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Sample records for acids total organic

  1. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of organic acids in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-10-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual organic acids were determined in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou. The δ 13C values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 20-C 28) varied from -34.1‰ to -32.4‰ and tended to be heavier in summer and lighter in winter. These δ 13C values indicate that high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids were derived mainly from emission by C 3 plants. Reduced biological synthesis of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids in winter may be the reason for the light carbon isotopic composition. The δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 10-C 18) changed from -31.7‰ to -30.3‰ and exhibited a reverse seasonal trend, i.e., heavier in winter and lighter in summer. Slightly heavier δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids than those of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids suggested that they may be emitted from blended sources, e.g., anthropogenic sources and vegetation waxes. Lighter δ 13C values in summer may be attributed to relatively low anthropogenic sources and high botanic sources in summer. Dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids have been proposed as secondary products from photochemical degradation. The average δ 13C values of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids were heavier, and ranged from -25.2‰ to -22.9‰ and from -30.0‰ to -27.6‰, respectively. Both dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids displayed the same temporal variations in the δ 13C values, i.e., negative δ 13C in the summer samples and positive in the winter samples, which may be controlled by photochemical reactions; they are generally severe in winter in Guangzhou under the monsoon weather system. The heaviest δ 13C values were observed in dicarboxylic acids, indicating that dicarboxylic acids were formed by fast and more complete oxidation reactions. These results indicate that the stable carbon isotopic composition of organic acids may provide important information about sources and

  2. Relationship between nine haloacetic acids with total organic halogens in different experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Pourmoghadas, Hossein; Kinman, Riley N

    2013-04-03

    The effects of pH and bromide ion concentration on the formation of nine haloacetic acids (HAAs) and total organic halogens (TOX) in chlorinated drinking water have been evaluated. In an extensive study, the relationships of nine HAAs with TOX have been investigated. Honesty Significant Differences test (HSD) and ANOVA tests were used for the statistical analyses. The study determined the concentration range of nine HAAs as of a percentage of TOX at varying experimental conditions. Statistical analyses showed that the parameters pH and Br had significant effects on the formation of nine HAAs and TOX. This study also showed that brominated and mixed species of HAAs would be dominant in the presence of high bromide ion concentration which contributes a high percentage of the TOX. The results of this study could be used to set up a maximum contaminant level of TOX as a water quality standard for chlorination by-products.

  3. Seasonal and spatial changes of free and bound organic acids in total suspended particles in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Bi, Xinhui; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-12-01

    The concentrations and compositions of free and bound organic acids in total suspended particles from typical urban, suburban and forest park sites of Guangzhou were determined in this study. The free form of organic acids (solvent extractable) in aerosols in Guangzhou varied with site and season. The suburban samples contained the highest contents of alkanoic, alkenoic and dicarboxylic acids. These findings were consistent with a higher supply of hydrocarbons and NOx in the suburban area. However, concentrations of aromatic acids were similar in the urban, suburban and forest park sites. Generally, winter season samples of the acids from anthropogenic sources contained more organic acids than summer season samples due to stronger removal by wet deposition in the summer. For the acids from botanic sources, the summer season samples were higher. In addition to the free acids, bound acids (solvent non-extractable) mainly formed by esterification of free acids were also found in the samples. In general, bound acids were higher than free acids. Esterification is mainly controlled by the pKa of organic acids and the atmospheric pH value. This explains why aromatic and dicarboxylic acids occur mainly as bound forms and why the samples from urban sites contained high levels of bound acids as the pH of rain water can reach 4.53. Concentrations of alkanoic and alkenoic acids in the aerosols of Guangzhou were much higher than those in the other areas studied.

  4. Mechanisms of enhanced total organic carbon elimination from oxalic acid solutions by electro-peroxone process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijiao; Yuan, Shi; Zhan, Juhong; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang; Deng, Shubo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin

    2015-09-01

    Electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) is a novel electrocatalytic ozonation process that combines ozonation and electrolysis process to enhance pollutant degradation during water and wastewater treatment. This enhancement has been mainly attributed to several mechanisms that increase O3 transformation to ·OH in the E-peroxone system, e.g., electro-generation of H2O2 from O2 at a carbon-based cathode and its subsequent peroxone reaction with O3 to ·OH, electro-reduction of O3 to ·OH at the cathode, and O3 decomposition to ·OH at high local pH near the cathode. To get more insight how these mechanisms contribute respectively to the enhancement, this study investigated total organic carbon (TOC) elimination from oxalic acid (OA) solutions by the E-peroxone process. Results show that the E-peroxone process significantly increased TOC elimination rate by 10.2-12.5 times compared with the linear addition of the individual rates of corresponding ozonation and electrolysis process. Kinetic analyses reveal that the electrochemically-driven peroxone reaction is the most important mechanism for the enhanced TOC elimination rate, while the other mechanisms contribute minor to the enhancement by a factor of 1.6-2.5. The results indicate that proper selection of electrodes that can effectively produce H2O2 at the cathode is critical to maximize TOC elimination in the E-peroxone process.

  5. Quality Control of Gamma Irradiated Dwarf Mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.) Based on Color, Organic Acids, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Parameters.

    PubMed

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-08

    This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH(•) scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties.

  6. Total Health Organization.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Total Health Organization is a holistic care an humanitarian relief agency with special emphasis on Africa and Third World countries. It was founded in 1987 with a focus on hunger relief, health assistance, handicap, habitat and human rights of destitutes, socially disadvantaged persons and communities which it has adopted as the socially forgotten people (SFP). Total Health Organization is a non-political, non-profit, and international non-governmental organization, having official relations with several national, regional and world bodies. Some of the project activities include: free mobile clinics to rural destitutes, AIDS and related health education, an information and research library, and an NGO Development Center. For more information, please contact: Dr. Obi Osisiogu, Founder and President, Total Health International Center, 147 Ikot-Ekpene Road, P.O. Box 1726, Aba, Abia State Nigeria, Tel: 082-222279, Telex: 63311 ANYA NG, Fax: 234-82-227512.

  7. Total organic carbon analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  8. Total organic carbon analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  9. A traceable reference for direct comparative assessment of total naphthenic acid concentrations in commercial and acid extractable organic mixtures derived from oil sands process water.

    PubMed

    Brunswick, Pamela; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Kim, Marcus; van Aggelen, Graham; Shang, Dayue

    2017-02-23

    The advantage of using naphthenic acid (NA) mixtures for the determination of total NA lies in their chemical characteristics and identification of retention times distinct from isobaric interferences. However, the differing homolog profiles and unknown chemical structures of NA mixtures do not allow them to be considered a traceable reference material. The current study provides a new tool for the comparative assessment of different NA mixtures by direct reference to a single, well-defined and traceable compound, decanoic-d19 acid. The method employed an established liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QToF) procedure that was applicable both to the classic O2 NA species dominating commercial mixtures and additionally to the O4 species known to be present in acid extractable organics (AEOs) derived from oil sands process water (OSPW). Four different commercial NA mixtures and one OSPW-derived AEOs mixture were comparatively assessed. Results showed significant difference among Merichem Technical, Aldrich, Acros, and Kodak commercial NA mixtures with respect to "equivalent to decanoic-d19 acid" concentration ratios to nominal. Furthermore, different lot numbers of single commercial NA mixtures were found to be inconsistent with respect to their homolog content by percent response. Differences in the observed homolog content varied significantly, particularly at the lower (n = 9-14) and higher (n = 20-23) carbon number ranges. Results highlighted the problem between using NA mixtures from different sources and different lot numbers but offered a solution to the problem from a concentration perspective. It is anticipated that this tool may be utilized in review of historical data in addition to future studies, such as the study of OSPW derived acid extractable organics (AEOs) and fractions employed during toxicological studies.

  10. Total sialic acid profile in regressing and remodelling organs during the metamorphosis of marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas 1771).

    PubMed

    Kaptan, Engin; Bas, Serap Sancar; Inceli, Meliha Sengezer

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional relationship of sialic acid in regressing and remodelling organs such as the tail, small intestine and liver during the metamorphosis of Pelophylax ridibundus. For this purpose, four groups were composed according to developmental periods by considering Gosner's criteria (1964). Our findings showed that the sialic acid content of the larval tail has an opposite profile to cell death process. Although the sialic acid content of the small intestine and liver did not change evidently during metamorphosis, it increased after the completion of metamorphosis. Frog tail extensively exhibited cell death process and decreased proliferative activity and underwent complete degeneration during metamorphic climax. In spite of increased apoptotic index, a decreased sialic acid level in the tail tissues during climax can be the indication of a death cell removal process. However, the intestine and the liver included both cell death and proliferative process and remodelling in their adult forms. Thus, their sialic acid profiles during metamorphosis were different from the tail's profile. These data show that sialic acid may be an indicator of the presence of some cellular events during metamorphosis and that it can have different roles in the developmental process depending on the organ's fate throughout metamorphosis.

  11. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of total carbon, dicarboxylic acids and glyoxylic acid in the tropical Indian aerosols: Implications for sources and photochemical processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuluri, Chandra Mouli; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Swaminathan, T.; Tachibana, Eri

    2011-09-01

    The tropical Indian aerosols (PM10) collected on day- and nighttime bases in winter and summer, 2007 from Chennai (13.04°N; 80.17°E) were studied for stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of total carbon (TC), individual dicarboxylic acids (C2-C9) and glyoxylic acid (ωC2). δ13C values of TC ranged from -23.9‰ to -25.9‰ (-25.0 ± 0.6‰; n = 49). Oxalic (C2) (-17.1 ± 2.5‰), malonic (C3) (-20.8 ± 1.8‰), succinic (C4) (-22.5 ± 1.5‰) and adipic (C6) (-20.6 ± 4.1‰) acids and ωC2 acid (-22.4 ± 5.5‰) were found to be more enriched with 13C compared to TC. In contrast, suberic (C8) (-29.4 ± 1.8‰), phthalic (Ph) (-30.1 ± 3.5‰) and azelaic (C9) (-28.4 ± 5.8‰) acids showed smaller δ13C values than TC. Based on comparisons of δ13C values of TC in Chennai aerosols to those (-24.7 ± 2.2‰) found in unburned cow-dung samples collected from Chennai and isotopic signatures of the particles emitted from point sources, we found that biofuel/biomass burning are the major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in South and Southeast Asia. The decrease in δ13C values of C9 diacid by about 5‰ from winter to summer suggests that tropical plant emissions also significantly contribute to organic aerosol in this region. Significant increase in δ13C values from C4 to C2 diacids in Chennai aerosols could be attributed for their photochemical processing in the tropical atmosphere during long-range transport from source regions.

  12. Secondary formation of water-soluble organic acids and α-dicarbonyls and their contributions to total carbon and water-soluble organic carbon: Photochemical aging of organic aerosols in the Arctic spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kasukabe, Hideki; Barrie, Leonard A.

    2010-11-01

    Water-soluble dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12), ketocarboxylic acids (C2-C6, C9), and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal) were determined in the Arctic aerosols collected in winter to early summer, as well as aerosol total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Concentrations of TC and WSOC gradually decreased from late February to early June with a peak in spring, indicating a photochemical formation of water-soluble organic aerosols at a polar sunrise. We found that total (C2-C11) diacids (7-84 ng m-3) increased at polar sunrise by a factor of 4 and then decreased toward summer. Their contributions to TC (average 4.0%) peaked in early April and mid-May. The contribution of total diacids to WSOC was on average 7.1%. It gradually increased from February (5%) to a maximum in April (12.7%) with a second peak in mid-May (10.4%). Although oxalic acid (C2) is the dominant diacid until April, its predominance was replaced by succinic acid (C4) after polar sunrise. This may indicate that photochemical production of C2 was overwhelmed by its degradation when solar radiation was intensified and the atmospheric transport of its precursors from midlatitudes to the Arctic was ended in May. Interestingly, the contributions of azelaic (C9) and ω-oxobutanoic acids to WSOC increased in early summer possibly due to an enhanced emission of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids from the ocean followed by photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. An enhanced contribution of diacids to TC and WSOC at polar sunrise may significantly alter the hygroscopic properties of organic aerosols in the Arctic.

  13. Natural Product Total Synthesis in the Organic Laboratory: Total Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE), a Potent 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor from Honeybee Hives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touaibia, Mohamed; Guay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Natural products play a critical role in modern organic synthesis and learning synthetic techniques is an important component of the organic laboratory experience. In addition to traditional one-step organic synthesis laboratories, a multistep natural product synthesis is an interesting experiment to challenge students. The proposed three-step…

  14. Methods development for total organic carbon accountability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Brian L.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the efforts completed during the contract period beginning November 1, 1990 and ending April 30, 1991. Samples of product hygiene and potable water from WRT 3A were supplied by NASA/MSFC prior to contract award on July 24, 1990. Humidity condensate samples were supplied on August 3, 1990. During the course of this contract chemical analyses were performed on these samples to qualitatively determine specific components comprising, the measured organic carbon concentration. In addition, these samples and known standard solutions were used to identify and develop methodology useful to future comprehensive characterization of similar samples. Standard analyses including pH, conductivity, and total organic carbon (TOC) were conducted. Colorimetric and enzyme linked assays for total protein, bile acid, B-hydroxybutyric acid, methylene blue active substances (MBAS), urea nitrogen, ammonia, and glucose were also performed. Gas chromatographic procedures for non-volatile fatty acids and EPA priority pollutants were also performed. Liquid chromatography was used to screen for non-volatile, water soluble compounds not amenable to GC techniques. Methods development efforts were initiated to separate and quantitate certain chemical classes not classically analyzed in water and wastewater samples. These included carbohydrates, organic acids, and amino acids. Finally, efforts were initiated to identify useful concentration techniques to enhance detection limits and recovery of non-volatile, water soluble compounds.

  15. [Total synthesis of nordihydroguaiaretic acid].

    PubMed

    Wu, A X; Zhao, Y R; Chen, N; Pan, X F

    1997-04-01

    beta-Keto ester(5) was obtained from vanilin through etherification, oxidation and condensation with acetoacetic ester, (5) on oxidative coupling reaction by NaOEt/I2 produced dimer (6) in high yield. Acid catalyzed cyclodehydration of (6) gave the furan derivative(7), and by a series of selective hydrogenation nordihydroguaiaretic acid, furoguaiacin dimethyl ether and dihydroguaiaretic acid dimethyl ether were synthesized.

  16. Storage and stability of biochar-derived carbon and total organic carbon in relation to minerals in an acid forest soil of the Spanish Atlantic area.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ugalde, Oihane; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arostegi, Javier; Moragues, Lur; Arias-González, Ander

    2017-02-22

    Biochar can largely contribute to enhance organic carbon (OC) stocks in soil and improve soil quality in forest and agricultural lands. Its contribution depends on its recalcitrance, but also on its interactions with minerals and other organic compounds in soil. Thus, it is important to study the link between minerals, natural organic matter and biochar in soil. In this study, we investigated the incorporation of biochar-derived carbon (biochar-C) into various particle-size fractions with contrasting mineralogy and the effect of biochar on the storage of total OC in the particle-size fractions in an acid loamy soil under Pinus radiata (C3 type) in the Spanish Atlantic area. We compared plots amended with biochar produced from Miscanthus sp. (C4 type) with control plots (not amended). We separated sand-, silt-, and clay-size fractions in samples collected from 0 to 20-cm depth. In each fraction, we analyzed clay minerals, metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides, total OC and biochar-C. The results showed that 51% of the biochar-C was in fractions <20μm one year after the application of biochar. Biochar-C stored in clay-size fractions (0.2-2μm, 0.05-0.2μm, <0.05μm) was only 14%. Even so, we observed that biochar-C increased with decreasing particle-size in clay-size fractions, as it occurred with the vermiculitic phases and metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides. Biochar also affected to the distribution of total OC among particle-size fractions. Total OC concentration was greater in fractions 2-20μm, 0.2-2μm, 0.05-0.2μm in biochar-amended plots than in control plots. This may be explained by the adsorption of dissolved OC from fraction <0.05μm onto biochar particles. The results suggested that interactions between biochar, minerals and pre-existing organic matter already occurred in the first year.

  17. Projected stream water fluxes of NO3 and total organic carbon from the Storgama headwater catchment, Norway, under climate change and reduced acid deposition.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Heleen A; Wright, Richard F

    2008-02-01

    Fluctuations in the 20-year record of nitrate (NO3) and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations and fluxes in runoff at the small headwater catchment Storgama, southern Norway, were related to climate and acid deposition. The long-term decline in NO3 related to reduced NO3 deposition and increased winter discharge, whereas the long-term increase in TOC related to reduced sulfur deposition. Multiple regression models describing long-term trends and seasonal variability in these records were used to project future concentrations given scenarios of climate change and acid deposition. All scenarios indicated reduced NO3 fluxes and increased TOC fluxes; the largest projected changes for the period 2071-2100 were -86% and +24%, respectively. Uncertainties are that the predicted future temperatures are considerably higher than the historical record. Also, nonlinear responses of ecosystem processes (nitrogen [N] mineralization) to temperature, N-enrichment of soils, and step-changes in environmental conditions may affect future leaching of carbon and N.

  18. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  19. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W [Menlo Park, CA; Eggeman, Timothy J [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  20. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  1. EVALUATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS ANALYSIS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale and supporting experimental data for revising EPA's 1996 "Guidance for Total Organics" are summarized in this document. It reports the results of reseach and investigation of improvements to the Total Organic Emissions (TOE) guidance used by EPA to measure recovera...

  2. Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel).

    PubMed

    Bavec, Martina; Turinek, Matjaz; Grobelnik-Mlakar, Silva; Slatnar, Ana; Bavec, Franc

    2010-11-24

    The contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity were quantified in the flesh of red beet from conventional (CON), integrated (INT), organic (ORG), biodynamic (BD), and control farming systems using established methods. Significant differences were measured for malic acid, total phenolic content (TPC), and total antioxidant activity, where malic acid content ranged from 2.39 g kg(-1) FW (control) to 1.63 g kg(-1) FW (CON, ORG, and INT). The highest TPC was measured in BD and control samples (0.677 and 0.672 mg GAE g(-1), respectively), and the lowest in CON samples (0.511 mg GAE g(-1)). Antioxidant activity was positively correlated with TPC (r2=0.6187) and ranged from 0.823 μM TE g(-1) FW to 1.270 μM TE g(-1) FW in CON and BD samples, respectively, whereas total sugar content ranged from 21.03 g kg(-1) FW (CON) to 31.58 g kg(-1) FW (BD). The importance of sugars, organic acids, phenols, and antioxidants for human health, as well as for plant resilience and health, gained from this explorative study, is discussed and put into perspective.

  3. Measurement of total organic concentration in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, E.

    1978-01-01

    Instrument for determining total organic concentration in water uses no corrosive reagents or gases. Instead continuous ultraviolet photolysis process converts organic compounds to carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 electrode is used to measure CO2 content. Only reagent necessary is oxygen, generated in situ by electrolyzing some water. In addition to application in aerospace industry, system has potential uses in pollution monitoring and in laboratory analyses.

  4. Osmotic Concentration of Gooseberry Fruits – The Influence of Temperature, Time and Pretreatment Methods on Mass Transfer and Total Polyphenol and Organic Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    Kucner, Anna; Sójka, Michał; Klewicka, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Summary The objective of the study is to assess the influence of temperature, time and enzymatic pretreatment on the osmotic concentration of gooseberry fruits (cultivar Biały Triumf). The fruits were osmotically concentrated in a sucrose solution at 65 °Brix and 40 to 70 °C for 5 to 240 min. Two experimental procedures were employed. In the first procedure, prior to concentration the fruits were immersed in the solution containing lipolytic enzymes, and then in the solution containing pectinolytic enzymes. In the second procedure, pectinolytic enzymes were added to the sucrose solution. The kinetics of the osmotic concentration was studied based on the changes in dry matter content, water loss, and solid gain. Higher temperature and longer process time led to higher values of the mentioned parameters. After 1 h of concentration at 40 °C, dry matter content was 13.9%, while at 70 °C it was 20.4%. The use of pectinolytic enzymes during osmotic concentration resulted in higher effectiveness of the process. After 2 h of concentration with the use of pectinolytic enzymes, solid gain was seven times higher than that in the control sample. Enzymatic treatment with lipase and pectinase before concentration also increased solid gain during osmotic concentration (up to twelve times after 2 h at 40 °C). The lower processing temperature, the higher retention of phenolic compounds in fruits was observed. The retention of phenolics was the highest at 40 °C (92.2% at 2 h). Among organic acids (malic, shikimic and citric), the highest retention was exhibited by citric acid; at 1 h of concentration, its fraction in the obtained fruit syrup content was from 95.9 to 83.1% as compared to the starting material. PMID:27904314

  5. Total Quality and Organization Development. Total Quality Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William M.; Petrick, Joseph A.

    As the global business environment becomes more turbulent, quality management seems more indispensable. This book offers strategies for integrating the theory and practice of Total Quality Management (TQM) with organizational-development (OD) theory at all organizational levels. Chapter 1 answers the question "Why Total Quality Management and…

  6. Asymmetric Total Syntheses of Megacerotonic Acid and Shimobashiric Acid A

    PubMed Central

    Krabbe, Scott W.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric total syntheses of the α-benzylidene-γ-butyrolactone natural products megacerotonic acid and shimobashiric acid A have been accomplished in nine and 11 steps, respectively, from simple, commercially available starting materials. The key step for each synthesis is the (arene)RuCl(monosulfonamide)-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution-asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (DKR-ATH) of racemic α,δ-diketo-β-aryl esters to establish the absolute stereochemistry. Intramolecular diastereoselective Dieckmann cyclization forms the lactone core, and ketone reduction/alcohol elimination installs the α-arylidene. PMID:25699999

  7. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  8. Organic acids in naturally colored surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamar, William L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1966-01-01

    Most of the organic matter in naturally colored surface waters consists of a mixture of carboxylic acids or salts of these acids. Many of the acids color the water yellow to brown; however, not all of the acids are colored. These acids range from simple to complex, but predominantly they are nonvolatile polymeric carboxylic acids. The organic acids were recovered from the water by two techniques: continuous liquid-liquid extraction with n-butanol and vacuum evaporation at 50?C (centigrade). The isolated acids were studied by techniques of gas, paper, and column chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. About 10 percent of the acids recovered were volatile or could be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Approximately 30 of these carboxylic acids were isolated, and 13 of them were individually identified. The predominant part of the total acids could not be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Infrared examination of many column chromatographic fractions indicated that these nonvolatile substances are primarily polymeric hydroxy carboxylic acids having aromatic and olefinic unsaturation. The evidence suggests that some of these acids result from polymerization in aqueous solution. Elemental analysis of the sodium fusion products disclosed the absence of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens.

  9. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  10. Influences of dietary protein level, amino acid supplementation and environmental temperature on performance, body composition, organ weights and total heat production of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, B J; Yen, J T; Nienaber, J A; Easter, R A

    2003-08-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a 16% CP diet, a 12% CP diet, or a 12% CP diet supplemented with crystalline Lys, Trp, and Thr (12% CP + AA diet) in a thermal-neutral (23 degrees C) or heat-stressed (33 degrees C) environment on various body and physiological measurements in growing pigs. Heat-stressed pigs were given a 15% lower daily feed allowance than thermal-neutral pigs to remove the confounding effect of feed intake caused by high temperature. No diet x temperature interaction was observed for any variables (P > 0.09) except for pig activity and pancreas weight. At 33 degrees C, pig activity and pancreas weight did not differ among dietary treatments (P > 0.05). In contrast, at 23 degrees C, pigs fed the 12% CP diet had greater activity than those fed the 16% CP diet or the 12% CP + AA diet (P < 0.05). Pancreas weight was greater for pigs fed the 12% CP + AA diet than those fed the 12% CP diet (P < 0.05) when maintained at 23 degrees C. Compared with 23 degrees C, the 33 degrees C temperature decreased pig activity, heat production, daily gain, feed efficiency, and affected the concentration and accretion of empty body protein and ash, as well as weights of heart, pancreas, stomach, and large intestine (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the 12% CP + AA diet attained similar levels of performance and rates of empty body water, protein, lipid, and ash deposition as pigs fed the 16% CP diet (P > 0.10). Pigs fed the 12% CP + AA diet had lower serum urea plus ammonia nitrogen concentrations (P < 0.01) and total heat production (P < 0.05) compared with those fed the 16% CP diet or the 12% CP diet. These results confirm that, with crystalline AA supplementation, growing pigs fed a 12% CP diet will perform similar to pigs fed a 16% CP diet. The data further indicate that lowering dietary CP and supplementing crystalline AA will decrease total heat production in growing pigs whether they are housed in a thermal-neutral or heat-stressed environment.

  11. Mechanism of formation of humus coatings on mineral surfaces 2. Attenuated total reflectance spectra of hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions of organic acids from compost leachate on alumina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.; Llaguno, E.C.; Leenheer, J.A.; Sperline, R.P.; Song, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions were isolated from a compost leachate. The adsorption isotherms of both fractions on alumina were measured by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. The shapes of the adsorption isotherms of the two fractions were different. The isotherms for the hydrophilic fraction showed little change in surface excess with increasing solution concentration above 4 mg L-1. The isotherms for the hydrophobic fraction, on the other hand, displayed a marked increase in surface excess with increasing solution concentration. This increase is evidence for the formation of aggregates (admicelles or hemimicelles) on the alumina surface. Linear dichroism calculations indicated that more of the carboxylate groups in the adsorbed hydrophobic molecules than in the absorbed hydrophilic fraction were free to rotate. The hindered rotation of the carboxylate groups in the adsorbed hydrophilic-fraction molecules probably indicates that these groups are bound to surface aluminum ions by a bidentate mechanism in which the two oxygen atoms of a single carboxylate group bind to separate aluminum ions.

  12. [Total analysis of organic rubber additives].

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Xuan; Robert, Shanks; You, Ye-Ming

    2010-03-01

    In the present paper, after middle pressure chromatograph separation using both positive phase and reversed-phase conditions, the organic additives in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified by infrared spectrometer. At the same time, by using solid phase extraction column to maintain the main component-fuel oil in organic additves to avoid its interfering with minor compounds, other organic additves were separated and analysed by GC/Ms. In addition, the remaining active compound such as benzoyl peroxide was identified by CC/Ms, through analyzing acetone extract directly. Using the above mentioned techniques, soften agents (fuel oil, plant oil and phthalte), curing agent (benzoylperoxide), vulcanizing accelerators (2-mercaptobenzothiazole, ethyl thiuram and butyl thiuram), and antiagers (2, 6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol and styrenated phenol) in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified. Although the technique was established in ethylene-propylene rubber system, it can be used in other rubber system.

  13. [Determination of fatty acids and organic acids in Ranunculus ternatus Thunb using GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Yao, Cheng; Xia, Li-Ming; Ouyang, Ping-Kai

    2006-08-01

    The determination of fatty acids and organic acids in Chinese medicinal plant Ranunculus ternatus Thunb using GC-MS was studied. The Ranunculus ternatus Thunb from Henan province was cut into less than 20 mesh pieces, then extracted by petroleum ether or ether in refluxing and esteried, and finally was determined using GC-MS. The results show that there are 23 kinds of organic compounds in the Chinese medicinal plant Ranunculus ternatus Thunb from Henan, among which 15 kinds of fatty acids were identified, including myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, eicosanoic acid, docosanoic acid etc. The unsaturated fatty acids and oleic acid account for 58.19% and 35.68% of the total organic compounds respectively. The kinds of fatty acid in petroleum ether extract and ether extract are the same.

  14. Temporal Variations of Organic Acids in Sumac Fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, C.; Mulcahy, F.; Somayajula, K.; Edenborn, H.M.

    2006-10-01

    Extracts from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) fruits were obtained from fresh fruits obtained from June to October in two successive years. Total acidity, pH, and concentrations of malic and succinic acids determined using liquid chromatography were measured for each extract. Acidity and acid concentrations reached their maxima in late July, and declined slowly thereafter. Malic and succinic acid concentrations in the extracts reached maxima of about 4 and 0.2% (expressed per unit weight of fruit), respectively. Malic and succinic acids were the only organic acids observed in the extracts, and mass balance determinations indicate that these acids are most likely the only ones present in appreciable amounts.

  15. Organic acids tunably catalyze carbonic acid decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Busch, Daryle H; Subramaniam, Bala; Thompson, Ward H

    2014-07-10

    Density functional theory calculations predict that the gas-phase decomposition of carbonic acid, a high-energy, 1,3-hydrogen atom transfer reaction, can be catalyzed by a monocarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic acid, including carbonic acid itself. Carboxylic acids are found to be more effective catalysts than water. Among the carboxylic acids, the monocarboxylic acids outperform the dicarboxylic ones wherein the presence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond hampers the hydrogen transfer. Further, the calculations reveal a direct correlation between the catalytic activity of a monocarboxylic acid and its pKa, in contrast to prior assumptions about carboxylic-acid-catalyzed hydrogen-transfer reactions. The catalytic efficacy of a dicarboxylic acid, on the other hand, is significantly affected by the strength of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Transition-state theory estimates indicate that effective rate constants for the acid-catalyzed decomposition are four orders-of-magnitude larger than those for the water-catalyzed reaction. These results offer new insights into the determinants of general acid catalysis with potentially broad implications.

  16. Simplified quantitative determination of total fecal bile acids.

    PubMed

    de Wael, J; Raaymakers, C E; Endeman, H J

    1977-09-01

    To determine total fecal bile acids, these are extracted with diethyl ether after boiling with a solution of potassium hydroxide in ethanediol. After evaporating the ether and dissolving the residue in methanol, the bile acids are directly determined with 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Values for 9 normals are given.

  17. Total Synthesis of (±)- and (−)-Actinophyllic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Connor L.; Overman, Larry E.; Rohde, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    Development of efficient sequences for the total syntheses of (±)-actinophyllic acid (rac-1) and (−)-actinophyllic acid (1) are described. The central step in these syntheses is the aza-Cope/Mannich reaction, which constructs the previously unknown hexacyclic ring system of actinophyllic acid in one step from much simpler tetracyclic precursors. The tetracyclic hexahydro-1,5-methano-1H-azocino[4,3-b]indole ketone rac-37 is assembled from o-nitrophenylacetic acid in four steps, with oxidative cyclization of a dienolate derivative of tricyclic precursor rac-35 being the central step. In the first-generation synthesis, this intermediate is transformed in two steps to homoallyl amine rac-43, whose formaldiminium derivative undergoes efficient aza-Cope/Mannich reaction to give pentacyclic ketone rac-44. In four additional steps, this intermediate is advanced to (±)-actinophyllic acid. The synthesis is streamlined by elaborating ketone rac-37 to β-hydroxyester intermediate rac-53, which is directly transformed to (±)-actinophyllic acid upon exposure to HCl and paraformaldehyde. This concise second-generation total synthesis of (±)-actinophyllic acid is realized in 22% overall yield from commercially available di-tert-butylmalonate and o-nitrophenylacetic acid by a sequence that proceeds by way of only six isolated intermediates. The first enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-actinophyllic acid (1) is accomplished by this direct sequence from tricyclic keto malonate (S)-35. Catalytic enantioselective reduction of α,β-unsaturated ketone 66 is the key step in the preparation of intermediate (S)-35 from the commercially available Boc-amino acid 65. Discussed also is the possibility that the aza-Cope/Mannich reaction might be involved in the biosynthesis of (−)-actinophyllic acid. PMID:20218696

  18. Quantitative analysis of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids in thirty Hypericum taxa.

    PubMed

    Pilepić, Kroata Hazler; Males, Zeljan; Crkvencić, Maja

    2013-03-01

    The content of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids in the aerial parts of thirty Hypericum taxa collected over two consecutive seasons was investigated by spectrophotometric methods. All taxa examined contained flavonoids and phenolic acids in different quantities, although the differences between species and year's harvest were not found to be significant. The quantity of total flavonoids ranged from 0.1 to 1.6%. The highest content of flavonoids was found in the samples of H. japonicum (1.6%) and H. perforatum (1.5%), while the samples of H. androsaemum and H. balearicum comprised the lowest flavonoid amount (0.13%). The content of total phenolic acids in the investigated samples was found to be between 1.1-10.4%. The samples of H. perforatum were found to contain the highest quantity of phenolic acids (10.4% and 10.2%), whereas the sample ofH. linarifolium showed the lowest amount of phenolic acids (1.1%).

  19. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

    2004-05-03

    Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal biotechnology. However, unlike penicillin, the organic acids have had a less visible impact on human well-being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been overshadowed by the successful deployment of the β-lactam processes. Yet, in terms of productivity, fungal organic acid processes may be the best examples of all. For example, commercial processes using Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80% efficiency and at final concentrations in hundreds of grams per liter. Surprisingly, this phenomenal productivity has been the object of relatively few research programs. Perhaps a greater understanding of this extraordinary capacity of filamentous fungi to produce organic acids in high concentrations will allow greater exploitation of these organisms via application of new knowledge in this era of genomics-based biotechnology. In this chapter, we will explore the biochemistry and modern genetic aspects of the current and potential commercial processes for making organic acids. The organisms involved, with a few exceptions, are filamentous fungi, and this review is limited to that group. Although yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, species of Rhodotorula, Pichia, and Hansenula are important organisms in fungal biotechnology, they have not been significant for commercial organic acid production, with one exception. The yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002). Furthermore, in the near future engineered yeasts may provide new commercial processes to make lactic acid (Porro, Bianchi, Ranzi, Frontali, Vai, Winkler, & Alberghina, 2002). This chapter is divided into two parts. The first contains a review of the commercial aspects of current and potential large

  20. Organic Acid Production by Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Shoichi

    1965-01-01

    Sixty-seven strains belonging to 47 species of Basidiomycetes were examined for their acid-producing abilities in glucose media, in both the presence and absence of CaCO3, in stationary and shake cultures. Some strains were found to produce large quantities of oxalic acid. The oxalic acid-producing strains could be separated into two groups. Strains of one group (mostly brown-rot fungi) were able to produce oxalic acid, regardless of whether CaCO3 was present in the medium. Strains of the other group (mostly white-rot fungi) were characterized by their ability to produce oxalic acid only when CaCO3 was added to the medium. With the latter group, shake-culturing was generally more effective than stationary culturing in respect to acid production. In the CaCO3-containing media, Schizophyllum commune, Merulius tremellosus, and Porodisculus pendulus were found to produce substantial amounts of L-malic acid as a main metabolic product, along with small quantities of oxalic and other acids in shake cultures. Especially, S. commune and M. tremellosus may be employed as malic acid-producing species. PMID:5867653

  1. Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The phenol-sulfuric acid method is a simple and rapid colorimetric method to determine total carbohydrates in a sample. The method detects virtually all classes of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Although the method detects almost all carbohydrates, the absorptivity of the different carbohydrates varies. Thus, unless a sample is known to contain only one carbohydrate, the results must be expressed arbitrarily in terms of one carbohydrate.

  2. Effects of fatty acid supplements on ruminal and total tract nutrient digestion in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on ruminal digestion kinetics, and ruminal and postruminal nutrient digestion. Eight early lactation ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows (77 +/- 12 days in milk, mean +/- SD) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from supplemented saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). All rations contained identical forage and concentrate components including 37.2% forage and 13.5% cottonseed. Saturated FS linearly decreased ruminal digestibility of dry matter and organic matter and linearly decreased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility. The reduction in ruminal NDF digestibility was because of a linear decrease in digestion rate and a linear increase in passage rate of potentially digestible NDF with increasing saturated FS. Total tract digestibility of NDF was not different between treatments because of compensatory postruminal digestion. Ruminal fatty acid and C18 fatty acid digestibility tended to increase linearly with increasing unsaturated FS, and postruminal C18 fatty acid digestibility decreased with increasing saturated FS. Saturated FS linearly decreased ruminal organic matter digestibility and decreased intestinal long-chain fatty acid digestibility, although differences in fatty acid digestibility may be partially explained by fatty acid intake.

  3. Rapid methods to detect organic mercury and total selenium in biological samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organic mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant of concern and selenium is believed to afford protection against mercury risk though few approaches exist to rapidly assess both chemicals in biological samples. Here, micro-scale and rapid methods to detect organic mercury (< 1.5 ml total sample volume, < 1.5 hour) and total selenium (Se; < 3.0 ml total volume, < 3 hour) from a range of biological samples (10-50 mg) are described. Results For organic Hg, samples are digested using Tris-HCl buffer (with sequential additions of protease, NaOH, cysteine, CuSO4, acidic NaBr) followed by extraction with toluene and Na2S2O3. The final product is analyzed via commercially available direct/total mercury analyzers. For Se, a fluorometric assay has been developed for microplate readers that involves digestion (HNO3-HClO4 and HCl), conjugation (2,3-diaminonaphthalene), and cyclohexane extraction. Recovery of organic Hg (86-107%) and Se (85-121%) were determined through use of Standard Reference Materials and lemon shark kidney tissues. Conclusions The approaches outlined provide an easy, rapid, reproducible, and cost-effective platform for monitoring organic Hg and total Se in biological samples. Owing to the importance of organic Hg and Se in the pathophysiology of Hg, integration of such methods into established research monitoring efforts (that largely focus on screening total Hg only) will help increase understanding of Hg's true risks. PMID:21232132

  4. Total synthesis of racemic and (R) and (S)-4-methoxyalkanoic acids and their antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswanath; Shinde, Digambar Balaji; Kanth, Boddu Shashi; Kamle, Avijeet; Kumar, C Ganesh

    2011-07-01

    The total synthesis of 4-methoxydecanoic acid and 4-methoxyundecanoic acid in racemic and stereoselective [(R) and (S)] forms has been accomplished. For stereoselective synthesis of the compounds (S) and (R)-BINOL complexes have been used to generate the required chiral centres. The antifungal activity of these compounds has been studied against different organisms and the results were found to be impressive. The activity of the compounds in racemic and in stereoselective forms was compared. (R)-4-Methoxydecanoic acid was found to be most potent (MIC: 0.019 mg/mL against Candida albicans MTCC 227, C. albicans MTCC 4748, Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) MTCC 281 and Issatchenkia orientalis MTCC 3020).

  5. Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-05-06

    Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

  6. Production of organic acids from kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Loh, C W; Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Hassan, M A; Karim, M I

    1999-01-01

    This study involves the production of short-chain organic acids from kitchen wastes as intermediates for the production of biodegradable plastics. Flasks, without mixing were used for the anaerobic conversion of the organic fraction of kitchen wastes into short-chain organic acids. The influence of pH, temperature and addition of sludge cake on the rate of organic acids production and yield were evaluated. Fermentations were carried out in an incubator at different temperatures controlled at 30 degrees C. 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, 60 degrees C and uncontrolled at room temperature. The pH was also varied at pH 5, 6, 7, and uncontrolled pH. 1.0 M phosphate buffer was used for pH control, and 1.0 M HCl and 1.0 M NaOH were added when necessary. Sludge cake addition enhanced the rate of maximum acids production from 4 days to 1 day. The organic acids produced were maximum at pH 7 and 50 degrees C i.e., 39.84 g/l on the fourth day of fermentation with a yield of 0.87 g/g soluble COD consumed, and 0.84 g/g TVS. The main organic acid produced was lactic acid (65-85%), with small amounts of acetic (10-30%), propionic (5-10%), and butyric (5-20%) acids. The results of this study showed that kitchen wastes could be fermented to high concentration of organic acids, which could be used as substrates for the production of biodegradable plastics.

  7. Effect of UV irradiation on the proportion of organic chloramines in total chlorine in subsequent chlorination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Yang; Lin, Yi-Li; Xu, Bin; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Tian, Fu-Xiang; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the changes of chlorine species and proportion of organic chloramines during the chlorination process after UV irradiation pretreatment in drinking water. It was found that the UV pretreatment could enhance the percentage of organic chloramines by increasing free chlorine consumption in the chlorination of raw waters. The percentage of organic chloramines in total chlorine increased with UV intensity and irradiation time in raw waters. However, for the humic acid synthesized water, the percentage of organic chloramines increased first and then decreased with the increase of UV irradiation time. The value of SUVA declined in both raw and humic acid synthesized waters over the UV irradiation time, which indicated that the decomposition of aromatic organic matter by UV could be a contributor to the increase of free chlorine consumption and organic chloramine proportion. The percentage of organic chloramines during chlorination of raw waters after 30-min UV irradiation pretreatment varied from 20.2% to 41.8%. Total chlorine decreased obviously with the increase of nitrate concentration, but the percentage of organic chloramines increased and was linearly correlated to nitrate concentration.

  8. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  9. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  10. A total merit selection index for Ontario organic dairy farmers.

    PubMed

    Rozzi, P; Miglior, F; Hand, K J

    2007-03-01

    Organic standards require changes in management practices so that health, fertility, and overall fitness are more important than on conventional dairy farms and require different selection objectives. A survey involving 18 (40%) Ontario organic dairy farms was carried out to collect data on their production systems, breeding policies, and concerns. Compared with conventional farms, organic farms had lower milk production, lower replacement rate, higher somatic cell count, and a much higher rate of crossbreeding. Actual culling rate was 21%, and the main causes were fertility, mastitis, feet and legs, production, and old age. The major areas of concern expressed by organic dairy farmers were related to grazing traits, fertility, health, and longevity. An organic total merit index was developed based on the subjective scores for traits with a genetic evaluation in Canada. The relative weights of production to fitness traits (28:72) were substantially different from those in the Canadian Lifetime Profit Index (54:46), but similar to those used in conventional indices in Sweden and Denmark and in the Swiss organic index. The overall weight on health traits was 2.5 times higher in the organic index and, among fitness traits, the emphasis was substantially higher for lactation persistency, somatic cell score, and body capacity. Correlations between the organic index and Lifetime Profit Index were 0.88 for all bulls proven in Canada, 0.70 for the top 1,000, and 0.65 for the top 100, indicating that a different group of bulls would rank at the top of these 2 indices. When the top 100 bulls for either index were compared, those selected for the organic index were about 0.5 standard deviations lower for all yield traits, but were much better for body capacity and somatic cell score, and 0.25 standard deviations higher for herd life, feet and legs, udder conformation, and lactation persistency. Given the small population size, a separate breeding program for an organic

  11. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  12. Space Station Freedom Water Recovery test total organic carbon accountability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Michael W.; Slivon, Laurence; Sheldon, Linda; Traweek, Mary

    1991-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Water Recovery Test (WRT) addresses the concept of integrated hygiene and potable reuse water recovery systems baselined for Space Station Freedom (SSF). To assess the adequacy of water recovery system designs and the conformance of reclaimed water quality to established specifications, MSFC has initiated an extensive water characterization program. MSFC's goal is to quantitatively account for a large percentage of organic compounds present in waste and reclaimed hygiene and potable waters from the WRT and in humidity condensate from Spacelab missions. The program is coordinated into Phase A and B. Phase A's focus is qualitative and semi-quantitative. Precise quantitative analyses are not emphasized. Phase B's focus centers on a near complete quantitative characterization of all water types. Technical approaches along with Phase A and partial Phase B investigations on the compositional analysis of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Accountability are presented.

  13. Determination of the Free Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Nucleotide in Commercial Vinegars.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yan; Zhang, Li-Li; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Yu-Yu; Sun, Bao-Guo; Chen, Hai-Tao

    2017-03-29

    The selected taste-active compounds in several kinds of commercial vinegar including amino acids, organic acids, and nucleotides were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that glutamine and alanine, which contribute the umami and sweet taste to the flavor of vinegar, are high in Taste Activity Value (TAV). Acetic acid is the major organic acid in vinegar, making up as much as 91.4% of the total organic acid composition. Nucleotides, which were only detected in 5 brands of commercial vinegar and are both low in TAV, contribute less taste in vinegar. Our research provides a multiple chemical compositional characterization of vinegar and proposes a possibility of classification of different kinds of vinegar.

  14. Gas chromatographic analysis of infant formulas for total fatty acids, including trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Satchithanandam, Subramaniam; Fritsche, Jan; Rader, Jeanne I

    2002-01-01

    Twelve powdered and 13 liquid infant formulas were analyzed by using an extension of AOAC Official Method 996.01 for fat analysis in cereal products. Samples were hydrolyzed with 8 N HCl and extracted with ethyl and petroleum ethers. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared by refluxing the mixed ether extracts with methanolic sodium hydroxide in the presence of 14% boron trifluoride in methanol. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. In powdered formulas, saturated fatty acid (SFA) content (mean +/- SD; n = 12) was 41.05 +/- 3.94%, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content was 36.97 +/- 3.38%, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content was 20.07 +/- 3.08%, and total trans fatty acid content was 1.30 +/- 1.27%. In liquid formulas, SFA content (mean +/- SD; n = 13) was 42.29 +/- 2.98%, MUFA content was 36.05 +/- 2.47%, PUFA content was 20.65 +/- 2.40%, and total trans fatty acid content was 0.88 +/- 0.54%. Total fat content in powdered formulas ranged from 4.4 to 5.5 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 868 to 1166 mg/100 kcal. In liquid formulas, total fat content ranged from 4.1 to 5.1 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 820 to 1100 mg/100 kcal. There were no significant differences between powdered and liquid infant formulas in concentrations of total fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or trans fatty acids.

  15. Influence of dissolved organic carbon content on modelling natural organic matter acid-base properties.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Cédric; Mounier, Stéphane; Benaïm, Jean Yves

    2004-10-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) behaviour towards proton is an important parameter to understand NOM fate in the environment. Moreover, it is necessary to determine NOM acid-base properties before investigating trace metals complexation by natural organic matter. This work focuses on the possibility to determine these acid-base properties by accurate and simple titrations, even at low organic matter concentrations. So, the experiments were conducted on concentrated and diluted solutions of extracted humic and fulvic acid from Laurentian River, on concentrated and diluted model solutions of well-known simple molecules (acetic and phenolic acids), and on natural samples from the Seine river (France) which are not pre-concentrated. Titration experiments were modelled by a 6 acidic-sites discrete model, except for the model solutions. The modelling software used, called PROSECE (Programme d'Optimisation et de SpEciation Chimique dans l'Environnement), has been developed in our laboratory, is based on the mass balance equilibrium resolution. The results obtained on extracted organic matter and model solutions point out a threshold value for a confident determination of the studied organic matter acid-base properties. They also show an aberrant decreasing carboxylic/phenolic ratio with increasing sample dilution. This shift is neither due to any conformational effect, since it is also observed on model solutions, nor to ionic strength variations which is controlled during all experiments. On the other hand, it could be the result of an electrode troubleshooting occurring at basic pH values, which effect is amplified at low total concentration of acidic sites. So, in our conditions, the limit for a correct modelling of NOM acid-base properties is defined as 0.04 meq of total analysed acidic sites concentration. As for the analysed natural samples, due to their high acidic sites content, it is possible to model their behaviour despite the low organic carbon concentration.

  16. Determination of total arsenic, inorganic and organic arsenic species in wine.

    PubMed

    Herce-Pagliai, C; Moreno, I; González, G; Repetto, M; Cameán, A M

    2002-06-01

    Forty-five wine samples from the south of Spain of different alcoholic strength were analysed for total arsenic and its inorganic [As(III), As(V)] and organic (monomethylarsonic acid [MMAA], dimethylarsinic acid [DMAA]) species. The As levels of the wine samples ranged from 2.1 to 14.6 microg l(-1). The possible effect of the alcoholic fermentation process on the levels of the total arsenic and arsenical species was studied. The average total arsenic levels for the different samples were very similar, without significant differences between all types of wines. In table wines and sherry, the percentages of total inorganic arsenic were 18.6 and 15.6%, with DMAA or MMAA being the predominant species, respectively. In most samples, DMAA was the most abundant species, but the total inorganic aresenic fraction was considerable, representing 25.4% of the total concentration of the element. The estimated daily intakes of total arsenic and total inorganic arsenic for average Spanish consumers were 0.78 and 0.15 microg/person day(-1), respectively. The results suggest that the consumption of these types of wines makes no significant contribution to the total and inorganic arsenic intake for normal drinkers. However, wine consumption contributes a higher arsenic intake than through consumption of beers and sherry brandies.

  17. Surface complexation modeling or organic acid sorption to goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Evanko, C.R.; Dzombak, D.A.

    1999-06-15

    Surface complexation modeling was performed using the Generalized Two-Layer Model for a series of low molecular weight organic acids. Sorption of these organic acids to goethite was investigated in a previous study to assess the influence of particular structural features on sorption. Here, the ability to describe the observed sorption behavior for compounds with similar structural features using surface complexation modeling was investigated. A set of surface reactions and equilibrium constants yielding optimal data fits was obtained for each organic acid over a range of total sorbate concentrations. Surface complexation modeling successfully described sorption of a number of the simple organic acids, but an additional hydrophobic component was needed to describe sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior that was inconsistent with ligand exchange mechanisms since sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior that was inconsistent with ligand exchange mechanisms since sorption did not decrease with increasing total sorbate concentration and/or exceeded surface site saturation. Hydrophobic interactions appeared to be most significant for the compound containing a 5-carbon aliphatic chain. Comparison of optimized equilibrium constants for similar surface species showed that model results were consistent with observed sorption behavior: equilibrium constants were highest for compounds having adjacent carboxylic groups, lower for compounds with adjacent phenolic groups, and lowest for compounds with phenolic groups in the ortho position relative to a carboxylic group. Surface complexation modeling was also performed to fit sorption data for Suwannee River fulvic acid. The data could be described well using reactions and

  18. Surface Complexation Modeling of Organic Acid Sorption to Goethite.

    PubMed

    Evanko; Dzombak

    1999-06-15

    Surface complexation modeling was performed using the Generalized Two-Layer Model for a series of low molecular weight organic acids. Sorption of these organic acids to goethite was investigated in a previous study to assess the influence of particular structural features on sorption. Here, the ability to describe the observed sorption behavior for compounds with similar structural features using surface complexation modeling was investigated. A set of surface reactions and equilibrium constants yielding optimal data fits was obtained for each organic acid over a range of total sorbate concentrations. Surface complexation modeling successfully described sorption of a number of the simple organic acids, but an additional hydrophobic component was needed to describe sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior that was inconsistent with ligand exchange mechanisms since sorption did not decrease with increasing total sorbate concentration and/or exceeded surface site saturation. Hydrophobic interactions appeared to be most significant for the compound containing a 5-carbon aliphatic chain. Comparison of optimized equilibrium constants for similar surface species showed that model results were consistent with observed sorption behavior: equilibrium constants were highest for compounds having adjacent carboxylic groups, lower for compounds with adjacent phenolic groups, and lowest for compounds with phenolic groups in the ortho position relative to a carboxylic group. Surface complexation modeling was also performed to fit sorption data for Suwannee River fulvic acid. The data could be described well using reactions and constants similar to those for pyromellitic acid. This four-carboxyl group compound may be useful as a model for fulvic acid with respect to sorption. Other simple organic acids having multiple carboxylic and phenolic functional groups were identified as potential models for humic

  19. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F.

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  20. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers.

  1. Total Synthesis of Five Lipoteichoic acids of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Hogendorf, Wouter F J; Gisch, Nicolas; Schwudke, Dominik; Heine, Holger; Bols, Mikael; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2014-10-13

    The emergence of hypervirulent resistant strains have made Clostridium difficile a notorious nosocomial pathogen and has resulted in a renewed interest in preventive strategies, such as vaccines based on (synthetic) cell wall antigens. Recently, the structure of the lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of this species has been elucidated. Additionally, this LTA was found to induce the formation of protective antibodies against C. difficile in rabbits and mice. The LTA from C. difficile is isolated as a microheterogenous mixture, differing in size and composition, impeding any structure-activity relationship studies. To ensure reliable biological results, pure and well-defined synthetic samples are required. In this work the total synthesis of LTAs from C. difficile with defined chain length is described and the initial biological results are presented.

