajadian, Soraya; Jenkins, Kurt A.; Wilson, Martha D.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Wagner, Janice D.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) consumed in western diets are incorporated into maternal and fetal tissues, and are passed linearly to offspring via breast milk. We hypothesized that TFA exposure in utero and during lactation in infants would promote obesity and poor glycemic control as compared to unmodified fatty acids. We further hypothesized that in utero exposure alone may program for these outcomes in adulthood. To test this hypothesis we fed female C57/BL6 mice identical western diets that differed only in cis- or trans-isomers of C18:1 and then aimed to determine whether maternal transfer of TFAs through pregnancy and lactation alters growth, body composition and glucose metabolism. Mice were unexposed, exposed during pregnancy, during lactation, or throughout pregnancy and lactation to TFA. Body weight and composition (by computed tomography), and glucose metabolism we assessed at weaning and adulthood. TFA exposure through breast milk caused significant early growth retardation (p<0.001) and higher fasting glucose (p=0.01) but insulin sensitivity was not different. Elevated plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in mice consuming TFA-enriched milk (p=0.02) may contribute to later catch-up growth, leanness and preserved peripheral insulin sensitivity observed in these mice. Mice exposed to TFA in utero underwent rapid early neonatal growth with TFA-free breast milk and had significantly impaired insulin sensitivity (p<0.05) and greater abdominal fat (p=0.01). We conclude that very early catch-up growth resulted in impaired peripheral insulin sensitivity in this model of diet-related fetal and neonatal programming. TFA surprisingly retarded growth and adiposity while still adversely affecting glucose metabolism. PMID:20650350

  1. Characterization and Acid-Mobilization Study of Iron-Containing Mineral Dust Source Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cwiertny, David M.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Hunter, Gordon J.; Laskin, Alexander; Scherer, Michelle; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-03-04

    Processes that solubilize the iron in mineral dust aerosols may increase the amount of iron supplied to ocean surface waters, and thereby stimulate phytoplankton productivity. It was recently proposed that mixing of mineral dusts with SO2 and HNO3 produces extremely acidic environments that favor the formation of bioavailable Fe(II). Here, four authentic mineral dust source materials (Saudi Beach sand (SB), Inland Saudi sand (IS), Saharan Sand (SS) and China Loess (CL)) and one commercial reference material (Arizona Test Dust (AZTD)) were spectroscopically characterized, and their dissolution at pH 1 was examined in aqueous batch systems. Spectroscopic analyses indicated that the bulk and near-surface region of all samples possessed similar elemental compositions and that iron was unevenly distributed among dust 10 particles. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed Fe(III) in all samples, although SB, CL and AZTD also contained appreciable Fe(II). Both Fe(II) and Fe(III) were primarily substituted into aluminosilicates, although CL, AZTD and IS also contained Fe(III) oxides. Total iron solubility (defined as the summed concentration of dissolved Fe(II) and Fe(III) measured after 24 h) ranged 14 between 4-12% of the source materials’ iron content, but did not scale with either the surface area or the iron content of the samples. This suggests that other factors such as iron speciation and mineralogy may play a key role in iron solubility. Also, the elevated nitrate concentrations encountered from nitric acid at pH 1 suppressed dissolution of Fe(II) from AZTD, CL and SB particles, which we propose results from the surface-mediated, non-photochemical reduction of nitrate by Fe(II).

  2. Fatty acids as an energy source for the operation of axoplasmic transport.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Toshifumi; Hiruma, Hiromi; Hori, Hideaki; Hashimoto, Yoko; Ichikawa, Takafumi; Kawakami, Tadashi

    2003-05-16

    Fatty acids are utilized as a cellular energy source. In the present study, we investigated whether fatty acids could affect axoplasmic transport. Cultured mouse superior cervical ganglion neurons were placed in the glucose-containing medium (145 mM NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 1 mM CaCl(2), 1 mM MgCl(2), 5 mM D-glucose, 10 mM Hepes, pH 7.3, 37 degrees C), and axoplasmic transport of particles in neurites was observed under video-enhanced contrast microscopy. A variety of fatty acids (acetate (C2), caproate (C6), caprylate (C8), caprate (C10), 2-decenoate (C10:1), arachidonate (C20:4); 0.1-1 mM) caused a transient increase in the amount of particles transported in both anterograde and retrograde directions. The increasing effects of fatty acids were dose-dependent. A half-maximum effective dose (ED(50)) for acetate was 0.8 mM, which is similar to the reported K(m) value of acetyl-CoA synthetase for acetate. The ED(50) for caprylate was 28 microM, which is near the K(m) value of acyl-CoA synthetase for medium- and long-chain fatty acids. Application of 5 mM malonate, an inhibitor of the citrate cycle, induced a steady-state decrease in axoplasmic transport, indicating that energy derived from the citrate cycle is required for the maintenance of axoplasmic transport. The increasing effect of acetate (1 mM) on axoplasmic transport was completely abolished by pretreatment with malonate (5 mM), suggesting that acetate produces ATP for axoplasmic transport via the citrate cycle. Alternatively, the effect of caprate (1 mM) was retained after treatment with malonate. Thus, fatty acids except acetate produce ATP probably through both the beta-oxidation pathway and the citrate cycle, increasing axoplasmic transport. Since the effect of fatty acids was transient, certain negative feedback mechanisms might be involved. The removal of glucose from the medium resulted in a low steady-state level of axoplasmic transport. Under such condition, the acetate (1 mM)-induced transient increase in

  3. Preliminary study on preparation of BCNO phosphor particles using citric acid as carbon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryadin, Bebeh W.; Pratiwi, Tripuspita; Faryuni, Irfana D.; Iskandar, Ferry; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal, Ogi, Takashi; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2015-04-01

    A citric acid was used as a carbon source in the preparation of boron carbon oxy-nitride (BCNO) phosphor particles by a facile process. The preparation process was conducted at relatively low temperature 750 °C and at ambient pressure. The prepared BCNO phosphors showed a high photoluminescence (PL) performance at peak emission wavelength of 470 nm under excitation by a UV light 365 nm. The effects of carbon/boron and nitrogen/boron molar ratios on the PL properties were also investigated. The result showed that the emission spectra with a wavelength peak ranging from 444 nm to 496 nm can be obtained by varying carbon/boron ratios from 0.1 to 0.9. In addition, the observations showed that the BCNO phosphor material has two excitation peaks located at the 365 nm (UV) and 420 nm (blue). Based on these observations, we believe that the citric acid derived BCNO phosphor particles can be a promising inexpensive material for phosphor conversion-based white LED.

  4. Honeybees and beehives are rich sources for fructophilic lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Salminen, Seppo

    2013-09-01

    Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are a specific group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) characterized and described only recently. They prefer fructose as growth substrate and inhabit only fructose-rich niches. Honeybees are high-fructose-consuming insects and important pollinators in nature, but reported to be decreasing in the wild. In the present study, we analyzed FLAB microbiota in honeybees, larvae, fresh honey and bee pollen. A total of 66 strains of LAB were isolated from samples using a selective isolation technique for FLAB. Surprisingly, all strains showed fructophilic characteristics. The 66 strains and ten FLAB strains isolated from flowers in a separate study were genotypically separated into six groups, four of which being identified as Lactobacillus kunkeei and two as Fructobacillus fructosus. One of the L. kunkeei isolates showed antibacterial activity against Melissococcus plutonius, a causative pathogen of European foulbrood, this protection being attributable to production of an antibacterial peptide or protein. Culture-independent analysis suggested that bee products and larvae contained simple Lactobacillus-group microbiota, dominated by L. kunkeei, although adult bees carried a more complex microbiota. The findings clearly demonstrate that honeybees and their products are rich sources of FLAB, and FLAB are potential candidates for future bee probiotics.

  5. Complement-fixing Activity of Fulvic Acid from Shilajit and Other Natural Sources

    PubMed Central

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Xie, Gang; Jutila, Mark A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Shilajit has been used traditionally in folk medicine for treatment of a variety of disorders, including syndromes involving excessive complement activation. Extracts of Shilajit contain significant amounts of fulvic acid (FA), and it has been suggested that FA is responsible for many therapeutic properties of Shilajit. However, little is known regarding physical and chemical properties of Shilajit extracts, and nothing is known about their effects on the complement system. To address this issue, we fractionated extracts of commercial Shilajit using anion exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. One neutral (S-I) and two acidic (S-II and S-III) fractions were isolated, characterized, and compared with standardized FA samples. The most abundant fraction (S-II) was further fractionated into three sub-fractions (S-II-1 to S-II-3). The van Krevelen diagram showed that the Shilajit fractions are products of polysaccharide degradation, and all fractions, except S-II-3, contained type II arabinogalactan. All Shilajit fractions exhibited dose-dependent complement-fixing activity in vitro with high potency. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between complement-fixing activity and carboxylic group content in the Shilajit fractions and other FA sources. These data provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic properties of Shilajit and other humic extracts. PMID:19107845

  6. Preliminary study on preparation of BCNO phosphor particles using citric acid as carbon source

    SciTech Connect

    Nuryadin, Bebeh W.; Pratiwi, Tripuspita; Faryuni, Irfana D.; Iskandar, Ferry Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal; Ogi, Takashi; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2015-04-16

    A citric acid was used as a carbon source in the preparation of boron carbon oxy-nitride (BCNO) phosphor particles by a facile process. The preparation process was conducted at relatively low temperature 750 °C and at ambient pressure. The prepared BCNO phosphors showed a high photoluminescence (PL) performance at peak emission wavelength of 470 nm under excitation by a UV light 365 nm. The effects of carbon/boron and nitrogen/boron molar ratios on the PL properties were also investigated. The result showed that the emission spectra with a wavelength peak ranging from 444 nm to 496 nm can be obtained by varying carbon/boron ratios from 0.1 to 0.9. In addition, the observations showed that the BCNO phosphor material has two excitation peaks located at the 365 nm (UV) and 420 nm (blue). Based on these observations, we believe that the citric acid derived BCNO phosphor particles can be a promising inexpensive material for phosphor conversion-based white LED.

  7. Lipoic Acid as a Possible Pharmacological Source of Hydrogen Sulfide/Sulfane Sulfur.

    PubMed

    Bilska-Wilkosz, Anna; Iciek, Małgorzata; Kowalczyk-Pachel, Danuta; Górny, Magdalena; Sokołowska-Jeżewicz, Maria; Włodek, Lidia

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether lipoic acid (LA) itself is a source of H₂S and sulfane sulfur. It was investigated in vitro non-enzymatically and enzymatically (in the presence of rat tissue homogenate). The results indicate that both H₂S and sulfane sulfur are formed from LA non-enzymatically in the presence of environmental light. These results suggest that H₂S is the first product of non-enzymatic light-dependent decomposition of LA that is, probably, next oxidized to sulfane sulfur-containing compound(s). The study performed in the presence of rat liver and kidney homogenate revealed an increase of H₂S level in samples containing LA and its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA). It was accompanied by a decrease in sulfane sulfur level. It seems that, in these conditions, DHLA acts as a reducing agent that releases H₂S from an endogenous pool of sulfane sulfur compounds present in tissues. Simultaneously, it means that exogenous LA cannot be a direct donor of H₂S/sulfane sulfur in animal tissues. The present study is an initial approach to the question whether LA itself is a donor of H₂S/sulfane sulfur.

  8. Thermolysis of fluoropolymers as a potential source of halogenated organic acids in the environment.

    PubMed

    Ellis, D A; Mabury, S A; Martin, J W; Muir, D C

    2001-07-19

    Following the introduction of hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFCs) gases as replacements for the ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), it has been discovered that HCFCs/HFCs can degrade in the atmosphere to produce trifluoroacetic acid, a compound with no known loss mechanisms in the environment, and higher concentrations in natural waters have been shown to be mildly phytotoxic. Present environmental levels of trifluooracetic acid are not accounted by HCFC/HFC degradation alone. Here we report that thermolysis of fluorinated polymers, such as the commercial polymers Teflon and Kel-F, can also produce trifluoroacetate and the similar compound chlorodifluoroacetate. This can occur either directly, or indirectly via products that are known to degrade to these haloacetates in the atmosphere. The environmental significance of these findings is confirmed by modelling, which indicates that the thermolysis of fluoropolymers in industrial and consumer high-temperature applications (ovens, non-stick cooking utensils and combustion engines) is likely to be a significant source of trifluoroacetate in urban rain water ( approximately 25 ng l-1, as estimated for Toronto). Thermolysis also leads to longer chain polyfluoro- and/or polychlorofluoro- (C3-C14) carboxylic acids which may be equally persistent. Some of these products have recently been linked with possible adverse health and environmental impacts and are being phased out of the US market. Furthermore, we detected CFCs and fluorocarbons-groups that can destroy ozone and act as greenhouse gases, respectively-among the other thermal degradation products, suggesting that continued use of fluoropolymers may also exacerbate stratospheric ozone-depletion and global warming.

  9. The Acid-Secreting Parietal Cell as an Endocrine Source of Sonic Hedgehog During Gastric Repair

    PubMed Central

    Engevik, Amy C.; Feng, Rui; Yang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) has been shown to regulate wound healing in various tissues. Despite its known function in tissue regeneration, the role of Shh secreted from the gastric epithelium during tissue repair in the stomach remains unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that Shh secreted from the acid-secreting parietal cell is a fundamental circulating factor that drives gastric repair. A mouse model expressing a parietal cell-specific deletion of Shh (PC-ShhKO) was generated using animals bearing loxP sites flanking exon 2 of the Shh gene (Shhflx/flx) and mice expressing a Cre transgene under the control of the H+,K+-ATPase β-subunit promoter. Shhflx/flx, the H+,K+-ATPase β-subunit promoter, and C57BL/6 mice served as controls. Ulcers were induced via acetic acid injury. At 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days after the ulcer induction, gastric tissue and blood samples were collected. Parabiosis experiments were used to establish the effect of circulating Shh on ulcer repair. Control mice exhibited an increased expression of Shh in the gastric tissue and plasma that correlated with the repair of injury within 7 days after surgery. PC-ShhKO mice showed a loss of ulcer repair and reduced Shh tissue and plasma concentrations. In a parabiosis experiment whereby a control mouse was paired with a PC-ShhKO littermate and both animals subjected to gastric injury, a significant increase in the circulating Shh was measured in both parabionts. Elevated circulating Shh concentrations correlated with the repair of gastric ulcers in the PC-ShhKO parabionts. Therefore, the acid-secreting parietal cell within the stomach acts as an endocrine source of Shh during repair. PMID:24092639

  10. Fermentative production of L-pipecolic acid from glucose and alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Fernando; Max Risse, Joe; Friehs, Karl; Wendisch, Volker F

    2017-02-07

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is used for the million-ton scale production of amino acids and has recently been engineered for production of the cyclic non-proteinogenic amino acid L-pipecolic acid (L-PA). In this synthetic pathway L-lysine was converted to L-PA by oxidative deamination, dehydration and reduction by L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase (deaminating) from Silicibacter pomeroyi and pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase from C. glutamicum. However, production of L-PA occurred as by-product of L-lysine production only. Here, the author show that abolishing L-lysine export by the respective gene deletion resulted in production of L-PA as major product without concomitant lysine production while the specific growth rate was reduced due to accumulation of high intracellular lysine concentrations. Increasing expression of the genes encoding L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase and pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase in C. glutamicum strain PIPE4 increased the L-PA titer to 3.9 g L(-1) , and allowed faster growth and, thus, a higher volumetric productivity of 0.08 ± 0.00 g L(-1) h(-1) respectively. Secondly, expression of heterologous genes for utilization of glycerol, xylose, glucosamine, and starch in strain PIPE4 enabled L-PA production from these alternative carbon sources. Third, in a glucose/sucrose-based fed-batch fermentation with C. glutamicum PIPE4 L-PA was produced to a titer of 14.4 g L(-1) with a volumetric productivity of 0.21 g L(-1) h(-1) and an overall yield of 0.20 g g(-1) .

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of commercially sourced naphthenic acids by TiO2-graphene composite nanomaterial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juncheng; Wang, Lin; Tang, Jingchun; Ma, Jianli

    2016-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a major contributor to the toxicity in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), which is produced by hot water extraction of bitumen. NAs are extremely difficult to be degraded due to its complex ring and side chain structure. Photocatalysis is recognized as a promising technology in the removal of refractory organic pollutants. In this work, TiO2-graphene (P25-GR) composites were synthesized by means of solvothermal method. The results showed that P25-GR composite exhibited better photocatalytic activity than pure P25. The removal efficiency of naphthenic acids in acid solution was higher than that in neutral and alkaline solutions. It was the first report ever known on the photodegradation of NAs based on graphene, and this process achieved a higher removal rate than other photocatalysis degradation of NAs in a shorter reaction time. LC/MS analysis showed that macromolecular NAs (carbon number 17-22, z value -2) were easy to be degraded than the micromolecular ones (carbon number 11-16, z value -2). Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species that play the main role in the photocatalysis system were studied. It was found that holes and ·OH were the main reactive species in the UV/P25-GR photocatalysis system. Given the high removal efficiency of refractory organic pollutants and the short degradation time, photodegradation based on composite catalysts has a broad and practical prospect. The study on the photodegradation of commercially sourced NAs may provide a guidance for the degradation of OSPW NAs by this method.

  12. Dietary sources, current intakes, and nutritional role of omega-3 docosapentaenoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Byelashov, Oleksandr A; Sinclair, Andrew J; Kaur, Gunveen

    2015-01-01

    Fish oils and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are well recognized for their critical role in human diets. Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22 : 5n-3) has always been a part of healthy nutrition, since infants obtain almost as much DPA as DHA from human milk. Fish oil supplements and ingredients, oily fish, and grass-fed beef can serve as the primary DPA sources for the general population. Although the DPA levels in fish oils are substantially lower than those of EPA and DHA, concentrated DPA products are now becoming commercially available, and DPA-based drugs are under development. Epidemiological studies show that similar to eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20 : 5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22 : 6n-3) acids, DPA is linked to various improvements in human health, perhaps owing to its structural similarity to the other two molecules. Studies in mammals, platelets, and cell cultures have demonstrated that DPA reduces platelet aggregation, and improves lipid metabolism, endothelial cell migration, and resolution of chronic inflammation. Further, other in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that DPA can improve neural health. A human supplementation trial with 99.8% pure DPA suggested that it serves as a storage depot for EPA and DHA in the human body. Future randomized controlled human trials with purified DPA will help clarify its effects on human health. They may confirm the available evidence pointing to its nutritional and biological functions, unique or overlapping with those of EPA and DHA. PMID:26097290

  13. Amino acids as possible alternative nitrogen source for growth of Euglena gracilis Z in life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, P. R.; Liu, Y.; An, Y.; Li, X.; Nasir, A.; Strauch, S. M.; Becker, I.; Krüger, J.; Schuster, M.; Ntefidou, M.; Daiker, V.; Haag, F. W. M.; Aiach, A.; Lebert, M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent times Euglena gracilis Z was employed as primary producer in closed environmental life-support system (CELSS), e.g. in space research. The photosynthetic unicellular flagellate is not capable of utilizing nitrate, nitrite, and urea as nitrogen source. Therefore, ammonium is supplied as an N-source in the lab (provided as diammonium-dihydrogenphosphate, (NH4)2HPO4) to E. gracilis cultures. While nitrate exerts low toxicity to organisms, ammonium is harmful for many aquatic organisms especially, at high pH-values, which causes the ionic NH+4 (low toxicity) to be partially transformed into the highly toxic ammonia, NH3. In earlier reports, Euglena gracilis was described to grow with various amino acids as sole N-source. Our aim was to investigate alternatives for (NH4)2HPO4 as N-source with lower toxicity for organisms co-cultivated with Euglena in a CELSS. The growth kinetics of Euglena gracilis cultures was determined in the presence of different amino acids (glycine, glutamine, glutamic acid, leucine, and threonine). In addition, uptake of those amino acids by the cells was measured. Cell growth in the presence of glycine and glutamine was quite comparable to the growth in (NH4)2HPO4 containing cultures while a delay in growth was observed in the presence of leucine and threonine. Unlike, aforementioned amino acids glutamate consumption was very poor. Cell density and glutamate concentration were almost unaltered throughout the experiment and the culture reached the stationary phase within 8 days. The data are compared with earlier studies in which utilization of amino acids in Euglena gracilis was investigated. All tested amino acids (glutamate with limitations) were found to have the potential of being an alternative N-source for Euglena gracilis. Hence, these amino acids can be used as a non-toxic surrogate for (NH4)2HPO4.

  14. Acid Gradient across Plasma Membrane Can Drive Phosphate Bond Synthesis in Cancer Cells: Acidic Tumor Milieu as a Potential Energy Source

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Gautam; Sen, Suvajit; Chaudhuri, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive cancers exhibit an efficient conversion of high amounts of glucose to lactate accompanied by acid secretion, a phenomenon popularly known as the Warburg effect. The acidic microenvironment and the alkaline cytosol create a proton-gradient (acid gradient) across the plasma membrane that represents proton-motive energy. Increasing experimental data from physiological relevant models suggest that acid gradient stimulates tumor proliferation, and can also support its energy needs. However, direct biochemical evidence linking extracellular acid gradient to generation of intracellular ATP are missing. In this work, we demonstrate that cancer cells can synthesize significant amounts of phosphate-bonds from phosphate in response to acid gradient across plasma membrane. The noted phenomenon exists in absence of glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP synthesis, and is unique to cancer. Biochemical assays using viable cancer cells, and purified plasma membrane vesicles utilizing radioactive phosphate, confirmed phosphate-bond synthesis from free phosphate (Pi), and also localization of this activity to the plasma membrane. In addition to ATP, predominant formation of pyrophosphate (PPi) from Pi was also observed when plasma membrane vesicles from cancer cells were subjected to trans-membrane acid gradient. Cancer cytosols were found capable of converting PPi to ATP, and also stimulate ATP synthesis from Pi from the vesicles. Acid gradient created through glucose metabolism by cancer cells, as observed in tumors, also proved critical for phosphate-bond synthesis. In brief, these observations reveal a role of acidic tumor milieu as a potential energy source and may offer a novel therapeutic target. PMID:25874623

  15. Latitudinal distributions of atmospheric dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, and α-dicarbonyls over the western North Pacific: Sources and formation pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikkina, Srinivas; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Yuzo

    2015-05-01

    The present study aims to assess the molecular distributions of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids (diacids: C2-C12), oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal) in aerosols collected over the western North Pacific (WNP) during a summer cruise (August to September 2008). The measured water-soluble organics show pronounced latitudinal distributions with higher concentrations in the region of 30°N-45°N (average 63 ng m-3) than 10°N-30°N (18 ng m-3). Mass fraction of oxalic acid (C2) in total aliphatic diacids (ΣC2-C12) showed higher values (72 ± 10%) in lower latitude (10°N-30°N) than that (56 ± 16%) in higher latitude (30°N-45°N), suggesting a photochemical production of C2 due to an increased insolation over the tropical WNP. A similar trend was found in other diagnostic ratios such as oxalic to succinic (C2/C4) and oxalic to glyoxylic acid (C2/ωC2), which further corroborate an enhanced photochemical aging over the WNP. In addition, relative abundances of oxalic acid in total diacids showed a marked increase as a function of ambient temperature, supporting their photochemical production. Constantly low concentration ratios of adipic and phthalic acids relative to azelaic acid suggest a small contribution of anthropogenic sources and an importance of oceanic sources during the study period. Significant production of C2 through oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds emitted from the sea surface is also noteworthy, as inferred from the strong linear correlations among water-soluble organic carbon, methanesulphonic acid, and oxalic acid. Sea-to-air emission of unsaturated fatty acids also contributes to formation of diacids over the WNP.

