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Sample records for acinar cell necrosis

  1. Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Béchade, Dominique; Desjardin, Marie; Salmon, Emma; Désolneux, Grégoire; Bécouarn, Yves; Evrard, Serge; Fonck, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant neoplasm that accounts for 1–2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. Here we report two cases of ACC and describe their clinical features, the therapies used to treat them, and their prognosis. The first patient was a 65-year-old woman who had an abdominal CT scan for a urinary infection. Fortuitously, a rounded and well-delimited corporeal pancreatic tumor was discovered. An endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration revealed an ACC. During the puncture, a hypoechoic cavity appeared inside the lesion, corresponding to a probable necrotic area. Treatment consisted of a distal splenopancreatectomy. The second patient was a 75-year-old man who complained of abdominal pain. An abdominal CT scan showed a cephalic pancreatic lesion and two hepatic metastases. An EUS-guided fine needle aspiration showed a pancreatic ACC. The patient received chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (GEMOX regimen), which enabled an objective response after 6 cycles.

  2. Pancreatic acinar cells-derived cyclophilin A promotes pancreatic damage by activating NF-κB pathway in experimental pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Ge; Wan, Rong; Hu, Yanling; Ni, Jianbo; Yin, Guojian; Xing, Miao; Shen, Jie; Tang, Maochun; Chen, Congying; Fan, Yuting; Xiao, Wenqin; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xingpeng; and others

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • CypA is upregulated in experimental pancreatitis. • CCK induces expression and release of CypA in acinar cell in vitro. • rCypA aggravates CCK-induced acinar cell death and inflammatory cytokine production. • rCypA activates the NF-κB pathway in acinar cells in vitro. - Abstract: Inflammation triggered by necrotic acinar cells contributes to the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP), but its precise mechanism remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that Cyclophilin A (CypA) released from necrotic cells is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. We therefore investigated the role of CypA in experimental AP induced by administration of sodium taurocholate (STC). CypA was markedly upregulated and widely expressed in disrupted acinar cells, infiltrated inflammatory cells, and tubular complexes. In vitro, it was released from damaged acinar cells by cholecystokinin (CCK) induction. rCypA (recombinant CypA) aggravated CCK-induced acinar cell necrosis, promoted nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 activation, and increased cytokine production. In conclusion, CypA promotes pancreatic damage by upregulating expression of inflammatory cytokines of acinar cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  3. PD2/Paf1 depletion in pancreatic acinar cells promotes acinar-to-ductal metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Parama; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Vaz, Arokia P.; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P.; Batra, Surinder K.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic differentiation 2 (PD2), a PAF (RNA Polymerase II Associated Factor) complex subunit, is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells and has demonstrated potential oncogenic property. Here, we report that PD2/Paf1 expression was restricted to acinar cells in the normal murine pancreas, but its expression increased in the ductal cells of Pdx1Cre; KrasG12D (KC) mouse model of pancreatic cancer with increasing age, showing highest expression in neoplastic ductal cells of 50 weeks old mice. PD2/Paf1 was specifically expressed in amylase and CK19 double positive metaplastic ducts, representing intermediate structures during pancreatic acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). Similar PD2/Paf1 expression was observed in murine pancreas that exhibited ADM-like histology upon cerulein challenge. In normal mice, cerulein-mediated inflammation induced a decrease in PD2/Paf1 expression, which was later restored upon recovery of the pancreatic parenchyma. In KC mice, however, PD2/Paf1 mRNA level continued to decrease with progressive dysplasia and subsequent neoplastic transformation. Additionally, knockdown of PD2/Paf1 in pancreatic acinar cells resulted in the abrogation of Amylase, Elastase and Lipase (acinar marker) mRNA levels with simultaneous increase in CK19 and CAII (ductal marker) transcripts. In conclusion, our studies indicate loss of PD2/Paf1 expression during acinar transdifferentiation in pancreatic cancer initiation and PD2/Paf1 mediated regulation of lineage specific markers. PMID:24947474

  4. PD2/Paf1 depletion in pancreatic acinar cells promotes acinar-to-ductal metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Dey, Parama; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Vaz, Arokia P; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P; Batra, Surinder K

    2014-06-30

    Pancreatic differentiation 2 (PD2), a PAF (RNA Polymerase II Associated Factor) complex subunit, is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells and has demonstrated potential oncogenic property. Here, we report that PD2/Paf1 expression was restricted to acinar cells in the normal murine pancreas, but its expression increased in the ductal cells of KrasG12D/Pdx1Cre (KC) mouse model of pancreatic cancer with increasing age, showing highest expression in neoplastic ductal cells of 50 weeks old mice. PD2/Paf1 was specifically expressed in amylase and CK19 double positive metaplastic ducts, representing intermediate structures during pancreatic acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). Similar PD2/Paf1 expression was observed in murine pancreas that exhibited ADM-like histology upon cerulein challenge. In normal mice, cerulein-mediated inflammation induced a decrease in PD2/Paf1 expression, which was later restored upon recovery of the pancreatic parenchyma. In KC mice, however, PD2/Paf1 mRNA level continued to decrease with progressive dysplasia and subsequent neoplastic transformation. Additionally, knockdown of PD2/Paf1 in pancreatic acinar cells resulted in the abrogation of Amylase, Elastase and Lipase (acinar marker) mRNA levels with simultaneous increase in CK19 and CAII (ductal marker) transcripts. In conclusion, our studies indicate loss of PD2/Paf1 expression during acinar transdifferentiation in pancreatic cancer initiation and PD2/Paf1 mediated regulation of lineage specific markers. PMID:24947474

  5. Gabapentin-induced mitogenic activity in rat pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Dethloff, L; Barr, B; Bestervelt, L; Bulera, S; Sigler, R; LaGattuta, M; de La Iglesia, F

    2000-05-01

    Gabapentin induces pancreatic acinar cell tumors in rats through unknown, yet apparently nongenotoxic mechanisms. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether gabapentin acts as a tumor promoter by stimulating acinar cell proliferation in rat pancreas. To this end, indices of pancreatic growth, including increased pancreatic weight, stimulation of acinar cell proliferation, and/or enhanced expression of immediate-early oncogenes were monitored in rats given gabapentin in the diet at 2 g/kg/day for up to 12 months. Rats fed raw soy flour (RSF), a known inducer of pancreatic acinar cell tumors through cholecystokinin-mediated mitogenic stimulation, were used throughout as positive controls. In addition, recent data suggests that gabapentin binds to the alpha(2)delta subunit of a voltage-gated, L-type calcium channel. Because signaling pathways for proliferative processes in pancreatic acinar cells involve intracellular calcium mobilization, the effects of gabapentin on intracellular calcium mobilization ([Ca(2+)](i)) and (3)H-thymidine incorporation were investigated in pancreatic acinar cells isolated from normal rat pancreas and in the AR42J rat pancreatic tumor cell line. As indicated by BrdU labeling indices, acinar cell proliferation increased 3-fold by Day 3 of RSF treatment and remained slightly greater than controls throughout the experiment. Pancreatic weights of RSF-fed rats were 32 to 56% greater than controls throughout the experiment. In contrast, gabapentin had no effect on pancreatic weight or acinar cell labeling index, and therefore had no apparent effect on pancreatic growth. In isolated pancreatic acinar cells, however, gabapentin induced mobilization of intracellular calcium and caused a slight increase in (3)H-thymidine incorporation. The data suggest that gabapentin may possess low level mitogenic activity, which is not easily detectable in in vivo assays. PMID:10788559

  6. TGF-β1 promotes acinar to ductal metaplasia of human pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Akanuma, Naoki; Liu, Chengyang; Naji, Ali; Halff, Glenn A.; Washburn, William K.; Sun, Luzhe; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that pancreatitis-induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) is a key event for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) initiation. However, there has not been an adequate system to explore the mechanisms of human ADM induction. We have developed a flow cytometry-based, high resolution lineage tracing method and 3D culture system to analyse ADM in human cells. In this system, well-known mouse ADM inducers did not promote ADM in human cells. In contrast, TGF-β1 efficiently converted human acinar cells to duct-like cells (AD) in a SMAD-dependent manner, highlighting fundamental differences between the species. Functionally, AD cells gained transient proliferative capacity. Furthermore, oncogenic KRAS did not induce acinar cell proliferation, but did sustain the proliferation of AD cells, suggesting that oncogenic KRAS requires ADM-associated-changes to promote PDAC initiation. This ADM model provides a novel platform to explore the mechanisms involved in the development of human pancreatic diseases. PMID:27485764

  7. TGF-β1 promotes acinar to ductal metaplasia of human pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Akanuma, Naoki; Liu, Chengyang; Naji, Ali; Halff, Glenn A; Washburn, William K; Sun, Luzhe; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that pancreatitis-induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) is a key event for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) initiation. However, there has not been an adequate system to explore the mechanisms of human ADM induction. We have developed a flow cytometry-based, high resolution lineage tracing method and 3D culture system to analyse ADM in human cells. In this system, well-known mouse ADM inducers did not promote ADM in human cells. In contrast, TGF-β1 efficiently converted human acinar cells to duct-like cells (AD) in a SMAD-dependent manner, highlighting fundamental differences between the species. Functionally, AD cells gained transient proliferative capacity. Furthermore, oncogenic KRAS did not induce acinar cell proliferation, but did sustain the proliferation of AD cells, suggesting that oncogenic KRAS requires ADM-associated-changes to promote PDAC initiation. This ADM model provides a novel platform to explore the mechanisms involved in the development of human pancreatic diseases. PMID:27485764

  8. Therapeutic potential of targeting acinar cell reprogramming in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chi-Hin; Li, You-Jia; Chen, Yang-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a common pancreatic cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Treating this life-threatening disease remains challenging due to the lack of effective prognosis, diagnosis and therapy. Apart from pancreatic duct cells, acinar cells may also be the origin of PDAC. During pancreatitis or combined with activating KRasG12D mutation, acinar cells lose their cellular identity and undergo a transdifferentiation process called acinar-to-ductal-metaplasia (ADM), forming duct cells which may then transform into pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and eventually PDAC. During ADM, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, Wnt, Notch and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/Akt signaling inhibits the transcription of acinar-specific genes, including Mist and amylase, but promotes the expression of ductal genes, such as cytokeratin-19. Inhibition of this transdifferentiation process hinders the development of PanIN and PDAC. In addition, the transdifferentiated cells regain acinar identity, indicating ADM may be a reversible process. This provides a new therapeutic direction in treating PDAC through cancer reprogramming. Many studies have already demonstrated the success of switching PanIN/PDAC back to normal cells through the use of PD325901, the expression of E47, and the knockdown of Dickkopf-3. In this review, we discuss the signaling pathways involved in ADM and the therapeutic potential of targeting reprogramming in order to treat PDAC. PMID:27610015

  9. Therapeutic potential of targeting acinar cell reprogramming in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-Hin; Li, You-Jia; Chen, Yang-Chao

    2016-08-21

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a common pancreatic cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Treating this life-threatening disease remains challenging due to the lack of effective prognosis, diagnosis and therapy. Apart from pancreatic duct cells, acinar cells may also be the origin of PDAC. During pancreatitis or combined with activating KRas(G12D) mutation, acinar cells lose their cellular identity and undergo a transdifferentiation process called acinar-to-ductal-metaplasia (ADM), forming duct cells which may then transform into pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and eventually PDAC. During ADM, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, Wnt, Notch and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/Akt signaling inhibits the transcription of acinar-specific genes, including Mist and amylase, but promotes the expression of ductal genes, such as cytokeratin-19. Inhibition of this transdifferentiation process hinders the development of PanIN and PDAC. In addition, the transdifferentiated cells regain acinar identity, indicating ADM may be a reversible process. This provides a new therapeutic direction in treating PDAC through cancer reprogramming. Many studies have already demonstrated the success of switching PanIN/PDAC back to normal cells through the use of PD325901, the expression of E47, and the knockdown of Dickkopf-3. In this review, we discuss the signaling pathways involved in ADM and the therapeutic potential of targeting reprogramming in order to treat PDAC. PMID:27610015

  10. Constitutive IKK2 activation in acinar cells is sufficient to induce pancreatitis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Bernd; Wagner, Martin; Aleksic, Tamara; von Wichert, Götz; Weber, Christoph K; Adler, Guido; Wirth, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    Activation of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB (IKK/NF-kappaB) system and expression of proinflammatory mediators are major events in acute pancreatitis. However, the in vivo consequences of IKK activation on the onset and progression of acute pancreatitis remain unclear. Therefore, we modulated IKK activity conditionally in pancreatic acinar cells. Transgenic mice expressing the reverse tetracycline-responsive transactivator (rtTA) gene under the control of the rat elastase promoter were generated to mediate acinar cell-specific expression of IKK2 alleles. Expression of dominant-negative IKK2 ameliorated cerulein-induced pancreatitis but did not affect activation of trypsin, an initial event in experimental pancreatitis. Notably, expression of constitutively active IKK2 was sufficient to induce acute pancreatitis. This acinar cell-specific phenotype included edema, cellular infiltrates, necrosis, and elevation of serum lipase levels as well as pancreatic fibrosis. IKK2 activation caused increased expression of known NF-kappaB target genes, including mediators of the inflammatory response such as TNF-alpha and ICAM-1. Indeed, inhibition of TNF-alpha activity identified this cytokine as an important effector of IKK2-induced pancreatitis. Our data identify the IKK/NF-kappaB pathway in acinar cells as being key to the development of experimental pancreatitis and the major factor in the inflammatory response typical of this disease. PMID:17525799

  11. Effects of Benzodiazepines on Acinar and Myoepithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Tatiana M. F.; Alanis, Luciana R. A.; Sapelli, Silvana da Silva; de Lima, Antonio A. S.; de Noronha, Lucia; Rosa, Edvaldo A. R.; Althobaiti, Yusuf S.; Almalki, Atiah H.; Sari, Youssef; Ignacio, Sergio A.; Johann, Aline C. B. R.; Gregio, Ana M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Benzodiazepines (BZDs), the most commonly prescribed psychotropic drugs with anxiolytic action, may cause hyposalivation. It has been previously shown that BZDs can cause hypertrophy and decrease the acini cell number. In this study, we investigated the effects of BZDs and pilocarpine on rat parotid glands, specifically on acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cells. Methods: Ninety male Wistar rats were divided into nine groups. Control groups received a saline solution for 30 days (C30) and 60 days (C60), and pilocarpine (PILO) for 60 days. Experimental groups received lorazepam (L30) and midazolam (M30) for 30 days. Another group (LS60 or MS60) received lorazepam or midazolam for 30 days, respectively, and saline for additional 30 days. Finally, other groups (LP60 or MP60) received either lorazepam or midazolam for 30 days, respectively, and pilocarpine for additional 30 days. The expression of calponin in myoepithelial cells and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in acinar and ductal cells were evaluated. Results: Animals treated with lorazepam showed an increase in the number of positive staining cells for calponin as compared to control animals (p < 0.05). Midazolam administered with pilocarpine (MP60) induced an increase in the proliferation of acinar and ductal cells and a decrease in the positive staining cells for calponin as compared to midazolam administered with saline (MS60). Conclusion: We found that myoepithelial cells might be more sensitive to the effects of BZD than acinar and ductal cells in rat parotid glands. PMID:27445812

  12. Loss of acinar cell IKKα triggers spontaneous pancreatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Wu, Xuefeng; Holzer, Ryan G.; Lee, Jun-Hee; Todoric, Jelena; Park, Eek-Joong; Ogata, Hisanobu; Gukovskaya, Anna S.; Gukovsky, Ilya; Pizzo, Donald P.; VandenBerg, Scott; Tarin, David; Atay, Çiǧdem; Arkan, Melek C.; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Moscat, Jorge; Diaz-Meco, Maria; Dawson, David; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Jörg; Karin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease that causes progressive destruction of pancreatic acinar cells and, ultimately, loss of pancreatic function. We investigated the role of IκB kinase α (IKKα) in pancreatic homeostasis. Pancreas-specific ablation of IKKα (IkkαΔpan) caused spontaneous and progressive acinar cell vacuolization and death, interstitial fibrosis, inflammation, and circulatory release of pancreatic enzymes, clinical signs resembling those of human chronic pancreatitis. Loss of pancreatic IKKα causes defective autophagic protein degradation, leading to accumulation of p62-mediated protein aggregates and enhanced oxidative and ER stress in acinar cells, but none of these effects is related to NF-κB. Pancreas-specific p62 ablation prevented ER and oxidative stresses and attenuated pancreatitis in IkkαΔpan mice, suggesting that cellular stress induced by p62 aggregates promotes development of pancreatitis. Importantly, downregulation of IKKα and accumulation of p62 aggregates were also observed in chronic human pancreatitis. Our studies demonstrate that IKKα, which may control autophagic protein degradation through its interaction with ATG16L2, plays a critical role in maintaining pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis, whose dysregulation promotes pancreatitis through p62 aggregate accumulation. PMID:23563314

  13. Cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) agonist, GW405833 reduces agonist-induced Ca2+ oscillations in mouse pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zebing; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Jingke; Zhao, Mengqin; Sun, Nana; Sun, Fangfang; Shen, Jianxin; Zhang, Haiying; Xia, Kunkun; Chen, Dejie; Gao, Ming; Hammer, Ronald P.; Liu, Qingrong; Xi, Zhengxiong; Fan, Xuegong; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that the blockade of intracellular Ca2+ signals may protect pancreatic acinar cells against Ca2+ overload, intracellular protease activation, and necrosis. The activation of cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) prevents acinar cell pathogenesis in animal models of acute pancreatitis. However, whether CB2Rs modulate intracellular Ca2+ signals in pancreatic acinar cells is largely unknown. We evaluated the roles of CB2R agonist, GW405833 (GW) in agonist-induced Ca2+ oscillations in pancreatic acinar cells using multiple experimental approaches with acute dissociated pancreatic acinar cells prepared from wild type, CB1R-knockout (KO), and CB2R-KO mice. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed that CB2R protein was expressed in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Electrophysiological experiments showed that activation of CB2Rs by GW reduced acetylcholine (ACh)-, but not cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced Ca2+ oscillations in a concentration-dependent manner; this inhibition was prevented by a selective CB2R antagonist, AM630, or was absent in CB2R-KO but not CB1R-KO mice. In addition, GW eliminated L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca2+ oscillations, pancreatic amylase, and pulmonary myeloperoxidase. Collectively, we provide novel evidence that activation of CB2Rs eliminates ACh-induced Ca2+ oscillations and L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca2+ signaling in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, which suggests a potential cellular mechanism of CB2R-mediated protection in acute pancreatitis. PMID:27432473

  14. Cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) agonist, GW405833 reduces agonist-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zebing; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Jingke; Zhao, Mengqin; Sun, Nana; Sun, Fangfang; Shen, Jianxin; Zhang, Haiying; Xia, Kunkun; Chen, Dejie; Gao, Ming; Hammer, Ronald P; Liu, Qingrong; Xi, Zhengxiong; Fan, Xuegong; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that the blockade of intracellular Ca(2+) signals may protect pancreatic acinar cells against Ca(2+) overload, intracellular protease activation, and necrosis. The activation of cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) prevents acinar cell pathogenesis in animal models of acute pancreatitis. However, whether CB2Rs modulate intracellular Ca(2+) signals in pancreatic acinar cells is largely unknown. We evaluated the roles of CB2R agonist, GW405833 (GW) in agonist-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in pancreatic acinar cells using multiple experimental approaches with acute dissociated pancreatic acinar cells prepared from wild type, CB1R-knockout (KO), and CB2R-KO mice. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed that CB2R protein was expressed in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Electrophysiological experiments showed that activation of CB2Rs by GW reduced acetylcholine (ACh)-, but not cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in a concentration-dependent manner; this inhibition was prevented by a selective CB2R antagonist, AM630, or was absent in CB2R-KO but not CB1R-KO mice. In addition, GW eliminated L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca(2+) oscillations, pancreatic amylase, and pulmonary myeloperoxidase. Collectively, we provide novel evidence that activation of CB2Rs eliminates ACh-induced Ca(2+) oscillations and L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca(2+) signaling in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, which suggests a potential cellular mechanism of CB2R-mediated protection in acute pancreatitis. PMID:27432473

  15. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Clinical and Cytomorphologic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Toll, Adam D.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2013-01-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma is a rare malignant epithelial neoplasm with predominantly exocrine acinar differentiation and is seen primarily in older men (mean age, 62 years). The presenting symptoms are usually non-specific, and jaundice is often not present. Symptoms relating to the overproduction and release of lipase into the circulation are present in 10-15% of patients. Characteristic cytomorphologic features include a population of cells with minimal pleomorphism, eccentrically placed nuclei with a single prominent nucleoli and moderate hyperchromasia. The cytoplasm is finely granular, and the background may contain granular debris secondary to cytolysis. A significant proportion of the cases also have a minor neuroendocrine component or scattered neuroendocrine cells. Approximately 50% of patients have metastatic disease at presentation, often restricted to the regional lymph nodes and liver. The prognosis is poor, only slightly better than that of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:23667367

  16. Transient cytokine treatment induces acinar cell reprogramming and regenerates functional beta cell mass in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Baeyens, Luc; Lemper, Marie; Leuckx, Gunter; De Groef, Sofie; Bonfanti, Paola; Stangé, Geert; Shemer, Ruth; Nord, Christoffer; Scheel, David W.; Pan, Fong C.; Ahlgren, Ulf; Gu, Guoqiang; Stoffers, Doris A.; Dor, Yuval; Ferrer, Jorge; Gradwohl, Gerard; Wright, Christopher VE; Van de Casteele, Mark; German, Michael S.; Bouwens, Luc; Heimberg, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Reprogramming of pancreatic exocrine cells into cells resembling beta cells may provide a strategy for treating diabetes. Here we show that transient administration of epidermal growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor to adult mice with chronic hyperglycemia efficiently stimulates the conversion of terminally differentiated acinar cells to beta-like cells. Newly generated beta-like cells are epigenetically reprogrammed, functional and glucose-responsive, and reinstate normal glycemic control for up to 248 days. The regenerative process depends on Stat3 signaling and requires a threshold number of Neurogenin 3 (Ngn3) expressing acinar cells. In contrast to previous work demonstrating in vivo conversion of acinar cells to beta-like cells by viral delivery of exogenous transcription factors, our approach achieves acinar-to-beta cell reprogramming through transient cytokine exposure rather than genetic modification. PMID:24240391

  17. Functional somatostatin receptors on a rat pancreatic acinar cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Viguerie, N.; Tahiri-Jouti, N.; Esteve, J.P.; Clerc, P.; Logsdon, C.; Svoboda, M.; Susini, C.; Vaysse, N.; Ribet, A. Mount Zion Hospital and Medical Center, San Francisco, CA Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels )

    1988-07-01

    Somatostatin receptors from a rat pancreatic acinar cell line, AR4-2J, were characterized biochemically, structurally, and functionally. Binding of {sup 125}I-(Tyr{sup 11})Somatostatin to AR4-2J cells was saturable, exhibiting a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a maximal binding capacity of 258 {plus minus} 20 fmol/10{sup 6} cells. Somatostatin receptor structure was analyzed by covalently cross-linking {sup 125}I-(Tyr{sup 11})somatostatin to its plasma membrane receptors. Gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of cross-linked proteins revealed a peptide containing the somatostatin receptor. Somatostatin inhibited vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) formation in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of somatostatin that caused half-maximal inhibition of cAMP formation was close to the receptor affinity for somatostatin. Pertussis toxin pretreatment of AR4-2J cells prevented somatostatin inhibition of VIP-stimulated cAMP formation as well as somatostatin binding. The authors conclude that AR4-2J cells exhibit functional somatostatin receptors that retain both specificity and affinity of the pancreatic acinar cell somatostatin receptors and act via the pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein N{sub i} to inhibit adenylate cyclase.