  2. An improved method for total organic iodine in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sayess, Rassil; Reckhow, David A

    2017-01-01

    A concise, rapid, and sensitive method is developed to measure organically-bound iodine in water. Total organic iodine (TOI) is used as an integrative surrogate that reflects the amount of iodinated organics in a water sample and is quantified using a refined method that builds on previous adsorption and detection approaches. The proposed method combines adsorption, combustion, and trapping of combustion products, with an offline inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for iodide detection. During method development, three analytical variables (factors) were varied across two levels each in order to optimize the method for iodine recovery: 1) the sample pH prior to adsorption on the granular activated carbon (GAC); 2) the amount of base addition to the trap solution; and 3) composition of the ICP-MS wash solution. These factors were tested with solutions of eight iodinated model organic compounds, two iodinated inorganic compounds, and field water samples using a full factorial experimental design. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and related statistical methods were deployed to identify the best combination of conditions (i.e., treatment) that results in the most complete recovery of iodine from the model compounds and the highest rejection of inorganic iodine. The chosen treatment for TOI measurement incorporates a sample pH of less than 1 prior to adsorption onto the GAC, a solution of 2% (v/v) tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) for trapping of combustion products, and a TMAH wash solution of 0.1% (v/v) for the ICP-MS.

  3. DEVELOP NEW TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON/SPECIFIC UV ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this project is to provide a total organic carbon (TOC)/specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) method that will be used by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) to support monitoring requirements of the Stage 2 Disinfectant/Disinfection By-products (D/DBP) Rule. The Stage 2 Rule requires that enhanced water treatment be used if the source water is high in aquatic organic matter prior to the application of a disinfectant. Disinfectants (chlorine, ozone, etc.) are used in the production of drinking water in order to reduce the risk of microbial disease. These disinfectants react with the organic material that is naturally present in the source water to form disinfection by-products (DBPs). Exposure to some of these by-products may pose a long term health risk. The number and nature of DBPs make it impossible to fully characterize all of the by-products formed during the treatment of drinking water and it is more cost effective to reduce formation of DBPs than to remove them from the water after they are formed. Two measurements (TOC and SUVA) are believed to be predictive of the amount of by-products that can be formed during the disinfection of drinking water and are considered to be surrogates for DBP precursors. SUVA is calculated as the ultraviolet absorption at 254nm (UV254) in cm-1 divided by the mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (measured after filtration of the water through a 0.45um pore-diameter filte

  4. Applying total quality management concepts to public health organizations.

    PubMed Central

    Kaluzny, A D; McLaughlin, C P; Simpson, K

    1992-01-01

    Total quality management (TQM) is a participative, systematic approach to planning and implementing a continuous organizational improvement process. Its approach is focused on satisfying customers' expectations, identifying problems, building commitment, and promoting open decision-making among workers. TQM applies analytical tools, such as flow and statistical charts and check sheets, to gather data about activities within an organization. TQM uses process techniques, such as nominal groups, brainstorming, and consensus forming to facilitate communication and decision making. TQM applications in the public sector and particularly in public health agencies have been limited. The process of integrating TQM into public health agencies complements and enhances the Model Standards Program and assessment methodologies, such as the Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEX-PH), which are mechanisms for establishing strategic directions for public health. The authors examine the potential for using TQM as a method to achieve and exceed standards quickly and efficiently. They discuss the relationship of performance standards and assessment methodologies with TQM and provide guidelines for achieving the full potential of TQM in public health organizations. The guidelines include redefining the role of management, defining a common corporate culture, refining the role of citizen oversight functions, and setting realistic estimates of the time needed to complete a task or project. PMID:1594734

  5. Total organic carbon method for aspirin cleaning validation.

    PubMed

    Holmes, A J; Vanderwielen, A J

    1997-01-01

    Cleaning validation is the process of assuring that cleaning procedures effectively remove the residue from manufacturing equipment/facilities below a predetermined level. This is necessary to assure the quality of future products using the equipment, to prevent cross-contamination, and as a World Health Organization Good Manufacturing Practices requirement. We have applied the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analysis method to a number of pharmaceutical products. In this article we discuss the TOC method that we developed for measuring residual aspirin on aluminum, stainless steel, painted carbon steel, and plexiglass. These are all surfaces that are commonly found as part of pharmaceutical production equipment. The method offers low detection capability (parts per million levels) and rapid sample analysis time. The recovery values ranged from 25% for aluminum to about 75% for plexiglass with a precision of 13% or less. The results for the plexiglass tended to vary with the age of the surface making the determination of an accurate recovery value difficult for this type of surface. We found that the TOC method is applicable for determining residual aspirin on pharmaceutical surfaces and will be useful for cleaning validation.

  6. Use of tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    MARRA, FRANCESCO; ROSSO, FEDERICA; BRUZZONE, MATTEO; BONASIA, DAVIDE EDOARDO; DETTONI, FEDERICO; ROSSI, ROBERTO

    2016-01-01

    Purpose different strategies have been developed to reduce blood loss in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The efficacy of both systemic and local tranexamic acid (TXA) administration is demonstrated in the literature. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of systemic, local and combined (systemic + local) administration of TXA in reducing blood loss after TKA. Methods we enrolled all patients submitted to a primary TKA in our department between November 2014 and August 2015. They were divided into three groups corresponding to the method of TXA administration used: intravenous (IV), intra-articular (IA), and a combination of the two. Demographic data, as well as preoperative hemoglobin and platelet levels, were collected. The primary outcome was the maximum hemoglobin loss, while the secondary outcomes were the amount of blood in the drain (cc/hour) and the rate of transfusions; postoperative pain was also assessed. Student’s t-test or a χ2 test was used to evaluate between-group differences, using p<0.05 as the cut-off for statistically significant differences. Results the sample comprised 34 patients: IV, 10 cases; IA, 15 cases, and combined (IV + IA), 9 cases. The average age of the patients was 71.1±6.4 years. No significant differences in the outcome measures were found between the groups, with the exception of a significantly lower maximum hemoglobin loss in the combined versus the IV group (p=0.02). There were no differences between the groups in the amount of blood in the drain or the rate of transfusions. Conclusions the data from this preliminary study, as well as data from the literature, confirm that TXA administration is safe and effective in reducing total blood loss in TKA, and no administration protocol seems to be superior to the others. Level of evidence Level II, prospective comparative study. PMID:28217656

  7. Maximum total organic carbon limit for DWPF melter feed

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-03-13

    DWPF recently decided to control the potential flammability of melter off-gas by limiting the total carbon content in the melter feed and maintaining adequate conditions for combustion in the melter plenum. With this new strategy, all the LFL analyzers and associated interlocks and alarms were removed from both the primary and backup melter off-gas systems. Subsequently, D. Iverson of DWPF- T{ampersand}E requested that SRTC determine the maximum allowable total organic carbon (TOC) content in the melter feed which can be implemented as part of the Process Requirements for melter feed preparation (PR-S04). The maximum TOC limit thus determined in this study was about 24,000 ppm on an aqueous slurry basis. At the TOC levels below this, the peak concentration of combustible components in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the LFL during off-gas surges of magnitudes up to three times nominal, provided that the melter plenum temperature and the air purge rate to the BUFC are monitored and controlled above 650 degrees C and 220 lb/hr, respectively. Appropriate interlocks should discontinue the feeding when one or both of these conditions are not met. Both the magnitude and duration of an off-gas surge have a major impact on the maximum TOC limit, since they directly affect the melter plenum temperature and combustion. Although the data obtained during recent DWPF melter startup tests showed that the peak magnitude of a surge can be greater than three times nominal, the observed duration was considerably shorter, on the order of several seconds. The long surge duration assumed in this study has a greater impact on the plenum temperature than the peak magnitude, thus making the maximum TOC estimate conservative. Two models were used to make the necessary calculations to determine the TOC limit.

  8. Intravenous versus topical tranexamic acid in primary total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei; Liang, Yuan; Chen, Pengtao; Fang, Yongchao; He, Jinshan; Wang, Jingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: As the prevalence of total hip arthroplasty (THA) is increasing, it is usually associated with considerable blood loss. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been reported to reduce perioperative blood loss in hip joint arthroplasty. But the best route of TXA administration continues to be controversial. So, we conducted a meta-analysis that integrated all data from the 7 included trials to compare the effectiveness and safety of topical and intravenous TXA administration in primary THA. The endpoints assessed in this meta-analysis include the comparisons of total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, transfusion rates, the incidence rate of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolisms (PE), and wound infection. Methods: Literature searches of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, the CNKI database, and Wan Fang Data were performed up to August 30, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in our meta-analysis if they compared the efficiency and safety of intravenous versus topical administration of TXA in patients who underwent primary THA. The endpoints included the comparisons of total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, transfusion rates, the incidence rate of DVT, PE, and wound infection. A meta-analysis was performed following the guidelines of the Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook and the PRISMA statement. The pooling of data was carried out by using RevMan 5.3, Denmark. Results: Seven RCTs involving 964 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis indicated that there were no significant differences in the 2 groups in terms of total blood loss ([mean difference (MD) = −14.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): −89.21 to 59.74, P = 0.7], transfusion rates [RD = −0.02, 95% CI: −0.05 to 0.02, P = 0.39]; no significant differences were found regarding the incidence of adverse effects such as deep venous thrombosis [DVT] [RD = 0.00, 95% CI: −0

  9. Application of total organic carbon analysis to cleaning validation.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, K M; Vanderwielen, A J; Armstrong, J A; Leonard, L M; Murphy, G P; Piros, N A

    1996-01-01

    Cleaning validation is the process of assuring that cleaning procedures effectively remove residue from manufacturing equipment/facilities below a predetermined level. This is necessary to assure the quality of future products using the equipment, to prevent cross-contamination and as a GMP requirement. Currently, cleaning validation samples are measured using HPLC or spectrophotometric methods of analysis which are often time consuming and subject to a number of interferences. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analysis is a new method which has previously only been applied to measurement of carbon residues on production surfaces for biopharmaceuticals. We have applied the TOC analysis method to a number of traditional pharmaceutical products including antibiotics, steroids, and antinauseants in addition to biopharmaceuticals. The method offers extremely low detection capability (ppm and ppb), rapid sample analysis time and therefore quick turn-around of production equipment and facilities. TOC analysis is also applicable to on-line analysis. The method allows the measurement of extraneous materials such as process intermediates, cleaning agents, and protein materials not possible by other methods.

  10. Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan

    2013-01-29

    A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

  11. Natural solar photolysis of total organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in water.

    PubMed

    Abusallout, Ibrahim; Hua, Guanghui

    2016-04-01

    Municipal wastewater has been increasingly used to augment drinking water supplies due to the growing water scarcity. Wastewater-derived disinfection byproducts (DBPs) may negatively affect the aquatic ecosystems and human health of downstream communities during water reuse. The objective of this research was to determine the degradation kinetics of total organic chlorine (TOCl), bromine (TOBr) and iodine (TOI) in water by natural sunlight irradiation. Outdoor solar photolysis experiments were performed to investigate photolytic degradation of the total organic halogen (TOX) formed by fulvic acid and real water and wastewater samples. The results showed that TOX degradation by sunlight irradiation followed the first-order kinetics with half-lives in the range of 2.6-10.7 h for different TOX compounds produced by fulvic acid. The TOX degradation rates were generally in the order of TOI > TOBr ≅ TOCl(NH2Cl) > TOCl(Cl2). High molecular weight TOX was more susceptible to solar photolysis than corresponding low molecular weight halogenated compounds. The nitrate and sulfite induced indirect TOX photolysis rates were less than 50% of the direct photolysis rates under the conditions of this study. Fulvic acid and turbidity in water reduced TOX photodegradation. These results contribute to a better understanding of the fate of chlorinated, brominated and iodinated DBPs in surface waters.

  12. Penetration of polar brominated DBPs through the activated carbon columns during total organic bromine analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Zhang, Xiangru; Krasner, Stuart W; Shang, Chii; Zhai, Hongyan; Liu, Jiaqi; Yang, Mengting

    2011-10-01

    Total organic bromine (TOBr) is a collective parameter representing all the brominated organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water samples. TOBr can be measured using the adsorption-pyrolysis method according to Standard Method 5320B. This method involves that brominated organic DBPs are separated from inorganic halides and concentrated from aqueous solution by adsorption onto the activated carbon (AC). Previous studies have reported that some commonly known brominated DBPs can partially penetrate through the AC during this adsorption step. In this work, the penetration of polar brominated DBPs through AC and ozone-modified AC was explored with two simulated drinking water samples and one chlorinated wastewater effluent sample. Polar brominated DBPs were selectively detected with a novel precursor ion scan method using electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The results show that 3.4% and 10.4% of polar brominated DBPs (in terms of total ion intensity) in the chlorinated Suwannee River fulvic acid and humic acid samples, respectively, penetrated through the AC, and 19.6% of polar brominated DBPs in the chlorinated secondary wastewater effluent sample penetrated through the AC. The ozone-modification of AC minimized the penetration of polar brominated DBPs during the TOBr analysis.

  13. Assessment of bioavailable organic phosphorus in tropical forest soils by organic acid extraction and phosphatase hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Darch, Tegan; Blackwell, Martin S A; Chadwick, David; Haygarth, Philip M; Hawkins, Jane M B; Turner, Benjamin L

    2016-12-15

    Soil organic phosphorus contributes to the nutrition of tropical trees, but is not accounted for in standard soil phosphorus tests. Plants and microbes can release organic anions to solubilize organic phosphorus from soil surfaces, and synthesize phosphatases to release inorganic phosphate from the solubilized compounds. We developed a procedure to estimate bioavailable organic phosphorus in tropical forest soils by simulating the secretion processes of organic acids and phosphatases. Five lowland tropical forest soils with contrasting properties (pH 4.4-6.1, total P 86-429 mg P kg(- 1)) were extracted with 2 mM citric acid (i.e., 10 μmol g(- 1), approximating rhizosphere concentrations) adjusted to soil pH in a 4:1 solution to soil ratio for 1 h. Three phosphatase enzymes were then added to the soil extract to determine the forms of hydrolysable organic phosphorus. Total phosphorus extracted by the procedure ranged between 3.22 and 8.06 mg P kg(- 1) (mean 5.55 ± 0.42 mg P kg(- 1)), of which on average three quarters was unreactive phosphorus (i.e., organic phosphorus plus inorganic polyphosphate). Of the enzyme-hydrolysable unreactive phosphorus, 28% was simple phosphomonoesters hydrolyzed by phosphomonoesterase from bovine intestinal mucosa, a further 18% was phosphodiesters hydrolyzed by a combination of nuclease from Penicillium citrinum and phosphomonoesterase, and the remaining 51% was hydrolyzed by a broad-spectrum phytase from wheat. We conclude that soil organic phosphorus can be solubilized and hydrolyzed by a combination of organic acids and phosphatase enzymes in lowland tropical forest soils, indicating that this pathway could make a significant contribution to biological phosphorus acquisition in tropical forests. Furthermore, we have developed a method that can be used to assess the bioavailability of this soil organic phosphorus.

  14. External concentration of organic acid anions and pH: key independent variables for studying how organic acids inhibit growth of bacteria in mildly acidic foods.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, C E; Broadbent, J R

    2009-01-01

    Although the mechanisms by which organic acids inhibit growth of bacteria in mildly acidic foods are not fully understood, it is clear that intracellular accumulation of anions is a primary contributor to inhibition of bacterial growth. We hypothesize that intracellular accumulation of anions is driven by 2 factors, external anion concentration and external acidity. This hypothesis follows from basic chemistry principles that heretofore have not been fully applied to studies in the field, and it has led us to develop a novel approach for predicting internal anion concentration by controlling the external concentration of anions and pH. This approach overcomes critical flaws in contemporary experimental design that invariably target concentration of either protonated acid or total acid in the growth media thereby leaving anion concentration to vary depending on the pK(a) of the acids involved. Failure to control external concentration of anions has undoubtedly confounded results, and it has likely led to misleading conclusions regarding the antimicrobial action of organic acids. In summary, we advocate an approach for directing internal anion levels by controlling external concentration of anions and pH because it presents an additional opportunity to study the mechanisms by which organic acids inhibit bacterial growth. Knowledge gained from such studies would have important application in the control of important foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, and may also facilitate efforts to promote the survival in foods or beverages of desirable probiotic bacteria.

  15. Essential amino acid supplementation in patients following total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Hans C.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Senesac, Hilary A.; Hocker, Austin D.; Smolkowski, Keith; Shah, Steven N.; Jewett, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. By the year 2030, 3.48 million older U.S. adults are projected to undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Following this surgery, considerable muscle atrophy occurs, resulting in decreased strength and impaired functional mobility. Essential amino acids (EAAs) have been shown to attenuate muscle loss during periods of reduced activity and may be beneficial for TKA patients. Methods. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial with 28 older adults undergoing TKA. Patients were randomized to ingest either 20 g of EAAs (n = 16) or placebo (n = 12) twice daily between meals for 1 week before and 2 weeks after TKA. At baseline, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks after TKA, an MRI was performed to determine mid-thigh muscle and adipose tissue volume. Muscle strength and functional mobility were also measured at these times. Results. TKA patients receiving placebo exhibited greater quadriceps muscle atrophy, with a –14.3 ± 3.6% change from baseline to 2 weeks after surgery compared with –3.4 ± 3.1% for the EAA group (F = 5.16, P = 0.036) and a –18.4 ± 2.3% change from baseline to 6 weeks after surgery for placebo versus –6.2 ± 2.2% for the EAA group (F = 14.14, P = 0.001). EAAs also attenuated atrophy in the nonoperated quadriceps and in the hamstring and adductor muscles of both extremities. The EAA group performed better at 2 and 6 weeks after surgery on functional mobility tests (all P < 0.05). Change in quadriceps muscle atrophy was significantly associated with change in functional mobility (F = 5.78, P = 0.021). Conclusion. EAA treatment attenuated muscle atrophy and accelerated the return of functional mobility in older adults following TKA. Trial registration. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00760383. Funding. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Office of the Director (OD), and the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), NIH grant K01HD057332, and the Medical

  16. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of carboxylic acids adsorbed onto mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubicki, J. D.; Schroeter, L. M.; Itoh, M. J.; Nguyen, B. N.; Apitz, S. E.

    1999-09-01

    A suite of naturally-occurring carboxylic acids (acetic, oxalic, citric, benzoic, salicylic and phthalic) and their corresponding sodium salts were adsorbed onto a set of common mineral substrates (quartz, albite, illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) in batch slurry experiments. Solution pH's of approximately 3 and 6 were used to examine the effects of pH on sorption mechanisms. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to obtain vibrational frequencies of the organic ligands on the mineral surfaces and in solution. UV/visible spectroscopy on supernatant solutions was also employed to confirm that adsorption from solution had taken place for benzoic, salicylic and phthalic acids. Molecular orbital calculations were used to model possible surface complexes and interpret the experimental spectra. In general, the tectosilicates, quartz and albite feldspar, did not chemisorb (i.e., strong, inner-sphere adsorption) the carboxylate anions in sufficient amounts to produce infrared spectra of the organics after rinsing in distilled water. The clays (illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) each exhibited similar ATR FTIR spectra. However, the illite sample used in this study reacted to form strong surface and aqueous complexes with salicylic acid before being treated to remove free Fe-hydroxides. Chemisorption of carboxylic acids onto clays is shown to be limited without the presence of Fe-hydroxides within the clay matrix.

  17. Speciation of Total Organic Gas and Particulate Matter Emissions from Onroad Vehicles in the Next Version of MOVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calculation of organic gas measures used in MOVES (total hydrocarbons, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, non-methane organic gases, and total organic gases). Incorporation of speciation within MOVES to produce total organic gas and particulate matte...

  18. RT-MATRIX: Measuring Total Organic Carbon by Photocatalytic Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inevitably accumulate in enclosed habitats such as the International Space Station and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as a result of human metabolism, material off-gassing, and leaking equipment. Some VOCs can negatively affect the quality of the crew's life, health, and performance; and consequently, the success of the mission. Air quality must be closely monitored to ensure a safe living and working environment. Currently, there is no reliable air quality monitoring system that meets NASA's stringent requirements for power, mass, volume, or performance. The ultimate objective of the project -- the development of a Real-Time, Miniaturized, Autonomous Total Risk Indicator System (RT.MATRIX).is to provide a portable, dual-function sensing system that simultaneously determines total organic carbon (TOC) and individual contaminants in air streams.

  19. Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

    2009-06-01

    The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain.

  20. Change of monochloroacetic acid to biodegradable organic acids by hydrothermal reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoungrean; Fujita, Masafumi; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Fujie, Koichi

    2004-04-30

    The feasibility of biodegradability improvement induced from the structural conversion of refractory pollutants by hydrothermal reaction was investigated. Monochloroacetic acid (MCAA) was selected as a preliminary material represented for linear hydrocarbon structured refractory pollutants. Under the tested conditions, MCAA was partially destructed and then converted to biodegradable reaction products by hydrolysis, dehydration and thermal decomposition. The identified products were glycolic acid, citric acid and formic acid. Total organic carbon (TOC) reduction during the structural conversion did not exceed 24%, except the results at the reaction conditions of 350 degrees C and 17 MPa. However, Produced biodegradable organic acids were reduced by thermal decomposition with increasing reaction temperature and time. At the reaction temperature of 250 and 300 degrees C, biodegradability (BOD/COD(Cr)) was reached at 0.51 in 6.9 min and 0.52 in 7.4 min despite the presence of dissociated chlorine ions. The detachment of recalcitrant chlorine ion from MCAA and the production of biodegradable organic acids by hydrothermal reaction were directly related to the biodegradability improvement of reaction products.

  1. Overexpression of a Gene Involved in Phytic Acid Biosynthesis Substantially Increases Phytic Acid and Total Phosphorus in Rice Seeds.

    PubMed

    Tagashira, Yusuke; Shimizu, Tomoe; Miyamoto, Masanobu; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-04-24

    The manipulation of seed phosphorus is important for seedling growth and environmental P sustainability in agriculture. The mechanism of regulating P content in seed, however, is poorly understood. To study regulation of total P, we focused on phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP₆) biosynthesis-related genes, as InsP₆ is a major storage form of P in seeds. The rice (Oryza sativa L.) low phytic acid mutant lpa1-1 has been identified as a homolog of archael 2-phosphoglycerate kinase. The homolog might act as an inositol monophosphate kinase, which catalyzes a key step in InsP₆ biosynthesis. Overexpression of the homolog in transgenic rice resulted in a significant increase in total P content in seed, due to increases in InsP₆ and inorganic phosphates. On the other hand, overexpression of genes that catalyze the first and last steps of InsP₆ biosynthesis could not increase total P levels. From the experiments using developing seeds, it is suggested that the activation of InsP₆ biosynthesis in both very early and very late periods of seed development increases the influx of P from vegetative organs into seeds. This is the first report from a study attempting to elevate the P levels of seed through a transgenic approach.

  2. Degradation of organic acids by dairy lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hegazi, F Z; Abo-Elnaga, I G

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and twelve different strains of lactic acid bacteria, belonging to the genera Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus, were examined for the ability to degrade 10 organic acids by detecting gas production, using the conventional Durham tube method. All the strains did not break down succinate, glutarate, 2-oxo-glutarate, and mucate. Malate, citrate, pyruvate, fumarate, tartrate, and gluconate were variably attacked. Streptococcus cremoiris AM2, ML8, and SK11 required glucose to produce gas from citrate, whereas Leuconostoc citrovorum and Streptococcus faecalis did not. Streptococcus cremoris differed from the other streptococci in not producing gas from gluconate. From all lactic acid bacteria examined, only Lactobacillus plantarum formed gas from tartarate. Determination of acetoin and diacetyl proved to be a more reliable evidence for assessing the degradation of pyruvate, compared with detection of gas production. Homofermentative lactobacilli and Leuconostoc citrovorum produced acetoin and diacetyl from pyruvate, whereas beta-bacteria did not, a character that would be of taxonomic value. Streptobacteria degraded pyruvate in the presence of glucose with lactate as the major product together with a mean acetate of 4.1%, ethanol 7.9%, acetoin 1.7%, and diacetyl 2.6% yield on a molar basis after 60 days at 30 degrees C. L. brevis produced acetate and lactate. Formation of diacetyl from pyruvate by lactic acid bacteria may play an important role in flavour development in fermenting dairy products, especially in cheese, where lactic acid bacteria usually predominate, and pyruvate is probably excreted in the breaking down of lactose and in the oxidative deamination of alanine by the accompanying microflora.

  3. Organ transplantation in mongrel dogs using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI)

    SciTech Connect

    Koretz, S.H.; Gottlieb, M.S.; Strober, S.; Pennock, J.; Bieber, C.P.; Hoppe, R.T.; Reitz, B.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-03-01

    Although we were able to establish bone marrow chimerism in mongrel dogs using TLI at a cumulative dose of 1800 rad, it was more difficult to establish prolonged organ allograft survival in this system. We review here our experience with allogeneic heart transplantation in dogs using TLI combined with limited courses of pharmacologic immunosuppression, an approach that appears to hold considerable promise for clinical organ transplantation.

  4. Catalysis of CuSO4 for total organic carbon detection based on supercritical water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hui, Zhang; Dongdong, Han; Yi, Chen; Chunmian, Lin

    The catalytic effects of CuSO4 in total organic carbon (TOC) detecting processes based on supercritical water oxidation have been investigated. Using benzoic acid as a model pollutant, the presence of a CuSO4 catalyst can significantly decrease the reaction temperature and H2O2 multiple during the TOC detection processes. A better TOC conversion efficiency was obtained at a much lower temperature in the catalytic system compared with the non-catalytic condition. The use of the catalyst effectively lowered the necessary H2O2 multiple from 20.0 without catalyst to 3.0 in the catalytic system. The established device could detect the TOC concentration precisely in model wastewater without inorganic carbon (IC). Moreover, the detection of the practical wastewater was studied. Detection results were total carbon of wastewater rather than TOC of practical wastewater. A detection or removal unit of IC is necessary before it can be practically utilized.

  5. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Nguyen, Q. T.; Zare, A.; Cozzi, F.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Skov, H.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Ström, J.; Tunved, P.; Krejci, R.; Glasius, M.

    2014-02-01

    Sources, composition and occurrence of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Arctic were investigated at Zeppelin Mountain, Svalbard, and Station Nord, northeast Greenland, during the full annual cycle of 2008 and 2010 respectively. We focused on the speciation of three types of SOA tracers: organic acids, organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors, here presenting organosulfate concentrations and compositions during a full annual cycle and chemical speciation of organosulfates in Arctic aerosols for the first time. Aerosol samples were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-q-TOF-MS). A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate (DTAA) and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA)), 12 organosulfates and one nitrooxy organosulfate were identified at the two sites. Six out of the 12 organosulfates are reported for the first time. Concentrations of organosulfates follow a distinct annual pattern at Station Nord, where high concentration were observed in late winter and early spring, with a mean total concentration of 47 (±14) ng m-3, accounting for 7 (±2)% of total organic matter, contrary to a considerably lower organosulfate mean concentration of 2 (±3) ng m-3 (accounting for 1 (±1)% of total organic matter) observed during the rest of the year. The organic acids followed the same temporal trend as the organosulfates at Station Nord; however the variations in organic acid concentrations were less pronounced, with a total mean organic acid concentration of 11.5 (±4) ng m-3 (accounting for 1.7 (±0.6)% of total organic matter) in late winter and early spring, and 2.2 (±1) ng m-3 (accounting for 0.9 (±0.4)% of total organic matter) during the rest of the year. At Zeppelin Mountain

  6. Beyond "The Total Organization": A Graduate-Level Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Kathleen R.; Goldgehn, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    This simulation is designed to help students understand the complexity of organizational life and learn how to navigate a work world of chaos, conflict, and uncertainty. This adaptation and update of an exercise by Cohen, Fink, Gadon, and Willits has been a successful addition to MBA and EMBA courses. The participants must self-organize, choose…

  7. The Total Performance System: Applications to Classrooms and Other Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brethower, Dale M.

    The Total Performance System (TPS) concept, a conceptual tool to aid management of a wide variety of complex systems such as classrooms, courses, schools, and businesses is presented as a unit of analysis for systems approaches to educational and management problems. A description of the TPS concept defines the classroom as a processing system…

  8. Nickel deficiency disrupts metabolism of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids of young pecan foliage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C; Wood, Bruce W

    2006-02-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan.

  9. Capture and release of acid-gasses with acid-gas binding organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Heldebrant, David J; Yonker, Clement R; Koech, Phillip K

    2015-03-17

    A system and method for acid-gas capture wherein organic acid-gas capture materials form hetero-atom analogs of alkyl-carbonate when contacted with an acid gas. These organic-acid gas capture materials include combinations of a weak acid and a base, or zwitterionic liquids. This invention allows for reversible acid-gas binding to these organic binding materials thus allowing for the capture and release of one or more acid gases. These acid-gas binding organic compounds can be regenerated to release the captured acid gasses and enable these organic acid-gas binding materials to be reused. This enables transport of the liquid capture compounds and the release of the acid gases from the organic liquid with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems.

  10. METHOD 415.3 - MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL ORGANIC ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2.0 SUMMARY OF METHOD2.1 In both TOC and DOC determinations, organic carbon in the water sample is oxidized to form carbon dioxide (CO2), which is then measured by a detection system. There are two different approaches for the oxidation of organic carbon in water samples to carbon dioxide gas: (a) combustion in an oxidizing gas and (b) UV promoted or heat catalized chemical oxidation with a persulfate solution. Carbon dioxide, which is released from the oxidized sample, is detected by a conductivity detector or by a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) detector. Instruments using any combination of the above technologies may be used in this method.2.2. Setteable solids and floating matter may cause plugging of valves, tubing, and the injection needle port. The TOC procedure allows the removal of settleable solids and floating matter. The suspended matter is considered part of the sample. The resulting water sample is then considered a close approximation of the original whole water sample for the purpose of TOC measurement.2.3. The DOC procedure requires that the sample be passed through a 0.45 um filter prior to analysis.2.4. The TOC and DOC procedures require that all inorganic carbon be removed from the sample before the sample is analyzed for organic carbon content. If the inorganic carbon (IC) is not completely removed, significant error will occur. The inorganic carbon interference is removed by converting the mineralized IC to CO2 by acidification and

  11. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; He, Zhifei; Lu, Jingzhi; Tao, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Li; Xie, Yuejie; Xiao, Xia; Peng, Rong; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (p<0.05). An abundant amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, was distributed in male Ira rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat.

  12. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  13. [Compositions of organic acids in PM10 emission sources in Xiamen urban atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-Yu; Huang, Xing-Xing; Zheng, An; Liu, Bi-Lian; Wu, Shui-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The possible organic acid emission sources in PM10 in Xiamen urban atmosphere such as cooking, biomass burning, vehicle exhaust and soil/dust were obtained using a re-suspension test chamber. A total of 15 organic acids including dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids and aromatic acids were determined using GC/MS after derivatization with BF3/n-butanol. The results showed that the highest total concentration of 15 organic acids (53%) was found in cooking emission and the average concentration of the sum of linoleic acid and oleic acid was 24% +/- 14%. However, oxalic acid was the most abundant species followed by phthalic acid in gasoline vehicle exhaust. The ratios of adipic to azelaic acid in gasoline combustion emissions were significantly higher than those in other emission sources, which can be used to qualitatively differentiate anthropogenic and biological source of dicarboxylic acids in atmospheric samples. The ratios of malonic to succinic acid in source emissions (except gasoline generator emissions) were lower (0.07-0.44) than ambient PM10 samples (0.61-3.93), which can be used to qualitatively differentiate the primary source and the secondary source of dicarboxylic acids in urban PM10.

  14. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  15. Difference in amounts between titratable acid and total carboxylic acids produced by oral streptococci during sugar metabolism.

    PubMed

    Iwami, Y; Hata, S; Takahashi, N; Yamada, T

    1989-01-01

    The acid produced by the resting cells of Streptococcus mutants NCTC 10449 and HS 6 and S. sanguis ATCC 10556 during sugar metabolism was estimated with a pH-stat and a carboxylic acid analyzer. Lactic, formic, acetic, pyruvic, and carbonic acids were detected in the reaction mixtures, but propionic, citric, succinic, iso-butyric, butyric, iso-valeric, and valeric acids were not detected. The amount of titratable acid estimated by alkaline titration with the pH-stat was larger than the amount of total carboxylic acids estimated with the carboxylic acid analyzer. The difference in quantity between the titratable and the total carboxylic acids increased significantly with an increase in the period of incubation with sugar. Moreover, the value of the alkaline titration of standard lactic, formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids was equal to the amount analyzed with the carboxylic acid analyzer. The results indicated that these two streptococci produced not only these carboxylic acids but also other acid(s), possibly non-carboxylic acid(s), during their sugar metabolism.

  16. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Nguyen, Q. T.; Zare, A.; Cozzi, F.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Skov, H.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Ström, J.; Tunved, P.; Krejci, R.; Glasius, M.

    2014-08-01

    Sources, composition and occurrence of secondary organic aerosols in the Arctic were investigated at Zeppelin Mountain, Svalbard, and Station Nord, northeastern Greenland, during the full annual cycle of 2008 and 2010, respectively. Speciation of organic acids, organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates - from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors were in focus. A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid), 12 organosulfates and 1 nitrooxy organosulfate were identified in aerosol samples from the two sites using a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) coupled to a quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer. At Station Nord, compound concentrations followed a distinct annual pattern, where high mean concentrations of organosulfates (47 ± 14 ng m-3) and organic acids (11.5 ± 4 ng m-3) were observed in January, February and March, contrary to considerably lower mean concentrations of organosulfates (2 ± 3 ng m-3) and organic acids (2.2 ± 1 ng m-3) observed during the rest of the year. At Zeppelin Mountain, organosulfate and organic acid concentrations remained relatively constant during most of the year at a mean concentration of 15 ± 4 ng m-3 and 3.9 ± 1 ng m-3, respectively. However during four weeks of spring, remarkably higher concentrations of total organosulfates (23-36 ng m-3) and total organic acids (7-10 ng m-3) were observed. Elevated organosulfate and organic acid concentrations coincided with the Arctic haze period at both stations, where northern Eurasia was identified as the main source region. Air mass transport from northern Eurasia to Zeppelin Mountain was associated with a 100% increase in the number of detected organosulfate species compared with periods of air mass transport from the Arctic Ocean, Scandinavia and Greenland. The results from this

  17. Effects of total body irradiation on fatty acid and total lipid content of rats.

    PubMed

    Chukwuemeka, Nwokocha; Philippe, Mounmbegna; Magdalene, Nwokocha; Onyezuligbo, Onyekachi

    2012-01-01

    We examined time-dependent changes in plasma lipids of rats given total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays at 3 Gy. for consecutive periods. Animals were exposed to x ray radiations consecutively for 20 days at 5 day interval thereafter five animals were picked at random and sacrificed (5, 10, 15 and 20 days after beginning the exposure). The triacylglycerols and total cholesterol serum levels were significant differences between control and experimental groups after the first exposure (5 days), values for the triacylglcerols were significantly higher with the second (day 10) and third (day 15) radiation exposures but not with the fourth radiation exposures (day 20) (p<0.05). However, the serum cholesterol values were not found to be significant with the second and third exposures but with the fourth exposure (day 20) (p<0.05). The serum HDL-C concentrations were not significantly different between control and experimental groups at any time analyzed. But the LDL cholesterol was found to decrease on days 5 and 20 of the experimental period. Our results indicate that the applied long term exposure to x rays ionization radiations exposure may induce slight but statistically significant alterations in some serum lipids profile of rats, within the physiological range. The mechanisms for the effects of these ionizing radiations on serum lipid profile are not well understand yet, we suggest that the changes could be due to some non-specific stress reactions. The consequences of our observation are not known yet, but could point to some possible clinical intervention.

  18. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and iron and zinc dialyzability in selected Greek varieties of table olives, tomatoes and legumes from conventional and organic farming.

    PubMed

    Drakou, Marina; Birmpa, Angeliki; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Komaitis, Michael; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to compare 10 types of table olives, 11 types of tomatoes and tomato products and 18 types of legumes from conventional or organic farming for selected nutritional properties. All products were tested for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay) and total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau method). Tomatoes and legumes were further tested for iron and zinc dialyzability after in vitro digestion. Ascorbic acid content of tomatoes was also measured. The study resulted that the nutritional properties of olives, tomatoes and legumes tested were different among the various cultivars but, in most cases, not between products from organic or conventional farming. Natural black olives, cherry and santorini tomatoes and lentils exhibited superior nutritional properties.

  19. Predicting total organic halide formation from drinking water chlorination using quantitative structure-property relationships.

    PubMed

    Luilo, G B; Cabaniss, S E

    2011-10-01

    Chlorinating water which contains dissolved organic matter (DOM) produces disinfection byproducts, the majority of unknown structure. Hence, the total organic halide (TOX) measurement is used as a surrogate for toxic disinfection byproducts. This work derives a robust quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) for predicting the TOX formation potential of model compounds. Literature data for 49 compounds were used to train the QSPR in moles of chlorine per mole of compound (Cp) (mol-Cl/mol-Cp). The resulting QSPR has four descriptors, calibration [Formula: see text] of 0.72 and standard deviation of estimation of 0.43 mol-Cl/mol-Cp. Internal and external validation indicate that the QSPR has good predictive power and low bias (‰<‰1%). Applying this QSPR to predict TOX formation by DOM surrogates - tannic acid, two model fulvic acids and two agent-based model assemblages - gave a predicted TOX range of 136-184 µg-Cl/mg-C, consistent with experimental data for DOM, which ranged from 78 to 192 µg-Cl/mg-C. However, the limited structural variation in the training data may limit QSPR applicability; studies of more sulfur-containing compounds, heterocyclic compounds and high molecular weight compounds could lead to a more widely applicable QSPR.

  20. Total and organic mercury in Barents sea pelagic fish

    SciTech Connect

    Joiris, C.R.; Ali, I.B.; Hoisbeek, L. Bossicart, M.; Tapia, G.

    1995-11-01

    One of the main questions, when studying mercury levels in natural samples, is to define how far the measured concentrations correspond to natural- or background-levels or to actual contamination due to human activities. To establish background pristine levels of Hg in the marine environment, areas of very low human activities are often proposed. Arctic and Antarctic waters, together with deep oceans waters, are best suited and provide themselves for such studies. Barents Sea areas were used in this study, even if the existence of an important atmospheric transport of Hg probably caused an increase of Hg levels at a global scale. Instead of analyzing mercury from the very low concentrations in sea water, it is much easier to identify it from the higher concentrations which organisms, used as bioindicators, have built up in their tissues. By using these bioindicators to study the bioavailable fraction of the stable residues, one also integrates small scale temporal and spatial variations. Pelagic fish were used in this work to study the ecotoxicology of Hg in the Barents Sea. This study has been made possible due to recent access of the Barents Sea to western scientists and it is to serve as a complement to existing studies by the same team in the Greenland and Norwegian seas, and the southwestern part of the Barents Sea. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Purification Or Organic Acids Using Anion Exchange Chromatography.

    DOEpatents

    Ponnampalam; Elankovan

    2001-09-04

    Disclosed is a cost-effective method for purifying and acidifying carboxylic acids, including organic acids and amino acids. The method involves removing impurities by allowing the anionic form of the carboxylic acid to bind to an anion exchange column and washing the column. The carboxylic anion is displaced as carboxylic acid by washing the resin with a strong inorganic anion. This method is effective in removing organic carboxylic acids and amino acids from a variety of industrial sources, including fermentation broths, hydrolysates, and waste streams.

  2. Organic Acid Concentrations in Rivers Within the Amazon River Drainage Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A.

    2007-12-01

    The composition of the dissolved organic matter pool in both fresh and marine waters is largely unknown. Concentrations of low-molecular-weight organic acids (oxalate, citrate, glycolate, formate, acetate, succinate) have been determined in Brasilian (18 rivers sampled) and Peruvian (19 rivers sampled) rivers within the Amazon River drainage basin. Succinate concentrations were below the detection limit in all rivers. The dominant acid varied among the sampled rivers, indicating that organic acid concentrations depend on river basin characteristics. Organic-acid carbon comprised a highly significant, but variable, fraction of total dissolved carbon, with a range of 3-90%, indicating that organic-acid-derived carbon may be an important source of biologically labile carbon within the Amazon River drainage basin.

  3. Organic Acid Excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron Increases with Ambient pH

    PubMed Central

    Vrabl, Pamela; Fuchs, Viktoria; Pichler, Barbara; Schinagl, Christoph W.; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH. We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions, or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi. In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium-limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2–7), and ammonium or phosphate-limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7). Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids. Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation, and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e., overflow metabolism, charge balance, and aggressive acidification hypothesis. PMID:22493592

  4. Organic compounds of different extractability in total solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC/MS of the total solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with different levels of water repellency. Water repellency increased in all the soils after extraction with DCM:MeOH (95:5), but was eliminated with iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5). Quantities of major lipid compound classes varied between solvents and soils. Iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5) solvent released saccharides, glycerol, aromatic acids and other polar organic compounds, which were more abundant in fractionated extracts from the single extraction and the third step sequential ASE extraction, than in the extracts from the DCM:MeOH ASE solvent. Dominant compounds extracted from all soils were long-chain alkanols (>C22), palmitic acid, C29 alkane, β-sitosterol, terpenes, terpenoids and other polar compounds. The soil with smallest repellency lacked >C18 fatty acids and had smallest concentrations of alkanols (C26, C28 and C30) and alkanes (C29, C31), but a greater abundance of more complex polar compounds than the more repellent soils. We therefore speculate that the above compounds play an important role in determining the water repellency of the soils tested. The results suggest that one-stage and sequential ASE extractions with iso-propanol:ammonia and subsequent fractionation of extracts are a useful approach in providing a comprehensive assessment of the potential compounds involved in causing soil water repellency.

  5. D-Amino Acids in Living Higher Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Noriko

    2002-04-01

    The homochirality of biological amino acids (L-amino acids) and of the RNA/DNA backbone (D-ribose) might have become established before the origin of life. It has been considered that D-amino acids and L-sugars were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Therefore, the presence and function of D-amino acids in living organisms have not been studied except for D-amino acids in the cell walls of microorganisms. However, D-amino acids were recently found in various living higher organisms in the form of free amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Free D-aspartate and D-serine are present and may have important physiological functions in mammals. D-amino acids in peptides are well known as opioid peptides and neuropeptides. In protein, D-aspartate residues increase during aging. This review deals with recent advances in the study of D-amino acids in higher organisms.

  6. Biophysical Properties as Determinants for Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in Grassland Salinization

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chengchen; Zhao, Halin; Zhao, Xueyong; Han, Huibang; Wang, Yan; Li, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Grassland salinization causes considerable changes to soil and vegetation, which can lead to changes in soil organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N). These changes have complex causal relationships. A significant correlation between soil organic C and total N and any soil or vegetation property does not necessarily imply a significant direct effect of the property on soil organic C and total N. In this study, a field survey was conducted to investigate the changes in soil organic C and total N in grassland along a salinity gradient in Hexi corridor, China, and the direct and indirect effects of soil and vegetation properties on both stocks were quantified using a path analysis approach. Significant decrease in soil organic C and total N contents were observed with increasing salinity. Both had significant positive correlations with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), soil water, and fine particles (silt+clay) content (p<0.01) and significant negative correlations with soil EC, and sand content (p<0.01). NDVI, fine particles content and soil water content had positive direct effects on soil organic C and total N stocks. Soil EC affected soil organic C and total N stocks mainly through its indirect negative effect on NDVI, soil texture, and water content. NDVI, soil texture, and moisture also indirectly affected soil organic C and total N stocks via changes in each other. These indirect effects augmented each other, although in some cases indirect effects worked in opposing directions. PMID:23372776

  7. Biophysical properties as determinants for soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in grassland salinization.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chengchen; Zhao, Halin; Zhao, Xueyong; Han, Huibang; Wang, Yan; Li, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Grassland salinization causes considerable changes to soil and vegetation, which can lead to changes in soil organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N). These changes have complex causal relationships. A significant correlation between soil organic C and total N and any soil or vegetation property does not necessarily imply a significant direct effect of the property on soil organic C and total N. In this study, a field survey was conducted to investigate the changes in soil organic C and total N in grassland along a salinity gradient in Hexi corridor, China, and the direct and indirect effects of soil and vegetation properties on both stocks were quantified using a path analysis approach. Significant decrease in soil organic C and total N contents were observed with increasing salinity. Both had significant positive correlations with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), soil water, and fine particles (silt+clay) content (p<0.01) and significant negative correlations with soil EC, and sand content (p<0.01). NDVI, fine particles content and soil water content had positive direct effects on soil organic C and total N stocks. Soil EC affected soil organic C and total N stocks mainly through its indirect negative effect on NDVI, soil texture, and water content. NDVI, soil texture, and moisture also indirectly affected soil organic C and total N stocks via changes in each other. These indirect effects augmented each other, although in some cases indirect effects worked in opposing directions.

  8. Relative Amino Acid Composition Signatures of Organisms and Environments

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Alexandra; Savageau, Michael A.; Alves, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying organism-environment interactions at the molecular level is crucial to understanding how organisms adapt to and change the chemical and molecular landscape of their habitats. In this work we investigated whether relative amino acid compositions could be used as a molecular signature of an environment and whether such a signature could also be observed at the level of the cellular amino acid composition of the microorganisms that inhabit that environment. Methodologies/Principal Findings To address these questions we collected and analyzed environmental amino acid determinations from the literature, and estimated from complete genomic sequences the global relative amino acid abundances of organisms that are cognate to the different types of environment. Environmental relative amino acid abundances clustered into broad groups (ocean waters, host-associated environments, grass land environments, sandy soils and sediments, and forest soils), indicating the presence of amino acid signatures specific for each environment. These signatures correlate to those found in organisms. Nevertheless, relative amino acid abundance of organisms was more influenced by GC content than habitat or phylogeny. Conclusions Our results suggest that relative amino acid composition can be used as a signature of an environment. In addition, we observed that the relative amino acid composition of organisms is not highly determined by environment, reinforcing previous studies that find GC content to be the major factor correlating to amino acid composition in living organisms. PMID:24204807

  9. Isotopomer distributions in amino acids from a highly expressed protein as a proxy for those from total protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, Afshan; Shaikh, Afshan S.; Tang, Yinjie; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.

    2008-06-27

    {sup 13}C-based metabolic flux analysis provides valuable information about bacterial physiology. Though many biological processes rely on the synergistic functions of microbial communities, study of individual organisms in a mixed culture using existing flux analysis methods is difficult. Isotopomer-based flux analysis typically relies on hydrolyzed amino acids from a homogeneous biomass. Thus metabolic flux analysis of a given organism in a mixed culture requires its separation from the mixed culture. Swift and efficient cell separation is difficult and a major hurdle for isotopomer-based flux analysis of mixed cultures. Here we demonstrate the use of a single highly-expressed protein to analyze the isotopomer distribution of amino acids from one organism. Using the model organism E. coli expressing a plasmid-borne, his-tagged Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), we show that induction of GFP does not affect E. coli growth kinetics or the isotopomer distribution in nine key metabolites. Further, the isotopomer labeling patterns of amino acids derived from purified GFP and total cell protein are indistinguishable, indicating that amino acids from a purified protein can be used to infer metabolic fluxes of targeted organisms in a mixed culture. This study provides the foundation to extend isotopomer-based flux analysis to study metabolism of individual strains in microbial communities.

  10. Conditions optimising on the yield of biomass, total lipid, and valuable fatty acids in two strains of Skeletonema menzelii.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiamin; Han, Qingxi; Gao, Xiuzhi; Gao, Guang

    2016-03-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are essential for the health of aquaculture organisms and human beings. A total of 9 species of diatoms were screened and two strains of Skeletonema menzelii were selected for further study due to their high growth rates, PUFA and EPA contents. The culture conditions for the yield of biomass, total lipid, EPA and PUFA were optimised. The quickest growth rates (0.28-0.41d(-1)) were achieved with moderate supplement of nitrogen, phosphorus, iron and silicon. The accumulation of total lipid (17.85-22.70% of dry weight) benefitted from deprivation of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon, but a moderate iron supplement. Highest PUFA (38.26-50.48% of total fatty acids) or EPA (14.26-18.39% of total fatty acids) contents were observed under high nitrogen and phosphorus supplement, moderate available iron but deprivation of silicon. These findings make tangible contributions to culture S. menzelii for commercial production of PUFA or EPA.

  11. Removal of natural organic matter by titanium tetrachloride: The effect of total hardness and ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y X; Shon, H K; Phuntsho, S; Gao, B Y

    2014-02-15

    This study is the first attempt to investigate the effect of total hardness and ionic strength on coagulation performance and the floc characteristics of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4). Membrane fouling under different total hardness and ionic strength conditions was also evaluated during a coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) hybrid process. Coagulation experiments were performed with two simulated waters, using humic acid (HA, high molecular weight) and fulvic acid (FA, relatively low molecular weight), respectively, as model natural organic matter (NOM). Results show that both particle and organic matter removal can be enhanced by increasing total hardness and ionic strength. Floc characteristics were significantly influenced by total hardness and ionic strength and were improved in terms of floc size, growth rate, strength, recoverability and compactness. The results of the UF tests show that the pre-coagulation with TiCl4 significantly improves the membrane permeate fluxes. Under different total hardness and ionic strength conditions, the membrane permeate flux varied according to both NOM and floc characteristics. The increase in total hardness and ionic strength improved the membrane permeate flux in the case of HA simulated water treatment.

  12. Changes in total nitrogen and amino acid composition of New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida with growth, location and plant parts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, April Yongdong; Robertson, John; Hamid, Nazimah; Ma, Qianli; Lu, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Undaria pinnatifida is known as unwanted organism in New Zealand. However, Wakame is a traditional food made of U. pinnatifida, which is now cultured extensively in East Asia. Therefore, it is important to examine this introduced alga as a potential source of dietary protein for human consumption in New Zealand. This study determined total nitrogen content and amino acid profile of New Zealand U. pinnatifida harvested from the Marlborough Sounds on a monthly basis from June to November 2011. Total average nitrogen content and crude protein content was 21.02 mg/g dry weight and 13.1% of dry weight, respectively. The three most abundant amino acids that contributed to flavour (glutamic acid, aspartic acid and alanine) were present and the most abundant essential amino acids were arginine, leucine, lysine and valine. The results showed that the amino acid content in blades from the exposed farm was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the others. Sporophyll maturation of U. pinnatifida in New Zealand influenced protein content and amino acid composition. Sporophyll, considered as a waste product by many, was found to be a potentially good source of protein.

  13. The Balanced Scorecard versus Total Quality Management: which is better for your organization?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jay

    2005-10-01

    Today's health care organizations must deal with managed care, government oversight, aging baby boomers, new technologies, and increasing pharmaceutical prices. It is imperative that health care organizations adopt some form of business strategy to manage the vast amount of information available. Two of the more popular strategies among health care organizations are the Balanced Scorecard and Total Quality Management. Which one of the strategies is best for an organization? The answer to this question is that it depends on the organization. This article provides the fundamentals of each strategy and contrasts their strengths and weaknesses, so that interested organizations can make informed decisions regarding the best strategy for each organization.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF RESPONSE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DIFFERENT TYPES OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have long been used to estimate the amount of natural organic matter (NOM) found in raw and finished drinking water. In recent years, computer automation and improved instrumental analysis technologies have created a ...

  15. The Vital Role of Task Teams: The Total Quality Management Approach on Restructuring Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Marco A.

    Teams are an important element of restructuring organizations because much of the work of the organization is being done in small units, the microcosms of organizations. Total Quality Management (TQM) is one way to analyze the importance of teamwork during restructuring. This paper describes the basic principles and tools of TQM and considers its…

  16. THE DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC HALIDE IN WATER: AN INTERLABORATORY COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total organic halide (TOX) analyzers are commonly used to measure the amount of dissolved halogenated organic byproducts in disinfected waters. Because of the lack of information on the identity of disinfection byproducts, rigorous testing of the dissolved organic halide (DOX) pr...