  16. Nitrous acid in a street canyon environment: sources and the contribution to local oxidation capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hui; Wang, Zhe; Zha, Qiaozhi; Wang, Weihao; Xue, Likun; Zhang, Li; Li, Qinyi; Cui, Long; Lee, Shuncheng; Poon, Steven; Wang, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is one of the dominant sources of hydroxyl radical (OH) and plays an important role in photochemical oxidation processes in the atmosphere. Even though HONO has been extensively studied in urban areas, its importance and effects in street canyon microenvironment has not been thoroughly investigated. Street canyons which suffer serious air pollution problem are widely distributed in downtown areas with paralleled high buildings and narrow roads in the center. In this study, we measured HONO at a roadside of a street canyon in urban Hong Kong and applied an observation-based box model based on Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM 3.3) to investigate the contribution of HONO to local oxidation chemistry. Higher HONO mixing ratios were observed in the daytime than in the nighttime. An average emission ratio (ΔHONO/ΔNOx) of 1.0% (±0.5%) was derived at this roadside site and the direct HONO emission from vehicles contributed to 38% of the measured HONO in the street canyon. Heterogeneous NO2 conversion on humid ground or building surfaces and the uptake of NO2 on fresh soot surfaces were the other two important HONO sources in this microenvironment. OBM simulations constrained with observed HONO showed that the peak concentration of OH, HO2 and RO2 is 7.9, 5.0 and 7.5 times of the result in the case with only OH+NO as HONO source. Photolysis of HONO contributed to 86.5% of the total primary radical production rates and can lead to efficient NO2 and O3 production under the condition of weak regional O3 transport. Our study suggests that HONO could significantly increase the atmospheric oxidation capacity in a street canyon which may impact the secondary formation of aerosols and OVOCs.

  17. Production of para-aminobenzoic acid from different carbon-sources in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Averesch, Nils J H; Winter, Gal; Krömer, Jens O

    2016-05-26

    Biological production of the aromatic compound para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) is of great interest to the chemical industry. Besides its application in pharmacy and as crosslinking agent for resins and dyes pABA is a potential precursor for the high-volume aromatic feedstocks terephthalic acid and para-phenylenediamine. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthesises pABA in the shikimate pathway: Outgoing from the central shikimate pathway intermediate chorismate, pABA is formed in two enzyme-catalysed steps, encoded by the genes ABZ1 and ABZ2. In this study S. cerevisiae metabolism was genetically engineered for the overproduction of pABA. Using in silico metabolic modelling an observed impact of carbon-source on product yield was investigated and exploited to optimize production. A strain that incorporated the feedback resistant ARO4 (K229L) and deletions in the ARO7 and TRP3 genes, in order to channel flux to chorismate, was used to screen different ABZ1 and ABZ2 genes for pABA production. In glucose based shake-flaks fermentations the highest titer (600 µM) was reached when over-expressing the ABZ1 and ABZ2 genes from the wine yeast strains AWRI1631 and QA23, respectively. In silico metabolic modelling indicated a metabolic advantage for pABA production on glycerol and combined glycerol-ethanol carbon-sources. This was confirmed experimentally, the empirical ideal glycerol to ethanol uptake ratios of 1:2-2:1 correlated with the model. A (13)C tracer experiment determined that up to 32% of the produced pABA originated from glycerol. Finally, in fed-batch bioreactor experiments pABA titers of 1.57 mM (215 mg/L) and carbon yields of 2.64% could be achieved. In this study a combination of genetic engineering and in silico modelling has proven to be a complete and advantageous approach to increase pABA production. Especially the enzymes that catalyse the last two steps towards product formation appeared to be crucial to direct flux to pABA. A stoichiometric model

  18. Estuarine sediment resuspension and acidification: Release behaviour of contaminants under different oxidation levels and acid sources.

    PubMed

    Martín-Torre, M Camino; Cifrian, Eva; Ruiz, Gema; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R

    2017-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) Capture and Storage (CCS) is a technology to reduce the emissions of this gas to the atmosphere by sequestering it in geological formations. In the case of offshore storage, unexpected CO2 leakages will acidify the marine environment. Reductions of the pH might be also caused by anthropogenic activities or natural events such as acid spills and dredging operations or storms and floods. Changes in the pH of the marine environment will trigger the mobilisation of elements trapped in contaminated shallow sediments with unclear redox boundary. Trace element (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) release from anoxic and oxic estuarine sediment is analysed and modelled under different laboratory acidification conditions using HNO3 (l) and CO2 (g): acidification at pH = 6.5 as worst-case scenario in events of CO2 leakages and acid spills, and acidification at pH = 7.0 as a seawater scenario under CO2 leakages, acid spills, as well as sediment resuspension. The prediction of metal leaching behaviour appear to require sediment specific and site specific tools. In the present work it is demonstrated that the proposed three in-series reactions model predicts the process kinetics of the studied elements under different simulated environmental conditions (oxidation levels and acid sources). Differences between HNO3 and CO2 acidification are analysed through the influence of the CO2 gas on the ionic competition of the medium. The acidification with CO2 provokes higher released concentrations from the oxic sediment than from the anoxic sediment, except in the case of Zn, which influences the release of the other studied elements. Slight acidification can endanger the aquatic environment through an important mobilisation of contaminants. The obtained prediction of the contaminant release from sediment (kinetic parameters and maximum concentrations) can contribute to the exposure assessment stage for risk management and preincidental planning in accidental CO2

  19. Review of heterogeneous photochemical reactions of NOy on aerosol - A possible daytime source of nitrous acid (HONO) in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinzhu; Liu, Yongchun; Han, Chong; Ma, Qingxin; Liu, Chang; He, Hong

    2013-02-01

    As an important precursor of hydroxyl radical, nitrous acid (HONO) plays a key role in the chemistry of the lower atmosphere. Recent atmospheric measurements and model calculations show strong enhancement for HONO formation during daytime, while they are inconsistent with the known sources in the atmosphere, suggesting that current models are lacking important sources for HONO. In this article, heterogeneous photochemical reactions of nitric acid/nitrate anion and nitrogen oxide on various aerosols were reviewed and their potential contribution to HONO formation was also discussed. It is demonstrated that HONO can be formed by photochemical reaction on surfaces with deposited HNO3, by photocatalytic reaction of NO2 on TiO2 or TiO2-containing materials, and by photochemical reaction of NO2 on soot, humic acids or other photosensitized organic surfaces. Although significant uncertainties still exist in the exact mechanisms and the yield of HONO, these additional sources might explain daytime observations in the atmosphere.

  20. Effects of Dried Algae Schizochytrium Sp., A Rich Source of Docosahexaenoic Acid, on Growth, Fatty Acid Composition, and Sensory Quality of Channel Catfish Ictalurus Punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of dried algae Schizochytrium sp., a rich source of 22:6 n-3, on growth, fatty acid composition, and sensory quality of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Five isonitrogenous (28% crude protein) and isocaloric (2.78 kcal...

  1. Biological treatment of acidic coal refuse using sulphate-reducing bacteria with chicken manure as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    The performance of using chicken manure as carbon source to promote sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity within acidic coal refuse to prevent the generation of acidic leachate was investigated in batch and column bioreactors. The bioreactors showed satisfactory performance in biological sulphate reduction, evidenced by the increase in effluent pH, high removal efficiencies of sulphate and metals, and the presence of large numbers of SRB. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the formed precipitate indicated the formation of metal sulphides. Chicken manure was observed to play an important role in this treatment, which could not only provide carbon source but also reduce the adverse effect of strong acidity and metal toxicity on SRB activity. Metal removal could be mainly attributed to sulphides precipitation and sorption to chicken manure. This study indicated that SRB with chicken manure could be a novel alternative used for the prevention of acidic leachate from coal refuse.

  2. Determination of trifluoroacetic acid in 1996--1997 precipitation and surface waters in California and Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wujcik, C.E.; Cahill, T.M.; Seiber, J.N.

    1999-05-15

    The atmospheric degradation of three chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacement compounds, namely HFC-134a, HCFC-123, and HCFC-124, results in the formation of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Concentrations of TFA were determined in precipitation and surface water samples collected in California and Nevada during 1996--1997. Terminal lake systems were found to have concentrations 4--13 times higher than their calculated yearly inputs, providing evidence for accumulation. The results support dry deposition as the primary contributor of TFA to surface waters in arid and semiarid environments. Precipitation samples obtained from three different locations contained 20.7--1530 ng/L with significantly higher concentrations in fogwater over rainwater. Elevated levels of TFA were observed for rainwater collected in Nevada over those collected in California, indicating continual uptake and concentration as clouds move from a semiarid to arid climate. Thus several mechanisms exist, including evaporative concentration, vapor-liquid phase partitioning, lowered washout volumes of atmospheric deposition water, and dry deposition, which may lead to elevated concentrations of TFA in atmospheric and surface waters above levels expected from usual rainfall washout.

  3. Contribution of trans fatty acids from vegetable oils and margarines to the Belgian diet.

    PubMed

    De Greyt, W; Radanyi, O; Kellens, M; Huyghebaert, A

    1995-11-17

    Nineteen commercial samples of vegetable oils and margarines marketed in Belgium (nine margarines, nineteen vegetable oils), Hungary (seven margarines) and Great Britain (three margarines) were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography for their trans fatty acid (TFA) content. For the vegetable oil samples under study, the TFA content ranged from 0.0-4.6% (mean : 1.1%, S.D. : 1.1%). Trans isomers in these samples were almost exclusively C18:2 and C18:3 isomers formed during high temperature refining. Trans isomers of the margarines were mainly C18:1 isomers formed during hydrogenation. For the Belgian and Hungarian samples mean trans values of 6.36% (S.D.=6.20%) and 14.06% (S.D.=7.59%), respectively expressed on fat basis were established. From these figures, the average daily intake of TFA from margarines and vegetable oils by the Belgian population was calculated at 1.1 and 0.1g/person/day, respectively. When so-called zero-trans margarines (+/- 0.5% TFA) are consumed, the trans intake can be reduced to about 0.1g/person/day. Further studies leading to figures about the contribution of TFA from 'invisible fat' food products will be conducted in the near future.

  4. The study of a rotating method for fabricating Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7-x films by TFA-MOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Feng, F.; Qu, T. M.; Han, Z.

    2008-09-01

    During the TFA-MOD process, the gas flow rate on the films is important because of the potential stagnation of the gaseous product HF at the gas/film interface. Rather than altering the volume gas flow rate, we developed a new method of rotating a specially designed sample holder to evaluate the influence of the gas flow state on the microstructures and superconducting properties of YBCO films. The rotating speed was easily controlled by a DC motor from 0 rpm to 26 rpm. It was observed that the increase of the rotating speed resulted in more a-axis oriented grains and higher critical current densities at 77 K. These results indicated a more efficient removal of the HF gas at a higher rotating speed. Some theoretical analysis confirms that in our system the gas flow rate at the gas/film interface has a similar distribution with that under a conventional stationary situation, and correspondingly well demonstrates the explanation of the dependence of the film qualities on the rotating speed.

  5. Phosphate-independent utilization of phosphonoacetic acid as sole phosphorus source by a psychrophilic strain of Geomyces pannorum P15.

    PubMed

    Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    A psychrophilic fungal strain of Geomyces pannorum P15 was screened for its ability to utilize a range of synthetic and natural organophosphonate compounds as the sole source of phosphorus, nitrogen, or carbon. Only phosphonoacetic acid served as a phosphorus source for microbial growth in phosphate-independent manner. Substrate metabolism did not lead to extracellular release of inorganic phosphate. No phosphonate metabolizing enzyme activity was detectable in cell-free extracts prepared from Geomyces biomass pregrown on 2 mmol/L phosphonoacetic acid.

  6. A global mass balance analysis of the source of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wania, Frank

    2007-07-01

    Whereas the pervasive and abundant presence of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in the Arctic marine food chain is clearly established, their origin and transport pathway into the Arctic Ocean are not. Either the atmospheric oxidation of volatile precursor compounds, such as the fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), or the long-range oceanic transport of directly emitted PFCAs is seen as contributing the bulk of the PFCA input to the Arctic. Here simulations with the zonally averaged global fate and transport model Globo-POP, in combination with historical emission estimates for FTOHs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are used to evaluate the relative efficiency and importance of the two transport pathways. Estimates of the emission-independent Arctic Contamination Potential reveal that the oceanic transport of directly emitted PFCAs is more than 10-fold more efficient than the atmospheric degradation of FTOHs in delivering PFCAs to the Arctic, mostly because of the low yield of the reaction. The cumulative historic emissions of FTOHs are lower than those estimated for PFOA alone by a factor of 2-3, further limiting the contribution that precursor oxidation makes to the total PFCAs load in the Arctic Ocean. Accordingly, when fed only with FTOH emissions, the model predicts FTOH air concentrations in agreement with the reported measurements, but yields Arctic seawater concentrations for the PFOA that are 2 orders of magnitude too low. Whereas ocean transport is thus very likely the dominant pathway of PFOA into the Arctic Ocean, the major transport route of longer chain PFCAs depends on the size of their direct emissions relative to those of 10:2 FTOH. The predicted time course of Arctic seawater concentrations is very similar for directly emitted and atmospherically generated PFCAs, implying that neither past doubling times of PFCA concentrations in Arctic marine mammals nor any future time trends are likely to resolve the question of the dominant source of PFCAs.

  7. Comparison of n-3 fatty acid sources in laying hen rations for improvement of whole egg nutritional quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Van Elswyk, M E

    1997-07-01

    The nutritional manipulation of the diets of laying hens to include sources of n-3 fatty acids promotes the deposition of these nutrients into egg yolk, n-3 Fatty acid-rich eggs may provide an exciting alternative food source for enhancing consumer intake of these proposed healthful fatty acids. Care must be taken when designing n-3 fatty acid-rich poultry rations, however, to assure that the resulting egg fatty acid profile is useful for promoting consumer health yet maintaining egg sensory quality. In study 1 laying hens were fed on diets supplemented with graded levels of menhaden oil (MO), rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), for 4 weeks to determine maximal yolk fatty acid deposition attainable without sensory compromise. Yolk fatty acids were analysed for an additional 4 weeks, post-MO removal, to investigate yolk n-3 fatty acid tenacity. Dietary MO levels between 15 and 30 g/kg yielded the greatest yolk n-3 fatty acid content; however, only eggs from birds fed with 15 g MO/kg were considered acceptable by trained flavour panelists. Evaluation of eggs from hens fed with 15 g MO/ kg during storage verified that the shelf-life of enriched eggs was comparable with that of typical eggs. In study 2, graded levels of whole or ground flaxseed were used for the deposition of linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3n-3) and to determine in vivo production of DHA from dietary LNA for yolk deposition. Flaxseed form influenced yolk n-3 fatty acids only when given at 150 g/kg diet. In vivo production of DHA, while significant, was not enhanced by increasing the level of dietary flaxseed nor by grinding the seed. In the third study, a DHA-rich natural marine alga (MA) was investigated as an n-3 fatty acid supplement. Despite similar DHA profiles, dietary MA was found to be more efficient for yolk DHA deposition than dietary MO. These studies suggest that there are numerous viable n-3 fatty acid supplements for poultry rations. It must

  8. Odor detection thresholds of naphthenic acids from commercial sources and oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Edge, Kristyn; Barona, Brenda; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; Wismer, Wendy V

    2010-11-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) occur naturally in various petroleums and in oil sands tailings waters and have been implicated as potential fish tainting compounds. In this study, trained sensory panels and the general population from a university were used to determine the odor detection thresholds of two commercial NAs preparations (Acros and Merichem) and of NAs extracted from an oil sands experimental reclamation pond (Pond 9). Using the three-alternative forced choice method, a concentration series of NAs were presented to the sensory panels in phosphate buffer (pH 8) and in steamed fish (Sander vitreus). In buffer, the odor detection thresholds of Acros, Merichem and Pond 9 NAs, as evaluated by the trained panelists, were 1.5, 0.04, and 1.0 mg L(-1), respectively. Only the detection threshold for the Merichem NAs was significantly different (p<0.01) than the other two sources. Based on the general population assessments, all three odor detection thresholds were significantly different from one another; 4.8, 0.2, and 2.5 mg L(-1) for Acros, Merichem, and Pond 9 NAs, respectively (p<0.01). The odor detection thresholds of Merichem and Pond 9 NAs in steamed fish were 0.6 and 12 mg kg(-1), respectively and were significantly different from each other (p<0.01). The detection threshold of Acros NAs was estimated to be >21 mg kg(-1). For the steamed fish evaluations, the odor descriptors of all three of the NAs preparations was given as chemical in nature (Acros: oil, plastic; Merichem: gasoline; Pond 9: gasoline, tar). Exposure of live rainbow trout to a non-lethal concentration of Merichem NAs (3 mg L(-1) for 10 d) imparted an odor to the fish flesh. Analyses of the three NAs preparations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that each had a unique distribution of acids. We conclude that the source of the NAs is important when interpreting odor threshold data and that the two commercial preparations of NAs that were tested do not represent oil sands waters

  9. [Study on nondestructive rapid identification method of foods containing trans-fatty acids using diffuse near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    An, Xue-Song; Song, Chun-Feng; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Xie, Jin-Chun; Li, Xiao-Yu

    2013-11-01

    A rapid nondestructive method for identifying intact foods containing trans fatty acids (TFA) using diffuse near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was proposed in the present paper. The diffuse Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectra of intact samples were collected by fiber probe, and the reference data of TFA content were determined by Chinese standard method GB/T 22110-2008 (gas chromatography (GC) method). In this work, all the samples were classified into two categories: foods with TFA and foods without TFA according to the TFA content of the foods. The identification models were established by different supervised pattern recognition algorithms including partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA), support vector machine (SVM), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and K-nearest neighbor method (KNN) etc. The performances of the established models employing different algorithms, data pretreatments and wavelength bands were compared. The results show that PLSDA and SVM algorithms have the ability of identifying intact foods with TFA, and the performance of identification models established by PLSDA is better than that of SVM. The PLSDA models established by the wavelength bands of 4 138-4 428, 5 507-5 963 and 7 794-8 960 cm(-1) which were pretreated with pretreatment methods of auto scaling and second derivative have the best performance. The correct classification percentages of its calibration and validation set are 96.4% and 88%, respectively, which indicates that this method is feasible for the identification of foods with TFA. This NIR method above mentioned has the characteristics of rapidness, non-destruction and easy operation due to the elimination of sample pretreatment such as oil extraction and grinding, therefore it is very suitable for on-line and in-site detection application.

  10. Fatty acid profile of Canadian dairy products with special attention to the trans-octadecenoic acid and conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Sanjaya; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Ratnayake, Walisundera M N

    2008-01-01

    Current scientific evidence indicates that consumption of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) produced via partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils increases the risk of coronary heart disease. However, some studies have suggested that ruminant TFA, especially vaccenic acid (VA or 11t-18:1) and rumenic acid (RA or 9c,11t-18:2), which is a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer, may have potential beneficial health effects for humans. To date, no concerted effort has been made to provide detailed isomer composition of ruminant TFA and CLA of Canadian dairy products, information that is required to properly assess their nutritional impacts. To this end, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of popular brands of commercial cheese (n = 17), butter (n = 12), milk (n = 8), and cream (n = 4) sold in retail stores in Ottawa, Canada, in 2006-2007 by silver nitrate thin-layer chromatography and gas liquid chromatography. The average total TFA content of cheese, butter, milk, and cream samples were 5.6, 5.8, 5.8, and 5.5% of total fatty acids, respectively. VA was the major trans-octadecenoic acid (18:1) isomer in all the Canadian dairy samples with average levels of (as % total trans-18:1) 33.9% in cheese, 35.6% in butter, 31.0% milk, and 30.1% in cream. The different dairy products contained very similar levels of CLA, which ranged from 0.5 to 0.9% of total fat. RA was the major CLA isomer of all the dairy products, accounting for 82.4-83.2% of total CLA. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the fatty acid profile between the 4 different dairy groups, which suggests lack of processing effects on the fatty acid profile of dairy fat.

  11. Use of O and S Isotopes to Define Sources of Water and Sulfate in Acid Mine Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earnest, D.

    2001-12-01

    Coal mining in Maryland, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and other states has resulted in acid mine drainage problems in rivers throughout the region. The underground workings at the Kempton Mine have been abandoned since the 1950's, and the water filling these mines is discharged at a rate of 6,000,000 gallons per day into the headwaters of the Potomac River. This water has an average pH of 3.0 and an average dissolved load of 1 g/L. Evaluation of the mitigation options requires identification of water and acidity sources. We are using isotopic compositions of mine drainage waters to define hydrologic sources, flow paths, and acid sources. Water samples were taken monthly of mine water and other local sources. Oxygen isotope analyses are conducted on these samples. Seasonal variations in δ ^{18}O composition of mine drainage would suggest significant rapid meteoric input. Little or no variation in \\delta18O composition would suggest that mine drainage is derived primarily from groundwater sources or that the residence time in the mine is long. Sulfate precipitated as barite from these samples is analyzed for δ ^{34}S and \\delta18O. There is significantly more sulfate in the mine drainage waters than there is iron. The isotopic signature is used to determine whether the sulfur source is pyritic or organic. Sulfate δ 18O data are used to distinguish between sub-aerial and sub-aqueous oxidation of sulfur.

  12. Distributions and Sources of Methanesulfonic Acid (MSA) over the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Gray, B. A.; Gu, D.; Mauldin, L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Bandy, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfur chemistry in the marine atmosphere is critical to the production of sulfate aerosols, which play an important role in the climate system. Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) is a major yet not well studied oxidation product of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which is emitted from the ocean. In this study, gas-phase MSA was measured in the lower troposphere over the tropical Pacific on the NCAR C-130 aircraft during the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment (PASE). A 1-dimensional chemical transport model (REAM) was used to analyze the vertical profiles of MSA driven by chemistry and turbulent transport. The observed vertical profiles of MSA revealed two remarkable features. First, the measured MSA concentration was enhanced near the ocean surface, decreasing rapidly in the boundary layer from the surface to ~600 m. The model analysis suggests that this sharp gradient cannot be explained by the OH oxidation of DMS or the oxidation by a reasonable level of BrO near the surface. The gradient would imply an unidentified MSA source of 4.0×10 7 molecule/cm2/s close to the ocean surface. Secondly, a large peak of MSA was observed in the lower free troposphere (FT, 1000~2000m). The MSA concentration in the lower FT was an order of magnitude larger than that in the boundary and buffer layers. The anti-correlation between the lower FT MSA concentration and relative humidity (RH) suggests that the enhancement in gas-phase MSA is related to the dehydration of aerosols due to the decreased RH at higher altitudes. The dehydrated aerosols in lower FT lose their capacity to take up gaseous MSA. In addition, our model analysis suggests that a fraction (10-20%) of aerosol-phase MSA must degas from dry aerosols to reproduce the observed vertical profile. The degassing mechanism provides a source of 1.2×10 7 molecule/cm2/s of MSA to the lower free troposphere.

  13. Plums (Prunus domestica L.) are a good source of yeasts producing organic acids of industrial interest from glycerol.