  18. Duct Cells Contribute to Regeneration of Endocrine and Acinar Cells Following Pancreatic Damage in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    CRISCIMANNA, ANGELA; SPEICHER, JULIE A.; HOUSHMAND, GOLBAHAR; SHIOTA, CHIYO; PRASADAN, KRISHNA; Ji, BAOAN; LOGSDON, CRAIG D.; GITTES, GEORGE K.; ESNI, FARZAD

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS There have been conflicting results on a cell of origin in pancreatic regeneration. These discrepancies predominantly stem from lack of specific markers for the pancreatic precursors/stem cells, as well as differences in the targeted cells and severity of tissue injury in the experimental models so far proposed. We attempted to create a model that used diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) to ablate specific cell populations, control the extent of injury, and avoid induction of the inflammatory response. METHODS To target specific types of pancreatic cells, we crossed R26DTR or R26dtR/lacZ mice with transgenic mice that express the Cre recombinase in the pancreas, under control of the Pdx1 (global pancreatic) or elastase (acinar-specific) promoters. RESULTS Exposure of PdxCre;R26DTR mice to diphtheria toxin resulted in extensive ablation of acinar and endocrine tissues but not ductal cells. Surviving cells within the ductal compartment contributed to regeneration of endocrine and acinar cells via recapitulation of the embryonic pancreatic developmental program. However, following selective ablation of acinar tissue in ElaCre-ERT2;R26DTR mice, regeneration likely occurred by reprogramming of ductal cells to acinar lineage. CONCLUSIONS In the pancreas of adult mice, epithelial cells within the ductal compartment contribute to regeneration of endocrine and acinar cells. The severity of injury determines the regenerative mechanisms and cell types that contribute to this process. PMID:21763240

  19. Proteoglycans support proper granule formation in pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Aroso, Miguel; Agricola, Brigitte; Hacker, Christian; Schrader, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Zymogen granules (ZG) are specialized organelles in the exocrine pancreas which allow digestive enzyme storage and regulated secretion. The molecular mechanisms of their biogenesis and the sorting of zymogens are still incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the role of proteoglycans in granule formation and secretion of zymogens in pancreatic AR42J cells, an acinar model system. Cupromeronic Blue cytochemistry and biochemical studies revealed an association of proteoglycans primarily with the granule membrane. Removal of proteoglycans by carbonate treatment led to a loss of membrane curvature indicating a supportive role in the maintenance of membrane shape and stability. Chemical inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis impaired the formation of normal electron-dense granules in AR42J cells and resulted in the formation of unusually small granule structures. These structures still contained the zymogen carboxypeptidase, a cargo molecule of secretory granules, but migrated to lighter fractions after density gradient centrifugation. Furthermore, the basal secretion of amylase was increased in AR42J cells after inhibitor treatment. In addition, irregular-shaped granules appeared in pancreatic lobules. We conclude that the assembly of a proteoglycan scaffold at the ZG membrane is supporting efficient packaging of zymogens and the proper formation of stimulus-competent storage granules in acinar cells of the pancreas. PMID:26105026

  20. PNA lectin for purifying mouse acinar cells from the inflamed pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiangwei; Fischbach, Shane; Fusco, Joseph; Zimmerman, Ray; Song, Zewen; Nebres, Philip; Ricks, David Matthew; Prasadan, Krishna; Shiota, Chiyo; Husain, Sohail Z.; Gittes, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Better methods for purifying human or mouse acinar cells without the need for genetic modification are needed. Such techniques would be advantageous for the specific study of certain mechanisms, such as acinar-to-beta-cell reprogramming and pancreatitis. Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectin has been used to label and isolate acinar cells from the pancreas. However, the purity of the UEA-I-positive cell fraction has not been fully evaluated. Here, we screened 20 widely used lectins for their binding specificity for major pancreatic cell types, and found that UEA-I and Peanut agglutinin (PNA) have a specific affinity for acinar cells in the mouse pancreas, with minimal affinity for other major pancreatic cell types including endocrine cells, duct cells and endothelial cells. Moreover, PNA-purified acinar cells were less contaminated with mesenchymal and inflammatory cells, compared to UEA-I purified acinar cells. Thus, UEA-I and PNA appear to be excellent lectins for pancreatic acinar cell purification. PNA may be a better choice in situations where mesenchymal cells or inflammatory cells are significantly increased in the pancreas, such as type 1 diabetes, pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:26884345

  1. Cathepsin B Activity Initiates Apoptosis via Digestive Protease Activation in Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Experimental Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sendler, Matthias; Maertin, Sandrina; John, Daniel; Persike, Maria; Weiss, F Ulrich; Krüger, Burkhard; Wartmann, Thomas; Wagh, Preshit; Halangk, Walter; Schaschke, Norbert; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatitis is associated with premature activation of digestive proteases in the pancreas. The lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin B (CTSB) is a known activator of trypsinogen, and its deletion reduces disease severity in experimental pancreatitis. Here we studied the activation mechanism and subcellular compartment in which CTSB regulates protease activation and cellular injury. Cholecystokinin (CCK) increased the activity of CTSB, cathepsin L, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and caspase 3 in vivo and in vitro and induced redistribution of CTSB to a secretory vesicle-enriched fraction. Neither CTSB protein nor activity redistributed to the cytosol, where the CTSB inhibitors cystatin-B/C were abundantly present. Deletion of CTSB reduced and deletion of cathepsin L increased intracellular trypsin activation. CTSB deletion also abolished CCK-induced caspase 3 activation, apoptosis-inducing factor, as well as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein degradation, but these depended on trypsinogen activation via CTSB. Raising the vesicular pH, but not trypsin inhibition, reduced CTSB activity. Trypsin inhibition did not affect apoptosis in hepatocytes. Deletion of CTSB affected apoptotic but not necrotic acinar cell death. In summary, CTSB in pancreatitis undergoes activation in a secretory, vesicular, and acidic compartment where it activates trypsinogen. Its deletion or inhibition regulates acinar cell apoptosis but not necrosis in two models of pancreatitis. Caspase 3-mediated apoptosis depends on intravesicular trypsinogen activation induced by CTSB, not CTSB activity directly, and this mechanism is pancreas-specific. PMID:27226576

  2. Derivation of ductlike cell lines from a transplantable acinar cell carcinoma of the rat pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, O. S.; Faris, R. A.; Bell, R. H.; Kuhlmann, E. T.; Longnecker, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Two cell lines were derived from a transplantable acinar cell carcinoma that had been established from a primary carcinoma of the pancreas in an azaserine-treated Lewis rat. The cultured tumor cells initially produced amylase, but production of exocrine enzymes ceased after 1-2 weeks in culture. The cultured cells were tumorigenic in Lewis rats, and one line produced solid tumors composed of ductlike structures surrounded by dense fibrous tissue. The second cell line produced partially solid and partially cystic tumors with a mixed phenotype of squamous, mucinous, and glandular areas when it grew in vivo following regrafting. Both cell lines lost structural and immunohistochemical acinar cell markers while acquiring duct cell markers during culture and regrafting. These studies provide strong support for the hypothesis that ductlike carcinomas can arise from neoplastic pancreatic acinar cells in rats. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8391218

  3. KRAS Mutations in Canine and Feline Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Crozier, C; Wood, G A; Foster, R A; Stasi, S; Liu, J H W; Bartlett, J M S; Coomber, B L; Sabine, V S

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals may serve as valuable models for studying human cancers. Although KRAS is the most commonly mutated gene in human ductal pancreatic cancers (57%), with mutations frequently occurring at codons 12, 13 and 61, human pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) lack activating KRAS mutations. In the present study, 32 pancreatic ACC samples obtained from 14 dogs and 18 cats, including seven metastases, were analyzed for six common activating KRAS mutations located in codons 12 (n = 5) and 13 (n = 1) using Sequenom MassARRAY. No KRAS mutations were found, suggesting that, similar to human pancreatic ACC, KRAS mutations do not play a critical role in feline or canine pancreatic ACC. Due to the similarity of the clinical disease in dogs and cats to that of man, this study confirms that companion animals offer potential as a suitable model for investigating this rare subtype of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:27290644

  4. Basal autophagy maintains pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis and protein synthesis and prevents ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Laura; Fagman, Johan B.; Kim, Ju Youn; Todoric, Jelena; Gukovsky, Ilya; Mackey, Mason; Ellisman, Mark H.; Karin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells possess very high protein synthetic rates as they need to produce and secrete large amounts of digestive enzymes. Acinar cell damage and dysfunction cause malnutrition and pancreatitis, and inflammation of the exocrine pancreas that promotes development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a deadly pancreatic neoplasm. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that maintain acinar cell function and whose dysregulation can lead to tissue damage and chronic pancreatitis are poorly understood. It was suggested that autophagy, the principal cellular degradative pathway, is impaired in pancreatitis, but it is unknown whether impaired autophagy is a cause or a consequence of pancreatitis. To address this question, we generated Atg7Δpan mice that lack the essential autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7) in pancreatic epithelial cells. Atg7Δpan mice exhibit severe acinar cell degeneration, leading to pancreatic inflammation and extensive fibrosis. Whereas ATG7 loss leads to the expected decrease in autophagic flux, it also results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria, oxidative stress, activation of AMPK, and a marked decrease in protein synthetic capacity that is accompanied by loss of rough ER. Atg7Δpan mice also exhibit spontaneous activation of regenerative mechanisms that initiate acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), a process that replaces damaged acinar cells with duct-like structures. PMID:26512112

  5. Cell cycle control in isoproterenol-induced murine salivary acinar cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, T; Yamamoto, H; Bowen, E; Broverman, R L; Nguyen, K H; Humphreys-Beher, M G

    1996-11-01

    The eukaryotic cell cycle is a summary of a complex network of signal transduction pathways resulting in both DNA replication and cell division. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) control the cell cycle in all eukaryotes, whereas other proteins, known as cyclins, act as their regulatory subunits. Chronic injection with isoproterenol (ISO) can induce acinar cell proliferation in rodent salivary glands. Cyclins and CDK proteins from control and ISO-treated murine parotid acinar cells were detected by using Western blotting techniques. By comparing the expression of these cell cycle regulatory kinases in the parotid acinar cell transition from a quiescent state to a hypertrophic state, we found rapid increases in the protein levels of all CDKs, cyclin D and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The highest protein levels for CDKs and cyclins appeared at about 72 hr of ISO stimulation and were coincident with the highest rate of increase in gland wet weight. After 72 hr, the increase of both cell cycle protein and gland wet weight began to subside. By using a co-immunoprecipitation method, the following cell cycle regulators (CDK-cyclin complexes) were detected, CDK4-cyclin D, CDK2-cyclin E, CDK2-cyclin A, and cdc2-cyclin B, along with an increase in kinase activity over control untreated animals. Additionally, we detected significant decreases in the newly isolated CDK inhibitor (CKI) p27kip but not Wee 1 kinase. The increased levels of CKI correlated with a decrease in kinase activity of CDK/cyclin complexes by 144 hr of chronic isoproterenol treatment. Our data suggest that the holoenzymes for cell cycle control (cyclin-CDK complexes) function as a final regulatory mechanism leading to salivary gland acinar cell proliferation. The gradual decline in protein levels of the CDKs and cyclins after 3 days of chronic treatment further indicates that ISO-induced proliferation of parotid acinar cells is self-limiting and non-tumorigenic. PMID:9375366

  6. Characterization of single potassium channels in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, A; Schulz, I

    1995-01-01

    1. Single K(+)-selective channels with a conductance of about 48 pS (pipette, 145 mM KCl; bath, 140 mM NaCl + 4.7 mM KCl) were recorded in the patch-clamp whole-cell configuration in isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. 2. Neither application of the secretagogues acetylcholine (second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) or secretin (second messenger, cAMP), nor addition of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A to the pipette solution changed the activity of the 48 pS K+ channel. 3. Intracellular acidification with sodium propionate (20 mM) diminished activity of the 48 pS channel, whereas channel open probability was increased by cytosolic alkalization with 20 mM NH4Cl. 4. BaCl2 (5 mM), TEA (10 mM) or apamin (1 microM) added to the bath solution had no obvious effect on the kinetics of the 48 pS channel. Similarly, glibenclamide and diazoxide failed to influence the channel activity. 5. When extracellular NaCl was replaced by KCl, whole-cell recordings revealed an inwardly rectifying K+ current carried by a 17 pS K+ channel. 6. The inwardly rectifying K+ current was not pH dependent and could largely be blocked by Ba2+ but not by TEA. 7. Since the 48 pS K+ channel is neither Ca2+ nor cAMP regulated, we suggest that this channel could play a role in the maintenance of the negative cell resting potential. PMID:7623283

  7. Identification of miRNAs Involved in Reprogramming Acinar Cells into Insulin Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Teichenne, Joan; Morró, Meritxell; Casellas, Alba; Jimenez, Veronica; Tellez, Noelia; Leger, Adrien; Bosch, Fatima; Ayuso, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming acinar cells into insulin producing cells using adenoviral (Ad)-mediated delivery of Pdx1, Ngn3 and MafA (PNM) is an innovative approach for the treatment of diabetes. Here, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process and in particular, the role of microRNAs. To this end, we performed a comparative study of acinar-to-β cell reprogramming efficiency in the rat acinar cell line AR42J and its subclone B13 after transduction with Ad-PNM. B13 cells were more efficiently reprogrammed than AR42J cells, which was demonstrated by a strong activation of β cell markers (Ins1, Ins2, IAPP, NeuroD1 and Pax4). miRNome panels were used to analyze differentially expressed miRNAs in acinar cells under four experimental conditions (i) non-transduced AR42J cells, (ii) non-transduced B13 cells, (iii) B13 cells transduced with Ad-GFP vectors and (iv) B13 cells transduced with Ad-PNM vectors. A total of 59 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between non-transduced AR42J and B13 cells. Specifically, the miR-200 family was completely repressed in B13 cells, suggesting that these cells exist in a less differentiated state than AR42J cells and as a consequence they present a greater plasticity. Adenoviral transduction per se induced dedifferentiation of acinar cells and 11 miRNAs were putatively involved in this process, whereas 8 miRNAs were found to be associated with PNM expression. Of note, Ad-PNM reprogrammed B13 cells presented the same levels of miR-137-3p, miR-135a-5p, miR-204-5p and miR-210-3p of those detected in islets, highlighting their role in the process. In conclusion, this study led to the identification of miRNAs that might be of compelling importance to improve acinar-to-β cell conversion for the future treatment of diabetes. PMID:26690959

  8. Acinar cell-specific knockout of the PTHrP gene decreases the proinflammatory and profibrotic responses in pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Vandanajay; Rastellini, Cristiana; Han, Song; Aronson, Judith F.; Greeley, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatitis is a necroinflammatory disease with acute and chronic manifestations. Accumulated damage incurred during repeated bouts of acute pancreatitis (AP) can lead to chronic pancreatitis (CP). Pancreatic parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels are elevated in a mouse model of cerulein-induced AP. Here, we show elevated PTHrP levels in mouse models of pancreatitis induced by chronic cerulein administration and pancreatic duct ligation. Because acinar cells play a major role in the pathophysiology of pancreatitis, mice with acinar cell-specific targeted disruption of the Pthrp gene (PTHrPΔacinar) were generated to assess the role of acinar cell-secreted PTHrP in pancreatitis. These mice were generated using Cre-LoxP technology and the acinar cell-specific elastase promoter. PTHrPΔacinar exerted protective effects in cerulein and pancreatic duct ligation models, evident as decreased edema, histological damage, amylase secretion, pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) activation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Treating acinar cells in vitro with cerulein increased IL-6 expression and NF-κB activity; these effects were attenuated in PTHrPΔacinar cells, as were the cerulein- and carbachol-induced elevations in amylase secretion. The cerulein-induced upregulation of procollagen I expression was lost in PSCs from PTHrPΔacinar mice. PTHrP immunostaining was elevated in human CP sections. The cerulein-induced upregulation of IL-6 and ICAM-1 (human acinar cells) and procollagen I (human PSCs) was suppressed by pretreatment with the PTH1R antagonist, PTHrP (7–34). These findings establish PTHrP as a novel mediator of inflammation and fibrosis associated with CP. Acinar cell-secreted PTHrP modulates acinar cell function via its effects on proinflammatory cytokine release and functions via a paracrine pathway to activate PSCs. PMID:25035110

  9. Exocyst subunits are involved in isoproterenol-induced amylase release from rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Imai, Akane; Yoshie, Sumio; Haga-Tsujimura, Maiko; Nashida, Tomoko; Shimomura, Hiromi

    2012-04-01

    Exocytosis of secretory granules in parotid acinar cells requires multiple events: tethering, docking, priming, and fusion with a luminal plasma membrane. The exocyst complex, which is composed of eight subunits (Sec3, Sec5, Sec6, Sec8, Sec10, Sec15, Exo70, and Exo84) that are conserved in yeast and mammalian cells, is thought to participate in the exocytotic pathway. However, to date, no exocyst subunit has been identified in salivary glands. In the present study, we investigated the expression and function of exocyst subunits in rat parotid acinar cells. The expression of mRNA for all eight exocyst subunits was detected in parotid acinar cells by RT-PCR, and Sec6 and Sec8 proteins were localized on the luminal plasma membrane. Sec6 interacted with Sec8 after 5 min of stimulation with isoproterenol. In addition, antibodies to-Sec6 and Sec8 inhibited isoproterenol-induced amylase release from streptolysin O-permeabilized parotid acinar cells. These results suggest that an exocyst complex of eight subunits is required for amylase release from parotid acinar cells. PMID:22409218

  10. Protein kinase D1 drives pancreatic acinar cell reprogramming and progression to intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Geou-Yarh; Döppler, Heike; Braun, Ursula B.; Panayiotou, Richard; Scotti Buzhardt, Michele; Radisky, Derek C.; Crawford, Howard C.; Fields, Alan P.; Murray, Nicole R.; Wang, Q. Jane; Leitges, Michael; Storz, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The transdifferentiation of pancreatic acinar cells to a ductal phenotype (acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, ADM) occurs after injury or inflammation of the pancreas and is a reversible process. However, in the presence of activating Kras mutations or persistent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) signalling, cells that underwent ADM can progress to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and eventually pancreatic cancer. In transgenic animal models, ADM and PanINs are initiated by high-affinity ligands for EGF-R or activating Kras mutations, but the underlying signalling mechanisms are not well understood. Here, using a conditional knockout approach, we show that protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is sufficient to drive the reprogramming process to a ductal phenotype and progression to PanINs. Moreover, using 3D explant culture of primary pancreatic acinar cells, we show that PKD1 acts downstream of TGFα and Kras, to mediate formation of ductal structures through activation of the Notch pathway.

  11. Acinar phenotype is preserved in human exocrine pancreas cells cultured at low temperature: implications for lineage-tracing of β-cell neogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mfopou, Josué K; Houbracken, Isabelle; Wauters, Elke; Mathijs, Iris; Song, Imane; Himpe, Eddy; Baldan, Jonathan; Heimberg, Harry; Bouwens, Luc

    2016-06-01

    The regenerative medicine field is expanding with great successes in laboratory and preclinical settings. Pancreatic acinar cells in diabetic mice were recently converted into β-cells by treatment with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). This suggests that human acinar cells might become a cornerstone for diabetes cell therapy in the future, if they can also be converted into glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells. Presently, studying pancreatic acinar cell biology in vitro is limited by their high plasticity, as they rapidly lose their phenotype and spontaneously transdifferentiate to a duct-like phenotype in culture. We questioned whether human pancreatic acinar cell phenotype could be preserved in vitro by physico-chemical manipulations and whether this could be valuable in the study of β-cell neogenesis. We found that culture at low temperature (4°C) resulted in the maintenance of morphological and molecular acinar cell characteristics. Specifically, chilled acinar cells did not form the spherical clusters observed in controls (culture at 37°C), and they maintained high levels of acinar-specific transcripts and proteins. Five-day chilled acinar cells still transdifferentiated into duct-like cells upon transfer to 37°C. Moreover, adenoviral-mediated gene transfer evidenced an active Amylase promoter in the 7-day chilled acinar cells, and transduction performed in chilled conditions improved acinar cell labelling. Together, our findings indicate the maintenance of human pancreatic acinar cell phenotype at low temperature and the possibility to efficiently label acinar cells, which opens new perspectives for the study of human acinar-to-β-cell transdifferentiation. PMID:26987985

  12. Acinar phenotype is preserved in human exocrine pancreas cells cultured at low temperature: implications for lineage-tracing of β-cell neogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mfopou, Josué K.; Houbracken, Isabelle; Wauters, Elke; Mathijs, Iris; Song, Imane; Himpe, Eddy; Baldan, Jonathan; Heimberg, Harry; Bouwens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The regenerative medicine field is expanding with great successes in laboratory and preclinical settings. Pancreatic acinar cells in diabetic mice were recently converted into β-cells by treatment with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). This suggests that human acinar cells might become a cornerstone for diabetes cell therapy in the future, if they can also be converted into glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells. Presently, studying pancreatic acinar cell biology in vitro is limited by their high plasticity, as they rapidly lose their phenotype and spontaneously transdifferentiate to a duct-like phenotype in culture. We questioned whether human pancreatic acinar cell phenotype could be preserved in vitro by physico-chemical manipulations and whether this could be valuable in the study of β-cell neogenesis. We found that culture at low temperature (4°C) resulted in the maintenance of morphological and molecular acinar cell characteristics. Specifically, chilled acinar cells did not form the spherical clusters observed in controls (culture at 37°C), and they maintained high levels of acinar-specific transcripts and proteins. Five-day chilled acinar cells still transdifferentiated into duct-like cells upon transfer to 37°C. Moreover, adenoviral-mediated gene transfer evidenced an active Amylase promoter in the 7-day chilled acinar cells, and transduction performed in chilled conditions improved acinar cell labelling. Together, our findings indicate the maintenance of human pancreatic acinar cell phenotype at low temperature and the possibility to efficiently label acinar cells, which opens new perspectives for the study of human acinar-to-β-cell transdifferentiation. PMID:26987985

  13. Transgenic Expression of a Single Transcription Factor Pdx1 Induces Transdifferentiation of Pancreatic Acinar Cells to Endocrine Cells in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Satsuki; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    A promising approach to new diabetes therapies is to generate β cells from other differentiated pancreatic cells in vivo. Because the acinar cells represent the most abundant cell type in the pancreas, an attractive possibility is to reprogram acinar cells into β cells. The transcription factor Pdx1 (Pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1) is essential for pancreatic development and cell lineage determination. Our objective is to examine whether exogenous expression of Pdx1 in acinar cells of adult mice might induce reprogramming of acinar cells into β cells. We established a transgenic mouse line in which Pdx1 and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) could be inducibly expressed in the acinar cells. After induction of Pdx1, we followed the acinar cells for their expression of exocrine and endocrine markers using cell-lineage tracing with EGFP. The acinar cell-specific expression of Pdx1 in adult mice reprogrammed the acinar cells as endocrine precursor cells, which migrated into the pancreatic islets and differentiated into insulin-, somatostatin-, or PP (pancreatic polypeptide)-producing endocrine cells, but not into glucagon-producing cells. When the mice undergoing such pancreatic reprogramming were treated with streptozotocin (STZ), the newly generated insulin-producing cells were able to ameliorate STZ-induced diabetes. This paradigm of in vivo reprogramming indicates that acinar cells hold promise as a source for new islet cells in regenerative therapies for diabetes. PMID:27526291

  14. Transgenic Expression of a Single Transcription Factor Pdx1 Induces Transdifferentiation of Pancreatic Acinar Cells to Endocrine Cells in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Satsuki; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    A promising approach to new diabetes therapies is to generate β cells from other differentiated pancreatic cells in vivo. Because the acinar cells represent the most abundant cell type in the pancreas, an attractive possibility is to reprogram acinar cells into β cells. The transcription factor Pdx1 (Pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1) is essential for pancreatic development and cell lineage determination. Our objective is to examine whether exogenous expression of Pdx1 in acinar cells of adult mice might induce reprogramming of acinar cells into β cells. We established a transgenic mouse line in which Pdx1 and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) could be inducibly expressed in the acinar cells. After induction of Pdx1, we followed the acinar cells for their expression of exocrine and endocrine markers using cell-lineage tracing with EGFP. The acinar cell-specific expression of Pdx1 in adult mice reprogrammed the acinar cells as endocrine precursor cells, which migrated into the pancreatic islets and differentiated into insulin-, somatostatin-, or PP (pancreatic polypeptide)-producing endocrine cells, but not into glucagon-producing cells. When the mice undergoing such pancreatic reprogramming were treated with streptozotocin (STZ), the newly generated insulin-producing cells were able to ameliorate STZ-induced diabetes. This paradigm of in vivo reprogramming indicates that acinar cells hold promise as a source for new islet cells in regenerative therapies for diabetes. PMID:27526291

  15. Omental acinar cell carcinoma of pancreatic origin in a child: a clinicopathological rarity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shilpa; Agarwal, Shipra; Nagendla, Murali Krishna; Gupta, Devendra K

    2016-03-01

    A 6-year-old boy presented with a large subhepatic mass associated with pain abdomen. Exploration revealed a tumor in lesser omentum, completely separate from the normal pancreas that was excised completely. Histopathology suggested acinar cell carcinoma of pancreatic origin in an ectopic location. The child is well at 5 months follow-up. PMID:26694824

  16. Internalization and cellular processing of cholecystokinin in rat pancreatic acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Izzo, R.S.; Pellecchia, C.; Praissman, M. )

    1988-12-01

    To evaluate the internalization of cholecystokinin, monoiodinated imidoester of cholecystokinin octapeptide ({sup 125}I-(IE)-CCK-8) was bound to dispersed pancreatic acinar cells, and surface-bound and internalized radioligand were differentiated by treating with an acidified glycine buffer. The amount of internalized radioligand was four- and sevenfold greater at 24 and 37{degree}C than at 4{degree}C between 5 and 60 min of association. Specific binding of radioligand to cell surface receptors was not significantly different at these temperatures. Chloroquine, a lysosomotropic agent that blocks intracellular proteolysis, significantly increased the amount of CCK-8 internalized by 18 and 16% at 30 and 60 min of binding, respectively, compared with control. Dithiothreitol (DTT), a sulfhydryl reducing agent, also augmented the amount of CCK-8 radioligand internalized by 25 and 29% at 30 and 60 min, respectively. The effect of chloroquine and DTT on the processing of internalized radioligand was also considered after an initial 60 min of binding of radioligand to acinar cells. After 180 min of processing, the amount of radioligand internalized was significantly greater in the presence of chloroquine compared with controls, whereas the amount of radioligand declined in acinar cells treated with DTT. Internalized and released radioactivity from acinar cells was rebound to pancreatic membrane homogenates to determine the amount of intact radioligand during intracellular processing. Chloroquine significantly increased the amount of intact {sup 125}I-(IE)-CCK-8 radioligand in released and internalized radioactivity while DTT increased the amount of intact radioligand only in internalized samples. This study shows that pancreatic acinar cells rapidly internalize large amounts of CCK-8 and that chloroquine and DTT inhibit intracellular degradation.

  17. [Vital fluorochrome staining of isolated pancreatic acinar cells for the characterization of cell-structural changes].

    PubMed

    Dietzmann, K; Letko, G; Spormann, H

    1986-01-01

    Rhodamine 6 G as a cationic fluorophore is demonstrated to be selectively accumulated by mitochondria of living pancreatic acinar cells (cell isolation see Spormann et al. [1986]. The accumulation of rhodamine was studied under using of electron transport inhibitors, ionophores and some hydrogen donors. The application of DNP as wellknown protonophore resulted in a rapid dissipation of any fluorescent signals, whereas application of sodium succinate, hyperosmolaric exhibited a remarkable increase of fluorescence intensity. Using this technique it is possible to estimate the energy state of living cells under various conditions of energy supply and demand. PMID:2426729

  18. Transdifferentiation of human amniotic epithelial cells into acinar cells using a double-chamber system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gui-Lin; Zhang, Ni-Ni; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Yao, Li; Zhao, Yu-Jie; Wang, Yu-Ying

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the transdifferentiation of stem cells from human amnion tissue into functional acinar cells (ACs) using a co-culture system. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) were isolated from amnion tissue by mechanical mincing and enzymatic digestion. After primary culture, the phenotype of the cells was identified by flow cytometry (FCM) and immunocytochemical staining. hAECs were co-cultured with submandibular gland acinar cells of SD rats using a double-chamber system. The expression of α-amylase was determined by immunocytochemical method and fluorescent real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after induction for 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. Digestion with trypsin is an effective method for isolating hAECs from amnion tissue. These cells were positive for CD29 and CK19 and weakly positive for CD44 and α-amylase. Within 2 weeks, α-amylase in hAECs increased with induction time. The expression of α-amylase in hAECs was increased 3.38-fold after co-culturing for 1 week. This ratio increased to 6.6-fold, and these cells were positive for mucins, after co-culturing for 2 weeks. hAECs possess the potential to differentiate into ACs in vitro. They might be a stem cell resource for clinical applications of cell replacement therapy in salivary gland dysfunction diseases. PMID:22800093

  19. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  20. Isolation and identification of a compound from avocado (Persea americana) leaves which causes necrosis of the acinar epithelium of the lactating mammary gland and the myocardium.