  17. Total organic carbon and humus fractions in restored soils from limestone quarries in semiarid climate, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Ángel Domene Ruiz, Miguel; Solé Benet, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities generate erosion and loss of plant cover and soil organic matter (SOM), especially in arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. A precondition for ecosystem restoration in such highly disturbed areas is the development of functional soils with sufficient organic matter. But the SOM quality is also important to long-term C stabilization. The resistance to biodegradation of recalcitrant organic matter fractions has been reported to depend on some intrinsic structural factors of humic acid substances and formation of amorphous organo-mineral recalcitrant complexes. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries in the Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, several combinations of organic amendments (sewage sludge and compost from domestic organic waste) and mulches (gravel and woodchip) were added in experimental plots using a factorial design. In each plot, 75 native plants (Anthyllis cytisoides, A. terniflora and Macrochloa tenacissima) were planted and five years after the start of the experiment total organic carbon (TOC), physico-chemical soil properties and organic C fractions (particulate organic matter, H3PO4-fulvic fraction, fulvic acids (FA), humic acids (HA) and humin) were analyzed. We observed significant differences between treatments related to the TOC content and the HA/FA ratio. Compost amendments increased the TOC, HA content and HA/FA ratio, even higher than in natural undisturbed soils, indicating an effective clay humus-complex pointing to progressively increasing organic matter quality. Soils with sewage sludge showed the lowest TOC and HA/FA ratio and accumulated a lower HA proportion indicating poorer organic matter quality and comparatively lower resilience than in natural soils and soils amended with compost.

  18. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  19. Microbially induced organic acid underdeposit attack in a gas pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, O.C.; Bromel, M.C. )

    1990-04-01

    A leaking undersea carbon-steel gas pipeline was investigated, and attack was confined to low areas where water had accumulated.Analyses showed that pitting, which occurred under deposits, was caused by organic acids generated by bacteria. The metabolic activities of anaerobic sporeformers produce these acids. Alkyl amine carboxylic acid and metronidizole were effective deterrents at low concentrations.

  20. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Neta, E R D; Johanningsmeier, S D; Drake, M A; McFeeters, R F

    2009-01-01

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on sour taste of equimolar protonated organic acid solutions and to investigate the potential roles of organic anions and sodium ions on sour taste perception. Despite equal concentrations of protonated acid species, sour taste intensity decreased significantly with increased pH for acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acids (P < 0.05). Total organic anion concentration did not explain the suppression of sour taste in solutions containing a blend of 3 organic acids with constant concentration of protonated organic acid species and hydrogen ions and variable organic anion concentrations (R(2)= 0.480, P = 0.12). Sour taste suppression in these solutions seemed to be more closely related to sodium ions added in the form of NaOH (R(2)= 0.861, P = 0.007). Addition of 20 mM NaCl to acid solutions resulted in significant suppression of sour taste (P = 0.016). However, sour taste did not decrease with further addition of NaCl up to 80 mM. Presence of sodium ions was clearly shown to decrease sour taste of organic acid solutions. Nonetheless, suppression of sour taste in pH adjusted single acid solutions was greater than what would be expected based on the sodium ion concentration alone, indicating an additional suppression mechanism may be involved.

  1. [Cd uptake in rice cultivars and Cd fractions in soil treated with organic acids and EDTA].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Bo; Li, Yang-Rui; Xu, Wei-Hong; Chen, Gui-Qing; Wang, Hui-Xian; Han, Gui-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Xie, De-Ti

    2011-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to examine the yield, quality and cadmium (Cd) uptake in different rice cultivars, and Cd speciation in soil after exposing to Cd (0, 1 and 5 mg x kg(-1)) in the presence of organic acids and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The results showed that general increase in the yield for cultivars Xiushui63 and II you527 was observed. Yield of two rice cultivars were in order of organic acids treatment or organic acids + 1/2EDTA treatment > EDTA treatment. The exchangeable, carbonate related and ferric-manganese oxidation related Cd increased; while organic complexation Cd and residules decreased in the presence of organic acids and EDTA. Cadmium concentrations in grain, straw and roots of both cultivars markedly reduced in the presence of organic acids and EDTA. Grain Cd concentration was the lowest for plants treated with EDTA, followed by organic acids + 1/2EDTA, and the highest Cd concentration in grain was found in the treatment with organic acids. Grain Cd concentration decreased by 9.0% to 49.3% and 16.5% to 30.6% at 1 mg x kg(-1) Cd in the presence of organic acids and EDTA, and by 12.7% to 28.5% and 4.3% to 19.1% at 5 mg x kg(-1) Cd. Cadmium concentration and accumulation in plants and total Cd content in soil were higher in Xiushui63 than in that in II you527. Grain Cd concentration decreased, and yield and quality of two rice cultivars increased at the same time in the presence of organic acids + 1/2EDTA.

  2. Association of fatty acids in serum phospholipids with hay fever, specific and total immunoglobulin E.

    PubMed

    Kompauer, Iris; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Bolte, Gabriele; Linseisen, Jakob; Heinrich, Joachim

    2005-04-01

    The dietary intake of certain fatty acids might contribute to the development of allergic diseases such as hay fever and asthma. We investigated the association between the concentrations of fifteen fatty acids in serum phospholipids, as a marker of dietary intake and metabolism, and hay fever, allergic sensitisation and total IgE in adults. Data from a population-based cross-sectional study on respiratory health, including the measurement of fatty acids in the serum phospholipids of 740 adults between 20 and 64 years of age, were analysed. Positive associations were found between hay fever and arachidonic acid, and allergic sensitisation and oleic acid. No other fatty acids showed any association with hay fever or allergic sensitisation. Elevated levels of total IgE were not related to fatty acids. Concentrations of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, trans fatty acids or saturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids were not associated with allergic diseases in adults in this study. The present result on the association between hay fever and arachidonic acid is consistent with current hypotheses but warrants further research.

  3. Enteral obeticholic acid promotes intestinal growth in total parenteral nutrition fed neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intestinal atrophy is an adverse outcome associated with prolonged total parenteral nutrition (PN) partly due to disruption of normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Previously we showed that enteral treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a dual agonist for the nuclear receptor, farne...

  4. Simple method of isolating humic acids from organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, O.

    2009-04-01

    Humic substances particularly humic acids (HA) play a major role in soil conditioning e.g. erosion control, soil cation exchange capacity, complexation of heavy metal ions and pesticides, carbon and nitrogen cycles, plant growth and reduction of ammonia volatilization from urea. Humified substances such as coal, composts, and peat soils have substantial amounts of HA but the isolation of these acids is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Factors that affect the quality and yield of HA isolated from these materials include extraction, fractionation, and purification periods. This work developed a simple, rapid, and cost effective method of isolating HA from peat soils. There was a quadratic relationship between extraction period and HA yield. Optimum extraction period was estimated at 4 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 48 h. There was no relationship between fractionation period and HA yield. As such 2 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 24 h fractionation period could be considered optimum. Low ash content (5%), remarkable reduction in K, coupled with the fact that organic C, E4/E6, carboxylic COOH, phenolic OH, and total acidity values of the HA were consistent with those reported by other authors suggest that the HA dealt with were free from mineral matter. This was possible because the distilled water used to purify the HA served as Bronsted-Lowry acid during the purification process of the HA. Optimum purification period using distilled waster was 1 h instead of the usual range of 1 and 7 days (uses HF and HCl and dialysis). Humic acids could be isolated from tropical peat soils within 7 h (i.e. 4 h extraction, 2 h fractionation, and 1 h purification) instead of the existing period of 2 and 7 days. This could facilitate the idea of producing organic fertilizers such as ammonium-humate and potassium-humate from humified substances since techniques devised in this study did not alter the true nature of the HA. Besides, the technique is rapid, simple

  5. Abnormal Characteristics of Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids in Surface Water of the Jiaozhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, H.; Liu, Z.; Yang, G.; Sun, L.

    2012-12-01

    Organic acids are important components of dissolved organic matter in sea water. Generally, in oxic sea water, the concentrations of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), such as formate, acetate and lactate are too low to be analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) directly. Our recent study of Jiaozhou Bay, Shandong, China showed that the concentrations of LMWOAs in the surface sea water were high enough to be quantified by HPLC. In the surface sea water of the bay, three typical LMWOAs----formate, acetate and lactate were identified. Concentrations of formate, lactate and acetate ranged from 1.97 to 5.29μmol/L, 5.79 to 12.77μmol/L and 1.97 to 7.23 μmol/L, respectively. The concentrations of all three organic acids varied dramatically in different areas of the bay. Low concentrations usually occurred in the central region and high concentrations usually occurred along coastal area. The contribution of LMWOAs to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was significantly higher than published data. On average, total organic acid (TOA, considered as total concentration of the three identified organic acids) accounted for more than 20% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the surface water of the Bay. The high concentrations of LMWOAs and their unusual high contribution to DOC were attributed to human activities such as sewage discharge, aquaculture and etc. along the coastal area.

  6. Effect of Tranexamic Acid on Blood Loss and Blood Transfusion Reduction after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Young-Jun; Seon, Jong-Keun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Jin, Cheng; Prakash, Jatin; Park, Yong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) accompanies the risk of bleeding and need for transfusion. There are several methods to reduce postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion. One such method is using tranexamic acid during TKA. The purpose of this study was to confirm whether tranexamic acid reduces postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion after TKA. Materials and Methods A total of 100 TKA patients were included in the study. The tranexamic acid group consisted of 50 patients who received an intravenous injection of tranexamic acid. The control included 50 patients who received a placebo injection. The amounts of drainage, postoperative hemoglobin, and transfusion were compared between the groups. Results The mean amount of drainage was lower in the tranexamic acid group (580.6±355.0 mL) than the control group (886.0±375.5 mL). There was a reduction in the transfusion rate in the tranexamic acid group (48%) compared with the control group (64%). The hemoglobin level was higher in the tranexamic acid group than in the control group at 24 hours postoperatively. The mean units of transfusion were smaller in the tranexamic acid group (0.76 units) than in the control group (1.28 units). Conclusions Our data suggest that intravenous injection of tranexamic acid decreases the total blood loss and transfusion after TKA. PMID:27595071

  7. Total nitrogen vs. amino-acid profile as indicator of protein content of beef.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nicolette G; Schönfeldt, Hettie C

    2013-10-01

    In most cited food composition studies and tables, the proximate system measures protein as total nitrogen (N) (determined by Kjeldahl or Dumas method) multiplied by a specific factor. A factor of 6.25 is used for determining total protein from total N (Jones, Munsey, & Walker, 1942). Although more expensive, it is considered more accurate to base protein content of foods on amino acid data (Greenfield & Southgate, 2003). A study on the nutrient composition of beef analysed the full amino-acid profile of fifteen retail cuts from three age groups and six fat codes, as well as determined total nitrogen content to determine proximate protein composition. For all cuts, the correlation coefficient of total amino acids to protein (N×6.25) was 0.635. This indicates a poor correlation for predicting actual protein content (as determined by total amino acid count), based on the nitrogen factor of 6.25. On average, the sum of amino acids per cut amounted to 91% of total determined protein (N×6.25) for the same cut.

  8. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  9. Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using total non- methane organic compound vapor concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Glissmeyer, J.A.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-02-01

    The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford high-level radioactive waste tanks is a safety issue because expanding gases could affect tank dome integrity. This report presents results of a screening test that was applied to 75 passively ventilated waste tanks at Hanford to determine those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. The screening test is based on a simple model of tank headspace, headspace organic vapor concentrations, and certain tank physical parameters. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Twelve tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Tank head space organic vapor concentrations and physical parameters required by the screening test have been compiled and are presented for each of the tanks studied. Estimates of the ventilation rates of the waste tanks were revised to reflect recent information obtained from hydrogen monitoring data. A simple analysis of the uncertainty in the test results suggests that the largest current uncertainty in the estimation of organic liquid surface area is that associated with knowledge of the tank ventilation rate. The uncertainty analysis is applied to determine 95% confidence limits for the estimated organic waste surface area in each tank.

  10. On the source of organic acid aerosol layers above clouds.

    PubMed

    Sorooshian, Armin; Lu, Miao-Ling; Brechtel, Fred J; Jonsson, Haflidi; Feingold, Graham; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2007-07-01

    During the July 2005 Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) and the August-September 2006 Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS), the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter probed aerosols and cumulus clouds in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of northern California and in southeastern Texas, respectively. An on-board particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) quantified inorganic and organic acid species with < or = 5-min time resolution. Ubiquitous organic aerosol layers above cloud with enhanced organic acid levels were observed in both locations. The data suggest that aqueous-phase reactions to produce organic acids, mainly oxalic acid, followed by droplet evaporation is a source of elevated organic acid aerosol levels above cloud. Oxalic acid is observed to be produced more efficiently relative to sulfate as the cloud liquid water content increases, corresponding to larger and less acidic droplets. As derived from large eddy simulations of stratocumulus underthe conditions of MASE, both Lagrangian trajectory analysis and diurnal cloudtop evolution provide evidence that a significant fraction of the aerosol mass concentration above cloud can be accounted for by evaporated droplet residual particles. Methanesulfonate data suggest that entrainment of free tropospheric aerosol can also be a source of organic acids above boundary layer clouds.

  11. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  12. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  13. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  14. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  15. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... with the minimum ratio of total soluble solids to anhydrous citric acid: Table II Total soluble solids (average pct) Maximum anhydrous citric acid (average pct) Minimum ratio of total soluble solids to... 1.027 9.25-1 9.6 1.043 9.20-1 9.7 1.060 9.15-1 9.8 1.077 9.10-1 9.9 1.094 9.05-1 10.0 1.111...

  17. A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pilot Study of Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) investigated the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to pollutants commonly detected in their everyday environments. ...

  18. SEDIMENT TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON: IS THIS A USEFUL INDICATOR OF SEDIMENT CONDITION FOR PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total organic carbon (TOC) content of sediments has been used as an indicator of benthic community condition during multiple cycles of the EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA). Because percent TOC is generally positively correlated with sediment percent fines, previous analyses...

  19. Stability of organic acids on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Zan; Hudson, R.; Moore, M.

    2009-09-01

    Mars receives an influx of carbonaceous material by fine-grained meteoritic impact of 2.4×105 kg carbon per year. Carbonaceous meteorites are known to contain amino acids, up to 249 ppm in primitive CR type meteorites, with glycine abundances as high as 58 ppm. These meteorite-bound amino acids arrive on Mars and may be distributed over the planet aeolian processes. Once on the surface, amino acids can be degraded rapidly by ultraviolet (UV) photolysis and reactions with oxidizing species such as H, OH, HO2, and H2O2. To test the influence of a water matrix on the stability of glycine on Mars, we have photolysed pure glycine and glycine-water ice mixtures (1:4) with a high-pressure xenon arc lamp that produces a spectrum similar to the solar spectrum on Mars. The ices were photolysed at temperatures relevant to Mars, especially at higher latitudes (100-150 K). For comparison, we repeated these experiments with acetic acid (CH3COOH) and formic acid (HCOOH). In addition, we also photolysed solid carbonic acid (H2CO3), which may be formed on Mars in mixed water and CO2 ices when initiated by solar wind particles. Our results show that carbonic acid is an order of magnitude more stable than formic and acetic acid. The glycine-water mixture did not show any degradation over the course of the photolysis experiment. This work is supported by NASA grant NNG05GL46G and the Goddard Center for Astrobiology.

  20. Indole diterpene synthetic studies. Total synthesis of (+)-nodulisporic acid F and construction of the heptacyclic cores of (+)-nodulisporic acids A and B and (-)-nodulisporic acid D.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amos B; Davulcu, Akin H; Cho, Young Shin; Ohmoto, Kazuyuki; Kürti, László; Ishiyama, Haruaki

    2007-06-22

    A first-generation strategy for construction of (+)-nodulisporic acids A (1) and B (2) is described. The strategy entails union of the eastern and western hemisphere subtargets via the indole synthesis protocol developed in our laboratory. Subsequent elaboration of rings E and F, however, revealed the considerable acid instability of the C(24) hydroxyl, thereby preventing further advancement. Nonetheless, preparation of the heptacyclic core of (+)-nodulisporic acids A and B, the total synthesis of (+)-nodulisporic acid F, the simplest member of the nodulisporic acid family, and elaboration of the heptacyclic core of (-)-nodulisporic acid D were achieved.

  1. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  2. The acid tolerance response of Salmonella typhimurium provides protection against organic acids.

    PubMed

    Baik, H S; Bearson, S; Dunbar, S; Foster, J W

    1996-11-01

    Salmonella typhimurium encounters a variety of acid stress situations during pathogenesis and in the natural environment. These include the extreme low pH encountered in the stomach and a less acidic intestinal environment containing large amounts of organic weak acids (volatile fatty acids). The acid tolerance response (ATR) is a complex defence system that can minimize the lethal effects of extreme low pH (pH3). The data presented illustrate that the ATR can also defend against weak acids such as butyric, acetic or propionic acids. Although an acid shock of pH 4.4 induced the ATR, growth in subinhibitory concentrations of weak acids did not. Various mutations shown to affect tolerance to extreme acid conditions (pH 3) were tested for their effects on tolerance to weak acids. An rpoS mutant lacking the alternative sigma factor sigma s failed to protect cells against weak acids as well as extreme acid pH. The fur (ferric uptake regulator) and atp (Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase) mutants defective in extreme acid tolerance showed no defects in their tolerance to weak acids. Curiously, the atbR mutant that exhibits increased tolerance to extreme acid pH proved sensitive to weak acids. Several insertions that rendered cells sensitive to organic acids were isolated, all of which proved to be linked to the rpoS locus.

  3. Relative efficacy of organic acids and antibiotics as growth promoters in broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Bagal, Vikrant Laxman; Khatta, Vinod Kumar; Tewatia, Bachu Singh; Sangwan, Sandeep Kumar; Raut, Subhash Shamrao

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic acids as replacer to antibiotics in their various combinations on feed consumption, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chicks during different phases of growth. Materials and Methods: Antibiotics and organic acids were incorporated into boiler feed in different combinations to form 10 maize based test diets (T1 to T10). Each test diet was offered to four replicates of 10 birds each constituting a total of 400 birds kept for 45 days. Results: Significantly better effect in terms of body weight gain from supplementation of 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic was observed throughout the entire study, whereas the effect of tartaric acid supplementation was similar to control group. Citric acid (1%) along with antibiotic supplementation showed highest feed intake during the experimental period. Significantly better FCR was observed in groups supplemented with 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic followed by antibiotic along with organic acids supplemented group. Conclusion: Growth performance of birds in terms of body weight, body weight gain, and FCR improved significantly in 1% citric acid which was significantly higher than antibiotic supplemented group. 1% citric acid can effectively replace antibiotic growth promoter (chlortetracycline) without affecting growth performance of birds. PMID:27182133

  4. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  5. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian [East Lansing, MI; Kleff, Susanne [East Lansing, MI; Guettler, Michael V [Holt, MI

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  6. Comparison of digestion methods for total elemental analysis of peat and separation of its organic and inorganic components

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papp, C.S.E.; Harms, T.F.

    1985-01-01

    In order to find the most efficient digestion method for the total elemental recovery in peat, ten samples were subjected to different techniques and analysed for Ca, Mg, Fe, AI, Na, K, Mn, P, Zn, Cu, Li, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb and Si using atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The most satisfactory procedures were dry ashing followed by hydrofluoric acid treatment and wet digestion using a mixture of hot nitric, perchloric and hydrofluoric acids. The wet digestion offers the advantage of a single decomposition method for the determination of Ca, Mg, Fe, AI, K, Na, Mn, Cu, Li, Zn and P. An alkaline fusion technique was required for the determination of Si. Hydrogen peroxide was used to separate the peat into its organic and inorganic components, leading to the total recovery of the elements for both fractions.

  7. Integrated Data Fusion and Mining Techniques for Monitoring Total Organic Carbon Concentrations in a Lake

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total organic carbon (TOC) in surface waters, markedly of seasonal variations, is a known precursor of disinfection byproducts such as Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM) in drinking water treatment. Real-time knowledge of TOC distribution in source water can help treatment operation to...

  8. Role of organic acids in promoting colloidal transport of mercury from mine tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slowey, A.J.; Johnson, S.B.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2005-01-01

    A number of factors affect the transport of dissolved and paniculate mercury (Hg) from inoperative Hg mines, including the presence of organic acids in the rooting zone of vegetated mine waste. We examined the role of the two most common organic acids in soils (oxalic and citric acid) on Hg transport from such waste by pumping a mixed organic acid solution (pH 5.7) at 1 mL/min through Hg mine tailings columns. For the two total organic acid concentrations investigated (20 ??M and 1 mM), particle-associated Hg was mobilized, with the onset of paniculate Hg transport occurring later for the lower organic acid concentration. Chemical analyses of column effluent indicate that 98 wt % of Hg mobilized from the column was paniculate. Hg speciation was determined using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, showing that HgS minerals are dominant in the mobilized particles. Hg adsorbed to colloids is another likely mode of transport due to the abundance of Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides, Fe-sulfides, alunite, and jarosite in the tailings to which Hg(II) adsorbs. Organic acids produced by plants are likely to enhance the transport of colloid-associated Hg from vegetated Hg mine tailings by dissolving cements to enable colloid release. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  9. [Use of organic acids in acne and skin discolorations therapy].

    PubMed

    Kapuścińska, Alicja; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-03-22

    Acne is one of the most frequent skin disorders that occurs in puberty, but often adults also have acne. The most important factors responsible for acne are elevated production of sebum by hyperactive sebaceous glands and blockage of the follicle because of hyperkeratosis [14]. The third etiopathogenic factor of acne is excessive microflora reproduction [8]. The most significant bacterium that is responsible for formation of skin lesions is Propionibacterium acnes, a rod-shaped Gram-positive and aerotolerant anaerobic bacterium. It is estimated that P. acnes is responsible for acne in approximately 80% of people aged 11 to 30 [27,40]. Even healed skin lesions can often cause skin discolorations and scar formation [51]. Exfoliating chemical substances that are commonly used in dermatology and cosmetology are organic acids. Exfoliating treatment using organic acids is called "chemical peeling" and consists of controlled application of those substances on the skin [38]. The depth of exfoliation depends on organic acid concentration, type of substance and contact time with the skin [41]. Using exfoliating agents seems to be helpful in excessive keratinization - one of several factors responsible for acne. Moreover, epidermis exfoliation is a popular method of removing skin discoloration [22]. Considering chemical structure, exfoliating substances that are most often used in cosmetology contain alpha-hydroxyacids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid and citric acid), beta-hydroxyacids (salicylic acid) and other organic acids, such as trichloroacetic acid and pyruvic acid [47]. In this article, a literature review of use of organic acids in acne and skin discoloration therapy is presented.

  10. Organic acids in precipitation in the Basque country (North of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durana, N.; Casado, H.; García, C.; Ezcurra, A.; Lacaux, J. P.; Encinas, D.

    This paper discusses the results of the measurement of organic anions in precipitation collected since July 1989 in Olaeta, a rural village in the Basque Country (North of Spain). In order to gain a deeper knowledge of the characteristics and acids responsible for the free acidity observed in precipitation, a study was started within the EPOCA programme (Estudios en el Pirineo Occidental de la Contaminación Acida), for measuring organic anions: formiate, acetate and propionate. These results show that it was possible to observe organic anions in nearly every event, with a 5% contribution to the anionic total, and with an appreciable seasonal variation in concentration. The maximum contribution of organic acids to free acidity (H +) is 6% in rain events with pH≤5.0. There is significant correlation between acetic acid and inorganic ions of marine origin Cl -, Na + and Mg 2+ which might indicate the importance which the air masses of marine origin are going to have in the concentration of this acid. There is also significant correlation between formic acid and SO 42- and H + ions which might indicate the relatively importance contribution of formic acid to free acidity.

  11. Survey of organic acid eluents for anion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Book, D.E.

    1981-10-01

    Of all the potential eluents surveyed (including aromatic, sulfonic, phosphonic, among other acids), only the carboxylic acids and the nitrophenols are recommended as eluents for anion chromatography. The concentration of the eluent should be in the range 5 x 10/sup -5/ to 1 x 10/sup -3/ M. The eluent should have the same charge as inorganic anions, a higher charge than organic acid samples. Choice of eluents for separation of halides, chloride and sulfate, multivalent inorganic anions, small alkyl acids, and aromatic acids is discussed. (DLC)

  12. Influence of pH on organic acid production by Clostridium sporogenes in test tube and fermentor cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Montville, T J; Parris, N; Conway, L K

    1985-01-01

    The influence of pH on the growth parameters of and the organic acids produced by Clostridium sporogenes 3121 cultured in test tubes and fermentors at 35 degrees C was examined. Specific growth rates in the fermentor maintained at a constant pH ranged from 0.20 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.86 h-1 at pH 6.50. Acetic acid was the primary organic acid in supernatants of 24-h cultures; total organic acid levels were 2.0 to 22.0 mumol/ml. Supernatants from pH 5.00 and 5.50 cultures had total organic acid levels less than one-third of those found at pH 6.00 to 7.00. The specific growth rates of the test tube cultures ranged from 0.51 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.95 h-1 at pH 6.50. The pH of the medium did not affect the average total organic acid content (51.5 mumol/ml) but did affect the distribution of the organic acids, which included formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic, and 3-phenylpropionic acids. Butyric acid levels were lower, but formic and propionic acid levels were higher, at pH 5.00 than at other pHs. PMID:4004207

  13. Determination of organic acids by CE and CEC methods.

    PubMed

    Klampfl, Christian W

    2007-10-01

    A comprehensive overview of the analysis of low-molecular-mass organic acids employing electromigration methods in the capillary format is given. This review includes papers published since 2003 and can be seen as an update of the review paper published by Galli et al. in 2003. Tables included in this review contain application papers describing the determination of organic acids from a variety of fields like the analysis of food and beverages, environmental samples, samples from clinical origin, and from natural products.

  14. Dietary exposure estimates for the food preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid in the total diet in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min-Pei; Lien, Keng-Wen; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Ni, Shih-Pei; Huang, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Dennis P H

    2015-02-25

    The purpose was to assess the health risk to general consumers in Taiwan associated with dietary intake of benzoic acid and sorbic acid by conducting a total diet study (TDS). The hazard index (HI) in percent acceptable daily intake (%ADI) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid for eight exposure groups classified by age were calculated. In high-intake consumers, the highest HI of benzoic acid was 54.1%ADI for males aged 1-2 years old at the 95th percentile, whereas for females, the HI was 61.7%ADI for aged over 66 years old. The highest HI of sorbic acid for male and female consumers aged 3-6 years old at the 95th percentile were 14.0%ADI and 12.2%ADI, respectively. These results indicate that the use of benzoic acid and sorbic acid as preservatives at the current level of use in the Taiwanese diet does not constitute a public health and safety concern.

  15. Serum amino acid concentrations in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition with an amino acid plus dextrose mixture.

    PubMed

    Philcox, J C; Hartley, T F; Worthley, L I; Thomas, D W

    1984-01-01

    The results of monitoring the serum amino acid concentrations during three infusion regimens using a 5:4 mixture of 70% glucose and the synthetic L-amino acid solution, Synthamin 17 (Travasol) are reported. Twelve stabilized patients received continuous total parenteral nutrition (TPN), eight of whom were subsequently placed on a second regimen of cyclical feeding. A separate group of five patients was infused with amino acids, both with and without simultaneous glucose. The serum amino acid concentrations indicated that the supply of valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine, and the synthesis of taurine from the infused methionine was suboptimal, particularly if the period of TPN was prolonged. The synthesis of tyrosine from phenylalanine appeared to be inversely proportional to the infusion rate of the TPN mixture, in particular the glucose component, resulting in depressed tyrosine and increased phenylalanine concentrations in serum during continuous iv nutrition. Cyclical infusions, on the other hand, permitted the tyrosine and phenylalanine concentrations to return to normal during the noninfusion stage of the cycle. Amino acid measurements enabled us to design an amino acids additive mixture which normalized the serum concentrations in three long-term home parenteral nutrition patients. As a result of these investigations serum amino acid measurements are used routinely to monitor the efficacy of TPN and accommodate any specific amino acid requirements of individual patients.

  16. Comparison of Free Total Amino Acid Compositions and Their Functional Classifications in 13 Wild Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Liu, Qiuming; Bao, Changjun; Fan, Jian

    2017-02-24

    Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor, Boletus speciosus, Boletus sinicus, Boletus craspedius, Boletus griseus, Boletus ornatipes, Xerocomus, Suillus placidus, Boletinus pinetorus, Tricholoma terreum, Tricholomopsis lividipileata, Termitomyces microcarpus, and Amanita hemibapha, were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis. Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid (TAA) contents ranged from 1462.6 mg/100 g in B. craspedius to 13,106.2 mg/100 g in T. microcarpus. The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. The ratio of total essential amino acids (EAA) to TAA was 0.13-0.41. All of the analyzed species showed high contents of hydrophobic amino acids, at 33%-54% of TAA. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached 94.39%. Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. microcarpus and A. hemibapha showed remarkable EAA content among the 13 species.

  17. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  18. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM ISOPRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of particle-phase acidity on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene is investigated in a laboratory chamber study, in which the acidity of the inorganic seed aerosol was controlled systematically. The observed enhancement in SOA mass concentration is c...

  19. Organic geochemistry of amino acids: Precambrian to recent

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, M.H.; Macko, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Since the discovery of amino acids in fossils (Abelson, 1954), considerable effort has been made to elucidate the origin and distribution of amino acids in geologic materials. Racemization and decomposition reactions of amino acids and peptides derived via the natural hydrolysis of protein constituents of organisms have been extensively studied. While the ubiquity of amino acids presents a challenge for discerning their indigeneity in geologic samples, careful analyses have resulted in successful applications of amino acid racemization and decomposition reactions for investigations of geochronologic, paleoclimatic, stratigraphic, diagenetic and chemotaxonomic problems for Quaternary age samples. An investigation of amino acids in sediments from Baffin Island fjords indicates that their distribution may also provide data with respect to the relative contributions of marine and terrigenous organic matter to recent sediments. While the absence of unstable amino acids and the presence of racemic amino acids in a sample may preclude very recent contamination, the possibility of retardation of amino acid racemization rates subsequent to geopolymer formation must also be considered. Studies of amino acids in Paleozoic, Mesozoic and early Cenozoic age samples are limited. Precambrian samples, however, have received much attention, given the potential (however slight) for isolating compounds representative of the earliest living systems. A future approach for elucidating the origin(s) of amino acids in ancient samples may be analyses of their individual stable isotopic compositions.

  20. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  1. Interaction of Humic Acids with Organic Toxicants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Yudina, N. V.; Maltseva, E. V.; Nechaev, L. V.; Svetlichnyi, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    Interaction of humic acids with polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (naphthalene and anthracene) and triazole series fungicides (cyproconazole (CC) and tebuconazole (TC)) is investigated by the method of fluorescence quenching depending on the concentration of substances in solutions and their structural features. Humic acids were modified by mechanochemical activation in a planetary mill. The complex character of intermolecular interactions between PAH and fungicides with humic acids, including donor-acceptor and hydrophobic binding, is established. Thermodynamically stable conformations of biocide molecules were estimated using ChemOffice CS Chem3D 8.0 by methods of molecular mechanics (MM2) and molecular dynamics. Biocide molecules with pH 7 are in energetically favorable position when the benzene and triazole rings are almost parallel to each other. After acidification of solutions to pH 4.5, the CC molecule retains the geometry for which donor-acceptor interactions are possible: the benzene ring in the molecule represents the electron donor, and triazole is the acceptor. In this case, the electron density in CC is redistributed easier, which is explained by a smaller number of carbon atoms between the triazole and benzene rings, unlike TC. As a result, the TC triazole ring is protonated to a greater degree, acquiring a positive charge, and enters into donoracceptor interactions with humic acid (HA) samples. The above-indicated bond types allow HA to participate actively in sorption processes and to provide their interaction with biocides and PAH and hence, to act as detoxifying agents for recultivation of the polluted environment.

  2. [Inhibition of growth of microscopic fungi with organic acids].

    PubMed

    Conková, E; Para, L; Kocisová, A

    1993-01-01

    Fungicidal effects of five selected organic acids (lactic, acetic, formic, oxalic, and propionic) in concentrations 3, 5, 10, 20 and 50 ml/l on nine selected species of moulds were tested. Lactic and oxalic acids did not prove the satisfactory fungicidal activity in any of the chosen concentrations. The antifungal effect of the other three acids, manifested by the growth inhibition of the tested moulds is shown in Tab. I and it can be expressed by sequence: propionic acid, formic acid, and acetic acid. These acids also had effects only in concentrations 20 ml/l and 50 ml/l. Propionic acid in concentration 20 ml/l inhibited the growth of five moulds (Penicillium glabrum, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium sphaerospermum). In testing of concentration 50 ml/l, the lower fungicidal ability was ascertained only in growth suppression of Aspergillus flavus. The fungicidal activity of formic acid was registered in concentration 20 ml/l in two cases and in concentration 50 ml/l in six cases. Acetic acid inhibited the growth in concentration 50 ml/l only in two cases. Tab. II shows the percentual evaluation of propionic acid and formic acid with regard to their inhibition abilities. The fungicidal efficiency of propionic acid resulting from the experiment is 88.9%.

  3. Fluorimetric determination of total ascorbic acid by a stopped-flow mixing technique.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, T; Martínez-Lozano, C; Tomás, V; Fenoll, J; Fenol, J

    2001-08-01

    A simple, rapid and automatic fluorimetric method for the determination of total ascorbic acid is described. The method makes use of the stopped-flow mixing technique in order to achieve the rapid oxidation of ascorbic acid by dissolved oxygen to dehydroascorbic acid, which then reacts with o-phenylenediamine to form a fluorescent quinoxaline. The initial rate and fluorescence signal of this system are directly proportional to the ascorbic acid concentration. The calibration graph was linear over the range 0.1-30 microg ml(-1) (kinetic method) and 0.25-34 microg ml(-1) (equilibrium method). The precision (% RSD) was close to 0.5%. The method has been used for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations, fruit juices, soft drinks and blood serum.

  4. Modulation of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol Fermentation by Carbon Monoxide and Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Rathin; Zeikus, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic modulation of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum with carbon monoxide (CO) and organic acids is described. CO, which is a known inhibitor of hydrogenase, was found to be effective in the concentration range of dissolved CO corresponding to a CO partial pressure of 0.1 to 0.2 atm. Metabolic modulation by CO was particularly effective when organic acids such as acetic and butyric acids were added to the fermentation as electron sinks. The uptake of organic acids was enhanced, and increases in butyric acid uptake by 50 to 200% over control were observed. Hydrogen production could be reduced by 50% and the ratio of solvents could be controlled by CO modulation and organic acid addition. Acetone production could be eliminated if desired. Butanol yield could be increased by 10 to 15%. Total solvent yield could be increased 1 to 3% and the electron efficiency to acetone-butanol-ethanol solvents could be increased from 73 to 78% for controls to 80 to 85% for CO- and organic acid-modulated fermentations. Based on these results, the dynamic nature of electron flow in this fermentation has been elucidated and mechanisms for metabolic control have been hypothesized. PMID:16346746

  5. Comparison study between fasting total serum bile acid and post prandial bile acid in hepatic diseases: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Boonyapisit, S; Lekhakula, S; Amornkittichareon, B; Shumnumsirivath, D

    1994-01-01

    Fasting bile acid, two-hour post prandial bile acid and other liver function tests (Bili, AST, ALT, ALB, Glob, ALP) were measured in 22 normal and 28 liver diseased patients. In normal volunteers, the mean value of fasting total serum bile acid (FTBA) and postprandial serum bile acid (PTBA) were 3.08 mumole/L (S.D. 1.65) range 0.21-6.26 mumol/L, and 8.07 mumole/L (S.D. 2.99) range 4.06-15.65 mumole/L. Comparison between FTBA, PTBA and other liver function tests in various liver diseases from this study the PTBA was not statistically significant superior to FTBA. Therefore, it is not necessary to do the PTBA at this time until more data is available.

  6. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal

  7. Organic acids as indicators of VOC oxidation: Measurements of formic acid and other gas-phase acids during SOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, D.; Brophy, P.; Murschell, T.

    2013-12-01

    Oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere affects not only the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, but also the formation of secondary organic aerosol. Organic acids are produced during VOC oxidation, although additional sources include biomass burning and primary emissions. While some organic acids are semi-volatile and dominantly present in the aerosol phase, formic acid and other small organic acids are dominantly present in the gas phase. The concentrations of these gas-phase organic acids can provide insight into oxidation chemistry. Here, we present measurements made during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in Centerville, Alabama during the summer of 2013 by a high resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-CIMS) operated in a novel switching reagent ion mode to measure gas phase organic acids with both acetate (CH3COO-) and iodide (I-) reagent ions. Formic acid was quantified using for both ionization schemes using multiple calibration techniques. In this study, we will focus on the impact of anthropogenic pollutants, including nitrogen and sulfur oxides, on oxidation chemistry, and discuss the potential use of organic acids as tracers for atmospheric oxidation chemistry.

  8. Calculation of the release of total organic matter and total mineral using the hydrodynamic equations applied to palm oil mill effluent treatment by cascaded anaerobic ponds.

    PubMed

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment processes to remove organic matter from palm oil mill effluent (POME) have been used widely in Malaysia. Still the amounts of total organic and total mineral released from POME that may cause degradation of the receiving environment need to be verified. This paper proposes the use of the hydrodynamic equations to estimate performance of the cascaded anaerobic ponds (CAP) and to calculate amounts of total organic matter and total mineral released from POME. The CAP efficiencies to remove biochemical oxygen demands, chemical oxygen demands, total solids and volatile solids (VS) as high as 94.5, 93.6, 96.3 and 98.2 %, respectively, are estimated. The amounts of total organic matter and total mineral as high as 538 kg VS/day and 895 kg FS/day, respectively, released from POME to the receiving water are calculated. The implication of the proposed hydrodynamic equations contributes to more versatile environmental assessment techniques, sometimes replacing laboratory analysis.

  9. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiles of urinary organic acids in healthy captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Tordiffe, Adrian Stephen Wolferstan; van Reenen, Mari; Reyers, Fred; Mienie, Lodewyk Jacobus

    2017-04-01

    In captivity, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) frequently suffer from several unusual chronic diseases that rarely occur in their free-ranging counterparts. In order to develop a better understanding of their metabolism and health we documented the urine organic acids of 41 apparently healthy captive cheetahs, in an untargeted metabolomic study, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 339 organic acids were detected and annotated. Phenolic compounds, thought to be produced by the anaerobic fermentation of aromatic amino acids in the distal colon, as well as their corresponding glycine conjugates, were present in high concentrations. The most abundant organic acids in the cheetahs' urine were an as yet unidentified compound and a novel cadaverine metabolite, tentatively identified as N(1),N(5)-dimethylpentane-1,5-diamine. Pantothenic acid and citramalic acid concentrations correlated negatively with age, while glutaric acid concentrations correlated positively with age, suggesting possible dysregulation of coenzyme A metabolism in older cheetahs. This study provides a baseline of urine organic acid reference values in captive cheetahs and suggests important avenues for future research in this species.

  10. Six hydrogen-bonded supramolecular frameworks assembled from organic acids and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Lanqing; Lou, Yulei; Liu, Li; Li, Bin; Li, Linyu; Feng, Chao; Liu, Hui; Wang, Daqi

    2016-03-01

    Cocrystallization of the commonly available organic compound, p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, with a series of organic acids gave a total of six molecular adducts with the compositions: p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid) [(L) · (Hdsa), Hdsa = 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid] (1), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (3-nitrophthalic acid) [(L) · (3-H2npa), 3-H2npa = 3-nitrophthalic acid] (2), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (4-nitrophthalic acid) [(L) · (4-H2npa), 4-H2npa = 4-nitrophthalic acid] (3), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) : (NH3)2 [NH4 · (HL) · (nds2-) · NH3, nds- = 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonate] (4), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (oxalic acid)0.5 [(L) · (H2oa)0.5, H2oa = oxalic acid] (5), and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (fumaric acid)0.5 [(L) · (H2fum)0.5, H2fum = fumaric acid] (6). The six molecular adducts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, IR, and elemental analysis, and the melting points of all adducts were also reported. And their structural and supramolecular aspects are fully analyzed. Of the six adducts, only 4 is an organic salt and the other five are cocrystals. The crystal packing is interpreted in terms of the strong classical hydrogen bonds as well as other weak non-classical hydrogen bonds. The different families of non-covalent bonds contribute to the stabilization and expansion of the total high-dimensional (2D-3D) frameworks.

  11. Organic Acids Over Equatorial Africa: Results from DECAFE 88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helas, Günter; Bingemer, Heinz; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    1992-04-01

    Gaseous short chain organic acids were measured during the dry season (February) in and above the rain forest of the northern Congo. Samples were taken at ground level and during several flights up to 4 km altitude. The organic acids were concentrated from the atmosphere by using "mist scrubbers," which expose a mist of deionized water to the air to be probed. The organic acids absorbed in the water were subsequently analyzed by ion chromatography. Formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids were identified in the samples. At ground level, average mixing ratios of gaseous formic and acetic acid of 0.5±0.6 and 0.6±0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (1 s), respectively, were found. Boundary layer mixing ratios, however, were significantly higher (3.7±1.0 and 2.7±0.9 ppbv). This indicates a downward net flux of these atmospheric trace components from the boundary layer to the surface. Free tropospheric samples taken above the cloud convection layer show lower mixing ratios again (0.9±0.3 and 0.7±0.1 ppbv). On the basis of this vertical distribution, direct emission by vegetation is not considered to be the dominant source. Biomass burning and photochemical oxidation of biogenic precursors are the major processes contributing to the enhancement of organic acids observed in the boundary layer. The organic acids parallel the profiles of ozone and CO, which suggests that their generation processes are closely related. Pyruvic acid is not correlated with formic acid, indicating that the oxidation of isoprene is not of major importance. In emissions from biomass fires, CO correlates well with formic and acetic acid, and thus some of the enhancement of organic acids in the boundary layer can be explained due to burning. However, an additional gas phase source for organic acids must exist to explain the observed ratio of formic to acetic acid. This is most likely the ozonolysis of olefins which were released as pyrolysis products from biomass burning.

  12. Economic impact of tranexamic acid in healthy patients undergoing primary total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Blake P; Maradit Kremers, Hilal; Duncan, Christopher M; Smith, Hugh M; Trousdale, Robert T; Pagnano, Mark W; Sierra, Rafael J

    2013-09-01

    Tranexamic acid (TA) has been shown to reduce perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion. While concern remains about the cost of antifibrinolytic medication, we hypothesized that routine use of tranexamic acid would result in lower direct hospital total cost by decreasing costs associated with blood transfusion, laboratory testing, and room & board. Patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class II or less undergoing primary total hip or knee arthroplasty at a single institution during 2007-2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The estimated mean direct hospital total cost, operating room, blood/lab, room & board, and pharmacy costs were compared between patients who did and did not receive TA. The study population included 1018 patients, and 580 patients received TA. The mean direct total cost of hospitalization with and without TA was $15,099 and $15,978 (P<.0002) respectively, a difference of $879. The only increased cost associated with TA was the pharmacy cost which was $921 versus $781 (P<.0001). The routine use of tranexamic acid TA was associated with lower mean direct hospital total costs after primary total hip and knee arthroplasty as the increase in pharmacy costs was more than offset by cost savings in other categories.

  13. Determination of sugars, organic acids, aroma components, and carotenoids in grapefruit pulps.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Quan, Junping; Zheng, Qiao; Xi, Wanpeng

    2016-08-15

    The composition and content of sugars, organic acids, volatiles and carotenoids, in the pulps of six grapefruit cultivars, were examined by HPLC and GC-MS. The results showed that sucrose was the dominant sugar in grapefruit, making up 40.08-59.68% of the total sugars, and the ratio of fructose to glucose was almost 1:1. Citric acid was the major organic acid and represented 39.10-63.55% of the total organic acids, followed by quininic acid. The ratios of individual sugars and organic acids play an important role in grapefruit taste determination. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the predominant volatiles in grapefruit, in particular d-limonene and caryophyllene. Caryophyllene, α-humulene, humulen-(v1), β-linalool and tert-butyl 2-methylpropanoate are the characteristic aroma compounds of grapefruit. Although β-carotene is the primary carotenoid in grapefruit, the pulp color is mainly determined by the ratios of zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene. Our results provide the first complete chemical characterization of the taste, aroma and color of grapefruit.

  14. Clinical applications of urinary organic acids. Part 2. Dysbiosis markers.

    PubMed

    Lord, Richard S; Bralley, J Alexander

    2008-12-01

    Part 1 of this series focused on urinary organic acids as markers of detoxification; part 2 focuses on dysbiosis markers. Intestinal microbial growth is accompanied by the release of products of their metabolism that may be absorbed and excreted in urine. Several organic acids are known to be specific products of bacterial metabolic action on dietary polyphenols or unassimilated amino acids or carbohydrates. Associated gastrointestinal or neurological symptoms may result from irritation of the intestinal mucosa or systemic distribution of absorbed neurotoxic products. Detection of abnormally elevated levels of these products is a useful diagnostic tool for patients with gastrointestinal or toxicological symptoms. Test profiles of urinary organic acids associated with microbial overgrowth can include benzoate, hippurate, phenylacetate, phenylpropionate, cresol, hydroxybenzoate, hydroxyphenylacetate, hydroxyphenylpropionate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionate, indican, tricarballylate, D-lactate, and D-arabinitol. Effective treatments for the associated microbial overgrowths may be directed at reducing microbial populations, introducing favorable microbes, and restoring intestinal mucosal integrity.

  15. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids.

  16. TOTAL PARTICLE, SULFATE, AND ACIDIC AEROSOL EMISSIONS FROM KEROSENE SPACE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chamber studies were conducted on four unvented kerosene space heaters to assess emissions of total particle, sulfate, and acidic aerosol. The heaters tested represented four burner designs currently in use by the public. Kerosene space heaters are a potential source of fine part...

  17. Total synthesis of (±)-epithuriferic acid methyl ester via Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Marek; Bałczewski, Piotr; Owsianik, Krzysztof; Różycka-Sokołowska, Ewa; Marciniak, Bernard

    2016-02-07

    In this paper, we have described the first total synthesis of (±)-epithuriferic acid methyl ester from non-natural sources, in four steps (20% overall yield). The key step involves the Diels-Alder reaction of isobenzofuran with methyl 3-(dimethoxyphosphoryl)acrylate which is controlled by "ortho" regio- and endo stereoselectivities due to the COOMe group.

  18. Total synthesis of (−)-dihydroprotolichesterenic acid via diastereoselective conjugate addition to chiral fumarates

    PubMed Central

    Hethcox, J. Caleb; Shanahan, Charles S.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    A diastereoselective conjugate addition of a variety of monoorganocuprates, Li[RCuI], to chiral fumarates to provide funtionalized succinates has been developed. The utility of this reaction is demonstrated in a concise total synthesis of (−)-dihydroprotolichesterenic acid that required only four steps and proceeded in an overall 31% yield. PMID:23539490

  19. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  4. [Metabolic pathway and metabolites of total diterpene acid isolated from Pseudolarix kaempferi].

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Guo, Hong-Zhu; Sun, Jiang-Hao; Xu, Man; Guo, Hui; Sun, Shi-Feng; Guo, De-An

    2014-08-01

    The preliminary metabolic profile of total diterpene acid (TDA) isolated from Pseudolarix kaempferi was investigated by using in vivo and in vitro tests. Pseudolaric acid C2 (PC2) was identified as the predominant metabolite in plasma, urine, bile and feces after both oral and intravenous administrations to rats using HPLC-UV and HPLC-ESI/MS(n), and demethoxydeacetoxypseudolaric acid B (DDPB), a metabolite proposed to be the glucoside of PC2 (PC2G), as well as pseudolaric acid C (PC), pseudolaric acid A (PA), pseudolaric acid A O-beta-D glucopyranoside (PAG), pseudolaric acid B O-beta-D glucopyranoside (PBG) and deacetylpseudolaric acid A (DPA) originated from TDA could also be detected. It was demonstrated by tests that the metabolism of TDA is independent of intestinal microflora, and neither of pepsin and trypsin is in charge of metabolism of TDA, TDA is also stable in both pH environments of gastric tract and intestinal tract. The metabolites of TDA in whole blood in vitro incubation were found to be PC2, DDPB and PC2G, which demonstrated that the metabolic reaction of TDA in vivo is mainly occurred in blood and contributed to be the hydrolysis of plasma esterase to ester bond, as well as the glucosylation reaction. These results clarified the metabolic pathway of TDA for the first time, which is of great significance to the in vivo active form and acting mechanism research of P. kaempferi.

  5. Direct sensing of total acidity by chronopotentiometric flash titrations at polymer membrane ion-selective electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gemene, Kebede L; Bakker, Eric

    2008-05-15

    Polymer membrane ion-selective electrodes containing lipophilic ionophores are traditionally interrogated by zero current potentiometry, which, ideally, gives information on the sample activity of ionic species. It is shown here that a discrete cathodic current pulse across an H (+)-selective polymeric membrane doped with the ionophore ETH 5294 may be used for the chronopotentiometric detection of pH in well-buffered samples. However, a reduction in the buffer capacity leads to large deviations from the expected Nernstian response slope. This is explained by the local depletion of hydrogen ions at the sample-membrane interface as a result of the galvanostatically imposed ion flux in direction of the membrane. This depletion is found to be a function of the total acidity of the sample and can be directly monitored chronopotentiometrically in a flash titration experiment. The subsequent application of a baseline potential pulse reverses the extraction process of the current pulse, allowing one to interrogate the sample with minimal perturbation. In one protocol, total acidity is found to be proportional to the magnitude of applied current at the flash titration end point. More conveniently, the square root of the flash titration end point time observed at a fixed applied current is a linear function of the total acid concentration. This suggests that it is possible to perform rapid localized pH titrations at ion-selective electrodes without the need for volumetric titrimetry. The technique is explored here for acetic acid, MES and citric acid with promising results. Polymeric membrane electrodes based on poly(vinyl chloride) plasticized with o-nitrophenyl octyl ether in a 1:2 mass ratio may be used for the detection of acids of up to ca. 1 mM concentration, with flash titration times on the order of a few seconds. Possible limitations of the technique are discussed, including variations of the acid diffusion coefficients and influence of electrical migration.

  6. The Roles of Organic Acids in C4 Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are involved in numerous metabolic pathways in all plants. The finding that some plants, known as C4 plants, have four-carbon dicarboxylic acids as the first product of carbon fixation showed these organic acids play essential roles as photosynthetic intermediates. Oxaloacetate (OAA), malate, and aspartate (Asp) are substrates for the C4 acid cycle that underpins the CO2 concentrating mechanism of C4 photosynthesis. In this cycle, OAA is the immediate, short-lived, product of the initial CO2 fixation step in C4 leaf mesophyll cells. The malate and Asp, resulting from the rapid conversion of OAA, are the organic acids delivered to the sites of carbon reduction in the bundle-sheath cells of the leaf, where they are decarboxylated, with the released CO2 used to make carbohydrates. The three-carbon organic acids resulting from the decarboxylation reactions are returned to the mesophyll cells where they are used to regenerate the CO2 acceptor pool. NADP-malic enzyme-type, NAD-malic enzyme-type, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants were identified, based on the most abundant decarboxylating enzyme in the leaf tissue. The genes encoding these C4 pathway-associated decarboxylases were co-opted from ancestral C3 plant genes during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Malate was recognized as the major organic acid transferred in NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 species, while Asp fills this role in NAD-malic enzyme-type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type plants. However, accumulating evidence indicates that many C4 plants use a combination of organic acids and decarboxylases during CO2 fixation, and the C4-type categories are not rigid. The ability to transfer multiple organic acid species and utilize different decarboxylases has been suggested to give C4 plants advantages in changing and stressful environments, as well as during development, by facilitating the balance of energy between the two cell types involved in the C4 pathway of CO2

  7. The Roles of Organic Acids in C4 Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are involved in numerous metabolic pathways in all plants. The finding that some plants, known as C4 plants, have four-carbon dicarboxylic acids as the first product of carbon fixation showed these organic acids play essential roles as photosynthetic intermediates. Oxaloacetate (OAA), malate, and aspartate (Asp) are substrates for the C4 acid cycle that underpins the CO2 concentrating mechanism of C4 photosynthesis. In this cycle, OAA is the immediate, short-lived, product of the initial CO2 fixation step in C4 leaf mesophyll cells. The malate and Asp, resulting from the rapid conversion of OAA, are the organic acids delivered to the sites of carbon reduction in the bundle-sheath cells of the leaf, where they are decarboxylated, with the released CO2 used to make carbohydrates. The three-carbon organic acids resulting from the decarboxylation reactions are returned to the mesophyll cells where they are used to regenerate the CO2 acceptor pool. NADP-malic enzyme-type, NAD-malic enzyme-type, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants were identified, based on the most abundant decarboxylating enzyme in the leaf tissue. The genes encoding these C4 pathway-associated decarboxylases were co-opted from ancestral C3 plant genes during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Malate was recognized as the major organic acid transferred in NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 species, while Asp fills this role in NAD-malic enzyme-type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type plants. However, accumulating evidence indicates that many C4 plants use a combination of organic acids and decarboxylases during CO2 fixation, and the C4-type categories are not rigid. The ability to transfer multiple organic acid species and utilize different decarboxylases has been suggested to give C4 plants advantages in changing and stressful environments, as well as during development, by facilitating the balance of energy between the two cell types involved in the C4 pathway of CO2

  8. [Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on speciation of exogenous Cu in an acid soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Fu, Qing-Ling; Zhu, Jun; Wan, Tian-Ying; Hu, Hong-Qing

    2014-08-01

    In order to ascertain the effect of LMWOA (citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid) on Cu-contaminated soils and to investigate the change of Cu species, a red soil derived from quartz sandstone deposit was added by Cu (copper) in the form of CuSO4 x 5H2O so as to simulate soil Cu pollution, keeping the additional Cu concentrations were 0, 100, 200, 400 mg x kg(-1) respectively. After 9 months, different LMWOA was also added into the simulated soil, keeping the additional LMWOAs in soil were 0, 5, 10, 20 mmol x kg(-1) respectively. After 2 weeks incubation, the modified sequential extraction method on BCR (European Communities Bureau of Reference) was used to evaluate the effects of these LMWOAs on the changes of copper forms in soil. The result showed that the percentage of weak acid dissolved Cu, the most effective form in the soil increased with three organic acids increase in quantity in the simulated polluted soil. And there was a good activation effect on Cu in the soil when organic acid added. Activation effects on Cu increased with concentration of citric acid increasing, but it showed a rise trend before they are basically remained unchanged in the case of tartaric acid and oxalic acid added in the soil. On the contrary, the state of the reduction of copper which was regarded as a complement for effective state decreased with the increased concentration of organic acid in the soil, especially with citric acid. When 20 mmol x kg(-1) oxalic acid and citric acid were added into the soil, the activation effect was the best; whereas for tartaric, the concentration was 10 mmol x kg(-1). In general, the effect on the changes of Cu forms in the soil is citric acid > tartaric acid > oxalic acid.