    PubMed

    García-Fraile, Paula; Silva, Luís R; Sánchez-Márquez, Salud; Velázquez, Encarna; Rivas, Raúl

    2013-08-15

    The production of organic acids from several yeasts isolated from mature plums on media containing glycerol as carbon source was analysed by HPLC-UV. The yeasts isolated were identified by sequencing the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer as Pichia fermentans, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Candida oleophila. The organic acid profiles of these strains comprise acetic, citric, succinic and malic acids that qualitatively and quantitatively vary between different species as well as among strains from the same species. The production from glycerol of succinic, acetic, citric, malic and oxalic acids from C. oleophila and W. anomalus, and that of succinic, oxalic and acetic acids by P. fermentans is reported for the first time in this work, as is the production of oxalic acid from glycerol in yeasts. Our results also showed that mature fruits can be a good source of new yeasts able to metabolise glycerol, producing different organic acids with industrial and biotechnological interest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of environmental forensics to identify the sources of ground water contamination using amino acid "finger print"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Kim, J.; Park, J.; Nam, Y.; Lee, J.; Yoo, E.; Kim, H.; Lee, W.; Choe, S.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    The analysis of patterns of amino acids of the leachate from livestock burial site and the wastewater from the manure treatment plant was performed to trace the source of NO3-N contamination in groundwater near mass burial sites. Amino acid was analyzed with LC-MSMS using ODS-II column after the derivatiztion with PITC (phenylisothiocyanate) by following Edman Method. The average concentration of amino acid in the burial leachate was 531.90 mg/L and livestock wastewater was 1.75 mg/L. The concentration of burial leachate is about 300 times higher than that of livestock wastewater. The order of the concentration of each amino acid which were commonly detected in leachate was Valin > Leucine > Isoleucin. On the other hands, livestock wastewater showed different trend (Alanine > Lysine > Valine). Six amino acids among 20 amino acids which were stably detected in leachate and livestock wastewater were selected and compared with peak pattern. By determining the relative ratio of concentrations of amino acids (Ile/Val, Leu/Trp, Val/Trp, Lys/Leu, Lys/Ile, Met/Lys) in the same sample, the sources of the contamination was concluded. Based on this analysis using those indicators, samples affected by livestock wastewater were 43.0% (324 samples) and samples influenced by fertilizer or compost were 57.0% (470 samples) among 754 samples. Any sample among 754 samples didn't seem to be effected by leachate of nearby burial site.

  15. Connecting Source with Sink: The Role of Arabidopsis AAP8 in Phloem Loading of Amino Acids1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, James P.; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2016-01-01

    Allocation of large amounts of nitrogen to developing organs occurs in the phloem and is essential for plant growth and seed development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and many other plant species, amino acids represent the dominant nitrogen transport forms in the phloem, and they are mainly synthesized in photosynthetically active source leaves. Following their synthesis, a broad spectrum of the amino nitrogen is actively loaded into the phloem of leaf minor veins and transported within the phloem sap to sinks such as developing leaves, fruits, or seeds. Controlled regulation of the source-to-sink transport of amino acids has long been postulated; however, the molecular mechanism of amino acid phloem loading was still unknown. In this study, Arabidopsis AMINO ACID PERMEASE8 (AAP8) was shown to be expressed in the source leaf phloem and localized to the plasma membrane, suggesting its function in phloem loading. This was further supported by transport studies with aap8 mutants fed with radiolabeled amino acids and by leaf exudate analyses. In addition, biochemical and molecular analyses revealed alterations in leaf nitrogen pools and metabolism dependent on the developmental stage of the mutants. Decreased amino acid phloem loading and partitioning to sinks led to decreased silique and seed numbers, but seed protein levels were unchanged, demonstrating the importance of AAP8 function for sink development rather than seed quality. Overall, these results show that AAP8 plays an important role in source-to-sink partitioning of nitrogen and that its function affects source leaf physiology and seed yield. PMID:27016446

  16. Comparison of triglycerides and phospholipids as supplemental sources of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in piglets.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Susan A; Oliver, William T; Phillips, Oulayvanh T; Odle, Jack; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A; Harrell, Robert J

    2002-10-01

    Addition of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to infant formula promotes visual and neural development. This study was designed to determine whether the source of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) affected overall animal health and safety. Piglets consumed ad libitum from 1 to 16 d of age a skim milk-based formula with different fat sources added to provide 50% of the metabolizable energy. Treatment groups were as follows: control (CNTL; no added LCPUFA), egg phospholipid (PL), algal/fungal triglyceride (TG) oils, TG plus PL (soy lecithin source) added to match phospholipid treatment (TG + PL) and essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD). Formulas with LCPUFA provided 0.6 and 0.3 g/100 g total fatty acids as AA and DHA, respectively. CNTL piglets had 40% longer ileal villi than PL piglets (P < 0.03), but the TG group was not different from the CNTL group. Gross liver histology did not differ among any of the formula-fed groups (P > 0.1). Apparent dry matter digestibility was 10% greater in CNTL, TG and TG + PL groups compared with PL piglets (P < 0.002). No differences in alanine aminotransferase were detected among treatments, but aspartate aminotransferase was elevated (P < 0.03) in PL piglets compared with TG + PL piglets. Total plasma AA concentration was greater in the TG group compared with CNTL piglets (P < 0.05). Total plasma DHA concentrations were greater in TG piglets compared with PL (P < 0.06) or CNTL (P < 0.02) piglets. These data demonstrate that the algal/fungal TG sources of DHA and AA may be a more appropriate supplement for infant formulas than the egg PL source based on piglet plasma fatty acid profiles and apparent dry matter digestibilities.

  17. trans Fatty acids in the Canadian food supply: an updated analysis.

    PubMed

    Arcand, JoAnne; Scourboutakos, Mary J; Au, Jennifer T C; L'Abbe, Mary R

    2014-10-01

    Dietary trans fatty acids (TFAs) increase the risk of heart disease. In 2007, Canada set voluntary TFA limits for industrial TFAs added to food and encouraged substitution of TFAs with unsaturated fats during reformulation. No longitudinal follow-up assessment of TFA amounts in foods has occurred in Canada since termination of a government-led Trans Fat Monitoring Program (TFMP). The objective was to conduct an updated assessment and longitudinally evaluate TFA amounts in the food supply and to determine whether saturated fats have replaced TFAs in reformulation. This was a cross-sectional study that used 3 databases: TFMP (Health Canada, 2005-2009; n = 921), the University of Toronto Food Label Information Program (2010-2011; n = 5544), and the Restaurant Database (2010; n = 4272). Outcomes were TFAs as a percentage of fat, proportion of foods meeting TFA limits, and saturated fat amounts in foods with high or low TFAs. The proportion of foods meeting TFA limits improved from 75% in 2005-2009 to 97% in 2010-2011, particularly in the following packaged foods: croissants (25% to 100%), pies (36% to 98%), cakes (43% to 90%), and garlic spreads (33% to 100%). Most restaurant categories assessed by the TFMP had 100% of foods meeting TFA limits. Some categories had a large proportion that exceeded TFA limits: dairy-free cheeses (100%), frosting (72.0%), lard and shortening (66.7%), coffee whiteners (66.7%), and restaurant-prepared biscuits and scones (47.4%). Saturated fat amounts were significantly higher (P < 0.05) among some foods with the lowest TFAs, such as cookies, brownies and squares, cakes with pudding/mousse, dessert toppings, and lard and shortening. There has been an impressive improvement in TFA amounts in the Canadian food supply since the termination of the TFMP. However, action by the food industry is required to reduce TFAs in foods that exceed the recommended TFA limits and to minimize the use of saturated fats in replacing TFAs during reformulation

  18. A Field Measurement of Isocyanic Acid (HNCO): Evidence of a Secondary Source and Presence in Cloud Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, R.; Lee, A.; Liggio, G.; Wentzell, J. J.; Leaitch, W. R.; Macdonald, A.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Modini, R. L.; Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Schroder, J.; Bertram, A. K.; Hawkins, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO) has been shown to cause a variety of adverse health effects via protein carbamylation reactions. It is proposed as a key compound in smoke related health issues due to its well-known sources, biomass burning and cigarette smoke. In spite of this, our understanding of the atmospheric fate of this toxic compound is incomplete. More ambient measurements are needed to elucidate additional sources and to better characterize the sinks of HNCO in the atmosphere. The recent development of the Acetate Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Acid-CIMS) has enabled on-line measurement of HNCO at ambient mixing ratios. Ambient measurements of HNCO were performed in La Jolla, CA during the spring/summer of 2012, using the Acid-CIMS. HNCO mixing ratios were found to be approximately 150 pptv during the night, but typically increased to over 300 pptv in the early afternoon. From the observed diurnal profile and the correlation of HNCO with temperature and other secondary compounds (e.g. nitric acid), we report evidence of a secondary, photochemical source of HNCO. The observed HNCO likely arose as a combination of primary and secondary sources. We have also detected HNCO in cloudwater by coupling the Acid-CIMS to a Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first field evidence of cloud scavenging of HNCO. Our result show that the cloud scavenging of HNCO may be more efficient than predicted from its effective Henry's law constant. Campaign-averaged diurnal profiles of Black Carbon (BC), isocyanic acid (HNCO) and nitric acid (HNO3). Dotted lines show the averaged time of sunrise and sunset during the campaign.

  19. Phosphate limitation promotes unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis by microalgae Porphyridium purpureum.

    PubMed

    Su, Gaomin; Jiao, Kailin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Xiaoyi; Chang, Jingyu; Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Sun, Yong; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are highly appreciated on their nutritive value for human health and aquaculture. P. purpureum, one of the red microalgae acknowledged as a promising accumulator of ARA, was chosen as the target algae in the present research. Effects of sodium bicarbonate (0.04-1.2 g/L), temperature (25, 30 and 33 °C) and phosphate (0.00-0.14 g/L) on biomass yield, total fatty acids (TFA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) accumulation were investigated systemically. NaHCO3 dose of 0.8 g/L and moderate temperature of 30 °C were preferred. In addition, TFA and ARA production were significantly enhanced by an appropriate concentration of phosphate, and the highest TFA yield of 666.38 mg/L and ARA yield of 159.74 mg/L were obtained at a phosphate concentration of 0.035 g/L. Interestingly, with phosphate concentration continuing to fall, UFA/TFA and ARA/EPA ratios were increased accordingly, suggesting that phosphate limitation promoted unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis. Low concentration of phosphate may be favored to increase the enzymatic activities of ∆6-desaturase, which played a key role in catalyzing the conversion of C16:0 to C18:2, and thus the selectivity of UFA increased. Meanwhile, the increase of ARA selectivity could be attributed to ω6 pathway promotion and ∆17-desaturase activity inhibition with phosphate limitation. Phosphate limitation strategy enhanced unsaturated fatty acids and ARA biosynthesis in P. purpureum, and can be applied in commercial scale manufacturing and commercialization of ARA.

  20. Root-zone acidity affects relative uptake of nitrate and ammonium from mixed nitrogen sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.; Chaillou, S.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) were grown for 21 days on 4 sources of N (1.0 mM NO3-, 0.67 mM NO3- plus 0.33 mM NH4+, 0.33 mM NO3- plus 0.67 mM NH4+, and 1.0 mM NH4+) in hydroponic culture with the acidity of the nutrient solution controlled at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Dry matter and total N accumulation of the plants was not significantly affected by N-source at any of the pH levels except for decreases in these parameters in plants supplied solely with NH4+ at pH 4.5. Shoot-to-root ratios increased in plants which had an increased proportion [correction of proporiton] of NH4(+)-N in their nutrient solutions at all levels of root-zone pH. Uptake of NO3- and NH4+ was monitored daily by ion chromatography as depletion of these ions from the replenished hydroponic solutions. At all pH levels the proportion of either ion that was absorbed increased as the ratio of that ion increased in the nutrient solution. In plants which were supplied with sources of NO3- plus NH4+, NH4+ was absorbed at a ratio of 2:1 over NO3- at pH 6.0. As the pH of the root-zone declined, however, NH4+ uptake decreased and NO3- uptake increased. Thus, the NH4+ to NO3- uptake ratio declined with decreases in root-zone pH. The data indicate a negative effect of declining root-zone pH on NH4+ uptake and supports a hypothesis that the inhibition of growth of plants dependent on NH4(+)-N at low pH is due to a decline in NH4+ uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by N stress.

  1. Characterization of Acid Mine Drainage Sources Using Stable and Radiogenic Isotopes, Chalk Creek, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordalis, D.; Michel, R.; Williams, M.; Wireman, M.

    2003-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) affects many streams throughout the western United States. Understanding flow dynamics and sources within a fractured rock setting is necessary in outlining a potential remediation strategy for AMD. Radiogenic and stable isotopes of water were used in the Mary Murphy Mine, Chalk Creek, Colorado, in order to characterize flowpaths and sourcewaters. By delineating the sources of the mine water, groundwater, and event water, we may be able to target remediation techniques for individual contamination sources. Moreover, results from this research provide insights into groundwater flow systems in mountain environments of the Colorado Rockies. Tritium, a cosmogenic isotope of hydrogen, has a half-life 12.43y and is useful for studying hydrologic processes at the decadal time scale and can be used as an effective tracer when traditional chemical tracers are non-conservative. Hydrometric information showed that discharge from the mine adit exhibited a hydrograph characteristic of snowmelt runoff. However, mixing models using stable water isotopes (D and 18O) found less than 7% of the mine's peak discharge was from snowmelt, suggesting a regional groundwater dominated system. Mine interior samples fell into two characteristic groupings: either from the extreme north side of the drift which contained most of the zinc contamination, and all other locations. The waters from the north drift, MVN-3 and MVN-4, had lower 18O values, -17.62 per mil and -17.17 per mil, respectively, than did any of the other locations, suggesting a seasonal snowmelt input. However, the tritium values associated with MVN-3 and MVN-4 suggest at least some mixing, with values of 13.4 TU and 12.5 TU, respectively. Surface water samples from Chalk Creek show average tritium values of 11.1 TU, and 18O values of -14.87 per mil. Groundwater samples were captured using monitoring wells, and plotted according to the depth of screening. Alluvial wells carried a seasonal signal similar

  2. Root-zone acidity affects relative uptake of nitrate and ammonium from mixed nitrogen sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.; Chaillou, S.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) were grown for 21 days on 4 sources of N (1.0 mM NO3-, 0.67 mM NO3- plus 0.33 mM NH4+, 0.33 mM NO3- plus 0.67 mM NH4+, and 1.0 mM NH4+) in hydroponic culture with the acidity of the nutrient solution controlled at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Dry matter and total N accumulation of the plants was not significantly affected by N-source at any of the pH levels except for decreases in these parameters in plants supplied solely with NH4+ at pH 4.5. Shoot-to-root ratios increased in plants which had an increased proportion [correction of proporiton] of NH4(+)-N in their nutrient solutions at all levels of root-zone pH. Uptake of NO3- and NH4+ was monitored daily by ion chromatography as depletion of these ions from the replenished hydroponic solutions. At all pH levels the proportion of either ion that was absorbed increased as the ratio of that ion increased in the nutrient solution. In plants which were supplied with sources of NO3- plus NH4+, NH4+ was absorbed at a ratio of 2:1 over NO3- at pH 6.0. As the pH of the root-zone declined, however, NH4+ uptake decreased and NO3- uptake increased. Thus, the NH4+ to NO3- uptake ratio declined with decreases in root-zone pH. The data indicate a negative effect of declining root-zone pH on NH4+ uptake and supports a hypothesis that the inhibition of growth of plants dependent on NH4(+)-N at low pH is due to a decline in NH4+ uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by N stress.

  3. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids: a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Bendsen, N T; Chabanova, E; Thomsen, H S; Larsen, T M; Newman, J W; Stender, S; Dyerberg, J; Haugaard, S B; Astrup, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) is, according to observational studies, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the causal mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Besides inducing dyslipidemia, TFA intake is suspected to promote abdominal and liver fat deposition. Objective: We examined the effect of a high intake of TFA as part of an isocaloric diet on whole-body, abdominal and hepatic fat deposition, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women. Methods: In a 16-week double-blind parallel intervention study, 52 healthy overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil providing 15.7 g day−1 of TFA or a control oil with mainly oleic and palmitic acid. Before and after the intervention, body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, abdominal fat by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and liver fat by 1H MR spectroscopy. Results: Compared with the control fat, TFA intake decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol by 10%, increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol by 18% and resulted in an increased LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio (baseline adjusted mean (95% CI) difference between diet groups 0.41 (0.22; 0.60); P<0.001). TFA tended to increase the body fat (0.46 (−0.20; 1.17) kg; P=0.16) and waist circumference (1.1 (−0.1; 2.4) cm; P=0.08) more than the control fat, whereas neither abdominal nor liver fat deposition was affected by TFA. Conclusion: The adverse effect of dietary TFA on cardiovascular disease risk involves induction of dyslipidemia, and perhaps body fat, whereas weight gain-independent accumulation of ectopic fat could not be identified as a contributory factor during short-term intake. PMID:23154296

  4. Stable carbon isotope analysis of nucleic acids to trace sources of dissolved substrates used by estuarine bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Coffin, R B; Velinsky, D J; Devereux, R; Price, W A; Cifuentes, L A

    1990-01-01

    The natural abundance of stable carbon isotopes measured in bacterial nucleic acids extracted from estuarine bacterial concentrates was used to trace sources of organic matter for bacteria in aquatic environments. The stable carbon isotope ratios of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and nucleic acids extracted from cultures resembled those of the carbon source on which bacteria were grown. The carbon isotope discrimination between the substrate and total cell carbon from bacterial cultures averaged 2.3% +/- 0.6% (n = 13). Furthermore, the isotope discrimination between the substrate and nucleic acids extracted from bacterial cultures was 2.4% +/- 0.4% (n = 10), not significantly different from the discrimination between bacteria and the substrate. Estuarine water samples were prefiltered through 1-micron-pore-size cartridge filters. Bacterium-sized particles in the filtrates were concentrated with tangential-flow filtration and centrifugation, and nucleic acids were then extracted from these concentrates. Hybridization with 16S rRNA probes showed that approximately 90% of the nucleic acids extracted on two sample dates were of eubacterial origin. Bacteria and nucleic acids from incubation experiments using estuarine water samples enriched with dissolved organic matter from Spartina alterniflora and Cyclotella caspia had stable carbon isotope values similar to those of the substrate sources. In a survey that compared diverse estuarine environments, stable carbon isotopes of bacteria grown in incubation experiments ranged from -31.9 to -20.5%. The range in isotope values of nucleic acids extracted from indigenous bacteria from the same waters was similar, -27.9 to -20.2%. Generally, the lack of isotope discrimination between bacteria and nucleic acids that was noted in the laboratory was observed in the field.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:2389930

  5. Identification of the subsurface sulfide bodies responsible for acidity in Río Tinto source water, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ortiz, David; Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Granda, Ángel; Quesada, Cecilio; Granda, Teresa; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Molina, Antonio; Amils, Ricardo

    2014-04-01

    The acidic waters of the Río Tinto rise from several acidic springs that emerge in the area surrounding Peña de Hierro (Fernández-Remolar et al., 2005). These springs are located above minor normal faults that act as natural conduits for the water from the underlying deep aquifer. Although it has been suggested that the acidity of the river originates from the biooxidation of massive and stockwork sulfides (Fernández-Remolar et al., 2008a), the location of the source for these acidic solutions has not previously been established. This lack of evidence has been used to suggest that the acidity of the Río Tinto may be the product of the most conspicuous of the possible source, the extensive mining of the area over approximately the last 5000 years (Davis et al., 2000). In this paper, we report resistivity and time-domain electromagnetic sounding data from the Río Tinto aquifer to a depth of ∼600 m, revealing the locations for the acidic sources. Both types of data support the presence of two distinct geological units that we interpret as thrust sheets emplaced onto each other during the Variscan orogeny of the Carboniferous. These units, both of which contain massive and stockwork sulfides, act as the aquifer for the acidic waters of the Río Tinto. Under this scenario, which is in agreement with the geological record of the Río Tinto fluvial system for the past 6 Ma (Moreno et al., 2003), our results imply that mining activity had little influence on the generation of the acidic river waters.

  6. Evaluation of the Strecker synthesis as a source of amino acids on carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, N. R.; Peterson, Etta; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Strecker synthesis (SS) has been proposed as the source of amino acids (AA) formed during aqueous alteration of carbonaceous chondrites. It is postulated that the aldehyde and ketone precursors of the meteoritic AA originated in interstellar syntheses and accreted on the meteorite parent body along with other reactant species in cometesimal ices. The SS has been run with formaldehyde, acetyldehyde, propionaldehyde, acetone, and methyl ketone as starting materials. To study the effect of minerals on the reaction, the SS was run in the presence and absence of dust from the Allende meteorite using deuterated aldehydes and ketones as starting materials. The products were studied by GC/MS. With the exception of glycine, the retention of deuterium in the AA was greater than 90 pct. Some D exchange with water does occur, however, and determination of the rate of exchange as a function of pH and temperature may allow some bounds to be placed on the duration of parent body aqueous alteration. The retention of D by the AA under conditions studied thus far is consistent with the model that a SS starting from interstellar aldehydes and ketones led to the production of meteoritic AA.

  7. Reverse iontophoresis of amino acids: identification and separation of stratum corneum and subdermal sources in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bouissou, Camille C; Sylvestre, Jean-Philippe; Guy, Richard H; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña

    2009-12-01

    To differentiate the stratum corneum (SC) and subdermal sources of amino acids (AAs) extracted by reverse iontophoresis. 13 zwitterionic AAs were quantified in this in vitro study. Repetitive tape-stripping permitted the distribution of the analytes to be determined in the SC. Iontophoresis experiments were performed in which the subdermal chamber contained either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) only, or a mixture of the 13 AAs in PBS. AAs were homogeneously distributed across the SC and broadly divided into three groups (high, medium, low) in terms of total amount present. As expected, extraction to the cathode for the essentially neutral analytes involved was more efficient. Initial samples obtained during the first hour of iontophoresis primarily extracted AAs from the SC. The fluxes observed in the latter half of the 6-h experiment, on the other hand, correlated well with the corresponding subdermal concentrations. A relatively short extraction period (approximately 1 h) by reverse iontophoresis can be used to evaluate the content of AAs in the SC. Once this 'reservoir' has been depleted, reverse iontophoresis can then monitor the subdermal concentrations of the AAs. The latter appears most useful for compounds which are present at lower levels in the SC.

  8. Growth of bacteria on 3-nitropropionic acid as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Shirley F; Shin, Kwanghee A; Payne, Rayford B; Spain, Jim C

    2010-06-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3NPA) is a widespread nitroaliphatic toxin found in a variety of legumes and fungi. Several enzymes have been reported that can transform the compound, but none led to the mineralization of 3NPA. We report here the isolation of bacteria that grow on 3NPA and its anion, propionate-3-nitronate (P3N), as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Experiments with resting cells, cell extracts, and purified enzymes indicate that the pathway involves conversion of 3NPA to P3N, which upon denitration yields malonic semialdehyde, nitrate, nitrite, and traces of H(2)O(2). Malonic semialdehyde is decarboxylated to acetyl coenzyme A. The gene that encodes the enzyme responsible for the denitration of P3N was cloned and expressed, and the enzyme was purified. Stoichiometry of the reaction indicates that the enzyme is a monooxygenase. The gene sequence is related to a large group of genes annotated as 2-nitropropane dioxygenases, but the P3N monooxygenase and closely related enzymes form a cluster within COG2070 that differs from previously characterized 2-nitropropane dioxygenases by their substrate specificities and reaction products. The results suggest that the P3N monooxygenases enable bacteria to exploit 3NPA in natural habitats as a growth substrate.