    PubMed

    Oelrichs, P B; Ng, J C; Seawright, A A; Ward, A; Schäffeler, L; MacLeod, J K

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that when lactating livestock eat avocado (Persea americana) leaves they may develop non-infectious mastitis and agalactia. This is associated with extensive coagulation necrosis of the secretory acinar epithelium and interstitial oedema, congestion, and haemorrhage. Similar lesions have been produced in mammary glands of lactating mice fed a diet containing a small percentage of freeze-dried avocado leaf. Tests using these animals have been used to isolate the active principle, termed "persin," from avocado leaves. The purified persin was examined using IR, NMR, and UV spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and identified as (Z,Z)-1-(acetyloxy)-2-hydroxy-12,15-heneicosadien-4-one. Persin has previously been isolated from avocado leaves and shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to silkworms. Our tests have shown that persin at the dose rate of 60-100 mg/kg has the same effect on mammary glands in lactating mice as leaves from avocado. Enantioselective syntheses of the R and the S isomers of persin and related derivatives were carried out. These compounds were tested for activity required to induce widespread lactating mammary gland necrosis in mice, and only the R isomer was found active. At doses of persin above 100 mg/kg necrosis of myocardial fibres may occur and hydrothorax may be present in severely affected animals. The mechanism of action of persin on both the mammary gland and the myocardium remain to be resolved. PMID:8581318

  1. Loss of Ifnar1 in Pancreatic Acinar Cells Ameliorates the Disease Course of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katharina J; Raulefs, Susanne; Kong, Bo; Steiger, Katja; Regel, Ivonne; Gewies, Andreas; Kleeff, Jörg; Michalski, Christoph W

    2015-01-01

    Type I interferon constitutes an essential component of the combinational therapy against viral disease. Acute pancreatitis is one side effect of type I interferon-based therapy, implying that activation of type I interferon signaling affects the homeostasis and integrity of pancreatic acinar cells. Here, we investigated the role of type I interferon signaling in pancreatic acinar cells using a caerulein-induced murine model of acute pancreatitis. Pancreas-specific ablation of interferon (alpha and beta) receptor 1 (Ifnar1) partially protected animals from caerulein-induced pancreatitis, as demonstrated by reduced tissue damage. Profiling of infiltrating immune cells revealed that this dampened tissue damage response correlated with the number of macrophages in the pancreas. Pharmacologic depletion of macrophages reversed the protective effect of Ifnar1 deficiency. Furthermore, expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), a potent factor for macrophage recruitment, was significantly increased in the Ifnar1-deficient pancreas. Thus, type I interferon signaling in pancreatic acinar cells controls pancreatic homeostasis by affecting the macrophage-mediated inflammatory response in the pancreas. PMID:26618925

  2. Rab27b regulates exocytosis of secretory vesicles in acinar epithelial cells from the lacrimal gland

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Lilian; Ngo, Julie; Schechter, Joel E.; Karvar, Serhan; Tolmachova, Tanya; Seabra, Miguel C.; Hume, Alistair N.

    2011-01-01

    Tear proteins are supplied by the regulated fusion of secretory vesicles at the apical surface of lacrimal gland acinar cells, utilizing trafficking mechanisms largely yet uncharacterized. We investigated the role of Rab27b in the terminal release of these secretory vesicles. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of primary cultured rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cells revealed that Rab27b was enriched on the membrane of large subapical vesicles that were significantly colocalized with Rab3D and Myosin 5C. Stimulation of cultured acinar cells with the secretagogue carbachol resulted in apical fusion of these secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane. Evaluation of morphological changes by transmission electron microscopy of lacrimal glands from Rab27b−/− and Rab27ash/ash/Rab27b−/− mice, but not ashen mice deficient in Rab27a, showed changes in abundance and organization of secretory vesicles, further confirming a role for this protein in secretory vesicle exocytosis. Glands lacking Rab27b also showed increased lysosomes, damaged mitochondria, and autophagosome-like organelles. In vitro, expression of constitutively active Rab27b increased the average size but retained the subapical distribution of Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicles, whereas dominant-negative Rab27b redistributed this protein from membrane to the cytoplasm. Functional studies measuring release of a cotransduced secretory protein, syncollin-GFP, showed that constitutively active Rab27b enhanced, whereas dominant-negative Rab27b suppressed, stimulated release. Disruption of actin filaments inhibited vesicle fusion to the apical membrane but did not disrupt homotypic fusion. These data show that Rab27b participates in aspects of lacrimal gland acinar cell secretory vesicle formation and release. PMID:21525430

  3. Functional differences in the acinar cells of the murine major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Jaramillo, Y; Choi, S; Catalan, M A; Melvin, J E

    2015-05-01

    In humans, approximately 90% of saliva is secreted by the 3 major salivary glands: the parotid (PG), the submandibular (SMG), and the sublingual glands (SLG). Even though it is known that all 3 major salivary glands secrete saliva by a Cl(-)-dependent mechanism, salivary secretion rates differ greatly among these glands. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the properties of the ion-transporting pathways in acinar cells that might account for the differences among the major salivary glands. Pilocarpine-induced saliva was simultaneously collected in vivo from the 3 major salivary glands of mice. When normalized by gland weight, the amount of saliva secreted by the PG was more than 2-fold larger than that obtained from the SMG and SLG. At the cellular level, carbachol induced an increase in the intracellular [Ca(2+)] that was more than 2-fold larger in PG and SMG than in SLG acinar cells. Carbachol-stimulated Cl(-) efflux and the protein levels of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A, the major apical Cl(-) efflux pathway in salivary acinar cells, were significantly greater in PG compared with SMG and SLG. In addition, we evaluated the transporter activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1) and anion exchangers (AE), the 2 primary basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in acinar cells. The SMG NKCC1 activity was about twice that of the PG and more than 12-fold greater than that of the SLG. AE activity was similar in PG and SLG, and both PG and SLG AE activity was about 2-fold larger than that of SMG. In summary, the salivation kinetics of the 3 major glands are distinct, and these differences can be explained by the unique functional properties of each gland related to Cl(-) movement, including the transporter activities of the Cl(-) uptake and efflux pathways, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. PMID:25680367

  4. Effect of ethanol on cholecystokinin-stimulated zymogen conversion in pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Katz, M; Carangelo, R; Miller, L J; Gorelick, F

    1996-01-01

    Exocrine pancreatic zymogens are proteolytically processed to active forms after they are secreted into the small intestine. However, intracellular conversion of zymogens to active forms can be stimulated by treating pancreatic acinar cells with high doses of cholecystokinin (0.1 microM) or carbamylcholine (0.1 mM). The high doses of cholecystokinin are unlikely to be achieved physiologically. The ability of ethanol to sensitize the acinar cell to zymogen conversion Induced by cholecystokinin or carbamylcholine was examined. Ethanol (10-200 mM) had no effect alone or when combined with carbamylcholine. However, ethanol (25 mM) added with low-dose cholecystokinin (0.1 nM) generated zymogen conversion that was 1) sixfold higher than cholecystokinin alone and 2) equivalent to that generated by highdose cholecystokinin (10 microM). The ability of ethanol to enhance cholecystokinin-induced zymogen conversion was dependent on the dose of ethanol and the duration of ethanol treatment. The cholecystokinin receptor antagonist, L-364,718, blocked the conversion stimulated by the addition of ethanol with cholecystokinin. This effect of ethanol did not change the affinity or number of cholecystokinin receptors, suggesting an effect more distal in the stimulus-activation cascade. These findings demonstrate that ethanol selectively sensitizes the pancreatic acinar cell to cholecystokinin-stimulated zymogen proteolysis. PMID:8772515

  5. Inactivation of TGFβ receptor II signalling in pancreatic epithelial cells promotes acinar cell proliferation, acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and fibrosis during pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Grabliauskaite, Kamile; Saponara, Enrica; Reding, Theresia; Bombardo, Marta; Seleznik, Gitta M; Malagola, Ermanno; Zabel, Anja; Faso, Carmen; Sonda, Sabrina; Graf, Rolf

    2016-02-01

    Determining signalling pathways that regulate pancreatic regeneration following pancreatitis is critical for implementing therapeutic interventions. In this study we elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) in pancreatic epithelial cells during tissue regeneration. To this end, we conditionally inactivated TGFβ receptor II (TGFβ-RII) using a Cre-LoxP system under the control of pancreas transcription factor 1a (PTF1a) promoter, specific for the pancreatic epithelium, and evaluated the molecular and cellular changes in a mouse model of cerulein-induced pancreatitis. We show that TGFβ-RII signalling does not mediate the initial acinar cell damage observed at the onset of pancreatitis. However, TGFβ-RII signalling not only restricts acinar cell replication during the regenerative phase of the disease but also limits ADM formation in vivo and in vitro in a cell-autonomous manner. Analyses of molecular mechanisms underlying the observed phenotype revealed that TGFβ-RII signalling stimulates the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and intersects with the EGFR signalling axis. Finally, TGFβ-RII ablation in epithelial cells resulted in increased infiltration of inflammatory cells in the early phases of pancreatitis and increased activation of pancreatic stellate cells in the later stages of pancreatitis, thus highlighting a TGFβ-based crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells regulating the development of pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis. Collectively, our data not only contribute to clarifying the cellular processes governing pancreatic tissue regeneration, but also emphasize the conserved role of TGFβ as a tumour suppressor, both in the regenerative process following pancreatitis and in the initial phases of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26510396

  6. Replacement of Rbpj with Rbpjl in the PTF1 complex controls the final maturation of pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Masui, Toshihiko; Swift, Galvin H.; Deering, Tye; Shen, Chengcheng; Coats, Ward S.; Long, Qiaoming; Elsässer, Hans-Peter; Magnuson, Mark A.; MacDonald, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims The mature pancreatic acinar cell is dedicated to the production of very large amounts of digestive enzymes. The early stages of pancreatic development require the Rbpj-form of the trimeric transcription factor complex PTF1 (PTF1-J). As acinar development commences, Rbpjl gradually replaces Rbpj; in the mature pancreas, PTF1 contains Rbpjl (PTF1-L). We investigated whether PTF1-L controls the expression of genes that complete the final stage of acinar differentiation. Methods We analyzed acinar development and transcription in mice with disrupted Rbpjl (Rbpjlko/ko mice). We performed comprehensive analyses of the mRNA population and PTF1 target genes in pancreatic acinar cells from these and wild-type mice. Results In Rbpjlko/ko mice, acinar differentiation was incomplete and characterized by decreased expression (as much as 99%) of genes that encode digestive enzymes or proteins of regulated exocytosis and mitochondrial metabolism. Whereas PTF1-L bound regulatory sites of genes in normal adult pancreatic cells, the embryonic form (PTF1-J) persisted in the absence of Rbpjl and replaced PTF1-L; the extent of replacement determined gene expression levels. Loss of PTF1-L reduced expression (>2-fold) of only about 50 genes, 90% of which were direct targets of PTF1-L. The magnitude of the effects on individual digestive enzyme genes correlated with the developmental timing of gene activation. Absence of Rbpjl increased pancreatic expression of liver-restricted mRNAs. Conclusions Replacement of Rbpj by Rbpjl in the PTF1 complex drives acinar differentiation by maximizing secretory protein synthesis, stimulating mitochondrial metabolism and cytoplasmic creatine-phosphate energy stores, completing the packaging and secretory apparatus, and maintaining acinar-cell homeostasis. PMID:20398665

  7. Clinicopathologic study of 62 acinar cell carcinomas of the pancreas: insights into the morphology and immunophenotype and search for prognostic markers.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Stefano; Adsay, Volkan; Albarello, Luca; Asioli, Sofia; Casnedi, Selenia; Franzi, Francesca; Marando, Alessandro; Notohara, Kenji; Sessa, Fausto; Vanoli, Alessandro; Zhang, Lizhi; Capella, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) of the pancreas is a very rare tumor that has various morphologic features, which may give rise to diagnostic difficulties. Because of its rarity, many clinicopathologic characteristics remain to be further elucidated, and prognostic factors are yet to be well established. With the aim of better characterizing this carcinoma and searching for prognostic indicators, we collected 62 ACCs and investigated the following parameters: site, size, local infiltration, node and distant metastases, architectural pattern, nuclear atypia, presence of necrosis, lymphovascular and perineural invasion, proliferation, BCL10, trypsin, carboxyl ester lipase, amylase, lipase, PDX1, cytokeratin 19 (CK19), CK7, p53, and β-catenin expression. Twelve cases showing >30% of endocrine cells were reclassified as mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinomas, whereas 1 tumor was reclassified as a mixed ductal-acinar carcinoma and was excluded from the statistical prognostic evaluations. BCL10 and trypsin were the most reliable immunohistochemical markers, whereas amylase and lipase were not. Surgery was statistically correlated with a better prognosis (P=0.0008). Among resected tumors there was no difference in survival between ACCs and mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinomas, and factors that significantly correlated with poor prognosis were size >6.5 cm (P=0.004), lymph node (P=0.0039) and distant (P=0.008) metastases, and UICC stage (P=0.009). Stage was the only independent prognostic factor at multivariable analysis, and the best prognostic discrimination was observed on grouping together stages I and II and grouping together stages III and IV, suggesting a simplification of the UICC staging for such cancers. In addition, vascular and perineural invasion and CK19 and p53 expression showed a trend for poor prognosis, not reaching statistical significance. PMID:23026929

  8. Genetic deletion of Rab27B in pancreatic acinar cells affects granules size and has inhibitory effects on amylase secretion.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanan; Ernst, Stephen A; Lentz, Stephen I; Williams, John A

    2016-03-18

    Small G protein Rab27B is expressed in various secretory cell types and plays a role in mediating secretion. In pancreatic acinar cells, Rab27B was found to be expressed on the zymogen granule membrane and by overexpression to regulate the secretion of zymogen granules. However, the effect of Rab27B deletion on the physiology of pancreatic acinar cells is unknown. In the current study, we utilized the Rab27B KO mouse model to better understand the role of Rab27B in the secretion of pancreatic acinar cells. Our data show that Rab27B deficiency had no obvious effects on the expression of major digestive enzymes and other closely related proteins, e.g. similar small G proteins, such as Rab3D and Rab27A, and putative downstream effectors. The overall morphology of acinar cells was not changed in the knockout pancreas. However, the size of zymogen granules was decreased in KO acinar cells, suggesting a role of Rab27B in regulating the maturation of secretory granules. The secretion of digestive enzymes was moderately decreased in KO acini, compared with the WT control. These data indicate that Rab27B is involved at a different steps of zymogen granule maturation and secretion, which is distinct from that of Rab3D. PMID:26845357

  9. Amylase release from dissociated mouse pancreatic acinar cells stimulated by glucagon: effect of membrane stabilizers.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M

    1980-01-01

    1. The effect of membrane stabilizers and cytochalasin-B on amylase secretion, basal and induced by ionophore A23187, CCK-PZ, bethanechol and glucagon, was studied in dissociated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. 2. Cytochalasin-B did not affect basal or secretagogue-stimulated amylase secretion. 3. Membrane stabilizers [thymol (10(-7)-10(-4) M), chlorpromazine (10(-7)-10(-4) M) and propranolol (10(-7)-10(-5) M) did not alter basal release of amylase. At higher concentrations of thymol (10(-3) M), chlorpromazine (10(-3) M) and propranolol (10(-4) M), dissociated acinar cells were lysed as indicated by an increase in release of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). 4. Ionophore A23187, CCK-PZ (maximal effective concentrations, 0.01 u. ml.-1), bethanechol (maximal effective concentrations, 10(-4) M) and glucagon increased amylase secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. Concentrations of CCK-PZ and bethanechol beyond optimal levels decreased amylase secretion. Concentrations of ionophore A23187 and glucagon when tested beyond 10(-6) M and 10(-4) M respectively increased the release of LDH. In concentrations that were non-toxic, membrane stabilizers blocked the stimulating effect of cholecystokinin-pancreozymin and bethanechol on amylase secretion but did not alter the response to A23187 and glucagon. 5. Unlike bethanechol, glucagon neither increased the uptake of 45Ca nor did it alter the release of 45Ca from cells previously loaded with 45CaCl2. 6. These data provide evidence that stimulus-secretion coupling in dissociated pancreatic acinar cells is basically similar to cells in situ. The effect of glucagon is consistent with the model in which hormone-dependent mobilization of Ca2+ from intra- or extracellular sources is bypassed leading to digestive enzyme secretion. PMID:6166745

  10. A comparative ultrastructural study of the parotid gland acinar cells of nine wild ruminant species (mammalia, artiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Stolte, M; Ito, S

    1996-01-01

    The ultrastructural similarities and differences of the parotid gland acinar cells of nine wild ruminants (roe deer, nyala, tahr, Eld's deer, red deer, Pere David's deer, European mouflon, African buffalo, sable antelope) representing three feeding types i.e. concentrate selectors (CS), grass and roughage eaters (GR) and intermediate feeders (IM) were compared. The parotid acinar cells of the CS contained more granular endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi-complexes and secretory granules than those of the GR. The acinar cells of the latter were characterized by numerous mitochondria, folded plasma membranes and intercellular secretory canaliculi. The ultrastructure of the secretory granules varied in different species but their morphology was not related to feeding type. An unusual feature of the parotid acinar cells of all feeding types was the evidence of an apocrine-like mode of secretion. A typical morphological change of some parotid acinar cells was the compression of the nucleus by large vacuoles. No distinctive differences were found in the ultrastructure of the parotid gland of wild and captive ruminants. PMID:9090994

  11. Ligand-bound Thyroid Hormone Receptor Contributes to Reprogramming of Pancreatic Acinar Cells into Insulin-producing Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Fumihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Asami, Keiichi; Ichijo, Sayaka; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kaneshige, Masahiro; Oikawa, Yoichi; Aida, Kaoru; Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    One goal of diabetic regenerative medicine is to instructively convert mature pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells. We recently reported that ligand-bound thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα) plays a critical role in expansion of the β-cell mass during postnatal development. Here, we used an adenovirus vector that expresses TRα driven by the amylase 2 promoter (AdAmy2TRα) to induce the reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells into insulin-producing cells. Treatment with l-3,5,3-triiodothyronine increases the association of TRα with the p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), leading to the phosphorylation and activation of Akt and the expression of Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA in purified acinar cells. Analyses performed with the lectin-associated cell lineage tracing system and the Cre/loxP-based direct cell lineage tracing system indicate that newly synthesized insulin-producing cells originate from elastase-expressing pancreatic acinar cells. Insulin-containing secretory granules were identified in these cells by electron microscopy. The inhibition of p85α expression by siRNA or the inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 prevents the expression of Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA and the reprogramming to insulin-producing cells. In immunodeficient mice with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia, treatment with AdAmy2TRα leads to the reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells to insulin-producing cells in vivo. Our findings suggest that ligand-bound TRα plays a critical role in β-cell regeneration during postnatal development via activation of PI3K signaling. PMID:23595988

  12. Ligand-bound thyroid hormone receptor contributes to reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Fumihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Asami, Keiichi; Ichijo, Sayaka; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kaneshige, Masahiro; Oikawa, Yoichi; Aida, Kaoru; Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-05-31

    One goal of diabetic regenerative medicine is to instructively convert mature pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells. We recently reported that ligand-bound thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα) plays a critical role in expansion of the β-cell mass during postnatal development. Here, we used an adenovirus vector that expresses TRα driven by the amylase 2 promoter (AdAmy2TRα) to induce the reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells into insulin-producing cells. Treatment with l-3,5,3-triiodothyronine increases the association of TRα with the p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), leading to the phosphorylation and activation of Akt and the expression of Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA in purified acinar cells. Analyses performed with the lectin-associated cell lineage tracing system and the Cre/loxP-based direct cell lineage tracing system indicate that newly synthesized insulin-producing cells originate from elastase-expressing pancreatic acinar cells. Insulin-containing secretory granules were identified in these cells by electron microscopy. The inhibition of p85α expression by siRNA or the inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 prevents the expression of Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA and the reprogramming to insulin-producing cells. In immunodeficient mice with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia, treatment with AdAmy2TRα leads to the reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells to insulin-producing cells in vivo. Our findings suggest that ligand-bound TRα plays a critical role in β-cell regeneration during postnatal development via activation of PI3K signaling. PMID:23595988

  13. Pancreatic acinar cells: effect of acetylcholine, pancreozymin, gastrin and secretin on membrane potential and resistance in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, O H; Ueda, N

    1975-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings of membrane potential and input resistance have been made in vivo and in vitro from the exocrine acinar cells of rat pancreas using indwelling glass micro-electrodes. 2. The resting cell membrane potential and input resistance in the in vivo experiments were not markedly different from the values obtained in the in vitro experiments. The effect of both acetylcholine (ACh) and pancreozymin (CCK-Pz) on the pancreas in vivo as well as in vitro was to reduce both the acinar cell membrane potential and the input resistance narkedly. The amplitude of the evoked depolarization and the change in input resistance evoked by supramaximal stimuli were of the same magnitude in both types of preparations. 3. Gastrin had an effect on the acinar cell potential and resistance which was indistinguishable from that of CCK-Pz or ACh. The effect of gastrin or CCK-Pz was, in contrast to that of ACh, not influenced by the presence of atropine. The reversal potential for the gastrin evoked potential change was about -20 mV. 4. Secretin in doses producing maximal volume secretion in vivo had no effect on acinar cell membrane potential and input resistance. 5. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (5mM) and cyclic GMP (1mM) had no effect on cell membrane potential or resistance. 6. It is concluded that the in vitro superfused pancreas segment preparation is a useful model system in electrophysiological studies since it functions essentially as the in vivo preparation. In contrast to both gastrin and CCK-Pz, secretin has no effect on the bioelectrical properties of the acinar cells, indicating that there are no physiologically important secretin receptors in rat acinar cells. PMID:168355

  14. Glycyrrhizin down-regulates CCL2 and CXCL2 expression in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Panahi, Yaser; Fakhari, Shohreh; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeid; Jalili, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Many inflammatory chemokines release from leukocytes and pancreatic acinar cells which play important roles in pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP). Of interests, CXCL2 and CCL2 have been shown elevated in the plasma of patients with AP. We have recently found that Glycyrrhizin (GZ) attenuates AP in mice model. In this study, we aimed to investigate the direct effect of GZ on expression levels of CCL2 and CXCl2 in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. Isolated acinar cells were isolated from the pancreas of healthy C57BL/6 mice, stimulated with cerulein (10-7 M) and then treated with either PBS or different doses of GZ. The levels of CCL2 and CXCL2 expression at mRNA were assessed by qRT-PCR. Conditioned media from supernatants of each cells culture condition were collected for detection of CCL2 and CXCL2 levels by ELISA. First, we observed that cerulein significantly upregulates both cytokines expression in acinar cells. Moreover, we treated the acinar cells with GZ and found that GZ significantly downregulates CCL2 and CXCL2 expression at mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, the conditioned media of GZ-treated cells contained a significant lower levels of CCL2 and CXCL2 (p<0.05). In conclusion, our data demonstrate for the first time that GZ directly downregulates CCL2 and CXCL2 levels in cerulein-stimulated acinar cells which may explain the mechanism of therapeutic effects of GZ in cerulein-induced AP in mice. PMID:26155433

  15. Functional involvement of Noc2, a Rab27 effector, in rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Imai, Akane; Yoshie, Sumio; Nashida, Tomoko; Shimomura, Hiromi; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2006-11-15

    Noc2 has recently been proposed to regulate exocytosis in both endocrine and exocrine cells; however, protein expression, subcellular localization and function of Noc2 in exocrine cells have never been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether Noc2, a Rab27 effector, is involved in isoproterenol (IPR)-stimulated amylase release from acinar cells. Rab27 was detected in the apical plasma membrane (APM) and secretory granule membrane (SGM) fractions, and was translocated to the APM after IPR stimulation for 5 min, but was detected at lower levels in the APM after 30 min. In contrast, although Noc2 was expressed in SGM bound to Rab27, Noc2 was not translocated to APM and the Noc2/Rab27 complex was disrupted after stimulation with IPR for short time. In addition, the anti-Noc2-Rab-binding-domain antibody inhibited IPR-stimulated amylase release from streptolysin O-permeabilized parotid acinar cells. Our results suggest that the Noc2/Rab27 complex is an important constituent of the early stages of IPR-stimulated amylase release. PMID:17067543

  16. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  17. The econobiology of pancreatic acinar cells granule inventory and the stealthy nano-machine behind it.