  9. Hydrogen generation from magnesium hydride by using organic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Yen-Hsi

    In this paper, the hydrolysis of solid magnesium hydride has been studied with the high concentration of catalyst at the varying temperature. An organic acid (acetic acid, CH3COOH) has been chosen as the catalyst. The study has three objectives: first, using three different weights of MgH 2 react with aqueous solution of acid for the hydrogen generation experiments. Secondly, utilizing acetic acid as the catalyst accelerates hydrogen generation. Third, emphasizing the combination of the three operating conditions (the weight of MgH2, the concentration of acetic acid, and the varying temperature) influence the amount of hydrogen generation. The experiments results show acetic acid truly can increase the rate of hydrogen generation and the weight of MgH2 can affect the amount of hydrogen generation more than the varying temperature.

  10. [Pollution characteristics of organic acids in atmospheric particles during haze periods in autumn in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ji-hua; Zhao, Jing-ping; Duan, Jing-chun; Ma, Yong-liang; He, Ke-bin; Yang, Fu-mo

    2013-05-01

    Total suspended particles (TSP), collected during a typical haze period in Guangzhou, were analyzed for the fatty acids (C12-C30) and low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C3-C9) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the concentration of total fatty and carboxylic acids was pretty high during the haze episode. The ratios of fatty acids and carboxylic acids in haze to those in normal days were 1.9 and 2.5, respectively. During the episode of the increasing pollution, the fatty acids and carboxylic acids at night (653 ng x m(-3)) was higher than that (487 ng x m(-3)) in days. After that, the level of fatty acids and carboxylic acids in days (412 ng x m(-3)) was higher than that (336 ng x m(-3)) at night. In general, the time-series of fatty acids and carboxylic acids was similar to that of the air particle and carbonaceous species, however, the trend of the ratio of fatty acids and carboxylic acids to organic carbon was opposite to that of air particle and carbonaceous species. This ratio decreased with the increase of the concentration of air particle and after the night of 27th, the ratio increased with the decrease in the concentration of air particle. The results showed that haze pollution had a significant inhibitory effect on the enrichment of fatty and carboxylic acids. Based on the ratio of malonate to succinate (C3/C4), it could be found that primary sources contribute more to the atmospheric fatty and carboxylic acids during the autumn haze pollution periods in Guangzhou.

  11. Water-soluble organic acids in cryomorphic peat soils of the southeastern Bol'shezemel'skaya tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamrikova, E. V.; Kaverin, D. A.; Pastukhov, A. V.; Lapteva, E. M.; Kubik, O. S.; Punegov, V. V.

    2015-03-01

    The composition of the water extracts, the pH, and the weight concentrations of the total organic carbon and low-molecular-weight organic acids in seasonally thawed and perennially frozen horizons of cryomorphic peat soils have been determined. The quantitative analysis of the acids converted to trimethylsilyl derivatives has been performed by gas chromatography and chromato-mass spectroscopy. Hydroxypropanoic, propanoic, and hydroxyethanoic acids are the prevailing acids (30-50, 10-20, and 10% of the total acids, respectively). Malic, glyceric, hexadionic, trihydroxybutanoic, ribonic, and other acids have also been detected. It has been shown that the differences in the genesis of the peat deposits significantly affect the composition and content of water-soluble organic compounds in soils on the soil-profile and landscape levels.

  12. Hydrothermal Mineral-Assisted Organic Transformations of Carboxylic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. N.; Gould, I.; Williams, L. B.; Hartnett, H. E.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of our research is to probe the varieties of reactions possible in a hydrothermal system in which both organic compounds and minerals interact. We performed experiments at physical conditions representative of deep-sea and subsurface systems (300°C and 1000 bar) and analyzed the effect of the mineral magnetite (Fe3O4) in systems with carboxylic acids, either phenylacetic acid or hydrocinnamic acid (a.k.a., phenylpropanoic acid). Control experiments were also conducted with the same organic compounds in the absence of magnetite. Whereas previous studies of carboxylic acid reactivity with minerals have focused exclusively on simple molecules such as acetic acid and valeric acid (Bell et al. 1994; McCollom et al. 2003), the carboxylic acids used in our study differ from previous experimental compounds by the addition of a phenyl ring, which allows for the investigation of the specific mechanistic pathways of product formation. Decarboxylation (i.e., RCO2H → RH + CO2) is one of the major reaction pathways for carboxylic acids in hydrothermal conditions without minerals. Under our experimental conditions, decarboxylation leads to the ~80% conversion of phenylacetic acid into toluene within ~50 hours and the ~8% conversion of hydrocinnamic acid to ethyl benzene within ~190 hours. We found that magnetite had a different effect on the two organic compounds studied. In experiments with phenylacetic acid, the presence of magnetite did not enhance the rate of toluene production from decarboxylation but did activate additional product pathways that include diphenyl alkanes, alkenes, and ketones, as well as benzoic acid, a carboxylic acid one carbon length shorter than the parent compound. Magnetite had even more noticeable effects on the hydrocinnamic acid system leading to an increase of its consumption at 190 hours from ~9% in magnetite's absence to ~35% in the mineral's presence. Products of the experiments with magnetite included an enhanced rate of

  13. Protected Organic Acid Blends as an Alternative to Antibiotics in Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Upadhaya, S. D.; Lee, K. Y.; Kim, I. H.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 120 finishing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc) with an average body weight (BW) of 49.72 ±1.72 kg were used in 12-wk trial to evaluate the effects of protected organic acids on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal micro flora, meat quality and fecal gas emission. Pigs were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments (10 replication pens with 4 pigs per pen) in a randomly complete block design based on their initial BW. Each dietary treatment consisted of: Control (CON/basal diet), OA1 (basal diet+0.1% organic acids) and OA2 (basal diet+0.2% organic acids). Dietary treatment with protected organic acid blends linearly improved (p<0.001) average daily gain during 0 to 6 week, 6 to 12 week as well as overall with the increase in their inclusion level in the diet. The dry matter, N, and energy digestibility was higher (linear effect, p<0.001) with the increase in the dose of protected organic acid blends during 12 week. During week 6, a decrease (linear effect, p = 0.01) in fecal ammonia contents was observed with the increase in the level of protected organic acid blends on d 3 and d 5 of fermentation. Moreover, acetic acid emission decreased linearly (p = 0.02) on d7 of fermentation with the increase in the level of protected organic acid blends. During 12 weeks, linear decrease (p<0.001) in fecal ammonia on d 3 and d 5 and acetic acid content on d 5 of fermentation was observed with the increase in the level of protected organic acid blends. Supplementation of protected organic acid blends linearly increased the longissimus muscle area with the increasing concentration of organic acids. Moreover, color of meat increased (linear effect, quadratic effect, p<0.001, p<0.002 respectively) and firmness of meat showed quadratic effect (p = 0.003) with the inclusion of increasing level of protected organic acid in the diet. During the 6 week, increment in the level of protected organic acid blends decreased (linear effect, p = 0

  14. Effect of pH, sulphate concentration and total organic carbon on mercury accumulation in sediments in the Volta Lake at Yeji, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Voegborlo, R B; Adimado, A A; Ephraim, J H; Nriagu, J O

    2012-03-01

    In this study, pH, total organic carbon, sulphate concentration and mercury concentrations of sediment samples from the Volta Lake at Yeji in the northern part of Ghana were determined. The results indicate that pH ranged from 6.32 to 8.21, total organic carbon ranged from 0.17 to 3.02 g/kg and sulphate concentration from 10.00 to 57.51 mg/kg. Total mercury concentrations ranged from 32.61 to 700 ng/g which is below the International Atomic Energy Agency recommended value of 810 ng/g. Humic substance-bound mercury ranged from 81.15 to 481.31 mg/kg in sediments and its two fractions existed as humic acid-bound mercury > fulvic acid-bound mercury with the ratio of humic substance-bound mercury to fulvic acid-bound mercury as 1.62 on the average. Humic substance-bound mercury and the two fractions fulvic acid-bound mercury and humic substance-bound mercury in sediments were favorably determined and found to correlate significantly positive with total organic carbon (r = 0.538) and total mercury (r = 0.574). However, there were poor correlations between SO(4) (2-) concentrations and humic substance-bound mercury (r = -0.391) as well as the two fractions; fulvic acid (r = -0.406) and humic acid (r = -0.381). By assuming that methyl mercury is mostly formed in sediments, these significant relations suggest that the efficiency of mercury being methylated from a given inorganic form depends on the amount, and most likely biochemical composition of total organic carbon in the lake sediment but not the SO(4) (2-) concentration.

  15. Changes in sugars and organic acids in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit during development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Haoxia; Xi, Wanpeng; An, Wei; Niu, Linlin; Cao, Youlong; Wang, Huafang; Wang, Yajun; Yin, Yue

    2015-04-15

    Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruits of three cultivars ('Damaye', 'Baihua' and 'Ningqi No.1') were harvested at five different ripening stages and evaluated for sugars and organic acids. Fructose, glucose and total sugar contents increased continually through development and reached their maxima at 34 days after full bloom (DAF). Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars at maturity, while sucrose content had reduced by maturity. L.barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) content was in the range of 13.03-76.86 mg g(-1)FW during ripening, with a maximum at 20DAF. Citric, tartaric and quinic acids were the main organic acid components during development, and their levels followed similar trends: the highest contents were at 30, 14 and 20DAF, respectively. The significant correlations of fructose and total sugar contents with LBP content during fruit development indicated that they played a key role in LBP accumulation.

  16. HPLC-Profiles of Tocopherols, Sugars, and Organic Acids in Three Medicinal Plants Consumed as Infusions

    PubMed Central

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk, Gomphrena globosa L., and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are medicinal plants that require a more detailed chemical characterization, given the importance of their consumption as infusions. Therefore, the individual profiles in tocopherols, free sugars, and organic acids were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors (fluorescence, refraction index, and photodiode array, resp.). C. citratus revealed the highest content of α-, and total tocopherols, glucose, sucrose, succinic, and ascorbic acids. P. tridentatum presented the highest fructose and total sugars content. Otherwise, G. globosa showed the highest organic acids concentration. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the mentioned chemical compounds in G. globosa and C. citratus. PMID:26904623

  17. Temporal dynamics of total and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen in cover crop grazed cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic C and N are important indicators of agricultural sustainability, yet numerous field studies have revealed a multitude of responses in the extent and rate of change imposed by conservation management, and therefore, a lack of clarity on responses. We conducted an evaluation of total and...

  18. Implications of Japanese Total Quality Control for Western Organizations: Dimensions of an Intercultural Hybrid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Investigates Total Quality Control (TQC) as a companywide, pivotal, and unifying philosophy for quality production and human interaction in Japanese organizations. Stresses the central role of communication processes. Challenges business communication scholars to incorporate TQC as a macro framework in dissections of the quality movement within…

  19. INTERLABORATORY METHODS COMPARISON FOR THE TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON ANALYSIS OF AQUIFER MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The total organic carbon (TOC) content of aquifer materials has been found to have significant effects on the movement of pollutants in the subsurface environment. Accurate quantification of TOC is therefore of great im- portance to research in groundwater contamination. However,...

  20. Total, methyl and organic mercury in sediments of the Southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Bełdowski, J; Miotk, M; Bełdowska, M; Pempkowiak, J

    2014-10-15

    Distribution of sedimentary mercury in the Southern Baltic was investigated. Sediment samples were collected from the Southern Baltic in the period from 2009 to 2011, and concentrations of sedimentary total mercury (average 102 ng/g, range 5.8-225 ng/g) and methyl mercury (average 261 pg/g, range 61-940 pg/g) were measured in the manner that the influence of both patchiness and seasonal changes were assessed. Moreover, sedimentary mercury extracted with organic solvent- the so-called organic mercury was also analyzed (average 425 pg/g, range 100-1440 pg/g). There is a statistically significant dependence between organic mercury and both methyl mercury and total mercury concentrations in the sediments. Methyl mercury contribution to total mercury varied from 0.12% to 1.05%, while organic mercury contributed to 2% of total concentration on average. The area studied, although mercury concentrations exceed threefold the geochemical background, can be regarded as moderately contaminated with mercury, and methylmercury.

  1. Distribution of hydrophobic ionogenic organic compounds between octanol and water: Organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Jafvert, C.T. ); Westall, J.C. ); Grieder, E.; Schwarzenbach, R.P. )

    1990-12-01

    The octanol-water distributions of 10 environmentally significant organic acid compounds were determined as a function of aqueous-phase salt concentration (0.05-0.2 M LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CaCl{sub 2}, or MgCl{sub 2}) and pH. The compounds were pentachlorophenol, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol, (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid, 4-chloro-{alpha}-(4-chlorophenyl)benzeneacetic acid, 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol, (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butanoic acid, 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid, 2,3,6-trichlorobenzeneacetic acid, and 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid. The experimental results were interpreted quantitatively with an equilibrium model that accounts for acid dissociation in the aqueous phase and partitioning into the octanol phase by the neutral organic species, free inorganic and organic ions, and ion pairs. The partition constants for the neutral ion pairs correlate well with the partition constants of the neutral acids. Two experiments address the applicability of these octanol-water distribution data to the distribution of ionogenic compounds in the environment: the distribution of 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol on a natural sorbent as a function of salt concentration (NaCl and CaCl{sub 2}) and pH, and competitive adsorption of pentachlorophenol and 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol on an environmental sorbent.

  2. Free and total amino acid composition in blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Luigi; Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale

    2002-04-01

    A simple, accurate and reproducible analytical method is described for the extraction and the simultaneous determination of 18 amino acids in different for geographical origin Spirulina alga samples using phenylisothiocianate as derivatizating agent in natural feed. The best experimental hydrolysis conditions have been studied varying the temperature, the time and the hydrolyzing reagent. The separation and the quantitative analysis of the by-products have been carried out by HPLC analysis and UV detection. An amino acid pattern is compared with that proposed by the Food Agriculture Organization (FAO) for an ideal protein and with those of some traditional feed.

  3. Starch Modification by Organic Acids and Their Derivatives: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ačkar, Đurđica; Babić, Jurislav; Jozinović, Antun; Miličević, Borislav; Jokić, Stela; Miličević, Radoslav; Rajič, Marija; Šubarić, Drago

    2015-10-27

    Starch has been an inexhaustible subject of research for many decades. It is an inexpensive, readily-available material with extensive application in the food and processing industry. Researchers are continually trying to improve its properties by different modification procedures and expand its application. What is mostly applied in this view are their chemical modifications, among which organic acids have recently drawn the greatest attention, particularly with respect to the application of starch in the food industry. Namely, organic acids naturally occur in many edible plants and many of them are generally recognized as safe (GRAS), which make them ideal modification agents for starch intended for the food industry. The aim of this review is to give a short literature overview of the progress made in the research of starch esterification, etherification, cross-linking, and dual modification with organic acids and their derivatives.

  4. Nickel Deficiency Disrupts Metabolism of Ureides, Amino Acids, and Organic Acids of Young Pecan Foliage[OA

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C.; Wood, Bruce W.

    2006-01-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan. PMID:16415214

  5. Uptake of Small Organic Compounds by Sulfuric Acid Aerosols: Dissolution and Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Michelsen, R. R.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.; Staton, S. J. R.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the role of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, the interactions of a series of small organic compounds with low-temperature aqueous sulfuric acid will be evaluated. The total amount of organic material which may be taken up from the gas phase by dissolution, surface layer formation, and reaction during the particle lifetime will be quantified. Our current results for acetaldehyde uptake on 40 - 80 wt% sulfuric acid solutions will be compared to those of methanol, formaldehyde, and acetone to investigate the relationships between chemical functionality and heterogeneous activity. Where possible, equilibrium uptake will be ascribed to component pathways (hydration, protonation, etc.) to facilitate evaluation of other species not yet studied in low temperature aqueous sulfuric acid.

  6. Metabolic engineering in the biotechnological production of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of microorganisms: Advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xian; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, which are chemically synthesized, are also natural intermediates in the metabolic pathways of microorganisms, among which the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the most crucial route existing in almost all living organisms. Organic acids in the TCA cycle include citric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, and oxaloacetate, which are building-block chemicals with wide applications and huge markets. In this review, we summarize the synthesis pathways of these organic acids and review recent advances in metabolic engineering strategies that enhance organic acid production. We also propose further improvements for the production of organic acids with systems and synthetic biology-guided metabolic engineering strategies.

  7. Determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in waters with a new total organic iodine measurement approach.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2013-11-01

    The dissolved iodine species that dominate aquatic systems are iodide, iodate and organo-iodine. These species may undergo transformation to one another and thus affect the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts during disinfection of drinking waters or wastewater effluents. In this study, a fast, sensitive and accurate method for determining these iodine species in waters was developed by derivatizing iodide and iodate to organic iodine and measuring organic iodine with a total organic iodine (TOI) measurement approach. Within this method, organo-iodine was determined directly by TOI measurement; iodide was oxidized by monochloramine to hypoiodous acid and then hypoiodous acid reacted with phenol to form organic iodine, which was determined by TOI measurement; iodate was reduced by ascorbic acid to iodide and then determined as iodide. The quantitation limit of organo-iodine or sum of organo-iodine and iodide or sum of organo-iodine, iodide and iodate was 5 μg/L as I for a 40 mL water sample (or 2.5 μg/L as I for an 80 mL water sample, or 1.25 μg/L as I for a 160 mL water sample). This method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in a variety of water samples, including tap water, seawater, urine and wastewater. The recoveries of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine were 91-109%, 90-108% and 91-108%, respectively. The concentrations and distributions of iodine species in different water samples were obtained and compared.

  8. Total parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in rats: comparison of different amino acid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Belli, D C; Fournier, L A; Lepage, G; Yousef, I; Weber, A M; Tuchweber, B; Roy, C C

    1987-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity of amino acids perfused is a pathogenetic factor in total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-associated hepatotoxicity. However, the effect of the qualitative pattern of amino acid solutions has not been studied. Rats on parenteral nutrition for 5 days received 10.2 g of dextrose and 3.4 g of amino acids daily. Bile flow (microliter/min/g liver protein) after administration of Vamin was 16.2 +/- 0.8, which was similar to that in controls given chow and dextrose iv, but it was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than those on Travasol (12.3 +/- 0.8). The decrease in bile flow was not related to the large concentrations of alanine and glycine present in Travasol. However, the addition to Travasol of serine present only in Vamin increased bile flow significantly. Bile acid secretion rate, biliary lipid constituents, calcium, sodium, and glucose showed little change. In contrast, alpha-amino nitrogen was increased (p less than 0.05) in Vamin-perfused animals. Steatosis was noted in only a few animals in the Travasol group, and was not associated with an increase in the triglycerides content of the liver. Glycogen and protein content of the livers did not differ. The data show that the composition of amino acid solutions may be a determinant of TPN-induced cholestasis and suggest that the presence of methyl donor amino acids may have a protective effect.

  9. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, L- and D-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers.

  10. Transport and cycling of iron and hydrogen peroxide in a freshwater stream: Influence of organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, D.T.; Runkel, R.L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Voelker, B.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Carraway, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    An in-stream injection of two dissolved organic acids (phthalic and aspartic acids) was performed in an acidic mountain stream to assess the effects of organic acids on Fe photoreduction and H2O2 cycling. Results indicate that the fate of Fe is dependent on a net balance of oxidative and reductive processes, which can vary over a distance of several meters due to changes in incident light and other factors. Solution phase photoreduction rates were high in sunlit reaches and were enhanced by the organic acid addition but were also limited by the amount of ferric iron present in the water column. Fe oxide photoreduction from the streambed and colloids within the water column resulted in an increase in the diurnal load of total filterable Fe within the experimental reach, which also responded to increases in light and organic acids. Our results also suggest that Fe(II) oxidation increased in response to the organic acids, with the result of offsetting the increase in Fe(II) from photoreductive processes. Fe(II) was rapidly oxidized to Fe(III) after sunset and during the day within a well-shaded reach, presumably through microbial oxidation. H2O 2, a product of dissolved organic matter photolysis, increased downstream to maximum concentrations of 0.25 ??M midday. Kinetic calculations show that the buildup of H2O2 is controlled by reaction with Fe(III), but this has only a small effect on Fe(II) because of the small formation rates of H2O2 compared to those of Fe(II). The results demonstrate the importance of incorporating the effects of light and dissolved organic carbon into Fe reactive transport models to further our understanding of the fate of Fe in streams and lakes.

  11. Sea salt particles react with organic acids in atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-10-01

    Sea salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), particles lofted into the atmosphere by the motion of ocean waves affect atmospheric chemistry; these particles can undergo reactions with trace atmospheric gases and internal mixing with anthropogenic pollutants depositing on particle surface. Several studies have found that NaCl particles in the atmosphere are depleted in chloride and have attributed this to reactions with inorganic acids. However, reactions with inorganic acids do not fully account for the observed chloride depletion in some locations; it has been suggested that organic acids, likely of anthropogenic origin, may also play a role in chloride depletion, but results have been uncertain.

  12. The thermal stability of organic acids in sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Crossey, L.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Water-soluble organic compounds in subsurface brines directly affect the evolution of porosity and permeability during sedimentary diagenesis. Recent examination of the aqueous thermal degradation of oxalic acid (a naturally occurring dicarboxylic acid) and its anions has implications for the thermal stability of dicarboxylic acids under sedimentary basin conditions. Because the thermal stability of these compounds is pH-dependent, consideration of the dissociation behavior of carboxylic acids as a function of temperature is essential for estimating the longevity of difunctional carboxylic acids. Results of burial history models suggest that dicarboxylic acid species may be long-lived in formation waters. Comparison with other experimental studies of carboxylic acids and their anion indicates that acetate stability is greater than formate stability, which is greater than oxalate stability, which is greater than gallate and malonate stability. In addition to the implications of natural systems, the aqueous degradation behavior is critical in evaluating other types of experimental results; notably mineral dissolution studies performed at elevated temperatures in the presence of organic materials and hydrous pyrolysis experiments involving kerogens.

  13. Effect of Organic Acids on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus Contaminated Meat

    PubMed Central

    Raftari, M; Jalilian, F. Azizi; Abdulamir, A.S; Son, R; Sekawi, Z; Fatimah, A.B

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate and safe antibacterial agents able to decontaminate meat surfaces have long been big concern of meat industry. In an attempt to manage beef carcass contamination, spray wash treatments utilizing three concentrations (1, 1.5 and 2%) of acetic, lactic, propionic and formic acids were performed to evaluate their efficacy in reducing numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus on meat tissues. The procured beef pieces of freshly slaughtered animals were decontaminated with hot water and then inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus individually which then were spray washed with organic acids separately. The total plate count of the treated samples showed that the populations of bacteria decreased after being exposed to organic acids. Spray wash of formic acid resulted in the highest reduction of both bacterial species on meat surface. Significantly, higher log reductions were obtained for S. aureus than E. coli O157:H7. It was concluded that organic acids are highly effective in decontaminating meat surfaces and organic acids are shown to be safe, simple, efficient, and cheap modality of meat decontamination which can be highly recommended for industrial scales. PMID:19696918

  14. Production of total reducing sugar (TRS) from acid hydrolysed potato peels by sonication and its optimization.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Chakraborty, Sudip; Datta, Siddhartha; Drioli, Enrico; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-01-01

    Potato peel is a waste biomass which can be a source of raw material for biofuel production. This biomass contains a sufficient amount of total reducing sugar (TRS), which can be extracted and further treated with microbial pathways to produce bioethanol. The extraction of TRS from potato peels by hydrolysis in dilute sulphuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.50%, 0.75% and 1% w/v) and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction after hydrolysis. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to verify the experimental data and later applied for the optimization of the main important reaction variables including amplitude (60%, 80% and 100%), cycle (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) and treatment time (5, 10 and 15 min) for the responses of TRS extraction by acid hydrolysis and later compared with the experimental data.

  15. Effect of inorganic salts on the volatility of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Silja A K; McNeill, V Faye; Riipinen, Ilona

    2014-12-02

    Particulate phase reactions between organic and inorganic compounds may significantly alter aerosol chemical properties, for example, by suppressing particle volatility. Here, chemical processing upon drying of aerosols comprised of organic (acetic, oxalic, succinic, or citric) acid/monovalent inorganic salt mixtures was assessed by measuring the evaporation of the organic acid molecules from the mixture using a novel approach combining a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled with a heated flow tube inlet (TPD-CIMS) with kinetic model calculations. For reference, the volatility, i.e. saturation vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy, of the pure succinic and oxalic acids was also determined and found to be in agreement with previous literature. Comparison between the kinetic model and experimental data suggests significant particle phase processing forming low-volatility material such as organic salts. The results were similar for both ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride mixtures, and relatively more processing was observed with low initial aerosol organic molar fractions. The magnitude of low-volatility organic material formation at an atmospherically relevant pH range indicates that the observed phenomenon is not only significant in laboratory conditions but is also of direct atmospheric relevance.

  16. Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic fruits occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria

    2009-08-01

    The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power.

  17. [Simultaneous separation of organic acid and organic salts by electrostatic ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shen, G J; Yang, R F; Yu, A M

    2001-09-01

    The electrostatic ion chromatographic column was prepared by coating conjugated acid salt micelles on the surface of octadecyl silica stationary phase. Pure water was used as mobile phase, and the conductance detector was connected on-line to electrostatic ion chromatograph. The conditions under which organic acid and organic salts were detected were studied. The mechanism for the above separation is discussed. Sodium benzoate and citric acid in Lichee drink were separated and determined. This method is rapid, simple with little interference and good reproducibility without any pollution since the mobile phase is water. This is an environmental friendly analytical method.

  18. Effect of acute bile acid pool depletion on total and ionized calcium concentrations in human bile.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, D; Murphy, G M; Dowling, R H

    1995-04-01

    Although calcium salts are important components of gallstones, there are few data on the total and ionized calcium content of human bile. Therefore, in 14 fasting T-tube patients studied 7-11 days after cholecystectomy, we measured bile flow, bile acid [BA], total [CaTOT] and free ionized [Ca++] calcium concentrations, in 20-30 min bile collections during acute BA pool depletion induced by 6-8 h of continuous bile drainage. During washout of the BA pool there were parallel falls in bile flow, BA output and total calcium output (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.59 to 0.99; P < 0.02-0.001). In 12 of the 14 patients, [CaTOT] also fell (from 1.84 +/- 0.29 to 1.32 +/- 0.34 mmol L-1) in parallel with [BA] (from 34.0 +/- 14.0 to 8.2 +/- 8.0 mmol L-1; r = 0.75-0.98; P < 0.005). In contrast, biliary [Ca++] remained virtually unchanged. These data suggest that the BAs are linked to the bound, rather than to the free, ionized, fraction of biliary calcium, which is consistent with in vivo calcium binding by BAs. A model is proposed in which BA-induced biliary calcium secretion results from (i) bile acid-induced water flow via solvent drag; and (ii) calcium binding in the bile canaliculus by bile acids, which induces paracellular diffusion of Ca++, thereby maintaining [Ca++] independent of [BA].

  19. Removal of total cyanide in coking wastewater during a coagulation process: significance of organic polymers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jian; Zhao, He; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-02-01

    Whether a cationic organic polymer can remove more total cyanide (TCN) than a non-ionic organic polymer during the same flocculation system has not been reported previously. In this study, the effects of organic polymers with different charge density on the removal mechanisms of TCN in coking wastewater are investigated by polyferric sulfate (PFS) with a cationic organic polymer (PFS-C) or a non-ionic polymer (PFS-N). The coagulation experiments results show that residual concentrations of TCN (Fe(CN)6(3-)) after PFS-C flocculation (TCN < 0.2 mg/L) are much lower than that after PFS-N precipitation. This can be attributed to the different TCN removal mechanisms of the individual organic polymers. To investigate the roles of organic polymers, physical and structural characteristics of the flocs are analyzed by FT-IR, XPS, TEM and XRD. Owing to the presence of N+ in PFS-C, Fe(CN)6(3-) and negative flocs (Fe(CN)6(3-) adsorbed on ferric hydroxides) can be removed via charge neutralization and electrostatic patch flocculation by the cationic organic polymer. However, non-ionic N in PFS-N barely reacts with cyanides through sweeping or bridging, which indicates that the non-ionic polymer has little influence on TCN removal.

  20. Application of organic acids for plant protection against phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Dedyukhina, Emilia G; Chistyakova, Tatiana I; Lunina, Julia N; Mironov, Alexey A; Stepanova, Nadezda N; Shemshura, Olga N; Vainshtein, Mikhail B

    2017-02-01

    The basic tendency in the field of plant protection concerns with reducing the use of pesticides and their replacement by environmentally acceptable biological preparations. The most promising approach to plant protection is application of microbial metabolites. In the last years, bactericidal, fungicidal, and nematodocidal activities were revealed for citric, succinic, α-ketoglutaric, palmitoleic, and other organic acids. It was shown that application of carboxylic acids resulted in acceleration of plant development and the yield increase. Of special interest is the use of arachidonic acid in very low concentrations as an inductor (elicitor) of protective functions in plants. The bottleneck in practical applications of these simple, nontoxic, and moderately priced preparations is the absence of industrial production of the mentioned organic acids of required quality since even small contaminations of synthetic preparations decrease their quality and make them dangerous for ecology and toxic for plants, animals, and human. This review gives a general conception on the use of organic acids for plant protection against the most dangerous pathogens and pests, as well as focuses on microbiological processes for production of these microbial metabolites of high quality from available, inexpensive, and renewable substrates.

  1. Diurnal variations of total carbon, dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls in aerosols in the northern vicinity of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, N.; Kawamura, K.; Okuzawa, K.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.

    2013-06-01

    Aerosol samples (TSP, n=58) were collected on day- and night-time basis at Mangshan in the north of Beijing, China in autumn 2007 to better understand the status of air quality and the influence of urban pollutants in the northern vicinity of Beijing. The samples were analyzed for aerosol mass, total carbon (TC), low molecular weight α, ω-dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12), ketoacids (ωC2-ωC9, pyruvic acid), α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal), as well as aromatic (phthalic, iso- and tere-phthalic) diacids. Aerosol mass and TC concentrations are higher in daytime than in nighttime. TC/aerosol mass ratios in this study are lower than those reported in megacities in East Asia, but higher than those reported in marine aerosols. Molecular distributions of diacids demonstrated that oxalic (C2) acid was the most abundant species, comprising 38-77% of total diacids, followed by succinic (C4) and malonic (C3) acids. For most compounds, the concentrations were higher in daytime than nighttime, indicating that diacids are produced in daytime by photochemical oxidation of organic precursors emitted from anthropogenic sources in Beijing during the transport to Mangshan area by the northward wind. However, we found that C2 concentrations are higher in nighttime than in daytime. A positive correlation of C2 to glyoxylic acid (ωC2) was obtained at night when relative humidity increased up to 100%, suggesting that aqueous phase production of C2 occurs in nighttime via the oxidation of ωC2. Depletion of C2 by photolysis of Fe-oxalato complexes might be another reason for the lower concentrations of C2 in daytime samples. High phthalic acid/C4 ratios in the aerosol samples suggest that automobile combustion and coal burning products are important sources, which are subjected to photochemical oxidation during the atmospheric transport of urban aerosols from Beijing. In contrast, higher concentrations of methylglyoxal in nighttime than daytime may suggest that isoprene emitted

  2. Formation of Organic Tracers for Isoprene SOA under Acidic Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical compositions of a series of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) samples, formed by irradiating mixtures of isoprene and NO in a smog chamber in the absence or presence of acidic aerosols, were analyzed using derivatization-based GC-MS methods. In addition to the known is...

  3. pH-Dependent sorption of acidic organic chemicals to soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Tülp, Holger C; Fenner, Kathrin; Schwarzenbach, René P; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2009-12-15

    Due to their increased polarity, many contemporary biologically active chemicals exhibit acid functions and may thus dissociate to their anionic conjugated base at pH values typically present in the environment. Despite its negative charge, soil organic matter (SOM) has been demonstrated to be the main sorbent in soils, even for the anionic species of organic acids. Nevertheless, few data exist that allow for a systematic interpretation of the sorption of organic acids into SOM. Therefore, in this study, the sorption of the neutral and anionic species of 32 diverse organic acids belonging to nine different chemical groups to SOM was investigated. Partition coefficients were determined from HPLC retention volumes on a column packed with peat, at three Ca(2+)-concentrations and over a pH range of 4.5-7.5. The influence of Ca(2+)-concentrations on anion sorption was small (factor 2 in the usual environmental Ca(2+)-concentration range) and independent of molecular structure. Generally, the organic carbon-water partition coefficients, K(oc), of both the neutral and anionic species increased with increasing molecular size and decreased with increasing polarity. At an environmentally relevant Ca(2+)-concentration of 10 mM, the investigated anions sorbed between a factor of 7-60 less than the corresponding neutral acid. This factor was more homogeneous within a group of structurally related compounds. These results indicate that while similar nonionic interactions seem to govern the partitioning of both the neutral and anionic species into SOM, the electrostatic interactions of the anionic species with SOM are a complex and currently not well understood function of the type of acidic functional group. The HPLC-based, flow through method presented in this study was shown to yield consistent results for a wide range of organic acids in a high-throughput manner. It should therefore prove highly useful in further investigating how different acidic functional groups affect

  4. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Boylen, C.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. W.; Momen, B.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg 2+, Na+, and K+, minus SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and NO 3-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  5. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, G B; Sutherland, J W; Boylen, C W; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S W; Momen, B; Baldigo, B P; Simonin, H A

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+, minus S042-, N03-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and N03-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects.

  6. Removal of lead by apatite and its stability in the presence of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masahiko; Makimura, Akihiko; Sato, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, lead sorption and desorption tests were conducted with apatite and organic acids (i.e. citric, malic, and formic acids) to understand lead removal by apatite in the presence of an organic acid and lead dissolution from the lead- and organic-acid-sorbed apatite by such organic acid exposure. The lead sorption test showed that the amount of lead removed by apatite in the presence of organic acid varied depending on the type of acid used. The molar amounts of calcium dissolved from apatite in the presence and absence of organic acid were exactly the same as those of lead removed even under different pH conditions as well as different organic acid concentrations, indicating that the varying amount of lead removal in the presence of different organic acids resulted from the magnitude of the dissolution of apatite and the precipitation of lead phosphate minerals. The percentages of lead dissolved from the organic-acid-sorbed and non-organic-acid-sorbed apatite by all the organic acid extractions were equal and higher than those by water extraction. In particular, the highest extractions were observed in the non-organic-acid-sorbed apatite by citric and malic acids. These results suggest that to immobilize lead by the use of apatite in the presence of organic acids, much more apatite must be added than in the absence of organic acid, and that measures must be taken to ensure that the immobilized lead is not dissolved.

  7. The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan; Schöler, H. F.

    2010-05-01

    The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to volatile organic compounds was studied intensely over the last years (Keppler et al., 2000; Huber et al., 2009). It was shown that soil organic matter is oxidised due to the presence of iron (III), hydrogen peroxide and chloride and thereby produces diverse alkyl halides, which are emitted into the atmosphere. The formation of polar halogenated compounds like chlorinated acetic acids which are relevant toxic environmental substances was also found in soils and sediments (Kilian et al., 2002). The investigation of the formation of other polar halogenated and non-halogenated compounds like diverse mono- and dicarboxylic acids is going to attain more and more importance. Due to its high acidity oxalic acid might have impacts on the environment e.g., nutrient leaching, plant diseases and negative influence on microbial growth. In this study, the abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soil is examined. For a better understanding of natural degradation processes mechanistic studies were conducted using the model compound catechol as representative for structural elements of the humic substances and its reaction with iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide. Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth and hydrogen peroxide is produced by bacteria or through incomplete reduction of oxygen. To find suitable parameters for an optimal reaction and a qualitative and quantitative analysis method the following reaction parameters are varied: concentration of iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide, time dependence, pH-value and influence of chloride. Analysis of oxalic acid was performed employing an ion chromatograph equipped with a conductivity detector. The time dependent reaction shows a relatively fast formation of oxalic acid, the optimum yield is achieved after 60 minutes. Compared to the concentration of catechol an excess of hydrogen peroxide as well as a low concentration of iron (III) are required. In absence of chloride the

  8. Selective precipitation of ribonucleic acid from a mixture of total cellular nucleic acids extracted from cultured mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, P. R.

    1971-01-01

    A simple and reproducible method is described for precipitating RNA selectively from total mammalian-cell nucleic acids extracted by the phenol–sodium dodecyl sulphate procedure at pH8.0. Under specified conditions bulk RNA is precipitated almost quantitatively whereas bulk DNA remains in solution. Minor components of RNA (detected by pulse-labelling and chromatography on methylated albumin–kieselguhr) and rapidly labelled components of DNA containing single-stranded regions are also precipitated. The usefulness of the method is discussed in the context of isolating separately both RNA and DNA from cultured cells that are difficult to obtain in quantity. PMID:5165620

  9. Microbial activity inhibition in chilled mackerel (Scomber scombrus) by employment of an organic acid-icing system.

    PubMed

    Sanjuás-Rey, Minia; Gallardo, José M; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Aubourg, Santiago P

    2012-05-01

    The present study concerns Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) traded as a chilled product. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of including a mixture of organic acids (citric, ascorbic, and lactic) in the icing medium employed during the fish chilled storage. To this end and according to preliminary trials results, an aqueous solution including 0.050% (w/v) of each acid was employed as icing medium; its effect on the microbial activity development in mackerel muscle was monitored for up to 13 d of chilled storage and compared to a counterpart-fish batch kept under traditional water ice considered as control. Results indicated a lower bacterial growth in mackerel muscle subjected to storage in the organic acid-icing system by comparison with control fish. Thus, statistically-significant (P < 0.05) differences between both batches for all 6 microbial groups investigated (aerobes, anaerobes, psychrotrophes, Enterobacteriaceae, lipolytics, and proteolytics) and for 2 chemical indices related to microbial activity development (total volatile bases and trimethylamine) were obtained. The surface wash caused by the melting of the ice during storage and the subsequent antimicrobial effect of such acids on skin microflora of the fish can be invoked as the main reasons for the limited bacterial growth found in the corresponding mackerel muscle.

  10. INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY (WSCF)

    SciTech Connect

    DOUGLAS JG; MEZNARICH HD, PHD; OLSEN JR; ROSS GA; STAUFFER M

    2008-09-30

    Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (S&GRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a 'blind' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the S&GRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 2008a). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated-carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied to more effectively

  11. Pyridoxic acid excretion during low vitamin B-6 intake, total fasting, and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.

    1995-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.

  12. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid in benign and malignant breast disease.

    PubMed

    Romppanen, J; Eskelinen, M; Tikanoja, S; Mononen, I

    1997-01-01

    Elevation in the total sialic acid (TSA), TSA/total protein (TSA/TP) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LASA) concentration in serum occurs in breast cancer and we have studied the applicability of the assays in classification of undefined breast tumors. Sialic acid was determined by HPLC and the statistical evaluation included the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Youden's index analyses. In cancer patients, the serum LASA and TSA concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in patients with benign breast disease and all the markers were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than in normal controls. All the markers had a low accuracy (AUCs < 0.75) in differentiating between breast cancer and benign breast disease and at the specificity level of 0.95 the corresponding sensitivities were 0.32 (TSA), 0.14 (TSA/TP) and 0.23 (LASA). The results indicate that both breast cancer and benign breast disease cause elevation of TSA, TSA/TP and LASA values in serum and do not provide reliable classification of undefined breast tumors.

  13. Acidic and total primary sulfates: development of emission factors for major stationary combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goklany, I.M.; Hoffnagle, G.F.; Brackbill, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    ''Best estimates'' of emission factors for major sources of acidic and total primary sulfates are developed for use in the compilation of emission inventories for the eastern U.S. These may, in turn, be used for modeling of acidic or sulfate deposition. The factors are based upon a critical evaluation of the generic measurement methods used to quantify total and acidic primary sulfate emissions, and an exhaustive review and critique of individual papers and studies available in the open literature which present measurement data on primary sulfate emissions. It develops a qualitative rating scheme which specifies the level of confidence that should be attached to the emission factor determinations. The paper concludes that much of the existing data on primary sulfates from stationary combustion sources are, probably, significantly biased upward and, therefore, inappropriate for the derivation of emission factors. Therefore, existing estimates of primary sulfate emissions for these source categories are, probably, substanitally inflated. It also concludes that, for most source categories, very little confidence can be attached to the best estimates because of the paucity of data obtained from measurement techniques which are likely to be free of systematic bias. 68 references.

  14. A new microwave acid digestion bomb method for the determination of total fluorine.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Louw, A J

    1998-01-01

    A new microwave acid digestion method for total fluorine analysis was compared to the reliable reverse-extraction technique. The commercially available Parr bombs which are compatible with microwave heating were modified for this purpose. The Mann-Whitney statistical test did not show any significant differences (p > 0.05) in the determinations of total fluorine in various samples between the two above-mentioned methods. The microwave method also gave high fluorine recoveries (> 97%) when fluoride was added to different samples. The great advantage of the microwave acid digestion bomb method is that the digestion under pressure is so aggressive that only a few minutes is needed for complete digestion (also of covalently bonded fluorine), which reduces the time for fluorine analysis dramatically, while no loss of fluorine or contamination from extraneous sources could take place during the ashing procedure. The digestion solution was made up of 300 microliter of concentrated nitric acid plus 537 microliter of water. After digestion 675 microliter of approximately 8.5 M sodium hydroxide plus 643 microliter of citrate/TISAB buffer was added resulting in an alkaline solution (pH approximately 12) which was finally adjusted to a pH of approximately 5.3 for fluoride determination.

  15. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Xiong, Xin; Qiu, Qingyan; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-15

    With the continuing increase in anthropogenic activities, acid rain remains a serious environmental threat, especially in the fast developing areas such as southern China. To detect how prolonged deposition of acid rain would influence soil organic carbon accumulation in mature subtropical forests, we conducted a field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at Dinghushan National Nature Reserve in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatments were set by irrigating plants with water of different pH values: CK (the control, local lake water, pH ≈ 4.5), T1 (water pH=4.0), T2 (water pH=3.5), and T3 (water pH=3.0). Results showed reduced pH measurements in the topsoil exposed to simulated acid rains due to soil acidification. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and litter decomposition rates were significantly decreased by the SAR treatments. As a result, T3 treatment significantly increased the total organic carbon by 24.5% in the topsoil compared to the control. Furthermore, surface soil became more stable as more recalcitrant organic matter was generated under the SAR treatments. Our results suggest that prolonged acid rain exposure may have the potential to facilitate soil organic carbon accumulation in the subtropical forest in southern China.

  16. Influence of pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, V Craige; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-08-01

    The influence of different pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt was studied. Pasture is the main source of nutrients for dairy cows in many parts of the world, including southeast Australia. Milk and milk products produced in these systems are known to contain a number of compounds with positive effects on human health. In the current study, 260 cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different systems; Control (a traditional pasture based diet offered to the cows during milking and in paddock), PMR1 (a partial mixed ration which contained the same supplement as Control but was offered to the cows as a partial mixed ration on a feedpad), PMR 2 (a differently formulated partial mixed ration compared to Control and PMR1 which was offered to the cows on a feedpad). Most of the yoghurt fatty acids were influenced by feeding systems; however, those effects were minor on organic acids. The differences in feeding systems did not lead to the formation of different volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt. Yet, it did influence the relative abundance of these components.

  17. Total Observed Organic Carbon (TOOC): A Synthesis of North American Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heald, C. L.; Goldstein, A. H.; Allan, J. D.; Aiken, A. C.; Apel, E.; Atlas, E. L.; Baker, A. K.; Bates, T. S.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Campos, T.; Coe, H.; Crounse, J. D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; de Gouw, J. A.; Dunlea, E. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Goldan, P.; Griffin, R. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Holzinger, R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Junkermann, W.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of organic carbon compounds in both the gas and particle phases made upwind, over and downwind of North America are synthesized to examine the total observed organic carbon (TOOC) in the atmosphere over this region. These include measurements made aboard the NOAA WP-3 and BAe-146 aircraft, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown, and at the Thompson Farm and Chebogue Point surface sites during the summer 2004 ICARTT campaign. Both winter and summer 2002 measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study are also included. Lastly, the spring 2002 observations at Trinidad Head, CA, surface measurements made in March 2006 in Mexico City and coincidentally aboard the C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO campaign and later during the IMPEX campaign off the northwestern United States are incorporated. Concentrations of TOOC in these datasets span more than two orders of magnitude. The daytime mean TOOC ranges from 4.0 to 456 microg C/cubic m from the cleanest site (Trinidad Head) to the most polluted (Mexico City). Organic aerosol makes up 3-17% of this mean TOOC, with highest fractions reported over the northeastern United States, where organic aerosol can comprise up to 50% of TOOC. Carbon monoxide concentrations explain 46 to 86% of the variability in TOOC, with highest TOOC/CO slopes in regions with fresh anthropogenic influence, where we also expect the highest degree of mass closure for TOOC. Correlation with isoprene, formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein also indicates that biogenic activity contributes substantially to the variability of TOOC, yet these tracers of biogenic oxidation sources do not explain the variability in organic aerosol observed over North America. We highlight the critical need to develop measurement techniques to routinely detect total gas phase VOCs, and to deploy comprehensive suites of TOOC instruments in diverse environments to quantify the ambient evolution of organic carbon from source to sink.

  18. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    PubMed

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P < 0.05). Plasma concentration of adipic acid was significantly higher by 101.6% one year after total gastrectomy procedure in the patients when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.01). Plasma concentration of silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid

  19. Attenuation of total organic carbon and unregulated trace organic chemicals in U.S. riverbank filtration systems.

    PubMed

    Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Oldham, Gretchen; Drewes, Jörg E

    2010-08-01

    There is increasing concern regarding the presence of unregulated trace organic chemicals in drinking water supplies that receive discharge from municipal wastewater treatment plants. In comparison to conventional and advanced drinking water treatment, riverbank filtration represents a low-cost and low-energy alternative that can attenuate total organic carbon (TOC) as well as trace organic chemicals (TOrC). This study examined the role of predominant redox conditions, retention time, biodegradable organic carbon, and temperature to achieve attenuation of TOC and TOrC through monitoring efforts at three full-scale RBF facilities in different geographic areas of the United States. The RBF systems investigated in this study were able to act as a reliable barrier for TOC, nitrogen, and certain TOrC. Temperature (seasonal) variation played an important role for the make-up of the river water quality and performance of the RBF systems. Temperatures of less than 10 degrees C did not affect TOC removal but resulted in diminished attenuation of nitrate and select TOrC.

  20. Chemical equilibrium of minced turkey meat in organic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Goli, T; Abi Nakhoul, P; Zakhia-Rozis, N; Trystram, G; Bohuon, P

    2007-02-01

    The distribution of acid (HA), anions (A(-)), free protons (H(3)O(+)) and bound protons (H(b)), in homogenized turkey meat was evaluated at various meat/water mass ratios of (1/4-1/10) during titration with acetic acid (0.25N) or lactic acid (0.2N). H(b) concentration was determined by titration with hydrochloric acid (0.075N) and a correlation for [H(b)]=f(pH) was proposed. A procedure was used to calculate the fractions of the various species in equilibrium, starting from an initial acid concentration in a meat/water system and assuming the accuracy of the pK(a) value of the pure weak acids despite the chemical complexity of meat. Calculated results were in very good agreement (±0.15) with experimental pH values, whatever the acid, meat batch or meat/water mass ratios used. Less than 1% of the total protons were free (H(3)O(+)) and determined the meat pH.

  1. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled ``Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.`` The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  2. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.'' The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  3. Bioprocess monitoring: minimizing sample matrix effects for total protein quantification with bicinchoninic acid assay.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Wieland N; Waldschitz, Daniel; Herwig, Christoph; Neutsch, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Determining total protein content is a routine operation in many laboratories. Despite substantial work on assay optimization interferences, the widely used bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay remains widely recognized for its robustness. Especially in the field of bioprocess engineering the inaccuracy caused by interfering substances remains hardly predictable and not well understood. Since the introduction of the assay, sample pre-treatment by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation has been indicated as necessary and sufficient to minimize interferences. However, the sample matrix in cultivation media is not only highly complex but also dynamically changing over process time in terms of qualitative and quantitative composition. A significant misestimation of the total protein concentration of bioprocess samples is often observed when following standard work-up schemes such as TCA precipitation, indicating that this step alone is not an adequate means to avoid measurement bias. Here, we propose a modification of the BCA assay, which is less influenced by sample complexity. The dynamically changing sample matrix composition of bioprocessing samples impairs the conventional approach of compensating for interfering substances via a static offset. Hence, we evaluated the use of a correction factor based on an internal spike measurement for the respective samples. Using protein spikes, the accuracy of the BCA protein quantification could be improved fivefold, taking the BCA protein quantification to a level of accuracy comparable to other, more expensive methods. This will allow reducing expensive iterations in bioprocess development to due inaccurate total protein analytics.

  4. Total dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids have modest effects on urinary sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total fat and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet may affect breast cancer risk by altering estrogen metabolism. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of differing total fat and omega-3 fatty acid content of diets on a panel of urinary estrogens and metabolites. A controlled, cross-ove...

  5. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    PubMed

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts.

  6. Rapid intravenous administration of amino acids prevents biliary sludge induced by total parenteral nutrition in humans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z S; Yu, L; Lin, Y J; Jun, Z J; Min, W S; Jun, Y; Hua, Z B

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether daily rapid intravenous administration of amino acids (IVAA) prevented the formation of biliary sludge in humans receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Thirty adult patients receiving TPN for more than 28 consecutive days were studied. They were randomized to receive either saline solution (placebo) intravenously (15 patients) or 6.9% branched chain amino acid (BCAA)-enriched amino acid (15 synthetic amino acids; Freamine HBC) solution given by administration rapid intravenous (15 patients). The groups were similar with respect to age, sex, diagnosis, liver function test results, amylase levels, TPN time, and time of study. All patients underwent weekly ultrasound studies. Volume and emptying studies of the gallbladder in response to the study drug were performed after 1 week. As a result, none of the patients receiving rapid IVAA had sludge, whereas 11 of the 15 patients receiving placebo had sludge (P < 0.01). Results of emptying studies showed significant contraction of the gallbladder in those in the rapid IVAA group, but not in the placebo group. Consequently, the data suggest that rapid IVAA given daily prevents TPN-induced stasis and sludge in the gallbladder. We conclude that rapid IVAA should be used as routine prophylaxis against biliary sludge and formation of gallstones in patients receiving long-term TPN.