  9. Fatty acids profile in a high cell density culture of arachidonic acid-rich Parietochloris incisa (Trebouxiophyceae, chlorophyta) exposed to high PFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Cohen, Zvi; Richmond, Amos

    2002-06-01

    The changes in arachidonic acid (AA) and fatty acids profiles along the growth curve of Parietochloris incisa, a coccoid snow green alga, were studied in a 2.8 cm light-path flat photobiorcactor, exposed to strong photon flux density [PFD, 2400 μEmol/(m2·s)]. Sixteen fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography showing that AA was the dominant fatty acid (33% 41%) followed by linoleic acid (17% 21%). AA content was closely investigated with respect to total fatty acids (TFA), ash free dry weight (AFDW) of cell mass as well as total culture content. These parameters were influenced significantly in a similar manner by culture growth phase, i.e., slightly decreasing in the lag period, gradually increasing in the logarithmic phase, becoming maximal at the early stationary phase, starting to decrease at the late stationary phase, sharply dropping at the decline phase. The increase in AA per culture volume during the logarithmic phase was not only associated with the increase in AFDW but also connected with a corresponding increase in AA/TFA, TFA/AFDW as well as AA/AFDW. The sharp decrease in AA content of the culture during the decline phase was mainly due to the decrease in AA/TFA, TFA/AFDW and AA/AFDW, although AFDW declined only a small extent. Maximal AA concentration, obtained at the early stationary phase, was 900 mg/L culture volume, and the average daily net increase of AA during 9 days logarithmic growth was 1.7 g/(m2·day). Therefore, harvesting prior to the decline phase in a batch culture, or at steady state in continuous culture mode seems best for high AA production. The latter possibility was also further confirmed by continuous culture with 5 gradients of harvesting rate.

  10. The Mismatch between Students' Mental Models of Acids/Bases and Their Sources and Their Teacher's Anticipations Thereof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing-Wen; Chiu, Mei-Hung

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the characteristics and sources of students' mental models of acids and bases with a teacher's anticipations and, based on this comparison, to explore some possible explanations why motivated students might fail to learn from a subject-knowledgeable chemistry teacher. The study involves a chemistry teacher and…

  11. The Mismatch between Students' Mental Models of Acids/Bases and Their Sources and Their Teacher's Anticipations Thereof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing-Wen; Chiu, Mei-Hung

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the characteristics and sources of students' mental models of acids and bases with a teacher's anticipations and, based on this comparison, to explore some possible explanations why motivated students might fail to learn from a subject-knowledgeable chemistry teacher. The study involves a chemistry teacher and…

  12. USE OF STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIOS OF FATTY ACIDS TO EVALUATE MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCES IN TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We use measurements of the concentration and stable carbon isotopic ratio (D 13C) of individual microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils as indicators of live microbial biomass levels and microbial carbon source. We found that intensive sugar cane cultivation leads to ...

  13. Sustainable source of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid from metabolically engineered Yarrowia lipolytica: from fundamental research to commercial production.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dongming; Jackson, Ethel N; Zhu, Quinn

    2015-02-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids, cis-5, 8, 11, 14, and 17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA) and cis-4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19-docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; DHA), have wide-ranging benefits in improving heart health, immune function, mental health, and infant cognitive development. Currently, the major source for EPA and DHA is from fish oil, and a minor source of DHA is from microalgae. With the increased demand for EPA and DHA, DuPont has developed a clean and sustainable source of the omega-3 fatty acid EPA through fermentation using metabolically engineered strains of Yarrowia lipolytica. In this mini-review, we will focus on DuPont's technology for EPA production. Specifically, EPA biosynthetic and supporting pathways have been introduced into the oleaginous yeast to synthesize and accumulate EPA under fermentation conditions. This Yarrowia platform can also produce tailored omega-3 (EPA, DHA) and/or omega-6 (ARA, GLA) fatty acid mixtures in the cellular lipid profiles. Fundamental research such as metabolic engineering for strain construction, high-throughput screening for strain selection, fermentation process development, and process scale-up were all needed to achieve the high levels of EPA titer, rate, and yield required for commercial application. Here, we summarize how we have combined the fundamental bioscience and the industrial engineering skills to achieve large-scale production of Yarrowia biomass containing high amounts of EPA, which led to two commercial products, New Harvest™ EPA oil and Verlasso® salmon.

  14. A study of the source-receptor relationships influencing the acidity of precipitation collected at a rural site in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charron, Aurélie; Plaisance, Hervé; Sauvage, Stéphane; Coddeville, Patrice; Galloo, Jean-Claude; Guillermo, René

    In order to examine the qualitative and quantitative source-receptor relationships responsible for acid rains at a background site in France, a receptor-oriented model was applied to the precipitation data collected from 1992 to 1995. Origins of acidic and alkaline species in precipitations have been investigated. The methodology combines precipitation chemical data with air parcel backward trajectories to establish concentration field maps of likely contributing sources. Highest acidities and concentrations of sulfate and nitrate in precipitation were associated with transport from the high emission areas of central Europe. Alkaline events were associated with air masses originating from Mediterranean basin or northern Africa. The quantitative relationships between the maps of potential sources and the European emissions of SO 2 and NO x were examined performing a correlation analysis. Good correlations were found between computed concentrations of acidic species and emissions of SO 2 and NO x. Substantial seasonal variations of acidic species were revealed. The highest concentrations occurred during the warm season. These seasonal variations are the effect of change of meteorological conditions and of the strength atmospheric processes according to the season.

  15. Efficient production of l-lactic acid using co-feeding strategy based on cane molasses/glucose carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-02-01

    L-Lactic acid is an important platform chemical, which ought to be produced under cost control to meet its huge demand. Cane molasses, a waste from sugar manufacturing processes, is hopeful to be utilized as a cheap carbon source for L-lactic acid fermentation. Considering that cane molasses contains nutrients and hazardous substances, efficient production of L-lactic acid was developed by using a co-feeding strategy based on the utilization of cane molasses/glucose carbon sources. Based on the medium optimization with response surface method, 168.3g/L L-lactic acid was obtained by a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1 after 78h fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 0.88g/g. Since cane molasses is a feasible carbon source, the co-feeding fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of L-lactic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of gluconic acid using Micrococcus sp.: optimisation of carbon and nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Joshi, V D; Sreekantiah, K R; Manjrekar, S P

    1996-01-01

    A process for production of gluconic acid from glucose by a Micrococcus sp. is described. More than 400 bacterial cultures isolated from local soil were tested for gluconic acid production. Three isolates, were selected on basis of their ability to produce gluconic acid and high titrable acidity. These were identified as Micrococcus sp. and were named M 27, M 54 and M 81. Nutritional and other parameters for maximum production of gluconic acid by the selected isolates were optimised. It was found that Micrococcus sp. isolate M 27 gave highest yield of 8.19 g gluconic acid from 9 g glucose utilised giving 91% conversion effeciency.

  17. [Kinetic model of enhanced biological phosphorus removal with mixed acetic and propionic acids as carbon sources. (III): Model application].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Yin-Guang

    2013-03-01

    The kinetic model based on SCFAs metabolism was applied for the prediction of phosphorus-and glycogen-accumulating organisms (PAO and GAO) competition with different carbon sources and m(P)/m(COD) ratios. When acetic acid was used as the sole carbon source, the biomass compositions were almost the same as those before cultivation, and neither PAO nor GAO could be out-competed from EBPR. However, increasing propionic acid in the influent helped PAO to be the predominance organism, and EBPR performance kept excellent when the ratio of propionate to mixed acids (acetate + propionate) was higher than 0.33. It also found that the m(P)/m(COD) ratio should be kept at 0.04-0.10 to avoid phosphorus became a limiting factor for PAO growth. This was because at low m(P)/m(COD) ratios, such as 0.01, GAO would take up 95% of the total (PAO + GAO) biomass.

  18. trans-Fatty acid isomers in two sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed byproducts under processing.

    PubMed

    Dhibi, Madiha; Mechri, Beligh; Cheraif, Imed; Hammami, Mohamed

    2010-12-08

    The present study has been inspired by the growing need for rigorously controlling the nutritional quality and safety of food products. The impact of application in the food industry on fatty acids composition, trans-fatty acids (TFAs), and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) profiles were investigated in a highly consumed candy byproduct of sesame seed (chamia) in comparison to fresh sesame seed oil (SSO) and heated SSO under simulated frying experiments. The effect of treatment on SSO was studied by determining the TFA and CLA changes. Results showed significant differences between the two byproducts in TFA and CLA amounts. Total TFAs were found to be significantly higher in chamia than fresh SSO (1.31 versus 0.066%, respectively; p < 0.05) and even higher than all heated SSO from 2 to 10 h at 180 °C (1.31 versus 0.33%, respectively; p < 0.05). A significant linear relationship was found between trans-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), trans-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and total TFA and the time of processing, with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) greater than 0.9 for TFA and PUFA, with a higher correlation assigned to PUFA (r = 0.988; p < 0.001), followed by TFA (r = 0.959; p < 0.01) and MUFA (r = 0.844; p < 0.05). Principal component analysis of the fatty acid (FA) profiles showed discrimination between chamia and both fresh and heated SSO. A high stability of SSO against isomerization reactions as compared to their chamia sample counterpart has been noted. These findings suggest that the food industry engenders relatively higher changes in fatty acid configurations than the frying process.

  19. Current Evidence Supporting the Link Between Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Shatha; Pu, Shuaihua; Jones, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Lack of consensus exists pertaining to the scientific evidence regarding effects of various dietary fatty acids on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this article is to review current evidence concerning cardiovascular health effects of the main dietary fatty acid types; namely, trans (TFA), saturated (SFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA; n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Accumulating evidence shows negative health impacts of TFA and SFA; both may increase CVD risk. Policies have been proposed to reduce TFA and SFA consumption to less than 1 and 7 % of energy intake, respectively. Cardiovascular health might be promoted by replacing SFA and TFA with n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, or MUFA; however, the optimal amount of PUFA or MUFA that can be used to replace SFA and TFA has not been defined yet. Evidence suggests of the potential importance of restricting n-6 PUFA up to 10 % of energy and obtaining an n-6/n-3 ratio as close as possible to unity, along with a particular emphasis on consuming adequate amounts of essential fatty acids. The latest evidence shows cardioprotective effects of MUFA-rich diets, especially when MUFA are supplemented with essential fatty acids; namely, docosahexaenoic acid. MUFA has been newly suggested to be involved in regulating fat oxidation, energy metabolism, appetite sensations, weight maintenance, and cholesterol metabolism. These favorable effects might implicate MUFA as the preferable choice to substitute for other fatty acids, especially given the declaration of its safety for up to 20 % of total energy.

  20. Lycium intricatum Boiss.: An unexploited and rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, 4-desmethylsterols and other valuable phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Boulila, Abdennacer; Bejaoui, Afef

    2015-06-24

    Lycium intricatum Boiss., a Solanaceous shrubbery is used in Tunisia as a windbreak and medicinal plant. However, it is considered as underexploited specie despite its high potential to serve as source with economic and nutritional value. To date only limited information about its phytochemistry, especially of its oil has been published. This work provides data on fatty acids, phytosterols and vitamin D composition of L. intricatum seed oil. It opens up new possibilities of developing L. intricatum as a new crop that contains phytochemicals with high added value little influenced by selection or commercial breeding. The composition of fatty acids, phytosterols and vitamin D in L. intricatum seed oil was assessed by GC-FID. The main fatty acids of L. intricatum seed oil were linoleic acid (49.47%), palmitoleic acid (27.96%) and erucic acid (13.62%). Palimtic acid was present at low percentage (0.63%). The content of unsaturated fatty acids was high as 94.04%. The sterolic fraction was composed of stigmasterol (18.56 mg/100 g), β-sitosterol (13.04 mg/100 g). L. intricatum oil is an oily matrix that contains hydrocarbons, mainly squalene (63.36 mg/100 g), and two triterpenic alcohol erythrodiol (80.36 mg/100 g) and uvaol (24.06 mg/100 g). provitamin D was present in high quantity (8.12 mg/100 g). From these results it has been shown that L. intricatum seeds have great potential as a source of fatty acids and phytosterols for natural health products.

  1. Qualitative risk assessment of chronic renal failure development in healthy, female cats as based on the content of eicosapentaenoic acid in adipose tissue and that of arachidonic acid in plasma cholesteryl esters.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, E A; Hovenier, R; Beynen, A C

    2005-05-01

    A study was carried out to assess the qualitative risk of development of chronic renal failure (CRF) in young healthy, female cats as based on the content of arachidonic acid (AA) in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in adipose tissue. It has been suggested that the content of AA in CE should be <10% of total fatty acids (TFA) and of EPA in adipose tissue be >1.4% of TFA. Subcutaneous adipose tissue and blood samples were obtained from 48 female cats. There was a statistically significant correlation between linoleic acid content of adipose tissue and that of plasma CE. In all cats the EPA content of adipose tissue was lower than 1.4% of TFA and in 30 cats that of AA in plasma CE was higher than 10% of TFA. The EPA content of adipose tissue and the AA content of plasma CE are determined by the contents of these fatty acids in the diet. It is concluded that the fatty acid composition of cat foods should be determined and that, if deemed necessary, the ingredient composition should be altered so that the content of EPA is raised and that of AA is lowererd.

  2. ACIDIC DEPOSITION IN THE NORTHEASTERN U.S.: SOURCES AND INPUTS, ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS, AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acidic deposition results from the emissions of air pollutants. Effects of acidic deposition in the northeastern US include the acidification of soil and water, causing stresses to terrestrial and aquatic biota.

  3. Allspice and Clove As Source of Triterpene Acids Activating the G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptor TGR5.

    PubMed

    Ladurner, Angela; Zehl, Martin; Grienke, Ulrike; Hofstadler, Christoph; Faur, Nadina; Pereira, Fátima C; Berry, David; Dirsch, Verena M; Rollinger, Judith M

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic proportions. A major regulator of metabolic processes that gained interest in recent years is the bile acid receptor TGR5 (Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5). This G protein-coupled membrane receptor can be found predominantly in the intestine, where it is mainly responsible for the secretion of the incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). The aim of this study was (i) to identify plant extracts with TGR5-activating potential, (ii) to narrow down their activity to the responsible constituents, and (iii) to assess whether the intestinal microbiota produces transformed metabolites with a different activity profile. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) served as positive control for both, the applied cell-based luciferase reporter gene assay for TGR5 activity and the biotransformation assay using mouse fecal slurry. The suitability of the workflow was demonstrated by the biotransformation of CDCA to lithocholic acid resulting in a distinct increase in TGR5 activity. Based on a traditional Tibetan formula, 19 plant extracts were selected and investigated for TGR5 activation. Extracts from the commonly used spices Syzygium aromaticum (SaroE, clove), Pimenta dioica (PdioE, allspice), and Kaempferia galanga (KgalE, aromatic ginger) significantly increased TGR5 activity. After biotransformation, only KgalE showed significant differences in its metabolite profile, which, however, did not alter its TGR5 activity compared to non-transformed KgalE. UHPLC-HRMS (high-resolution mass spectrometry) analysis revealed triterpene acids (TTAs) as the main constituents of the extracts SaroE and PdioE. Identification and quantification of TTAs in these two extracts as well as comparison of their TGR5 activity with reconstituted TTA mixtures allowed the attribution of the TGR5 activity to TTAs. EC50s were determined for the main TTAs, i.e., oleanolic acid (2.2 ± 1.6 μM), ursolic

  4. Allspice and Clove As Source of Triterpene Acids Activating the G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptor TGR5

    PubMed Central

    Ladurner, Angela; Zehl, Martin; Grienke, Ulrike; Hofstadler, Christoph; Faur, Nadina; Pereira, Fátima C.; Berry, David; Dirsch, Verena M.; Rollinger, Judith M.

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic proportions. A major regulator of metabolic processes that gained interest in recent years is the bile acid receptor TGR5 (Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5). This G protein-coupled membrane receptor can be found predominantly in the intestine, where it is mainly responsible for the secretion of the incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). The aim of this study was (i) to identify plant extracts with TGR5-activating potential, (ii) to narrow down their activity to the responsible constituents, and (iii) to assess whether the intestinal microbiota produces transformed metabolites with a different activity profile. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) served as positive control for both, the applied cell-based luciferase reporter gene assay for TGR5 activity and the biotransformation assay using mouse fecal slurry. The suitability of the workflow was demonstrated by the biotransformation of CDCA to lithocholic acid resulting in a distinct increase in TGR5 activity. Based on a traditional Tibetan formula, 19 plant extracts were selected and investigated for TGR5 activation. Extracts from the commonly used spices Syzygium aromaticum (SaroE, clove), Pimenta dioica (PdioE, allspice), and Kaempferia galanga (KgalE, aromatic ginger) significantly increased TGR5 activity. After biotransformation, only KgalE showed significant differences in its metabolite profile, which, however, did not alter its TGR5 activity compared to non-transformed KgalE. UHPLC-HRMS (high-resolution mass spectrometry) analysis revealed triterpene acids (TTAs) as the main constituents of the extracts SaroE and PdioE. Identification and quantification of TTAs in these two extracts as well as comparison of their TGR5 activity with reconstituted TTA mixtures allowed the attribution of the TGR5 activity to TTAs. EC50s were determined for the main TTAs, i.e., oleanolic acid (2.2 ± 1.6 μM), ursolic

  5. Effects of varying nitrogen sources on amino acid synthesis costs in Arabidopsis thaliana under different light and carbon-source conditions.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Anne; Sajitz-Hermstein, Max; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Plants as sessile organisms cannot escape their environment and have to adapt to any changes in the availability of sunlight and nutrients. The quantification of synthesis costs of metabolites, in terms of consumed energy, is a prerequisite to understand trade-offs arising from energetic limitations. Here, we examine the energy consumption of amino acid synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. To quantify these costs in terms of the energy equivalent ATP, we introduce an improved cost measure based on flux balance analysis and apply it to three state-of-the-art metabolic reconstructions to ensure robust results. We present the first systematic in silico analysis of the effect of nitrogen supply (nitrate/ammonium) on individual amino acid synthesis costs as well as of the effect of photoautotrophic and heterotrophic growth conditions, integrating day/night-specific regulation. Our results identify nitrogen supply as a key determinant of amino acid costs, in agreement with experimental evidence. In addition, the association of the determined costs with experimentally observed growth patterns suggests that metabolite synthesis costs are involved in shaping regulation of plant growth. Finally, we find that simultaneous uptake of both nitrogen sources can lead to efficient utilization of energy source, which may be the result of evolutionary optimization.

  6. Effects of Varying Nitrogen Sources on Amino Acid Synthesis Costs in Arabidopsis thaliana under Different Light and Carbon-Source Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nikoloski, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Plants as sessile organisms cannot escape their environment and have to adapt to any changes in the availability of sunlight and nutrients. The quantification of synthesis costs of metabolites, in terms of consumed energy, is a prerequisite to understand trade-offs arising from energetic limitations. Here, we examine the energy consumption of amino acid synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. To quantify these costs in terms of the energy equivalent ATP, we introduce an improved cost measure based on flux balance analysis and apply it to three state-of-the-art metabolic reconstructions to ensure robust results. We present the first systematic in silico analysis of the effect of nitrogen supply (nitrate/ammonium) on individual amino acid synthesis costs as well as of the effect of photoautotrophic and heterotrophic growth conditions, integrating day/night-specific regulation. Our results identify nitrogen supply as a key determinant of amino acid costs, in agreement with experimental evidence. In addition, the association of the determined costs with experimentally observed growth patterns suggests that metabolite synthesis costs are involved in shaping regulation of plant growth. Finally, we find that simultaneous uptake of both nitrogen sources can lead to efficient utilization of energy source, which may be the result of evolutionary optimization. PMID:25706533

  7. Amino acids as possible alternative nitrogen source for growth of Euglena gracilis Z in life support systems.

    PubMed

    Richter, P R; Liu, Y; An, Y; Li, X; Nasir, A; Strauch, S M; Becker, I; Krüger, J; Schuster, M; Ntefidou, M; Daiker, V; Haag, F W M; Aiach, A; Lebert, M

    2015-01-01

    In recent times Euglena gracilis Z was employed as primary producer in closed environmental life-support system (CELSS), e.g. in space research. The photosynthetic unicellular flagellate is not capable of utilizing nitrate, nitrite, and urea as nitrogen source. Therefore, ammonium is supplied as an N-source in the lab (provided as diammonium-dihydrogenphosphate, (NH4)2HPO4) to E. gracilis cultures. While nitrate exerts low toxicity to organisms, ammonium is harmful for many aquatic organisms especially, at high pH-values, which causes the ionic NH4+ (low toxicity) to be partially transformed into the highly toxic ammonia, NH3. In earlier reports, Euglena gracilis was described to grow with various amino acids as sole N-source. Our aim was to investigate alternatives for (NH4)2HPO4 as N-source with lower toxicity for organisms co-cultivated with Euglena in a CELSS. The growth kinetics of Euglena gracilis cultures was determined in the presence of different amino acids (glycine, glutamine, glutamic acid, leucine, and threonine). In addition, uptake of those amino acids by the cells was measured. Cell growth in the presence of glycine and glutamine was quite comparable to the growth in (NH4)2HPO4 containing cultures while a delay in growth was observed in the presence of leucine and threonine. Unlike, aforementioned amino acids glutamate consumption was very poor. Cell density and glutamate concentration were almost unaltered throughout the experiment and the culture reached the stationary phase within 8 days. The data are compared with earlier studies in which utilization of amino acids in Euglena gracilis was investigated. All tested amino acids (glutamate with limitations) were found to have the potential of being an alternative N-source for Euglena gracilis. Hence, these amino acids can be used as a non-toxic surrogate for (NH4)2HPO4. Copyright © 2014 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids: co-occurrence of dietary sources with emphasis on fish and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Clickner, Robert P; Jeffries, Rebecca A

    2008-05-01

    Despite many claims of broad benefits, especially for in utero development, derived from the consumption of fish as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, individual species of fish and shellfish provide substantially varied levels of these fatty acids. Likewise, mean methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations for fish and shellfish species differ by greater than an order of magnitude. Consideration of within-species variability would increase this variation farther. Exposures to both MeHg and to the omega-3 fatty acids reflect dietary choices including species consumed, frequency of consumption, and portion size. In view of these sources of variability, data on dietary patterns and blood mercury (microg/L) among women of child-bearing age (e.g., 16-49 years) provided an indication of exposures in the United States. Utilizing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for survey years 1999--2002, calculated consumption of MeHg and omega-3 fatty acids from fish and shellfish have been estimated based on results from 3614 women who provided 30-day dietary recall and 24-hours records. Statistics from NHANES when appropriately weighted are representative of the US population. The association between dietary MeHg from fish and shellfish and dietary fish intake yielded a Pearson correlation of 0.68. The Pearson correlation between estimated 30-day intake from fish/shellfish consumption for omega-3 fatty acids and MeHg was 0.66. Evaluation of the most commonly consumed fish and shellfish species as sources of MeHg and omega-3 fatty acids indicated that salmon followed by shrimp are principal sources of omega-3 fatty acids and are lesser sources of MeHg, in contrast with tuna which provides omega-3 fatty acids, but considerably higher levels of MeHg. These data can be used to guide selection of individual fish and shellfish species that are higher in omega-3 content and low in MeHg concentrations. This more refined dietary approach contrasts with generic

  9. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of total carbon, dicarboxylic acids and glyoxylic acid in the tropical Indian aerosols: Implications for sources and photochemical processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuluri, Chandra Mouli; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Swaminathan, T.; Tachibana, Eri

    2011-09-01

    The tropical Indian aerosols (PM10) collected on day- and nighttime bases in winter and summer, 2007 from Chennai (13.04°N; 80.17°E) were studied for stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of total carbon (TC), individual dicarboxylic acids (C2-C9) and glyoxylic acid (ωC2). δ13C values of TC ranged from -23.9‰ to -25.9‰ (-25.0 ± 0.6‰; n = 49). Oxalic (C2) (-17.1 ± 2.5‰), malonic (C3) (-20.8 ± 1.8‰), succinic (C4) (-22.5 ± 1.5‰) and adipic (C6) (-20.6 ± 4.1‰) acids and ωC2 acid (-22.4 ± 5.5‰) were found to be more enriched with 13C compared to TC. In contrast, suberic (C8) (-29.4 ± 1.8‰), phthalic (Ph) (-30.1 ± 3.5‰) and azelaic (C9) (-28.4 ± 5.8‰) acids showed smaller δ13C values than TC. Based on comparisons of δ13C values of TC in Chennai aerosols to those (-24.7 ± 2.2‰) found in unburned cow-dung samples collected from Chennai and isotopic signatures of the particles emitted from point sources, we found that biofuel/biomass burning are the major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in South and Southeast Asia. The decrease in δ13C values of C9 diacid by about 5‰ from winter to summer suggests that tropical plant emissions also significantly contribute to organic aerosol in this region. Significant increase in δ13C values from C4 to C2 diacids in Chennai aerosols could be attributed for their photochemical processing in the tropical atmosphere during long-range transport from source regions.