    PubMed

    Hammel, Ilan; Meilijson, Isaac

    2016-03-01

    The pancreatic gland secretes most of the enzymes and many other macromolecules needed for food digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. These molecules play an important role in digestion, host defense and lubrication. The secretion of pancreatic proteins ensures the availability of the correct mix of proteins when needed. This review describes model systems available for the study of the econobiology of secretory granule content. The secretory pancreatic molecules are stored in large dense-core secretory granules that may undergo either constitutive or evoked secretion, and constitute the granule inventory of the cell. It is proposed that the Golgi complex functions as a distribution center for secretory proteins in pancreatic acinar cells, packing the newly formed secretory molecules into maturing secretory granules, also known functionally as condensing vacuoles. Mathematical modelling brings forward a process underlying granule inventory maintenance at various physiological states of condensation and aggregation by homotypic fusion. These models suggest unique but simple mechanisms accountable for inventory buildup and size, as well as for the distribution of secretory molecules into different secretory pathways in pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:26702787

  18. Kinetic Control of Multiple Forms of Ca2+ Spikes by Inositol Trisphosphate in Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Koichi; Miyashita, Yasushi; Kasai, Haruo

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms of agonist-induced Ca2+ spikes have been investigated using a caged inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and a low-affinity Ca2+ indicator, BTC, in pancreatic acinar cells. Rapid photolysis of caged IP3 was able to reproduce acetylcholine (ACh)-induced three forms of Ca2+ spikes: local Ca2+ spikes and submicromolar (<1 μM) and micromolar (1–15 μM) global Ca2+ spikes (Ca2+ waves). These observations indicate that subcellular gradients of IP3 sensitivity underlie all forms of ACh-induced Ca2+ spikes, and that the amplitude and extent of Ca2+ spikes are determined by the concentration of IP3. IP3-induced local Ca2+ spikes exhibited similar time courses to those generated by ACh, supporting a role for Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in local Ca2+ spikes. In contrast, IP3- induced global Ca2+ spikes were consistently faster than those evoked with ACh at all concentrations of IP3 and ACh, suggesting that production of IP3 via phospholipase C was slow and limited the spread of the Ca2+ spikes. Indeed, gradual photolysis of caged IP3 reproduced ACh-induced slow Ca2+ spikes. Thus, local and global Ca2+ spikes involve distinct mechanisms, and the kinetics of global Ca2+ spikes depends on that of IP3 production particularly in those cells such as acinar cells where heterogeneity in IP3 sensitivity plays critical role. PMID:10427093

  19. Autophagy in pancreatic acinar cells in caerulein-treated mice: immunolocalization of related proteins and their potential as markers of pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leshuai; Zhang, Jun; Shea, Katherine; Xu, Lin; Tobin, Grainne; Knapton, Alan; Sharron, Stewart; Rouse, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced pancreatitis (DIP) is an underdiagnosed condition that lacks sensitive and specific biomarkers. To better understand the mechanisms of DIP and to identify potential tissue biomarkers, we studied experimental pancreatitis induced in male C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection of caerulein (10 or 50 μg/kg) at 1-hr intervals for a total of 7 injections. Pancreata from caerulein-treated mice exhibited consistent acinar cell autophagy and apoptosis with infrequent necrosis. Kinetic assays for serum amylase and lipase also showed a dose-dependent increase. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-dNTP nick labeling (TUNEL) detected dose-dependent acinar cell apoptosis. By light microscopy, autophagy was characterized by the formation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes (ALs) within the cytoplasm of acinar cells. Immunohistochemical studies with specific antibodies for proteins related to autophagy and pancreatic stress were conducted to evaluate these proteins as potential biomarkers of pancreatitis. Western blots were used to confirm immunohistochemical results using pancreatic lysates from control and treated animals. Autophagy was identified as a contributing process in caerulein-induced pancreatitis and proteins previously associated with autophagy were upregulated following caerulein treatment. Autophagosomes and ALs were found to be a common pathway, in which cathepsins, lysosome-associated membrane protein 2, vacuole membrane protein 1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), autophagy-related protein 9, Beclin1, and pancreatitis-associated proteins were simultaneously involved in response to caerulein stimulus. Regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma (Reg3γ), a pancreatic acute response protein, was dose-dependently induced in caerulein-treated mice and colocalized with the autophagosomal marker, LC3. This finding supports Reg3γ as a candidate biomarker for pancreatic injury. PMID:23640381

  20. Polyethylenimine-mediated expression of transgenes in the acinar cells of rats salivary glands in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sramkova, Monika; Parente, Laura; Wigand, Timothy; Aye, Myo-Pale'; Shitara, Akiko; Weigert, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Non viral-mediated transfection of plasmid DNA provides a fast and reliable way to express various transgenes in selected cell populations in live animals. Here, we show an improvement of a previously published method that is based on injecting plasmid DNA into the ductal system of the salivary glands in live rats. Specifically, using complexes between plasmid DNA and polyethyleneimine (PEI) we show that the expression of the transgenes is directed selectively to the salivary acinar cells. PEI does not affect the ability of cells to undergo regulated exocytosis, which was one of the main drawbacks of the previous methods. Moreover PEI does not affect the proper localization and targeting of transfected proteins, as shown for the apical plasma membrane water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5). Overall, this approach, coupled with the use of intravital microscopy, permits to conduct localization and functional studies under physiological conditions, in a rapid, reliable, and affordable fashion. PMID:25621283

  1. Effect of glucagon on digestive enzyme synthesis, transport and secretion in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M

    1980-01-01

    1. Effect of glucagon on amylase secretion and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release from functionally intact dissociated pancreatic acinar cells and acini was studied. 2. In dissociated rat pancreatic acinar cells, the rate of amylase secretion was increased by 70% with bethanechol (maximally effective concentration, 10(-4) M) and 125% with A23187 (10(-5) M), but the response to cholecystokinin-pancreozymin (CCK-PZ) was inconsistent. In dissociated cells from mouse pancreas, the increases amounted to 78% with bethanechol (10(-4) M), 134% with A23187 (10(-5) M) and 82% with CCK-PZ (maximally effective concentration, 0 . 01 u. ml.-1). Glucagon in concentrations ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-4) M increased amylase secretion by 3, 26, 67 and 80%, whereas secretin (10(-8)--10(-5) M) increased amylase secretion by 8, 39, 88 and 138%. LDH release was increased with A23187 in concentrations greater than 10(-6) M. 3. CCK-PZ, bethanechol and A23187 used in maximal concentrations potentiated the effect of a submaximal dose of glucagon whereas secretin did not have an additive or a potentiating effect. 4. Pancreatic acini were approximately 3 times more responsive to secretagogues than cells. The dose--response curves to bethanechol, glucagon and CCK-PZ for increase in amylase secretion were similar. LDH release was not increased by these agents. Cytochalasin B (5 microgram ml.-1) which is known to disrupt the integrity of luminal membrane inhibited the amylase secretion stimulated by glucagon, bethanechol and CCK-PZ. 5. Glucagon inhibited incorporation of a mixture of fifteen 14C-labelled amino acids (algal profile, Schwarz Mann) into perchloric acid precipitable proteins in dissociated mouse pancreatic acini within 30 min. 6. In 'pulse-chase' experiments, glucagon decreased the specific activity of zymogen granules isolated by differential centrifugation, from pancreatic lobules (120 min) and increased the specific activity of radiolabelled proteins in the medium (60 and 120 min

  2. Activation of neurokinin-1 receptors up-regulates substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor expression in murine pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Yung-Hua; Moochhala, Shabbir; Bhatia, Madhav

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Acute pancreatitis (AP) has been associated with an up-regulation of substance P (SP) and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) in the pancreas. Increased SP-NK1R interaction was suggested to be pro-inflammatory during AP. Previously, we showed that caerulein treatment increased SP/NK1R expression in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, but the effect of SP treatment was not evaluated. Pancreatic acinar cells were obtained from pancreas of male swiss mice (25–30 g). We measured mRNA expression of preprotachykinin-A (PPTA) and NK1R following treatment of SP (10−6M). SP treatment increased PPTA and NK1R expression in isolated pancreatic acinar cells, which was abolished by pretreatment of a selective NK1R antagonist, CP96,345. SP also time dependently increased protein expression of NK1R. Treatment of cells with a specific NK1R agonist, GR73,632, up-regulated SP protein levels in the cells. Using previously established concentrations, pre-treatment of pancreatic acinar cells with Gö6976 (10 nM), rottlerin (5 μM), PD98059 (30 μM), SP600125 (30 μM) or Bay11-7082 (30 μM) significantly inhibited up-regulation of SP and NK1R. These observations suggested that the PKC-ERK/JNK-NF-κB pathway is necessary for the modulation of expression levels. In comparison, pre-treatment of CP96,345 reversed gene expression in SP-induced cells, but not in caerulein-treated cells. Overall, the findings in this study suggested a possible auto-regulatory mechanism of SP/NK1R expression in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, via activation of NK1R. Elevated SP levels during AP might increase the occurrence of a positive feedback loop that contributes to abnormally high expression of SP and NK1R. PMID:22040127

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is present in pancreatic acinar cells and regulates amylase secretion through cAMP.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanan; Ernst, Stephen A; Heidenreich, Kaeli; Williams, John A

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a glucoincretin hormone that can act through its receptor (GLP-1R) on pancreatic β-cells and increase insulin secretion and production. GLP-1R agonists are used clinically to treat type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 may also regulate the exocrine pancreas at multiple levels, including inhibition through the central nervous system, stimulation indirectly through insulin, and stimulation directly on acinar cells. However, it has been unclear whether GLP-1R is present in pancreatic acini and what physiological functions these receptors regulate. In the current study we utilized GLP-1R knockout (KO) mice to study the role of GLP-1R in acinar cells. RNA expression of GLP-1R was detected in acutely isolated pancreatic acini. Acinar cell morphology and expression of digestive enzymes were not affected by loss of GLP-1R. GLP-1 induced amylase secretion in wild-type (WT) acini. In GLP-1R KO mice, this effect was abolished, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced amylase release in KO acini showed a pattern similar to that in WT acini. GLP-1 stimulated cAMP production and increased protein kinase A-mediated protein phosphorylation in WT acini, and these effects were absent in KO acini. These data show that GLP-1R is present in pancreatic acinar cells and that GLP-1 can regulate secretion through its receptor and cAMP signaling pathway. PMID:26542397

  4. A Systems Biology Approach Identifies a Regulatory Network in Parotid Acinar Cell Terminal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Melissa A.; Venkatesh, Srirangapatnam G.; Lakshmanan, Jaganathan; Carenbauer, Anne L.; Perez, Sara M.; Andres, Sarah A.; Appana, Savitri; Brock, Guy N.; Wittliff, James L.; Darling, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transcription factor networks that drive parotid salivary gland progenitor cells to terminally differentiate, remain largely unknown and are vital to understanding the regeneration process. Methodology A systems biology approach was taken to measure mRNA and microRNA expression in vivo across acinar cell terminal differentiation in the rat parotid salivary gland. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to specifically isolate acinar cell RNA at times spanning the month-long period of parotid differentiation. Results Clustering of microarray measurements suggests that expression occurs in four stages. mRNA expression patterns suggest a novel role for Pparg which is transiently increased during mid postnatal differentiation in concert with several target gene mRNAs. 79 microRNAs are significantly differentially expressed across time. Profiles of statistically significant changes of mRNA expression, combined with reciprocal correlations of microRNAs and their target mRNAs, suggest a putative network involving Klf4, a differentiation inhibiting transcription factor, which decreases as several targeting microRNAs increase late in differentiation. The network suggests a molecular switch (involving Prdm1, Sox11, Pax5, miR-200a, and miR-30a) progressively decreases repression of Xbp1 gene transcription, in concert with decreased translational repression by miR-214. The transcription factor Xbp1 mRNA is initially low, increases progressively, and may be maintained by a positive feedback loop with Atf6. Transfection studies show that Xbp1Mist1 promoter. In addition, Xbp1 and Mist1 each activate the parotid secretory protein (Psp) gene, which encodes an abundant salivary protein, and is a marker of terminal differentiation. Conclusion This study identifies novel expression patterns of Pparg, Klf4, and Sox11 during parotid acinar cell differentiation, as well as numerous differentially expressed microRNAs. Network analysis identifies a novel stemness arm, a

  5. Tmem16A Encodes the Ca2+-activated Cl− Channel in Mouse Submandibular Salivary Gland Acinar Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, Victor G.; Catalán, Marcelo A.; Brown, David A.; Putzier, Ilva; Hartzell, H. Criss; Marmorstein, Alan D.; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Rock, Jason R.; Harfe, Brian D.; Melvin, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of an apical Ca2+-dependent Cl− channel (CaCC) is the rate-limiting step for fluid secretion in many exocrine tissues. Here, we compared the properties of native CaCC in mouse submandibular salivary gland acinar cells to the Ca2+-gated Cl− currents generated by Tmem16A and Best2, members from two distinct families of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels found in salivary glands. Heterologous expression of Tmem16A and Best2 transcripts in HEK293 cells produced Ca2+-activated Cl− currents with time and voltage dependence and inhibitor sensitivity that resembled the Ca2+-activated Cl− current found in native salivary acinar cells. Best2−/− and Tmem16A−/− mice were used to further characterize the role of these channels in the exocrine salivary gland. The amplitude and the biophysical footprint of the Ca2+-activated Cl− current in submandibular gland acinar cells from Best2-deficient mice were the same as in wild type cells. Consistent with this observation, the fluid secretion rate in Best2 null mice was comparable with that in wild type mice. In contrast, submandibular gland acinar cells from Tmem16A−/− mice lacked a Ca2+-activated Cl− current and a Ca2+-mobilizing agonist failed to stimulate Cl− efflux, requirements for fluid secretion. Furthermore, saliva secretion was abolished by the CaCC inhibitor niflumic acid in wild type and Best2−/− mice. Our results demonstrate that both Tmem16A and Best2 generate Ca2+-activated Cl− current in vitro with similar properties to those expressed in native cells, yet only Tmem16A appears to be a critical component of the acinar Ca2+-activated Cl− channel complex that is essential for saliva production by the submandibular gland. PMID:20177062

  6. A resected case of symptomatic acinar cell cystadenoma of the pancreas displacing the main pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Haruyoshi; Hatsuno, Tsuyoshi; Kinoshita, Mitsuru; Hasegawa, Kazuya; Ishihara, Hiromasa; Takano, Nao; Shimoyama, Satofumi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Masato; Ichihara, Shu; Kanda, Mitsuro; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Ken

    2016-12-01

    Acinar cell cystadenoma (ACA) of the pancreas has been newly recognized as an entity by the World Health Organization (WHO) definition (2010), and its pathogenesis has not been known adequately because of the rarity. Here, we report a case of a 22-year-old female who had been followed up for a cystic lesion at the tail of the pancreas pointed out by a screening computed tomography (CT) scan 7 years ago. The tumor grew in size from 3.3 to 5.1 cm in diameter for 6 years (0.3 cm per year). Particularly, it rapidly grew up to 6.3 cm in the latest 3 months in concurrence with the emergence of epigastralgia. A contrasted CT scan revealed the irregularly formed, multilocular cystic tumor having thin septum and calcification. The intratumoral magnetic resonance imaging intensity in the T1 and T2 weighted images were low and high, respectively. No communications between the tumor and the main pancreatic duct (MPD) were found, but the tumor displaced the MPD. She underwent surgical resection because the tumor was growing, turned symptomatic, and it seemed difficult to be diagnosed correctly until totally biopsied. Spleen-preserved distal pancreatectomy was performed. It was pathologically diagnosed as ACA; the cyst was lined by cells with normal acinar differentiation; cuboidal cells with round, basally oriented nuclei and eosinophilic granules in its apical cytoplasm. The abdominal pain has disappeared, and no recurrences have been found during a 5-year follow-up. Clinicians are recommended to consider an ACA as one of differential diagnoses of cystic tumors of the pancreas to provide appropriate diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:27108123

  7. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Overview of Clinicopathologic Features and Insights into the Molecular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Stefano; Sessa, Fausto; Capella, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) of the pancreas are rare pancreatic neoplasms accounting for about 1–2% of pancreatic tumors in adults and about 15% in pediatric subjects. They show different clinical symptoms at presentation, different morphological features, different outcomes, and different molecular alterations. This heterogeneous clinicopathological spectrum may give rise to difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis with consequential therapeutic and prognostic implications. The molecular mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of ACCs are still not completely understood, although in recent years, several attempts have been made to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in ACC biology. In this paper, we will review the main clinicopathological and molecular features of pancreatic ACCs of both adult and pediatric subjects to give the reader a comprehensive overview of this rare tumor type. PMID:26137463

  8. Prolonged Survival in a Patient with a Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ploquin, Anne; Baldini, Capucine; Vuagnat, Perrine; Makhloufi, Samira; Desauw, Christophe; Hebbar, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare entity. Herein we present the case of a 50-year-old male patient with an unlimited mass on the pancreatic corpus and tail with peripancreatic effusion and multiple metastases in the liver and spleen. A liver biopsy showed a pancreatic ACC. The patient received 9 cycles of gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (GEMOX regimen), which had to be stopped because of a persistent grade 2 neuropathy. A CT scan showed complete response after 14 years. At the age of 61 years, a localized prostatic cancer was diagnosed, treated by prostatectomy. The patient carried a BRCA2 mutation. None of the precedent case reports describe a chemosensibility to the GEMOX regimen. In spite of the lack of study in these patients, chemotherapy with oxaliplatin seems to be the most effective. Long survival can be expected. PMID:26600777

  9. Prolonged Survival in a Patient with a Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ploquin, Anne; Baldini, Capucine; Vuagnat, Perrine; Makhloufi, Samira; Desauw, Christophe; Hebbar, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare entity. Herein we present the case of a 50-year-old male patient with an unlimited mass on the pancreatic corpus and tail with peripancreatic effusion and multiple metastases in the liver and spleen. A liver biopsy showed a pancreatic ACC. The patient received 9 cycles of gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (GEMOX regimen), which had to be stopped because of a persistent grade 2 neuropathy. A CT scan showed complete response after 14 years. At the age of 61 years, a localized prostatic cancer was diagnosed, treated by prostatectomy. The patient carried a BRCA2 mutation. None of the precedent case reports describe a chemosensibility to the GEMOX regimen. In spite of the lack of study in these patients, chemotherapy with oxaliplatin seems to be the most effective. Long survival can be expected. PMID:26600777

  10. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini

    PubMed Central

    Gaiko-Shcherbak, Aljona; Fabris, Gloria; Dreissen, Georg; Merkel, Rudolf; Hoffmann, Bernd; Noetzel, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa) experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN) without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function. PMID:26674091

  11. Effect of ionizing radiation on acinar morphogenesis of human prostatic epithelial cells under three-dimensional culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; X, S Ma; Kong, D; Yi, H; Wang, X; Liang, B; Xu, H; He, M; Jia, L; Qased, A B; Yang, Y; Liu, X

    2012-01-01

    Homeostasis is maintained by the interplay of multiple factors that directly or indirectly regulate cell proliferation and cell death. Complex multiple interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix occur during acinar morphogenesis and changes in these might indicate carcinogenesis of cells from a normal to a malignant, invasive phenotype. In this study, the human prostatic epithelial cell line RWPE-1 was cultured under three-dimensional (3-D) culture conditions, and the effect of ionizing radiation on acinar morphogenesis and its association with autophagy were discussed. The results illustrated that formation of specific spheroid (acinar) structures was detectable under 3-D culture conditions. Radiation induced the disruption of acini in different cell models using either gene overexpression (Akt) or gene knock-down (Beclin 1 and ATG7). Introduction of Akt not only accelerated the growth of cells (i.e., caused the cells to manifest elongating and microspike-like structures that are obviously different from structures seen in wild-type RWPE-1 cells under two-dimensional conditions), but also changed their morphological characteristics under 3-D culture conditions. Knock-down of autophagy-related genes (Beclin 1 and ATG7) increased the radiosensitivity of cells under 3-D culture conditions, and cells died of non-apoptotic death after radiation. The results suggested that ionizing radiation may change the cell phenotype and the formation of acini. Additionally even the autophagy mechanism may play a role in these processes. PMID:22296497

  12. Up-regulation of Store-operated Ca2+ Entry and Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Promote the Acinar Phenotype of the Primary Human Salivary Gland Cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Shyh-Ing; Ong, Hwei Ling; Liu, Xibao; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu S

    2016-04-15

    The signaling pathways involved in the generation and maintenance of exocrine gland acinar cells have not yet been established. Primary human salivary gland epithelial cells, derived from salivary gland biopsies, acquired an acinar-like phenotype when the [Ca(2+)] in the serum-free medium (keratinocyte growth medium, KGM) was increased from 0.05 mm (KGM-L) to 1.2 mm (KGM-H). Here we examined the mechanism underlying this Ca(2+)-dependent generation of the acinar cell phenotype. Compared with cells in KGM-L, those in KGM-H display enhancement of Orai1, STIM1, STIM2, and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFAT1) expression together with an increase in store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), SOCE-dependent nuclear translocation of pGFP-NFAT1, and NFAT-dependent but not NFκB-dependent gene expression. Importantly, AQP5, an acinar-specific protein critical for function, is up-regulated in KGM-H via SOCE/NFAT-dependent gene expression. We identified critical NFAT binding motifs in the AQP5 promoter that are involved in Ca(2+)-dependent up-regulation of AQP5. These important findings reveal that the Ca(2+)-induced switch of salivary epithelial cells to an acinar-like phenotype involves remodeling of SOCE and NFAT signaling, which together control the expression of proteins critically relevant for acinar cell function. Our data provide a novel strategy for generating and maintaining acinar cells in culture. PMID:26903518

  13. The monoclonal anti-BCL10 antibody (clone 331.1) is a sensitive and specific marker of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma and pancreatic metaplasia.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Stefano; Franzi, Francesca; Marchet, Silvia; Finzi, Giovanna; Clerici, Moira; Vigetti, Davide; Chiaravalli, Anna Maria; Sessa, Fausto; Capella, Carlo

    2009-02-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare pancreatic cancer which may be difficult to distinguish from other solid nonadenocarcinoma tumors. The diagnosis depends on the demonstration of acinar differentiation, obtained with antibodies recognizing various pancreatic enzymes that, although specific, show different sensitivity. The C-terminal portion of the BCL10 protein shows homology with carboxyl ester hydrolase (CEH), an enzyme produced by pancreatic acinar cells. We investigated the usefulness of a C-terminal BCL10 monoclonal antibody in the diagnosis of ACCs. We examined normal pancreases and different pancreatic tumors including ACCs, mixed acinar-endocrine carcinomas, ductal adenocarcinomas, mucinous, serous, solid pseudopapillary, and endocrine neoplasms. In addition, various normal tissues and cases of pancreatic metaplasia of the gastroesophageal mucosa, cases of ectopic pancreas, gastrointestinal endocrine tumors, salivary and breast acinic cell carcinomas, gastric adenocarcinomas with and without acinar differentiation, and hepatocellular carcinomas were studied. BCL10 immunoreactivity paralleled that of CEH and was restricted to acinar cells of normal and ectopic pancreas, of pancreatic metaplasia, and of ACCs. The anti-BCL10 antibody was more sensitive in detecting ACCs and pancreatic metaplasia than antibodies directed against other pancreatic enzymes. We suggest using BCL10 antibody for diagnosing pancreatic tumors and whenever an acinar differentiation is suspected in gastrointestinal neoplastic and metaplastic lesions. PMID:19066953

  14. The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor E47 Reprograms Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells to a Quiescent Acinar State With Reduced Tumorigenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SangWun; Lahmy, Reyhaneh; Riha, Chelsea; Yang, Challeng; Jakubison, Brad L.; van Niekerk, Jaco; Staub, Claudio; Wu, Yifan; Gates, Keith; Dong, Duc Si; Konieczny, Stephen F.; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) initiates from quiescent acinar cells that attain a Kras mutation, lose signaling from basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, undergo acinar-ductal metaplasia, and rapidly acquire increased growth potential. We queried whether PDA cells can be reprogrammed to revert to their original quiescent acinar cell state by shifting key transcription programs. Methods Human PDA cell lines were engineered to express an inducible form of the bHLH protein E47. Gene expression, growth, and functional studies were investigated using microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblots, immunohistochemistry, small interfering RNA, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, and cell transplantation into mice. Results In human PDA cells, E47 activity triggers stable G0/G1 arrest, which requires the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and the stress response protein TP53INP1. Concurrently, E47 induces high level expression of acinar digestive enzymes and feed forward activation of the acinar maturation network regulated by the bHLH factor MIST1. Moreover, induction of E47 in human PDA cells in vitro is sufficient to inhibit tumorigenesis. Conclusions Human PDA cells retain a high degree of plasticity, which can be exploited to induce a quiescent acinar cell state with reduced tumorigenic potential. Moreover, bHLH activity is a critical node coordinately regulating human PDA cell growth versus cell fate. PMID:25894862

  15. Activation of Ca2+ entry into acinar cells by a non-phosphorylatable inositol trisphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, G. S. J.; Rossier, M. F.; Hughes, A. R.; Shears, S. B.; Armstrong, D. L.; , J. W. Putney, Jr.

    1991-07-01

    IN many cell types, receptor activation of phosphoinositidase C results in an initial release of intracellular Ca2+ stores followed by sustained Ca2+ entry across the plasma membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is the mediator of the initial Ca2+ release1, although its role in the mechanism underlying Ca2+ entry remains controversial1-6. We have now used two techniques to introduce inositol phosphates into mouse lacrimal acinar cells and measure their effects on Ca2+ entry: microinjection into cells loaded with Fura-2, a fluorescent dye which allows the measurement of intra-cellular free calcium concentration by microspectrofluorimetry, and perfusion of patch clamp pipettes in the whole-cell configuration while monitoring the activity of Ca2+-activated K+ channels as an indicator of intracellular Ca2+. We report here that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate serves as a signal that is both necessary and sufficient for receptor activation of Ca2+ entry across the plasma membrane in these cells.

  16. A model system for the study of stimulus - enzyme secretion coupling in rat pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Heisler, S

    1980-08-01

    A superfusion technique was developed as a model system for the study of stimulus-secretion coupling in collagenase-dispersed rat pancreatic acinar cells. Cells (10(7)) were combined with a slurry of Biogel P-4 beads and the mixture was decanted into a plastic column (1.5 cm X 8.5 cm) and perfused with Krebs-Ringer. Amylase activity was determined in sequentially collected effusate fractions and used to estimate the secretory rate. Carbachol, carbachol plus dibutyryl cyclic AMP, cholecystokinin-pancreozymin, and the ionophore A-23187 all stimulated a rapid increase in the rate of secretion. Cell integrity was unaffected by these stimulants as evidenced microscopically and by the lack of lactate dehydrogenase activity in the effusates. Enzymes secreted in response to secretagogues were collected, concentrated, and isoelectrofocused on polyacrylamide gels. A film detection technique was developed to localize amylase activity. The model system has the following advantages: (1) secreted proteolytic products are removed from the vicinity of cells, thereby preventing direct cellular damage and hydrolysis of peptide agonist; (2) the need to add trypsin inhibitors is eliminated and only a minimal addition of albumin (0.001%) is required, thus allowing the separation and distortion-free analysis of secreted proteins; (3) the perfusion conditions can be changed rapidly without disturbing the cells. The model described is therefore well suited to the study of both molecular and kinetic events involved in the enzyme secretory phenomenon in exocrine pancreas. PMID:6164455

  17. Rab27A Is Present in Mouse Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Is Required for Digestive Enzyme Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yanan; Ernst, Stephen A.; Stuenkel, Edward L.; Lentz, Stephen I.; Williams, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The small G-protein Rab27A has been shown to regulate the intracellular trafficking of secretory granules in various cell types. However, the presence, subcellular localization and functional impact of Rab27A on digestive enzyme secretion by mouse pancreatic acinar cells are poorly understood. Ashen mice, which lack the expression of Rab27A due to a spontaneous mutation, were used to investigate the function of Rab27A in pancreatic acinar cells. Isolated pancreatic acini were prepared from wild-type or ashen mouse pancreas by collagenase digestion, and CCK- or carbachol-induced amylase secretion was measured. Secretion occurring through the major-regulated secretory pathway, which is characterized by zymogen granules secretion, was visualized by Dextran-Texas Red labeling of exocytotic granules. The minor-regulated secretory pathway, which operates through the endosomal/lysosomal pathway, was characterized by luminal cell surface labeling of lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1). Compared to wild-type, expression of Rab27B was slightly increased in ashen mouse acini, while Rab3D and digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, chymotrypsin and elastase) were not affected. Localization of Rab27B, Rab3D and amylase by immunofluorescence was similar in both wild-type and ashen acinar cells. The GTP-bound states of Rab27B and Rab3D in wild-type and ashen mouse acini also remained similar in amount. In contrast, acini from ashen mice showed decreased amylase release induced by CCK- or carbachol. Rab27A deficiency reduced the apical cell surface labeling of LAMP1, but did not affect that of Dextran-Texas Red incorporation into the fusion pockets at luminal surface. These results show that Rab27A is present in mouse pancreatic acinar cells and mainly regulates secretion through the minor-regulated pathway. PMID:25951179

  18. A Novel Function of Noc2 in Agonist-Induced Intracellular Ca2+ Increase during Zymogen-Granule Exocytosis in Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Sho; Miki, Takashi; Seino, Susumu; Tamai, Seiichi; Kasai, Haruo; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2012-01-01

    Noc2, a putative Rab effector, contributes to secretory-granule exocytosis in neuroendocrine and exocrine cells. Here, using two-photon excitation live-cell imaging, we investigated its role in Ca2+-dependent zymogen granule (ZG) exocytosis in pancreatic acinar cells from wild-type (WT) and Noc2-knockout (KO) mice. Imaging of a KO acinar cell revealed an expanded granular area, indicating ZG accumulation. In our spatiotemporal analysis of the ZG exocytosis induced by agonist (cholecystokinin or acetylcholine) stimulation, the location and rate of progress of ZG exocytosis did not differ significantly between the two strains. ZG exocytosis from KO acinar cells was seldom observed at physiological concentrations of agonists, but was normal (vs. WT) at high concentrations. Flash photolysis of a caged calcium compound confirmed the integrity of the fusion step of ZG exocytosis in KO acinar cells. The decreased ZG exocytosis present at physiological concentrations of agonists raised the possibility of impaired elicitation of calcium spikes. When calcium spikes were evoked in KO acinar cells by a high agonist concentration: (a) they always started at the apical portion and traveled to the basal portion, and (b) calcium oscillations over the 10 µM level were observed, as in WT acinar cells. At physiological concentrations of agonists, however, sufficient calcium spikes were not observed, suggesting an impaired [Ca2+]i-increase mechanism in KO acinar cells. We propose that in pancreatic acinar cells, Noc2 is not indispensable for the membrane fusion of ZG per se, but instead performs a novel function favoring agonist-induced physiological [Ca2+]i increases. PMID:22615885

  19. A novel function of Noc2 in agonist-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase during zymogen-granule exocytosis in pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Sho; Miki, Takashi; Seino, Susumu; Tamai, Seiichi; Kasai, Haruo; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2012-01-01

    Noc2, a putative Rab effector, contributes to secretory-granule exocytosis in neuroendocrine and exocrine cells. Here, using two-photon excitation live-cell imaging, we investigated its role in Ca(2+)-dependent zymogen granule (ZG) exocytosis in pancreatic acinar cells from wild-type (WT) and Noc2-knockout (KO) mice. Imaging of a KO acinar cell revealed an expanded granular area, indicating ZG accumulation. In our spatiotemporal analysis of the ZG exocytosis induced by agonist (cholecystokinin or acetylcholine) stimulation, the location and rate of progress of ZG exocytosis did not differ significantly between the two strains. ZG exocytosis from KO acinar cells was seldom observed at physiological concentrations of agonists, but was normal (vs. WT) at high concentrations. Flash photolysis of a caged calcium compound confirmed the integrity of the fusion step of ZG exocytosis in KO acinar cells. The decreased ZG exocytosis present at physiological concentrations of agonists raised the possibility of impaired elicitation of calcium spikes. When calcium spikes were evoked in KO acinar cells by a high agonist concentration: (a) they always started at the apical portion and traveled to the basal portion, and (b) calcium oscillations over the 10 µM level were observed, as in WT acinar cells. At physiological concentrations of agonists, however, sufficient calcium spikes were not observed, suggesting an impaired [Ca(2+)](i)-increase mechanism in KO acinar cells. We propose that in pancreatic acinar cells, Noc2 is not indispensable for the membrane fusion of ZG per se, but instead performs a novel function favoring agonist-induced physiological [Ca(2+)](i) increases. PMID:22615885

  20. CCK independently activates intracellular trypsinogen and NF-kappaB in rat pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Han, B; Ji, B; Logsdon, C D

    2001-03-01

    In the cholecystokinin (CCK) hyperstimulation model of acute pancreatitis, two early intracellular events, activation of trypsinogen and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), are thought to be important in the development of the disease. In this study, the relationship between these two events was investigated. NF-kappaB activity was monitored by using a DNA binding assay and mob-1 chemokine gene expression. Intracellular trypsin activity was measured by using a fluorogenic substrate. Protease inhibitors including FUT-175, Pefabloc, and E-64d prevented CCK stimulation of intracellular trypsinogen and NF-kappaB activation. Likewise, the NF-kappaB inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibited CCK stimulation of NF-kappaB and intracellular trypsinogen activation. These results suggested a possible codependency of these two events. However, CCK stimulated NF-kappaB activation in Chinese hamster ovary-CCK(A) cells, which do not express trypsinogen, indicating that trypsin is not necessary for CCK activation of NF-kappaB. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated expression in acinar cells of active p65 subunits to stimulate NF-kappaB, or of inhibitory kappaB-alpha molecules to inhibit NF-kappaB, did not affect either basal or CCK-mediated trypsinogen activation. Thus trypsinogen and NF-kappaB activation are independent events stimulated by CCK. PMID:11171565

  1. Quantitative description of the spatial arrangement of organelles in a polarised secretory epithelial cell: the salivary gland acinar cell

    PubMed Central

    MAYHEW, TERRY M.