  7. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in organic and conventional systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW) and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional) and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional). Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC). Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22762349

  8. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    PubMed Central

    Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1), plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1), and plant biomass (33.26 mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH. PMID:24288473

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Alcohol, Sugar, and Tartaric Acid in Alcoholic Beverages Using Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, R.; Gupta, A.; Bajaj, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode was used for quantifying ethanol, sucrose, and tartaric acid in alcoholic beverages. One hundred synthetic samples were prepared with different ethanol, sucrose, and tartaric acid concentrations. Experiments were carried out on Bio-Rad 175 C FTS using an ATR accessory. Spectra were recorded in the wavelength region 600–4000 cm −1 . Calibration was performed using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. Commercially available alcoholic beverages (gin, rum, vodka, etc.) were experimented and concentration of ethanol in these samples was predicted using the developed calibration model. Chemical analysis of these commercial samples was carried out in order to compare the results. The agreement between ATR results with those of chemical analysis revealed good reliability and repeatability of the technique used. PMID:17671618

  10. Acidic and total primary sulfates: development of emission factors for major stationary combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goklamy, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    This paper develops 'best estimates' of emission factors for major sources of acidic and total primary sulphates for use in the compilation of emission inventories for the eastern US, which may, in turn, be used for modelling acidic or sulphate deposition. The authors conclude that much of the existing data on primary sulphates from stationary combustion sources are probably significantly biased upward and, therefore, inappropriate for the derivation of emission factors. Existing estimates of primary sulphate emissions for these source categories are probably substantially inflated. It also concludes that for most source categories, very little confidence can be attached to the best estimates because of the paucity of data obtained from measurement techniques which are likely to be free of systematic bias.

  11. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid as markers for carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Vivas, I; Spagnuolo, L; Palacios, P

    1992-08-01

    Concentrations of total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) were determined in serum samples from 88 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, 26 normal subjects, and 44 patients with benign uterine or ovarian disease. TSA concentrations in patients with cervical cancer were found to correlate with advanced-stage disease. LSA concentrations were only increased in stage IV of the disease. Sensitivity of the test for stage IB was zero for TSA and 27% for LSA. The specificity of both markers was about 80% due to a low incidence of false-positive values in the pathologic control group. Measurements of TSA or LSA appear to be of no value for the early detection of cervical cancer or to complement the clinical staging of this tumor.

  12. [Studies on hydroxyapatite applicatied in coprecipitate of total salvianolic acids phospholipid complex].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Liu, Dan; Sun, E; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare total salvianolic acids-phytosome-HA coprecipitate to improve drug dissolution and its micromeritic properties. Firstly, the coprecipitate was prepared by solvent method and in vitro dissolution of tripterine was performed with the salvianolic acid B and danshensu as criteria. At the same time, the micromeritic properties was characterizated, the structure of samples was characterized by TEM, DSC, XRD and FTIR. Results showed that when the ratio of drug to HA was 1:2, it had a better dissolution, the accumulative drug-release percent in vitro at 60 min was over 90%. At the same time, it has good liquidity and low moisture absorption. Its micromeritic properties have improved. It is proved that the drug still existed amorphously by microstructure analysis. The preparation process is simple and feasible, it has practical value.

  13. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, l-and d-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers. Funding Information Work in the laboratories of the authors was supported by the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) of the Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV; FNR Grants 220-095-08A and 220-095-08D; Bio-ProChemBB project, ERA-IB programme), by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU Grant AZ13040/05) and the Evonik Degussa AG. PMID

  14. Various instrumental approaches for determination of organic acids in wines.

    PubMed

    Zeravik, Jiri; Fohlerova, Zdenka; Milovanovic, Miodrag; Kubesa, Ondrej; Zeisbergerova, Marta; Lacina, Karel; Petrovic, Aleksandar; Glatz, Zdenek; Skladal, Petr

    2016-03-01

    Biosensors based on lactate oxidase, sarcosine oxidase and mixture of fumarase and sarcosine oxidase were used for monitoring of organic acids in wine samples. Additionally, tartaric acid was determined by modified colorimetric method based on formation of the vanadate-tartrate complex. The above mentioned methods were used for the analysis of 31 wine samples and obtained data were compared with the results from capillary electrophoresis as a basic standard method. This comparison showed a certain degree of correlation between biosensors and capillary electrophoresis. The provided information pointed to the potential uses of biosensors in the field of winemaking.

  15. Total trans fatty acid analysis in spreadable cheese by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Patrícia Mendonça; Barra, Marcelo Macedo; Costa Ribeiro, Mauro Carlos; Aued-Pimentel, Sabria; Da Silva, Simone Alves; De Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal

    2010-02-10

    An alternative method for determination of total trans fatty acids expressed as elaidic acid by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) under indirect UV detection at 224 nm within an analysis time of 7.5 min was developed. The optimized running electrolyte includes 15.0 mmol L(-1) KH(2)PO(4)/Na(2)HPO(4) buffer (pH approximately 7.0), 4.0 mmol L(-1) SDBS, 8.0 mmol L(-1) Brij35, 45%v/v ACN, 8% methanol, and 1.5% v/v n-octanol. Baseline separation of the critical pair C18-9cis/C18:1-9t with a resolution higher than 1.5 was achieved using C15:0 as the internal standard. The optimum capillary electrophoresis (CE) conditions for the background electrolyte were established with the aid of Raman spectroscopy and experiments of a 3(2) factorial design. After response factor (R(F)) calculations, the CE method was applied to total trans fatty acid (TTFA) analysis in a hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) sample, and compared with the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) official method by gas chromatography (GC). The methods were compared with an independent sample t test, and no significant difference was found between CE and GC methods within the 95% confidence interval for six genuine replicates of TTFA analysis (p-value > 0.05). The CE method was applied to TTFA analysis in a spreadable cheese sample. Satisfactory results were obtained, indicating that the optimized methodology can be used for trans fatty acid determination for these samples.

  16. Comparison between intravenous and intra-articular regimens of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Soni, Ashwani; Saini, Raghav; Gulati, Anmol; Paul, Rajesh; Bhatty, Shiraj; Rajoli, Sreekanth Reddy

    2014-08-01

    Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic drug used widely to prevent bleeding. Its use in reducing bleeding during total knee arthroplasty surgery is well proven but there is no final consensus regarding the regimen. The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of intravenous and intra-articular regimen of tranexamic acid during the total knee arthroplasty surgery. A total of 40 patients were received three doses of intravenous tranexamic acid during total knee arthroplasty surgery. Intra-articular tranexamic acid was used in 40 patients during the surgery. We concluded that intra-articular tranexamic acid is equally effective as three dose intravenous regimen in reducing blood loss during total knee arthroplasty surgery.

  17. Response surface modeling for optimization heterocatalytic Fenton oxidation of persistence organic pollution in high total dissolved solid containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sekaran, G; Karthikeyan, S; Boopathy, R; Maharaja, P; Gupta, V K; Anandan, C

    2014-01-01

    The rice-husk-based mesoporous activated carbon (MAC) used in this study was precarbonized and activated using phosphoric acid. N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, X-ray powder diffraction, electron spin resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, (29)Si-NMR spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were used to characterize the MAC. The tannery wastewater carrying high total dissolved solids (TDS) discharged from leather industry lacks biodegradability despite the presence of dissolved protein. This paper demonstrates the application of free electron-rich MAC as heterogeneous catalyst along with Fenton reagent for the oxidation of persistence organic compounds in high TDS wastewater. The heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of the pretreated wastewater at optimum pH (3.5), H2O2 (4 mmol/L), FeSO4[Symbol: see text]7H2O (0.2 mmol/L), and time (4 h) removed chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon and dissolved protein by 86, 91, 83, and 90%, respectively.

  18. Development of radiation sterilized dip slides for enumerating lactic acid bacteria and total count in foodstuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenberg, E.; Padova, R.; Kirsch, E.; Weissman, Sh.; Hirshfeld, T.; Shenfeld, A.

    APT agar (APT) used for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria and Plate Count agar (PCA) applied for total count were sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation dose of 10-15 kGy. Radiosterilized PCA and APT modified by adding catalase prior to irradiation, or APT with increased content of yeast extract performed, as well as, the heat sterilized commercial media. Growth performance was evaluated on several strains of microorganisms, as well as, by enumeration of bacteria in food products. Radiosterilization of culture media in final packaging, can be applied to produce dip slide kits containing PCA or APT.

  19. Synthesis of hydrochloric acid solution for total mercury determination in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Patel-Sorrentino, Nathalie; Benaim, Jean-Yves; Cossa, Daniel; Lucas, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg(T)) determination requires the addition of concentrated hydrochloric acid solution (≥10 mol L(-1) HCl) in relatively high amounts to preserve the samples and to prepare reagent solutions. A method for the preparation of concentrated HCl with Hg(T) concentration of lower than 5 ng L(-1) is described in this article. It is based on the well-known chemical reaction: 2 NH(4)Cl + H(2)SO(4) → (NH(4))(2)SO(4) + 2 HCl. This method is validated thanks to the US Environmental Protection Agency method 1631 and standard reference materials BCR-579 (mercury in coastal seawater).

  20. A prospective double-blind placebo controlled trial of topical tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Andrew G; Muh, Stephanie J; Silverton, Craig D; Weir, Robb M; Laker, Michael W

    2013-09-01

    Tranexamic acid (TNA) reduces postoperative blood loss in general and obstetrical surgery but there is limited orthopaedic literature regarding its use in the topical setting. To study the effect of topical TNA after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), 101 patients were randomized to topical administration of 2.0g TNA in 75mL of normal saline (50 patients) or placebo (51 patients). Operative technique, drug administration, and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis were standardized. All patients underwent screening ultrasound of the operative extremity. Total blood loss was lower in the TNA group (940.2±327.1mL) than the placebo group (1293.1±532.7mL)(P<0.001), and four patients in the placebo group and none in the TNA group received postoperative transfusion (P=0.118). We recommend administration of topical TNA in primary TKA in healthy patients to decrease perioperative blood loss.

  1. Microbiological degradation of organic components in oil shale retort water: organic acids.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J E; Riley, R G; Li, S W; Mann, D C; Wildung, R E

    1981-11-01

    The losses of benzoic acid and a homologous series of both mono- and dibasic aliphatic acids in oil shale retort water were monitored with time (21 days) in liquid culture (4% retort water, vol/vol) inoculated with soil. The organic acids constituted approximately 12% of the dissolved organic carbon in retort water, which served as the sole source of carbon and energy in these studies. The levels of the acids in solution were reduced by 80 to 90% within 9 days of incubation. From mass balance calculations, the decrease in dissolved organic carbon with time of incubation was equal to the formation of CO(2) and bacterial cell carbon. The decrease in the level of the acid components, either from degradation to CO(2) or incorporation into bacteria, would account for approximately 70% of the loss in dissolved organic carbon within the first 9 days of incubation and would account for approximately 50% of the loss over the entire 21-day incubation period.

  2. Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Sugar Profiles of 3 Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties.

    PubMed

    John, K M Maria; Luthria, Devanand

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we compared the amino acid, organic acid and sugar profiles of 3 different varieties of dry beans (black bean [BB], dark red bean [DRB], and cranberry bean [CB]). The efficiency of the 2 commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water [2.5:1:1, v/v/v/]) for cultivar differentiation based on their metabolic profile was also investigated. The results showed that the BB contained the highest concentration of amino acids followed by DRB and CB samples. Phenylalanine, a precursor for the biosynthesis of phenolic secondary metabolites was detected at low concentration in CB samples and correlated with the reduced anthocyanins content in CB extract as documented in the published literature. Comparing the extractability of 2 extraction solvents, methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1, v/v/v/) showed higher recoveries of amino acids from 3 beans, whereas, sugars were extracted in higher concentration with water. Analytically, gas chromatography detected sugars (9), amino acids (11), and organic acids (3) in a single run after derivatization of the extracts. In comparison, ion chromatography detected only sugars in a single run without any derivatization step with the tested procedure. Bean samples are better differentiated by the sugar content extracted with water as compared to the aqueous organic solvent extracts using partial least-square discriminant analysis.

  3. Blood Sparing Efficacy of Oral Tranexamic Acid in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Qunn Jid; Ching, Wai Yee; Wong, Yiu Chung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Tranexamic acid (TXA) is effective in reducing blood loss in primary total knee replacement. Almost all studies used an intravenous form or a topical form. The aim of this study was to assess the blood sparing efficacy and the safety of oral TXA. Materials and Methods All patients with primary total knee replacement performed in our institute from January 2015 to October 2015 were eligible. Oral TXA group was given 1 g oral TXA 2 hours before induction of anesthesia and 6 hours and 12 hours postoperatively. The control group was not given TXA. Results There were 94 cases in the oral TXA group and 95 cases in the control group. There was no difference in the baseline characteristics. The oral TXA group had a significantly lower hemoglobin drop (1.7 g/dL vs. 2.5 g/dL), lower drain output (154 mL vs. 203 mL), lower hidden blood loss (244 mL vs. 423 mL) and lower total blood loss (398 mL vs. 626 mL). There was no difference in transfusion rate (1.1% vs. 3.2%) and thromboembolic complication. There was no infection or mortality in both groups. Conclusions Oral TXA is effective in reducing blood loss in primary total knee replacement. It is a safe alternative to the intravenous or topical form. PMID:28231650

  4. Increased hepatocellular carcinoma risk in chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently elevated serum total bile acid: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoliang; Shang, Xiaoyun; Wan, Xing; Xiang, Xiaomei; Mao, Qing; Deng, Guohong; Wu, Yuzhang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between long-term changes of serum total bile acid and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients, we did a retrospective cohort study of 2262 chronic hepatitis B patients with regular antiviral treatment using data from the Hepatitis Biobank at Southwest Hospital Program from 2004 to 2014. Patients in the study were classified into 3 groups according to persistence of elevated serum total bile acid during follow-up: none-low, medium, and high persistence of elevated serum total bile acid. The association between persistence of elevated serum total bile acid and hepatocellular carcinoma was estimated using Cox proportional hazard models and Kaplan-Meier analysis including information about patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics. There were 62 hepatocellular carcinoma cases during a total follow-up of 14756.5 person-years in the retrospective study. Compared to patients with none-low persistence of elevated total bile acid, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) were 2.37 (1.16–4.84), and 2.57 (1.28–5.16) for patients with medium, and high persistence of elevated total bile acid. Our findings identified persistence of elevated serum total bile acid as an independent risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients. PMID:27905528

  5. Total serum bile acid as a potential marker for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma without jaundice.

    PubMed

    Sombattheera, Sutthikan; Proungvitaya, Tanakorn; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Wongkham, Sopit; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Luvira, Vor; Proungvitaya, Siriporn

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is difficult when patients do not show jaundice. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of using the total serum bile acid (TSBA) level as an aid for the diagnosis of CCA in patients without jaundice. For this purpose, TSBA of the following groups were measured using a Beckman Synchron CX4 clinical chemistry analyzer: 60 cases of CCA with total serum bilirubin ≤2 mg/dL (low total bilirubin group, LTB); 32 cases of CCA with total serum bilirubin >2 mg/dL (high total bilirubin group, HTB); and 115 healthy controls. Liver function parameters such as serum cholesterol, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also examined. The results showed that the TSBA of both LTB and HTB groups of the CCA patients were significantly higher than that of the healthy controls. Also, significant correlation was observed between TSBA and total bilirubin levels in the HTB group of CCA patients. However, no such correlation was seen in the LTB group. The cut-off value of TSBA was determined for the LTB group of CCA patients using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and it was 6.05 μmol/L with the sensitivity and specificity of 46.7% and 84.4%, respectively. In addition, the ALP level was correlated well with the TSBA level and ALP in HTB group was significantly higher than that of LTB group. Moreover, the combination of high TSBA and high ALP levels gave higher specificity up to 97.4%. TSBA might be useful for the diagnosis of CCA patients without jaundice.

  6. Facile Formation of Redox-Active Totally Organic Nanoparticles in Water by In Situ Reduction of Organic Precursors Stabilized through Aromatic-Aromatic Interactions by Aromatic Polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Flores, Mario E; Garcés-Jerez, Pablo; Fernández, Daniel; Aros-Perez, Gustavo; González-Cabrera, Diego; Álvarez, Eduardo; Cañas, Ignacio; Oyarzun-Ampuero, Felipe; Moreno-Villoslada, Ignacio

    2016-11-01

    The formation of redox-active, totally organic nanoparticles in water is achieved following a strategy similar to that used to form metal nanoparticles. It is based on two fundamental concepts: i) complexation through aromatic-aromatic interactions of a water-soluble precursor aromatic molecule with polyelectrolytes bearing complementary charged aromatic rings, and ii) reduction of the precursor molecule to achieve stabilized nanoparticles. Thus, formazan nanoparticles are synthesized by reduction of a tetrazolium salt with ascorbic acid using polyelectrolytes bearing benzene sulfonate residues of high linear aromatic density, but cannot be formed in the presence of nonaromatic polyelectrolytes. The red colored nanoparticles are efficiently encapsulated in calcium alginate beads, showing macroscopic homogeneity. Bleaching kinetics with chlorine show linear rates on the order of tenths of milli-meters per minute. A linear behavior of the dependence of the rate of bleaching on the chlorine concentration is found, showing the potential of the nanoparticles for chlorine sensing.

  7. Biochar: a green sorbent to sequester acidic organic contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon rich product of biomass pyrolysis that exhibits a high sorption potential towards a wide variety of inorganic and organic contaminants. Because it is a valuable soil additive and a potential carbon sink that can be produced from renewable resources, biochar has gained growing attention for the development of more sustainable remediation strategies. A lot of research efforts have been dedicated to the sorption of hydrophobic contaminants and metals to biochar. Conversely, the understanding of the sorption of acidic organic contaminants remains limited, and questions remain on the influence of biochar characteristics (e.g. ash content) on the sorption behaviour of acidic organic contaminants. To address this knowledge gap, sorption batch experiments were conducted with a series of structurally similar acidic organic contaminants covering a range of dissociation constant (2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB and triclosan). The sorbents selected for experimentation included a series of 10 biochars covering a range of characteristics, multiwalled carbon nanotubes as model for pure carbonaceous phases, and an activated carbon as benchmark. Overall, sorption coefficient [L/kg] covered six orders of magnitude and generally followed the order 2,4-D < MCPA < 2,4-DB < triclosan. Combining comprehensive characterization of the sorbents with the sorption dataset allowed the discussion of sorption mechanisms and driving factors of sorption. Statistical analysis suggests that (i) partitioning was the main driver for sorption to sorbents with small specific surface area (< 25 m²/g), whereas (ii) specific mechanisms dominated sorption to sorbents with larger specific surface area. Results showed that factors usually not considered for the sorption of neutral contaminants play an important role for the sorption of organic acids. The pH dependent lipophilicity ratio (i.e. D instead of Kow), ash content and ionic strength are key factors influencing the sorption of acidic organic

  8. A study of organic acid production in contrasts between two phosphate solubilizing fungi: Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Bai, Tongshuo; Dai, Letian; Wang, Fuwei; Tao, Jinjin; Meng, Shiting; Hu, Yunxiao; Wang, Shimei; Hu, Shuijin

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) have huge potentials in enhancing release of phosphorus from fertilizer. Two PSF (NJDL-03 and NJDL-12) were isolated and identified as Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger respectively in this study. The quantification and identification of organic acids were performed by HPLC. Total concentrations of organic acids secreted by NJDL-03 and NJDL-12 are ~4000 and ~10,000 mg/L with pH values of 3.6 and 2.4 respectively after five-days culture. Oxalic acid dominates acidity in the medium due to its high concentration and high acidity constant. The two fungi were also cultured for five days with the initial pH values of the medium varied from 6.5 to 1.5. The biomass reached the maximum when the initial pH values are 4.5 for NJDL-03 and 2.5 for NJDL-12. The organic acids for NJDL-12 reach the maximum at the initial pH = 5.5. However, the acids by NJDL-03 continue to decrease and proliferation of the fungus terminates at pH = 2.5. The citric acid production increases significantly for NJDL-12 at acidic environment, whereas formic and oxalic acids decrease sharply for both two fungi. This study shows that NJDL-12 has higher ability in acid production and has stronger adaptability to acidic environment than NJDL-03. PMID:27126606

  9. A study of organic acid production in contrasts between two phosphate solubilizing fungi: Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Bai, Tongshuo; Dai, Letian; Wang, Fuwei; Tao, Jinjin; Meng, Shiting; Hu, Yunxiao; Wang, Shimei; Hu, Shuijin

    2016-04-01

    Phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) have huge potentials in enhancing release of phosphorus from fertilizer. Two PSF (NJDL-03 and NJDL-12) were isolated and identified as Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger respectively in this study. The quantification and identification of organic acids were performed by HPLC. Total concentrations of organic acids secreted by NJDL-03 and NJDL-12 are ~4000 and ~10,000 mg/L with pH values of 3.6 and 2.4 respectively after five-days culture. Oxalic acid dominates acidity in the medium due to its high concentration and high acidity constant. The two fungi were also cultured for five days with the initial pH values of the medium varied from 6.5 to 1.5. The biomass reached the maximum when the initial pH values are 4.5 for NJDL-03 and 2.5 for NJDL-12. The organic acids for NJDL-12 reach the maximum at the initial pH = 5.5. However, the acids by NJDL-03 continue to decrease and proliferation of the fungus terminates at pH = 2.5. The citric acid production increases significantly for NJDL-12 at acidic environment, whereas formic and oxalic acids decrease sharply for both two fungi. This study shows that NJDL-12 has higher ability in acid production and has stronger adaptability to acidic environment than NJDL-03.

  10. Rapid simultaneous determination of amines and organic acids in citrus using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Uckoo, Ram M; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Nelson, Shad D; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-01-15

    Rapid analytical method for the simultaneous separation and determination of amines and organic acids is a vital interest for quality control of citrus and their products. In the present study, a simultaneous high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the rapid separation of three amines and two organic acids was developed. Chromatographic separation of compounds was achieved using Xbridge C(18) column at ambient temperature, with an isocratic mobile phase of 3mM phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). A photodiode array (PDA) detector was used to monitor the eluent at 223 nm and 254 nm with a total analysis time of 10 min. Extraction of amines and organic acids from citrus juice was optimized. The method was validated by tests of linearity, recovery, precision and ruggedness. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for amines and ascorbic acid were determined to be 5 ng and 9.8 ng, respectively. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9999) within the test ranges. The recoveries of the amines and organic acids ranged between 84% and 117%. The identity of each peak was confirmed by mass spectral (MS) analysis. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze the content of amines and organic acids in six different species and two varieties of citrus. Results indicate that mandarin and Marrs sweet orange contain high level of amines, while pummelo and Rio Red grapefruit had high content of ascorbic acid (137-251 μg mL(-1)) and citric acid (5-22 mg mL(-1)). Synephrine was the major amine present in Clementine (114 μg mL(-1)) and Marrs sweet orange (85 μg mL(-1)). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on simultaneous separation and quantification of amines and organic acids in Marrs sweet orange, Meyer lemon, Nova tangerine, Clementine, Ugli tangelo and Wekiwa tangelo.

  11. Simultaneous determination of amino acid nitrogen and total acid in soy sauce using near infrared spectroscopy combined with characteristic variables selection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiewen; Ouyang, Qin; Chen, Quansheng; Lin, Hao

    2013-08-01

    Amino acid nitrogen and total acid are two most important quality indices to assess the quality of soy sauce in China. This work employed near infrared spectroscopy combined with synergy interval partial least square and genetic algorithm to detect amino acid nitrogen and total acid content in soy sauce. First, synergy interval partial least square was used to select efficient spectral regions from the full spectrum region; and then, genetic algorithm was used to selected variables from the efficient spectral regions, to build partial least square model. The optimal genetic algorithm synergy interval partial least square models were obtained as follows: Rc  = 0.9988 and Rp = 0.9988 for amino acid nitrogen content model using 64 variables; Rc = 0.9917 and Rp = 0.9902 for total acid content model using 81 variables. Genetic algorithm synergy interval partial least square models showed superiority over the partial least square and synergy interval partial least square models. The results indicated that amino acid nitrogen and total acid content in soy sauce could be rapidly determined by near infrared spectroscopy technique. Also, the results indicated that genetic algorithm synergy interval partial least square can improve the performance in measurement of amino acid nitrogen and total acid content by near infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Validation of the total organic carbon (TOC) swab sampling and test method.

    PubMed

    Glover, Chris

    2006-01-01

    For cleaning validation purposes, the combination of swab sampling and the total organic carbon (TOC) test method provides a useful mechanism to monitor the cleanliness of equipment surfaces. The TOC test method is an ideal choice for monitoring carbon-containing residuals. Sample and test method validation "TOC Swabbing Method Validation" BV-000-BC-078-01, Bayer Healthcare, proved quantifiable recovery of albumin down to 25 microg. The validation characteristics included accuracy, repeatability and intermediate precision, specificity, linearity, assay range, detection and quantitation limit, and robustness.

  13. Enantiomeric deoxycholic acid: total synthesis, characterization, and preliminary toxicity toward colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Katona, Bryson W; Rath, Nigam P; Anant, Shrikant; Stenson, William F; Covey, Douglas F

    2007-11-23

    Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is an endogenous secondary bile acid implicated in numerous pathological conditions including colon cancer formation and progression and cholestatic liver disease. DCA involvement in these disease processes results partly from its ability to modulate signaling cascades within the cell, presumably through both direct receptor activation and general detergent mediated membrane changes. To further explore DCA induced changes in cell signaling, we completed a total synthesis of enantiomeric deoxycholic acid (ent-DCA) from achiral 2-methyl-1,3-cyclopentanedione. Using a modified method of the synthesis of ent-testosterone that proceeds through the (R)-(-)-Hajos-Parrish ketone, we have completed the successful synthesis of ent-DCA in 25 steps with a yield of 0.3% with all stereochemical assignments of the product confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Our studies toward this synthesis also uncovered the methodology for the development of a novel A,B-cis steroidal skeleton system containing a C3-C9 single bond as well as conditions to selectively ketalize the typically less reactive 12-carbonyl in poly-keto A,B-cis androgens. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of ent-DCA, determined by a dye solubilization method, was identical to the cmc of natural DCA. Toxicity studies toward HT-29 and HCT-116 human colon cancer cell lines demonstrated that ent-DCA had similar effects on proliferation, yet showed a markedly decreased ability to induce apoptosis as compared to natural DCA.

  14. Partitioning of Total Dissolved Salts, Boron and Selenium in Pariette Wetland Water, Sediments and Benthic Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Jones, C. P.; Vasudeva, P.; Powelson, D.; Grossl, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Pariette Wetlands located in the Uinta Basin, UT, were developed by the BLM in part to mitigate salinity associated with irrigation drainage and runoff from flowing to the Green River, a tributary of the Colorado River. The wetlands are fed by runoff from upstream agricultural irrigation, and natural subsurface and overland flow through the Uintah formation, which is seleniferous, and saline. Concentrations of Total Dissolved Salts (TDS), boron (B) and selenium (Se) in the wetlands exceed the total maximum daily loads developed to meet the US EPA's water quality planning and management regulations (40CFR 130). This is of concern because the wetlands are home to populations of migratory birds, waterfowl, raptors, and numerous small mammals. A mass balance of the Se concentrations of water flowing into and out of the wetlands indicates that 80% of the Se is stored or lost within the system. Additional data suggest that the majority of the Se is associated with the sediments. Little information is available regarding the TDS and B. Therefore we will determine the whether B and other salts are accumulating in the wetland systems, and if so where. We sampled water, sediment, benthic organisms, and wetland plants, in 4 of the 23 ponds from the flood control inlet to water flowing out to the Green River. Sediments were collected at 3 depths (0-2 cm, 2-7 cm, and 7+ cm) at 3-4 locations within each pond including the inlet, outlet and at least one site near a major wetland plant community. Benthic organisms were sampled from the 0-2 cm and 2-7 cm sediment layers. Sediment and organism samples were digested with HNO3 and HClO4 prior to analysis of total Se by HGAAS. Hot water extractable B and DPTA extractable B were analyzed by ICP-AES. TDS was estimated from EC in the sediment and organisms extracts and direct analysis in the water. Preliminary results found that Se in the sediments decreases with depth. Se concentrations in the benthic organisms is approximately 4

  15. Chemical characteristics and sources of organic acids in precipitation at a semi-urban site in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Lee, X. Q.; Cao, F.

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the chemical characteristics and sources of organic acids in precipitation in Southwest China, 105 rainwater samples were collected at a semi-urban site in Anshun from June 2007 to June 2008. Organic acids and major anions were analyzed along with pH and electrical conductivity. The pH values varied from 3.57 to 7.09 for all the rainfall events sampled, with an average of 4.67 which was typical acidic value. Formic, acetic and oxalic acids were found to be the predominant carboxylic acids and their volume weighted average (VWA) concentrations were 8.77, 6.93 and 2.84 μmol l -1, respectively. These organic acids were estimated to account for 8.1% to the total free acidity (TFA) in precipitation. The concentrations of the majority organic acids at studied site had a clear seasonal pattern, reaching higher levels during the non-growing season than those in growing season, which was attributed to dilution effect of heavy rainfall during the growing season. The seasonal variation of wet deposition flux of these organic acids confirmed higher source strength of biogenic emissions from vegetation during the growing season. Formic-to-acetic acids ratio (F/A), an indicator of primary versus secondary sources of these organic acids, suggested that primary sources from vehicular emission, biomass burning, soil and vegetation emissions were dominant sources. In addition, the lowest concentrations of organic acids were found under type S, when air masses originated from the marine (South China Sea) during Southern Asian Monsoon period. And the highest concentrations were observed in precipitation events from Northeast China (type NE), prevailing mostly during winter with the lowest rainfall.

  16. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Organic Amines and Amino Acids in Saline and Acidic Samples Using the Mars Organic Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Amanda M.; Chiesl, Thomas N.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-11-01

    The Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA) has enabled the sensitive detection of amino acid and amine biomarkers in laboratory standards and in a variety of field sample tests. However, the MOA is challenged when samples are extremely acidic and saline or contain polyvalent cations. Here, we have optimized the MOA analysis, sample labeling, and sample dilution buffers to handle such challenging samples more robustly. Higher ionic strength buffer systems with pKa values near pH 9 were developed to provide better buffering capacity and salt tolerance. The addition of ethylaminediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) ameliorates the negative effects of multivalent cations. The optimized protocol utilizes a 75 mM borate buffer (pH 9.5) for Pacific Blue labeling of amines and amino acids. After labeling, 50 mM (final concentration) EDTA is added to samples containing divalent cations to ameliorate their effects. This optimized protocol was used to successfully analyze amino acids in a saturated brine sample from Saline Valley, California, and a subcritical water extract of a highly acidic sample from the Río Tinto, Spain. This work expands the analytical capabilities of the MOA and increases its sensitivity and robustness for samples from extraterrestrial environments that may exhibit pH and salt extremes as well as metal ions.

  17. Capillary electrophoresis analysis of organic amines and amino acids in saline and acidic samples using the Mars organic analyzer.

    PubMed

    Stockton, Amanda M; Chiesl, Thomas N; Lowenstein, Tim K; Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Mathies, Richard A

    2009-11-01

    The Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA) has enabled the sensitive detection of amino acid and amine biomarkers in laboratory standards and in a variety of field sample tests. However, the MOA is challenged when samples are extremely acidic and saline or contain polyvalent cations. Here, we have optimized the MOA analysis, sample labeling, and sample dilution buffers to handle such challenging samples more robustly. Higher ionic strength buffer systems with pK(a) values near pH 9 were developed to provide better buffering capacity and salt tolerance. The addition of ethylaminediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) ameliorates the negative effects of multivalent cations. The optimized protocol utilizes a 75 mM borate buffer (pH 9.5) for Pacific Blue labeling of amines and amino acids. After labeling, 50 mM (final concentration) EDTA is added to samples containing divalent cations to ameliorate their effects. This optimized protocol was used to successfully analyze amino acids in a saturated brine sample from Saline Valley, California, and a subcritical water extract of a highly acidic sample from the Río Tinto, Spain. This work expands the analytical capabilities of the MOA and increases its sensitivity and robustness for samples from extraterrestrial environments that may exhibit pH and salt extremes as well as metal ions.

  18. Salivary total sialic acid levels increase in breast cancer patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Leyla Koç; Emekli-Alturfan, Ebru; Kaşikci, Emel; Demir, Gokhan; Yarat, Aysen

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women living in the Western world, even though it occurs worldwide. Cancer and cancer therapy induce multiple oral complications including dental and periodontal disease. Saliva is a complex and dynamic biologic fluid, which reflects both oral and systemic changes. While saliva is easily accessible body fluid, there has been little effort to study its value in cancer diagnosis. Sialic acids (SA), the end moieties of the carbohydrate chains, are biologically important and essential for functions of glycoconjugates that are reported to be altered in both blood and saliva of various cancer patients. Increased sialylation has been shown to be a characteristic feature in cancer tissue and blood in breast cancer patients. However, there is no data about salivary SA in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary total sialic acid (TSA) levels in breast cancer patients who were under chemotheraphy. The study included 15 breast cancer patients in different stages and 10 healthy individuals as age-matched controls. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected. Salivary total protein and SA levels were determined. Flow rate was calculated from salivary volume by the time of secretion. Salivary SA was significantly higher and total protein was lower in breast cancer patients compared to controls. It is concluded that sialylation may be increased in saliva of patients with breast cancer as the same way for cancer tissue and for blood . Increased salivary SA may therefore be useful as a non-invasive predictive marker for breast cancer patients and for the prevention and management of oral complications of cancer and cancer therapy to improve oral function and quality-of-life. The effects of different types of chemotherapies and different stages of the disease on salivary SA levels and salivary sialo-glycomic are worthy of being further investigated in breast cancer patients.

  19. Organic acid mediated repression of sugar utilization in rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Bhagya; Rajput, Mahendrapal Singh; Jog, Rahul; Joshi, Ekta; Bharwad, Krishna; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2016-11-01

    Rhizobia are a class of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria which utilize C4 acids in preference to sugars and the sugar utilization is repressed as long as C4 acids are present. This can be manifested as a diauxie when rhizobia are grown in the presence of a sugar and a C4 acid together. Succinate, a C4 acid is known to repress utilization of sugars, sugar alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc by a mechanism termed as Succinate Mediated Catabolite Repression (SMCR). Mechanism of catabolite repression determines the hierarchy of carbon source utilization in bacteria. Though the mechanism of catabolite repression has been well studied in model organisms like E. coli, B. subtilis and Pseudomonas sp., mechanism of SMCR in rhizobia has not been well elucidated. C4 acid uptake is important for effective symbioses while mutation in the sugar transport and utilization genes does not affect symbioses. Deletion of hpr and sma0113 resulted in the partial relief of SMCR of utilization of galactosides like lactose, raffinose and maltose in the presence of succinate. However, no such regulators governing SMCR of glucoside utilization have been identified till date. Though rhizobia can utilize multitude of sugars, high affinity transporters for many sugars are yet to be identified. Identifying high affinity sugar transporters and studying the mechanism of catabolite repression in rhizobia is important to understand the level of regulation of SMCR and the key regulators involved in SMCR.

  20. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.

  1. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  2. Microbiologically produced carboxylic acids used as building blocks in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Aurich, Andreas; Specht, Robert; Müller, Roland A; Stottmeister, Ulrich; Yovkova, Venelina; Otto, Christina; Holz, Martina; Barth, Gerold; Heretsch, Philipp; Thomas, Franziska A; Sicker, Dieter; Giannis, Athanassios

    2012-01-01

    Oxo- and hydroxy-carboxylic acids are of special interest in organic synthesis. However, their introduction by chemical reactions tends to be troublesome especially with regard to stereoselectivity. We describe herein the biotechnological preparation of selected oxo- and hydroxycarboxylic acids under "green" conditions and their use as promising new building blocks. Thereby, our biotechnological goal was the development of process fundamentals regarding the variable use of renewable raw materials, the development of a multi purpose bioreactor and application of a pilot plant with standard equipment for organic acid production to minimize the technological effort. Furthermore the development of new product isolation procedures, with the aim of direct product recovery, capture of products or single step operation, was necessary. The application of robust and approved microorganisms, also genetically modified, capable of using a wide range of substrates as well as producing a large spectrum of products, was of special importance. Microbiologically produced acids, like 2-oxo-glutaric acid and 2-oxo-D-gluconic acid, are useful educts for the chemical synthesis of hydrophilic triazines, spiro-connected heterocycles, benzotriazines, and pyranoic amino acids. The chiral intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, (2R,3S)-isocitric acid, is another promising compound. For the first time our process provides large quantities of enantiopure trimethyl (2R,3S)-isocitrate which was used in subsequent chemical transformations to provide new chiral entities for further usage in total synthesis and pharmaceutical research.Oxo- and hydroxy-carboxylic acids are of special interest in organic synthesis. However, their introduction by chemical reactions tends to be troublesome especially with regard to stereoselectivity. We describe herein the biotechnological preparation of selected oxo- and hydroxycarboxylic acids under "green" conditions and their use as promising new building

  3. Distribution of total and fecal coliform organisms from septic effluent in selected coastal plain soils.

    PubMed

    Reneau, R B; Pettry, D E; Shanholtz, M I; Graham, S A; Weston, C W

    1977-01-01

    Distribution of total and fecal coliform bacteria in three Atlantic coastal plain soils in Virginia were monitored in situ over a 3-year period. The soils studied were Varina, Goldsboro, and Beltsville sandy loams. These and similar soils are found extensively along the populous Atlantic seaboard of the United States. They are considered only marginally suitable for septic tank installation because the restricting soil layers result in the subsequent development of seasonal perched water tables. To determine both horizontal and vertical movement of indicator organisms, samples were collected from piezometers placed at selected distances and depths from the drainfields in the direction of the ground water flow. Large reductions in total and fecal coliform bacteria were noted in the perched ground waters above the restricting layers as distance from the drainfield increased. These restricting soil layers appear to be effective barriers to the vertical movement of indicator organisms. The reduction in the density of the coliform bacteria above the restricting soil layers can probably be attributed to dilution, filtration, and dieoff as the bacteria move through the natural soil systems.

  4. [Research on determination of total volatile organic sulfur compounds in the atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Ling; He, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Bao-Dong

    2011-12-01

    A detection technology was established comprising trap, desorption, oxidation and UV fluorescence determination process, and used for the test of total concentration of trace volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the atmosphere. A cryogenic trap-thermal desorption device was developed, integrating the advantages of solid retention method and cryogenic condensation method, which was applied to capture and enrich trace volatile organic sulfur compounds. Under high temperature and combustion-supporting gas, the VSCs were completely oxidized into sulfur dioxide. By analyzing the content of sulfur dioxide through ultraviolet fluorescence method indirectly calculated to gain the total concentration of volatile organic sulfur compounds. The trapping temperature, desorption temperature and the oxidation temperature were 5 degrees C, 150 degrees C and 1 000 degrees C, and the precision and recovery of the method were 5.46% and 99.6%-109.2%, respectively. The content of trace amounts of atmospheric VSCs determined from February to April at Qingdao was 42-195 ng x m(-3).

  5. Development of the Second Generation International Space Station (ISS) Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Anna L.; Stinson, Richard G.; VanWie, Michael; Warren, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The second generation International Space Station (ISS) Total Organic Carbon Analyzer s (TOCA) function is to monitor concentrations of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in ISS water samples. TOC is one measurement that provides a general indication of overall water quality by indicating the potential presence of hazardous chemicals. The data generated from the TOCA is used as a hazard control to assess the quality of the reclaimed and stored water supplies on-orbit and their suitability for crew consumption. This paper details the unique ISS Program requirements, the design of the ISS TOCA, and a brief description of the on-orbit concept-of-operations. The TOCA schematic will be discussed in detail along with specific information regarding key components. The ISS TOCA was designed as a non-toxic TOC analyzer that could be deployed in a flight ready package. This basic concept was developed through laboratory component level testing, two moderate fidelity integrated system breadboard prototypes, a flight-like full scale prototype, as well as lessons learned from the inadequacies of the first unit. The result: a new TOCA unit that is robust in design and includes special considerations to microgravity and the on-orbit ISS environment. TOCA meets the accuracy needs of the ISS Program with a 1,000 to 25,000 g/L range, accurate to within +/-25%.

  6. Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-08-31

    Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (≤108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (≤7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

  7. Organic acids make Escherichia coli more resistant to pulsed electric fields at acid pH.

    PubMed

    Somolinos, M; García, D; Mañas, P; Condón, S; Pagán, R

    2010-01-01

    Stationary growth phase cells of Escherichiacoli were more pulsed electric fields (PEF) resistant in citrate-phosphate McIlvaine buffer at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. The greater PEF resistance was also confirmed in fruit juices of similar acid pH. In this work we studied whether the higher PEF resistance of E. coli at acid pH was due to the low pH itself or to the interaction of the components of the treatment medium with the cells. The protective effect on E. coli cells was due to the presence of organic acids such as citric, acetic, lactic or malic at pH 4.0. The protective effect of citric acid at pH 4.0 depended on its concentration. A linear relationship was observed between the Log(10) of the citric acid concentration and the degree of inactivation. Organic acids contained in laboratory treatment media (citrate-phosphate buffer) or in fruit juices did not sensitize E. coli cells to PEF but, on the contrary, they induced a protective effect that made E. coli cells more resistant at pH 4.0 than at neutral pH. This work could be useful for improving food preservation by PEF technology and it contributes to the knowledge of the mechanism of microbial inactivation by PEF.

  8. Chemical characteristics and acidity of soluble organic substances from a northern hardwood forest floor, central Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, George F.; David, Mark B.

    1991-12-01

    Our understanding of the chemistry, structure, and reactions of organic substances in forest floor leachates is limited and incomplete. Therefore, we examined the organic and inorganic chemistry of forest floor leachates collected from a hardwood forest in central Maine over a two-year period (1987-1989), including detailed study of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Seasonal variations in NH 4+, NO 3-, K +, and total Al were believed due to organic matter decomposition and release. Leaching of other base cations closely followed that of NO 3-. Snowmelt resulted in NO 3- levels that decreased in time due to flushing of mineralization/nitrification by-products that had accumulated during the winter months. Total DOC ranged from 2228 to 7193 μmol L -1 with an average of 4835 μmol L -1. Monosaccharides and polyphenols constituted 3.9% (range of 3.4 to 4.4%) and 3.0% (2.2 to 3.7%) of the DOC, respectively, which suggests DOC may contain partially oxidized products that are possibly of a lignocellulose nature. Fractionation of the forest floor DOC indicated high organic acid contents (hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids) that averaged 92% of the total DOC. Organic acids were isolated and analyzed for elemental content (C, H, N, and S), and determination of UV absorptivity ( E 4/E 6) ratios, CuO oxidation products, FT-IR and 13C-NMR spectra, and acidity by potentiometric titration. Results from these analyses indicate the organic acids in the forest floor leachates are similar to fulvic acids. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids had average exchange acidities of 0.126 and 0.148 μeq μmol -1 C, respectively, and pKa, of 4.23 and 4.33. Their FT-IR and 13C-NMR spectra suggest they are primarily carboxylic acids, with aliphatic and aromatic structure. An organic charge contribution model was developed using titration data, DOC fractionation percentages, and the total DOC in the forest floor leachates. Application of the model to all solutions accounted for 97% of the charge

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    JG DOUGLAS; HK MEZNARICH, PHD; JR OLSEN; GA ROSS PHD; M STAUFFER

    2009-02-13

    Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-S46 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a ''blind'' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the SGRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 200Sa). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied to more effectively

  10. [Dynamic change of four triterpenic acids contents in different organs of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) and phenology].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-yang; Xie, Xiao-mei; Li, Qian-wen; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Sheng-lin; Wang, He-qun; Yu, Wen-xia; Yang, Mo

    2015-03-01

    The loquat is widely cultivated in China, its succulent fruits, leaves and flower are used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. The study is aimed to analyse the content of the four triterpene compounds ( ursolic acid, corosolic acid, maslinic acid, oleanolic acid) in different organs, and investigate the dynamic changes in different phenological period. The triterpenic acids content in the samples was measured by HPLC based on the plant phenological observations. The results showed that order of four triterpenic acids content in different organs from high to low was defoliation (23.2 mg x g(-1)) > mature leaves (21.7 mg x g(-1)) > young leaves (17.5 mg x g(-1)) > fruits (7.36 mg x g(-1)) > flowers (6.40 mg x g(-1)). The triterpenic acids were not detected in the seeds. The total amount of the four triterpenic acids in the loquat leaves collected in the different phenological stages of sprout, flower bud, blossom and fruit varied between 17.8 and 26.2 mg x g(-1) (defoliation), 16.5 and 23.5 mg x g(-1) (mature leaves), 14.7 and 21.5 mg x g(-1) (young leaves), respectively. The content increased progressively with the leaf development, maturation and aging. There was a higher level of the dry material and triterpenic acids accumulation in the mature leaves during fruit enlargement. This paper attempts to present the case for medicinal plants of a broad geographical distribution to study on the secondary metabolites and harvesting time.

  11. The effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Kedi; Zhang, Xingen; Bi, Qing; Zhao, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: A meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) for the treatment of blood loss after a bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: Patients prepared for bilateral TKA and intervention including TXA versus placebo were comprehensively retrieved from MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Web of Science from the time of the establishment of these databases to January 2016. The outcomes were all calculated by Stata 12.0 software. The continuous endpoints (total blood loss and blood loss in drainage) were calculated as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Binary variables (the need for transfusion, and the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis [DVT]) were calculated as relative risk (RR) with 95% CIs. Results: Pooled results revealed that treatment with TXA associated with less need for transfusion (P = 0.000) and the value of Hb drop postoperatively (P = 0.290) after bilateral TKA. The results also indicated that TXA can decrease the total blood loss and blood loss in drainage after bilateral TKA (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, TXA can decrease the blood units transfused per patient by 1.23 U (P = 0.001). There is no statistically significant difference in terms of the occurrence of DVT between the 2 groups (P = 0.461). Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, TXA can decrease the need for transfusion and the total blood loss without increasing the occurrence of DVT, and its administration is recommended routinely in bilateral TKA. PMID:27684841

  12. Modelling malic acid accumulation in fruits: relationships with organic acids, potassium, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Lobit, Philippe; Genard, Michel; Soing, Patrick; Habib, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Malic acid production, degradation, and storage during fruit development have been modelled. The model assumes that malic acid content is determined essentially by the conditions of its storage in the mesocarp cells, and provides a simplified representation of the mechanisms involved in the accumulation of malate in the vacuole and their regulation by thermodynamic constraints. Solving the corresponding system of equations made it possible to predict the malic acid content of the fruit as a function of organic acids, potassium concentration, and temperature. The model was applied to peach fruit, and parameters were estimated from the data of fruit development monitored over 2 years. The predictions were in good agreement with experimental data. Simulations were performed to analyse the behaviour of the model in response to variations in composition and temperature.

  13. Can tranexamic acid change preoperative anemia management during total joint arthroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Duy L; Rinehart, Joseph B; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the postoperative transfusion and complication rates of anemic and nonanemic total joint arthroplasty patients given tranexamic acid (TXA). METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted of primary hip and knee arthroplasty cases performed from 11/2012 to 6/2014. Exclusion criteria included revision arthroplasty, bilateral arthroplasty, acute arthroplasty after fracture, and contraindication to TXA. Patients were screened prior to surgery, with anemia was defined as hemoglobin of less than 12 g/dL for females and of less than 13 g/dL for males. Patients were divided into four different groups, based on the type of arthroplasty (total hip or total knee) and hemoglobin status (anemic or nonanemic). Intraoperatively, all patients received 2 g of intravenous TXA during surgery. Postoperatively, allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) was directed by both clinical symptoms and relative hemoglobin change. Complications were recorded within the first two weeks after surgery and included thromboembolism, infection, and wound breakdown. The differences in transfusion and complication rates, as well as the relative hemoglobin change, were compared between anemic and nonanemic groups. RESULTS: A total of 232 patients undergoing primary joint arthroplasty were included in the study. For the total hip arthroplasty cohort, 21% (18/84) of patients presented with preoperative anemia. Two patients in the anemic group and two patients in the nonanemic group needed ABTs; this was not significantly different (P = 0.20). One patient in the anemic group presented with a deep venous thromboembolism while no patients in the nonanemic group had an acute complication; this was not significantly different (P = 0.21). For nonanemic patients, the average change in hemoglobin was 2.73 ± 1.17 g/dL. For anemic patients, the average change in hemoglobin was 2.28 ± 0.96 g/dL. Between the two groups, the hemoglobin difference of 0.45 g/dL was not significant (P = 0

  14. Spatial and seasonal dynamics of total suspended sediment and organic carbon species in the Congo River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coynel, Alexandra; Seyler, Patrick; Etcheber, Henri; Meybeck, Michel; Orange, Didier

    2005-12-01

    The Congo (Zaire) River, the world's second largest river in terms both of water discharges and of drainage area after the Amazon River, has remained to date in a near-pristine state. For a period between 2 and 6 years, the mainstream near the river mouth (Brazzaville/Kinshasa station) and some of the major and minor tributaries (the Oubangui, Mpoko, and Ngoko-Sangha) were monitored every month for total suspended sediment (TSS), particulate organic carbon (POC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In this large but relatively flat equatorial basin, TSS levels are very low and organic carbon is essentially exported as DOC: from 74% of TOC for the tributaries flowing in savannah regions and 86% for those flowing in the rain forest. The seasonal patterns of TSS, POC, and DOC show clockwise hysteresis in relation to river discharges, with maximum levels recorded 2 to 4 months before peak flows. At the Kinshasa/Brazzaville station, the DOC distribution is largely influenced by the input from the tributaries draining the large marshy forest area located in the center of the basin. There is a marked difference between specific fluxes, threefold higher in the forest basins than in the savannah basins. The computation of inputs to the Atlantic Ocean demonstrates that the Congo is responsible for 14.4 × 106 t/yr of TOC of which 12.4 × 106 t/yr is DOC and 2 × 106 t/yr is POC. The three biggest tropical rivers (the Amazon, the Congo, and the Orinoco), with only 10% of the exoreic world area drained to world oceans, contribute ˜4% of its TSS inputs but 15-18% of its organic carbon inputs. These proportions may double when considering only world rivers discharging into the open ocean.

  15. A high-performance direct transmethylation method for total fatty acids assessment in biological and foodstuff samples.

    PubMed

    Castro-Gómez, Pilar; Fontecha, Javier; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis M

    2014-10-01

    Isolation is the main bottleneck in the analysis of fatty acids in biological samples and foods. In the last few decades some methods described direct derivatization procedures bypassing these steps. They involve the utilization of methanolic HCL or BF3 as catalysts, but several evidences from previous works suggest these reagents are unstable, lead to the formation of artifacts and alter the distribution of specific compounds as hydroxy fatty acids or CLA. However, the main issue is that they are excellent esterification reagents but poor in transterification, being not suitable for the analysis of all lipid classes and leading to erroneous composition quantitations. The present research work is a comprehensive comparison of six general methylation protocols using base, acid or base/acid catalysts plus a proposed method in the analysis of total fatty acids in lipid standards mixtures, foodstuff and biological samples. The addition of aprotic solvents to the reaction mixture to avoid alterations was also tested. Results confirmed that procedures solely involving acid catalyst resulted in incomplete derivatizations and alteration of the fatty acid profile, partially corrected by addition of the aprotic solvent. The proposed method combining sodium methoxyde and sulfuric acid showed absence of alteration of the FAME profile and the best values for response factors (short chain fatty acids to PUFA), accuracy in the determination of total cholesterol and derivatization performance, thus showing a high reliability in the determination of the total fatty acid composition in biological samples and foods.