  10. Stress-induced changes in optical properties, pigment and fatty acid content of Nannochloropsis sp.: implications for non-destructive assay of total fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Recht, Lee; Boussiba, Sammy

    2011-06-01

    In order to develop a practical approach for fast and non-destructive assay of total fatty acid (TFA) and pigments in the biomass of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis sp. changes in TFA, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents were monitored in parallel with the cell suspension absorbance. The experiments were conducted with the cultures grown under normal (complete nutrient f/2 medium at 75 μmol PAR photons/(m(2) s)) or stressful (nitrogen-lacking media at 350 μmol PAR photons/(m(2) s)) conditions. The reliable measurement of the cell suspension absorbance using a spectrophotometer without integrating sphere was achieved by deposition of cells on glass-fiber filters in the chlorophyll content range of 3-13 mg/L. Under stressful conditions, a 30-50% decline in biomass and chlorophyll, retention of carotenoids and a build-up of TFA (15-45 % of dry weight) were recorded. Spectral regions sensitive to widely ranging changes in carotenoid-to-chlorophyll ratio and correlated changes of TFA content were revealed. Employing the tight inter-correlation of stress-induced changes in lipid metabolism and rearrangement of the pigment apparatus, the spectral indices were constructed for non-destructive assessment of carotenoid-to-chlorophyll ratio (range 0.3-0.6; root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.03; r (2) = 0.93) as well as TFA content of Nannochloropsis sp. biomass (range 5.0-45%; RMSE = 3.23 %; r (2) = 0.89) in the broad band 400-550 nm normalized to that in chlorophyll absorption band (centered at 678 nm). The findings are discussed in the context of real-time monitoring of the TFA accumulation by Nannochloropsis cultures under stressful conditions.

  11. Reproducibility and validity of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire measuring dietary trans-fatty acids intake among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Eun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Compelling evidence indicates that consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few validated tools for TFA intake assessment are available in Korea. We aimed to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) estimating usual intake of TFA in Korean adults. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-two healthy adults completed an FFQ with a 3-day diet record (3DDR), and 58 completed a second FFQ at a 1-month interval. To assess the reproducibility of the FFQ, we compared estimated TFA intakes from each FFQ. To assess the validity, we compared estimates from the FFQ with those from the 3DDR. RESULTS The FFQ was reproducible (Spearman r = 0.71) and provided modest correlations with the 3DDR (Spearman r = 0.38). After adjustment for total energy intake, the correlations increased (r = 0.45). Measurement-error correction also de-attenuated the correlations (r = 0.57). When quintiles of the FFQ and 3DDR were joint-classified, 9% on average were misclassified into extreme quintiles. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that the developed FFQ is reproducible and reasonably valid in categorizing individuals according to TFA intakes among healthy young and middle aged adults in Korea. PMID:25671075

  12. Tracing the biosynthetic source of essential amino acids in marine turtles using delta13C fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Karen E; Kelez, Shaleyla; Larsen, Thomas; Choy, C Anela; Popp, Brian N

    2014-05-01

    Plants, bacteria, and fungi produce essential amino acids (EAAs) with distinctive patterns of delta13C values that can be used as naturally occurring fingerprints of biosynthetic origin of EAAs in a food web. Because animals cannot synthesize EAAs and must obtain them from food, their tissues reflect delta13C(EAA) patterns found in diet, but it is not known how microbes responsible for hindgut fermentation in some herbivores influence the delta13C values of EAAs in their hosts' tissues. We examined whether distinctive delta13C fingerprints of hindgut flora are evident in the tissues of green turtles (Chelonia mydas), which are known to be facultative hindgut fermenters. We determined delta13C(EAA) values in tissues of green turtles foraging herbivorously in neritic habitats of Hawaii and compared them with those from green, olive ridley, and loggerhead turtles foraging carnivorously in oceanic environments of the central and southeast Pacific Ocean. Results of multivariate statistical analysis revealed two distinct groups that could be distinguished based on unique delta13C(EAA) patterns. A three-end-member predictive linear discriminant model indicated that delta13C(EAA) fingerprints existed in the tissues of carnivorous turtles that resembled patterns found in microalgae, which form the base of an oceanic food web, whereas herbivorous turtles derive EAAs from a bacterial or seagrass source. This study demonstrates the capacity for delta13C fingerprinting to establish the biosynthetic origin of EAAs in higher consumers, and that marine turtles foraging on macroalgal diets appear to receive nutritional supplementation from bacterial symbionts in their digestive system.

  13. Dicarboxylic acids, ω-oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, EC, and inorganic ions in wintertime size-segregated aerosols from central India: Sources and formation processes.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay K; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Deb, Manas K

    2016-10-01

    The size distributions of aerosols can provide evidences for their sources and formation processes in the atmosphere. Size-segregated aerosols (9-sizes) were collected in urban site (Raipur: 21.2°N and 82.3°E) in central India during winter of 2012-2013. The samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12), ω-oxocarboxylic acids (ωC2-ωC9), pyruvic acid and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and inorganic ions. Diacids showed a predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by succinic and azelaic acid whereas ω-oxoacids exhibited a predominance of glyoxylic acid and glyoxal was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. Diacids, ω-oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls showed bimodal size distribution with peaks in fine and coarse modes. High correlations of fine mode diacids and related compounds with potassium and levoglucosan suggest that they were presumably due to a substantial contribution of primary emission from biomass burning and secondary production from biomass burning derived precursors. High correlations of C2 with higher carbon number diacids (C3-C9) suggest that they have similar sources and C2 may be produced via the decay of its higher homologous diacids in fine mode. Considerable portions of diacids and related compounds in coarse mode suggest that they were associated with mineral dust particles by their adsorption and photooxidation of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors via heterogeneous reaction on dust surface. This study demonstrates that biomass burning and dust particles are two major factors to control the size distribution of diacids and related compounds in the urban aerosols from central India.

  14. Source and reaction pathways of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and dicarbonyls in arctic aerosols: One year of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kasukabe, Hideki; Barrie, Leonard A.

    Normal saturated (C 2C 11) and unsaturated (C 4C 5, C 8) dicarboxylic acids were measured in arctic aerosol samples collected weekly at Alert, Canada in 1987-1988. In all seasons, oxalic (C 2) acid was usually the dominant diacid species (1.8-70 ng m -3, av. 14 ± 12 ng m -3) followed by malonic (C 3; 0.05-19 ng m -3, av. 2.5 ± 3.3 ng m -3) and succinic (C 4; 0.51-18 ng m -3, av. 3.8 ± 3.5 ng m -3) acids. The total concentrations of dicarboxylic acids showed a seasonal variation (4.3-97 ng m -3, av. 25 ± 20 ng m -3),with two maxima in September to October and in March to April. The autumn peak is characterized by high concentrations of oxalic acid and azelaic (C 9) acids, which were probably caused by enhanced contributions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, respectively, followed by photochemical reactions. This is consistent with higher concentrations of n-alkanes from terrestrial plant waxes and of soil-derived aluminum in the autumn aerosol samples. On the other hand, during "Arctic Sunrise" in March to April, oxalic, malonic and succinic acids as well as some other (C 5C 6) diacids were 5 to 20 times more abundant than in the preceding dark winter months, suggesting that diacids are produced in situ by secondary photochemical oxidation of organic pollutants carried to the Arctic. ω-Oxocarboxylic acids (C 2C 5, C 9), pyruvic acid and α-dicarbonyls (methylglyoxal and glyoxal) were also detected in the arctic aerosols. Their concentration also showed spring maxima; however, they were observed a few weeks earlier than the spring peak of diacids. The ω-oxoacids are likely intermediates to the production of α,ω-dicarboxylic acids at the polar sunrise.

  15. Wetlands serve as natural sources for improvement of stream ecosystem health in regions affected by acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Pound, Katrina L; Lawrence, Gregory B; Passy, Sophia I

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years, acid deposition has been recognized as a serious international environmental problem, but efforts to restore acidified streams and biota have had limited success. The need to better understand the effects of different sources of acidity on streams has become more pressing with the recent increases in surface water organic acids, or 'brownification,' associated with climate change and decreased inorganic acid deposition. Here, we carried out a large scale multi-seasonal investigation in the Adirondacks, one of the most acid-impacted regions in the United States, to assess how acid stream producers respond to local and watershed influences and whether these influences can be used in acidification remediation. We explored the pathways of wetland control on aluminum chemistry and diatom taxonomic and functional composition. We demonstrate that streams with larger watershed wetlands have higher organic content, lower concentrations of acidic anions, and lower ratios of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum, all beneficial for diatom biodiversity and guilds producing high biomass. Although brownification has been viewed as a form of pollution, our results indicate that it may be a stimulating force for biofilm producers with potentially positive consequences for higher trophic levels. Our research also reveals that the mechanism of watershed control of local stream diatom biodiversity through wetland export of organic matter is universal in running waters, operating not only in hard streams, as previously reported, but also in acid streams. Our findings that the negative impacts of acid deposition on Adirondack stream chemistry and biota can be mitigated by wetlands have important implications for biodiversity conservation and stream ecosystem management. Future acidification research should focus on the potential for wetlands to improve stream ecosystem health in acid-impacted regions and their direct use in stream restoration, for example, through

  16. Wetlands serve as natural sources for improvement of stream ecosystem health in regions affected by acid deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pound, Katrina L; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Passy, Sophia I.

    2013-01-01

    For over 40 years, acid deposition has been recognized as a serious international environmental problem, but efforts to restore acidified streams and biota have had limited success. The need to better understand the effects of different sources of acidity on streams has become more pressing with the recent increases in surface water organic acids, or 'brownification' associated with climate change and decreased inorganic acid deposition. Here, we carried out a large scale multi-seasonal investigation in the Adirondacks, one of the most acid-impacted regions in the United States, to assess how acid stream producers respond to local and watershed influences and whether these influences can be used in acidification remediation. We explored the pathways of wetland control on aluminum chemistry and diatom taxonomic and functional composition. We demonstrate that streams with larger watershed wetlands have higher organic content, lower concentrations of acidic anions, and lower ratios of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum, all beneficial for diatom biodiversity and guilds producing high biomass. Although brownification has been viewed as a form of pollution, our results indicate that it may be a stimulating force for biofilm producers with potentially positive consequences for higher trophic levels. Our research also reveals that the mechanism of watershed control of local stream diatom biodiversity through wetland export of organic matter is universal in running waters, operating not only in hard streams, as previously reported, but also in acid streams. Our findings that the negative impacts of acid deposition on Adirondack stream chemistry and biota can be mitigated by wetlands have important implications for biodiversity conservation and stream ecosystem management. Future acidification research should focus on the potential for wetlands to improve stream ecosystem health in acid-impacted regions and their direct use in stream restoration, for example, through

  17. Taenia crassiceps: fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy source in in vitro cysticerci exposed to anthelminthic drugs.

    PubMed

    Vinaud, Marina Clare; Ferreira, Cirlane Silva; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto

    2009-07-01

    Cysticerci metabolic studies demonstrate alternative pathways responsible for its survival, such as energy sources, fatty acids oxidation and excretion of beta-hydroxybutyrate, which indicates the capability of energy production from proteins. The aim of this study was to detect alternative metabolic pathways for energy production and its end products in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole, in sub-lethal doses. Spectrophotometer and chromatographic analysis were performed to detect: propionate, acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, urea and creatinine, SE by cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole. The drugs influenced the metabolism by inducing the creatinine phosphate phosphorylation as an alternative energy source, inhibiting the use of proteins and amino acids in the acid nucleic synthesis; and preventing the budding and replication of the cysticerci. This study also highlights the description of urea excretion, which is an important metabolic pathway to excrete toxic products such as ammonia, and the fatty acid oxidation as an alternative energy source in cysticerci exposed to anthelmintic drugs.

  18. Green synthesis of bacterial cellulose via acetic acid pre-hydrolysis liquor of agricultural corn stalk used as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zheng; Yang, Rendang; Liu, Xu; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Hua

    2017-06-01

    Herein, bacterial cellulose (BC) was synthesized by acetobacter xylinum via organic acid pre-hydrolysis liquor of agricultural corn stalk used as carbon source. Acetic acid was applied to pretreat the corn stalk, then, the prehydrolysate was detoxified by sequential steps of activated carbon and ion exchange resin treatment prior to use as carbon source to cultivate acetobacter xylinum. Moreover, the recovery of acetic acid was achieved for facilitating the reduction of cost. The results revealed that the combination method of detoxification treatment was very effective for synthesis of BC, yield could be up to 2.86g/L. SEM analysis showed that the diameter size of BC between 20 and 70mm. In summary, the process that bacterial cellulose was biosynthesized via prehydrolysate from agricultural corn stalk used as carbon source is feasible, and the ability to recover organic acid make it economical, sustainable and green, which fits well into the biorefinery concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Purslane Weed (Portulaca oleracea): A Prospective Plant Source of Nutrition, Omega-3 Fatty Acid, and Antioxidant Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hossain, Md Sabir; Nahar, Most. Altaf Un; Ali, Md. Eaqub; Rahman, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an important plant naturally found as a weed in field crops and lawns. Purslane is widely distributed around the globe and is popular as a potherb in many areas of Europe, Asia, and the Mediterranean region. This plant possesses mucilaginous substances which are of medicinal importance. It is a rich source of potassium (494 mg/100 g) followed by magnesium (68 mg/100 g) and calcium (65 mg/100 g) and possesses the potential to be used as vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acid. It is very good source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and gamma-linolenic acid (LNA, 18 : 3 w3) (4 mg/g fresh weight) of any green leafy vegetable. It contained the highest amount (22.2 mg and 130 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.) of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid (26.6 mg and 506 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.). The oxalate content of purslane leaves was reported as 671–869 mg/100 g fresh weight. The antioxidant content and nutritional value of purslane are important for human consumption. It revealed tremendous nutritional potential and has indicated the potential use of this herb for the future. PMID:24683365

  20. Is biodegradation of bitumen a source of recalcitrant naphthenic acid mixtures in oil sands tailing pond waters?

    PubMed

    Quagraine, E K; Headley, J V; Peterson, H G

    2005-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are transient metabolites during the mineralization of petroleum hydrocarbons. Crude oils, however, vary in their proportion of the hydrocarbon components. Depending on structure, some carboxylic acid metabolites resist further biodegradation and persist in aquatic systems. During the extraction of oil sands bitumen, recalcitrant carboxylic acid mixtures, collectively referred to as naphthenic acids (NAs), are released into the wastewaters. These waters also contain unrecovered bitumen from the oil sands. The unextracted bitumen is often overlooked as a possible source of the petroleum acids. The present article discusses the literature data on the biotransformation of hydrocarbons in bitumen from oil sands to the corresponding petroleum carboxylic acids. Some insight is given on the mechanism of the biodegradation process. The susceptibility to biodegradation is affected by differences in alicyclic carboxylic acids such as carbon chain length, chain branching, and the oddness or evenness of carbon chain containing the carboxylic group, positions where alkyl groups are substituted on the cyclic ring, geometrical isomerism, and number of cyclic rings.

  1. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid changes belly and bacon quality from pigs fed varied lipid sources.

    PubMed

    Larsen, S T; Wiegand, B R; Parrish, F C; Swan, J E; Sparks, J C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary lipid source with or without the addition of CLA on bacon composition and quality. Forty-eight barrows at a beginning BW of 55 kg +/- 2.2 were fed 1 of 6 diets for 56 d. These diets consisted of: 1) normal corn (NC), 2) NC + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (NC + CLA), 3) high-oil corn (HOC), 4) HOC + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (HOC-CLA), 5) NC + choice white grease (CWG; NC + CWG), and 6) NC + CWG + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (NC + CWG + CLA). The CLA-60 contains 60% CLA isomers in the oil, and therefore, 1.25% oil was needed to achieve 0.75% CLA in the diet. Soy oil replaced CLA in control diets. Choice white grease and high-oil corn were selected as fat sources for this study because of their utility in energy density for growing-finishing pigs, especially in hot weather. Pigs were slaughtered at an average BW of 113 kg +/- 4.1, and carcasses were fabricated at 24 h postmortem. Statistical analysis was performed using the mixed model procedure of SAS, and the main effects tested were dietary lipid source, CLA, and 2-way interaction. The addition of CLA to each basal diet improved (P < 0.05) belly firmness measured either lean side down or fat side down from the belly bar firmness test [4.39 cm vs. 7.01 cm (lean down) and 5.75 cm vs. 10.54 cm (fat down)] for 0 and 0.75% dietary CLA, respectively. The compression test used on bacon slabs showed that bacon from CLA-supplemented pigs was approximately 20% firmer than that from controls. Pigs fed the HOC diets had softer bellies compared (P < 0.05) with pigs fed the NC diet as measured by the belly bar test [6.94 cm vs. 9.26 cm (fat down)], respectively. Conjugated linoleic acid did not, however, improve bacon sliceability. No differences were observed for moisture, protein, or lipid percentages between any treatments. Overall, there was a CLA effect (P < 0.04) for lipid oxidation, in which the addition of CLA decreased bacon oxidation (0.1498 CLA vs. 0.1638 no CLA). Dietary CLA

  2. Investigating acid-induced structural transitions of lysozyme in an electrospray ionization source.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Wha; Kim, Hugh I

    2015-01-21

    The effect of acids on the structure of lysozyme (Lyz) during electrospray ionization (ESI) was studied by comparing the solution and gas-phase structures of Lyz. Investigation using circular dichroism spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering demonstrated that the folded conformation of Lyz was maintained in pH 2.2 solutions containing different acids. On the other hand, analysis of the charge state distributions and ion mobility (IM) distributions, combined with molecular dynamics simulations, demonstrated that the gas phase structures of Lyz depend on the pKa of the acid used to acidify the protein solution. Formic acid and acetic acid, which are weak acids (pKa > 3.5), induce unfolding of Lyz during ESI, presumably because the undissociated weak acids provide protons to maintain the acidic groups within Lyz protonated and prevent the formation of salt bridges. However, HCl suppressed the formation of the unfolded conformers because the acid is already dissociated in solution, and chloride anions within the ESI droplet can interact with Lyz to reduce the intramolecular electrostatic repulsion. These trends in the IM distributions are observed for all charge states, demonstrating the significance of the acid effect on the structure of Lyz during ESI.

  3. Improved Phenoldisulfonic Acid Method for Determination of NOx from Stationary Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Herman H.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes several sources of error in a sampling and analysis procedure for oxides of nitrogen from stationary sources (Method 7, Federal Register, 1971), and provides methods for resolving these errors. (JR)

  4. Improved Phenoldisulfonic Acid Method for Determination of NOx from Stationary Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Herman H.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes several sources of error in a sampling and analysis procedure for oxides of nitrogen from stationary sources (Method 7, Federal Register, 1971), and provides methods for resolving these errors. (JR)

  5. Effects of different dietary lipid sources on growth performance and tissue fatty acid composition of juvenile swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Wang, Jiteng; Hu, Shuixin; Li, Xinyu; Jiang, Yudong; Wang, Chunlin

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on the growth performance and fatty acid composition of the swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets were formulated to contain four separate lipid sources, including fish, soybean, rapeseed, and linseed oils (FO, SO, RO, and LO, respectively). With three replicates of 18 crabs each for each diet, crabs (initial body weight, 17.00±0.09 g) were fed twice daily for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences among these groups in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate, and hepatosomatic index. However, the RO groups' survival rate was significantly lower than FO groups. The feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios of RO groups were poorer than other groups. The proximate compositions of whole body and hepatopancreas were significantly affected by these dietary treatments. Tissue fatty acid composition mainly reflected dietary fatty acid compositions. Crabs fed FO diets exhibited significantly higher arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acid contents in muscle and hepatopancreas compared with VO crabs. Linoleic, oleic, and linolenic acids in muscle and hepatopancreas were the highest in the SO, RO, and LO groups, respectively. The present study suggested that SO and LO could substitute for FO in fishmeal-based diets for swimming crabs, without affecting growth performance and survival.

  6. Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids intake and dietary sources in a representative sample of Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; Aparicio, Aránzazu; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Ortega, Rosa M

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes the intake of omega 3 (n-3 PUFAs) and omega 6 (n-6 PUFAs) and dietary sources in a representative sample of Spanish adults. For this purpose 418 adults (18 - 60 y), from 15 Spanish provinces were studied. The intake of energy and nutrients [specifically, the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs,) α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); and the n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid (LA)] was determined using a 24-hour recall questionnaire for two days. The Multiple Source Method (MSM) was used to estimate participants’ usual fatty acid intake. The total n-3 PUFAs intake was 1.8 ± 0.60 g/day (ALA: 1.3 ± 0.32, EPA: 0.16 ± 0.14, and DHA: 0.33 ± 0.21 g/day) and n-6 PUFA intake was 11.0 ± 2.7 g/day (LA: 10.8 ± 2.7 g/day). A high proportion of participants did not meet their nutrient intake goals for total n-3 PUFAs (84.7 %), ALA (45.0 %), and EPA plus DHA (62.9 %). The main food sources for ALA were oil, dairy products, and meat; for EPA fish; for DHA, fish, eggs, and meat; and for LA, oils, meat, and cereals. Therefore, an increase in the intake of foods rich in n-3 PUFAs or the use of supplements with n-3 PUFAs might help to improve the n-3 PUFA intake.

  7. Protein turnover, amino acid profile and amino acid flux in juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: effects of dietary protein source.

    PubMed

    Mente, Eleni; Coutteau, Peter; Houlihan, Dominic; Davidson, Ian; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2002-10-01

    The effect of dietary protein on protein synthesis and growth of juvenile shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated using three different diets with equivalent protein content. Protein synthesis was investigated by a flooding dose of tritiated phenylalanine. Survival, specific growth and protein synthesis rates were higher, and protein degradation was lower, in shrimps fed a fish/squid/shrimp meal diet, or a 50% laboratory diet/50% soybean meal variant diet, than in those fed a casein-based diet. The efficiency of retention of synthesized protein as growth was 94% for shrimps fed the fish meal diet, suggesting a very low protein turnover rate; by contrast, the retention of synthesized protein was only 80% for shrimps fed the casein diet. The amino acid profile of the casein diet was poorly correlated with that of the shrimps. 4 h after a single meal the protein synthesis rates increased following an increase in RNA activity. A model was developed for amino acid flux, suggesting that high growth rates involve a reduction in the turnover of proteins, while amino acid loss appears to be high.