    1999-01-01

    Previous quantitative descriptions of cellular ultrastructure have focused on spatial content (volume, surface area and number of organelles and membrane domains). It is possible to complement such descriptions by also quantifying spatial arrangements. Hitherto, applications of stereological methods for achieving this (notably, estimation of covariance and pair correlation functions) have been confined to organ and tissue levels. This study explores 3-dimensional subcellular arrangements of key organelles within acinar cells of rabbit parotid salivary glands, highly polarised epithelial cells specialised for exocrine secretion of α-amylase. It focuses on spatial arrangements of secretion product stores (zymogen granules), rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and mitochondria. Systematic random samples of electron microscopical fields of view from 3 rabbits were analysed using test grids bearing linear dipole probes of different sizes. Unbiased estimates of organelle volume densities were obtained by point counting and estimates of covariance and pair correlation functions by dipole counting. Plots of pair correlation functions against dipole length identified spatial arrangement differences between organelle types. Volumes within RER and mitochondrial compartments were positively correlated with themselves at distances below 4 μm and 2 μm respectively but were essentially randomly arranged at longer distances. In sharp contrast, zymogen granules were not randomly arranged. They were clustered at distances below 6–7 μm and more widely scattered at greater distances. These findings provide quantitative confirmation of the polarised arrangement of zymogen granules within acinar cells and further support for the relative invariance of biological organisation between subjects. PMID:10337960

  2. Whole exome sequencing reveals recurrent mutations in BRCA2 and FAT genes in acinar cell carcinomas of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Toru; Sakamoto, Hitomi; Takeuchi, Shoko; Ameri, Mitra; Kuboki, Yuko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Hatori, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Sugiyama, Masanori; Ohike, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Michio; Shibata, Noriyuki; Shimizu, Kyoko; Shiratori, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis. Compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, its molecular features are poorly known. We studied a total of 11 acinar cell carcinomas, including 3 by exome and 4 by target sequencing. Exome sequencing revealed 65 nonsynonymous mutations and 22 indels with a mutation rate of 3.4 mutations/Mb per tumor, on average. By accounting for not only somatic but also germline mutations with loss of the wild-type allele, we identified recurrent mutations of BRCA2 and FAT genes. BRCA2 showed somatic or germline premature termination mutations, with loss of the wild-type allele in 3 of 7 tumors. FAT1, FAT3, and FAT4 showed somatic or germline missense mutations in 4 of 7 tumors. The germline FAT mutations were with loss of the wild-type allele. Loss of BRCA2 expression was observed in 5 of 11 tumors. One patient with a BRCA2-mutated tumor experienced complete remission of liver metastasis following cisplatinum chemotherapy. In conclusion, acinar cell carcinomas show a distinct mutation pattern and often harbor somatic or germline mutations of BRCA2 and FAT genes. This result may warrant assessment of BRCA2 abrogation in patients with the carcinoma to determine their sensitivity to chemotherapy. PMID:25743105

  3. Effects of caerulein on the apical cytoskeleton of the pancreatic acinar cell.

    PubMed Central

    O'Konski, M S; Pandol, S J

    1990-01-01

    In this study experiments were performed to correlate the rate of digestive enzyme secretion to morphologic observations of the apical cytoskeleton using dispersed rat pancreatic acini with various concentrations of caerulein. Caerulein at concentrations of 10 pM to 0.1 nM stimulated increasing rates of secretion of amylase, a digestive enzyme. Greater concentrations of caerulein caused progressively less amylase secretion. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated several characteristics of the apical cytoskeleton in untreated acini that were altered with the "inhibitory" concentrations of caerulein. In control acini and acini stimulated with concentrations of caerulein up to 0.1 nM, the micrographs reveal an apical actin network extending into microvilli, an intermediate filament band, and electron-dense structures contained in both the actin filament network and the intermediate filament band. With concentrations of caerulein greater than 0.1 nM, these structures were progressively ablated. The findings with respect to the actin filament network were confirmed with light microscopic observations of dispersed acini stained with rhodamine-phalloidin. These results indicate that caerulein has marked morphologic effects on the pancreatic acinar cell cytoskeleton and that the cytoskeletal changes may modulate the secretory response. Images PMID:1700797

  4. Characterization of receptors for VIP on pancreatic acinar cell plasma membranes using covalent cross-linking

    SciTech Connect

    McArthur, K.E.; Wood, C.L.; O'Dorisio, M.S.; Zhou, Z.C.; Gardner, J.D.; Jensen, R.T.

    1987-03-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors on guinea pig pancreatic acini differ from those on all other tissues in containing a high-affinity VIP receptor and a low-affinity VIP receptor that has a high affinity for secretin. To characterize the molecular components of these receptors, /sup 125/I-VIP was covalently cross-linked to these receptors by four different cross-linking agents: disuccinimidyl suberate, ethylene glycol bis (succinimidyl succinate), dithiobis (succinimidylpropionate), and m-maleimidobenzoyl N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated a single major polypeptide band of M/sub r/ 45,000 and a minor polypeptide band of M/sub r/ 30,000 were cross-linked to /sup 125/I-VIP. Covalent cross-linking only occurred when a cross-linking agent was added, was inhibited by GTP, was inhibited by VIP receptor agonist or antagonists that interact with VIP receptors, and not by other pancreatic secretagogues that interact with difference receptors. Thus the high-affinity VIP receptor on pancreatic acinar cell membranes consists of a single major polypeptide of M/sub r/ 45,000, and this polypeptide is not a subunit of a larger disulfide-linked structure. Furthermore, either the low-affinity VIP/secretin-preferring receptor was not covalently cross-linked under the experimental conditions or it consist of a major polypeptide with the same molecular weight as the high-affinity VIP receptor.

  5. Endogenous and monoclonal antibodies to the rat pancreatic acinar cell Golgi complex

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Normal, unimmunized mouse serum from several strains (BALB/c, C57/b, DBA/2, NZB, SJL, CD/1) contains an endogenous IgG antibody that localizes to the Golgi complex of rat pancreatic acinar cells. Treatment of pancreatic acini with 5 microM monensin resulted in the swelling and vacuolization of the Golgi cisternae, and in a corresponding annular staining by the mouse serum as observed by immunofluorescence, suggesting that the antigen recognized is on the Golgi complex cisternal membrane. The antiserum did not react with pancreatic secretory proteins, and its binding to smooth microsomal membranes was retained following sodium carbonate washing, supporting a Golgi membrane localization. Advantage was taken of the existence of the endogenous murine antibody for the isolation of monoclonal antibodies directed to the Golgi complex of the rat pancreas. Two antibodies, antiGolgi 1 and antiGolgi 2, are described. Both antibodies are IgMs that recognize integral membrane proteins of the trans-Golgi cisternae, with lighter and patchy staining of the pancreatic lumen membrane, as observed both by light and electron microscopy. AntiGolgi 1 recognizes predominately a protein of molecular weight 103,000- 108,000, whereas antiGolgi 2 shows a strong reaction to a 180-kd band as well as the 103-108-kd protein. PMID:6373788

  6. Mechanisms underlying InsP3-evoked global Ca2+ signals in mouse pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, Kevin E; Kidd, Jackie F; Tuft, Dick A; Thorn, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In secretory epithelial cells, complex patterns of Ca2+ signals regulate physiological processes. How these patterns are generated is still not fully understood. In particular, the basis of global Ca2+ waves is not clear. We have studied regional differences in InsP3-evoked Ca2+ release in single mouse pancreatic acinar cells, using high-speed (∼90 frames s−1), high-sensitivity Ca2+ imaging combined with rapid (10 ms) spot photolysis (2 μm diameter) of caged InsP3. Within a single region we measured Ca2+ response latency and rate of rise to construct an InsP3 dose-response relationship. Spot InsP3 liberation in the secretory pole region consistently elicited a dose-dependent, rapid release of Ca2+. Spot InsP3 liberation in the basal pole region of ∼50 % of cells elicited a similar dose-response relationship but with a lower apparent InsP3 affinity than in the secretory pole. In the other cells, basal pole InsP3 liberation did not elicit active Ca2+ release, even at the highest stimulus intensities we employed, although these same cells did respond when the stimulus spot was moved to different regions. We conclude that in the basal pole active sites of rapid Ca2+ release have a lower functional affinity for InsP3 than those in the secretory pole and are spread out in discrete sites across the basal pole. These properties explain the propagation of Ca2+ waves across the basal pole that are only observed at higher stimulus levels. PMID:10922004

  7. Functional role of an islet transcription factor, INSM1/IA-1, on pancreatic acinar cell trans-differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Saunee, Nicolle A.; Breslin, Mary B.; Song, Kejing; Lan, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the functional role of INSM1 is examined with an AR42J acinar cell model for trans-differentiation into insulin-positive cells. Islet transcription factors (ITFs: INSM1, Pdx-1, and NeuroD1) are over-expressed in AR42J cells using adenoviral vectors. Addition of Ad-INSM1 alone or the combination of three ITFs to the AR42J cells triggers cellular trans-differentiation. Ectopic expression of INSM1 directly induces insulin, Pax6, and Nkx6.1 expression, whereas Pdx-1 and NeuroD1 were slightly suppressed by INSM1. Addition of Pdx-1 and NeuroD1 with INSM1 further enhances endocrine trans-differentiation by increasing both the numbers and intensity of the insulin positive cells with simultaneous activation of ITFs, Ngn3 and MafA. INSM1 expression alone partially inhibits dexamethasone-induced exocrine amylase expression. The combination of the three ITFs completely inhibits amylase expression and concomitantly induces greater acinar cell trans-differentiation into endocrine cells. Also, addition of the three ITFs promotes EGF and TGFβ receptors expression. Stimulation by the three ITFs along with the EGF/TGFβ growth factors strongly promotes insulin gene expression. The combination of the three ITFs and EGF/TGFβ growth factors with the primary cultured pancreatic acini also facilitates exocrine to endocrine cell differentiation. Taken together, both the AR42J cell line and the primary cultured mouse acinar cells support INSM1 induced acini trans-differentiation model. PMID:21830214

  8. Giant cell arteritis presenting as scalp necrosis.

    PubMed

    Maidana, Daniel E; Muñoz, Silvia; Acebes, Xènia; Llatjós, Roger; Jucglà, Anna; Alvarez, Alba

    2011-01-01

    The differential of scalp ulceration in older patients should include several causes, such as herpes zoster, irritant contact dermatitis, ulcerated skin tumors, postirradiation ulcers, microbial infections, pyoderma gangrenosum, and giant cell arteritis. Scalp necrosis associated with giant cell arteritis was first described in the 1940s. The presence of this dermatological sign within giant cell arteritis represents a severity marker of this disease, with a higher mean age at diagnosis, an elevated risk of vision loss and tongue gangrene, as well as overall higher mortality rates, in comparison to patients not presenting this manifestation. Even though scalp necrosis due to giant cell arteritis is exceptional, a high level of suspicion must be held for this clinical finding, in order to initiate prompt and proper treatment and avoid blindness. PMID:21789466

  9. Apical Ca2+-activated potassium channels in mouse parotid acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Almassy, Janos; Won, Jong Hak; Begenisich, Ted B.

    2012-01-01

    Ca2+ activation of Cl and K channels is a key event underlying stimulated fluid secretion from parotid salivary glands. Cl channels are exclusively present on the apical plasma membrane (PM), whereas the localization of K channels has not been established. Mathematical models have suggested that localization of some K channels to the apical PM is optimum for fluid secretion. A combination of whole cell electrophysiology and temporally resolved digital imaging with local manipulation of intracellular [Ca2+] was used to investigate if Ca2+-activated K channels are present in the apical PM of parotid acinar cells. Initial experiments established Ca2+-buffering conditions that produced brief, localized increases in [Ca2+] after focal laser photolysis of caged Ca2+. Conditions were used to isolate K+ and Cl− conductances. Photolysis at the apical PM resulted in a robust increase in K+ and Cl− currents. A localized reduction in [Ca2+] at the apical PM after photolysis of Diazo-2, a caged Ca2+ chelator, resulted in a decrease in both K+ and Cl− currents. The K+ currents evoked by apical photolysis were partially blocked by both paxilline and TRAM-34, specific blockers of large-conductance “maxi-K” (BK) and intermediate K (IK), respectively, and almost abolished by incubation with both antagonists. Apical TRAM-34–sensitive K+ currents were also observed in BK-null parotid acini. In contrast, when the [Ca2+] was increased at the basal or lateral PM, no increase in either K+ or Cl− currents was evoked. These data provide strong evidence that K and Cl channels are similarly distributed in the apical PM. Furthermore, both IK and BK channels are present in this domain, and the density of these channels appears higher in the apical versus basolateral PM. Collectively, this study provides support for a model in which fluid secretion is optimized after expression of K channels specifically in the apical PM. PMID:22291145

  10. Depletion of intracellular calcium stores activates a calcium conducting nonselective cation current in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Krause, E; Pfeiffer, F; Schmid, A; Schulz, I

    1996-12-20

    Receptor-mediated Ca2+ release from inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca2+ stores causes "capacitative calcium entry" in many cell types (Putney, J. W., Jr. (1986) Cell Calcium 7, 1-12; Putney, J. W., Jr. (1990) Cell Calcium 11, 611-624). We used patch-clamp and fluorescence techniques in isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells to identify ion currents and cytosolic calcium concentrations under conditions in which intracellular Ca2+ stores were emptied. We found that depletion of Ca2+ stores activated a calcium-release-activated nonselective cation current (ICRANC) which did not discriminate between monovalent cations. ICRANC possessed a significant conductance for Ca2+ and Ba2+. It was not inhibited by La3+, Gd3+, Co2+, or Cd2+ but was completely abolished by flufenamic acid or genistein. In whole cell and cell-attached recordings, a 40-45 pS nonselective cation channel was identified which was activated by Ca2+ store depletion. Calcium entry as detected by single cell fluorescence measurements with fluo-3 or fura-2, showed the same pharmacological properties as ICRANC. We conclude that in mouse pancreatic acinar cells 40-45 pS nonselective cation channels serve as a pathway for capacitative Ca2+ entry. This entry pathway differs from the previously described ICRAC (Hoth, M., and Penner, R. (1992) Nature 355, 353-356) in its ion-selectivity, pharmacological profile, and single-channel conductance. PMID:8955076

  11. G protein in stimulation of PI hydrolysis by CCK (cholecystokinin) in isolated rat pancreatic acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matozaki, Takashi; Sakamoto, Choitsu; Nagao, Munehiko; Nishizaki, Hogara; Baba, Shigeaki )

    1988-11-01

    To clarify the possible role of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) in the signal transducing system activated by cholecystokinin (CCK), actions of CCK on rat pancreatic acini were compared with those of fluoride, a well-known activator of stimulatory (G{sub s}) or inhibitory (G{sub i}) G protein. When acini were incubated with increasing concentrations of either CCK-octapeptide (CCK8) or NaF, a maximal stimulation of amylase release from acini occurred at 100 pM CCK8 or 10 mM NaF, respectively; this secretory rate decreased as CCK8 or NaF concentration was increased. NaF caused an increase in cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} concentration from the internal Ca{sup 2+} store and stimulated accumulation of inositol phosphates in acini, as observed with CCK. Guanylimidodiphosphate activated the generation of inositol phosphates in the ({sup 3}H)inositol-labeled pancreatic acinar cell membrane preparation, with half-maximal and maximal stimulation at 1 and 10 {mu}M, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of submaximal CCK concentrations on inositol phosphate accumulation in membranes were markedly potentiated in the presence of 100 {mu}M GTP, which alone was ineffective. Combined findings of the present study strongly suggest that pancreatic CCK receptors are probably coupled to the activation of polyphosphoinositide (PI) breakdown by a G protein, which appears to be fluoride sensitive but is other than G{sub s}- or G{sub i}-like protein.

  12. Atp2c2 Is Transcribed From a Unique Transcriptional Start Site in Mouse Pancreatic Acinar Cells.

    PubMed

    Fenech, Melissa A; Sullivan, Caitlin M; Ferreira, Lucimar T; Mehmood, Rashid; MacDonald, William A; Stathopulos, Peter B; Pin, Christopher L

    2016-12-01

    Proper regulation of cytosolic Ca(2+) is critical for pancreatic acinar cell function. Disruptions in normal Ca(2+) concentrations affect numerous cellular functions and are associated with pancreatitis. Membrane pumps and channels regulate cytosolic Ca(2+) homeostasis by promoting rapid Ca(2+) movement. Determining how expression of Ca(2+) modulators is regulated and the cellular alterations that occur upon changes in expression can provide insight into initiating events of pancreatitis. The goal of this study was to delineate the gene structure and regulation of a novel pancreas-specific isoform for Secretory Pathway Ca(2+) ATPase 2 (termed SPCA2C), which is encoded from the Atp2c2 gene. Using Next Generation Sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq), chromatin immunoprecipitation for epigenetic modifications and promoter-reporter assays, a novel transcriptional start site was identified that promotes expression of a transcript containing the last four exons of the Atp2c2 gene (Atp2c2c). This region was enriched for epigenetic marks and pancreatic transcription factors that promote gene activation. Promoter activity for regions upstream of the ATG codon in Atp2c2's 24th exon was observed in vitro but not in in vivo. Translation from this ATG encodes a protein aligned with the carboxy terminal of SPCA2. Functional analysis in HEK 293A cells indicates a unique role for SPCA2C in increasing cytosolic Ca(2+) . RNA analysis indicates that the decreased Atp2c2c expression observed early in experimental pancreatitis reflects a global molecular response of acinar cells to reduce cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Combined, these results suggest SPCA2C affects Ca(2+) homeostasis in pancreatic acinar cells in a unique fashion relative to other Ca(2+) ATPases. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2768-2778, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27017909

  13. Cluster of Differentiation 38 (CD38) Mediates Bile Acid-induced Acinar Cell Injury and Pancreatitis through Cyclic ADP-ribose and Intracellular Calcium Release*

    PubMed Central

    Orabi, Abrahim I.; Muili, Kamaldeen A.; Javed, Tanveer A.; Jin, Shunqian; Jayaraman, Thottala; Lund, Frances E.; Husain, Sohail Z.

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant Ca2+ signals within pancreatic acinar cells are an early and critical feature in acute pancreatitis, yet it is unclear how these signals are generated. An important mediator of the aberrant Ca2+ signals due to bile acid exposure is the intracellular Ca2+ channel ryanodine receptor. One putative activator of the ryanodine receptor is the nucleotide second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), which is generated by an ectoenzyme ADP-ribosyl cyclase, CD38. In this study, we examined the role of CD38 and cADPR in acinar cell Ca2+ signals and acinar injury due to bile acids using pharmacologic inhibitors of CD38 and cADPR as well as mice deficient in Cd38 (Cd38−/−). Cytosolic Ca2+ signals were imaged using live time-lapse confocal microscopy in freshly isolated mouse acinar cells during perifusion with the bile acid taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLCS; 500 μm). To focus on intracellular Ca2+ release and to specifically exclude Ca2+ influx, cells were perifused in Ca2+-free medium. Cell injury was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase leakage and propidium iodide uptake. Pretreatment with either nicotinamide (20 mm) or the cADPR antagonist 8-Br-cADPR (30 μm) abrogated TLCS-induced Ca2+ signals and cell injury. TLCS-induced Ca2+ release and cell injury were reduced by 30 and 95%, respectively, in Cd38-deficient acinar cells compared with wild-type cells (p < 0.05). Cd38-deficient mice were protected against a model of bile acid infusion pancreatitis. In summary, these data indicate that CD38-cADPR mediates bile acid-induced pancreatitis and acinar cell injury through aberrant intracellular Ca2+ signaling. PMID:23940051

  14. DNA quantification as prognostic factor in a case of acinar cell carcinoma of the parotid gland, diagnosed by FNA.

    PubMed

    Azúa-Romeo, Javier; Sánchez-Garnica, Juan Carlos; Azúa-Blanco, Javier; Tovar-Lázaro, Mayte

    2005-01-01

    Hereby we present a case of a 43-years-old male who complained of a three years history preauricular painful mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed, diagnosing of compatible with acinar cell carcinoma, thus DNA quantification by image cytometry was carried out. Biological parameters studied (ploidy, S-phase, 5-c exceeding rate) showed that it is a low grade of malignancy lesion. Total parotidectomy conservative of facial nerve was recommended, without regional lymphadenectomy. Patient remains, one year later, asymptomatic and free of disease. PMID:16056182

  15. Delayed expression of large conductance K+ channels reshaping agonist-induced currents in mouse pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Oshiro, Takako; Takahashi, Hidenori; Ohsaga, Atsushi; Ebihara, Satoru; Sasaki, Hidetada; Maruyama, Yoshio

    2005-01-01

    Epithelial secretory cells display cell-specific mechanisms of fluid secretion and express large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (Maxi-K) channels that generate the membrane negativity for effective Cl− exit to the lumen. Rat and mouse pancreatic acinar cells had been thought to be peculiar in this sense because of the previously reported lack of Maxi-K channels. However, this view is not entirely correct as evidenced in the present paper. Searching for their presence in pancreatic acinar cells in mice from 5 to 84 weeks of age with patch-clamp current measurements, we demonstrated that the expression of Maxi-K channels is regulated in an age-associated manner after birth. The expression started at approximately 12 postnatal weeks and increased steadily up to 84 weeks. In support of this, RT-PCR could not detect mSlo mRNA, the Maxi-K gene, at either 7 or 8 weeks but could at 58 and 64 postnatal weeks. These results suggest that a key steering element for fluid secretion, the Maxi-K channel, is progressively re-organized in rodent pancreas. A pancreatic secretagogue, acetylcholine, evoked Maxi-K channel current overlapping to various degrees on the previously known current response. This suggests that the rise in internal Ca2+ activates Maxi-K channels which reshape the mode of secretagogue-evoked current response and contribute to Cl− driving in fluid secretion in an age-associated fashion. PMID:15611028

  16. Evidence that zymogen granules do not function as an intracellular Ca2+ store for the generation of the Ca2+ signal in rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nezu, Akihiro; Tanimura, Akihiko; Morita, Takao; Irie, Kazuharu; Yajima, Toshihiko; Tojyo, Yosuke

    2002-01-01

    Rat parotid acinar cells lacking zymogen granules were obtained by inducing granule discharge with the beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol. To assess whether zymogen granules are involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) signalling as intracellular Ca(2+) stores, changes in cytosolic free Ca(2+) ion concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) were studied with imaging microscopy in fura-2-loaded parotid acinar cells lacking zymogen granules. The increase in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by muscarinic receptor stimulation was initiated at the apical pole of the acinar cells, and rapidly spread as a Ca(2+) wave towards the basolateral region. The magnitude of the [Ca(2+)](i) response and the speed of the Ca(2+) wave were essentially similar to those in control acinar cells containing zymogen granules. Western blot analysis of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) was performed on zymogen granule membranes and microsomes using anti-IP(3)R antibodies. The immunoreactivity of all three IP(3)Rs was clearly observed in the microsomal preparations. Although a weak band of IP(3)R type-2 was detected in the zymogen granule membranes, this band probably resulted from contamination by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), because calnexin, a marker protein of the ER, was also detected in the same preparation. Furthermore, Western blotting and reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis failed to provide evidence for the expression of ryanodine receptors in rat parotid acinar cells, whereas expression was clearly detectable in rat skeletal muscle, heart and brain. These results suggest that zymogen granules do not have a critical role in Ca(2+) signalling in rat parotid acinar cells. PMID:11903047