  16. Proton-binding study of standard and reference fulvic acids, humic acids, and natural organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Jason D.; Perdue, E. Michael

    2003-01-01

    The acid-base properties of 14 standard and reference materials from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) were investigated by potentiometric titration. Titrations were conducted in 0.1 M NaCl under a nitrogen atmosphere, averaging 30 min from start to finish. Concentrations of carboxyl groups and phenolic groups were estimated directly from titration curves. Titration data were also fit to a modified Henderson-Hasselbalch model for two classes of proton-binding sites to obtain "best fit" parameters that describe proton-binding curves for the samples. The model was chosen for its simplicity, its ease of implementation in computer spreadsheets, and its excellent ability to describe the shapes of the titration curves. The carboxyl contents of the IHSS samples are in the general order: terrestrial fulvic acids > aquatic fulvic acids > Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM) > aquatic humic acids > terrestrial humic acids. Overall, fulvic acids and humic acids have similar phenolic contents; however, all of the aquatically derived samples have higher phenolic contents than the terrestrially derived samples. The acid-base properties of reference Suwannee River NOM are surprisingly similar to those of standard Suwannee River humic acid. Results from titrations in this study were compared with other published results from both direct and indirect titrations. Typically, carboxyl contents for the IHSS samples were in agreement with the results from both methods of titration. Phenolic contents for the IHSS samples were comparable to those determined by direct titrations, but were significantly less than estimates of phenolic content that were based on indirect titrations with Ba(OH) 2 and Ca(OAc) 2. The average phenolic-to-carboxylic ratio of the IHSS samples is approximately 1:4. Models that assume a 1:2 ratio of phenolic-to-carboxylic groups may overestimate the relative contribution of phenolic groups to the acid-base chemistry of humic substances.

  17. Particulate organic acids in the atmosphere of Italian cities: Are they environmentally relevant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balducci, Catia; Cecinato, Angelo

    2010-02-01

    Mono- and dicarboxylic n-alkyl acids were extensively investigated in downtown Rome, Italy, and in Montelibretti, ˜30 km NE of the city, during 2005-2007. Congeners ranging from lauric to mellisic, and from succinic to α,ω-docosanedioic acids were evaluated as well as phthalic, palmitoleic and oleic acids, by solvent extraction of airborne particulates followed by derivatization with propanol in the presence of boron trifluoride, and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. Shorter measurements were made in Milan, in Taranto, at suburban and rural sites of Italy, and in the polar regions, from 1996 to 2005. The predominance of palmitic and stearic acids observed elsewhere was confirmed, and the behaviour of azelaic and phthalic acids resulted strongly dependent upon the year season. In the urban sites, among the long-chain compounds, the lignoceric acid was usually the most abundant, while the cerotic, montanic and mellisic homologues cumulatively never exceeded 8% of the total. Unlike other contaminants, the concentrations of organic acids remained fairly invariant over the last decade, suggesting that more attention must be paid to them in the future.

  18. Fermentation characteristics and lactic Acid bacteria succession of total mixed ration silages formulated with peach pomace.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaodong; Hao, Wei; Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR) silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.

  19. Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaodong; Hao, Wei; Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR) silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages. PMID:25656205

  20. Organic Acids as Hetrotrophic Energy Sources in Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windman, T. O.; Zolotova, N.; Shock, E.

    2004-12-01

    Many thermophilic microbes are heterotrophs, but little is known about the organic compounds present in hydrothermal ecosystems. More is known about what these organisms will metabolize in lab experiments than what they do metabolize in nature. In an effort to bridge this gap, we have begun to incorporate organic analyses into ongoing research on Yellowstone hydrothermal ecosystems. After filtering at least a liter of hot spring water to minimize contamination, samples were collected into sixty-milliliter serum vials containing ultra-pure phosphoric acid, sodium hydroxide, or benzalkonium chloride. Approximately 80 sites were sampled spanning temperatures from 60 to 90°C and pH values from 2 to 9. Analytical data for organic acid anions (including formate, acetate, lactate, and succinate) were obtained by ion chromatography. Preliminary results indicate that concentrations of organic acids anions range from 5 to 300 ppb. These results can be used with other field and lab data (sulfate, sulfide, nitrate, ammonia, bicarbonate, pH, hydrogen) in thermodynamic calculations to evaluate the amounts of energy available in heterotrophic reactions. Preliminary results of such calculations show that sulfate reduction to sulfide coupled to succinate oxidation to bicarbonate yields about 6 kcal per mole of electrons transferred. When formate oxidation to bicarbonate or hydrogen oxidation to water is coupled to sulfate reduction there is less energy available by approximately a factor of two. A comparison with nitrate reduction to ammonia involving succinate and/or formate oxidation reveals several similarities. Using formate to reduce nitrate can yield about as much energy as nitrate reduction with hydrogen (typically 12 to 14 kcal per mole of electrons transferred), but using succinate can yield more than twice as much energy. In fact, reduction of nitrate with succinate can provide more energy than any of the inorganic nitrate reduction reactions involving sulfur, iron

  1. Kinetics of octacalcium phosphate crystal growth in the presence of organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossl, Paul R.; Inskeep, William P.

    1992-05-01

    Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) is an important P solid phase in geochemical and biological systems and has been recognized as a precursor phase to the formation of thermodynamically more stable hydroxyapatite (HAP). Metastability of OCP with respect to HAP may be explained by precipitation kinetics and the influence of dissolved organic C (DOC) on crystal growth. Octacalcium phosphate precipitation was measured at pH 6.0 and 25°C in the absence and presence of organic acids commonly found in natural waters and soil solutions using a seeded crystal growth constant composition method. Rate constants for OCP precipitation were calculated from the following expression: Rate = kS(IAP 1/8 - K sp1/8) n, where k is the rate constant (L 7 mol -6 m -2 s -1), S is OCP seed crystal surface area (m 2 L -1), IAP = ion activity product, Ksp = OCP solubility constant (mol 8 L -8), and n is the rate reaction order. The rate constant for OCP precipitation in the absence of organic acids was 10 34.93·L 7 mol -6 m -2 s -1. Humic, fulvic, tannic, and citric acids were added to OCP crystal growth experiments at total soluble (C TS) C levels ranging from 20 μM to 2 mM. Inhibition of OCP precipitation was nearly complete (99% ) in the presence of 1.0 mM C TS as humic acid. At the same level of C TS, OCP precipitation was inhibited by 97,88, and 68% in the presence of fulvic, citric, and tannic acids, respectively. Inhibition of precipitation is caused by adsorption of organic acids onto OCP surfaces blocking active crystal growth sites. The ability of organic acids to inhibit OCP crystal growth is related to their hydrophobicity, functional group content, size, geometry, and orientation on the crystal surface. Precipitation kinetics and crystal growth inhibition by organic acids may explain the metastability of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and OCP with respect to thermodynamically more stable HAP often observed in geochemical environments.

  2. Field enhancement sample stacking for analysis of organic acids in traditional Chinese medicine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianqian; Xu, Xueqin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liangjun; Chen, Guonan

    2012-07-13

    A technique known as field enhancement sample stacking (FESS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation has been developed to analyze and detect organic acids in the three traditional Chinese medicines (such as Portulaca oleracea L., Crataegus pinnatifida and Aloe vera L.). In FESS, a reverse electrode polarity-stacking mode (REPSM) was applied as on-line preconcentration strategy. Under the optimized condition, the baseline separation of eight organic acids (linolenic acid, lauric acid, p-coumaric acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, succinic acid and fumaric acid) could be achieved within 20 min. Validation parameters of this method (such as detection limits, linearity and precision) were also evaluated. The detection limits ranged from 0.4 to 60 ng/mL. The results indicated that the proposed method was effective for the separation of mixtures of organic acids. Satisfactory recoveries were also obtained in the analysis of these organic acids in the above traditional Chinese medicine samples.

  3. Crystal and molecular structure of eight organic acid-base adducts from 2-methylquinoline and different acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Jin, Shouwen; Tao, Lin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Daqi

    2014-08-01

    Eight supramolecular complexes with 2-methylquinoline and acidic components as 4-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, salicylic acid, 5-chlorosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, malic acid, sebacic acid, and 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. All of the complexes are organic salts except compound 2. All supramolecular architectures of 1-8 involve extensive classical hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the classical hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) between acidic components and 2-methylquinoline are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary organic acid-base adducts. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, the complexes 1-8 displayed 2D-3D framework structure.

  4. DC diaphragm discharge in water solutions of selected organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyhnankova, Edita J.; Hammer, Malte U.; Reuter, Stephan; Krcma, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Effect of four simple organic acids water solution on a DC diaphragm discharge was studied. Efficiency of the discharge was quantified by the hydrogen peroxide production determined by UV-VIS spectrometry of a H2O2 complex formed with specific titanium reagent. Automatic titration was used to study the pH behaviour after the plasma treatment. Optical emission spectroscopy overview spectra were recorded and detailed spectra of OH band and Hβ line were used to calculate the rotational temperature and comparison of the line profile (reflecting electron concentration) in the acid solutions. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  5. Total Storage and Landscape Partitioning of Soil Organic Carbon and Phytomass Carbon in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, M. B.; Hanisch, J.; Weiss, N.; Kuhry, P.; Hugelius, G.

    2014-12-01

    We present results of detailed partitioning of soil organic carbon (SOC) and phytomass carbon (PC) from two study sites in Siberia. The study sites in the Tundra (Kytalyk) and the Taiga (Spasskaya Pad) reflect two contrasting environments in the continuous permafrost zone. In total 57 individual field sites (24 and 33 per study site respectively) have have been sampled for SOC and PC along transects cutting across different land covers. In Kytalyk the sampling depth for the soil pedons was 1 m depth. In Spasskaya Pad where the active layer was significantly deeper, we aimed for 2 m depth or tried to include at least the top of the permafrost. Here the average depth of soil profiles was 152 cm. PC was sampled from 1x1 m ground coverage plots. In Spasskaya Pad tree phytomass was also estimated on a 5x5 m plot. The SOC storage was calculated separately for the intervals 0-30 cm, 30-100 cm and 100-200 cm (the latter only for Spasskaya Pad), as well as for organic layer vs. mineral soil, active layer vs. permafrost and for cryoturbated soil horizons. Landscape partitioning was performed by thematic up-scaling using a vegetation based land cover classification of very high resolution (2x2 m) satellite imagery. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) was used to explore the relationship of SOC with PC and different soil and permafrost related variables. The results show that the different land cover classes can be considered distinct storages of SOC, but that PC is not significantly related to total SOC storage. At both study sites the 30-100 cm SOC storage is more important for the total SOC storage than the 0-30 cm interval, and large portions of the total SOC are stored in the permafrost. The largest contribution comes from wetland pedons, but highly cryoturbated individual non-wetland pedons can match these. In Kytalyk the landscape partitioning of SOC mostly follows large scale geomorphological features, while in Spasskaya pad forest type also has a large

  6. Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrations of AA and MX and only at 1.0% and 0.5% of LA, which lowered slightly at 0.2% and greatly at 0.1% of LA. This suggests the nematicidal activity of MX may be mostly derived from AA together with supplementary LA toxicity. MX was applied to chili pepper plants inoculated with about 1,000 J2, for which root-knot gall formations and plant growths were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The root gall formation was completely inhibited by 0.5% MX and standard and double concentrations of fosthiazate; and inhibited 92.9% and 57.1% by 0.2% and 0.1% MX, respectively. Shoot height, shoot weight, and root weight were not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different among all treatments and the untreated and non-inoculated controls. All of these results suggest that the mixture of the organic acids may have a potential to be developed as an eco-friendly nematode control agent that needs to be supported by the more nematode control experiments in fields. PMID:25506312

  7. Association between Hyaluronic Acid Injections and Time-to-Total Knee Replacement Surgery.

    PubMed

    Altman, Roy; Fredericson, Michael; Bhattacharyya, Samir K; Bisson, Brad; Abbott, Thomas; Yadalam, Sashidhar; Kim, Myoung

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed the association between hyaluronic acid (HA) injections and time-to-total knee replacement (TKR) surgery for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patients 18 to 64 years of age who had TKR surgery between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2011 were identified from the MarketScan Commercial claims database. All patients had 6 years or more of continuous enrollment prior to TKR surgery. There were two cohorts (1) patients with HA injections prior to TKR surgery and (2) patients who did not have HA injections prior to TKR surgery. Time-to-TKR was defined as the total days from the date of diagnosis of knee OA on the patient's first visit to an orthopedic surgeon to the date of TKR surgery. Results included 22,555 patients who had TKR surgery: 14,132 in the non-HA and 8,423 in the HA cohort. In this retrospective analysis of patients undergoing TKR, the median Time-to-TKR surgery was 326 days for the non-HA and 908 days for the HA cohort, a difference of 582 days. Those receiving HA injections had a median 1.6-year longer Time-to-TKR surgery versus those who did not receive HA injections. These results have both clinical and economic implications.

  8. Total protein quantitation using the bicinchoninic acid assay and gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kralj, Jason G; Munson, Matthew S; Ross, David

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the ability of gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis (GEMBE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) to assay total protein concentration using the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) reaction. We chose this format because GEMBE-C(4) D behaves as a concentration dependent detection system, unlike optical methods that also rely on pathlength (due to Beer's law). This system tolerates proteins well compared with other capillary electrophoretic methods, allowing the capillary to be reused without coatings or additional hydroxide wash steps. The typical reaction protocol was modified by reducing the pH slightly from 11.25 to 9.4, which enabled elimination of tartrate from the reagents. We estimated that copper (I) could be detected at approximately 3.0 μmol/L, which agrees with similar GEMBE and CZE systems utilizing C(4) D. Under conditions similar to the BCA "micro method" assay, we determined the LOD for three common proteins (insulin, BSA, and bovine gamma globulin) and found that they agree well with the existing spectroscopic detection methods. Further, we investigated how long reaction times impact the LOD and found that the conversion was proportional to log(time). This indicated that little sensitivity is gained by extending the reaction past 1 h. Hence, GEMBE provides an alternative platform for total protein assays while maintaining the excellent sensitivity of the optical-based methods.

  9. EFFECT OF TRANEXAMIC ACID ON BLEEDING CONTROL IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    SADIGURSKY, DAVID; ANDION, DANIEL; BOUREAU, PÉRICLES; FERREIRA, MARIA CORDULINA; CARNEIRO, ROGÉRIO JAMIL FERNANDES; COLAVOLPE, PAULO OLIVEIRA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To analyze the effectiveness of intravenous (IV) tranexamic acid (TA) in reducing blood loss in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Method: The population sample was composed of patients with a diagnosis of primary knee osteoarthritis. The patients undergoing TKA were divided in two groups. Group A: comprised patients who used IV TA and B group, formed by patients who did not use TA in the intra or post-operative period. For descriptive analysis, quantitative variables were represented by mean and standard deviations when their distribution was normal and interquartile ranges and medians for non-normal variables. Results: The mean age of patients was 68 years old, most of them were female and with involvement of the left knee. Postoperatively patients who had used IV TA showed less bleeding rate and less hemoglobin rate reduction. Conclusion: The use of IV TA in TKA reduces blood loss in peri- and postoperative periods. Regarding total blood loss reduction, hemoglobin rate and need for blood transfusions, IV TA should be used routinely during TKA since it has been shown to be safe with no increase in side effects as thromboembolic events. Level of Evidence III. Retrospective Comparative Study. PMID:27217813

  10. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer.

  11. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  13. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  15. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  17. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  18. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  1. Determination of tertiary amines and salts of organic acids in acetic acid by catalytic thermometric titration.

    PubMed

    Vajgand, V J; Gaál, F F

    1967-03-01

    A new method of determination of tertiary amines and salts of organic adds in acetic acid solution, to which about 2 % of water and 8% acetic anhydride are added, is described. After the equivalence point, the excess of perchloric acid catalyses the exothermic reaction of water with acetic anhydride. The end-point is determined from the graph of temperature against volume of added titrant. If a slightly soluble compound is produced during the titration, the precision of the new method is superior to that of the potentiometric method.

  2. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Does Not Affect the Quality or Total Ascorbic Acid Concentration of "Sweetheart" Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis).

    PubMed

    Golding, John B; Blades, Barbara L; Satyan, Shashirekha; Spohr, Lorraine J; Harris, Anne; Jessup, Andrew J; Archer, John R; Davies, Justin B; Banos, Connie

    2015-08-26

    Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis, Sims, cultivar "Sweetheart") were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy) then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and fourteen days. Irradiation at any dose (≤1000 Gy) did not affect passionfruit quality (overall fruit quality, colour, firmness, fruit shrivel, stem condition, weight loss, total soluble solids level (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) level, TSS/TA ratio, juice pH and rot development), nor the total ascorbic acid concentration. The length of time in storage affected some fruit quality parameters and total ascorbic acid concentration, with longer storage periods resulting in lower quality fruit and lower total ascorbic acid concentration, irrespective of irradiation. There was no interaction between irradiation treatment and storage time, indicating that irradiation did not influence the effect of storage on passionfruit quality. The results showed that the application of 150, 400 and 1000 Gy gamma irradiation to "Sweetheart" purple passionfruit did not produce any deleterious effects on fruit quality or total ascorbic acid concentration during cold storage, thus supporting the use of low dose irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests in purple passionfruit.

  3. Light enhanced the accumulation of total fatty acids (TFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga Crypthecodinium sp. SUN.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongzhe; Zhang, Zhao; Mao, Xuemei; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, light illumination was found to be efficient in elevating the total fatty acid content in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga, Crypthecodinium sp. SUN. Under light illumination, the highest total fatty acid and DHA contents were achieved at 96h as 24.9% of dry weight and 82.8mgg(-1) dry weight, respectively, which were equivalent to 1.46-fold and 1.68-fold of those under the dark conditions. The elevation of total fatty acid content was mainly contributed by an increase of neutral lipids at the expense of starches. Moreover, light was found to alter the cell metabolism and led to a higher specific growth rate, higher glucose consumption rate and lower non-motile cell percentage. This is the first report that light can promote the total fatty acids accumulation in Crypthecodinium without growth inhibition.

  4. Continuous flow analysis of total organic carbon in polar ice cores.

    PubMed

    Federer, Urs; Kaufmann, Patrik R; Hutterli, Manuel A; Schüpbach, Simon; Stocker, Thomas F

    2008-11-01

    Ice cores are a widely used archive to reconstruct past changes of the climate system. This is done by measuring the concentration of substances in the ice and in the air of bubbles enclosed in ice. Some species pertaining to the carbon cycle (e.g., CO2, CH4) are routinely measured. However, information about the organic fraction of the impurities in polar ice is still very limited. Therefore, we developed a new method to determine the content of total organic carbon (TOC) in ice cores using a continuous flow analysis (CFA) system. The method is based on photochemical oxidation of TOC and the electrolytic quantification of the CO2 produced during oxidation. The TOC instrument features a limit of detection of 2 ppbC and a response time of 60 s at a sample flow rate of 0.7 mL/min and a linear measurement range of 2-4000 ppbC. First measurements on the ice core from Talos Dome, Antarctica, reveal TOC concentrations varying between 80 and 360 ppbC in the 20 m section presented.

  5. Measuring the Grafting Density of Nanoparticles in Solution by Analytical Ultracentrifugation and Total Organic Carbon Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Denise N.; Zhu, Huiguang; Lilierose, Michael H.; Verm, Raymond A.; Ali, Naushaba; Morrison, Adam N.; Fortner, John D.; Avendano, Carolina; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2012-01-01

    Many of the solution phase properties of nanoparticles, such as their colloidal stability and hydrodynamic diameter, are governed by the number of stabilizing groups bound to the particle surface (i.e., grafting density). Here we show how two techniques, analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and total organic carbon analysis (TOC), can be applied separately to the measurement of this parameter. AUC directly measures the density of nanoparticle–polymer conjugates while TOC provides the total carbon content of its aqueous dispersions. When these techniques are applied to model gold nanoparticles capped with thiolated poly(ethylene glycol), the measured grafting densities across a range of polymer chain lengths, polymer concentrations, and nanoparticle diameters agree to within 20%. Moreover, the measured grafting densities correlate well with the polymer content determined by thermogravimetric analysis of solid conjugate samples. Using these tools, we examine the particle core diameter, polymer chain length, and polymer solution concentration dependence of nanoparticle grafting densities in a gold nanoparticle–poly(ethylene glycol) conjugate system. PMID:22967239

  6. Organic and inorganic aerosol compositions in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, during the cold winter of 2007 to 2008: Dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, and α-dicarbonyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jinsang; Tsatsral, Batmunkh; Kim, Young J.; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the distributions and sources of water-soluble organic acids in the Mongolian atmosphere, aerosol samples (PM2.5, n = 34) were collected at an urban site (47.92°N, 106.90°E, ˜1300 m above sea level) in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, during the cold winter. The samples were analyzed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12) and related compounds (ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls), as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, water-soluble OC, and inorganic ions. Distributions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds were characterized by a predominance of terephthalic acid (tPh; 130 ± 51 ng m-3, 19% of total detected organic acids) followed by oxalic (107 ± 28 ng m-3, 15%), succinic (63 ± 20 ng m-3, 9%), glyoxylic (55 ± 18 ng m-3, 8%), and phthalic (54 ± 27 ng m-3, 8%) acids. Predominance of terephthalic acid, which has not been reported previously in atmospheric aerosols, was mainly due to uncontrolled burning of plastic bottles and bags in home stoves for heating and waste incineration during the cold winter. This study demonstrated that most of the air pollutants were directly emitted from local sources such as heat and power plants, home stoves, and automobiles. Development of an inversion layer (<700 m above ground level) over the basin of Ulaanbaatar accelerated the accumulation of pollutants, causing severe haze episodes during the winter season.

  7. Spectral absorption properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and total suspended matter (TSM) of inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kaishan; Liu, Dianwei; Li, Lin; Wang, Zongming; Wang, Yuandong; Jiang, Guangjia

    2010-08-01

    Spectral absorption properties of total suspended matter (TSM) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are important for the use of the bio-optical model to estimate water quality parameters. This study aims to investigate the variation in the absorption coefficients of TSM and CDOM of inland waters. A total of 92 water samples were collected from Shitoukoumen Reservoir and Songhua Lake in Northeast China, analyzed for TSM and Chl-a, and measured for the absorption coefficient of TSM, CDOM and total pigments using a laboratory spectrophotometer. The absorption coefficient of TSM has been decomposed for phytoplankton and inorganic sediments. The results show that for Shitoukoumen Reservoir, CDOM has strong absorptions with shallow absorption slopes (i.e., the coefficient S in a(λ)=a(λ0)exp[-S(λ- λ0)]) and large absorption at 355 nm; and for Songhua Lake, CDOM follows similar spectral absorption curves but less variation in the S value. The results also show TSM has the average absorption coefficient 5.7 m-1 at 440 nm and 0.93 m-1 at 675 nm, and their concentration is well correlated to TSM with R2 larger than 0.85 at 440 nm over both Songhu Lake and Shitoukoumen Reservoir. In summer, CDOM was mainly terrigenous and had a high proportion of humic acid derived from the decomposition of phytoplankton and there were no obvious difference of S value. The results indicate that inorganic sediments contributed much more absorption than phytoplankton pigments in Shitoukoumen Reservoir than that in Songhua Lake, and there is strong association of TSM concentration to absorption coefficient at 440 nm.

  8. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Leandro M.; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M.; Soares, Cláudio R.F.S.; de Lima, José M.; Olivares, Fabio L.; Moreira, Fatima M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization. PMID:26273251

  9. A Novel and Rapid Colorimetric Method for Measuring Total Phosphorus and Phytic Acid in Foods and Animal Feeds.

    PubMed

    2016-04-08

    Phytic acid, or myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, is the primary source of inositol and storage phosphorus in plant seeds and has considerable nutritional importance. In this form, phosphorus is unavailable for absorption by monogastric animals, and the strong chelating characteristic of phytic acid reduces the bioavailability of multivalent minerals such as iron, zinc, and calcium. Currently, there is no simple quantitative method for phytic acid; existing methods are complex, and the most commonly accepted method, AOAC Official Method (SM) 986.11, has limitations. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a simple, high-throughput method for the measurement of total phosphorus and phytic acid in foods and animal feeds. The method described here involves acid extraction of phytic acid, followed by dephosphorylation with phytase and alkaline phosphatase. The phosphate released from phytic acid is measured using a modified colorimetric molybdenum blue assay and calculated as total phosphorus or phytic acid content of the original sample. The method was validated to a maximum linearity of 3.0 g phytic acid/100 g sample. Accuracy ranged from 98 to 105% using pure phytic acid and from 97 to 115% for spiked samples. Repeatability ranged from 0.81 to 2.32%, and intermediate precision was 2.27%.

  10. [Evaluation on contribution rate of each component total salvianolic acids and characterization of apparent oil/water partition coefficient].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong-mei; Chen, Xiao-yun; Xia, Hai-jian; Liu, Dan; Jia, Xiao-bin; Zhang, Zhen-hai

    2015-02-01

    The difference between three representative components of total salvianolic acids in pharmacodynamic activity were compared by three different pharmacological experiments: HUVECs oxidative damage experiment, 4 items of blood coagulation in vitro experiment in rabbits and experimental myocardial ischemia in rats. And the effects of contribution rate of each component were calculated by multi index comprehensive evaluation method based on CRITIC weights. The contribution rates of salvianolic acid B, rosmarinic acid and Danshensu were 28.85%, 30.11%, 41.04%. Apparent oil/water partition coefficient of each representative components of total salvianolic acids in n-octyl alcohol-buffer was tested and the total salvianolic acid components were characterized based on a combination of the approach of self-defined weighting coefficient with effects of contribution rate. Apparent oil/water partition coefficient of total salvianolic acids was 0.32, 1.06, 0.89, 0.98, 0.90, 0.13, 0.02, 0.20, 0.56 when in octanol-water/pH 1.2 dilute hydrochloric acid solution/ pH 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 5.8, 6.8, 7.4, 7.8 phosphate buffer solution. It provides a certain reference for the characterization of components.

  11. Roles of Organic Acid Anion Secretion in Aluminium Tolerance of Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium(Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  12. Roles of organic acid anion secretion in aluminium tolerance of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium (Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed.

  13. Gamma Peptide Nucleic Acids: As Orthogonal Nucleic Acid Recognition Codes for Organizing Molecular Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Sacui, Iulia; Hsieh, Wei-Che; Manna, Arunava; Sahu, Bichismita; Ly, Danith H

    2015-07-08

    Nucleic acids are an attractive platform for organizing molecular self-assembly because of their specific nucleobase interactions and defined length scale. Routinely employed in the organization and assembly of materials in vitro, however, they have rarely been exploited in vivo, due to the concerns for enzymatic degradation and cross-hybridization with the host's genetic materials. Herein we report the development of a tight-binding, orthogonal, synthetically versatile, and informationally interfaced nucleic acid platform for programming molecular interactions, with implications for in vivo molecular assembly and computing. The system consists of three molecular entities: the right-handed and left-handed conformers and a nonhelical domain. The first two are orthogonal to each other in recognition, while the third is capable of binding to both, providing a means for interfacing the two conformers as well as the natural nucleic acid biopolymers (i.e., DNA and RNA). The three molecular entities are prepared from the same monomeric chemical scaffold, with the exception of the stereochemistry or lack thereof at the γ-backbone that determines if the corresponding oligo adopts a right-handed or left-handed helix, or a nonhelical motif. These conformers hybridize to each other with exquisite affinity, sequence selectivity, and level of orthogonality. Recognition modules as short as five nucleotides in length are capable of organizing molecular assembly.

  14. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments.

  15. Estimates of Total Dietary Folic Acid Intake in the Australian Population Following Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Dugbaza, Jacinta; Cunningham, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for making bread was implemented in Australia in September 2009, to improve the dietary folate status of women of child-bearing age, and help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the population. This paper presents estimates of folic acid intake in the target population and other subgroups of the Australian population following implementation of the mandatory folic acid fortification standard. In June/July 2010 one hundred samples from seven bread categories were purchased from around the country and individually analysed for the amount of folic acid they contained. A modification to the triple enzyme microbiological method was used to measure folic acid in the individual bread samples. The folic acid analytical values together with national food consumption data were used to generate estimates of the population's folic acid intake from fortified foods. Food Standards Australia New Zealand's (FSANZ) custom-built dietary modelling program (DIAMOND) was used for the estimates. The mean amount of folic acid found in white bread was 200 μg/100 g which demonstrated that folic-acid-fortified wheat flour was used to bake the bread. The intake estimates indicated an increase in mean folic acid intake of 159 μg per day for the target group. Other sub-groups of the population also showed increases in estimated mean daily intake of folic acid. PMID:22957218

  16. HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major organic acids in Angeleno plum fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Zhilei; Cao, Jiankang

    2014-08-01

    A method was developed to profile major organic acids in Angeleno fruit by high performance liquid chromatography. Organic acids in plum were extracted by water with ultra- sonication at 50°C for 30 min. The extracts were chromatographed on Waters Atlantis T3 C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with 0.01mol/L sulfuric acid and water as mobile phase, and flow rate was 0.5 ml/min. The column temperature was 40C, and chromatography was monitored by a diode array detector at 210 nm. The result showed that malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, pyruvic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid in Angeleno plum, and the malic acid was the major organic acids. The coefficient of determination of the standard calibration curve is R2 > 0.999. The organic acids recovery ranged from 99.11% for Malic acid to 106.70% for Oxalic acid, and CV (n=6) ranged from 0.95% for Malic acid to 6.23% for Oxalic acid, respectively. The method was accurate, sensitive and feasible in analyzing the organic acids in Angeleno plum.

  17. CTEPP OVERVIEW: A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research study, "Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants," (CTEPP) is a pilot-scale project involving about 260 children in their everyday surroundings. The objectives of CTEPP are twofold: (1) To measure the agg...

  18. [Spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest in Dinghushan, Guangdong, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Ru; Ouyang, Xu; Chu, Guo-Wei; Zhang, Qian-Mei; Liu, Shi-Zhong; Zhang, De-Qiang; Li, Yue-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Geostatistical techniques were used to quantify the spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen of one monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest area in Dinghushan, Guangdong, China. The results demonstrated that a significant spatial autocorrelation existed between soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents in the Dinghushan monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest, such that 93.6% and 53.7% of their total spatial heterogeneity originated from their spatial autocorrelation. This observation agreed with a traditional statistics analysis showing a significant linear correlation between soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and also their spatial autocorrelation existed at a landscape level. The best fit from an exponential model showed that soil organic carbon had high degree of spatial heterogeneity at a scale of 17.4 m.

  19. Sonolysis of Short-Chain Organic Dicarboxylic Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruke, Yukio; Harada, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    Sonolyses of C4 (carbon number 4) dicarboxylic acids (succinic acid, maleic acid, and fumaric acid) were performed in aqueous solution. They changed one into the other during sonication, affording carbon-number-conserving transformations. Maleic acid and fumaric acid were produced from saccinic acid by dehydrogenation. Furthermore, malic acid and tartaric acid were obtained by hydroxylation. The sonochemical reaction processes are discussed in terms of the time dependences of products and the addition of radical scavengers. In addition, mutual isomerization of fumaric acid and maleic acid was observed during sonication without the use of mediators.

  20. Aluminium Uptake and Translocation in Al Hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius Is Affected by Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids Content and Soil pH

    PubMed Central

    Vondráčková, Stanislava; Száková, Jiřina; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Hejcman, Michal; Müllerová, Vladimíra; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8) and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism. Methods We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs. Results Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid < oxalic acid) in soils. Monovalent Al cations were the most abundant mobile Al forms with positive charge in soils. Liming and superphosphate application were ambiguous measures for changing Al mobility in soils. Elevated transport of total Al from belowground organs into leaves was recorded in both lime-treated soils and in superphosphate-treated alkaline soil as a result of sufficient amount of Ca available from soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of “oxalate plants.” The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions. Conclusions In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids. PMID:25880431

  1. Soil, vegetation and total organic carbon stock development in self-restoring abandoned vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    József Novák, Tibor; Incze, József; Spohn, Marie; Giani, Luise

    2016-04-01

    Abandoned vineyard's soil and vegetation development was studied on Tokaj Nagy-Hill, which is one of the traditional wine-producing regions of Hungary, it is declared as UNESCO World Heritage site as cultural landscape. Spatial distribution and pattern of vineyards were changing during the last several hundreds of years, therefore significant part of abandoned vineyards were subjected to long-term spontaneous secondary succession of vegetation and self-restoration of soils in absence of later cultivation. Two chronosequences of spontaneously regenerating vineyard abandonments, one on south (S-sequence) and one on southwest (SW-sequence) slope with differing times since their abandonment (193, 142, 101, 63, 39 and 14 years), were compiled and studied. The S-sequence was 25-35% sloped and strongly eroded, and the SW-sequence was 17-25% sloped and moderately eroded. The sites were investigated in respect of vegetation characteristics, soil physico-chemical characteristics, total organic carbon stocks (TOC stocks), accumulation rates of total organic carbon (TOC accumulation rates), and soil profiles, which were classified according to the World Reference Base (WRB) 2014. Vegetation development resulted in shrub-grassland mosaics, supplemented frequently by protected forb species and forest development at the earliest abandonment in S-sequence, and predominantly to forest vegetation in SW-sequence, where trees were only absent at the 63 and 14 years old abandonment sites. In all sites soils on level of reference groups according to WRB were classified, and Cambisols, Regosols, Calcisols, Leptosols, Chernozems and Phaeozems were found. Soils of the S-sequence show shallow remnants of loess cover with colluvic and redeposited soil materials containing 15-65% skeletal volcanic rock of weathering products coated by secondary calcium carbonates. The SW-sequence profiles are developed on deep loess or loess derivatives. The calcium-carbonate content was higher in profiles of

  2. Elevated First-Trimester Total Bile Acid is Associated with the Risk of Subsequent Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Wolin; Meng, Xiyan; Zhao, Weijing; Pan, Jiemin; Tang, Junling; Huang, Yajuan; Tao, Minfang; Liu, Fang; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to assess whether total bile acid (TBA) level in first trimester pregnancy is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Biochemical parameters including serum TBA of 742 pregnant women were collected within 12 weeks of gestation and compared. At 24–28th weeks of gestation, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. The perinatal data of 330 women were collected. The results demonstrated women with GDM (n = 268) had higher first-trimester serum levels of TBA compared with healthy subjects (n = 474) (2.3 ± 1.4 μmol/L vs. 1.9 ± 1.0 μmol/L, P < 0.001). TBA was independently associated with GDM [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–1.61, P < 0.001]. Compared to the first category of TBA, women in the highest category had a marked increase in risk for GDM (AOR, 7.72; 95% CI, 3.22–18.50, P < 0.001). In conclusion, higher first-trimester TBA levels, even within normal range, may help indicate increased risk of GDM. PMID:27667090

  3. Total non-methane volatile organic compounds (TNMVOC) in the atmosphere of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Padhy, Pratap; Varshney, C. K.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC), more specifically, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) play a critical role in the atmospheric chemistry. NMVOC, through complex photochemical reactions, contribute to the formation of toxic oxidants, such as tropospheric ozone and PAN, which are injurious to health and highly phytotoxic. Certain NMVOC have been shown to be highly toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic. NMVOC are receiving increasing attention in the west on account of their implication for human health and air quality. On the other hand, information on NMVOC in India and other developing countries is not available. As a result, appreciation of potential threat from NMVOC in relation to air quality and public health is sadly lacking among planners and policy makers. The paper deals with the estimation of total NMVOC at 13 sites in the urban environment of Delhi during November 1994 to June 1995. An inexpensive, labour intensive manual sample collection device was used and the air samples were analysed using GC-FID. The results show that the amount of NMVOC in the ambient environment of Delhi varied between 1.3 and 32.5 ppmv exhibiting wide temporal and seasonal variation. NMVOC levels mostly peaked at 0900 h, which coincide with the peak traffic hour. The implications of NMVOC build-up in the urban atmosphere are obvious for air quality. The results of this preliminary study make out a strong case for developing a regular monitoring programme for NMVOC in the urban environment of Delhi as well as in other major cities in the region.

  4. Total Syntheses of (−)-Pyrimidoblamic Acid and P-3A

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Total syntheses of (−)-pyrimidoblamic acid and P-3A are disclosed. Central to the convergent approach is a powerful inverse electron demand Diels–Alder reaction between substituted electron-deficient 1,2,3-triazines and a highly functionalized and chiral primary amidine, which forms the pyrimidine cores and introduces all necessary stereochemistry in a single step. Intrinsic in the convergent approach is the potential it provides for the late stage divergent synthesis of modified analogs bearing deep-seated changes in either the pyrimidine cores or the highly functionalized C2 side chain common to both natural products. The examination of the key cycloaddition reaction revealed that the inherent 1,2,3-triazine mode of cycloaddition (C4/N1 vs C5/N2) as well as the amidine regioselectivity were unaffected by introduction of two electron-withdrawing groups (−CO2R) at C4 and C6 of the 1,2,3-triazine even if C5 is unsubstituted (Me or H), highlighting the synthetic potential of the powerful pyrimidine synthesis. PMID:24410439

  5. Comparative Analysis of Urinary Total Proteins by Bicinchoninic Acid and Pyrogallol Red Molybdate Methods

    PubMed Central

    Bhongir, Aparna Varma; Karra, Madhulatha; Beedu, Sashidhar Rao

    2015-01-01

    Background The concentration of total proteins in urine is a good index of renal function, but its determination is found to be unreliable. The pyrogallol red molybdate (PRM) method for urine total proteins is being widely used in most of the hospitals because of its high sensitivity, better precision and its practicability. Bicinchoninic acid method (BCA) is also used for protein estimation and there have been no studies comparing this method with the PRM method in human urine samples. BCA method overestimates the urinary protein concentration in the presence of interfering substances. After removing the interfering substances present in the human urine samples the results of BCA method were compared with the PRM method. Aim The purpose of the study is to identify whether the results of urine total proteins by BCA method are comparable to PRM method and can be used as an alternative to the PRM method. Setting and Design This is a cross-sectional study done on fresh urine specimens from the hospital laboratory, covering a wide range of protein concentrations. Material and Methods Fresh urine specimens covering a wide range of protein concentrations (urine dipstick: nil, trace, 1+, 2+ and ≥ 3+) of 36 patients were analysed by both the methods. Statistical Analysis Imprecision was determined by repeated analysis study and Inaccuracy was assessed by comparing the results of the patient’s urine samples by both the methods using correlation plots, Bland and Altman, and Passing and Bablok regression analyses. Results The coefficient of variation and mean (SD) for the BCA method were 4.6% and 799.1 (882.5) mg/L and for the PRM method were 5.1% and 802.1 (911.9) mg/L. The Pearson correlation coefficient, r was 0.93 (p < 0.0001). Method agreement studies showed no significant constant and proportional bias between both the methods. Conclusion In urine which is subjected to removal of interfering substances, the BCA results are comparable to PRM method. PMID:26435938

  6. Method for measuring tetraethyl lead and total lead in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Y.; Mansell, R.S.; Ou, L.T. )

    1994-05-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination is a nationwide public health problem which is prevalent among children in urban metropolitan areas. The source of Pb contamination is due mostly to emissions from vehicular traffic using leaded gasoline. Pb alkyl species used by automobile-related industries include tetraethyl Pb (TEL), tetramethyl Pb, triethylmethyl Pb, dimethyldiethyl Pb, and trimethylethyl Pb compounds. All of these compounds have been used as antiknock agents and have provided a convenient and inexpensive means to enhance octane rating for gasoline. Use of leaded gasoline was almost global for more than 50 years during 1925 to 1975. The amount of Pb released in automobile exhaust during that time accounted for more than a half of the total yearly Pb pollution of the entire earth. Although only Pb-free gasoline may now be used as an automobile fuel in the US, leaded gasoline is still used as both an aviation and automobile fuel in many other countries. Extensive use of Pb antiknock additives has made Pb perhaps the most widely distributed toxic heavy metal in the urban environment. The public health concern about Pb content in the subsurface environment requires a method to determine Pb contents that is both accurate and not demanding of time, technique, or special equipments. The currently used American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard Method D3237 is time consuming, expensive, and tedious as compared to the method presented in this article. The objective of this study was to develop a simple method to measure TEL as well as total Pb contents in organic solvents using a ICI digestion method. Two types of samples were used: (1) TEL in gasoline, and (2) TEL in hexane. In additional, an experiment was also conducted to verify that conversion of TEL by ICI with the above procedures is actually to inorganic Pb[sup +2] and not to a mixture of the intermediate TREL and DEL species which are highly water soluble.

  7. Anaerobic fermentation of organic solid wastes: volatile fatty acid production and separation.

    PubMed

    Yesil, H; Tugtas, A E; Bayrakdar, A; Calli, B

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentation of organic municipal solid waste was investigated using a leach-bed reactor (LBR) to assess the volatile fatty acid (VFA) production efficiency. The leachate recycle rate in the LBR affected the VFA composition of the leachate. A six-fold increase in the recycle rate resulted in an increase of the acetic acid fraction of leachate from 24.7 to 43.0%. The separation of VFAs via leachate replacement resulted in higher total VFA production. VFA separation from synthetic VFA mix and leachate of a fermented organic waste was assessed via a counter-current flow polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane contactor. Acetic and propionic acid permeation fluxes of 13.12 and 14.21 g/m(2).h were obtained at low feed pH values when a synthetic VFA mix was used as a feed solution. The highest selectivity was obtained for caproic acid compared to that of other VFAs when synthetic VFA mix or leachate was used as a feed solution. High pH values and the presence of suspended solids in the leachate adversely affected the permeation rate.

  8. Carbohydrate, Organic Acid, and Amino Acid Composition of Bacteroids and Cytosol from Soybean Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolites in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cytosol from root nodules were analyzed using an isolation technique which makes it possible to estimate and correct for changes in concentration which may occur during bacteroid isolation. Bacteroid and cytosol extracts were fractionated on ion-exchange columns and were analyzed for carbohydrate composition using gas-liquid chromatography and for organic acid and amino acid composition using high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of organic acids in plant tissues as the phenacyl derivatives is reported for the first time and this approach revealed the presence of several unknown organic acids in nodules. The time required for separation of bacteroids and cytosol was varied, and significant change in concentration of individual compounds during the separation of the two fractions was estimated by calculating the regression of concentration on time. When a statistically significant slope was found, the true concentration was estimated by extrapolating the regression line to time zero. Of 78 concentration estimates made, there was a statistically significant (5% level) change in concentration during sample preparation for only five metabolites: glucose, sucrose, and succinate in the cytosol and d-pinitol and serine in bacteroids. On a mass basis, the major compounds in bacteroids were (descending order of concentration): myo-inositol, d-chiro-inositol, α,α-trehalose, sucrose, aspartate, glutamate, d-pinitol, arginine, malonate, and glucose. On a proportional basis (concentration in bacteroid as percent of concentration in bacteroid + cytosol fractions), the major compounds were: α-aminoadipate (94), trehalose (66), lysine (58), and arginine (46). The results indicate that metabolite concentrations in bacteroids can be reliably determined. PMID:16665774

  9. PARTITION INFRARED METHOD FOR TOTAL GASOLINE RANGE ORGANICS IN WATER BASED ON SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION. (R825343)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new method is described for determining total gasoline-range organics
    (TGRO) in water that combines solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and infrared
    (IR) spectroscopy. In this method, the organic compounds are extracted from
    250-mL of water into a small square (3....

  10. A method to quantify organic functional groups and inorganic compounds in ambient aerosols using attenuated total reflectance FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate chemometric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coury, Charity; Dillner, Ann M.

    An attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic technique and a multivariate calibration method were developed to quantify ambient aerosol organic functional groups and inorganic compounds. These methods were applied to size-resolved particulate matter samples collected in winter and summer of 2004 at three sites: a downtown Phoenix, Arizona location, a rural site near Phoenix, and an urban fringe site between the urban and rural site. Ten organic compound classes, including four classes which contain a carbonyl functional group, and three inorganic species were identified in the ambient samples. A partial least squares calibration was developed and applied to the ambient spectra, and 13 functional groups related to organic compounds (aliphatic and aromatic CH, methylene, methyl, alkene, aldehydes/ketones, carboxylic acids, esters/lactones, acid anhydrides, carbohydrate hydroxyl and ethers, amino acids, and amines) as well as ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate were quantified. Comparison of the sum of the mass measured by the ATR-FTIR technique and gravimetric mass indicates that this method can quantify nearly all of the aerosol mass on sub-micrometer size-segregated samples. Analysis of sample results shows that differences in organic functional group and inorganic compound concentrations at the three sampling sites can be measured with these methods. Future work will analyze the quantified data from these three sites in detail.

  11. Symptoms of mothers and infants related to total volatile organic compounds in household products.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Alexandra; Taylor, Hazel; Northstone, Kate; Golding, Jean

    2003-10-01

    The authors sought to determine whether reported symptoms of mothers and infants were associated significantly with the use of household products that raised indoor levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs). Data collected from 170 homes within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC: a large birth cohort of more than 10,000) had determined which household products were associated with the highest levels of TVOCs. The latter data were collected over a period that approximated 6 mo of pregnancy and the infants' first 6 mo of life. This paper presents (a) the mothers' self-reports of the use of these products in their homes and (b) self-reported medical symptoms of mothers and infants postnatally. Higher TVOC levels were associated with air freshener and aerosol use. Infant diarrhea and earache were statistically significantly associated with air freshener use, and diarrhea and vomiting were significantly associated with aerosol use. Headache experienced by mothers 8 mo after birth was significantly associated with the use of air fresheners and aerosols; maternal depression was significantly associated with the use of air fresheners. The results of the study suggest a link between the use of products that raise indoor levels of TVOCs and an increased risk of certain symptoms among infants and their mothers.

  12. [Characteristics of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen under different land use types in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Shi, Li-jiang; Zheng, Li-bo; Mei, Xue-ying; Yu, Li-zhong; Jia, Zheng-chang

    2010-09-01

    By the methods of field sampling and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the variations of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents and SOC density under different land use types in Shanghai. Significant differences were observed in the test parameters among different land use types. The SOC density was the highest in paddy field (3.86 kg x m(-2)), followed by in upland (3.17 kg x m(-2)), forestland (3.15 kg x m(-2)), abandoned land (2.73 kg x m(-2)), urban lawn (2.65 kg x m(-2)), garden land (2.13 kg x m(-2)), and tidal flat (1.38 kg x m(-2)). The assessment on the effects of three types of land use change on the test parameters showed that the conversion of paddy field into upland resulted in a significant decrease of SOC and TN contents and SOC density; the abandonment of farmland was not an effective way in improving SOC storage in the Yangtze Delta region with abundant water and heat resources, high soil fertility, and high level of field management; while the 4-5 years conversion of paddy field into artificial forestland decreased the SOC and TN contents and SOC density, suggesting that in a short term, the soil carbon sequestration effect of the conversion from paddy field to forestland was at a low level, due to the limitation of vegetation productivity.

  13. Bacteriophage and impurity carryover and total organic carbon release during extended protein A chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2009-05-01

    In the biopharmaceutical industry, column chromatography residuals are routinely assessed by the direct measurement of mock eluates. In this study, we evaluated virus and other impurity carryover between protein A cycles and the feasibility of using a total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer to monitor for column impurity leakage as a correlate for actual measured carryover in mock eluates. Commercial process intermediates were used in scaled down studies of two protein A media, ProSep A (Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA) and MabSelect SuRe (GE Healthcare, Uppsala, Sweden). The chromatography system was programmed to run up to 200 normal load/elution cycles with periodic blank cycles to measure protein and phage carryover, and water flush cycles to measure TOC release. Sustained phage carryover was evident in each study. Carryover and TOC release was lowest in the case where cleaning was most stringent (50 mM NaOH/0.5 M Na(2)SO(4) with MabSelect SuRe). The TOC analysis at this time does not appear to be a viable practical means of measuring impurity carryover; direct measurements in mock eluates appears to be more predictive of column performance.

  14. How to develop and validate a total organic carbon method for cleaning applications.

    PubMed

    Clark, K

    2001-01-01

    Good Manufacturing Practices require that the cleaning of drug manufacturing equipment be validated. Common analytical techniques used in the validation process include HPLC, UV/Vis, and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). HPLC and UV/Vis are classified as specific methods that identify and measure appropriate active substances. TOC is classified as a non-specific method and can detect all carbon-containing compounds, including active substances, excipients, and cleaning agents. The disadvantage of specific methods is that a new procedure must be developed for every active drug substance that is manufactured. This development process can be very time consuming and tedious. In contrast, one TOC method can potentially be used for all products. A TOC method is sensitive to the ppb range and is less time consuming than HPLC or UV/Vis. USP TOC methods are standard for Water for Injection and Purified Water, and simple modifications of these methods can be used for cleaning validation. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how to develop and validate a TOC method for cleaning applications. Performance parameters evaluated in this study include linearity, MDL, LOQ, accuracy, precision, and swab recovery.

  15. Global Landscape of Total Organic Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Lake Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Piao; Chen, Anwei; Lu, Lunhui

    2015-01-01

    Human activities continue to increase the amount of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lakes, which may cause serious environmental and human health problems. Global landscape of total organic C (TOC), N and P in lake water is still poorly known. Using a global data set that covers ~8300 lakes from 68 countries/regions spanning six continents, we estimate that global mean concentrations and storage in lake water are 5.578 mg L−1 and 984.0 Tg for TOC, 0.526 mg L−1 and 92.8 Tg for TN, and 0.014 mg L−1 and 2.5 Tg for TP. These lake elements are significantly interrelated and in uneven distribution, being associated with morphological characteristics and climate conditions. We proposed that global C, N and P cycles should be considered as a whole in biogeochemical studies and policy-making related to environmental protection. PMID:26477952

  16. Cardiac injury following 10 Gy total body irradiation: indirect role of effects on abdominal organs

    PubMed Central

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Lam, Vy; Jensen, Eric; Fish, Brian L; Su, Jidong; Koprowski, Stacy; Komorowski, Richard A; Harmann, Leanne; Migrino, Raymond Q; Li, X Allen; Hopewell, John W; Moulder, John E; Baker, John E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced injury to the heart after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) is direct or indirect. Young male WAG/RijCmcr rats received a 10 Gy single dose using TBI, upper hemi-body (UHB) irradiation, lower hemi-body (LHB) irradiation, TBI with the kidneys shielded, or LHB irradiation with the intestines shielded. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. The lipid profile, kidney injury, heart and liver morphology and cardiac function were determined up to 120 days after irradiation. LHB, but not UHB irradiation, increased the risk factors for cardiac disease as well as the occurrence of cardiac and kidney injury in a way that was quantitatively and qualitatively similar to that observed after TBI. Shielding of the kidneys prevented the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease. Shielding of the intestines did not prevent the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease. There was no histological evidence of liver injury 120 days after irradiation. Injury to the heart from irradiation appears to be indirect, supporting the notion that injury to abdominal organs, principally the kidneys, is responsible for the increased risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after TBI and LHB irradiation. PMID:23919311

  17. Optimum quantification temperature for total, organic, and elemental carbon using thermal-coulombimetric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ospina, Harry; Peralta, Oscar; Castro, Telma; Saavedra, María I.

    2016-11-01

    The quantification of total (TC), organic (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and OC/TC, EC/TC ratios is useful to determine the original sources of carbonaceous particles, so the importance of using appropriate standards is often crucial in atmospheric sciences, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) offers good analytes. The Standard Reference Material (SRM) Urban Particulate Matter has a similar matrix as in the airborne aerosols of urban atmospheres and a well-known composition. The optimum quantification temperature analysis for carbon content of SRM 1648a and 1649b using a coulometric method (CM5300 and CM5014) is 500 °C for OC and 700 °C for TC. We also evaluated the repeatability and reproducibility provided by the instrument. It should be pointed out that SRM 1649b has no OC or TC quantification in its Certificate of Analysis, so this study may serve as a basis for future analysis of carbon content of atmospheric aerosols.

  18. Major phenolic acids and total antioxidant activity in mamaki leaves, Pipturus albidus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three phenolic acids, (+) catechins, chlorogenic acid, and rutin, were identified and quantified in mamaki leaves (Pipturus albidus) using a liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer technique. Concentrations of (+) catechins, chlorogenic acid, and rutin varied from 1.1 mg to 5.0 mg per gram of mamaki...