  8. Intake of ruminant trans-fatty acids, assessed by diet history interview, and changes in measured body size, shape and composition.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Camilla P; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2016-02-01

    Studies have suggested that total intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is positively associated with changes in body weight and waist circumference, whereas intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products (R-TFA) has not been associated with weight gain. However, these previous studies are limited by self-reported measures of body weight and waist circumference or by a cross-sectional design. The objective of the present study was to investigate if R-TFA intake was associated with subsequent changes in anthropometry (body weight, waist and hip circumference) measured by technicians and body composition (body fat percentage). A 6-year follow-up study. Information on dietary intake was collected through diet history interviews, and anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements were obtained by trained technicians at baseline (1987-1988) and at follow-up (1993-1994). Multiple regression with cubic spline modelling was used to analyse the data. Copenhagen County, Denmark. Two hundred and sixty-seven men and women aged 35-65 years from the Danish MONICA (MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular diseases) cohort. The median R-TFA intake was 1.3 g/d (5th, 95th percentile: 0.4, 2.7 g/d) or 0.6% of the total energy intake (5th, 95th percentile: 0.2, 1.1%). No significant associations were observed between R-TFA intake and changes in body weight, waist and hip circumference or body fat percentage. R-TFA intake within the range present in the Danish population was not significantly associated with subsequent changes in body size, shape or composition and the 95% confidence intervals indicate that any relevant associations are unlikely to have produced these observations.

  9. Solubility of acetic acid and trifluoroacetic acid in low-temperature (207-245 k) sulfuric acid solutions: implications for the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mads P Sulbaek; Axson, Jessica L; Michelsen, Rebecca R H; Nielsen, Ole John; Iraci, Laura T

    2011-05-05

    The solubility of gas-phase acetic acid (CH(3)COOH, HAc) and trifluoroacetic acid (CF(3)COOH, TFA) in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions was measured in a Knudsen cell reactor over ranges of temperature (207-245 K) and acid composition (40-75 wt %, H(2)SO(4)). For both HAc and TFA, the effective Henry's law coefficient, H*, is inversely dependent on temperature. Measured values of H* for TFA range from 1.7 × 10(3) M atm(-1) in 75.0 wt % H(2)SO(4) at 242.5 K to 3.6 × 10(8) M atm(-1) in 40.7 wt % H(2)SO(4) at 207.8 K. Measured values of H* for HAc range from 2.2 × 10(5) M atm(-1) in 57.8 wt % H(2)SO(4) at 245.0 K to 3.8 × 10(8) M atm(-1) in 74.4 wt % H(2)SO(4) at 219.6 K. The solubility of HAc increases with increasing H(2)SO(4) concentration and is higher in strong sulfuric acid than in water. In contrast, the solubility of TFA decreases with increasing sulfuric acid concentration. The equilibrium concentration of HAc in UT/LS aerosol particles is estimated from our measurements and is found to be up to several orders of magnitude higher than those determined for common alcohols and small carbonyl compounds. On the basis of our measured solubility, we determine that HAc in the upper troposphere undergoes aerosol partitioning, though the role of H(2)SO(4) aerosol particles as a sink for HAc in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere will only be discernible under high atmospheric sulfate perturbations.

  10. Corchorus Olitorius Linn: A Rich Source of Ω3-Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, AS; Thao, N; Mario, A

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids composition of Corchorus olitorius Linn were identified as their methyl esters using accurate mass gas chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (GCQTOF) in chemical ionization (CI) and electron ionization (EI) modes. The leaves which are the edible part of the plant were found to be very rich in ω3-octadecatriene fatty acid reaching up to more than 49 % of the total fatty acids contents. This is the first report to unequivocally detect ω-3 fatty acid in Corchorus olitorius Linn with a much higher concentration than any other reported vegetable and further investigation into its health effects are clearly warranted. PMID:27722021

  11. HCN - A plausible source of purines, pyrimidines and amino acids on the primitive earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J.-P.; Joshi, P. C.; Edelson, E. H.; Lawless, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Dilute (0.1 M) solutions of HCN condense to oligomers at pH 9.2, and hydrolysis of these oligomers yields 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine, orotic acid, 5-hydroxyuracil, adenine, 4-aminoimidazole-5-carboxamide, and amino acids. It is suggested that the three main classes of nitrogen-containing biomolecules - purines, pyrimidines, and amino acids may have originated from HCN on the primitive earth. It is also suggested that the presence of orotic acid and 4-aminoimidazole-5-carboxamide might indicate that contemporary biosynthetic pathways for nucleotides evolved from the compounds released on hydrolysis of HCN oligomers.

  12. HCN - A plausible source of purines, pyrimidines and amino acids on the primitive earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J.-P.; Joshi, P. C.; Edelson, E. H.; Lawless, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Dilute (0.1 M) solutions of HCN condense to oligomers at pH 9.2, and hydrolysis of these oligomers yields 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine, orotic acid, 5-hydroxyuracil, adenine, 4-aminoimidazole-5-carboxamide, and amino acids. It is suggested that the three main classes of nitrogen-containing biomolecules - purines, pyrimidines, and amino acids may have originated from HCN on the primitive earth. It is also suggested that the presence of orotic acid and 4-aminoimidazole-5-carboxamide might indicate that contemporary biosynthetic pathways for nucleotides evolved from the compounds released on hydrolysis of HCN oligomers.

  13. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids metabolism pathways in the body of pigs fed diets with different sources of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Grzegorz; Poławska, Ewa; Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława; Weremko, Dagmara

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out on 24 gilts (♀ Polish Large White × ♂ Danish Landrace) grown with body weight (BW) of 60 to 105 kg. The pigs were fed diets designed on the basis of a standard diet (appropriate for age and BW of pigs) where a part of the energy content was replaced by different fat supplements: linseed oil in Diet L, rapeseed oil in Diet R and fish oil in Diet F (6 gilts per dietary treatment). The fat supplements were sources of specific fatty acids (FA): in Diet L α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA); in Diet R linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6, LA) and in Diet F eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-3, DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). The protein, fat and total FA contents in the body did not differ among groups of pigs. The enhanced total intake of LA and ALA by pigs caused an increased deposition of these FA in the body (p < 0.01) and an increased potential body pool of these acids for further metabolism/conversions. The conversion efficiency of LA and ALA from the feed to the pig's body differed among groups (p < 0.01) and ranged from 64.4% to 67.2% and from 69.4% to 81.7%, respectively. In Groups L and R, the level of de novo synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated FA was higher than in Group F. From the results, it can be concluded that the efficiency of deposition is greater for omega-3 FA than for omega-6 FA and depends on their dietary amount. The level of LA and ALA intake influences not only their deposition in the body but also the end products of the omega-3 and omega-6 pathways.

  14. Linking ascorbic acid production in Ribes nigrum with fruit development and changes in sources and sinks

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Christopher J.; Davies, Michael J.; Taylor, June M.; Longbottom, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Understanding the synthesis of ascorbic acid (l-AsA) in green tissues in model species has advanced considerably; here we focus on its production and accumulation in fruit. In particular, our aim is to understand the links between organs which may be sources of l-AsA (leaves) and those which accumulate it (fruits). The work presented here tests the idea that changes in leaf and fruit number influence the accumulation of l-AsA. The aim was to understand the importance of leaf tissue in the production of l-AsA and to determine how this might provide routes for the manipulation of fruit tissue l-AsA. Methods The experiments used Ribes nigrum (blackcurrant), predominantly in field experiments, where the source–sink relationship was manipulated to alter potential leaf l-AsA production and fruit growth and accumulation of l-AsA. These manipulations included reductions in reproductive capacity, by raceme removal, and the availability of assimilates by leaf removal and branch phloem girdling. Natural variation in fruit growth and fruit abscission is also described as this influences subsequent experimental design and the interpretation of l-AsA data. Key Results Results show that fruit l-AsA concentration is conserved but total yield of l-AsA per plant is dependent on a number of innate factors many of which relate to raceme attributes. Leaf removal and phloem girdling reduced fruit weight, and a combination of both reduced fruit yields further. It appears that around 50 % of assimilates utilized for fruit growth came from apical leaves, while between 20 and 30 % came from raceme leaves, with the remainder from ‘storage’. Conclusions Despite being able to manipulate leaf area and therefore assimilate availability and stored carbohydrates, along with fruit yields, rarely were effects on fruit l-AsA concentration seen, indicating fruit l-AsA production in Ribes was not directly coupled to assimilate supply. There was no supporting evidence that l

  15. Acid Rain: Federal Policy Action 1983-1985. A Guide to Government Documents and Commercial Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovenburg, Susan, Comp.

    The problems associated with acid rain as well as strategies on what to do and how to do it are addressed in this resource guide. The first section identifies and describes the U.S. agencies and congressional committees which play a role in acid rain research, legislation, and regulation. Actions already taken by the executive and legislative…

  16. Acid Rain: Federal Policy Action 1983-1985. A Guide to Government Documents and Commercial Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovenburg, Susan, Comp.

    The problems associated with acid rain as well as strategies on what to do and how to do it are addressed in this resource guide. The first section identifies and describes the U.S. agencies and congressional committees which play a role in acid rain research, legislation, and regulation. Actions already taken by the executive and legislative…

  17. Biodiesel Derived from a Source Enriched in Palmitoleic Acid, Macadamia Nut Oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel commonly produced from commodity vegetable oils such as palm, rapeseeed (canola) and soybean. These oils generally have fatty acid profiles that vary within the range of C16 and C18 fatty acids. Thus, the biodiesel fuels derived from these oils possess the c...

  18. Size distribution of acidic sulfate ions in fine ambient particulate matter and assessment of source region effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazi, Y.; Heikkinen, M. S. A.; Cohen, B. S.

    Human exposure studies strongly suggested that the fine fraction of ambient particulate matter (PM) and its associated acidic sulfates are closely correlated with observed adverse health effects. Acidic sulfates are the products of atmospheric sulfur dioxide oxidation and neutralization processes. Few data are available on the amount and size distribution of acidic sulfates within the fine fraction of ambient PM. Knowledge of this distribution will help to understand their toxic mechanisms in the human respiratory tract. The goals of this research were: (1) to measure the size distribution of hydrogen ion, sulfate, and ammonium within the fine fraction of the ambient aerosol in air masses originating from different source regions; and (2) to examine the effect of the source region and the seasons on the sampled PM composition. Six size fractions within the fine ambient PM were collected using a micro-orifice impactor. Results from 30 sampling sessions demonstrated that higher total concentrations of these three ions were observed during the warm months than during the cold months of the year. Size distribution results show that the midpoint diameter of the fraction of particles with the largest fraction of hydrogen, sulfate and ammonium ions was 0.38 μm. Although most of the mass containing hydrogen and sulfate ions was measured in the fraction of particles with 0.38 μm midpoint diameter, the ultrafine fraction (<0.1 μm) was found to be more acidic. Ambient ion concentrations varied between sampling sessions and seasons, but the overall size distribution profiles are similar. Air mass back trajectories were used to identify the source region of the sampled aerosols. No apparent source region effect was observed in terms of the distribution profile of the ions. However, samples collected from air masses that originated from, or passed over, high sulfur dioxide emission areas demonstrated higher concentrations of the different ions.

  19. Fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation of soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, fed different dietary lipid sources.

    PubMed

    Lin, Way-Yee; Huang, Chen-Huei

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) were fed 7 diets containing 8% of lard, soybean oil, olive oil, menhaden fish oil, or mixtures of 1 to 1 ratio of fish oil and lard, soybean oil, olive oil for 10 weeks. Growth and muscle proximate compositions of the turtles were not affected by different dietary treatments (p>0.05). Fatty acid profiles in muscle polar lipids, muscle non-polar lipids, and liver polar lipids reflected the fatty acid composition of dietary lipid source. Turtles fed diets containing fish oil generally contained significantly higher (p<0.05) proportion of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in both polar and non-polar lipids of muscle and polar fraction of liver lipids than those fed other oils. Non-polar fraction of liver lipids from all groups of turtles contained less than 1% of HUFA. All turtles contained relatively high proportions of oleic acid in their lipids regardless of the dietary lipid source. Further, lipid peroxidation in both muscle tissue and liver microsomes of turtles fed fish oil as the sole lipid source was greater (p<0.05) than those fed fish oil-free diets. Turtles fed olive oil as the sole lipid source had the lowest lipid peroxidation rate among all dietary groups. The results indicate that dietary n-3 HUFA may not be crucial for optimal growth of soft-shelled turtles although they may be used for metabolic purpose. Further, high level of dietary HUFA not only increases the HUFA content in turtle tissues, but also enhances the susceptibility of these tissues to lipid peroxidation.

  20. MALDI post-source decay and LIFT-TOF/TOF investigation of alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid cluster interferences.

    PubMed

    Neubert, Hendrik; Halket, John M; Fernandez Ocaña, Mireia; Patel, Raj K P

    2004-03-01

    Large signals from alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) matrix complexes with sodium and potassium ions were found to interfere with sensitive matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) analysis of a hydrochloric acid digest of gelatine preparations. The nature of some selected matrix clusters was investigated by conventional post-source decay and LIFT-TOF/TOF experiments. The matrix clusters fragmented readily by neutral evaporation to give smaller sized matrix cluster species without matrix disintegration. Their characterization distinguished them from peptide signals, in particular from those that had the same nominal mass and differed only in the fractional part of the mass as encountered for gelatine-derived peptides. Knowledge of the molecular composition of these cluster species allowed using them for internal calibration of the MALDI mass spectra. The hydrolytic peptides could be analyzed with increased sensitivity when using 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (DHB) as the MALDI matrix.

  1. Nitrate content, amino acid composition and growth of yellow birch seedlings in response to light and nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Margolis, H A; Vézina, L P

    1988-09-01

    Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) seedlings were grown for three months in a greenhouse at two radiant flux densities-full light (FL) and 50% shade (LL)-and with three nitrogen sources- ammonium only (NH(4) (+)), nitrate only (NO(3) (-)) and a 1:1 mixture of ammonium and nitrate (NH(4) (+)/NO(3) (-))-in a completely randomized factorial design. The total biomass of seedlings grown under low light (LL) did not vary significantly with nitrogen source; although NO(3) (-)-treated seedlings were smaller and had a significantly lower (P acid profiles were affected by nitrogen source but were not affected by radiant flux density. When NH(4) (+)-N was absent from the nutrient solution, the percentage of NH(2)-N carried in the xylem sap decreased for aspartic acid but increased for alanine and glycine. The results indicate that it is the initial reduction of NO(3) (-) in roots, rather than the later stages of amino acid synthesis, that is limited by light in yellow birch seedlings.

  2. Acid rock drainage and rock weathering in Antarctica: important sources for iron cycling in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Dold, B; Gonzalez-Toril, E; Aguilera, A; Lopez-Pamo, E; Cisternas, M E; Bucchi, F; Amils, R

    2013-06-18

    Here we describe biogeochemical processes that lead to the generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and rock weathering on the Antarctic landmass and describe why they are important sources of iron into the Antarctic Ocean. During three expeditions, 2009-2011, we examined three sites on the South Shetland Islands in Antarctica. Two of them displayed intensive sulfide mineralization and generated acidic (pH 3.2-4.5), iron-rich drainage waters (up to 1.78 mM Fe), which infiltrated as groundwater (as Fe(2+)) and as superficial runoff (as Fe(3+)) into the sea, the latter with the formation of schwertmannite in the sea-ice. The formation of ARD in the Antarctic was catalyzed by acid mine drainage microorganisms found in cold climates, including Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Thiobacillus plumbophilus. The dissolved iron (DFe) flux from rock weathering (nonmineralized control site) was calculated to be 0.45 × 10(9) g DFe yr(-1) for the nowadays 5468 km of ice-free Antarctic rock coastline which is of the same order of magnitude as glacial or aeolian input to the Southern Ocean. Additionally, the two ARD sites alone liberate 0.026 and 0.057 × 10(9) g DFe yr(-1) as point sources to the sea. The increased iron input correlates with increased phytoplankton production close to the source. This might even be enhanced in the future by a global warming scenario, and could be a process counterbalancing global warming.

  3. The Mismatch between Students' Mental Models of Acids/Bases and their Sources and their Teacher's Anticipations thereof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Wen; Chiu, Mei-Hung

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the characteristics and sources of students' mental models of acids and bases with a teacher's anticipations and, based on this comparison, to explore some possible explanations why motivated students might fail to learn from a subject-knowledgeable chemistry teacher. The study involves a chemistry teacher and her 38 ninth graders and focuses on the mental models of three high achievers and three low achievers who were interviewed in depth. Four students' mental models of acid and base are identified. The mental models and sources of students' conceptions of acids and bases that influenced the high achievers are compared to those of the low achievers. We find that the teacher in the study made accurate anticipations of her students' mental models in the case of the high achievers but inaccurate anticipations of the low-achievers' mental models and the diverse sources influencing their mental models. In addition, the teacher incorrectly attributed the poor achievement of the low-achieving students to their intuition and underestimated the effects of her teaching on the achievement of these students. As a result, the teacher's instruction reinforced the low-achievers' incorrect mental models. Finally, the different approaches for teaching students with different achievements are emphasized according to the empirical data in this study.

  4. Characterization and authentication of a novel vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids, sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Natalie E; Hatta-Sakoda, Beatriz; Pascual-Chagman, Gloria; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2012-09-15

    Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3's), whether from fish oils, flax or supplements, can protect against cardiovascular disease. Finding plant-based sources of the essential ω-3's could provide a sustainable, renewable and inexpensive source of ω-3's, compared to fish oils. Our objective was to develop a rapid test to characterize and detect adulteration in sacha inchi oils, a Peruvian seed containing higher levels of ω-3's in comparison to other oleaginous seeds. A temperature-controlled ZnSe ATR mid-infrared benchtop and diamond ATR mid-infrared portable handheld spectrometers were used to characterize sacha inchi oil and evaluate its oxidative stability compared to commercial oils. A soft independent model of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) analyzed the spectral data. Fatty acid profiles showed that sacha inchi oil (44% linolenic acid) had levels of PUFA similar to those of flax oils. PLSR showed good correlation coefficients (R(2)>0.9) between reference tests and spectra from infrared devices, allowing for rapid determination of fatty acid composition and prediction of oxidative stability. Oils formed distinct clusters, allowing the evaluation of commercial sacha inchi oils from Peruvian markets and showed some prevalence of adulteration. Determining oil adulteration and quality parameters, by using the ATR-MIR portable handheld spectrometer, allowed for portability and ease-of-use, making it a great alternative to traditional testing methods.

  5. Neuraminidase inhibition of Dietary chlorogenic acids and derivatives - potential antivirals from dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Gamaleldin Elsadig Karar, Mohamed; Matei, Marius-Febi; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Illenberger, Susanne; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    Plants rich in chlorogenic acids (CGAs), caffeic acids and their derivatives have been found to exert antiviral effects against influenza virus neuroaminidase. In this study several dietary naturally occurring chlorogenic acids, phenolic acids and derivatives were screened for their inhibitory activity against neuroaminidases (NAs) from C. perfringens, H5N1 and recombinant H5N1 (N-His)-Tag using a fluorometric assay. There was no significant difference in inhibition between the different NA enzymes. The enzyme inhibition results indicated that chlorogenic acids and selected derivatives, exhibited high activities against NAs. It seems that the catechol group from caffeic acid was important for the activity. Dietary CGA therefore show promise as potential antiviral agents. However, caffeoyl quinic acids show low bioavailibility and are intensly metabolized by the gut micro flora, only low nM concentrations are observed in plasma and urine, therefore a systemic antiviral effect of these compounds is unlikely. Nevertheless, gut floral metabolites with a catechol moiety or structurally related dietary phenolics with a catechol moiety might serve as interesting compounds for future investigations.

  6. Prominent bacterial heterotrophy and sources of 13C-depleted fatty acids to the interior Canada Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S. R.; Griffith, D. R.; Galy, V.; McNichol, A. P.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2013-04-01

    In recent decades, the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean has experienced rapidly decreasing summer sea ice coverage and freshening of surface waters. It is unclear how these changes translate to depth, particularly as our baseline understanding of organic carbon cycling in the deep basin is limited. In this study, we describe full-depth profiles of the abundance, distribution and carbon isotopic composition of fatty acids from suspended particulate matter at a seasonally ice-free station and a semi-permanently ice-covered station. Fatty acids, along with suspended particulate organic carbon (POC), are more concentrated under ice cover than in ice-free waters. But this influence, apparent at 50 m depth, does not propagate downward below 150 m depth, likely due to the weak biological pump in the central Canada Basin. Branched fatty acids have δ13C values that are similar to suspended POC at all depths and are 13C-enriched compared to even-numbered saturated fatty acids at depths above 3000 m. These are likely to be produced in situ by heterotrophic bacteria incorporating organic carbon that is isotopically similar to total suspended POC. A source of saturated even-numbered fatty acids is also suggested below surface waters which could represent contributions from laterally advected organic carbon or from chemoautotrophic bacteria. At 3000 m depth and below, a greater relative abundance of long-chain (C20-24), branched and unsaturated fatty acids is consistent with a stronger influence of re-suspended sedimentary organic carbon on benthic particulate matter. At these deep depths, two individual fatty acids (C12 and iso-C17) are significantly depleted in 13C, allowing for the possibility that methane oxidizing bacteria contribute fatty acids, either directly to suspended particulate matter or to shallow sediments that are subsequently mobilized and incorporated into suspended particulate matter within the deep basin.

  7. Prominent bacterial heterotrophy and sources of 13C-depleted fatty acids to the interior Canada Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S. R.; Griffith, D. R.; Galy, V.; McNichol, A. P.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2013-11-01

    In recent decades, the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean has experienced rapidly decreasing summer sea ice coverage and freshening of surface waters. It is unclear how these changes translate to deeper waters, particularly as our baseline understanding of organic carbon cycling in the deep basin is quite limited. In this study, we describe full-depth profiles of the abundance, distribution and carbon isotopic composition of fatty acids from suspended particulate matter at a seasonally ice-free station and a semi-permanently ice-covered station. Fatty acids, along with suspended particulate organic carbon (POC), are more concentrated and 13C-enriched under ice cover than in ice-free waters. But this influence, apparent at 50 m depth, does not propagate downward below 150 m depth, likely due to the weak biological pump in the central Canada Basin. Branched fatty acids have δ13C values that are similar to suspended POC at all depths and are more 13C-enriched than even-numbered saturated fatty acids at depths above 3000 m. These are likely to be produced in situ by heterotrophic bacteria incorporating organic carbon that is isotopically similar to total suspended POC. Below surface waters, there is also the suggestion of a source of saturated even-numbered fatty acids which could represent contributions from laterally advected organic carbon and/or from chemoautotrophic bacteria. At 3000 m depth and below, a greater relative abundance of long-chain (C20-24), branched and unsaturated fatty acids is consistent with a stronger influence of re-suspended sedimentary organic carbon. At these deep depths, two individual fatty acids (C12 and iso-C17) are significantly depleted in 13C, allowing for the possibility that methane oxidizing bacteria contribute fatty acids, either directly to suspended particulate matter or to shallow sediments that are subsequently mobilized and incorporated into suspended particulate matter within the deep basin.