  17. Insulation of a G protein-coupled receptor on the plasmalemmal surface of the pancreatic acinar cell

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Receptor desensitization is a key process for the protection of the cell from continuous or repeated exposure to high concentrations of an agonist. Well-established mechanisms for desensitization of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors include phosphorylation, sequestration/internalization, and down-regulation. In this work, we have examined some mechanisms for desensitization of the cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor which is native to the pancreatic acinar cell, and have found the predominant mechanism to be distinct from these recognized processes. Upon fluorescent agonist occupancy of the native receptor, it becomes "insulated" from the effects of acid washing and becomes immobilized on the surface of the plasma membrane in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. This localization was assessed by ultrastructural studies using a colloidal gold conjugate of CCK, and lateral mobility of the receptor was assessed using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Of note, recent application of the same morphologic techniques to a CCK receptor-bearing Chinese hamster ovary cell line demonstrated prominent internalization via the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway, as well as entry into caveolae (Roettger, B.F., R.U. Rentsch, D. Pinon, E. Holicky, E. Hadac, J.M. Larkin, and L.J. Miller, 1995, J. Cell Biol. 128: 1029-1041). These organelles are not observed to represent prominent compartments for the same receptor to traverse in the acinar cell, although fluorescent insulin is clearly internalized in these cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. In this work, the rate of lateral mobility of the CCK receptor is observed to be similar in both cell types (1-3 x 10(-10) cm2/s), while the fate of the agonist-occupied receptor is quite distinct in each cell. This supports the unique nature of desensitization processes which occur in a cell-specific manner. A plasmalemmal site of insulation of this important receptor on the pancreatic acinar cell

  18. Morphometric studies of secretory granule formation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Dissecting the early structural changes following pilocarpine injection

    PubMed Central

    HAMMEL, ILAN; SHOR-HAZAN, OSNAT; ELDAR, TORA; AMIHAI, DINA; LEW, SYLVIA

    1999-01-01

    Secretory granule formation in pancreatic acinar cells is known to involve massive membrane flow. In previous studies we have undertaken morphometry of the regranulation mechanism in these cells and in mast cells as a model for cellular membrane movement. In our current work, electron micrographs of pancreatic acinar cells from ICR mice were taken at several time points after extensive degranulation induced by pilocarpine injection in order to investigate the volume changes of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), nucleus, mitochondria and autophagosomes. At 2–4 h after stimulation, when the pancreatic cells demonstrated a complete loss of granules, this was accompanied by an increased proportion of autophagosomal activity. This change primarily reflected a greatly increased proportion of profiles retaining autophagic vacuoles containing recognisable cytoplasmic structures such as mitochondria, granule profiles and fragments of RER. The mitochondrial structures reached a significant maximal size 4 h following injection (before degranulation 0.178±0.028 μm3; at 4 h peak value, 0.535±0.109 μm3). Nucleus size showed an early volume increase approaching a maximum value 2 h following degranulation. The regranulation span was thus divided into 3 stages. The first was the membrane remodelling stage (0–2 h). During this period the volume of the RER and secretory granules was greatly decreased. At the intermediate stage (2–4 h) a significant increase of the synthesis zone was observed within the nucleus. The volume of the mitochondria was increasing. At the last step, the major finding was a significant granule accumulation in parallel with an active Golgi zone. PMID:10227666

  19. Role of protein kinase C in caerulein induced expression of substance P and neurokinin-1-receptors in murine pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Yung-Hua; Tamizhselvi, Ramasamy; Moochhala, Shabbir; Bian, Jin-Song; Bhatia, Madhav

    2011-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is involved in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP) via binding to its high-affinity receptor, neurokinin-1-receptor (NK1R). An up-regulation of SP and NK1R expression was observed in experimental AP and in caerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. However, the mechanisms that lead to this up-regulation are not fully understood. In this study, we showed the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in caerulein-induced SP and NK1R production in isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Caerulein (10−7 M) stimulation rapidly activated the conventional PKC-α and novel PKC-δ as observed by the phosphorylation of these molecules. Pre-treatment of pancreatic acinar cells with Gö6976 (1–10 nM) and rottlerin (1–10 μM) inhibited PKC-α and PKC-δ phosphorylation, respectively, but not the other way round. At these concentrations used, PKC-α and PKC-δ inhibition reversed the caerulein-induced up-regulation of SP and NK1R, indicating an important role of PKCs in the modulation of SP and NK1R expression. Further experiments looking into signalling mechanisms showed that treatment of pancreatic acinar cells with both Gö6976 and rottlerin inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Inhibition of PKC-α or PKC-δ also affected caerulein-induced transcription factor activation, as represented by nuclear factor-κB and AP-1 DNA-binding activity. The findings in this study suggested that PKC is upstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinases and transcription factors, which then lead to the up-regulation of SP/NK1R expression in caerulein-treated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:20973912

  20. Ae4 (Slc4a9) Anion Exchanger Drives Cl- Uptake-dependent Fluid Secretion by Mouse Submandibular Gland Acinar Cells.

    PubMed

    Peña-Münzenmayer, Gaspar; Catalán, Marcelo A; Kondo, Yusuke; Jaramillo, Yasna; Liu, Frances; Shull, Gary E; Melvin, James E

    2015-04-24

    Transcellular Cl(-) movement across acinar cells is the rate-limiting step for salivary gland fluid secretion. Basolateral Nkcc1 Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters play a critical role in fluid secretion by promoting the intracellular accumulation of Cl(-) above its equilibrium potential. However, salivation is only partially abolished in the absence of Nkcc1 cotransporter activity, suggesting that another Cl(-) uptake pathway concentrates Cl(-) ions in acinar cells. To identify alternative molecular mechanisms, we studied mice lacking Ae2 and Ae4 Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchangers. We found that salivation stimulated by muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptor agonists was normal in the submandibular glands of Ae2(-/-) mice. In contrast, saliva secretion was reduced by 35% in Ae4(-/-) mice. The decrease in salivation was not related to loss of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter or Na(+)/H(+) exchanger activity in Ae4(-/-) mice but correlated with reduced Cl(-) uptake during β-adrenergic receptor activation of cAMP signaling. Direct measurements of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger activity revealed that HCO3 (-)-dependent Cl(-) uptake was reduced in the acinar cells of Ae2(-/-) and Ae4(-/-) mice. Moreover, Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger activity was nearly abolished in double Ae4/Ae2 knock-out mice, suggesting that most of the Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger activity in submandibular acinar cells depends on Ae2 and Ae4 expression. In conclusion, both Ae2 and Ae4 anion exchangers are functionally expressed in submandibular acinar cells; however, only Ae4 expression appears to be important for cAMP-dependent regulation of fluid secretion. PMID:25745107

  1. Platelet-activating factor promotes motility in breast cancer cells and disrupts non-transformed breast acinar structures.

    PubMed

    Anandi, V Libi; Ashiq, K A; Nitheesh, K; Lahiri, M

    2016-01-01

    A plethora of studies have demonstrated that chronic inflammatory microenvironment influences the genesis and progression of tumors. Such microenvironments are enriched with various lipid mediators. Platelet activating factor (PAF, 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is one such lipid mediator that is secreted by different immune cell types during inflammation and by breast cancer cells upon stimulation with growth factors. Overexpression of PAF-receptor has also been observed in many other cancers. Here we report the possible roles of PAF in tumor initiation and progression. MCF10A, a non-transformed and non-malignant mammary epithelial cell line, when grown as 3D 'on-top' cultures form spheroids that have a distinct hollow lumen surrounded by a monolayer of epithelial cells. Exposure of these spheroids to PAF resulted in the formation of large deformed acinar structures with disrupted lumen, implying transformation. We then examined the response of transformed cells such as MDA-MB 231 to stimulation with PAF. We observed collective cell migration as well as motility at the single cell level on PAF induction, suggesting its role during metastasis. This increase in collective cell migration is mediated via PI3-kinase and/or JNK pathway and is independent of the MAP-kinase pathway. Taken together this study signifies a novel role of PAF in inducing transformation of non-tumorigenic cells and the vital role in promotion of breast cancer cell migration. PMID:26531049

  2. Actin and non-muscle myosin II facilitate apical exocytosis of tear proteins in rabbit lacrimal acinar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jerdeva, Galina V.; Wu, Kaijin; Yarber, Francie A.; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Kalman, Daniel; Schechter, Joel E.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The acinar epithelial cells of the lacrimal gland exocytose the contents of mature secretory vesicles containing tear proteins at their apical membranes in response to secretagogues. Here we use time-lapse confocal fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to investigate the changes in actin filaments located beneath the apical membrane during exocytosis evoked by the muscarinic agonist, carbachol (100 μM). Time-lapse confocal fluorescence microscopy of apical actin filaments in reconstituted rabbit lacrimal acini transduced with replication-deficient adenovirus containing GFP-actin revealed a relatively quiescent apical actin array in resting acini. Carbachol markedly increased apical actin filament turnover and also promoted transient actin assembly around apparent fusion intermediates. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements revealed significant (p≤0.05) increases and decreases, respectively, in mobile fraction (Mf) and turnover times (t½) for apical actin filaments in carbachol-stimulated acini relative to untreated acini. The myosin inhibitors, 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM, 10 mM, 15 min) and ML-7 (40 μM, 15 min), significantly decreased carbachol-stimulated secretion of bulk protein and the exogenous secretory vesicle marker, syncollin-GFP; these agents also promoted accumulation of actin-coated structures which were enriched, in transduced acini, in syncollin-GFP, confirming their identity as fusion intermediates. Actin-coated fusion intermediates were sized consistent with incorporation of multiple rather than single secretory vesicles; moreover, BDM and ML-7 caused a shift towards formation of multiple secretory vesicle aggregates while significantly increasing the diameter of actin-coated fusion intermediates. Our findings suggest that the increased turnover of apical actin filaments and the interaction of actin with non-muscle myosin II assembled around aggregates of secretory vesicles facilitate

  3. Adenovirus-mediated hAQP1 expression in irradiated mouse salivary glands causes recovery of saliva secretion by enhancing acinar cell volume decrease.

    PubMed

    Teos, L Y; Zheng, C-Y; Liu, X; Swaim, W D; Goldsmith, C M; Cotrim, A P; Baum, B J; Ambudkar, I S

    2016-07-01

    Head and neck irradiation (IR) during cancer treatment causes by-stander effects on the salivary glands leading to irreversible loss of saliva secretion. The mechanism underlying loss of fluid secretion is not understood and no adequate therapy is currently available. Delivery of an adenoviral vector encoding human aquaporin-1 (hAQP1) into the salivary glands of human subjects and animal models with radiation-induced salivary hypofunction leads to significant recovery of saliva secretion and symptomatic relief in subjects. To elucidate the mechanism underlying loss of salivary secretion and the basis for AdhAQP1-dependent recovery of salivary gland function we assessed submandibular gland function in control mice and mice 2 and 8 months after treatment with a single 15-Gy dose of IR (delivered to the salivary gland region). Salivary secretion and neurotransmitter-stimulated changes in acinar cell volume, an in vitro read-out for fluid secretion, were monitored. Consistent with the sustained 60% loss of fluid secretion following IR, a carbachol (CCh)-induced decrease in acinar cell volume from the glands of mice post IR was transient and attenuated as compared with that in cells from non-IR age-matched mice. The hAQP1 expression in non-IR mice induced no significant effect on salivary fluid secretion or CCh-stimulated cell volume changes, except in acinar cells from 8-month group where the initial rate of cell shrinkage was increased. Importantly, the expression of hAQP1 in the glands of mice post IR induced recovery of salivary fluid secretion and a volume decrease in acinar cells to levels similar to those in cells from non-IR mice. The initial rates of CCh-stimulated cell volume reduction in acinar cells from hAQP1-expressing glands post IR were similar to those from control cells. Altogether, the data suggest that expression of hAQP1 increases the water permeability of acinar cells, which underlies the recovery of fluid secretion in the salivary glands

  4. HCO3(-) secretion by murine nasal submucosal gland serous acinar cells during Ca2+-stimulated fluid secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert J; Harlow, Janice M; Limberis, Maria P; Wilson, James M; Foskett, J Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Airway submucosal glands contribute to airway surface liquid (ASL) composition and volume, both important for lung mucociliary clearance. Serous acini generate most of the fluid secreted by glands, but the molecular mechanisms remain poorly characterized. We previously described cholinergic-regulated fluid secretion driven by Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion in primary murine serous acinar cells revealed by simultaneous differential interference contrast (DIC) and fluorescence microscopy. Here, we evaluated whether Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion was accompanied by secretion of HCO(3)(-), possibly a critical ASL component, by simultaneous measurements of intracellular pH (pH(i)) and cell volume. Resting pH(i) was 7.17 +/- 0.01 in physiological medium (5% CO(2)-25 mM HCO(3)(-)). During carbachol (CCh) stimulation, pH(i) fell transiently by 0.08 +/- 0.01 U concomitantly with a fall in Cl(-) content revealed by cell shrinkage, reflecting Cl(-) secretion. A subsequent alkalinization elevated pH(i) to above resting levels until agonist removal, whereupon it returned to prestimulation values. In nominally CO(2)-HCO(3)(-)-free media, the CCh-induced acidification was reduced, whereas the alkalinization remained intact. Elimination of driving forces for conductive HCO(3)(-) efflux by ion substitution or exposure to the Cl(-) channel inhibitor niflumic acid (100 microM) strongly inhibited agonist-induced acidification by >80% and >70%, respectively. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) inhibitor dimethylamiloride (DMA) increased the magnitude (greater than twofold) and duration of the CCh-induced acidification. Gene expression profiling suggested that serous cells express NHE isoforms 1-4 and 6-9, but pharmacological sensitivities demonstrated that alkalinization observed during both CCh stimulation and pH(i) recovery from agonist-induced acidification was primarily due to NHE1, localized to the basolateral membrane. These results suggest that serous acinar cells secrete HCO(3

  5. Differentially expressed microRNA identification and target gene function analysis in starvation-induced autophagy of AR42J pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Wang, Duanping; Sun, Wang; Meng, Xianzhi; Zhang, Weihui; Xue, Dongbo

    2016-07-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute digestive tract disease, with increased morbidity and mortality, and an unclear pathogenesis. Trypsinogen activation in pancreatic acinar cells may be the primary mechanism underlying the development of AP. Previous studies reported that autophagy participates in the formation of acinar cell vacuoles in AP and in the process of trypsinogen activation as an important cause of AP. Furthermore, microRNAs (miRNAs) maintain the autophagy process by regulating the expression of autophagy‑associated genes. In the present study, an in vitro pancreatic acinar cell autophagy model was established using the AR42J starvation‑induced pancreatic acinar cell line. Twenty differentially expressed microRNAs were identified using miRNA microarray. Bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the target genes of miRNAs and analyze the functions of differentially expressed miRNAs. The results demonstrated that only the downregulated miRNA rno‑miR‑148b‑3p predicted 593 target genes with a statistical significance (P<0.05), from which 10 genes were autophagy‑associated. The results of gene ontology and pathway analyses demonstrated that the target genes of miRNAs were enriched in the Response to insulin stimulus, Regulation of cell death and the Insulin signaling pathways (P<0.05, FDR<0.05). In addition, protein‑protein interaction network analysis demonstrated a widespread interaction among the 593 target genes. The results of the present study may provide novel targets for research on the mechanisms of autophagy-promoted AP and AP treatment. PMID:27175615

  6. E-cadherin-negative acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas: report of a case showing a solid pseudopapillary growth pattern.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Waki, Michihiko; Azuma, Masaki; Koda, Kenji; Ohata, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    E-cadherin expression patterns in acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) of the pancreas have not been well documented. Herein, we present a hitherto undescribed case of E-cadherin-negative ACC with a solid pseudopapillary growth pattern in a 65-year-old man. We used an antibody against the extracellular domain of E-cadherin. As a further unusual status in ACC, faint β-catenin expression was observed in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells. Morphological distinction from a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas might be problematic in such a case, because of their similarities concerned with the growth pattern and E-cadherin negativity. Without nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, a diagnosis of SPN was almost excluded. Immunoreactivity for trypsin and BCL10 made an accurate diagnosis of ACC to this case. The tumor recurred 10 months post-surgery as rapidly enlarging masses in the liver, presumably indicating the aggressiveness of the E-cadherin-negative phenotype among ACCs. PMID:25600280

  7. Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Majno, G.; Joris, I.

    1995-01-01

    The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from ónkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7856735

  8. Damage to pancreatic acinar cells and preservation of islets of Langerhans in a rat model of acute pancreatitis induced by Karwinskia humboldtiana (buckthorn).

    PubMed

    Carcano-Diaz, Katya; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Segoviano-Ramirez, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Loera-Arias, Maria de Jesus; Garcia-Juarez, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    Karwinskia humboldtiana (Kh) is a poisonous plant that grows in some regions of the American continent. Consuming large amounts of Kh fruit results in acute intoxication leading to respiratory failure, culminating in death within days. There is evidence of histological damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys following accidental and experimental Kh intoxication. To date, the microscopic effect of Kh consumption on the pancreas has not been described. We examined the early effects of Kh fruit on pancreatic tissue at different stages of acute intoxication in the Wistar rat. We found progressive damage confined to the exocrine pancreas, starting with a reduction in the number of zymogen granules, loss of acinar architecture, the presence of autophagy-like vesicles, apoptosis and inflammatory infiltrate. The pancreatic pathology culminated in damaged acini characterized by necrosis and edema, with a complete loss of lobular architecture. Interestingly, the morphology of the islets of Langerhans was conserved throughout our evaluations. Taken together, our results indicate the damage induced by a high dose of Kh fruit in the Wistar rat is consistent with an early acute necrotizing pancreatitis that exclusively affects the exocrine pancreas. Therefore, this system might be useful as an animal model to study the treatment of pancreatic diseases. More importantly, as the islets of Langerhans were preserved, the active compounds of Kh fruit could be utilized for the treatment of acinar pancreatic cancer. Further studies might provide insight into the severity of acute Kh intoxication in humans and influence the design of treatments for pancreatic diseases and acinar pancreatic cancer. PMID:26877198

  9. Exocytosis in the dissociated pancreatic acinar cells of the guinea pig directly visualized by VEC-DIC microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Y; Sakurai, T; Habara, Y; Busik, J V; Kanno, T; Terakawa, S

    2000-10-14

    To elucidate the detailed process of exocytosis at the highest possible accuracy, we dissociated the pancreatic acinus of the guinea pig and observed zymogen granules under a video-enhanced contrast differential interference contrast (VEC-DIC) microscope. The preparation was thin enough to resolve each zymogen granule with the best clarity. When acinar cells were stimulated with ACh (20 microM), many zymogen granules near the lumen showed an abrupt light intensity change. For a period of 10 s immediately before exocytosis, zymogen granules neither shifted their position nor altered their shape within an accuracy of 38 nm. The time required for individual granules to change the light intensity (the releasing time) ranged from 0.15 to 0.70 s. After each response, the granule maintained its altered contrast for a few seconds until it was retrieved to a planar membrane. No compound exocytosis including granule-granule fusion was observed. We concluded that the exocytosis is not directly initiated by any supramolecular change but by a purely molecular event. PMID:11027653

  10. The p21-activated kinase, PAK2, is important in the activation of numerous pancreatic acinar cell signaling cascades and in the onset of early pancreatitis events.

    PubMed

    Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Ramos-Álvarez, Irene; Jensen, R T

    2016-06-01

    In a recent study we explored Group-1-p21-activated kinases (GP.1-PAKs) in rat pancreatic acini. Only PAK2 was present; it was activated by gastrointestinal-hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors in a PKC-, Src- and small-GTPase-mediated manner. PAK2 was required for enzyme-secretion and ERK/1-2-activation. In the present study we examined PAK2's role in CCK and TPA-activation of important distal signaling cascades mediating their physiological/pathophysiological effects and analyzed its role in pathophysiological processes important in early pancreatitis. In rat pancreatic acini, PAK2-inhibition by the specific, GP.1.PAK-inhibitor, IPA-3-suppressed cholecystokinin (CCK)/TPA-stimulated activation of focal-adhesion kinases and mitogen-activated protein-kinases. PAK2-inhibition reversed the dual stimulatory/inhibitory effect of CCK/TPA on the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway. However, its inhibition did not affect PKC activation. PAK2-inhibition protected acini from CCK-induced ROS-generation; caspase/trypsin-activation, important in early pancreatitis; as well as from cell-necrosis. Furthermore, PAK2-inhibition reduced proteolytic-activation of PAK-2p34, which is involved in programmed-cell-death. To ensure that the study did not only rely in the specificity of IPA-3 as a PAK inhibitor, we used two other approaches for PAK inhibition, FRAX597 a ATP-competitive-GP.1-PAKs-inhibitor and infection with a PAK2-dominant negative(DN)-Advirus. Those two approaches confirmed the results obtained with IPA-3. This study demonstrates that PAK2 is important in mediating CCK's effect on the activation of signaling-pathways known to mediate its physiological/pathophysiological responses including several cellular processes linked to the onset of pancreatitis. Our results suggest that PAK2 could be a new, important therapeutic target to consider for the treatment of diseases involving deregulation of pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:26912410

  11. Transdifferentiation of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells into acinar cells of the submandibular gland using a co-culture system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jingu; Park, Sangkyu; Roh, Sangho

    2015-05-15

    A loss of salivary gland function often occurs after radiation therapy in head and neck tumors, though secretion of saliva by the salivary glands is essential for the health and maintenance of the oral environment. Transplantation of salivary acinar cells (ACs), in part, may overcome the side effects of therapy. Here we directly differentiated mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) into ACs using a co-culture system. Multipotent ADSCs can be easily collected from stromal vascular fractions of adipose tissues. The isolated ADSCs showed positive expression of markers such as integrin beta-1 (CD29), cell surface glycoprotein (CD44), endoglin (CD105), and Nanog. The cells were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neural-like cells after 14 days in culture. ADSCs at passage 2 were co-cultured with mouse ACs in AC culture medium using the double-chamber (co-culture system) to avoid mixing the cell types. The ADSCs in this co-culture system expressed markers of ACs, such as α-amylases and aquaporin5, in both mRNA and protein. ADSCs cultured in AC-conditioned medium also expressed AC markers. Cellular proliferation and senescence analyses demonstrated that cells in the co-culture group showed lower senescence and a higher proliferation rate than the AC-conditioned medium group at Days 14 and 21. The results above imply direct conversion of ADSCs into ACs under the co-culture system; therefore, ADSCs may be a stem cell source for the therapy for salivary gland damage. - Highlights: • ADSCs could transdifferentiate into acinar cells (ACs) using ACs co-culture (CCA). • Transdifferentiated ADSCs expressed ACs markers such as α-amylase and aquaporin5. • High proliferation and low senescence were presented in CCA at Day 14. • Transdifferentiation of ADSCs into ACs using CCA may be an appropriate method for cell-based therapy.

  12. Ionizing irradiation induces apoptotic damage of salivary gland acinar cells via NADPH oxidase 1-dependent superoxide generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tateishi, Yoshihisa Sasabe, Eri; Ueta, Eisaku; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2008-02-08

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important roles in various physiological processes. Recently, several novel homologues of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase have been discovered and this protein family is now designated as the Nox family. We investigated the involvement of Nox family proteins in ionizing irradiation-induced ROS generation and impairment in immortalized salivary gland acinar cells (NS-SV-AC), which are radiosensitive, and immortalized ductal cells (NS-SV-DC), which are radioresistant. Nox1-mRNA was upregulated by {gamma}-ray irradiation in NS-SV-AC, and the ROS level in NS-SV-AC was increased to approximately threefold of the control level after 10 Gy irradiation. The increase of ROS level in NS-SV-AC was suppressed by Nox1-siRNA-transfection. In parallel with the suppression of ROS generation and Nox1-mRNA expression by Nox1-siRNA, ionizing irradiation-induced apoptosis was strongly decreased in Nox1-siRNA-transfected NS-SV-AC. There were no large differences in total SOD or catalase activities between NS-SV-AC and NS-SV-DC although the post-irradiation ROS level in NS-SV-AC was higher than that in NS-SV-DC. In conclusion, these results indicate that Nox1 plays a crucial role in irradiation-induced ROS generation and ROS-associated impairment of salivary gland cells and that Nox1 gene may be targeted for preservation of the salivary gland function from radiation-induced impairment.

  13. Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA…

  14. Cholecystokinin activates Gi1-, Gi2-, Gi3- and several Gs-proteins in rat pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schnefel, S; Pröfrock, A; Hinsch, K D; Schulz, I

    1990-01-01

    On separation of rat pancreatic plasma membrane proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 15 GTP-binding protein (G-protein) alpha-subunits could be detected immunochemically using an alpha common antibody. These consisted of five 48 kDa proteins (pI 5.70, 5.80, 5.90, 6.10 and 6.25) and five 45 kDa proteins (pI 5.90, 6.05, 6.25, 6.30 and 6.70), presumably corresponding to low- and high-molecular mass forms of the Gs-protein, as well as three 40/41 kDa proteins (pI 5.50, 5.70 and 6.00) and two 39 kDa proteins (pI 5.50 and 6.00). All of these proteins except for the more acidic 39 kDa protein were ADP-ribosylated by cholera toxin (CT). In addition, the three 40/41 kDa proteins and the more alkaline 39 kDa protein were also ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin (PT). CT- and PT-induced ADP-ribosylation changed the pI values of G-protein alpha-subunits by 0.2 pI units to more acidic values. Preincubation of isolated pancreatic membranes with cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-OP), which stimulates phospholipase C in acinar cells, decreased CT-induced as well as PT-induced ADP-ribosylation of the three 40/41 kDa proteins, whereas CT-induced ADP-ribosylation of one 45 kDa (pI 5.80) and all 48 kDa proteins was enhanced in the presence of CCK. Carbachol, another stimulant of phospholipase C, had no effect. The three 40/41 kDa proteins and one 48 kDa protein could be labelled with the GTP analogue [alpha-32P]GTP-gamma-azidoanilide. CCK, but not carbachol, stimulated incorporation of the GTP analogue into all of these four proteins. Using different anti-peptide antisera specific for alpha-subunits of G-proteins we identified the three 40/41 kDa Gi-proteins as Gi1 (pI 6.00), Gi2 (pI 5.50) and Gi3 (pI 5.70). The Gi3-protein was found to be the major Gi-protein of pancreatic plasma membranes. One of the 39 kDa proteins (pI 6.0) was identified as Go. These results indicate that CCK receptors functionally interact with six Gs-proteins and with Gi1, Gi2 and Gi3-proteins. Since

  15. Chronic Nicotine Exposure In Vivo and In Vitro Inhibits Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Uptake by Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Thrower, Edwin C.; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Balamurugan, A. N.; Subramanian, Veedamali S.; Gorelick, Fred S.; Said, Hamid M.