  19. Organic production enhances milk nutritional quality by shifting fatty acid composition: a United States-wide, 18-month study.

    PubMed

    Benbrook, Charles M; Butler, Gillian; Latif, Maged A; Leifert, Carlo; Davis, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    Over the last century, intakes of omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids in Western diets have dramatically increased, while omega-3 (ω-3) intakes have fallen. Resulting ω-6/ω-3 intake ratios have risen to nutritionally undesirable levels, generally 10 to 15, compared to a possible optimal ratio near 2.3. We report results of the first large-scale, nationwide study of fatty acids in U.S. organic and conventional milk. Averaged over 12 months, organic milk contained 25% less ω-6 fatty acids and 62% more ω-3 fatty acids than conventional milk, yielding a 2.5-fold higher ω-6/ω-3 ratio in conventional compared to organic milk (5.77 vs. 2.28). All individual ω-3 fatty acid concentrations were higher in organic milk--α-linolenic acid (by 60%), eicosapentaenoic acid (32%), and docosapentaenoic acid (19%)--as was the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (18%). We report mostly moderate regional and seasonal variability in milk fatty acid profiles. Hypothetical diets of adult women were modeled to assess milk fatty-acid-driven differences in overall dietary ω-6/ω-3 ratios. Diets varied according to three choices: high instead of moderate dairy consumption; organic vs. conventional dairy products; and reduced vs. typical consumption of ω-6 fatty acids. The three choices together would decrease the ω-6/ω-3 ratio among adult women by ∼80% of the total decrease needed to reach a target ratio of 2.3, with relative impact "switch to low ω-6 foods" > "switch to organic dairy products" ≈ "increase consumption of conventional dairy products." Based on recommended servings of dairy products and seafoods, dairy products supply far more α-linolenic acid than seafoods, about one-third as much eicosapentaenoic acid, and slightly more docosapentaenoic acid, but negligible docosahexaenoic acid. We conclude that consumers have viable options to reduce average ω-6/ω-3 intake ratios, thereby reducing or eliminating probable risk factors for a wide range of developmental and

  20. Total Acid Value Titration of Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Phenolics with Multiple End-Point Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, E.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Total acid value titration has long been used to estimate corrosive potential of petroleum crude oil and fuel oil products. The method commonly used for this measurement, ASTM D664, utilizes KOH in isopropanol as the titrant with potentiometric end point determination by pH sensing electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode with LiCl electrolyte. A natural application of the D664 method is titration of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil, which is a candidate for refinery upgrading to produce drop in fuels. Determining the total acid value of pyrolysis derived bio-oil has proven challenging and not necessarily amenable to the methodology employed for petroleum products due to the different nature of acids present. We presented an acid value titration for bio-oil products in our previous publication which also utilizes potentiometry using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in place of KOH as the titrant and tetraethylammonium bromide in place of LiCl as the reference electrolyte to improve the detection of these types of acids. This method was shown to detect numerous end points in samples of bio-oil that were not detected by D664. These end points were attributed to carboxylic acids and phenolics based on the results of HPLC and GC-MS studies. Additional work has led to refinement of the method and it has been established that both carboxylic acids and phenolics can be determined accurately. Use of pH buffer calibration to determine half-neutralization potentials of acids in conjunction with the analysis of model compounds has allowed us to conclude that this titration method is suitable for the determination of total acid value of pyrolysis oil and can be used to differentiate and quantify weak acid species. The measurement of phenolics in bio-oil is subject to a relatively high limit of detection, which may limit the utility of titrimetric methodology for characterizing the acidic potential of pyrolysis oil and products.

  1. Recoded organisms engineered to depend on synthetic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Alexis J; Haimovich, Adrian D; Katz, Spencer R; Li, Zhe; Grome, Michael W; Gassaway, Brandon M; Amiram, Miriam; Patel, Jaymin R; Gallagher, Ryan R; Rinehart, Jesse; Isaacs, Farren J

    2015-02-05

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly used in research and industrial systems to produce high-value pharmaceuticals, fuels and chemicals. Genetic isolation and intrinsic biocontainment would provide essential biosafety measures to secure these closed systems and enable safe applications of GMOs in open systems, which include bioremediation and probiotics. Although safeguards have been designed to control cell growth by essential gene regulation, inducible toxin switches and engineered auxotrophies, these approaches are compromised by cross-feeding of essential metabolites, leaked expression of essential genes, or genetic mutations. Here we describe the construction of a series of genomically recoded organisms (GROs) whose growth is restricted by the expression of multiple essential genes that depend on exogenously supplied synthetic amino acids (sAAs). We introduced a Methanocaldococcus jannaschii tRNA:aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair into the chromosome of a GRO derived from Escherichia coli that lacks all TAG codons and release factor 1, endowing this organism with the orthogonal translational components to convert TAG into a dedicated sense codon for sAAs. Using multiplex automated genome engineering, we introduced in-frame TAG codons into 22 essential genes, linking their expression to the incorporation of synthetic phenylalanine-derived amino acids. Of the 60 sAA-dependent variants isolated, a notable strain harbouring three TAG codons in conserved functional residues of MurG, DnaA and SerS and containing targeted tRNA deletions maintained robust growth and exhibited undetectable escape frequencies upon culturing ∼10(11) cells on solid media for 7 days or in liquid media for 20 days. This is a significant improvement over existing biocontainment approaches. We constructed synthetic auxotrophs dependent on sAAs that were not rescued by cross-feeding in environmental growth assays. These auxotrophic GROs possess alternative genetic codes that

  2. Recoded organisms engineered to depend on synthetic amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Alexis J.; Haimovich, Adrian D.; Katz, Spencer R.; Li, Zhe; Grome, Michael W.; Gassaway, Brandon M.; Amiram, Miriam; Patel, Jaymin R.; Gallagher, Ryan R.; Rinehart, Jesse; Isaacs, Farren J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly used in research and industrial systems to produce high-value pharmaceuticals, fuels, and chemicals1. Genetic isolation and intrinsic biocontainment would provide essential biosafety measures to secure these closed systems and enable safe applications of GMOs in open systems2,3, which include bioremediation4 and probiotics5. Although safeguards have been designed to control cell growth by essential gene regulation6, inducible toxin switches7, and engineered auxotrophies8, these approaches are compromised by cross-feeding of essential metabolites, leaked expression of essential genes, or genetic mutations9,10. Here, we describe the construction of a series of genomically recoded organisms (GROs)11 whose growth is restricted by the expression of multiple essential genes that depend on exogenously supplied synthetic amino acids (sAAs). We introduced a Methanocaldococcus jannaschii tRNA:aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) pair into the chromosome of a GRO that lacks all TAG codons and release factor 1, endowing this organism with the orthogonal translational components to convert TAG into a dedicated sense codon for sAAs. Using multiplex automated genome engineering (MAGE)12, we introduced in-frame TAG codons into 22 essential genes, linking their expression to the incorporation of synthetic phenylalanine-derived amino acids. Of the 60 sAA-dependent variants isolated, a notable strain harboring 3 TAG codons in conserved functional residues13 of MurG, DnaA and SerS and containing targeted tRNA deletions maintained robust growth and exhibited undetectable escape frequencies upon culturing ∼1011 cells on solid media for seven days or in liquid media for 20 days. This is a significant improvement over existing biocontainment approaches2,3,6-10. We constructed synthetic auxotrophs dependent on sAAs that were not rescued by cross-feeding in environmental growth assays. These auxotrophic GROs possess alternate genetic

  3. Determination of non-volatile and volatile organic acids in Korean traditional fermented soybean paste (Doenjang).

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shruti; Choi, Tae Bong; Park, Hae-Kyong; Kim, Myunghee; Lee, In Koo; Kim, Jong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Organic acids are formed in food as a result of metabolism of large molecular mass compounds. These organic acids play an important role in the taste and aroma of fermented food products. Doenjang is a traditional Korean fermented soybean paste product that provides a major source of protein. The quantitative data for volatile and non-volatile organic acid contents of 18 samples of Doenjang were determined by comparing the abundances of each peak by gas (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean values of volatile organic acids (acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid and 3-methyl butanoic acid), determined in 18 Doenjang samples, were found to be 91.73, 29.54, 70.07 and 19.80 mg%, respectively, whereas the mean values of non-volatile organic acids, such as oxalic acid, citric acid, lactic acid and succinic acid, were noted to be 14.69, 5.56, 9.95 and 0.21 mg%, respectively. Malonic and glutaric acids were absent in all the tested samples of Doenjang. The findings of this study suggest that determination of organic acid contents by GC and HPLC can be considered as an affective approach to evaluate the quality characteristics of fermented food products.

  4. Apparent Consumption vs. Total Consumption--A Lead-Acid Battery Case Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.; Buckingham, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report compares estimates of U.S. apparent consumption of lead with estimates of total U.S. consumption of this mineral commodity from a materials flow perspective. The difference, attributed to the amount of lead contained in imported and exported products, was found to be significant for this sector. The study also assesses the effects of including mineral commodities incorporated in manufactured products on the interpretation of observed trends in minerals consumption and trade. Materials flow is a systems approach to understanding what happens to the materials we use from the time a material is extracted, through its processing and manufacturing, to its ultimate disposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides accurate and detailed mineral production and mineral commodity consumption statistics that are essential for government, nongovernment organizations, and the public to gain a better understanding of how and where materials are used and their effect on the environment and society. Published statistics on mineral apparent consumption are limited to estimates of consumption of raw material forms (ore, concentrate, and [or] refined metal). For this study, apparent consumption is defined as mine production + secondary refined production + imports (concentrates and refined metal) ? exports (concentrates and refined metal) + adjustments for government and industry stock changes. These estimates do not account for the amount of mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are imported to the United States, nor do they deduct the amount of these mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are exported from the United States. When imports or exports of manufactured products contribute significantly to the total use of a particular raw material, an estimate of consumption that does not consider the incorporated forms of these mineral commodities within imported or exported manufactured products can be either

  5. Sensitive determination of nucleic acids using organic nanoparticle fluorescence probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yunyou; Bian, Guirong; Wang, Leyu; Dong, Ling; Wang, Lun; Kan, Jian

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the preparation of organic nanoparticles by reprecipitation method under sonication and vigorous stirring. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the size and size distribution of the luminescent nanoparticles. Their average diameter was about 25 nm with a size variation of ±18%. The fluorescence decay lifetime of the nanoparticles also was determined on a self-equipped fluorospectrometer with laser light source. The lifetime (˜0.09 μs) of nanoparticles is about three times long as that of the monomer. The nanoparticles were in abundant of hydrophilic groups, which increased their miscibility in aqueous solution. These organic nanoparticles have high photochemical stability, excellent resistance to chemical degradation and photodegradation, and a good fluorescence quantum yield (25%). The fluorescence can be efficiently quenched by nucleic acids. Based on the fluorescence quenching of nanoparticles, a fluorescence quenching method was developed for determination of microamounts of nucleic acids by using the nanoparticles as a new fluorescent probe. Under optimal conditions, maximum fluorescence quenching is produced, with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of 345 and 402 nm, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the calibration graphs are linear over the range 0.4-19.0 μg ml -1 for calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) and 0.3-19.0 μg ml -1 for fish sperm DNA (fs-DNA). The corresponding detection limits are 0.25 μg ml -1 for ct-DNA and 0.17 μg ml -1 for fs-DNA. The relative standard deviation of six replicate measurements is 1.3-2.1%. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive with wide linear range. The recovery and relative standard deviation are very satisfactory.

  6. Combined impact of pH and organic acids on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Salovaara, Susan; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Andlid, Thomas

    2003-12-17

    Previous studies have shown that organic acids have an impact on both Fe(II) and Fe(III) uptake in Caco-2 cell. However, to what extent this effect is correlated with the anion of organic acids per se, or with the resulting decrease in pH, has not yet been clarified. Therefore, we studied the effect of five organic acids (tartaric, succinic, citric, oxalic, and propionic acid) on the absorption of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in Caco-2 cells and compared this with sample solutions without organic acids but set to equivalent pH by HCl. The results showed that the mechanisms behind the enhancing effect of organic acids differed for the two forms of iron. For ferric iron the organic acids promoted uptake both by chelation and by lowering the pH, whereas for ferrous iron the promoting effect was caused only by the lowered pH.

  7. Use of Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy to Characterize Organic Acids and Aerosols Emitted in Biomass Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bililign, Solomon; Fiddler, Marc; Singh, Sujeeta

    2012-02-01

    One poorly understood, but significant class of volatile organic compounds (VOC) present in biomass burning is gas-phase organic acids and inorganic acids. These acids are extremely difficult to measure because of their adsorptive nature. Particulates and aerosols are also produced during biomass burning and impact the radiation budget of the Earth and, hence, impact global climate. Use cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRD) to measure absorption cross sections for OH overtone induced photochemistry in some organic acids (acetic acid and peracetic acid) will be presented and planed measurements of optical properties of aerosols composed of mixtures of different absorbing and non-absorbing species using CRD will be discussed.

  8. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  9. Clamping drainage is unnecessary after minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty in patients with tranexamic acid

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuangang; Yang, Timin; Zeng, Yi; Li, Canfeng; Shen, Bin; Pei, Fuxing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Drainage and tranexamic acid (TXA) have been widely used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, it remains unclear whether it is necessary to clamp the drain after minimally invasive TKA (MIS-TKA) when TXA is used. We therefore conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of clamping versus not clamping drainage following MIS-TKA in patients in whom TXA was used. Methods: From January 2015 to December 2015, 121 patients undergoing unilateral primary MIS-TKA were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 groups. In the clamping group (N = 60), drainage was clamped for the 1st 4 postoperative hours. In the nonclamping group (N = 61), drainage was not clamped. All patients underwent a minimidvastus approach and received 10 mg/kg TXA intravenously before tourniquet deflation. We recorded the total blood loss, drainage volume, and transfusion requirements in the postoperative period. We also measured the hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) levels on postoperative days 1, 3, and 5. Other factors, including range of motion (ROM), visual analog scale (VAS), and occurrence of wound-related complications, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE) were recorded at the time of discharge and 1 and 6 months postoperatively. No statistically significant differences were found between the 2 groups with regard to age, gender, weight, BMI, preoperative Hb and Hct levels, preoperative ROM, VAS, duration of surgery, anesthesia method, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification. Results: The clamping group experienced better drainage volume results than the nonclamping group (P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in TBL and transfusion requirements (P = 0.105 and 0.276, respectively); Hb and Hct levels on postoperative days 1, 3, and 5 were similar between the 2 groups. No significant differences were found for ROM, VAS, DVT, PE, wound-related complications, and hospital

  10. Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from most natural waters ranges from 1 to 20 milligrams carbon per liter, of which approximately 75 percent are organic acids. These acids can be chromatographically fractionated into hydrophobic organic acids, such as humic substances, and hydrophilic organic acids. To effectively study any of these organic acids, they must be isolated from other organic and inorganic species, and concentrated. Usually, large volumes of water must be processed to obtain sufficient quantities of material, and adsorption chromatography on synthetic, macroporous resins has proven to be a particularly effective method for this purpose. The use of the nonionic Amberlite XAD-8 and Amberlite XAD-4 resins and the anion exchange resin Duolite A-7 for isolating and concentrating organic acids from water is presented.

  11. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  12. Blood conservation with tranexamic acid in total hip arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind study in 40 primary operations.

    PubMed

    Benoni, G; Fredin, H; Knebel, R; Nilsson, P

    2001-10-01

    We performed a randomized, double-blind study on the effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss and blood transfusions in 40 primary total hip arthroplasties. Tranexamic acid, 10 mg/kg body weight, or placebo, was given intravenously just before the operation. Blood loss during the operation and postoperatively into the drains was recorded, as also were blood hemoglobin concentrations. Ultrasound examination 1 week postoperatively was done to estimate the blood loss due to remaining hematomas. Total (operation + drain) blood loss was 0.76 (95 CI 0.63-0.89) L in the tranexamic acid group as compared to 1.0 (CI 0.81-1.2) L in the placebo group (p = 0.03). The number of blood transfusions during the day of operation was 2 vs. 10 (p = 0.07) and the total number during the hospital stay was 5 vs. 13 (p = 0.2). 1 patient in each group had a pulmonary embolism.

  13. Role of low molecular weight organic acids on pyrite dissolution in aqueous systems: implications for catalytic chromium (VI) treatment.

    PubMed

    Kantar, Cetin

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study combining batch experiments with spectroscopic analyses was carried out to better understand the effects of various organic acids on pyrite dissolution and subsequent Cr(VI) removal in aqueous systems. Our results suggest that organic acids had no effect on total Fe dissolution from pyrite relative to systems containing no acid. However, while nearly 100% of total Fe dissolved from pyrite was in Fe(II) form in the absence of ligands, the addition of organic acids led to significant oxidation of Fe(II) species to Fe(III). The degree and extent of Fe(II) oxidation increased in the order: tartrate < salicylate < oxalate ≈ citrate < EDTA. Except for salicylate (an aromatic compound), this stimulatory effect observed in Fe(II) oxidation was well correlated with the strength of Fe-ligand complexes. In systems containing Cr(VI), the amount of Fe dissolved increased significantly relative to non-Cr(VI) containing system, and the ligands enhanced the dissolution of surface oxidation products from pyrite. Overall, it is clear that the dissolution of pyrite with organic acids had very little effect on solution phase Cr(VI) removal, but significantly stimulated surface phase Cr(VI) reduction by removing surface oxidation products, and thus creating new surface sites for extended Cr(VI) removal.

  14. Analysis of organic acids in electron beam irradiated chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.): Effects of radiation dose and storage time.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-05-01

    Since 2010, methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant was banned from the European Union under the Montreal Protocol guidelines, due to its deleterious effects on health and risk to the environment. Since then, many alternatives for chestnut conservation have been studied (hot water dip treatment being the most common), among them, electron beam irradiation has been proposed as being a safe, clean and cheap alternative. Herein, the effects of this radiation at different doses up to 6kGy and over storage up to 60days in the amounts and profile of nutritionally important organic acids were evaluated. Chestnuts contained important organic acids with quinic and citric acids as main compounds. Storage time, which is traditionally well accepted by consumers, caused a slight decrease on quinic (13-9mg/g), ascorbic (1.2-0.8mg/g), malic (5-4mg/g), fumaric (0.4-0.3mg/g) and total organic (33-26mg/g) acids content. Otherwise, irradiation dose did not cause appreciable changes, either individually or in total (28-27mg/g) organic acid contents. Electron beam irradiation might constitute a valuable alternative for chestnut conservation.

  15. Adsorption of heavy metals onto iron minerals in the presence of organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, L. V.; Perelomova, I. V.; Levkin, N. D.; Violante, A.

    2009-04-01

    Adsorption of Cu, Pb and Zn in the ternary model systems, consisting of iron (goethite or ferrihydrite) minerals, solution of the metal and low-molecular organic acid (oxalic, citric or glutamine) was studied as function of organic ligands concentrations and pH. The experiments were carried out at constant pH values ranging from 3 to 7 and acid/metal (or metals) molar ratios of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10. At pH 4.5-5.0 the sorption isotherms of these heavy metals fitted the Langmuir equation (L-type). The order of decreasing relative affinities of metals without organic acids was Cu>Pb>Zn for goethite and Pb > Cu > Zn for ferrihydrite. The pH50 (the pH value at which 50% of the total sorption of the elements has occurred) was 4.90 and 5.90 for cupper and 5.20 and 4.40 for lead on goethite and ferrihydrite respectively. At pH 4.5 in the presence of oxalic acid an adsorption of Cu on the surfaces of goethite increased by increasing oxalate/metal molar ratio up to 4 and then slowly decreased. Vice versa, adsorption of Pb on the mineral increased up to an oxalate/Pb molar ratio of 6 and then slightly decreased by further increasing oxalate concentration. So, at these ratios the pH50 for Cu shifted to 3,9 and for Pb decreased to 4.8. Adsorption of lead by ferrihydrite increased up to molar ratio 6/1 and then was practically constant that may be attributed to the large surface area of this oxide. The effect of oxalic and citric acids on the adsorption of cupper and lead (ratio metal/acid 1/1) at all studied pH values was similar. There was same character of effect of citric acid increasing concentration on adsorption of Cu and Pb by goethite; however amount of adsorbed Pb in the presence of citric acid from the ratio acid/metal 4/1 was increased sufficiently. We have demonstrated that in the absence of organic acids the adsorption of each trace element was reduced by the presence of increasing concentrations of the other metal. However, at the studied low metals concentrations

  16. Effects of organic and inorganic acids on phosphorus release from municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Pakdil, N B; Filibeli, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of inorganic acids (sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid) and organic acids (citric acid, oxalic acids) for phosphorus recovery from sludge and struvite precipitation results. It was observed that both inorganic acid and organic acids were effective at phosphorus release. The studies on precipitation of released phosphorus from sludge as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) were also done using nitric and oxalic acids. Phosphorus and heavy metals of leachate were analyzed before and after precipitation. It was observed that heavy metal concentrations in the extracted samples decrease after precipitation. Precipitation was accomplished by using extract derived with nitric acid; however, in oxalic acid applications, it was not achieved. When the chemical constituents of the dried material were examined oxygen, sodium and nitrogen were found to be the major elements.

  17. [Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on inorganic phosphorus transformation in red soil and its acidity].

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongqing; Liao, Lixia; Wang, Xinglin

    2002-07-01

    Red soil samples collected from southern Hubei province and northern Jiangxi province were tested to analyze their inorganic phosphorus fractions, pH and active aluminum after incubated with added various organic acids. The results indicated that application of organic acids increased the content of Ca2-P in both red soils, in the order of citric acid > malic acid > succinic acid > acetic acid, did not affect the contents of Ca8-P and Ca10-P, but usually reduced Fe-P, Al-P and O-P. The pH values of the soils treated by organic acids, except for acetic acid, were reduced by 0.65-1.96, compared with the control. Soil active Al extracted with 0.02 mol.L-1 CaCl2 in treatments with citric, malic and succinic acid was 5.7-51.3 times as the control, and Al extracted with 1 mol.L-1 KCl also increased 4.0-67.3 times. However, acetic acid had little influence on active soil Al. It was concluded that in red soils, organic acid could improve phosphorus availability, but enhance the soil toxicity caused by active Al.

  18. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid 1-1: an endosperm-specific, filial determinant of seed total phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Raboy, Victor; Cichy, Karen; Peterson, Kevin; Reichman, Sarah; Sompong, Utumporn; Srinives, Peerasak; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (Ins P6 or "phytic acid") typically accounts for 75 (± 10%) of seed total phosphorus (P). In some cases, genetic blocks in seed Ins P6 accumulation can also alter the distribution or total amount of seed P. In nonmutant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) caryopses, ~80% of Ins P6 and total P accumulate in the aleurone layer, the outer layer of the endosperm, with the remainder in the germ. In barley low phytic acid 1-1 (Hvlpa1-1) seed, both endosperm Ins P6 and total P are reduced (~45% and ~25%, respectively), but germs are phenotypically wild type. This translates into a net reduction in whole-seed total P of ~15%. Nutrient culture studies demonstrate that the reduction in endosperm total P is not due to a reduction in the uptake of P into the maternal plant. Genetic tests (analyses of testcross and F2 seed) reveal that the Hvlpa1-1 genotype of the filial seed conditions the seed total P reduction; sibling seed in the same head of barley that differ in their Hvlpa1-1 genotype (heterozygous vs. homozygous recessive) differ in their total P (normal vs. reduced, respectively). Therefore, Hvlpa1 functions as a seed-specific or filial determinant of barley endosperm total P.

  19. Exudation of organic acids by Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius as affected by phosphorus supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Werner; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In phytomining and phytoremediation research mixed cultures of bioenergy crops with legumes hold promise to enhance availability of trace metals and metalloids in the soil plant system. This is due to the ability of certain legumes to mobilize trace elements during acquisition of nutrients making these elements available for co-cultured species. The legumes achieve this element mobilization by exudating carboxylates and enzymes as well as by lowering the pH value in the rhizosphere. The aim of our research was to determine characteristics and differences in the exudation of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius regarding to quantitative as to qualitative aspects. Especially the affection by phosphorus (P) supply was a point of interest. Thus we conducted laboratory batch experiments, wherein the plants were grown over four weeks under controlled light, moisture and nutritional conditions on sand as substrate. Half of the plants were supplied with 12 mg P per kg substrate, the other half were cultivated under a total lack of P. After cultivation the plants were transferred from the cultivation substrate into a 0,05 mmolṡL-1 CaCl2 solution. After two hours the plants were removed, moist and dry mass off shoots and roots were measured together with the root length (Tennants' method). Concentrations of exudated carboxylates in the CaCl2 solution were determined via IC (column: Metrosept OrganicAcids, eluent 0.5 molṡL-1 H2SO4 + 15% acetone, pH=3; 0.5 mLṡmin-1). As a result four different organic acids were identified (citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid) in concentration ranges of 0.15 mgṡL-1 (fumaric acid) to 9.21 mgṡL-1 (citric acid). Lupinus angustifolius showed a higher exudation rate (in nmol per cm root length per hour) than Lupinus albus in the presence of phosphorus (e.g. regarding citric acid: 1.99 vs 0.64 nmolṡ(gṡh)-1). However, as the root complexity and length of L. albus were far higher than of L. angustifolius, the total

  20. Effects of short-chain fatty acid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokine abundance.

    PubMed

    Milo, L A; Reardon, K A; Tappenden, K A

    2002-09-01

    We examined the effect of short-chain fatty acid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on proinflammatory cytokine levels in piglets. Piglets (N = 22) received either standard total parenteral nutrition or total parenteral nutrition supplemented with short-chain fatty acids. After seven days of continuous nutrient infusion, proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6) abundance in plasma, jejunal, and ileal samples and small intestinal myeloperoxidase was determined using western blotting. No differences were seen in TNF-alpha small intestinal abundance. IL-1beta was higher in the small intestine of the short-chain fatty acid group (P < 0.05). IL-6 was higher in intestinal samples of the short-chain fatty acid group (P = 0.05), with the ileum having a greater abundance of IL-6 than the jejunum (P < 0.005). No differences in proinflammatory cytokine abundance in the plasma or tissue myeloperoxidase were seen. These results indicate short-chain fatty acids beneficially increase small intestinal abundance of IL-1beta and IL-6 during total parenteral nutrition administration, while not affecting systemic production of these cytokines or intestinal inflammation.

  1. Leaching of organic acids from macromolecular organic matter by non-supercritical CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, P.; Glombitza, C.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of CO2 in underground reservoirs is discussed controversly in the scientific literature. The worldwide search for suitable storage formations also considers coal-bearing strata. CO2 is already injected into seams for enhanced recovery of coal bed methane. However, the effects of increased CO2 concentration, especially on organic matter rich formations, are rarely investigated. The injected CO2 will dissolve in the pore water, causing a decrease in pH and resulting in acidic formation waters. Huge amounts of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) are chemically bound to the macromolecular matrix of sedimentary organic matter and may be liberated by hydrolysis, which is enhanced by the acidic porewater. Recent investigations outlined the importance of LMWOAs as a feedstock for microbial life in the subsurface [1]. Therefore, injection of CO2 into coal formations may result in enhanced nutrient supply for subsurface microbes. To investigate the effect of high concentrations of dissolved CO2 on the release of LMWOAs from coal we developed an inexpensive high-pressure high temperature system that allows manipulating the partial pressure of dissolved gases at pressures and temperatures up to 60 MPa and 120° C, respectively. In a reservoir vessel, gases are added to saturate the extraction medium to the desired level. Inside the extraction vessel hangs a flexible and inert PVDF sleeve (polyvinylidene fluoride, almost impermeable for gases), holding the sample and separating it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the sleeve allows for subsampling without loss of pressure. Coal samples from the DEBITS-1 well, Waikato Basin, NZ (R0 = 0.29, TOC = 30%). were extracted at 90° C and 5 MPa, either with pure or CO2-saturated water. Subsamples were taken at different time points during the extraction. The extracted LMWOAs such as formate, acetate and oxalate were analysed by ion chromatography. Yields of LMWOAs were higher with pure water than with CO2

  2. Deletion of glucose oxidase changes the pattern of organic acid production in Aspergillus carbonarius

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius has potential as a cell factory for the production of different organic acids. At pH 5.5, A.carbonarius accumulates high amounts of gluconic acid when it grows on glucose based medium whereas at low pH, it produces citric acid. The conversion of glucose to gluconic acid is carried out by secretion of the enzyme, glucose oxidase. In this work, the gene encoding glucose oxidase was identified and deleted from A. carbonarius with the aim of changing the carbon flux towards other organic acids. The effect of genetic engineering was examined by testing glucose oxidase deficient (Δgox) mutants for the production of different organic acids in a defined production medium. The results obtained showed that the gluconic acid accumulation was completely inhibited and increased amounts of citric acid, oxalic acid and malic acid were observed in the Δgox mutants. PMID:25401063

  3. Dynamics of organic and inorganic arsenic in the solution phase of an acidic fen in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.-H.; Matzner, E.

    2006-04-01

    Wetland soils play a key role for the transformation of heavy metals in forested watersheds, influencing their mobility, and ecotoxicity. Our goal was to investigate the mechanisms of release from solid to solution phase, the mobility, and the transformation of arsenic species in a fen soil. In methanol-water extracts, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, trimethylarsine oxide, arsenobetaine, and two unknown organic arsenic species were found with concentrations up to 14 ng As g -1 at the surface horizon. Arsenate is the dominant species at the 0-30 cm depth, whereas arsenite predominated at the 30-70 cm depth. Only up to 2.2% of total arsenic in fen was extractable with methanol-water. In porewaters, depth gradient spatial variation of arsenic species, pH, redox potentials, and the other chemical parameters along the profile was observed in June together with high proportion of organic arsenic species (up to 1.2 μg As L -1, 70% of total arsenic). Tetramethylarsonium ion and an unknown organic arsenic species were additionally detected in porewaters at deeper horizons. In comparison, the arsenic speciation in porewaters in April was homogeneous with depth and no organic arsenic species were found. Thus, the occurrence of microbial methylation of arsenic in fen was demonstrated for the first time. The 10 times elevated total arsenic concentrations in porewaters in June compared to April were accompanied by elevated concentrations of total iron, lower concentrations of sulfate and the presence of ammonium and phosphate. The low proportion of methanol-water extractable total arsenic suggests a generally low mobility of arsenic in fen soils. The release of arsenic from solid to solution phases in fen is dominantly controlled by dissolution of iron oxides, redox transformation, and methylation of arsenic, driven by microbial activity in the growing season. As a result, increased concentrations of total arsenic and potentially toxic arsenic species in fen

  4. New data on the total lipid, cholesterol and fatty acid composition of raw and grilled beef longissimus dorsi.

    PubMed

    Bragagnolo, Neura; Rodriguez-Amaya, Délia B

    2003-09-01

    Simultaneous analyses of total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acids were carried out on raw and grilled beef longissimus dorsi trimmed of external fat. Cholesterol was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and the fatty acids by gas chromatography. Mean total lipid (g/100 g) ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 for raw beef and 3.5 to 4.0 for grilled beef steaks. Cholesterol levels (mg/100 g) ranged from 40 to 43 for raw beef and 67 to 70 for grilled beef steaks. The main intramuscular fatty acids of the raw and grilled meat were 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, 18:1n9, 18:1n7 and 18:2n6. Grilled lean beef steaks had significantly higher contents of the principal fatty acids and most of the minor fatty acids. The higher values for the three components in the grilled meat were due to loss of moisture during grilling. There was no significant difference between the apparent and true retentions values, both indicating no significant loss or degradation of total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acids during grilling.

  5. Uptake of Ambient Organic Gases to Acidic Sulfate Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S.

    2009-05-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere has been an area of significant interest due to its climatic relevance, its effects on air quality and human health. Due largely to the underestimation of SOA by regional and global models, there has been an increasing number of studies focusing on alternate pathways leading to SOA. In this regard, recent work has shown that heterogeneous and liquid phase reactions, often leading to oligomeric material, may be a route to SOA via products of biogenic and anthropogenic origin. Although oligomer formation in chamber studies has been frequently observed, the applicability of these experiments to ambient conditions, and thus the overall importance of oligomerization reactions remain unclear. In the present study, ambient air is drawn into a Teflon smog chamber and exposed to acidic sulfate aerosols which have been formed in situ via the reaction of SO3 with water vapor. The aerosol composition is measured with a High Resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), and particle size distributions are monitored with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The use of ambient air and relatively low inorganic particle loading potentially provides clearer insight into the importance of heterogeneous reactions. Results of experiments, with a range of sulfate loadings show that there are several competing processes occurring on different timescales. A significant uptake of ambient organic gases to the particles is observed immediately followed by a slow shift towards higher m/z over a period of several hours indicating that higher molecular weight products (possibly oligomers) are being formed through a reactive process. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions can occur with ambient organic gases, even in the presence of ammonia, which may have significant implications to the ambient atmosphere where particles may be neutralized after their formation.

  6. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  7. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  8. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  9. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  10. Attenuator design for organs at risk in total body irradiation using a translation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lavallee, Marie-Claude; Aubin, Sylviane; Chretien, Mario; Larochelle, Marie; Beaulieu, Luc

    2008-05-15

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is an efficient part of the treatment for malignant hematological diseases. Dynamic TBI techniques provide great advantages (e.g., dose homogeneity, patient comfort) while overcoming treatment room space restrictions. However, with dynamic techniques come additional organs at risk (OAR) protection challenges. In most dynamic TBI techniques, lead attenuators are used to diminish the dose received by the OARs. The purpose of this study was to characterize the dose deposition under various shapes of attenuators in static and dynamic treatments. This characterization allows for the development of a correction method to improve attenuator design in dynamic treatments. The dose deposition under attenuators at different depths in dynamic treatment was compared with the static situation based on two definitions: the coverage areas and the penumbra regions. The coverage area decreases with depth in dynamic treatment while it is stable for the static situation. The penumbra increases with depth in both treatment modes, but the increasing rate is higher in the dynamic situation. Since the attenuator coverage is deficient in the dynamic treatment mode, a correction method was developed to modify the attenuator design in order to improve the OAR protection. The correction method is divided in two steps. The first step is based on the use of elongation charts, which provide appropriate attenuator coverage and acceptable penumbra for a specific depth. The second point is a correction method for the thoracic inclination, which can introduce an orientation problem in both static and dynamic treatments. This two steps correction method is simple to use and personalized to each patient's anatomy. It can easily be adapted to any dynamic TBI techniques.

  11. [Impact of air fresheners and deodorizers on the indoor total volatile organic compounds].

    PubMed

    Jinno, Hideto; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Obama, Tomoko; Miyagawa, Makoto; Yoshikawa, Jun; Komatsu, Kazuhiro; Tokunaga, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Indoor air quality is a growing health concern because of the increased incidence of the building-related illness, such as sick-building syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity/idiopathic environmental intolerance. In order to effectively reduce the unnecessary chemical exposure in the indoor environment, it would be important to quantitatively compare the emissions from many types of sources. Besides the chemical emissions from the building materials, daily use of household products may contribute at significant levels to the indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, we investigated the emission rate of VOCs and carbonyl compounds for 30 air fresheners and deodorizers by the standard small chamber test method (JIS A 1901). The total VOC (TVOC) emission rates of these household products ranged from the undetectable level (< 20 microg/unit/h) to 6,900 microg/unit/h. The mean TVOC emission rate of the air fresheners for indoor use (16 products) was 1,400 microg/unit/ h and that of the deodorizers for indoor use (6 products) was 58 microg/unit/h, indicating that the fragrances in the products account for the major part of the TVOC emissions. Based on the emission rates, the impacts on the indoor TVOC were estimated by the simple model with a volume of 17.4 m3 and a ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The mean of the TVOC increment for the indoor air fresheners was 170 microg/m3, accounting for 40% of the current provisional target value, 400 microg/m3. These results suggest that daily use of household products can significantly influence the indoor air quality.

  12. Dual carbon isotope characterization of total organic carbon in wintertime carbonaceous aerosols from northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikkina, Srinivas; Andersson, August; Sarin, M. M.; Sheesley, R. J.; Kirillova, E.; Rengarajan, R.; Sudheer, A. K.; Ram, K.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2016-05-01

    Large-scale emissions of carbonaceous aerosols (CA) from South Asia impact both regional climate and air quality, yet their sources are not well constrained. Here we use source-diagnostic stable and radiocarbon isotopes (δ13C and Δ14C) to characterize CA sources at a semiurban site (Hisar: 29.2°N, 75.2°E) in the NW Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and a remote high-altitude location in the Himalayan foothills (Manora Peak: 29.4°N, 79.5°E, 1950 m above sea level) in northern India during winter. The Δ14C of total aerosol organic carbon (TOC) varied from -178‰ to -63‰ at Hisar and from -198‰ to -1‰ at Manora Peak. The absence of significant differences in the 14C-based fraction biomass of TOC between Hisar (0.81 ± 0.03) and Manora Peak (0.82 ± 0.07) reveals that biomass burning/biogenic emissions (BBEs) are the dominant sources of CA at both sites. Combining this information with δ13C, other chemical tracers (K+/OC and SO42-/EC) and air mass back trajectory analyses indicate similar source regions in the IGP (e.g., Punjab and Haryana). These results highlight that CA from BBEs in the IGP are not only confined to the atmospheric boundary layer but also extend to higher elevations of the troposphere, where the synoptic-scale circulations could substantially influence their abundances both to the Himalayas and over the downwind oceanic regions such as the Indian Ocean. Given the vast emissions of CA from postharvest crop residue combustion practices in the IGP during early Northeast Monsoon, this information is important for both improved process and model understanding of climate and health effects, as well as in guiding policy decision aiming at reducing emissions.

  13. Distribution of surficial sediment in Long Island Sound and adjacent waters: Texture and total organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Knebel, H. J.; Mlodzinska, Z.J.; Hastings, M.E.; Seekins, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    The surficial sediment distribution within Long Island Sound has been mapped and described using bottom samples, photography, and sidescan sonar, combined with information from the geologic literature. The distributions of sediment type and total organic carbon (TOC) reveal several broad trends that are largely related to the sea-floor geology, the bathymetry, and the effects of modern tidal- and wind-driven currents. Sediment types are most heterogeneous in bathymetrically complex and shallow nearshore areas; the heterogeneity diminishes and the texture fines with decreasing bottom-current energy. Lag deposits of gravel and gravelly sand dominate the surficial sediment texture in areas where bottom currents are the strongest (such as where tidal flow is constricted) and where glacial till crops out at the sea floor. Sand is the dominant sediment type in areas characterized by active sediment transport and in shallow areas affected by fine-grained winnowing. Silty sand and sand-silt-clay mark transitions within the basin from higher- to lower-energy environments, suggesting a diminished hydraulic ability to sort and transport sediment. Clayey silt and silty clay are the dominant sediment types accumulating in the central and western basins and in other areas characterized by long-term depositional environments. The amount of TOC in the sediments of Long Island Sound varies inversely with sediment grain size. Concentrations average more than 1.9% (dry weight) in clayey silt, but are less than 0.4% in sand. Generally, values for TOC increase both toward the west in the Sound and from the shallow margins to the deeper parts of the basin floor. Our data also suggest that TOC concentrations can vary seasonally.

  14. Evaluation of organic acids as fuel cell electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Nguyen, T.H.; Foley, R.T.

    1981-11-01

    The electrochemical behavior of methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, and sulfoacetic acid as fuel cell electrolytes was studied in half-cell at various temperatures. The rate of the electro-oxidation of hydrogen at 115/degree/C was very high in methanesulfonic acid. The rate of the electro-oxidation of propane in all three acids was low even at 135/degree/C. Further, there is evidence for adsorption of these acids on the platinum electrode. It is concluded that anhydrous sulfonic acids are not good electrolytes; water solutions are required. Sulfonic acids containing unprotected carbon-hydrogen bonds are adsorbed on platinum and probably decompose during electrolysis. 9 refs.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids predict recurrent venous thromboembolism or total mortality in elderly patients with acute venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Reiner, M F; Stivala, S; Limacher, A; Bonetti, N R; Méan, M; Egloff, M; Rodondi, N; Aujesky, D; von Schacky, C; Lüscher, T F; Camici, G G; Beer, J H

    2017-01-01

    Essentials The role of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) in recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unknown. Association of n-3 FAs with recurrent VTE or total mortality was investigated in 826 patients. Whole blood n-3 FAs were inversely correlated with recurrent VTE or total mortality. Major and non-major bleeding was not increased in patients with higher levels of n-3 FAs.

  16. Dynamics of three organic acids (malic, acetic and succinic acid) in sunflower exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhixin; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been considered as a good candidate for bioaccumulation of heavy metals. In the present study, sunflower was used to enrich the cadmium and lead in sand culture during 90 days. Biomass, Cd and Pb uptake, three organic acids and pH in cultures were investigated. Results showed that the existence of Cd and Pb showed different interactions on the organic acids exudation. In single Cd treatments, malic and acetic acids in Cd10 showed an incremental tendency with time. In the mixed treatments of Cd and Pb, malic acids increased when 10 and 40 mg x L(-1) Cd were added into Pb50, but acetic acids in Pb50 were inhibited by Cd addition. The Cd10 supplied in Pb10 stimulated the secretion of malic and succinic acids. Moreover, the Cd or Pb uptake in sunflower showed various correlations with pH and some organic acids, which might be due to the fact that the Cd and Pb interfere with the organic acids secretion in rhizosphere of sunflower, and the changes of organic acids altered the form and bioavailability of Cd and Pb in cultures conversely.

  17. Potentially bioavailable natural organic carbon and hydrolyzable amino acids in aquifer sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Lashun K.; Widdowson, Mark A.; Novak, John T.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Benner, Ronald; Kaiser, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between concentrations of operationally defined potentially bioavailable organic -carbon (PBOC) and hydrolyzable amino acids (HAAs) in sediments collected from a diverse range of chloroethene--contaminated sites. Concentrations of PBOC and HAA were measured using aquifer sediment samples collected at six selected study sites. Average concentrations of total HAA and PBOC ranged from 1.96 ± 1.53 to 20.1 ± 25.6 mg/kg and 4.72 ± 0.72 to 443 ± 65.4 mg/kg, respectively. Results demonstrated a statistically significant positive relationship between concentrations of PBOC and total HAA present in the aquifer sediment (p < 0.05). Higher levels of HAA were consistently observed at sites with greater levels of PBOC and first-order decay rates. Because amino acids are known to be readily biodegradable carbon compounds, this relationship suggests that the sequential chemical extraction procedure used to measure PBOC is a useful indicator of bioavailable carbon in aquifer sediments. This, in turn, is consistent with the interpretation that PBOC measurements can be used for estimating the amount of natural organic carbon available for driving the reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes in groundwater systems.

  18. Growth inhibition of Cronobacter spp. strains in reconstituted powdered infant formula acidified with organic acids supported by natural stomach acidity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S; Schnell, S; Fischer, M

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter is associated with outbreaks of rare, but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in newborns. This study was conducted to determine the effect of organic acids on growth of Cronobacter in laboratory medium and reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF) as well as the bacteriostatic effect of slightly acidified infant formula when combined with neonatal gastric acidity. Inhibitory effect of seven organic acids on four acid sensitive Cronobacter strains was determined in laboratory medium with broth dilution method at pH 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0. Acetic, butyric and propionic acids were most inhibitive against Cronobacter in the laboratory medium. The killing effect of these three acids was partially buffered in reconstituted PIF. Under neonatal gastric acid condition of pH 5.0, the slightly acidified formula which did not exert inhibition effect solely reduced significantly the Cronobacter populations. A synergistic effect of formula moderately acidified with organic acid combined with the physiological infant gastric acid was visible in preventing the rapid growth of Cronobacter in neonatal stomach. The study contributed to a better understanding of the inhibitory effect of organic acids on Cronobacter growth in different matrixes and provided new ideas in terms of controlling bacteria colonization and translocation by acidified formula.

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation of organic acids and phytase on performance and intestinal histomorphology of broilers

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadagheri, Nasibeh; Najafi, Ramin; Najafi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic acids and phytase enzyme supplementation on performance and intestinal histomorphology of broilers. The experiment was done in a factorial arrangement 2 × 2 × 2 based on completely randomized design with eight treatments, five replicates with 12 chicks in each until 42 days of age. Diets included natural vinegar (0 and 2%), citric acid (CA; 0.00 and 1.00%) and phytase enzyme (PHY; 0.00 and 500 FTU phytase per kg of feed). One bird from each treatment replicate was randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate the small intestinal morphology on 42 days of age. Analysis of results showed that vinegar increased feed consumption and body weight gain in total experimental period (p ˂ 0.05), while CA significantly decreased feed consumption on 0-14 days of age (p ˂ 0.05). No effect was observed on performance in interaction of organic acids together and with PHY group (p > 0.05). In duodenum CA increased the villus height and width (p ˂ 0.05) and PHY enzyme increased villus width (p ˂ 0.05) and decreased crypt depth (p ˂ 0.05). On the other hand, CA along with PHY significantly decreased crypt depth (p ˂ 0.05). In jejunum PHY alone and in combination with vinegar increased the goblet cells numbers (p ˂ 0.05), whereas vinegar significantly increased the goblet cells numbers in ileum (p ˂ 0.05). The muscular thickness in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum was not affected among different treatment groups. The results showed that supplementation of organic acids and phytase together in this experiment, with no negative effects on each other, improved their effects on some parameters. PMID:27872714

  20. Effect of acoustically assisted treatments on vitamins, antioxidant activity, organic acids and drying kinetics of pineapple.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Óscar; Gomes, Wesley; Rodrigues, Sueli; Fernandes, Fabiano A N

    2017-03-01

    The effects of the application of an acoustically assisted treatment on the vitamins (C, B1, B2, B3, and B5), the antioxidant activity (DPPH, FRAP), the polyphenol and flavonoid contents, the organic acid contents (citric and malic) and drying kinetics of pineapple (Ananas comosus var. Perola) have been studied. Treatments were carried out using two different soaking media: distilled water and pineapple juice at 30°C during 10, 20 and 30min without and with acoustic assistance (23.2W/L). After treatment, samples were dried at 60°C and 0.5m/s during 8h. The quality parameters were determined in untreated, treated, and treated-dried samples. The acoustic assistance promoted an increment of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B5, total flavonoid and malic acid contents, and a reduction of vitamin C, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and citric acid content in treated samples. However, in all treated-dried samples the final content of those quality parameters was higher than the observed in the untreated dried sample.

  1. [Nutrition, acid-base metabolism, cation-anion difference and total base balance in humans].

    PubMed

    Mioni, R; Sala, P; Mioni, G

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between dietary intake and acid-base metabolism has been investigated in the past by means of the inorganic cation-anion difference (C(+)(nm)-A(-)(nm)) method based on dietary ash-acidity titration after the oxidative combustion of food samples. Besides the inorganic components of TA (A(-)(nm)-C(+)(nm)), which are under renal control, there are also metabolizable components (A(-)(nm)-C(+)(nm)) of TA, which are under the control of the intermediate metabolism. The whole body base balance, NBb(W), is obtained only by the application of C(+)(nm)-A(-)(nm) to food, feces and urine, while the metabolizable component (A(-)(nm)-C(+)(nm)) is disregarded. A novel method has been subsequently suggested to calculate the net balance of fixed acid, made up by the difference between the input of net endogenous acid production: NEAP = SO(4)(2-)+A(-)(m)-(C(+)(nm)-A(-)(nm)), and the output of net acid excretion: NAE = TA + NH(4)(+) - HCO(3)(-). This approach has been criticized because 1) it includes metabolizable acids, whose production cannot be measured independently; 2) the specific control of metabolizable acid and base has been incorrectly attributed to the kidney; 3) the inclusion of A-m in the balance input generates an acid overload; 4) the object of measurement in making up a balance has to be the same, a condition not fulfilled as NEAP is different from NAE. Lastly, by rearranging the net balance of the acid equation, the balance of nonmetabolizable acid equation is obtained. Therefore, any discrepancy between these two equations is due to the inaccuracy in the urine measurement of metabolizable cations and/or anions.

  2. Total salvianolic acid improves ischemia-reperfusion-induced microcirculatory disturbance in rat mesentery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Xia; Liu, Yu-Ying; Hu, Bai-He; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Chang, Xin; Sun, Kai; Fan, Jing-Yu; Liao, Fu-Long; Wang, Chuan-She; Zheng, Jun; Han, Jing-Yan

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of total salvianolic acid (TSA) on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced rat mesenteric microcirculatory dysfunctions. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into 5 groups (n = 6 each): Sham group and I/R group (infused with saline), TSA group, TSA + I/R group and I/R + TSA group (infused with TSA, 5 mg/kg per hour). Mesenteric I/R were conducted by a ligation of the mesenteric artery and vein (10 min) and subsequent release of the occlusion. TSA was continuously infused either starting from 10 min before the ischemia or 10 min after reperfusion. Changes in mesenteric microcirculatory variables, including diameter of venule, velocity of red blood cells in venule, leukocyte adhesion, free radicals released from venule, albumin leakage and mast cell degranulation, were observed through an inverted intravital microscope. Meanwhile, the expression of adhesion molecules CD11b/CD18 on neutrophils was evaluated by flow cytometry. Ultrastructural evidence of mesenteric venules damage was assessed after microcirculation observation. RESULTS: I/R led to multiple responses in mesenteric post-capillary venules, including a significant increase in the adhesion of leukocytes, production of oxygen radicals in the venular wall, albumin efflux and enhanced mast cell degranulation in vivo. All the I/R-induced manifestations were significantly reduced by pre- or post-treatment with TSA, with the exception that the I/R-induced increase in mast cell degranulation was inhibited only by pre-treatment with TSA. Moreover, pre- or post-treatment with TSA significantly attenuated the expression of CD11b/CD18 on neutrophils, reducing the increase in the number of caveolae in the endothelial cells of mesentery post-capillary venules induced by I/R. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that TSA protects from and ameliorates the microcirculation disturbance induced by I/R, which was associated with TSA inhibiting the production of oxygen-free radicals in

  3. An organic solvent-tolerant phenolic acid decarboxylase from Bacillus licheniformis for the efficient bioconversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to vinyl phenol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongfei; Li, Lulu; Ding, Shaojun

    2015-06-01

    A new phenolic acid decarboxylase gene (blpad) from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The full-length blpad encodes a 166-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass and pI of 19,521 Da and 5.02, respectively. The recombinant BLPAD displayed maximum activity at 37 °C and pH 6.0. This enzyme possesses a broad substrate specificity and is able to decarboxylate p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, and sinapic acids at the relative ratios of specific activities 100:74.59:34.41:0.29. Kinetic constant K m values toward p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, and sinapic acids were 1.64, 1.55, 1.93, and 2.45 mM, and V max values were 268.43, 216.80, 119.07, and 0.78 U mg(-1), respectively. In comparison with other phenolic acid decarboxylases, BLPAD exhibited remarkable organic solvent tolerance and good thermal stability. BLPAD showed excellent catalytic performance in biphasic organic/aqueous systems and efficiently converted p-coumaric and ferulic acids into 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylguaiacol. At 500 mM of p-coumaric and ferulic acids, the recombinant BLPAD produced a total 60.63 g l(-1) 4-vinylphenol and 58.30 g l(-1) 4-vinylguaiacol with the conversion yields 97.02 and 70.96 %, respectively. The low yield and product concentration are the crucial drawbacks to the practical bioproduction of vinyl phenol derivatives using phenolic acid decarboxylases. These unusual properties make BLPAD a desirable biocatalyst for commercial use in the bioconversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to vinyl phenol derivatives via enzymatic decarboxylation in a biphasic organic/aqueous reaction system.

  4. Total and organic mercury in liver, kidney and muscle of waterbirds from wetlands of the Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Aazami, J; Esmaili-Saria, A; Bahramifar, N; Savabieasfahani, M

    2012-07-01

    We measured and compared total and organic mercury in liver, kidney, and muscle of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and coot (Fulica atra) from the Caspian Sea wetlands in Iran. For the Great Cormorant organic mercury in liver, kidney and muscle comprised 82 %, 79 % and 58 % of total mercury. In the mallard same values were 46 %, 54 %, and 64 %. For coot total mercury was: 0.1 ± 0.0, 0.1 ± 0.01, 0.03 ± 0.01 in liver kidney and muscle respectively. We detected no organic mercury. In general older birds that feed on higher trophic levels can accumulate more mercury in their tissues.