  8. Concentrations and patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids in Georgia, USA surface waters near and distant to a major use source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konwick, B.J.; Tomy, G.T.; Ismail, N.; Peterson, J.T.; Fauver, R.J.; Higginbotham, D.; Fisk, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widespread contaminants emanating from, among other sources, the production/degradation of fluorinated chemicals used in surface repellant applications, such as carpet manufacturing. The goal of the present study was to assess the concentrations of PFAAs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), in surface waters both near a wastewater land application system (LAS) in Dalton (GA, USA), home to North America's largest carpet manufacturing site, and distant to this location (Altamaha River, GA, USA) to understand the fate of PFAAs in freshwater. Levels of PFAAs were high in the Conasauga River (GA, USA) downstream of the LAS (PFOA, 253-1,150 ng/L; PFOS, 192-318 ng/L; PFNA, 202-369 ng/L; PFDA, 30.1-113 ng/L; PFUA, 58.0-99.2 ng/L; PFOSA, 162-283 ng/L) and in streams and ponds in Dalton (PFOA, 49.9-299 ng/L; PFOS, 15.8-120 ng/L), and were among the highest measured at a nonspill or directrelease location. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Altamaha River were much lower (PFOA, 3.0-3.1 ng/L; PFOS, 2.6-2.7 ng/L), but were a source of PFAAs to Georgia's estuaries. A preliminary hazard assessment indicated that concentrations of PFOS at two sites in the Conasauga River exceeded the threshold effect predicted for birds consuming aquatic organisms that are exposed continuously to the PFOS levels at these sites. Assuming that toxicity for all PFAAs quantified is equal to that of PFOS, the sum total PFAAs at two sites within the Conasauga River exceeded PFOS thresholds for aquatic and avian species, warranting additional research. ?? 2008 SETAC Printed in the USA.

  9. Emission of nitrous acid from soil and biological soil crusts as a major source of atmospheric HONO on Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meusel, Hannah; Tamm, Alexandra; Wu, Dianming; Kuhn, Uwe; Leifke, Anna-Lena; Weber, Bettina; Su, Hang; Lelieveld, Jos; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Pöschl, Ulrich; Cheng, Yafang

    2017-04-01

    Elucidation of the sources and atmospheric chemistry of nitrous acid (HONO) is highly relevant, as HONO is an important precursor of OH radicals. Up to 30% of the OH budget are formed by photolysis of HONO, whereas major fractions of HONO measured in the field derive from yet unidentified sources. Heterogeneous conversion of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to HONO on a variety of surfaces (soot, humic acid aerosol) is assumed to be a major HONO source (Stemmler et al., 2007, Ammann et al., 1998). In rural regions, however, NO2 concentrations were found to be too low to explain observed HONO concentrations, as e.g., in the case of a recent field study on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus (Meusel et al., 2016). In this study a good correlation between missing sources of HONO and nitrogen oxide (NO) was found indicating a common origin of both reactive nitrogen compounds. Simultaneous emission of HONO and NO from soil was reported earlier (Oswald et al., 2013), and enhanced emission rates were found when soil was covered by biological soil crusts in arid and semi-arid ecosystems (Weber et al., 2015). In the present study we measured HONO and NO emissions of 43 soil and soil crust samples from Cyprus during full wetting and drying cycles under controlled laboratory conditions by means of a dynamic chamber system. The observed range of HONO and NO emissions was in agreement with earlier studies, but unlike the study of Weber et al. (2015), we found highest emission from bare soil, followed by soil covered by light and dark cyanobacteria-dominated biological soil crusts. Emission rates correlated well with the nitrite and nitrate contents of soil and biological soil crust samples, and higher nutrient contents of bare soil samples, as compared to the previous biological soil crust study, explain the higher bare soil emissions. Integrating the emission rates of bare soil and the different types of biological soil crusts, based on their local relative abundance, the calculated

  10. [Fortified food products as a potential source of folic acid in human nutrition].

    PubMed

    Sicińska, Ewa; Pelc, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analysis the number and variety offoodproducts fortified with folic acid available on the Warsaw market and to assess consumers' knowledge about these products. Information about food products was based on label declaration, in summer 2009. In addition knowledge about fortified food was studied in the group of 94 market customers. There were 166 foodstuffs fortified with folic acid from various food categories, like breakfast cereals, wheat flour, fruit juices and drinks, sweets, margarine, instant cocoa and tea instant as well as milk products. Breakfast cereals and juices, nectars and fruit drinks were the largest groups. Less than half of market customers correctly defined term 'fortified product", less than 40% of respondents answered properly on question concerning folic acid. There is possibility to increase the folates intake by consuming various products fortified with folic acid. The wide public education is essential for increasing the role of these products in nutrition.

  11. Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with fatty acids and alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pui-Ling; Yu, Vincent; Wai, Lam; Yu, Hoi-Fu

    2006-01-01

    In this study, medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) were produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa using different carbon sources. Decanoic acid induced the highest (9.71% [+/- 0.7]) mcl-PHAs accumulation in bacterial cells at 47 h. The cells preferred to accumulate and degrade the polyhydroxyoctanoate than polyhydroxydecanoate (PHD) during early stage and final stage of the growth, respectively. The production cost of mcl-PHAs can be reduced by using edible oils as the carbon source. The bacteria accumulated 6% (+/- 0.7) of mcl-PHAs in the presence of olive oil. Besides, reused oil was another potential carbon source for the reduction of the production cost of mcl-PHAs. Overall, PHD was the major constituent in the accumulated mcl-PHAs.

  12. Higher content of C18:1 trans fatty acids in early human milk fat of Roma breast-feeding women.

    PubMed

    Marhol, P; Dlouhý, P; Rambousková, J; Pokorný, R; Wiererová, O; Hrncírová, D; Procházka, B; Andel, M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the content of trans fatty acids in early human breast milk as an indicator of dietary exposure in a sample of Roma breast-feeding women and in a sample of women from the general Czech population. We collected samples of early human milk from 43 Prague women from the general population and 21 Roma women. After lipid extraction, the fatty acids were converted into methyl esters (FAMEs). Finally, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis on a CP-Sil 88 column was used to determine C18:1 trans monoenic fatty acid levels and total trans isomers fatty acid levels in human milk. A significantly higher content of C18:1 trans fatty acid isomers was detected in human milk fat from Roma mothers than in women of the general population (2.73 vs. 2.09%, p < 0.05). Both groups monitored did not differ in the representation of total fatty acid trans isomers. Differences in the frequency of consumption of certain TFA sources (butter, fried crisps) were established. The study proved a higher fatty acid trans isomers content in Roma breast-feeding mothers in the Czech Republic, and this is probably related to their bad eating habits. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Impacts of nitrous acid sources on the atmosphere oxidation capacity in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yu Jia; Xian Liu, Bao; An, Xin Xin; Zhang, Da Wei; Xie, Bao Guo; Ba, Yu Tao

    2017-04-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is the dominant oxidant in the troposphere. As a major source of OH, HONO could have a significant impact on the formation processes of ozone (O3) and major inorganic aerosols, which may further affect the regional air quality. The additional HONO sources [i.e. the daytime HONO source, HONO emissions, and nighttime hydrolysis conversion of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on aerosols] were coupled into the WRF-Chem model (Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry) to assess the daytime HONO source impacts on the atmosphere oxidation capacity, especially the budgets of ROx (=OH+HO2+RO2) in the coastal regions of China. The results shows that monthly daytime-mean concentrations of OH、HO2 and RO2 are increased by 60 120%, 120 250% and 80 180%, respectively, due to the additional daytime HONO sources. The photolysis of HONO becomes the second important source of OH with a maximum of 0.89 3.72 [0.62 3.06 due to the Punknown] ppb h-1; whereas, the reaction of HO2 and NO is the most important source of OH with a maximum of 2.63 9.38 [1.15 7.23 due to the Punknown] ppb h-1 in the coastal regions of China. Besides, the daytime HONO source significantly accelerates ROx cycles by increasing the production and loss rates of OH、HO2 and RO2 and their conversation rates with each other. The above results suggest that the daytime HONO source considerably enhanced atmosphere oxidation capacity in the coastal regions of China, and could produce significant increases in concentrations of inorganic aerosols and secondary organic aerosols and further aggravate haze events in these regions.

  14. Degradation State, Sources, and Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter from an Amino Acid Time Series in an Agricultural Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matiasek, S. J.; Pellerin, B. A.; Spencer, R. G.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Hernes, P.

    2015-12-01

    A detailed time series of dissolved amino acids was obtained in an agricultural watershed in the northern Central Valley, California, USA to investigate the roles of hydrologic and seasonal changes on the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Total hydrolysable amino acid (THAA) concentrations ranged from 0.55 to 9.96 μM (mean 3.76 ± 1.80 μM) and not only peaked with discharge during winter storms, but also remained elevated throughout the irrigation season when discharge was low. Summer irrigation was a critical hydrologic regime for DOM cycling, since it mobilized DOM similar in concentration and reactivity to DOM released during winter storms for an extended period of time, with the largest amino acid contributions to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) pools (3.4 ‒ 3.7 % DOC-AA, 17.4 ‒ 22.5 % DON-AA), the largest proportion of basic amino acids (B/(B+A) = 0.19 ‒ 0.22), and the largest degradation index values (mean 1.37 ± 0.96). The mole percent of non-protein amino acids, commonly considered as an indicator of microbial degradation, decreased with DOM processing and was highest during summer (mean 4.1 ± 1.1%). A lack of correlation between THAA concentrations and UV-Vis absorbance and fluorescence proxies (including "protein-like" fluorophores B and T) indicated that optical properties may be limited in representing amino acid dynamics in this system. A new parameter for DOM processing derived from trends in individual amino acids demonstrated strong potential for inferring the extent of DOM degradation in freshwater systems. The biogeochemical relevance of irrigation practices is heightened by timing, since the additional export of reactive DOM coincides with enhanced downstream DOM processing in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, a critical habitat for endangered species serving as water source for 25 million Californians.

  15. Negative Ion In-Source Decay Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sequencing Acidic Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Chelsea L.; Wright, Patience M.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in-source decay was studied in the negative ion mode on deprotonated peptides to determine its usefulness for obtaining extensive sequence information for acidic peptides. Eight biological acidic peptides, ranging in size from 11 to 33 residues, were studied by negative ion mode ISD (nISD). The matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzamide, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, 5-amino-1-naphthol, 3-aminoquinoline, and 9-aminoacridine were used with each peptide. Optimal fragmentation was produced with 1,5-diaminonphthalene (DAN), and extensive sequence informative fragmentation was observed for every peptide except hirudin(54-65). Cleavage at the N-Cα bond of the peptide backbone, producing c' and z' ions, was dominant for all peptides. Cleavage of the N-Cα bond N-terminal to proline residues was not observed. The formation of c and z ions is also found in electron transfer dissociation (ETD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and positive ion mode ISD, which are considered to be radical-driven techniques. Oxidized insulin chain A, which has four highly acidic oxidized cysteine residues, had less extensive fragmentation. This peptide also exhibited the only charged localized fragmentation, with more pronounced product ion formation adjacent to the highly acidic residues. In addition, spectra were obtained by positive ion mode ISD for each protonated peptide; more sequence informative fragmentation was observed via nISD for all peptides. Three of the peptides studied had no product ion formation in ISD, but extensive sequence informative fragmentation was found in their nISD spectra. The results of this study indicate that nISD can be used to readily obtain sequence information for acidic peptides.

  16. The Effect of Multiple Sequential Light Sources to Activate Aminolevulinic Acid in the Treatment of Actinic Keratoses: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Mitchel P.; Fabi, Sabrina G.; Guiha, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of research regarding the sequential use of multiple light sources for topical 5-aminolevulinic acid activation in photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis. This study evaluated 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis using blue light combined with red light, pulsed dye laser, and/or intense pulsed light in a retrospective fashion. Field-directed 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy was performed with blue light only, blue light + pulsed dye laser, blue light + intense pulsed light, blue light + pulsed dye laser + intense pulsed light, or blue light + red light + pulsed dye laser + intense pulsed light for nonhyperkeratotic actinic keratoses of face, scalp, or upper trunk. Blue light + intense pulsed light + pulsed dye laser produced greater patient-reported improvement in actinic keratoses than blue light or blue light + intense pulsed light and greater subject-reported improvement in overall skin quality than blue light + intense pulsed light. The addition of red light led to no further benefit in either outcome measure. Photodynamic therapy with multiple, sequential laser and light sources led to greater patient-graded improvement in actinic keratoses than that with a single light source (blue light), without significant differences in post-treatment adverse events. However, the small, widely disparate number of patients between groups and follow-up times between patients, as well as retrospective assessments based on subjective patient recall, severely limit the significance of these findings. Nevertheless, the results raise interesting questions regarding the use of multiple light and laser sources for photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses and warrant further research with a prospective, randomized, controlled study. PMID:25276272

  17. Fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy sources detected in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci after host treatment with antihelminthic drugs.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Carolina Miguel; Costa, Tatiane Luiza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto; de Souza Lino Junior, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2012-05-01

    Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps is rare however it is considered of zoonotic risk. The treatment of the infected patients was successful when using albendazole or praziquantel. The active forms of albendazole inhibit the glucose uptake and the active forms of praziquantel alter glycogen levels and nutrients absorption. The aim of this study was to analyze the production of organic acids that indicate the oxidation of fatty acids and the use of alternative energy sources from T. crassiceps cysticerci removed from the peritoneal cavity of mice treated with low dosages of albendazole (5.75 and 11.5mg/kg) or praziquantel (3.83 and 7.67 mg/kg). The beta-hydroxibutyrate production was higher by the larval stage cysticerci in all treated groups and the propionate production was higher in final stage cysticerci treated with 11.5mg/kg of albendazole when compared to the control group. The larval stages of cysticerci from the groups treated with 5.75 mg/kg of albendazole and 3.83 mg/kg of praziquantel produced more urea than the initial and final stages which indicate amino acids breakdown. We conclude that it was possible to detect the fatty acid oxidation and amino acids breakdown which indicate the use of alternative energy production sources as the used dosages only cause a partial blockage of the glucose uptake and leads to metabolic alterations in the cysticerci. The metabolic behavior observed after host treatment was different from former descriptions of the in vitro one which indicates great host-parasite interaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel cytotoxic agents from an unexpected source: bile acids and ovarian tumor apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Neil S; Hua, Jun; Powell, Matthew A; Gibb, Randall K; Mutch, David G; Herzog, Thomas J

    2007-11-01

    Unique biologic activities have been identified for the 4 different bile acids: cholic acid (CA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The aim of this study was to examine and compare the effects of these 4 bile acids on the human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 and A2780-CP-R(cisplatin-resistant) and to evaluate mechanisms of action. Antiproliferative effects were determined by the cytotoxic MTT assay. Cells undergoing apoptosis were identified by morphologic analysis of cells stained using Diff-Quick and nuclear staining with DAPI and by quantitative nucleosome ELISA assay. Cells were lysed in buffer after 24 h of exposure to three different concentrations of bile acid (50 mM, 200 mM, and 400 mM) and protein concentrations were determined. Cell extracts containing 25 mg of protein were assayed for protein kinase C (PKC) enzyme activity. None of the bile acids stimulated proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. CA and UDCA had only minimal cytotoxic effect even at maximum concentrations. In contrast, DCA and CDCA administration resulted in statistically significant dose-dependent cytotoxicity in both platinum sensitive and platinum-resistant cell lines (p<0.05). Cells incubated with DCA and CDCA exhibited morphologic features characteristic of apoptosis. The quantitative nucleosome ELISA assay demonstrated over 10 times increased nucleosome levels after cells were treated for 24 h by DCA and CDCA at 200 mM and 400 mM as compared to CA or UDCA treatment and to untreated controls (p<0.01). All 4 bile acids reduced PKC activity at concentrations of 200 and 400 mM (p<0.01). CDCA and DCA have significant cytotoxic activity in ovarian cancer cells via induction of apoptosis. The mechanism of apoptosis appears to be mediated by alternative kinases distinct from PKC. CDCA and DCA may have clinical utility in the treatment of ovarian cancer pending in vivo confirmation of activity especially in cisplatin-resistant disease.

  19. Healthy yogurt fortified with n-3 fatty acids from vegetable sources.

    PubMed

    Dal Bello, B; Torri, L; Piochi, M; Zeppa, G

    2015-12-01

    The concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in yogurt was increased using 5 different vegetable oils obtained from flaxseed, Camelina sativa, raspberry, blackcurrant, and Echium plantagineum. The vegetable oils were added to partially skim milk before lactic fermentation at a concentration adequate enough to cover at least 10% of the recommended daily intake of 2 g/d of α-linolenic acid according to EC regulation no. 432/2012. Microbiological (lactobacilli and streptococci, yeast, and molds), chemical (pH, syneresis, proximate composition, fatty acids, oxidation stability), and sensory evaluations were assessed for all of the fortified yogurts after 0, 7, 14, and 21 d of storage at 4°C. Sensory evaluations were conducted at 21 d of storage at 4°C. Among the yogurts produced, those that were supplemented with flaxseed and blackcurrant oils exhibited the highest α-linolenic acid content (more than 200mg/100 g of yogurt) at the end of storage. The addition of oil did not influence the growth of lactic acid bacteria that were higher than 10(7) cfu/g at 21 d of storage. All of the yogurts were accepted by consumers, except for those supplemented with raspberry and E. plantagineum oils due to the presence of off flavors.

  20. Monoterpene-based chiral β-amino acid derivatives prepared from natural sources: syntheses and applications.

    PubMed

    Szakonyi, Zsolt; Fülöp, Ferenc

    2011-08-01

    Natural monoterpenes have proved to be good starting materials for the synthesis of β-amino acid derivatives. In the past decade, a number of well-known synthetic procedures have been applied for the preparation of monoterpene-based β-amino acid derivatives, e.g. from β-lactams via the 1,2-dipolar cycloaddition of chlorosulfonyl isocyanate to commercial or readily available monoterpenes [e.g. (+)- and (-)-α- or δ-pinene, (+)-3- and 2-carene, (+)- and (-)-apopinene], the conjugate addition of amides to monoterpene-based α,β-unsaturated esters or the transformations of (-)-cis-pinonoic acid prepared by the oxidative cleavage of (+)- and (-)-verbenone. β-Amino acid derivatives are excellent building blocks for versatile transformations, e.g. multicomponent reactions resulting in β-lactams, syntheses of 1,3-heterocycles and diaminopyrimidine derivatives or the formation of peptides containing an H12 helix. 1,3-Amino alcohol derivatives prepared from β-amino esters have been applied as chiral catalysts in enantioselective transformations. Several of these compounds are of noteworthy pharmacological importance, such as tyrosine kinase Axl inhibitor diaminopyrimidine-coupled β-aminocarboxamides, MDR inhibitor thiourea derivatives of β-amino esters or 2-imino-1,3-oxazines, which exhibit marked growth inhibitory activity on multiple cancer cell lines. The present review summarizes recent developments relating to the syntheses, applications and pharmaceutical importance of monoterpene-based β-amino acids and their derivatives.

  1. Water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and ω-oxocarboxylic acids in size-segregated aerosols over northern Japan during spring: sources and formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kobayashi, Minoru; Gowda, Divyavani

    2016-04-01

    Seven sets (AF01-AF07) of size-segregated aerosol (12-sizes) samples were collected using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) in Sapporo, Japan during the spring of 2001 to understand the sources and atmospheric processes of water-soluble organic aerosols in the outflow region of Asian dusts. The samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12) and ω-oxocarboxylic acids as well as inorganic ions. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids whereas ω-oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) in size-segregated aerosols. SO42- and NH4+ are enriched in submicron mode whereas NO3- and Ca2+ are in supermicron mode. Most of diacids and ω-oxoacids are enriched in supermicron mode in the samples (AF01-AF03) influenced by the long-range transport of mineral dusts whereas enhanced presence in submicron mode was observed in other sample sets. The strong correlations of C2 with Ca2+ (r = 0.95-0.99) and NO3- (r = 0.96-0.98) in supermicron mode in the samples AF01-AF03 suggest the adsorption or production of C2 diacid via heterogeneous reaction on the surface of mineral dust during long-range atmospheric transport. The preferential enrichment of diacids and ω-oxoacids in mineral dust has important implications for the solubility and cloud nucleation properties of the dominant fraction of water-soluble organic aerosols. This study demonstrates that biofuel and biomass burning and mineral dust originated in East Asia are two major factors to control the size distribution of diacids and related compounds over northern Japan.

  2. Perfluorinated acid isomer profiling in water and quantitative assessment of manufacturing source.

    PubMed

    Benskin, Jonathan P; Yeung, Leo W Y; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K S; Martin, Jonathan W

    2010-12-01

    A method for isomer profiling of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in water was developed and applied to quantitatively assess the contributions from electrochemical (ECF) and telomer manufacturing processes around source regions of North America, Asia, and Europe. With the exception of 3 sites in Japan, over 80% of total perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, C(7)F(15)COO(-)) was from ECF, with the balance attributable to strictly linear (presumably telomer) manufacturing source(s). Comparing PFOA isomer profiles in samples from China, with PFOA obtained from a local Chinese manufacturer, indicated <3% difference in overall branched isomer content; thus, exclusive contribution from local ECF production cannot be ruled out. In Tokyo Bay, ECF, linear-telomer, and isopropyl-telomer sources contributed to 33%, 53%, and 14% of total PFOA, respectively. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C(8)F(17)SO(3)(-)) isomer profiles were enriched in branched content (i.e., >50% branched) in the Mississippi River but in all other locations were similar or only slightly enriched in branched content relative to historical ECF PFOS. Isomer profiles of other PFCs are also reported. Overall, these data suggest that, with the exception of Tokyo Bay, ECF manufacturing has contributed to the bulk of contamination around these source regions, but other sources are significant, and remote sites should be monitored.

  3. Acidic deposition in the northeastern United States: Sources and inputs, ecosystem effects, and management strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, C.T.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bulger, A.J.; Butler, T.J.; Cronan, C.S.; Eagar, C.; Lambert, K.F.; Likens, G.E.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K.C.

    2001-01-01

    North America and Europe are in the midst of a large-scale experiment. Sulfuric and nitric acids have acidified soils, lakes, and streams, thereby stressing or killing terrestrial and aquatic biota. It is therefore critical to measure and to understand the recovery of complex ecosystems in response to decreases in acidic deposition. Fortunately, the NADP, CASTNet, and AIRMoN-dry networks are in place to measure anticipated improvements in air quality and in atmospheric deposition. Unfortunately, networks to measure changes in water quality are sparse, and networks to monitor soil, vegetation, and fish responses are even more limited. There is an acute need to assess the response of these resources to decreases in acid loading. It would be particularly valuable to assess the recovery of aquatic biota - which respond directly to acid stress - to changes in surface water chemistry (Gunn and Mills 1998). We used long-term research from the HBEF and other sites across the northeastern United States to synthesize data on the effects of acidic deposition and to assess ecosystem responses to reductions in emissions. On the basis of existing data, it is clear that in the northeastern United States ??? reductions of SO2 emissions since 1970 have resulted in statistically significant decreases in SO42- in wet and bulk deposition and in surface waters ??? emissions of NOX and concentrations of NO3- in wet and bulk deposition and in surface waters have shown no increase or decrease since the 1980s ??? estimates of NH3 emissions are uncertain, although atmospheric deposition of NH4+ remains important for forest management and stream NO3- loss ??? acidic deposition has accelerated the leaching of base cations from soils, thus delaying the recovery of ANC in lakes and streams from decreased emissions of SO2 (at the HBEF the available soil Ca pool appears to have declined 50% over the past 50 years) ???sulfur and N from atmospheric deposition have accumulated in forest soils across

  4. Diamine-sulfuric acid reactions are a potent source of new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Coty N.; Bachman, Ryan; Zhao, Jun; McMurry, Peter H.; Hanson, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nucleation from sulfuric acid depends on the concentrations and the stabilizing effect of other trace gases, such as ammonia and amines. Diamines are an understudied class of atmospherically relevant compounds, and we examine how they affect sulfuric acid nucleation in both flow reactor experiments and the atmosphere. The number of particles produced from sulfuric acid and diamines in the flow reactor was equal to or greater than the number formed from monoamines, implying that diamines are more effective nucleating agents. Upper limits of diamine abundance were also monitored during three field campaigns: Lamont, OK (2013); Lewes, DE (2012); and Atlanta, GA (2009). Mixing ratios were measured as high as tens of parts per trillion by volume (GA and OK). Laboratory results suggest that diamines at these levels are important for atmospheric nucleation. Diamines likely participate in atmospheric nucleation and should be considered in nucleation measurements and models.