    2015-01-01

    Thiamin (vitamin B1), a member of the water-soluble family of vitamins, is essential for normal cellular functions; its deficiency results in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Pancreatic acinar cells (PAC) obtain thiamin from the circulation using a specific carrier-mediated process mediated by both thiamin transporters -1 and -2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2; encoded by the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes, respectively). The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of chronic exposure of mouse PAC in vivo and human PAC in vitro to nicotine (a major component of cigarette smoke that has been implicated in pancreatic diseases) on thiamin uptake and to delineate the mechanism involved. The results showed that chronic exposure of mice to nicotine significantly inhibits thiamin uptake in murine PAC, and that this inhibition is associated with a marked decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein, mRNA and hnRNAs level. Furthermore, expression of the important thiamin-metabolizing enzyme, thiamin pyrophosphokinase (TPKase), was significantly reduced in PAC of mice exposed to nicotine. Similarly, chronic exposure of cultured human PAC to nicotine (0.5 μM, 48 h) significantly inhibited thiamin uptake, which was also associated with a decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 proteins and mRNAs. This study demonstrates that chronic exposure of PAC to nicotine impairs the physiology and the molecular biology of the thiamin uptake process. Furthermore, the study suggests that the effect is, in part, mediated through transcriptional mechanism(s) affecting the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes. PMID:26633299

  16. Chronic Nicotine Exposure In Vivo and In Vitro Inhibits Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Uptake by Pancreatic Acinar Cells.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Thrower, Edwin C; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Balamurugan, A N; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Gorelick, Fred S; Said, Hamid M

    2015-01-01

    Thiamin (vitamin B1), a member of the water-soluble family of vitamins, is essential for normal cellular functions; its deficiency results in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Pancreatic acinar cells (PAC) obtain thiamin from the circulation using a specific carrier-mediated process mediated by both thiamin transporters -1 and -2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2; encoded by the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes, respectively). The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of chronic exposure of mouse PAC in vivo and human PAC in vitro to nicotine (a major component of cigarette smoke that has been implicated in pancreatic diseases) on thiamin uptake and to delineate the mechanism involved. The results showed that chronic exposure of mice to nicotine significantly inhibits thiamin uptake in murine PAC, and that this inhibition is associated with a marked decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein, mRNA and hnRNAs level. Furthermore, expression of the important thiamin-metabolizing enzyme, thiamin pyrophosphokinase (TPKase), was significantly reduced in PAC of mice exposed to nicotine. Similarly, chronic exposure of cultured human PAC to nicotine (0.5 μM, 48 h) significantly inhibited thiamin uptake, which was also associated with a decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 proteins and mRNAs. This study demonstrates that chronic exposure of PAC to nicotine impairs the physiology and the molecular biology of the thiamin uptake process. Furthermore, the study suggests that the effect is, in part, mediated through transcriptional mechanism(s) affecting the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes. PMID:26633299

  17. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants do not prevent tumour necrosis factor-induced necrosis of L929 cells.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Reagan M; Göttert, Jana; Murphy, Michael P; Ledgerwood, Elizabeth C

    2007-09-01

    Mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is widely reported as a central effector during TNF-induced necrosis. The effect of a family of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants on TNF-induced necrosis of L929 cells was studied. While the commonly used lipid-soluble antioxidant BHA effectively protected cells from TNF-induced necrosis, the mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQ(3), MitoQ(5), MitoQ(10) and MitoPBN had no effect on TNF-induced necrosis. Since BHA also acts as an uncoupler of mitochondrial membrane potential, two additional uncouplers were tested. FCCP and CCCP both provided dose-dependent inhibition of TNF-induced necrosis. In conclusion, the generation of mitochondrial ROS may not be necessary for TNF-induced necrosis. Instead, these results suggest alternative mitochondrial functions, such as a respiration-dependent process, are critical for necrotic death. PMID:17729122

  18. Blockade of ATP binding site of P2 purinoceptors in rat parotid acinar cells by isothiocyanate compounds.

    PubMed

    Soltoff, S P; McMillian, M K; Talamo, B R; Cantley, L C

    1993-05-01

    Extracellular ATP activates a P2Z-type purinergic receptor (purinoceptor) in rat parotid acinar cells that increases the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration via the entry of extracellular Ca2+ through an ATP-sensitive cation channel (Soltoff et al., Am J Physiol 262: C934-C940, 1992). To learn more about the ATP binding site of the purinoceptor, we examined the effects of several stilbene isothiocyanate analogs of DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid), which block the binding of [32P]ATP to intact parotid cells (McMillian et al., Biochem J 255:291-300, 1988) and blocked the activation of the P2Z purinoceptor. The ATP-stimulated 45Ca2+ uptake was blocked by DIDS, H2DIDS (dihydro-DIDS; 4,4'-diisothiocyanatodihydrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid), and SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid), but not by DNDS (4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid), a stilbene disulfonate compound lacking isothiocyanate (SCN-) groups, or by KSCN. The potency of the stilbene disulfonates was related to the number of isothiocyanate groups on each compound. Under the experimental conditions, the IC50 value of DIDS (approximately 35 microM), which has two SCN-groups, was much lower than that of SITS (approximately 125 microM), which has only one SCN-group. The inhibitory effects of DIDS appeared to be much more potent than those of SITS due to the kinetics of their binding to the purinoceptors. Eosin-5-isothiocyanate (EITC) and fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC), non-stilbene isothiocyanate compounds with single SCN-groups, also blocked the response to ATP and were less potent than DIDS. Trinitrophenyl-ATP (TNP-ATP), an ATP derivative that is not an effective agonist of the parotid P2Z receptor, blocked the covalent binding of DIDS to the plasma membrane, suggesting that ATP and DIDS bind to the same site. Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA), an anthraquinone-sulfonic acid derivative that is a noncovalent purinergic antagonist, also blocked

  19. Quantitative characterization of the protein contents of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell by soft x-ray microscopy and advanced digital imaging methods

    SciTech Connect

    Loo Jr., Billy W.

    2000-06-09

    The study of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell has been central to the development of models of many cellular processes, especially of protein transport and secretion. Traditional methods used to examine this system have provided a wealth of qualitative information from which mechanistic models have been inferred. However they have lacked the ability to make quantitative measurements, particularly of the distribution of protein in the cell, information critical for grounding of models in terms of magnitude and relative significance. This dissertation describes the development and application of new tools that were used to measure the protein content of the major intracellular compartments in the acinar cell, particularly the zymogen granule. Soft x-ray microscopy permits image formation with high resolution and contrast determined by the underlying protein content of tissue rather than staining avidity. A sample preparation method compatible with x-ray microscopy was developed and its properties evaluated. Automatic computerized methods were developed to acquire, calibrate, and analyze large volumes of x-ray microscopic images of exocrine pancreatic tissue sections. Statistics were compiled on the protein density of several organelles, and on the protein density, size, and spatial distribution of tens of thousands of zymogen granules. The results of these measurements, and how they compare to predictions of different models of protein transport, are discussed.

  20. X-ray-induced cell death: Apoptosis and necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Hisako; Shinohara, Kunio

    1994-10-01

    X-ray-induced cell death in MOLT-4N1, a subclone of MOLT-4 cells, and M10 cells was studied with respect to their modes of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis. MOLT-4N1 cells showed radiosensitivity similar to that of M10 cells, a radiosensitive mutant of L5178Y, as determined by the colony formation assay. Analysis of cell size demonstrated that MOLT-4N1 cells increased in size at an early stage after irradiation and then decreased to a size smaller than that of control cells, whereas the size of irradiated M10 cells increased continuously. Apoptosis detected by morphological changes and DNA ladder formation (the cleavage of DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments) occurred in X-irradiated MOLT-4N1 cells but not in M10 cells. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the ladder formation involved an intermediate-sized DNA (about 20 kbp). Most of the DNA was detected at the origin in both methods of electrophoresis in the case of M10 cells, though a trace amount of ladder formation was observed. Heat treatment of M10 cells induced apoptosis within 30 min after treatment, in contrast to MOLT-4N1 cells. The results suggest that apoptosis and necrosis are induced by X rays in a manner which is dependent on the cell line irrespective of the capability of the cells to develop apoptosis. DNA fragmentation was the earliest change observed in the development of apoptosis. 27 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. PKCαβγ- and PKCδ-dependent endocytosis of NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B in salivary parotid acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Clint; Baker, Olga J.; Reyland, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined membrane trafficking of NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B variants of the electrogenic Na+-HCO3− cotransporter (NBCe1) encoded by the SLC4A4 gene, using confocal fluorescent microscopy in rat parotid acinar cells (ParC5 and ParC10). We showed that yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged NBCe1-A and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NBCe1-B are colocalized with E-cadherin in the basolateral membrane (BLM) but not with the apical membrane marker zona occludens 1 (ZO-1). We inhibited constitutive recycling with monensin and W13 and detected that NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B accumulated in vesicles marked with the early endosomal marker early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1), with a parallel loss from the BLM. We observed that NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B undergo massive carbachol (CCh)-stimulated redistribution from the BLM into early endosomes. We showed that internalization of NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B was prevented by the general PKC inhibitor GF-109203X, the PKCαβγ-specific inhibitor Gö-6976, and the PKCδ-specific inhibitor rottlerin. We verified the involvement of PKCδ by blocking CCh-induced internalization of NBCe1-A-cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) in cells transfected with dominant-negative kinase-dead (Lys376Arg) PKCδ-GFP. Our data suggest that NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B undergo constitutive and CCh-stimulated endocytosis regulated by conventional PKCs (PKCαβγ) and by novel PKCδ in rat epithelial cells. To help develop a more complete model of the role of NBCe1 in parotid acinar cells we also investigated the initial phase of the secretory response to cholinergic agonist. In an Ussing chamber study we showed that inhibition of basolateral NBCe1 with 5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-3-(hydroxy-2-thienylmethylene)-2-oxo-1H-indole-1-carboxamide (tenidap) significantly decreases an initial phase of luminal anion secretion measured as a transient short-circuit current (Isc) across ParC10 cell monolayers. Using trafficking and functional data we propose a model that describes a physiological role of

  2. Diarachidonoylphosphoethanolamine induces necrosis/necroptosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yoshiko; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Kanno, Takeshi; Nakano, Takashi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated 1,2-diarachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DAPE)-induced cell death in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells. DAPE reduced cell viability in NCI-H28, NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452, and MSTO-211H MPM cell lines in a concentration (1-100μM)-dependent manner. In the flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V (AV), DAPE significantly increased the population of PI-positive and AV-negative cells, corresponding to primary necrosis, and that of PI-positive and AV-positive cells, corresponding to late apoptosis/secondary necrosis, in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced reduction of NCI-H28 cell viability was partially inhibited by necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of RIP1 kinase to induce necroptosis, or knocking-down RIP1. DAPE generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) followed by disruption of mitochondrial membrane potentials in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced mitochondrial damage was attenuated by cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of cyclophilin D (CypD). DAPE did not affect expression and mitochondrial localization of p53 protein in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE significantly decreased intracellular ATP concentrations in NCI-H28 cells. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that DAPE induces necroptosis and necrosis of MPM cells; the former is mediated by RIP1 kinase and the latter is caused by generating ROS and opening CypD-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore, to reduce intracellular ATP concentrations. PMID:26004138

  3. Acinar inflammatory response to lipid derivatives generated in necrotic fat during acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mateu, A; Ramudo, L; Manso, M A; Closa, D; De Dios, I

    2014-09-01

    Lipids play a role in acute pancreatitis (AP) progression. We investigate the ability of pancreatic acinar cells to trigger inflammatory response in the presence of lipid compounds generated in necrotic areas of peripancreatic adipose tissue (AT) during AP induced in rats by 5% sodium taurocholate. Lipid composition of AT was analyzed by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Acinar inflammatory response to total lipids as well as to either the free fatty acid (FFA) fraction or their chlorinated products (Cl-FFAs) was evaluated. For this, mRNA expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and P-selectin as well as the activation of MAPKs, NF-κB and STAT-3 were analyzed in pancreatic acini. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as an inducer of Cl-FFA generation, was also analyzed in AT. MPO activity significantly increased in necrotic (AT-N) induced changes in lipid composition of necrotic fat, such as increase in FFA and phospholipid (PL) content, generation of Cl-FFAs and increases in saturated FFAs and in the poly-:mono-unsaturated FFA ratio. Total lipids from AT-N induced overexpression of CCL2 and P-selectin in pancreatic acini as well as MAPKs phosphorylation and activation of NF-κB and STAT3. FFAs, but not Cl-FFAs, up-regulated CCL2 and P-selectin in acinar cells. We conclude that FFAs are capable of up-regulating inflammatory mediators in pancreatic acini and given that they are highly produced during AP, mainly may contribute to the inflammatory response triggered in acinar cells by fat necrosis. No role is played by Cl-FFAs generated as a result of neutrophil infiltration. PMID:24959971

  4. Digital necrosis with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Vinod; Ahmad, Ali; Alshatti, Yaqoub; Jafar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital necrosis is a rare phenomenon of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Since 1965, more than 70 cases have been reported worldwide in the literature. Case report A 54-year-old male smoker presented with Raynaud’s phenomenon, proceeding to frank gangrene of the fingers. Working up the case finally pointed toward carcinoma of the tonsil as the underlying cause – a rare paraneoplastic manifestation. Conclusion No definite etiology has been found to be the cause of Raynaud’s phenomenon in this case of the squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. A brief discussion of the literature is also presented. PMID:27390535

  5. Apoptosis, paraptosis, necrosis, and cell regeneration in posttraumatic cerebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Danaila, L; Popescu, I; Pais, V; Riga, D; Riga, S; Pais, E

    2013-01-01

    This study is to understand the nature and functional significance of the activated cell death programs and rehabilitation signs during late vascular changes after brain injury. We used light and transmission electron microscopy to describe changes of cells within the vascular endothelium and tunica media of the cortical arteries four weeks after craniocerebral traumatism. Within tunica media of the posttraumatic damaged artery, apoptotic and paraptotic phenotypes were identified as well as some early ultrastructural signs of smooth muscle cells regeneration, these cell highlighting a remarkable degree of plasticity. Surprisingly, some endothelial cells showed an extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum development, whereas other endothelial cells showed typical necrosis. In conclusion, two groups of suicidal cells apoptotic and paraptotic cells were encountered in the same lesional vascular wall after neurotrauma, showing also signs of cell regeneration. The pathophysiologic significance of the coexisting double cell death programs and cell regeneration seems to be in relation with late cell survival, after arterial damage when some cells disappear and other cells try to survive undergoing reversible injury. PMID:23790779

  6. The Distribution of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate in Acinar Cells of Rat Pancreas Revealed with the Freeze-Fracture Replica Labeling Method

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] is a phospholipid that has been implicated in multiple cellular activities. The distribution of PI(4,5)P2 has been analyzed extensively using live imaging of the GFP-coupled phospholipase C-δ1 pleckstrin homology domain in cultured cell lines. However, technical difficulties have prevented the study of PI(4,5)P2 in cells of in vivo tissues. We recently developed a method to analyze the nanoscale distribution of PI(4,5)P2 in cultured cells by using the quick-freezing and freeze-fracture replica labeling method. In principle, this method can be applied to any cell because it does not require the expression of artificial probes. In the present study, we modified the method to study cells of in vivo tissues and applied it to pancreatic exocrine acinar cells of the rat. We found that PI(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane is distributed in an equivalent density in the apical and basolateral domains, but exists in a significantly higher concentration in the gap junction. The intracellular organelles did not show labeling for PI(4,5)P2. The results are novel or different from the reported distribution patterns in cell lines and highlight the importance of studying cells differentiated in vivo. PMID:21858170

  7. Vaccinia Virus Induces Programmed Necrosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Whilding, Lynsey M; Archibald, Kyra M; Kulbe, Hagen; Balkwill, Frances R; Öberg, Daniel; McNeish, Iain A

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which oncolytic vaccinia virus induces tumor cell death are poorly understood. We have evaluated cell death pathways following infection of ovarian cancer cells with both wild-type and thymidine kinase-deleted (dTK) Lister strain vaccinia. We show that death does not rely upon classical apoptosis despite the appearances of some limited apoptotic features, including phosphatidylserine externalization and appearance of sub-G1 DNA populations. Vaccinia infection induces marked lipidation of LC3 proteins, but there is no general activation of the autophagic process and cell death does not rely upon autophagy induction. We show that vaccinia induces necrotic morphology on transmission electron microscopy, accompanied by marked by reductions in intracellular adenosine triphosphate, altered mitochondrial metabolism, and release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein. This necrotic cell death appears regulated, as infection induces formation of a receptor interacting protein (RIP1)/caspase-8 complex. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of both RIP1 and substrates downstream of RIP1, including MLKL, significantly attenuate cell death. Blockade of TNF-α, however, does not alter virus efficacy, suggesting that necrosis does not result from autocrine cytokine release. Overall, these results show that, in ovarian cancer cells, vaccinia virus causes necrotic cell death that is mediated through a programmed series of events. PMID:23985697

  8. Necrosis of lung epithelial cells during infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is preceded by cell permeation.

    PubMed

    Dobos, K M; Spotts, E A; Quinn, F D; King, C H

    2000-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis establishes infection, progresses towards disease, and is transmitted from the alveolus of the lung. However, the role of the alveolar epithelium in any of these pathogenic processes of tuberculosis is unclear. In this study, lung epithelial cells (A549) were used as a model in which to examine cytotoxicity during infection with either virulent or avirulent mycobacteria in order to further establish the role of the lung epithelium during tuberculosis. Infection of A549 cells with M. tuberculosis strains Erdman and CDC1551 demonstrated significant cell monolayer clearing, whereas infection with either Mycobacterium bovis BCG or Mycobacterium smegmatis LR222 did not. Clearing of M. tuberculosis-infected A549 cells correlated to necrosis, not apoptosis. Treatment of M. tuberculosis-infected A549 cells with streptomycin, but not cycloheximide, demonstrated a significant reduction in the necrosis of A549 cell monolayers. This mycobacterium-induced A549 necrosis did not correlate to higher levels of intracellular or extracellular growth by the mycobacteria during infection. Staining of infected cells with propidium iodide demonstrated that M. tuberculosis induced increased permeation of A549 cell membranes within 24 h postinfection. Quantitation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from infected cells further demonstrated that cell permeation was specific to M. tuberculosis infection and correlated to A549 cellular necrosis. Inactivated M. tuberculosis or its subcellular fractions did not result in A549 necrosis or LDH release. These studies demonstrate that lung epithelial cell cytotoxicity is specific to infection by virulent mycobacteria and is caused by cellular necrosis. This necrosis is not a direct correlate of mycobacterial growth or of the expression of host cell factors, but is preceded by permeation of the A549 cell membrane and requires infection with live bacilli. PMID:11035739

  9. Serotonin promotes acinar dedifferentiation following pancreatitis-induced regeneration in the adult pancreas.

    PubMed

    Saponara, Enrica; Grabliauskaite, Kamile; Bombardo, Marta; Buzzi, Raphael; Silva, Alberto B; Malagola, Ermanno; Tian, Yinghua; Hehl, Adrian B; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Seleznik, Gitta M; Zabel, Anja; Reding, Theresia; Sonda, Sabrina; Graf, Rolf

    2015-12-01

    The exocrine pancreas exhibits a distinctive capacity for tissue regeneration and renewal following injury. This regenerative ability has important implications for a variety of disorders, including pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, diseases associated with high morbidity and mortality. Thus, understanding its underlying mechanisms may help in developing therapeutic interventions. Serotonin has been recognized as a potent mitogen for a variety of cells and tissues. Here we investigated whether serotonin exerts a mitogenic effect in pancreatic acinar cells in three regenerative models, inflammatory tissue injury following pancreatitis, tissue loss following partial pancreatectomy, and thyroid hormone-stimulated acinar proliferation. Genetic and pharmacological techniques were used to modulate serotonin levels in vivo. Acinar dedifferentiation and cell cycle progression during the regenerative phase were investigated over the course of 2 weeks. By comparing acinar proliferation in the different murine models of regeneration, we found that serotonin did not affect the clonal regeneration of mature acinar cells. Serotonin was, however, required for acinar dedifferentiation following inflammation-mediated tissue injury. Specifically, lack of serotonin resulted in delayed up-regulation of progenitor genes and delayed the formation of acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and defective acinar cell proliferation. We identified serotonin-dependent acinar secretion as a key step in progenitor-based regeneration, as it promoted acinar cell dedifferentiation and the recruitment of type 2 macrophages. Finally, we identified a regulatory Hes1-Ptfa axis in the uninjured adult pancreas, activated by zymogen secretion. Our findings indicated that serotonin plays a critical role in the regeneration of the adult pancreas following pancreatitis by promoting the dedifferentiation of acinar cells. PMID:26235267

  10. Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Induces Rapid Cell Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Seike, Soshi; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Kobayashi, Keiko; Takehara, Masaya; Nagahama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin is a β-pore-forming toxin and a putative pathogenic agent of C. perfringens types B and C. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity of delta-toxin remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced by delta-toxin in five cell lines (A549, A431, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2). All cell lines were susceptible to delta-toxin. The toxin caused rapid ATP depletion and swelling of the cells. Delta-toxin bound and formed oligomers predominantly in plasma membrane lipid rafts. Destruction of the lipid rafts with methyl β-cyclodextrin inhibited delta-toxin-induced cytotoxicity and ATP depletion. Delta-toxin caused the release of carboxyfluorescein from sphingomyelin-cholesterol liposomes and formed oligomers; toxin binding to the liposomes declined with decreasing cholesterol content in the liposomes. Flow cytometric assays with annexin V and propidium iodide revealed that delta-toxin treatment induced an elevation in the population of annexin V-negative and propidium iodide-positive cells. Delta-toxin did not cause the fragmentation of DNA or caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, delta-toxin caused damage to mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release. In the present study, we demonstrate that delta-toxin produces cytotoxic activity through necrosis. PMID:26807591

  11. Pancreatic Acinar Cells Employ miRNAs as Mediators of Intercellular Communication to Participate in the Regulation of Pancreatitis-Associated Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Hao; Qiao, Xin; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage activation plays an important role in the inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis. In the present study, the activation of AR42J pancreatic acinar cells was induced by taurolithocholate treatment. The results showed that the culture medium from the activated AR42J cells significantly enhanced NFκB activation in the macrophages compared to that without taurolithocholate treatment. Additionally, the precipitates obtained from ultracentrifugation of the culture media that were rich in exosomes were markedly more potent in activating macrophages compared with the supernatant fraction lacking exosomes. The results indicated that the mediators carried by the exosomes played important roles in macrophage activation. Exosomal miRNAs were extracted and examined using microarrays. A total of 115 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, and 30 showed upregulated expression, while 85 displayed downregulated expression. Target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using TargetScan, MiRanda, and PicTar software programs. The putative target genes were subjected to KEGG functional analysis. The functions of the target genes were primarily enriched in MAPK pathways. Specifically, the target genes regulated macrophage activation through the TRAF6-TAB2-TAK1-NIK/IKK-NFκB pathway. As the mediators of signal transduction, miRNAs and their predicted target mRNAs regulate every step in the MAPK pathway. PMID:27546996

  12. Pancreatic Acinar Cells Employ miRNAs as Mediators of Intercellular Communication to Participate in the Regulation of Pancreatitis-Associated Macrophage Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Hao; Lu, Ming; Qiao, Xin; Sun, Bei; Zhang, Weihui; Xue, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage activation plays an important role in the inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis. In the present study, the activation of AR42J pancreatic acinar cells was induced by taurolithocholate treatment. The results showed that the culture medium from the activated AR42J cells significantly enhanced NFκB activation in the macrophages compared to that without taurolithocholate treatment. Additionally, the precipitates obtained from ultracentrifugation of the culture media that were rich in exosomes were markedly more potent in activating macrophages compared with the supernatant fraction lacking exosomes. The results indicated that the mediators carried by the exosomes played important roles in macrophage activation. Exosomal miRNAs were extracted and examined using microarrays. A total of 115 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, and 30 showed upregulated expression, while 85 displayed downregulated expression. Target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using TargetScan, MiRanda, and PicTar software programs. The putative target genes were subjected to KEGG functional analysis. The functions of the target genes were primarily enriched in MAPK pathways. Specifically, the target genes regulated macrophage activation through the TRAF6-TAB2-TAK1-NIK/IKK-NFκB pathway. As the mediators of signal transduction, miRNAs and their predicted target mRNAs regulate every step in the MAPK pathway. PMID:27546996

  13. APC alterations are frequently involved in the pathogenesis of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, mainly through gene loss and promoter hypermethylation.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Daniela; Sahnane, Nora; Bernasconi, Barbara; Frattini, Milo; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Molinari, Francesca; Marando, Alessandro; Zhang, Lizhi; Vanoli, Alessandro; Casnedi, Selenia; Adsay, Volkan; Notohara, Kenji; Albarello, Luca; Asioli, Sofia; Sessa, Fausto; Capella, Carlo; La Rosa, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Genetic and epigenetic alterations involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) are poorly characterized, including the frequency and role of gene-specific hypermethylation, chromosome aberrations, and copy number alterations (CNAs). A subset of ACCs is known to show alterations in the APC/β-catenin pathway which includes mutations of APC gene. However, it is not known whether, in addition to mutation, loss of APC gene function can occur through alternative genetic and epigenetic mechanisms such as gene loss or promoter methylation. We investigated the global methylation profile of 34 tumor suppressor genes, CNAs of 52 chromosomal regions, and APC gene alterations (mutation, methylation, and loss) together with APC mRNA level in 45 ACCs and related peritumoral pancreatic tissues using methylation-specific multiplex ligation probe amplification (MS-MLPA), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), mutation analysis, and reverse transcription-droplet digital PCR. ACCs did not show an extensive global gene hypermethylation profile. RASSF1 and APC were the only two genes frequently methylated. APC mutations were found in only 7 % of cases, while APC loss and methylation were more frequently observed (48 and 56 % of ACCs, respectively). APC mRNA low levels were found in 58 % of cases and correlated with CNAs. In conclusion, ACCs do not show extensive global gene hypermethylation. APC alterations are frequently involved in the pathogenesis of ACCs mainly through gene loss and promoter hypermethylation, along with reduction of APC mRNA levels. PMID:24590585

  14. Allograft pancreas: pale acinar nodules.

    PubMed

    Troxell, Megan L; Drachenberg, Cinthia

    2016-08-01

    Microscopic pale-staining acinar nodules were characterized in native pancreas in the 1980s under a variety of names but have been infrequently reported since. We retrospectively studied the frequency and characteristics of pale acinar nodules in allograft pancreas biopsies, as compared to a sampling of native pancreas specimens at our center. Pale acinar nodules were present in 13% (9/69) of allograft biopsies from 22% (7/32) of transplant patients, and 23% (5/22) of native pancreas surgical specimens, although more nodules per pancreas area were present in allograft needle biopsies. Acinar nodules had size of 100 to 700 μm, were periodic acid-Schiff pale, were synaptophysin negative, stained more weakly with keratin CAM 5.2 compared to surrounding parenchyma, and had a low proliferative rate. Ultrastructural evaluation revealed paucity of zymogen granules with dilated cistern-like structures. In our experience, pale acinar nodules have similar features in allograft and native pancreas specimens, yet remain of uncertain etiology and significance. PMID:27063474