  5. Comparisons between true digestibility of total nitrogen and limiting amino acids in vegetable proteins fed to rats.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, G; Peace, R W

    1986-07-01

    Values (%) for true digestibility (TD) of protein and individual amino acids in some vegetable proteins were determined by the rat balance (fecal) method. Diets containing 8% crude protein (N X 6.25) from soaked and autoclaved samples of Trapper and Century field peas, lentil, pinto bean, seafarer bean, black bean or fababean and autoclaved samples of soybean, peanut, sunflower, rolled oat, rice + soybean and corn + pea were tested in two rat balance studies. In the case of blends, each protein source provided 50% of total protein. The beans, peas and lentil proteins were limiting in sulphur amino acids, tryptophan and threonine, whereas sunflower and rolled oat were most limiting in lysine. In beans, peas and lentil, the TD values of methionine (51-82), cystine (46-85), tryptophan (47-90) and threonine (62-84) were considerably lower than the TD values of total nitrogen (72-90). Similarly, in sunflower and rolled oat, the TD values of lysine (81-83) were lower than the TD values of total nitrogen (90-91). These data suggested that crude protein digestibility may not be a good predictor of bioavailability of limiting amino acids in vegetable proteins. Amino acid scores of the vegetable proteins were 62-96%. The corrections for true digestibility of protein and individual amino acids lowered the scores by 6-15 and 11-47 percentage units, respectively.

  6. Comparison of the Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Serum Inflammatory Factors and Total Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Shidfar, Farzad; Agah, Shahram; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh; Dehnad, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world, and an important cause of gastrointestinal disorders, may be involved in the pathogenesis of some extra-gastrointestinal disturbances, as well as an increase in blood levels of certain inflammatory markers. Anti-bacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori and anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids have been studied in several research studies. The purpose of the present study was the comparison of the effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication, serum levels of some inflammatory markers and total antioxidant capacity. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 97 Helicobacter pylori positive patients (64 patients in the two intervention groups and 33 in the control group), received 2 grams daily of Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Docosahexaenoic Acid or Medium Chain Triglyceride oil as placebo, along with conventional tetra-drug Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen, for 12 weeks. Helicobacter pylori eradication test and measurement of concentration of interleukine-6, interleukine-8, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and total antioxidant capacity were performed after the intervention. There was no significant difference in eradication rate of the infection, levels of interleukine-6 and total antioxidant capacity among the three groups, while the levels of interleukine-8 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were statistically different. Eicosapentaenoic Acid or Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation had no significant differential impact on the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, and serum levels of interleukine-6 and total antioxidant capacity. However, it had a desirable effect on the levels of interleukine-8 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in Helicobacter pylori positive patients.

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Serum Inflammatory Factors and Total Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Shidfar, Farzad; Agah, Shahram; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh; Dehnad, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world, and an important cause of gastrointestinal disorders, may be involved in the pathogenesis of some extra-gastrointestinal disturbances, as well as an increase in blood levels of certain inflammatory markers. Anti-bacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori and anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids have been studied in several research studies. The purpose of the present study was the comparison of the effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication, serum levels of some inflammatory markers and total antioxidant capacity. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 97 Helicobacter pylori positive patients (64 patients in the two intervention groups and 33 in the control group), received 2 grams daily of Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Docosahexaenoic Acid or Medium Chain Triglyceride oil as placebo, along with conventional tetra-drug Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen, for 12 weeks. Helicobacter pylori eradication test and measurement of concentration of interleukine-6, interleukine-8, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and total antioxidant capacity were performed after the intervention. There was no significant difference in eradication rate of the infection, levels of interleukine-6 and total antioxidant capacity among the three groups, while the levels of interleukine-8 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were statistically different. Eicosapentaenoic Acid or Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation had no significant differential impact on the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, and serum levels of interleukine-6 and total antioxidant capacity. However, it had a desirable effect on the levels of interleukine-8 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in Helicobacter pylori positive patients. PMID:25561921

  8. A novel method for isolating and analyzing organic acids in biological cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Polman, K.

    1995-12-31

    Fermentatively produced organic acids have significant potential as chemical feedstocks for the production of various commodity materials. Such acids include acetic and succinic acids. Fermentations frequently result in the simultaneous production of two or more organic acids, and often other fermentation products as well. This necessitates separation of these products from each other, so that quantification and purification can be achieved. A multitude of methodologies for the identification, purification, and quantitation of organic acids has been developed and described; both liquid and gas chromatography have been used for such separations. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) media used for the separation of organic acids have included C18 columns, Aminex HPX-87H (ion-moderated partition resin), TEAP-Si 100 Polyol (strongly basic anion-exchange resin), Dowex 1 (cation-exchange column), Shodex Ionpak KC811, and others. Methodologies for HPLC analysis of organic acids also vary in these aspects: (1) Sample pretreatment (e.g., pretreatment with Sep-Pak C18 cartridges or with DEAE-Sephadex); (2) Mobile-phase composition (e.g., dilute sulfuric acid or formic acid); and (3) Method of organic acid detection (e.g., refractive index or light absorption). In this study, we present a methodology for isolating and quantifying organic acids found in fermentation broths. The methodology is simple, utilizes dual separation chemistries to effect an enhanced separation capacity, and is durable in terms of HPLC column life.

  9. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    PubMed

    Chia, Mathias Ahii; Lombardi, Ana Teresa; da Graça Gama Melão, Maria; Parrish, Christopher C

    2015-03-01

    Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10(-7) and 2.0×10(-8)molL(-1) Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9×10(-6), 1.1×10(-5) and 1.1×10(-3)molL(-1)N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production.

  10. Total leaf crude protein, amino acid composition and elemental content in the USDA-ARS bamboo germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bamboo shoots and leaves are valuable food sources for both humans and livestock. The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collections hold 93 bamboo species in 20 genera. Total leaf protein, amino acid composition and elemental content for these important genetic resources had never bee...

  11. The effect of particle acidity on secondary organic aerosol formation from α-pinene photooxidation under atmospherically relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yuemei; Stroud, Craig A.; Liggio, John; Li, Shao-Meng

    2016-11-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from photooxidation of α-pinene has been investigated in a photochemical reaction chamber under varied inorganic seed particle acidity levels at moderate relative humidity. The effect of particle acidity on SOA yield and chemical composition was examined under high- and low-NOx conditions. The SOA yield (4.2-7.6 %) increased nearly linearly with the increase in particle acidity under high-NOx conditions. In contrast, the SOA yield (28.6-36.3 %) was substantially higher under low-NOx conditions, but its dependency on particle acidity was insignificant. A relatively strong increase in SOA yield (up to 220 %) was observed in the first hour of α-pinene photooxidation under high-NOx conditions, suggesting that SOA formation was more effective for early α-pinene oxidation products in the presence of fresh acidic particles. The SOA yield decreased gradually with the increase in organic mass in the initial stage (approximately 0-1 h) under high-NOx conditions, which is likely due to the inaccessibility to the acidity over time with the coating of α-pinene SOA, assuming a slow particle-phase diffusion of organic molecules into the inorganic seeds. The formation of later-generation SOA was enhanced by particle acidity even under low-NOx conditions when introducing acidic seed particles after α-pinene photooxidation, suggesting a different acidity effect exists for α-pinene SOA derived from later oxidation stages. This effect could be important in the atmosphere under conditions where α-pinene oxidation products in the gas-phase originating in forested areas (with low NOx and SOx) are transported to regions abundant in acidic aerosols such as power plant plumes or urban regions. The fraction of oxygen-containing organic fragments (CxHyO1+ 33-35 % and CxHyO2+ 16-17 %) in the total organics and the O / C ratio (0.52-0.56) of α-pinene SOA were lower under high-NOx conditions than those under low-NOx conditions (39-40, 17-19, and

  12. Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen Gains in an Old Growth Deciduous Forest in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schrumpf, Marion; Kaiser, Klaus; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2014-01-01

    Temperate forests are assumed to be organic carbon (OC) sinks, either because of biomass increases upon elevated CO2 in the atmosphere and large nitrogen deposition, or due to their age structure. Respective changes in soil OC and total nitrogen (TN) storage have rarely been proven. We analysed OC, TN, and bulk densities of 100 soil cores sampled along a regular grid in an old-growth deciduous forest at the Hainich National Park, Germany, in 2004 and again in 2009. Concentrations of OC and TN increased significantly from 2004 to 2009, mostly in the upper 0–20 cm of the mineral soil. Changes in the fine earth masses per soil volume impeded the detection of OC changes based on fixed soil volumes. When calculated on average fine earth masses, OC stocks increased by 323±146 g m−2 and TN stocks by 39±10 g m−2 at 0–20 cm soil depth from 2004 to 2009, giving average annual accumulation rates of 65±29 g OC m−2 yr−1 and 7.8±2 g N m−2 yr−1. Accumulation rates were largest in the upper part of the B horizon. Regional increases in forest biomass, either due to recovery of forest biomass from previous forest management or to fertilization by elevated CO2 and N deposition, are likely causes for the gains in soil OC and TN. As TN increased stronger (1.3% yr−1 of existing stocks) than OC (0.9% yr−1), the OC-to-TN ratios declined significantly. Results of regression analyses between changes in OC and TN stocks suggest that at no change in OC, still 3.8 g TN m−2 yr−1 accumulated. Potential causes for the increase in TN in excess to OC are fixation of inorganic N by the clay-rich soil or changes in microbial communities. The increase in soil OC corresponded on average to 6–13% of the estimated increase in net biome productivity. PMID:24586720

  13. Spatial Patterns of Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in Mesquite Coppice Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbs, L. M.; Throop, H. L.

    2008-12-01

    Woody encroachment, an increase in woody plant abundance in formerly grass-dominated ecosystems, has occurred in semi-arid and arid systems worldwide over the past century. Woody encroachment has emerged as a potentially important, but highly uncertain, component of the North American carbon sink. The effects of woody plant encroachment on soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) relative to Prosopis velutina have been explored in the Sonoran Desert, where strong spatial patterns in SOC and TN based on shrub size and subcanopy location exist. Encroachment of Prosopis glandulosa in sandy soils in the Chihuahuan Desert leads to coppice dune formation. We applied spatially-intensive soil sampling methods around P. glandulosa dunes in the Chihuahuan Desert to see how spatial patterns differed from patterns in the Sonoran Desert, where dunes do not form. Approximately 15 soil cores were taken from within and around each of 13 dunes and analyzed for bulk density, SOC, and TN. The aboveground biomass of P. glandulosa in coppice dunes was also collected for a comparison of aboveground biomass and SOC pools. Intercanopy soils had greater bulk density than soils within dunes (P<0.05), although bulk density did not vary predictably with dune size or with spatial position within each dune. No predictable within-dune SOC or TN patterns were found. Within-dune SOC and TN concentrations were significantly greater than intercanopy values (P<0.001 for both SOC and TN). There was a strong positive linear relationship between dune area and aboveground biomass (R2=0.662, P<0.007). These relationships can be used to predict SOC, TN, and aboveground biomass in coppice dunes. In contrast to patterns in the Sonoran Desert with P. velutina, predicting SOC and TN in the P. glandulosa coppice dunes does not require information on individual dune size or spatial position. The differences in SOC and TN accumulation patterns beneath P. velutina and P. glandulosa may result from

  14. Occurrence of 13 volatile organic compounds in foods from the Canadian total diet study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Sparling, Melissa; Dabeka, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in the environment due to evaporation and incomplete combustion of fuels, use of consumer and personal care products, etc. and they can accumulate in foods. Some VOCs in foods can also be formed during food processing and preparation and migrate from food packaging. In this pilot study, a GC-MS method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was validated and used to analyse selected individual foods which can be consumed directly and 153 different total diet composite food samples for 13 VOCs. Vinyl chloride was not detected in any of the 153 composite food samples, while the other 12 VOCs were detected at various frequencies, with m-xylene being the most frequently detected (in 151 of the 153 samples), followed by toluene (145), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (140), ethylbenzene (139), styrene (133), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (122), benzene (96), p-dichlorobenzene (95), n-butylbenzene (55), chloroform (45), naphthalene (45) and trichloroethylene (31). Concentrations of the 12 VOCs in most of the food composite samples were low, with the 90th percentiles from 1.6 ng g(-1) for n-butylbenzene to 20 ng g(-1) for toluene. However, some VOCs were detected at higher levels with maxima, for example, of 948 ng g(-1) for m-xylene and 320 ng g(-1) for ethylbenzene in chewing gum, 207 ng g(-1) for styrene and 157 ng g(-1) for toluene in herbs and spices. VOCs were detected at higher levels in most of the individual food items than their corresponding composite samples, for example, the average chloroform concentration in the individual canned soft drinks was 20 ng g(-1) compared with 3.0 ng g(-1) in their composite, and the average toluene concentration in the individual canned citrus juice was 96 ng g(-1) compared with 0.68 ng g(-1) in their composite. Thus, for determination of VOCs in foods which can be consumed directly, their individual food items should be analysed whenever possible for accurate

  15. Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen gains in an old growth deciduous forest in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schrumpf, Marion; Kaiser, Klaus; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2014-01-01

    Temperate forests are assumed to be organic carbon (OC) sinks, either because of biomass increases upon elevated CO2 in the atmosphere and large nitrogen deposition, or due to their age structure. Respective changes in soil OC and total nitrogen (TN) storage have rarely been proven. We analysed OC, TN, and bulk densities of 100 soil cores sampled along a regular grid in an old-growth deciduous forest at the Hainich National Park, Germany, in 2004 and again in 2009. Concentrations of OC and TN increased significantly from 2004 to 2009, mostly in the upper 0-20 cm of the mineral soil. Changes in the fine earth masses per soil volume impeded the detection of OC changes based on fixed soil volumes. When calculated on average fine earth masses, OC stocks increased by 323 ± 146 g m(-2) and TN stocks by 39 ± 10 g m(-2) at 0-20 cm soil depth from 2004 to 2009, giving average annual accumulation rates of 65 ± 29 g OC m(-2) yr(-1) and 7.8 ± 2 g N m(-2) yr(-1). Accumulation rates were largest in the upper part of the B horizon. Regional increases in forest biomass, either due to recovery of forest biomass from previous forest management or to fertilization by elevated CO2 and N deposition, are likely causes for the gains in soil OC and TN. As TN increased stronger (1.3% yr(-1) of existing stocks) than OC (0.9% yr(-1)), the OC-to-TN ratios declined significantly. Results of regression analyses between changes in OC and TN stocks suggest that at no change in OC, still 3.8 g TN m(-2) yr(-1) accumulated. Potential causes for the increase in TN in excess to OC are fixation of inorganic N by the clay-rich soil or changes in microbial communities. The increase in soil OC corresponded on average to 6-13% of the estimated increase in net biome productivity.

  16. Total and individual carotenoids and phenolic acids content in fresh, refrigerated and processed spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Bunea, Andrea; Andjelkovic, Mirjana; Socaciu, Carmen; Bobis, Otilia; Neacsu, Madalina; Verhé, Roland; Camp, John Van

    2008-05-15

    The carotenoid and phenolic acid contents in fresh, stored and processed (blanched, frozen and boiled) spinach were comparatively determined by spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses. The major carotenoids identified after HPLC analysis in saponified samples were lutein (37-53μg/kg), β-carotene (18-31μg/kg), violaxanthin (9-23μg/kg) and neoxanthin (10-22μg/kg). These carotenoids were all affected by storage and/or heating. The content of carotenoids was best preserved after storage for one day at 4°C. The total phenolic content in the fresh spinach was 2088mg GAE/kg FW. After LC-MS analysis three phenolic acids were identified and quantified. These being ortho-coumaric acid (28-60mg/kg FW), ferulic acid (10-35mg/kg) and para-coumaric acid (1-30mg/kg) depending on the sample type. After storage of spinach at different temperatures (4°C or -18°C) the amount of total phenolic compounds decreased by around 20%, while the amount of individual phenolic acids increased by four times on average.

  17. Indirect and direct effects of salinity on the quantity and quality of total amino acids in Ulva ohnoi (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Angell, Alex R; Mata, Leonardo; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A

    2015-06-01

    Salinity can affect the quantity and quality of total amino acids (TAAs) in seaweeds indirectly by altering growth rates and thereby diluting or concentrating the amino acid content of the biomass, or directly by altering the synthesis of specific amino acids and osmolytes. This study attempted to partition the indirect and direct effects of salinity on the quantity and quality of TAAs in the green seaweed Ulva ohnoi by culturing it under a range of salinities without nutrient limitation. Both the quantity and quality of TAAs varied across the salinity treatments. Quantity was most strongly related to the growth rate of the seaweed and was highest in the slowest growing seaweed. In contrast, the quality of TAAs (individual amino acids as a proportion of total content) was most strongly related to salinity for all amino acids, although this varied substantially among individual amino acids. Increases in salinity were positively correlated with the proportion of proline (46% increase), tyrosine (36% increase), and histidine (26% increase), whereas there was a negative correlation with alanine (29% decrease). The proportion of methionine, with strong links to the synthesis of the osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate, did not correlate linearly with salinity and instead was moderately higher at the optimal salinities for growth. These results show that salinity simultaneously affects the quantity and quality of TAAs in seaweed through both indirect and direct mechanisms, with growth rates playing the overarching role in determining the quantity of TAAs.

  18. Seasonal variations and source identification of selected organic acids associated with PM10 in the coastal area of Southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shui-Ping; Schwab, James; Liu, Bi-Lian; Li, Tsung-Chang; Yuan, Chung-Shin

    2015-03-01

    PM10 aerosols from the coastal area of Southeastern China were collected from April 2010 to March 2011 and were measured for C2-C10 dicarboxylic acids, phthalic acids (Ph) and five fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and elaidic acids). For all sites and seasons, molecular distributions of diacids were always characterized by a predominance of oxalic acid (C2), with a relative abundance of 68-87%, followed by malonic acid (C3) and by either succinic acid (C4) or phthalic acid (Ph). This observed molecular composition was different from that in Chinese megacities where Ph was significantly higher than C3 and C4 diacids, which was likely due to the less intensive traffic emissions in the coastal area. Seasonal means of total diacids ranged between 394 and 547 ng m- 3 at the coastal urban sites and between 163 and 245 ng m- 3 at off-island sites. These levels were much lower than those reported in Chinese megacities (668-1568 ng m- 3) and slightly lower than those in Jeju Island, Korea (464-744 ng m- 3) but higher than those in marine and continental background locations. In all seasons, saturated fatty acids were significantly higher than unsaturated fatty acids due to their greater photochemical stabilities in the atmosphere. Most organic acids showed higher levels in spring and winter and lower levels in summer and fall, which was likely due to the influence of transport and meteorology. The diagnostic ratios of malonic acid to succinic acid (C3/C4), adipic acid to azelaic acid (C6/C9) and phthalic acid to azelaic acid (Ph/C9) were significantly higher in summer than in winter. These diagnostic ratios in the sampled ambient aerosols were completely different from those in primary emissions, suggesting the importance of photochemical production - especially in summer. The diurnal variations of diacids and fatty acid as well as the diagnostic ratios are associated with higher solar radiation and anthropogenic activities during the daytime. Principal

  19. Estimates of total organic and inorganic chlorine in the lower stratosphere from in situ and flask measurements during AASE 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbridge, E. L.; Elkins, J. W.; Fahey, D. W.; Heidt, L. E.; Solomon, S.; Baring, T. J.; Gilpin, T. M.; Pollack, W. H.; Schauffler, S. M.; Atlas, E. L.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft sampling has provided extensive in situ and flask measurements of organic chlorine species in the lower stratosphere. The recent Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2 (AASE 2) included two independent measurements of organic chlorine species using whole air sample and real-time techniques. From the whole air sample measurements we derive directly the burden of total organic chlorine (CCl(y)) in the lower stratosphere. From the more limited real-time measurements we estimate the CCl(y) burden using mixing ratios and growth rates of the principal CCl(y) species in the troposphere in conjunction with results from a two-dimensional photochemical model. Since stratospheric chlorine is tropospheric in origin and tropospheric mixing ratios are increasing, it is necessary to establish the average age of a stratospheric air parcel to assess its total chlorine (Cl(sub Total)) abundance. Total inorganic chlorine (Cl(y)) in the parcel is then estimated by the simple difference, Cl(y) = Cl(sub Total) - CCl(y). The consistency of the results from these two quite different techniques suggests that we can determine the CCl(y) and Cl(y) in the lower stratosphere with confidence. Such estimates of organic and inorganic chlorine are crucial in evaluating the photochemistry controlling chlorine partitioning and hence ozone loss processes in the lower stratosphere.

  20. Estimates of total organic and inorganic chlorine in the lower stratosphere from in situ and flask measurements during AASE 2

    SciTech Connect

    Woodbridge, E.L.; Elkins, J.W.; Fahey, D.W.; Heidt, L.E.; Solomon, S.; Baring, T.J.; Gilpin, T.M.; Pollack, W.H.; Schauffler, S.M.; Atlas, E.L. ||

    1995-02-01

    Aircraft sampling has provided extensive in situ and flask measurements of organic chlorine species in the lower stratosphere. The recent Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2 (AASE 2) included two independent measurements of organic chlorine species using whole air sample and real-time techniques. From the whole air sample measurements we derive directly the burden of total organic chlorine (CCl(y)) in the lower stratosphere. From the more limited real-time measurements we estimate the CCl(y) burden using mixing ratios and growth rates of the principal CCl(y) species in the troposphere in conjunction with results from a two-dimensional photochemical model. Since stratospheric chlorine is tropospheric in origin and tropospheric mixing ratios are increasing, it is necessary to establish the average age of a stratospheric air parcel to assess its total chlorine (Cl(sub Total)) abundance. Total inorganic chlorine (Cl(y)) in the parcel is then estimated by the simple difference, Cl(y) = Cl(sub Total) - CCl(y). The consistency of the results from these two quite different techniques suggests that we can determine the CCl(y) and Cl(y) in the lower stratosphere with confidence. Such estimates of organic and inorganic chlorine are crucial in evaluating the photochemistry controlling chlorine partitioning and hence ozone loss processes in the lower stratosphere.

  1. METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic matter in soils and sediments is widely distributed over the earth's surface occurring in almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments (Schnitzer, 1978). Soils and sediments contain a large variety of organic materials ranging from simple sugars and carbohydrates to th...

  2. Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment for high total sugar recovery in pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Qing, Qing; Huang, Meizi; He, Yucai; Wang, Liqun; Zhang, Yue

    2015-12-01

    Oxalic acid was evaluated as an alternative reagent to mineral inorganic acid in pretreatment of corncob to achieve high xylose yield in addition to highly digestible solid residue. A quadratic polynomial model of xylose formation was developed for optimization of pretreatment process by the response surface methodology based on the impact factors of pretreatment temperature, reaction time, acid concentration, and solid-to-liquid ratio. The highest xylose yield was 94.3 % that was obtained under the pretreatment condition of 140 °C for 40 min with 0.5 wt% oxalic acid at a solid loading of 7.5 %. Under these conditions, the xylose yield results of verification experiments were very close to the model prediction, which indicated that the model was applicable. The solid residue generated under this condition also demonstrated a satisfactory enzymatic digestibility and fermentability.

  3. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1178 Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible...

  4. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Pippa J; Clark, Joanna M; Reynolds, Brian; Adamson, John K

    2008-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer.

  5. Effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculum treatments in increasing pH and reducing sulfur-total of acid sulfate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufieq, Nur Anny Suryaningsih; Rahim, Sahibin Abdul; Jamil, Habibah

    2013-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness ofsulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in using bran as a source of food and energy, and to see the effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculums treatments for pH and sulfur-total of acid sulfate reduction insoils. This study used two factors in group random designs with four treatments for bacteria inoculum of B1 (1%), B2 (5%), B3 (10%), B4 (15%) and two treatments for organic media (bran) of D1 (1:1) and D2 (1:19). Based on three replications, the combination resulted in a total of 24 treatments. Soil pH was measured using the Duddridge and Wainright method and determination of sulfate content in soil was conducted by the spectrophotometry method. The data obtained was analyzed for significance by Analysis of Variance and the Least Significant Difference Test. The pH of the initial acid sulfate soils ranged from 3 to 4 and the soil sulfur-total ranged from 1.4% to 10%. After mixing sulfate reducing bacteria with the bran mediaand incubated for four days, the pH of the acid sulfate soils increased from 3.67 to 4.20, while the soil sulfur-total contents had been reduced by 2.85% to 0.35%. This experiment has proven that an acid sulfate soil with low pH is a good growth medium for the sulfate reducing bacteria. The bestincubation period to achieve an effective bioremediation resultthrough sulfate percentage reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria was 10 days, while the optimum bran media dose was 1:19, and the bacteria inoculums dose was 10%.

  6. Total phenolics, phenolic acids, isoflavones, and anthocyanins and antioxidant properties of yellow and black soybeans as affected by thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2008-08-27

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the phenolic components and antioxidant activities of whole yellow (with yellow seed coat and yellow cotyledon) and black (with black seed coat and green cotyledon) soybeans were investigated. As compared to the raw soybeans, all processing methods caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), condensed tannin content (CTC), monomeric anthocyanin content (MAC), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) in black soybeans. Pressure steaming caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in TPC, CTC, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC in yellow soybeans. The steaming resulted in a greater retention of TPC, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC values in both yellow and black soybeans as compared to the boiling treatments. To further investigate the effect of processing on phenolic compounds and elucidate the contribution of these compounds to changes of antioxidant activities, phenolic acids, isoflavones, and anthocyanins were quantitatively determined by HPLC. The pressure steaming treatments caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in gallic acid and 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic acid, whereas all treatments caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in two predominant phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid), and total phenolic acids for both yellow and black soybeans. All thermal processing caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in aglucones and beta-glucosides of isoflavones, but caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in malonylglucosides of isoflavones for both yellow and black soybeans. All thermal processing caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases of cyanidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside in black soybeans. Significant correlations existed between selected phenolic compositions, isoflavone and anthocyanin contents, and antioxidant properties of cooked soybeans.

  7. Inhibition of succinic acid production in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli by neutralizing agent, organic acids, and osmolarity.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Christian; Helmerius, Jonas; Hodge, David; Berglund, Kris A; Rova, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    The economical viability of biochemical succinic acid production is a result of many processing parameters including final succinic acid concentration, recovery of succinate, and the volumetric productivity. Maintaining volumetric productivities >2.5 g L(-1) h(-1) is important if production of succinic acid from renewable resources should be competitive. In this work, the effects of organic acids, osmolarity, and neutralizing agent (NH4OH, KOH, NaOH, K2CO3, and Na2CO3), and Na2CO3) on the fermentative succinic acid production by Escherichia coli AFP184 were investigated. The highest concentration of succinic acid, 77 g L(-1), was obtained with Na2CO3. In general, irrespective of the base used, succinic acid productivity per viable cell was significantly reduced as the concentration of the produced acid increased. Increased osmolarity resulting from base addition during succinate production only marginally affected the productivity per viable cell. Addition of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine to cultures resulted in an increased aerobic growth rate and anaerobic glucose consumption rate, but decreased succinic acid yield. When using NH4OH productivity completely ceased at a succinic acid concentration of approximately 40 g L(-1). Volumetric productivities remained at 2.5 g L(-1) h(-1) for up to 10 h longer when K- or Na-bases where used instead of NH4OH. The decrease in cellular succinic acid productivity observed during the anaerobic phase was found to be due to increased organic acid concentrations rather than medium osmolarity.

  8. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates.

    PubMed

    Kalman, Douglas S

    2014-06-30

    A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™) and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™) from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA). Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA). After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.

  9. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    SciTech Connect

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R.

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  10. Impact of Fluorescent Lighting on Oxidation of Model Wine Solutions Containing Organic Acids and Iron.

    PubMed

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Clark, Andrew C

    2017-03-22

    Previous studies have provided evidence that light exposure can increase oxygen consumption in wine and that the photodegradation of iron(III) tartrate could contribute to this process. In the present study, model wine solutions containing iron(III) and various organic acids, either alone or combined, were stored in sealed clear glass wine bottles and exposed to light from fluorescent lamps. Dissolved oxygen was monitored, and afterward the organic acid degradation products were determined and the capacity of the solutions to bind sulfur dioxide, the main wine preservative, was assessed. In the dark controls, little or no dissolved oxygen was consumed and the organic acids were stable. In the irradiated solutions, dissolved oxygen was consumed at a rate that was dependent on the specific organic acid present, and the latter were oxidized to various carbonyl compounds. For the solutions containing tartaric acid, malic acid, and/or citric acid, irradiation increased their sulfur dioxide-binding capacity.

  11. Teaching Relative Acidity in the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traynham, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Described is a teaching method for connecting relative acidity among various species by the use of familiar references. Considered are teaching the acidity of alpha-hydrogens of ketones, alkylation of amides and imides, and others. (CW)

  12. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Iwao; Maeda, Shunsaku; Suda, Yoriko; Makihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in β-phase and the minor component was in γ-phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface.

  13. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Iwao; Maeda, Shunsaku; Suda, Yoriko; Makihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in β-phase and the minor component was in γ-phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface. PMID:25254114

  14. Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pumpkin species.

    PubMed

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the composition of organic acids in fruit of different cultivars of three pumpkin species. The amount of acids immediately after fruit harvest and after 3 months of storage was compared. The content of organic acids in the examined pumpkin cultivars was assayed using the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid) were identified in the cultivars, whose content considerably varied depending on a cultivar. Three-month storage resulted in decreased content of the acids in the case of cultivars belonging to Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita pepo species, while a slight increase was recorded for Cucurbita moschata species.

  15. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ash, Christopher; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Jehlička, Jan; Michon, Ninon; Borůvka, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Shredded card (SC) was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE) carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water). We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4). Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons) before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49) were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC). In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC). In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC). In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil), and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC). A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption). SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing.

  16. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Christopher; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Jehlička, Jan; Michon, Ninon; Borůvka, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Shredded card (SC) was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE) carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water). We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4). Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons) before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49) were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC). In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC). In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC). In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil), and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC). A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption). SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing. PMID:26900684

  17. Regulating the Skin Permeation Rate of Escitalopram by Ion-pair Formation with Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Song, Tian; Quan, Peng; Xiang, Rongwu; Fang, Liang

    2016-12-01

    In order to regulate the skin permeation rate (flux) of escitalopram (ESP), ion-pair strategy was used in our work. Five organic acids with different physicochemical properties, benzoic acid (BA), ibuprofen (IB), salicylic acid (SA), benzenesulfonic acid (BSA), and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), were employed as counter-ions to regulate the permeation rate of ESP across the rabbit abdominal skin in vitro. The interaction between ESP and organic acids was characterized by FTIR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Results showed that all organic acids investigated in this study performed a controlling effect on ESP flux. To further analyze the factors concerned with the permeation capability of ESP-acid complex, a multiple linear regression model was used. It is concluded that the steady-state flux (J) of ESP-acid complexes had a positive correlation with log K o/w (the n-octanol/water partition coefficient of ion-pair complex) and pK a (the acidity of organic acid counter-ion), but a negative correlation with MW (the molecular weight of ion-pair complex). The logK o/w of ion-pair complex is the primary one in all the factors that influence the skin permeation rate of ESP. The results demonstrated that organic acid with appropriate physicochemical properties can be considered as suitable candidate for the transdermal drug delivery of escitalopram.

  18. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: Implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cao, Fang; Lee, Meehye

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls, and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C values of particle phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly larger than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors. The values are consistently less negative in oxalic acid (C2, average -14.1‰), glyoxylic acid (-13.8‰), pyruvic acid (-19.4‰), glyoxal (-13.5‰), and methylglyoxal (-18.6‰) compared to other organic species (e.g., palmitic acid, -26.3‰), which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during atmospheric oxidation of pre-aged precursors (e.g., isoprene) and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after the evaporation of clouds or wet aerosols. The δ13C values of C2 is positively correlated with C2 to organic carbon ratio, indicating that photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation during long-range atmospheric transport. The isotopic results also suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is a major formation process of oxalic acid via the intermediates such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photochemically aged in the western North Pacific rim.

  19. [Determination of organic acids in rice wine by ion-exclusion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaojie; Wei, Wei; He, Zhigang; Lin, Xiaozi

    2014-03-01

    An ion-exclusion chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of organic acids in rice wine was developed. An IC-Pak Ion Exclusion column (300 mm x 7.8 mm, 7 microm) was used at 50 degrees C. The mobile phases were H2SO4 (phase A) and acetonitrile (phase B) (98:2, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The gradient elution program was as follows: 0-40 min, 0.01 mol/L H2SO4 to 0.02 mol/L H2SO4; 40-50 min, 0.01 mol/L H2SO4. The injection volume was 10 microL. The detection wavelength was set at 210 nm. The results showed that oxalic acid, maleic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid, succinic acid, lactic, fumaric acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid and butyric acid were completely separated and determined in 30 min. The linear correlation coefficients were above 0.999 7 in the range of 0.001- 1.000 g/L. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of organic acids in rice wine were in the range of 93.4% - 103.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) of 0.1% - 1.5%. This method is feasible, convenient, fast, accurate and applicable for the quantitative analysis of the organic acids in rice wine.

  20. Total syntheses of (-)-alpha-kainic acid and (+)-alpha-allokainic acid via stereoselective C-H insertion and efficient 3,4-stereocontrol.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Chun; Yoon, Cheol Hwan; Turos, Edward; Yoo, Kyung Soo; Jung, Kyung Woon

    2007-12-21

    Reported herein is a novel approach to the total syntheses of (-)-alpha-kainic acid and (+)-alpha-allokainic acid, where the stereochemistries on C(2), C(3), and C(4) of the pyrrolidine core were introduced efficiently and selectively. A regio- and stereoselective C-H insertion reaction was utilized to prepare the gamma-lactam as an intermediate. A Michael-type cyclization of phenylsulfone with a conjugated acetylenic ketone was developed to prepare the tricyclic ketone as a key intermediate for (-)-alpha-kainic acid. Subsequently, a stereoselective dephenylsulfonylation was carried out successfully to secure the cis relationship at C(3) and C(4) centers. An unprecedented acetylation on the phenylsulfone, followed by a stereoselective dephenylsulfonylation, secured the trans relationship at C(3) and C(4) centers in (+)-alpha-allokainic acid.

  1. Stereocontrolled Total Syntheses of Isodomoic Acids G and H via a Unified Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Liu, Jack H.-C.; Muhuhi, Joseck M.

    2010-01-01

    Marine neuroexcitatory compounds isodomoic acids G and H were efficiently synthesized from a common intermediate using a silicon-based cross-coupling reaction. Dividing each target compound into the core fragment and the side-chain fragment enabled the synthesis to be convergent. The trans-2,3-disubstituted pyrrolidine core fragment was accessed through a diastereoselective rhodium-catalyzed carbonylative silylcarbocyclization reaction of a vinylglycine-derived 1,6-enyne. A stereochemically divergent desilylative iodination reaction was developed, converting of the cyclization product to both E- and Z-alkenyl iodides, which would eventually lead to isodomoic acid G and isodomoic acid H, respectively. The late stage alkenyl-alkenyl silicon-based cross-coupling reaction uniting the core alkenyl iodides and the side-chain alkenylsilanol was achieved under mild conditions. Finally, two mild deprotections afforded the target molecules. PMID:21121685

  2. ANALYTICAL METHODS DEVELOPED FOR THE CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURES TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP) STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) study was designed by the U.S. EPA to collect data on young children's exposures to pesticides and other pollutants in their everyday environments in support of the Food Quality...

  3. Predicting total organic carbon load with El Nino southern oscillation phase using hybrid and fuzzy logic approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During drinking water treatment chlorine reacts with total organic carbon (TOC) to form disinfection byproducts (DBP), some of which can be carcinogenic. Additional treatment required to remove TOC before chlorination significantly increases treatment cost. There are two main sources of TOC in a wat...

  4. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  5. Automated determination of the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total nonpurgeable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in aqueous samples: RSIL lab codes 1851 and 1852

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Révész, Kinga M.; Doctor, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab codes 1851 and 1852 are to determine the total carbon mass and the ratio of the stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) for total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, lab code 1851) and total nonpurgeable dissolved organic carbon (DOC, lab code 1852) in aqueous samples. The analysis procedure is automated according to a method that utilizes a total carbon analyzer as a peripheral sample preparation device for analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas by a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS). The carbon analyzer produces CO2 and determines the carbon mass in parts per million (ppm) of DIC and DOC in each sample separately, and the CF-IRMS determines the carbon isotope ratio of the produced CO2. This configuration provides a fully automated analysis of total carbon mass and δ13C with no operator intervention, additional sample preparation, or other manual analysis. To determine the DIC, the carbon analyzer transfers a specified sample volume to a heated (70 °C) reaction vessel with a preprogrammed volume of 10% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), which allows the carbonate and bicarbonate species in the sample to dissociate to CO2. The CO2 from the reacted sample is subsequently purged with a flow of helium gas that sweeps the CO2 through an infrared CO2 detector and quantifies the CO2. The CO2 is then carried through a high-temperature (650 °C) scrubber reactor, a series of water traps, and ultimately to the inlet of the mass spectrometer. For the analysis of total dissolved organic carbon, the carbon analyzer performs a second step on the sample in the heated reaction vessel during which a preprogrammed volume of sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) is added, and the hydroxyl radicals oxidize the organics to CO2. Samples containing 2 ppm to 30,000 ppm of carbon are analyzed. The precision of the carbon isotope analysis is within 0.3 per mill for DIC, and within 0.5 per mill for DOC.

  6. Fluctuations in phenolic content, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids and antioxidant activity of fruit beverages during storage.

    PubMed

    Castro-López, C; Sánchez-Alejo, E J; Saucedo-Pompa, S; Rojas, R; Aranda-Ruiz, J; Martínez-Avila, G C G

    2016-09-01

    Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C) during the product shelf-life (20 days) was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH• assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL(-1)), total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL(-1)), and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL(-1)); while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL(-1)). The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product.

  7. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content.

  8. [Determination of total aminothiols and neuroactive amino acids in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection].

    PubMed

    Pozdeev, V K; Pozdeev, N V

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a simple and sensitive reversed-phase HPLC method for the determination of total homocysteine, total cysteine, total glutathione (GSH+GSSG), and neuroactive amino acids (Asp, Glu, Tau, GABA) using precolumn derivatization with ortho-phtaldialdehyde and fluorimetric detection at 360 and 470 nm for emission and excitation, respectively. Derivatization was performed with ortho-phthaldialdehyde in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol after alkylation of the free sulfhydryl groups with iodoacetic acid. For determination of total aminothiols, the disulfide bonds were reduced and protein-bound thiols were released by addition of dithiothreitol to the plasma sample. The advantage of this method is the simultaneous determination of both homocysteine/cysteine/glutathione and neuroactive amino acids in the sample. The plasma levels of studied compounds were determined in 14 healthy volunteers (20-45 years old) and 55 patients with chronic hepatitis C (20-49 years old) and the resulting numbers were in a good agreement the studies published earlier. The calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 5-100 microM in plasma (r2 = 0.985-0.996). The intraday and interday coefficients of variation were 3-6% and 4-7%, respectively. The recovery of the standards added to the plasma samples ranged from 94 to 102%. The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.2-0.5 ng per 10 microl injection volume (signal-to-noise ratio of 3).

  9. Atmospheric oxalic acid and related secondary organic aerosols in Qinghai Lake, a continental background site in Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jingjing; Wang, Gehui; Li, Jianjun; Cheng, Chunlei; Cao, Junji

    2013-11-01

    Summertime PM2.5 aerosols collected from Qinghai Lake (3200 m a.s.l.), a remote continental site in the northeastern part of Tibetan Plateau, were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11), ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyals. Oxalic acid (C2) is the dominant dicarboxylic acid in the samples, followed by malonic, succinic and azelaic acids. Total dicarboxylic acids (231 ± 119 ng m-3), ketocarboxylic acids (8.4 ± 4.3 ng m-3), and α-dicarbonyls (2.7 ± 2.1 ng m-3) at the Tibetan background site are 2-5 times less than those detected in lowland areas such as 14 Chinese megacities. Compared to those in other urban and marine areas enhancements in relative abundances of C2/total diacids and diacids-C/WSOC of the PM2.5 samples suggest that organic aerosols in the region are more oxidized due to strong solar radiation. Molecular compositions and air mass trajectories demonstrate that the above secondary organic aerosols in the Qinghai Lake atmosphere are largely derived from long-range transport. Ratios of oxalic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal to levoglucosan in PM2.5 aerosols emitted from household burning of yak dung, a major energy source for Tibetan in the region, are 30-400 times lower than those in the ambient air, which further indicates that primary emission from biomass burning is a negligible source of atmospheric oxalic acid and α-dicarbonyls at this background site.

  10. Formic and Acetic Acid Observations over Colorado by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Organic Acids' Role in Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treadaway, V.; O'Sullivan, D. W.; Heikes, B.; Silwal, I.; McNeill, A.

    2015-12-01

    Formic acid (HFo) and acetic acid (HAc) have both natural and anthropogenic sources and a role in the atmospheric processing of carbon. These organic acids also have an increasing importance in setting the acidity of rain and snow as precipitation nitrate and sulfate concentrations have decreased. Primary emissions for both organic acids include biomass burning, agriculture, and motor vehicle emissions. Secondary production is also a substantial source for both acids especially from biogenic precursors, secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), and photochemical production from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs). Chemical transport models underestimate organic acid concentrations and recent research has sought to develop additional production mechanisms. Here we report HFo and HAc measurements during two campaigns over Colorado using the peroxide chemical ionization mass spectrometer (PCIMS). Iodide clusters of both HFo and HAc were recorded at mass-to-charge ratios of 173 and 187, respectively. The PCIMS was flown aboard the NCAR Gulfstream-V platform during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3) and aboard the NCAR C-130 during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE). The DC3 observations were made in May and June 2012 extending from the surface to 13 km over the central and eastern United States. FRAPPE observations were made in July and August 2014 from the surface to 7 km over Colorado. DC3 measurements reported here are focused over the Colorado Front Range and complement the FRAPPE observations. DC3 HFo altitude profiles are characterized by a decrease up to 6 km followed by an increase either back to boundary layer mixing ratio values or higher (a "C" shape). Organic acid measurements from both campaigns are interpreted with an emphasis on emission sources (both natural and anthropogenic) over Colorado and in situ photochemical production especially ozone precursors.

  11. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations are unreliable estimators of treatment effects on ruminal fermentation in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile fatty acid concentrations ([VFA], mM) have long been used to assess impact of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation in vivo. However, discrepancies in statistical results between VFA and VFA pool size (VFAmol), possibly related to ruminal digesta liquid amount (LIQ, kg), suggest issues...

  12. Tropospheric chemistry of internally mixed sea salt and organic particles: Surprising reactivity of NaCl with weak organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, Pascal; Shutthanandan, Janani

    2012-08-01

    Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected onboard the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and in particular hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles, may result in formation of organic salts that will modify the acidity, hygroscopic, and optical properties of aged particles.

  13. Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Marry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, P.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.

    2012-08-03

    Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected on board the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy techniques. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and irreversible evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and especially hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles may result in formation of organic salts that will modify acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties of aged particles.

  14. Rapid determination of free fatty acid content in waste deodorizer distillates using single bounce-attenuated total reflectance-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Naz, Saba; Sherazi, Sayed Tufail Hussain; Talpur, Farah N; Mahesar, Sarfaraz A; Kara, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    A simple, rapid, economical, and environmentally friendly analytical method was developed for the quantitative assessment of free fatty acids (FFAs) present in deodorizer distillates and crude oils by single bounce-attenuated total reflectance-FTIR spectroscopy. Partial least squares was applied for the calibration model based on the peak region of the carbonyl group (C=O) from 1726 to 1664 cm(-1) associated with the FFAs. The proposed method totally avoided the use of organic solvents or costly standards and could be applied easily in the oil processing industry. The accuracy of the method was checked by comparison to a conventional standard American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) titrimetric procedure, which provided good correlation (R = 0.99980), with an SD of +/- 0.05%. Therefore, the proposed method could be used as an alternate to the AOCS titrimetric method for the quantitative determination of FFAs especially in deodorizer distillates.

  15. Semicontinuous measurements of organic carbon and acidity during the Pittsburgh air quality study: implications for acid-catalyzed organic aerosol formation

    SciTech Connect

    S. Takahama; C.I. Davidson; S.N. Pandis

    2006-04-01

    Laboratory evidence suggests that inorganic acid seed particles may increase secondary organic aerosol yields secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through heterogeneous chemistry. Additional laboratory studies, however, report that organic acidity generated in the same photochemical process by which SOA is formed may be sufficient to catalyze these heterogeneous reactions. Understanding the interaction between inorganic acidity and SOA mass is important when evaluating emission controls to meet PM2.5 regulations. Semicontinuous measurements of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and inorganic species from the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study were examined to determine if coupling in the variations of inorganic acidity and OC could be detected. Significant enhancements of SOA production could not be detected due to inorganic acidity in Western Pennsylvania most of the time, but its signal might have been lost in the noise. If a causal relationship between inorganic acidity and OC is assumed, reductions in OC for Western Pennsylvania that might result from drastic reductions in inorganic acidity were estimated to be 2 {+-} 4% by a regression technique, and an upper bound for this geographic area was estimated to be 5 {+-} 8% based on calculations from laboratory measurements. 48 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Humic Acid Composition and Characteristics of Soil Organic Matter in Relation to the Elevation Gradient of Moso Bamboo Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Chou, Chiao-Ying; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Tian, Guanglong

    2016-01-01

    Studying the influence of climatic and/or site-specific factors on soil organic matter (SOM) along an elevation gradient is important for understanding the response of SOM to global warming. We evaluated the composition of SOM and structure of humic acids along an altitudinal gradient from 600 to 1400 m in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantations in central Taiwan using NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis. Total organic C and total nitrogen (N) content increased with increasing elevation. Aromaticity decreased and ΔlogK (the logarithm of the absorbance ratio of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification decreased with increasing elevation. High temperature at low elevations seemed to enhance the decomposition (less accumulation of total organic C and N) and humification (high aromaticity and low ΔlogK). The alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C (A/O-A) ratio of humic acids increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification increased with increasing elevation; this finding was contrary to the trend observed for ΔlogK and aromaticity. Such a discrepancy might be due to the relatively greater remaining of SOM derived from high alkyl-C broadleaf litter of previous forest at high elevations. The ratio of recalcitrant C to total organic C was low at low elevations, possibly because of enhanced decomposition of recalcitrant SOM from the previous broadleaf forest during long-term intensive cultivation and high temperature. Overall, the change in SOM pools and in the rate of humification with elevation was primarily affected by changes in climatic conditions along the elevation gradient in these bamboo plantations. However, when the composition of SOM, as assessed by NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis was considered, site-specific factors such as residual SOM from previous forest and intensive cultivation history could also have an important effect on the humic acid composition and

  17. [The effect of lime cooking of corn on phytic acid, calcium, total and ionizable iron content].

    PubMed

    Urizar Hernández, A L; Bressani, R

    1997-09-01

    The present study was carried out with the objective to learn about the effect of the nixtamalization process of corn on the content of phytic acid and availability of iron in the lime-cooked corn. For the study, lots of corn with 0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.20% of lime on the basis of corn weight, in water in the ratio of 3 to 1, and cooking times at each level of lime of 55, 65 and 75 minutes, were processed. Half of the treatments were not soaked after cooking, while the other half were soaked in the cooking solution for a 12-hour period. Statistical analysis of the data and correlations calculated showed that the phytic acid content decreased significantly during the nixtamalization process, affected by the cooking time and the level of lime used, reaching levels of reduction of around 35%. Both the ionizable iron and calcium level increased up to 52-77% and 400-478% respectively. The amount of calcium present in the cooked corn as the result of the lime cooking process, is significantly higher in comparison with the phytic acid content, which may be easily saturated and thus, unavailable to bind iron. An inverse relationship was found between phytic acid and bioavailable iron and its absorption percentage. On the other hand, soaking time did not significantly affected the phytic acid and available iron, although it contributed to a slightly higher Ca accumulation. The amount of ionizable iron was higher at higher levels of lime, which suggested that the nixtamalization process would favor the biological utilization of iron in lime-cooked corn and provide calcium to the diet.

  18. Dissolution behavior of Caldag lateritic nickel ore subjected to a sequential organic acid leaching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursunoglu, Sait; Kaya, Muammer

    2015-11-01

    The dissolution behavior of Caldag lateritic nickel ore subjected to a sequential organic acid leaching method was investigated. The effects of the type of organic acid, acid concentration, leaching time, and leaching temperature on the lateritic nickel ore were examined. Organic acids were used individually prior to sequential leaching. Citric acid was more effective than the other two acids for the selective leaching of nickel and cobalt. An increase in the citric acid concentration negligibly affected the dissolution of the metals, whereas temperature exhibited a strong beneficial effect. Oxalic acid was determined to be the most appropriate organic acid for the second leaching step. After 8 h (4 h + 4 h) of leaching with organic acids (0.5 M citric + 0.5 M oxalic) in sequence at 90°C, 89.63% Ni, 82.89% Co, and 69.63% Fe were leached from the lateritic nickel ore. A sequential citric + oxalic acid leaching method could represent a viable alternative for the dissolution of metals from lateritic nickel ore.

  19. Why sulfuric acid forms particles so extremely well, and how organics might still compete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurten, T.; Ehn, M.; Kupiainen, O.; Olenius, T.; Rissanen, M.; Thornton, J. A.; Nielsen, L.; Jørgensen, S.; Ortega Colomer, I. K.; Kjaergaard, H. G.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2013-12-01

    It is a well-known result in aerosol science that the single most important molecule for the first steps of new-particle formation in our atmosphere is sulfuric acid, H2SO4. From a chemical perspective, this seems somewhat counterintuitive: the atmosphere contains thousands of different organic compounds, many of which can potentially form oxidation products with even lower volatility than H2SO4. The unique role of sulfuric acid is due to its formation kinetics. The conversion of sulfur dioxide, SO2 to H2SO4 requires only a single oxidant molecule (e.g. OH), as subsequent steps are extremely rapid. Still, the saturation vapor pressure of H2SO4 is over 108 times lower than that of SO2. In contrast, the oxidation reactions of organic molecules typically lower their saturation vapor pressure by only a factor of 10-1000 per oxidation step. Therefore, organic compounds are usually lost to pre-existing aerosol surfaces before they have undergone sufficiently many oxidation reactions to nucleate on their own. The presence of strong nitrogen-containing base molecules such as amines enhances the particle-forming advantages of sulfuric acid even further. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that the evaporation rate of sulfuric acid from key clusters containing two acid molecules may decrease by a factor of 108 in the presence of ppt-level concentrations of amines, implying a total decrease of up to 1016 in the effective vapor pressure going from SO2 to H2SO4. In some circumstances, this decrease causes the energy barrier for new-particle formation to disappear: the process is no longer nucleation, and some common applications of e.g. the nucleation theorem cease to apply. Cluster kinetic models combined with first-principles evaporation rates appear to describe this sulfuric acid - base clustering reasonably well, and result in cluster formation rates close to those measured at the CLOUD experiment in CERN. There may nevertheless exist exceptions to the general rule that

  20. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Cao, F.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C of particle-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly higher than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors, associated with isotope fractionation during atmospheric oxidation. 13C is consistently more enriched for oxalic acid (C2), glyoxylic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal compared to other organic compounds identified, which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during aqueous-phase processing and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after clouds or wet aerosols evaporation δ13C of C2 is positively correlated with C2 and organic carbon ratio, indicating that a photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation process during long-range transport. The 13C results also suggest that aqueous-phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is major formation process of oxalic acid production via the major intermediates glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photo-chemically aged in this region.

  1. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular structures of eight organic salts based on 2,6-diaminopyridine, and organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Bin; Jin, Xiunan; Zhang, Huan; Wen, Xianhong; Liu, Hui; Jin, Li; Wang, Daqi

    2015-11-01

    Here anhydrous and hydrated mul