  5. Lead Isotope Compositions of Acid Residues from Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint: Implications for Heterogeneous Shergottite Source Reservoirs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions and trace element abundances. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible- element-enriched reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there is ongoing debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former requires the ancient Martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires isolation of a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and trace element concentration analyses of sequential acid-leaching fractions (leachates and the final residues) from the geochemically depleted olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint. The results suggest that the Tissint magma is not isotopically uniform and sampled at least two geochemical source reservoirs, implying that either crustal assimilation or magma mixing would have played a role in the Tissint petrogenesis.

  6. Iron-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Alkyl Etherification of Vinylarenes with Aliphatic Acids as the Alkyl Source.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wujun; Ge, Liang; Jiao, Yihang; Qian, Bo; Bao, Hongli

    2017-03-20

    Because of the lack of effective alkylating reagents, alkyl etherification of olefins with general alkyl groups has not been previously reported. In this work, a variety of alkyl diacyl peroxides and peresters generated from aliphatic acids have been found to enable the first iron-catalyzed alkyl etherification of olefins with general alkyl groups. Primary, secondary and tertiary aliphatic acids are suitable for this reaction, delivering products with yields up to 97 %. Primary and secondary alcohols react well, affording products in up to 91 % yield.

  7. Are There Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Milk with Supplementation of Omega-3 Sources? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Yasmin Notarbartolo di Villarosa do; Marano, Daniele; Silva, Leila Maria Lopes da; Guimarães, Aline Carnevale Lia Dias; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of supplementation with omega-3 sources on the fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods The review consisted of the search for articles published in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (Virtual Health Library[VHL]) and Web of Science databases using the following keywords: fatty acids, omega-3, human milk and supplementation; for this purpose, we have used the program of research to integrate the services for the maintenance of autonomy (PRISMA) checklist. The following selection criteria were used: articles in English, Portuguese, Spanish or Italian, published between 2000 and 2015, and about studies performed in humans. We found 710 articles that met the established criteria; however, only 22 of them were selected to be part of this study. Results All studies found a positive relationship between the consumption of omega-3 sources and their concentration in human milk. The differences in the findings are due to the distinct methods used, such as the specific time of the omega-3 supplementation, the type of omega-3 source offered, as well as the sample size. Conclusion Although the studies were different in several methodological aspects, it was possible to observe the importance of omega-3 supplementation during gestation and/or the puerperium.

  8. Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on fatty acid contents and composition in the green microalga, Chlorella sp. 227.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sunja; Lee, Dukhaeng; Luong, Thao Thanh; Park, Sora; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Taeho

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate and generalize the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on the growth of and lipid production in Chlorella sp. 227, several nutritional combinations consisting of different carbon and nitrogen sources and concentrations were given to the media for cultivation of Chlorella sp. 227, respectively. The growth rate and lipid content were affected largely by concentration rather than by sources. The maximum specific growth was negatively affected by low concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. There is a maximum allowable inorganic carbon concentration (less than 500~1,000 mM bicarbonate) in autotrophic culture, but the maximum lipid content per gram dry cell weight (g DCW) was little affected by the concentration of inorganic carbon within the concentration. The lipid content per g DCW was increased when the microalga was cultured with the addition of glucose and bicarbonate (mixotrophic) at a fixed nitrogen concentration and with the lowest nitrogen concentration (0.2 mM), relatively. Considering that lipid contents per g DCW increased in those conditions, it suggests that a high ratio of carbon to nitrogen in culture media promotes lipid accumulation in the cells. Interestingly, a significant increase of the oleic acid amount to total fatty acids was observed in those conditions. These results showed the possibility to induce lipid production of high quality and content per g DCW by modifying the cultivation conditions.

  9. Additive free preparative chiral SFC separations of 2,2-dimethyl-3-aryl-propanoic acids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dauh-Rurng; Yip, Shiuhang Henry; Li, Peng; Sun, Dawn; Kempson, James; Mathur, Arvind

    2016-11-30

    A series of racemic 2,2-dimethyl-3-aryl-propanoic acids were resolved by chiral supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) without the use of an acidic additive, trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). The use of additive-free protic methanol as co-solvent in CO2 was expanded to successfully resolve other series of carboxylic acid containing racemates. Large-scale SFC of racemic acid 4, 3-(1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indazol-5-yl)-2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanoic acid, in methanol without TFA as additive on both Chiralpak AD-H and Chiralcel OJ-H will be discussed, along with impact on throughput and solvent consumption. Investigation of co-solvent effect on peak sharpening of acid racemate 20, 2-(2-chloro-9-fluoro-5H-chromeno[2,3-b]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methylpropanoic acid, without TFA further indicated that methanol in CO2 provided improved peak shape compared with isopropanol (IPA) and acetonitrile. Finally, we discuss the resolution of basic aromatic chiral amines without the addition of basic additives such as diethylamine (DEA) and application of this protocol for the large-scale SFC separation of weakly basic indazole-containing racemate 14, methyl 3-(1H-indazol-5-yl)-2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanoate, in methanol without DEA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Fugitive Literature of Acid Rain: Making Use of Nonconventional Information Sources in a Vertical File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovenburg, Susan L.; Stoss, Frederick W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of vertical file collections for nonconventional literature, and describes the classification scheme used for fugitive literature by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse at the Center for Environmental Information. An annotated list of organizations and examples of titles they offer is provided. (8 notes with…

  11. Evaluation of Bioequivalency and Toxicological Effects of Three Sources of Arachidonic Acid (ARA) in Domestic Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Tyburczy, Cynthia; Brenna, Margaret E.; DeMari, Joseph A.; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Blank, Bryant S.; Valentine, Helen; McDonough, Sean P.; Banavara, Dattatreya; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are routinely added to infant formula to support growth and development. We evaluated the bioequivalence and safety of three ARA-rich oils for potential use in infant formula using the neonatal pig model. The primary outcome for bioequivalence was brain accretion of ARA and DHA. Days 3 to 22 of age, domestic pigs fed one of three formulas, each containing ARA at ~0.64% and DHA at ~0.34% total fatty acids (FA). Control diet ARA was provided by ARASCO® and all diets had DHA from DHASCO® (Martek Biosciences Corp., Columbia, MD). The experimental diets a1 and a2 provided ARA from Refined Arachidonic acid-rich Oil (RAO; Cargill, Inc., Wuhan, China) and SUNTGA40S (Nissui, Nippon Suisan Kaisha, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), respectively. Formula intake and growth were similar across all diets, and ARA was bioequivalent across treatments in the brain, retina, heart, liver and day 21 RBC. DHA levels in the brain, retina and heart were unaffected by diet. Liver sections, clinical chemistry, and hematological parameters were normal. We conclude that RAO and SUNTGA40S, when added to formula to supply ~0.64% ARA are safe and nutritionally bioequivalent to ARASCO in domestic piglets. PMID:21722692

  12. Sardinian Boraginaceae are new potential sources of gamma-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Guil-Guerrero, José Luis; Gómez-Mercado, Francisco; Ramos-Bueno, Rebeca Pilar; González-Fernández, María José; Urrestarazu, Miguel; Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to establish the richness in γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n6) and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n3) of several Sardinian Boraginaceae species. To this end, seeds of selected species were collected from their natural habitats and analysed. The highest GLA contents were found in the seed oils of two endemic Borago taxa, i.e. B. morisiana (24.4 and 24.6% GLA of total fatty acids for samples from San Pietro Island and Sardinia Island, respectively), and 22.9% GLA for B. pygmaea. Both Borago species contained more GLA than B. officinalis collected in the same ecosystems. SDA was found in significant amounts in Echium plantagineum seed oil from the Lattias Mountains (15% SDA of total fatty acids). It is notable that both Borago GLA-rich species are under threat of extinction, thus revealing the importance of the preservation of the natural Sardinian ecosystems for endangered species and human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Fugitive Literature of Acid Rain: Making Use of Nonconventional Information Sources in a Vertical File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovenburg, Susan L.; Stoss, Frederick W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of vertical file collections for nonconventional literature, and describes the classification scheme used for fugitive literature by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse at the Center for Environmental Information. An annotated list of organizations and examples of titles they offer is provided. (8 notes with…

  14. FATTY ACID STABLE ISOTOPE INDICATORS OF MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCE IN TROPICAL SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The soil microbial community plays an important role in tropical ecosystem functioning because of its importance in the soil organic matter (SOM) cycle. We have measured the stable carbon isotopic ratio (delta13C) of individual phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in a variety of tr...

  15. Using electromagnetic induction technology to predict volatile fatty acid, source area differences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subsurface sampling techniques have been adapted to measure manure accumulation on feedlot surface. Objectives of this study were to determine if sensor data could be used to predict differences in volatile fatty acids (VFA) and other volatiles produced on the feedlot surface three days following a...

  16. FATTY ACID STABLE ISOTOPE INDICATORS OF MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCE IN TROPICAL SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The soil microbial community plays an important role in tropical ecosystem functioning because of its importance in the soil organic matter (SOM) cycle. We have measured the stable carbon isotopic ratio (delta13C) of individual phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in a variety of tr...

  17. Deposition and rainwater concentrations of trifluoroacetic acid in the United States from the use of HFO-1234yf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, J.; McKeen, S.; Kim, S.-W.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the most common refrigerant in automobile air conditioners. This high global warming potential substance (100 year GWP of 1370) will likely be phased out and replaced with HFO-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) that has a 100 year GWP of 4. HFO-1234yf will be oxidized to produce trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in clouds. TFA, a mildly toxic substance with detrimental effects on some aquatic organisms at high concentrations (≥100μgL-1), would be transported by rain to the surface and enter bodies of water. We investigated the dry and wet deposition of TFA from HFO-1234yf over the contiguous USA using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting model (ARW) with interactive chemical, aerosol, and cloud processes (WRF/Chem) model. Special focus was placed on emissions from three continental USA regions with different meteorological characteristics. WRF/Chem simulated meteorology, cloud processes, gas and aqueous phase chemistry, and dry and wet deposition between May and September 2006. The model reproduced well the multimonth total sulfate wet deposition (4% bias) and its spatial variability (r = 0.86) observed by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. HFO-1234yf emissions were obtained by assuming the number of automobile air conditioners to remain unchanged, and substituting HFO-1234yf, mole-per-mole for HFC-134a. Our estimates of current HFC-134a emissions were in agreement with field data. Average TFA rainwater concentration was 0.89μgL-1, with peak values of 7.8μgL-1, for the May-September 2006 period over the contiguous USA. TFA rainwater concentrations over the dry western USA were often significantly higher, but wet-deposited TFA amounts remained relatively low at such locations.

  18. Meta-regression analysis of the effect of trans fatty acids on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Allen, Bruce C; Vincent, Melissa J; Liska, DeAnn; Haber, Lynne T

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a meta-regression of controlled clinical trial data to investigate quantitatively the relationship between dietary intake of industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) and increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Previous regression analyses included insufficient data to determine the nature of the dose response in the low-dose region and have nonetheless assumed a linear relationship between iTFA intake and LDL-C levels. This work contributes to the previous work by 1) including additional studies examining low-dose intake (identified using an evidence mapping procedure); 2) investigating a range of curve shapes, including both linear and nonlinear models; and 3) using Bayesian meta-regression to combine results across trials. We found that, contrary to previous assumptions, the linear model does not acceptably fit the data, while the nonlinear, S-shaped Hill model fits the data well. Based on a conservative estimate of the degree of intra-individual variability in LDL-C (0.1 mmoL/L), as an estimate of a change in LDL-C that is not adverse, a change in iTFA intake of 2.2% of energy intake (%en) (corresponding to a total iTFA intake of 2.2-2.9%en) does not cause adverse effects on LDL-C. The iTFA intake associated with this change in LDL-C is substantially higher than the average iTFA intake (0.5%en). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Tracing the source of cooking oils with an integrated approach of using stable carbon isotope and fatty acid abundance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiguo; Yang, Hong; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Jinzhao

    2012-08-15

    We report a new approach to identify swill-cooked oils that are recycled from tainted food and livestock waste from commercial vegetable and animal oils by means of carbon isotope values and relative abundance of fatty acids. We test this method using 40 cooking oil samples of different types with known sources. We found significant differences in both total organic carbon isotope as well as compound-specific isotope values and fatty acid C(14)/C(18) ratios between commercial vegetable oils refined from C(3) plants (from -35.7 to -27.0‰ and from 0 to 0.15) and animal oils (from -28.3 to -14.3‰ and from 0.1 to 0.6). Tested swill-cooked oils, which were generally refined by mixing with animal waste illegally, fall into a narrow δ(13)C/fatty acid ratio distribution: from -25.9 to -24.1‰ and from 0.1 to 0.2. Our data demonstrate that the index of a cross-plotting between fatty acid δ(13)C values and C(14)/C(18) ratios can be used to distinguish clean commercial cooking oils from illegal swill-cooked oils.

  20. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): a seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Chirinos, Rosana; Zuloeta, Gledy; Pedreschi, Romina; Mignolet, Eric; Larondelle, Yvan; Campos, David

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A high α linolenic (α-Ln) fatty acid content was found in all cultivars (ω3, 12.8-16.0 g/100 g seed), followed by linoleic (L) fatty acid (ω6, 12.4-14.1g/100g seed). The ratio ω6/ω3 was within the 0.83-1.09 range. γ- and δ-tocopherols were the most important tocopherols, whereas the most representative phytosterols were β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Contents of total phenolics, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities ranged from 64.6 to 80 mg of gallic acid equivalent/100g seed; from 0.07 to 0.09 mg of β-carotene equivalent/100g of seed; from 4.3 to 7.3 and, from 1.0 to 2.8 μmol of Trolox equivalent/g of seed, respectively, among the evaluated SI cultivars. Results showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the evaluated SI cultivars in the contents of ω3, ω6, antioxidant capacities and other evaluated phytochemicals. SI seeds should be considered as an important dietary source of health promoting phytochemicals.

  1. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines.

    PubMed

    Bobeica, Natalia; Poni, Stefano; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Dai, Zhanwu

    2015-01-01

    Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3% as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1%. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9%) than under carbon sufficiency (48%). Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary metabolites.

  2. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines

    PubMed Central

    Bobeica, Natalia; Poni, Stefano; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Dai, Zhanwu

    2015-01-01

    Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3% as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1%. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9%) than under carbon sufficiency (48%). Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary metabolites. PMID:26074942

  3. Miniaturization of BaHfO3 nanoparticles in YBa2Cu3O y -coated conductors using a two-step heating process in the TFA-MOD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horita, H.; Teranishi, R.; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Kaneko, K.; Sato, Y.; Otaguro, K.; Nishiyama, T.; Izumi, T.; Awaji, S.

    2017-02-01

    The critical current density (J c) of YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO)-coated conductors in a magnetic field can be enhanced by the doping of flux-pinning centers in a metal organic deposition (MOD) process with trifluoroacetates (TFA). The size of these flux-pinning centers should be less than 10 nm to achieve commercial use due to the coherence length of YBCO at 77 K. In this paper, BaHfO3 (BHO) nanoparticles were introduced into YBCO films using the TFA-MOD method. Microstructures and the J c properties of the films prepared using a two-step heating process at crystallization were compared with film prepared using a conventional one-step heating process. The two-step heating process produced 15 nm average-sized BHO nanoparticles in the film compared to 19 nm nanoparticles in a film prepared using a one-step process. It was revealed that the size of nanoparticles in the films could be miniaturized by improving the heating processes in the MOD method, and the miniaturized nanoparticles could contribute to increased J c in magnetic fields. The mechanism of miniaturization is also discussed based on microstructure observations of quenched films.

  4. Towards the Industrial Production of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from a Genetically Modified Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Mary L.; Warwick, Joanna; Terry, Anya; Allen, Michael J.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Sayanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate up to 30% of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and, as such, is considered a good source for the industrial production of EPA. However, P. tricornutum does not naturally accumulate significant levels of the more valuable omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Previously, we have engineered P. tricornutum to accumulate elevated levels of DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) by overexpressing heterologous genes encoding enzyme activities of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway. Here, the transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 has been investigated for the scalable production of EPA and DHA. Studies have been performed at the laboratory scale on the cultures growing in up to 1 L flasks a 3.5 L bubble column, a 550 L closed photobioreactor and a 1250 L raceway pond with artificial illumination. Detailed studies were carried out on the effect of different media, carbon sources and illumination on omega-3 LC-PUFAs production by transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 and wild type P. tricornutum grown in 3.5 L bubble columns. The highest content of DHA (7.5% of total fatty acids, TFA) in transgenic strain was achieved in cultures grown in seawater salts, Instant Ocean (IO), supplemented with F/2 nutrients (F2N) under continuous light. After identifying the optimal conditions for omega-3 LC-PUFA accumulation in the small-scale experiments we compared EPA and DHA levels of the transgenic strain grown in a larger fence-style tubular photobioreactor and a raceway pond. We observed a significant production of DHA over EPA, generating an EPA/DPA/DHA profile of 8.7%/4.5%/12.3% of TFA in cells grown in a photobioreactor, equivalent to 6.4 μg/mg dry weight DHA in a mid-exponentially growing algal culture. Omega-3 LC-PUFAs production in a raceway pond at ambient temperature but supplemented with artificial illumination (110 μmol photons m-2s-1) on a 16:8h light:dark cycle, in natural seawater

  5. Profiles and risk assessment of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in drinking water sources and treatment plants, East China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yanli; Shen, Jimin; Chen, Zhonglin; Kang, Jing; Li, Taiping; Wu, Xiaofei; Kong, XiangZhen; Fan, Leitao

    2017-08-31

    This study is the first report describing the occurrence of 15 phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in the three typical water sources of YiXing City, Taihu Upper-River Basin, East China. The fate of target PAEs in the Jiubin drinking water treatment plant (JTP) was also analyzed. The amounts of Σ15PAE in the Hengshan (HS), Youche (YC), and Xijiu (XJ) water sources were relatively moderate, with mean values of 360, 357, and 697 ng L(-1), respectively. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAE concentration, making up 80% of the 15 total PAEs. The highest levels of Σ15PAE were found in HS, YC, and XJ in March 2015, January 2015, and July 2014, respectively. The occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were spatially dependent, and the mean concentrations of Σ15PAE in HS, YC, and XJ samples increased from the surface layer to the bottom layer with varied percentage increases. The removal efficiency of the PAEs in the finished water varied markedly, and the removal of PAEs by the JTP ranged from 12.8 to 64.5%. The potential ecosystem risk assessment indicated that the risk of PAEs was relatively low in these three water sources. However, risks posed by PAEs due to drinking water still exist; therefore, special attention should be paid to source control in the JTP, and advanced treatment processes for drinking water supplies should be implemented.

  6. Photooxidation of cyclohexanone in simulated atmosphere: A potential source of atmospheric formic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aparajeo; Mondal, Koushik; Samanta, Monoj; Chakraborty, Tapas

    2017-05-01

    Gas phase photooxidation of cyclohexanone (CH) has been studied in the laboratory in a simulated atmospheric environment (synthetic air, 1 bar pressure) under the exposure of 311 nm UV light. Formic acid along with formaldehyde and ethylene are identified as the major photooxidation products. Quantum yield for the production of these species is measured and the values are compared with previous studies on the photo dissociation of CH. For 6 h of light irradiation with initial CH concentration of 9.19 ± 0.1 × 1016 molecules cm-3, the measured quantum yield values of ethylene and formaldehyde, the two primary photooxidation products, are 0.0395 ± 0.001 and 0.0028 ± 0.002, respectively. These values are comparable with CH dissociation quantum yield, 0.24 ± 0.02, and also the quantum yield of CO production, 0.0940 ± 0.001. The energetic parameters of different steps of the proposed reaction mechanism are calculated by electronic structure theory method at DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G** level. A reaction modeling has been performed, and similarity in simulated quantum yield values with that of the experimentally measured ones validates the suggested reaction mechanism. Experimentally measured values of rate constants of most of the elementary reaction steps incorporated in the modeling are not known, and the calculated values, obtained by use of CVT and RRKM theoretical methods are used. The total yield of formic acid, which has been assigned as a secondary oxidation product, is 3.46 ± 0.25 × 1015 molecules cm-3 as obtained from experiment and this data matches well with the value of 2.67 × 1015 molecules cm-3 obtained from reaction modeling for 6 h of UV irradiation. The yield of formic acid is comparable with the yield of primary photo products. The results imply that photooxidation of CH and analogous compounds might have significant contributions to production of formic acid in the earth's troposphere. According to the prediction of the modeling results presented

  7. Cα-C bond cleavage of the peptide backbone in MALDI in-source decay using salicylic acid derivative matrices.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Daiki; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2011-07-01

    The use of 5-formylsalicylic acid (5-FSA) and 5-nitrosalicylic acid (5-NSA) as novel matrices for in-source decay (ISD) of peptides in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is described. The use of 5-FSA and 5-NSA generated a- and x-series ions accompanied by oxidized peptides [M - 2 H + H](+). The preferential formation of a- and x-series ions was found to be dependent on the hydrogen-accepting ability of matrix. The hydrogen-accepting ability estimated from the ratio of signal intensity of oxidized product [M - 2 H + H](+) to that of non-oxidized protonated molecule [M + H](+) of peptide was of the order 5-NSA > 5-FSA > 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) ≒ 2,5-dihydroxyl benzoic acid (2,5-DHB) ≒ 0. The results suggest that the hydrogen transfer reaction from peptide to 5-FSA and 5-NSA occurs during the MALDI-ISD processes. The hydrogen abstraction from peptides results in the formation of oxidized peptides containing a radical site on the amide nitrogen with subsequent radical-induced cleavage at the Cα-C bond, leading to the formation of a- and x-series ions. The most significant feature of MALDI-ISD with 5-FSA and 5-NSA is the specific cleavage of the Cα-C bond of the peptide backbone without degradation of side-chain and post-translational modifications (PTM). The matrix provides a useful complementary method to conventional MALDI-ISD for amino acid sequencing and site localization of PTMs in peptides.

  8. Survival capabilities of Escherichia coli O26 isolated from cattle and clinical sources in Australia to disinfectants, acids and antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Lajhar, Salma A; Brownlie, Jeremy; Barlow, Robert

    2017-03-01

    After E. coli O157, E. coli O26 is the second most prevalent enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serotype identified in cases of foodborne illness in Australia and throughout the world. E. coli O26 associated foodborne outbreaks have drawn attention to the survival capabilities of this organism in a range of environments. The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of E. coli O26 to survive the effects of disinfectants, acids and antimicrobials and investigate the possible influence of virulence genes in survival and persistence of E. coli O26 from human and cattle sources from Australia. Initial characterization indicated that E. coli O26 are a genetically diverse group that were shown to belong to a number of pathotypes. Overall, 86.4% of isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested with no significant differences in resistance observed between pathotypes. A representative subset of isolates (n = 40) were selected to determine their ability to survive disinfectants at proposed industry working concentrations and