  15. Necrosis, and then stress induced necrosis-like cell death, but not apoptosis, should be the preferred cell death mode for chemotherapy: clearance of a few misconceptions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ju; Lou, Xiaomin; Jin, Longyu; Zhou, Rongjia; Liu, Siqi; Xu, Ningzhi; Liao, D. Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Cell death overarches carcinogenesis and is a center of cancer researches, especially therapy studies. There have been many nomenclatures on cell death, but only three cell death modes are genuine, i.e. apoptosis, necrosis and stress-induced cell death (SICD). Like apoptosis, SICD is programmed. Like necrosis, SICD is a pathological event and may trigger regeneration and scar formation. Therefore, SICD has subtypes of stress-induced apoptosis-like cell death (SIaLCD) and stress-induced necrosis-like cell death (SInLCD). Whereas apoptosis removes redundant but healthy cells, SICD removes useful but ill or damaged cells. Many studies on cell death involve cancer tissues that resemble parasites in the host patients, which is a complicated system as it involves immune clearance of the alien cancer cells by the host. Cancer resembles an evolutionarily lower-level organism having a weaker apoptosis potential and poorer DNA repair mechanisms. Hence, targeting apoptosis for cancer therapy, i.e. killing via SIaLCD, will be less efficacious and more toxic. On the other hand, necrosis of cancer cells releases cellular debris and components to stimulate immune function, thus counteracting therapy-caused immune suppression and making necrosis better than SIaLCD for chemo drug development. PMID:25594039

  16. Novel Lipophilic Probe for Detecting Near-Membrane Reactive Oxygen Species Responses and Its Application for Studies of Pancreatic Acinar Cells: Effects of Pyocyanin and L-Ornithine

    PubMed Central

    Chvanov, Michael; Huang, Wei; Jin, Tao; Wen, Li; Armstrong, Jane; Elliot, Vicky; Alston, Ben; Burdyga, Alex; Criddle, David N.; Sutton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The aim of this study was to develop a fluorescent reactive oxygen species (ROS) probe, which is preferentially localized in cellular membranes and displays a strong change in fluorescence upon oxidation. We also aimed to test the performance of this probe for detecting pathophysiologically relevant ROS responses in isolated cells. Results: We introduced a novel lipophilic ROS probe dihydrorhodamine B octadecyl ester (H2RB-C18). We then applied the new probe to characterize the ROS changes triggered by inducers of acute pancreatitis in pancreatic acinar cells. We resolved ROS changes produced by L-ornithine, L-arginine, cholecystokinin-8, acetylcholine, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate, palmitoleic acid ethyl ester, and the bacterial toxin pyocyanin. Particularly prominent ROS responses were induced by pyocyanin and L-ornithine. These ROS responses were accompanied by changes in cytosolic Ca2+concentration ([Ca2+]i), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), and NAD(P)H concentration. Innovation: The study describes a novel sensitive lipophilic ROS probe. The probe is particularly suitable for detecting ROS in near-membrane regions and therefore for reporting the ROS environment of plasma membrane channels and pumps. Conclusions: In our experimental conditions, the novel probe was more sensitive than 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (CM-H2DCF) and dihydrorhodamine123 (H2R123) and allowed us to resolve ROS responses to secretagogues, pyocyanin, and L-ornithine. Changes in the fluorescence of the new probe were particularly prominent in the peripheral plasma membrane-associated regions. Our findings suggest that the new probe will be a useful tool in studies of the contribution of ROS to the pathophysiology of exocrine pancreas and other organs/tissues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 451–464. PMID:24635199

  17. AICAR induces AMPK-independent programmed necrosis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Liu, Shuang-Qing; Gao, Xing-Hua; Zhang, Long-Yang

    2016-05-27

    AICAR (5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or acadesine) is an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist, which induces cytotoxic effect to several cancer cells. Its potential activity in prostate cancer cells and the underlying signaling mechanisms have not been extensively studied. Here, we showed that AICAR primarily induced programmed necrosis, but not apoptosis, in prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, PC-3 and PC-82 lines). AICAR's cytotoxicity to prostate cancer cells was largely attenuated by the necrosis inhibitor necrostatin-1. Mitochondrial protein cyclophilin-D (CYPD) is required for AICAR-induced programmed necrosis. CYPD inhibitors (cyclosporin A and sanglifehrin A) as well as CYPD shRNAs dramatically attenuated AICAR-induced prostate cancer cell necrosis and cytotoxicity. Notably, AICAR-induced cell necrosis appeared independent of AMPK, yet requiring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. ROS scavengers (N-acetylcysteine and MnTBAP), but not AMPKα shRNAs, largely inhibited prostate cancer cell necrosis and cytotoxicity by AICAR. In summary, the results of the present study demonstrate mechanistic evidences that AMPK-independent programmed necrosis contributes to AICAR's cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells. PMID:27103440

  18. Fast Neutron Induced Autophagy Leads To Necrosis In Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Linda; Gladden, Samantha; Andorf, Christine; Kroc, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Fast neutrons are highly effective at killing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), U87 and U251 cells. The mode of cell death was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify the fraction of irradiated U87 or U251 cells having morphological features of autophagy and/or necrosis. U87 or U251 cells were irradiated with 2 Gy fast neturons or 10 Gy γ rays. A majority of U87 and U251 cells exhibit features of cell death with autophagy after irradiation with either 10 Gy γ rays or 2 Gy fast neutrons. Very few γ irradiated cells had features of necrosis (U87 or U251 cell samples processed for TEM 1 day after 10 Gy γ irradiation). In contrast, a significant increase was observed in necrotic U87 and U251 cells irradiated with fast neutrons. These results show a greater percentage of cells exhibit morphological evidence of necrosis induced by a lower dose of fast neutron irradiation compared to γ irradiation. Also, the evidence of necrosis in fast neutron irradiated U87 and U251 cells occurs in a background of autophagy. Since autophagy is observed before necrosis, autophagy may play a role in signaling programmed necrosis in fast neutron irradiated U87 and U251 cells.

  19. Fast Neutron Induced Autophagy Leads To Necrosis In Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Linda; Gladden, Samantha; Andorf, Christine; Kroc, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Fast neutrons are highly effective at killing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), U87 and U251 cells. The mode of cell death was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify the fraction of irradiated U87 or U251 cells having morphological features of autophagy and/or necrosis. U87 or U251 cells were irradiated with 2 Gy fast neturons or 10 Gy {gamma} rays. A majority of U87 and U251 cells exhibit features of cell death with autophagy after irradiation with either 10 Gy {gamma} rays or 2 Gy fast neutrons. Very few {gamma} irradiated cells had features of necrosis (U87 or U251 cell samples processed for TEM 1 day after 10 Gy {gamma} irradiation). In contrast, a significant increase was observed in necrotic U87 and U251 cells irradiated with fast neutrons. These results show a greater percentage of cells exhibit morphological evidence of necrosis induced by a lower dose of fast neutron irradiation compared to {gamma} irradiation. Also, the evidence of necrosis in fast neutron irradiated U87 and U251 cells occurs in a background of autophagy. Since autophagy is observed before necrosis, autophagy may play a role in signaling programmed necrosis in fast neutron irradiated U87 and U251 cells.

  20. Nonenzymatic cryogenic isolation of therapeutic cells: novel approach for enzyme-free isolation of pancreatic islets using in situ cryopreservation of islets and concurrent selective freeze destruction of acinar tissue.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael J; Baicu, Simona C

    2014-01-01

    Cell-based therapies, which all involve processes for procurement and reimplantation of living cells, currently rely upon expensive, inconsistent, and even toxic enzyme digestion processes. A prime example is the preparation of isolated pancreatic islets for the treatment of type 1 diabetes by transplantation. To avoid the inherent pitfalls of these enzymatic methods, we have conceptualized an alternative approach based on the hypothesis that cryobiological techniques can be used for differential freeze destruction of the pancreas (Px) to release islets that are selectively cryopreserved in situ. Pancreata were procured from juvenile pigs using approved procedures. The concept of cryoisolation is based on differential processing of the pancreas in five stages: 1) infiltrating islets in situ preferentially with a cryoprotectant (CPA) cocktail via antegrade perfusion of the major arteries; 2) retrograde ductal infusion of water to distend the acinar; 3) freezing the entire Px solid to < -160°C for storage in liquid nitrogen; 4) mechanically crushing and pulverizing the frozen Px into small fragments; 5) thawing the frozen fragments, filtering, and washing to remove the CPA. Finally, the filtered effluent (cryoisolate) was stained with dithizone for identification of intact islets and with Syto 13/PI for fluorescence viability testing and glucose-stimulated insulin release assessment. As predicted, the cryoisolate contained small fragments of residual tissue comprising an amorphous mass of acinar tissue with largely intact and viable (>90%) embedded islets. Islets were typically larger (range 50-500 µm diameter) than their counterparts isolated from juvenile pigs using conventional enzyme digestion techniques. Functionally, the islets from replicate cryoisolates responded to a glucose challenge with a mean stimulation index = 3.3 ± 0.7. An enzyme-free method of islet isolation relying on in situ cryopreservation of islets with simultaneous freeze

  1. Polybrene: Observations on cochlear hair cell necrosis and minimal lentiviral transduction of cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Miaomiao; Yu, Dongzhen; Song, Qiang; Wang, Jiping; Dong, Pin; He, Jingchun

    2015-07-23

    Polybrene is widely used to enhance viral transduction; however, little is known about the utility thereof, in enhancing lentiviral transduction of cochlear cells. In the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of polybrene, and the further effects thereof, on lentiviral transduction of cochlear cells, especially sensory hair cells. Cochlear basilar membranes of newborn rats were cultured and treated with 0.1-10 μg/mL polybrene for 24h to explore the potential development of ototoxicity. PI staining and TUNEL detection were used to evaluate necrosis or apoptosis of hair cell. Various doses of lentivirus-GFP were added to cochlear organotypic cultures with safe concentrations of polybrene, incubated for 24h, and cultured (in the absence of the virus and polybrene) for a further 48 h. Transduction efficiencies were evaluated. The results showed that polybrene at 0.1 μg/mL was safe to cochlear cells, and 0.5-10 μg/mL concentration induced hair cell necrosis in a dose-dependent manner. However, supporting cells were not damaged. Lentiviral vectors transduced into cochlear cells and 0.1 μg/mL polybrene enhanced transduction efficiency. However, hair cells were hardly transduced with lentiviral vectors either alone or in the presence of 0.1 μg/mL polybrene. The use of polybrene to aid lentiviral transduction of cochlear hair cells requires further attention. PMID:26071903

  2. Both necrosis and apoptosis contribute to HIV-1-induced killing of CD4 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plymale, D. R.; Tang, D. S.; Comardelle, A. M.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Garry, R. F.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data currently available on HIV-1-induced cytopathology is unclear regarding the mechanism of cell killing. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the extent to which apoptosis or necrosis is involved in HIV-1-induced cell death in view of conflicting existing data. METHODS: T lymphoblastoid cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected by various strains of HIV-1 and the numbers of apoptotic or necrotic cells were quantified at various times after infection using video-image analysis techniques; the results were compared with the amount of fragmented DNA using a quantitative method. Measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (deltapsi(m)) and intracellular calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i was performed with fluorescent probes and fluorescence concentration analysis (FCA). RESULTS: Although lymphoblastoid and monocytoid cells acutely infected by HIV-1 had increased levels of fragmented DNA, a marker of apoptotic cell death, few (<12%) had condensed chromatin and fragmented nuclei, the morphological features of apoptosis. The predominant alterations in acutely infected cells were distended endoplasmic reticulum and abnormal mitochondria; these ultrastructural changes are consistent with necrosis, although some infected cells simultaneously displayed features of both necrosis and apoptosis. Viability of cells persistently infected by HIV-1 was only minimally reduced from that of uninfected cells. This reduction was accounted for by an increased propensity of the persistently infected cells to die by apoptosis. Alterations in [Ca2+]i and deltapsi(m) occurred in both acutely and persistently infected cells. CONCLUSION: Both necrosis and apoptosis contribute to HIV-1-induced killing of CD4 cells.

  3. Forehead necrosis, one of the many facades of giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Vanessa Elizabeth; Young-Zvandasara, Tafadzwa; Vusirikala, Bharati

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is known to be a potentially blinding condition. Swift diagnosis can aid in preventing permanent visual loss and, more importantly, protect the contralateral eye. Classical symptoms include jaw claudication, myalgia and new-onset headache. We present two cases of GCA with scalp necrosis, a rare feature associated with this condition. In the first case, forehead necrosis preceded the visual symptoms by 2 days. In the second case it was noted a few weeks after the patient presented with profound unilateral loss of vision. Scalp necrosis is an important sign that should prompt those approached by these patients to consider GCA. PMID:25953578

  4. TRAIL-induced programmed necrosis as a novel approach to eliminate tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The cytokine TRAIL represents one of the most promising candidates for the apoptotic elimination of tumor cells, either alone or in combination therapies. However, its efficacy is often limited by intrinsic or acquired resistance of tumor cells to apoptosis. Programmed necrosis is an alternative, molecularly distinct mode of programmed cell death that is elicited by TRAIL under conditions when the classical apoptosis machinery fails or is actively inhibited. The potential of TRAIL-induced programmed necrosis in tumor therapy is, however, almost completely uncharacterized. We therefore investigated its impact on a panel of tumor cell lines of wide-ranging origin. Methods Cell death/viability was measured by flow cytometry/determination of intracellular ATP levels/crystal violet staining. Cell surface expression of TRAIL receptors was detected by flow cytometry, expression of proteins by Western blot. Ceramide levels were quantified by high-performance thin layer chromatography and densitometric analysis, clonogenic survival of cells was determined by crystal violet staining or by soft agarose cloning. Results TRAIL-induced programmed necrosis killed eight out of 14 tumor cell lines. Clonogenic survival was reduced in all sensitive and even one resistant cell lines tested. TRAIL synergized with chemotherapeutics in killing tumor cell lines by programmed necrosis, enhancing their effect in eight out of 10 tested tumor cell lines and in 41 out of 80 chemotherapeutic/TRAIL combinations. Susceptibility/resistance of the investigated tumor cell lines to programmed necrosis seems to primarily depend on expression of the pro-necrotic kinase RIPK3 rather than the related kinase RIPK1 or cell surface expression of TRAIL receptors. Furthermore, interference with production of the lipid ceramide protected all tested tumor cell lines. Conclusions Our study provides evidence that TRAIL-induced programmed necrosis represents a feasible approach for the elimination of

  5. Chrysophanic Acid Induces Necrosis but not Necroptosis in Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Caki-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chrysophanic acid, also known as chrysophanol, has a number of biological activities. It enhances memory and learning abilities, raises superoxide dismutase activity, and has anti-cancer effects in several model systems. According to previous reports, chrysophanic acid-induced cell death shares features of necrotic cell death. However, the molecular and cellular processes underlying chrysophanic acid-induced cell death remain poorly understood. Methods: Chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was monitored by cell viability assay and Annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) staining of renal cell carcinoma Caki-2 cells. The induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by chrysophanic acid and the suppression of ROS by anti-oxidants were evaluated by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining. The expression and phosphorylation of proteins that are involved in apoptosis and necroptosis were detected by immunoblotting. Results: The extent of chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was concentration and time dependent, and dead cells mainly appeared in the PI-positive population, which is a major feature of necrosis, upon fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was associated with the generation of intracellular ROS, and this effect was reversed by pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine. Chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was not associated with changes in apoptotic or necroptotic marker proteins. Conclusions: The cell death induced by chrysophanic acid resembled neither apoptotic nor necroptotic cell death in human renal cell carcinoma Caki-2 cells. PMID:27390736

  6. Mitophagy switches cell death from apoptosis to necrosis in NSCLC cells treated with oncolytic measles virus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mao; Meng, Gang; Jiang, Aiqin; Chen, Aiping; Dahlhaus, Meike; Gonzalez, Patrick; Beltinger, Christian; Wei, Jiwu

    2014-06-15

    Although apoptotic phenomena have been observed in malignant cells infected by measles virus vaccine strain Edmonston B (MV-Edm), the precise oncolytic mechanisms are poorly defined. In this study we found that MV-Edm induced autophagy and sequestosome 1-mediated mitophagy leading to decreased cytochrome c release, which blocked the pro-apoptotic cascade in non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLCs). The decrease of apoptosis by mitophagy favored viral replication. Persistent viral replication sustained by autophagy ultimately resulted in necrotic cell death due to ATP depletion. Importantly, when autophagy was impaired in NSCLCs MV-Edm-induced cell death was significantly abrogated despite of increased apoptosis. Taken together, our results define a novel oncolytic mechanism by which mitophagy switches cell death from apoptosis to more efficient necrosis in NSCLCs following MV-Edm infection. This provides a foundation for future improvement of oncolytic virotherapy or antiviral therapy. PMID:25004098

  7. Alcohol-Dependent Liver Cell Necrosis in vitro: A New Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanne, Francis A. X.; Zucker, Amy H.; Farber, John L.; Rubin, Emanuel

    1981-04-01

    In alcoholic liver injury, necrosis is involved in the progression from benign fatty liver to alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. However, there is no practical model of alcohol-dependent liver cell necrosis. The calcium-dependent killing of cultured rat hepatocytes by two different membrane-active hepatotoxins, galactosamine and phalloidin, is potentiated by ethyl alcohol. This indicates that some general physical effect of alcohol on cellular membranes renders cells susceptible to otherwise nonlethal injuries. The in vitro model described in this report may thus be used to search for a general mechanism underlying alcohol-related tissue injury.

  8. Src Dependent Pancreatic Acinar Injury Can Be Initiated Independent of an Increase in Cytosolic Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vivek; Cline, Rachel; Noel, Pawan; Karlsson, Jenny; Baty, Catherine J.; Orlichenko, Lidiya; Patel, Krutika; Trivedi, Ram Narayan; Husain, Sohail Z.; Acharya, Chathur; Durgampudi, Chandra; Stolz, Donna B.; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P.

    2013-01-01

    Several deleterious intra-acinar phenomena are simultaneously triggered on initiating acute pancreatitis. These culminate in acinar injury or inflammatory mediator generation in vitro and parenchymal damage in vivo. Supraphysiologic caerulein is one such initiator which simultaneously activates numerous signaling pathways including non-receptor tyrosine kinases such as of the Src family. It also causes a sustained increase in cytosolic calcium- a player thought to be crucial in regulating deleterious phenomena. We have shown Src to be involved in caerulein induced actin remodeling, and caerulein induced changes in the Golgi and post-Golgi trafficking to be involved in trypsinogen activation, which initiates acinar cell injury. However, it remains unclear whether an increase in cytosolic calcium is necessary to initiate acinar injury or if injury can be initiated at basal cytosolic calcium levels by an alternate pathway. To study the interplay between tyrosine kinase signaling and calcium, we treated mouse pancreatic acinar cells with the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate. We studied the effect of the clinically used Src inhibitor Dasatinib (BMS-354825) on pervanadate or caerulein induced changes in Src activation, trypsinogen activation, cell injury, upstream cytosolic calcium, actin and Golgi morphology. Pervanadate, like supraphysiologic caerulein, induced Src activation, redistribution of the F-actin from its normal location in the sub-apical area to the basolateral areas, and caused antegrade fragmentation of the Golgi. These changes, like those induced by supraphysiologic caerulein, were associated with trypsinogen activation and acinar injury, all of which were prevented by Dasatinib. Interestingly, however, pervanadate did not cause an increase in cytosolic calcium, and the caerulein induced increase in cytosolic calcium was not affected by Dasatinib. These findings suggest that intra-acinar deleterious phenomena may be initiated independent of an

  9. Adrenocortical hemorrhagic necrosis: the role of catecholamines and retrograde medullary-cell embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; McComb, D.J.; Kovacs, K.; Huettner, I.

    1981-10-01

    We investigated the pathogenesis of adrenal necrosis using animal models of the disease (induced by administration of acrylonitrile, cysteamine, or pyrazole) and human cases. Results of electron-microscopic and histochemical time-response studies with rat models revealed an early, retrograde embolization of medullary cells and cell fragments in the cortical capillaries that showed prominent endothelial injury. The experimental adrenal lesions were prevented by surgical removal of the medulla one month before administration of adrenocorticolytic chemicals, or by the administration of the alpha-adrenergic antagonist phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride. Histochemical staining for medullary (argyrophil) granules in human cases of adrenal necrosis demonstrated tissue fragments that stained positively for silver in vascular cortical spaces in nine of ten autopsy specimens and in all four surgical cases we reviewed. Thus, catecholamines released from the adrenal medulla and from the retrograde medullary emboli in the cortex may have a role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical necrosis.

  10. Auranofin induces apoptosis and necrosis in HeLa cells via oxidative stress and glutathione depletion.

    PubMed

    You, Bo Ra; Shin, Hye Rim; Han, Bo Ram; Kim, Suhn Hee; Park, Woo Hyun

    2015-02-01

    Auranofin (Au), an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase, is a known anti‑cancer drug. In the present study, the anti‑growth effect of Au on HeLa cervical cancer cells was examined in association with levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH). Au inhibited the growth of HeLa cells with an IC50 of ~2 µM at 24 h. This agent induced apoptosis and necrosis, accompanied by the cleavage of poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. The pan‑caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl‑Val‑Ala‑Asp‑fluoromethylketone, prevented apoptotic cell death and each of the assessed caspase inhibitors inhibited necrotic cell death induced by Au. With respect to the levels of ROS and GSH, Au increased intracellular O2•- in the HeLa cells and induced GSH depletion. The pan‑caspase inhibitor reduced the levels of O2•- and GSH depletion in Au‑treated HeLa cells. The antioxidant, N‑acetyl cysteine, not only attenuated apoptosis and necrosis in the Au‑treated HeLa cells, but also decreased the levels of O2•- and GSH depletion in the cells. By contrast, L‑buthionine sulfoximine, a GSH synthesis inhibitor, intensified cell death O2•- and GSH depletion in the Au‑treated HeLa cells. In conclusion, Au induced apoptosis and necrosis in HeLa cells via the induction of oxidative stress and the depletion of GSH. PMID:25370167

  11. Icaritin activates JNK-dependent mPTP necrosis pathway in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunxian; Chen, Zhengrong; Lu, Xingsheng; Wu, Hao; Yang, Qunying; Xu, Dongfeng

    2016-03-01

    The colorectal cancer (CRC) is one leading contributor of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The search for effective anti-CRC agents is valuable. In the current study, we showed that icaritin (ICT), an active natural ingredient from the Chinese plant Epimedium, potently inhibited proliferation and survival of established (HT-29, HCT-116, DLD-1, and SW-620) and primary (patient-derived) CRC cells. Significantly, ICT mainly induced necrosis, but not apoptosis, in CRC cells. The necrosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 attenuated ICT-mediated cytotoxicity in CRC cells. We showed that ICT treatment in CRC cells induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, which was evidenced by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decrease and mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator-1 (ANT-1)-cyclophilin-D (CyPD) association. On the other hand, mPTP blockers, including sanglifehrin A, cyclosporin A, and bongkrekic acid, as well as siRNA-mediated knockdown of mPTP component (CyPD or ANT-1), significantly alleviated ICT-mediated cytotoxicity against CRC cells. We suggested that Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation by ICT mediated mPTP opening and subsequent CRC cell necrosis. JNK pharmacological inhibition, dominant negative mutation, or shRNA downregulation suppressed ICT-induced MMP reduction and subsequent HT-29 cell necrosis. In vivo, oral gavage of ICT dramatically inhibited HT-29 xenograft growth in nude mice. The in vivo activity by ICT was largely attenuated by co-administration with the mPTP blocker CsA. Collectively, our results showed that ICT exerts potent inhibitory effect against CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. JNK-dependent mPTP necrosis pathway could be key mechanism responsible for ICT's actions. PMID:26427664

  12. Tumor necrosis factor-induced contraction of cultured rat mesangial cells: interaction with angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Medina, J; Baud, L; Garcia Escribano, C; Gila, J A; Rodriguez Puyol, D; Rodriguez Puyol, M

    1993-08-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in the regulation of renal function, particularly glomerular filtration rate, has not been completely defined. This study was designed to assess the intrinsic role of this cytokine on glomerular filtration rate by analyzing its short-term effect on the degree of contraction in cultured rat mesangial cells, not only directly but also in the presence of angiotensin II. Contraction was evaluated both morphologically--by measuring planar cell surface area of cultured rat mesangial cells and glomerular cross-sectional area of isolated rat glomeruli--and biochemically--by analyzing myosin light-chain phosphorylation in cells. Tumor necrosis factor alpha significantly decreased planar cell surface area in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, an effect completely abolished by preincubation of the cells with platelet-activating factor receptor antagonists BN 52021 and alprazolam. This effect was also observed in the presence of angiotensin II, whether tumor necrosis factor alpha was added before or after angiotensin II, increasing the reduction in planar cell surface area induced by angiotensin II in both cases. Changes in planar cell surface area were evident not only when the absolute values of this parameter were considered but also when the percentage of contracted cells (cells with a planar cell surface area reduction > 10%) was analyzed. Tumor necrosis factor alpha also induced a significant reduction of glomerular cross-sectional area in isolated rat glomeruli. The results of the morphologic studies were supported by myosin light-chain phosphorylation experiments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8340701

  13. Claudin 1 mediates tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced cell migration in human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shiozaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Konishi, Hirotaka; Komatsu, Shuhei; Kubota, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Iitaka, Daisuke; Nakashima, Shingo; Nako, Yoshito; Liu, Mingyao; Otsuji, Eigo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of claudin 1 in the regulation of genes involved in cell migration and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced gene expression in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. METHODS: Knockdown experiments were conducted with claudin 1 small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the effects on the cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion were analyzed in human gastric adenocarcinoma MKN28 cells. The gene expression profiles of cells were analyzed by microarray and bioinformatics. RESULTS: The knockdown of claudin 1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and increased apoptosis. Microarray analysis identified 245 genes whose expression levels were altered by the knockdown of claudin 1. Pathway analysis showed that the top-ranked molecular and cellular function was the cellular movement related pathway, which involved MMP7, TNF-SF10, TGFBR1, and CCL2. Furthermore, TNF- and nuclear frctor-κB were the top-ranked upstream regulators related to claudin 1. TNF-α treatment increased claudin 1 expression and cell migration in MKN28 cells. Microarray analysis indicated that the depletion of claudin 1 inhibited 80% of the TNF-α-induced mRNA expression changes. Further, TNF-α did not enhance cell migration in the claudin 1 siRNA transfected cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that claudin 1 is an important messenger that regulates TNF-α-induced gene expression and migration in gastric cancer cells. A deeper understanding of these cellular processes may be helpful in establishing new therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:25548484

  14. Nitric-oxide-induced necrosis and apoptosis in PC12 cells mediated by mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bal-Price, A; Brown, G C

    2000-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) can trigger either necrotic or apoptotic cell death. We have used PC12 cells to investigate the extent to which NO-induced cell death is mediated by mitochondria. Addition of NO donors, 1 mM S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP) or 1 mM diethylenetriamine-NO adduct (NOC-18), to PC12 cells resulted in a steady-state level of 1-3 microM: NO, rapid and almost complete inhibition of cellular respiration (within 1 min), and a rapid decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential within the cells. A 24-h incubation of PC12 cells with NO donors (SNAP or NOC-18) or specific inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration (myxothiazol, rotenone, or azide), in the absence of glucose, caused total ATP depletion and resulted in 80-100% necrosis. The presence of glucose almost completely prevented the decrease in ATP level and the increase in necrosis induced by the NO donors or mitochondrial inhibitors, suggesting that the NO-induced necrosis in the absence of glucose was due to the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and subsequent ATP depletion. However, in the presence of glucose, NO donors and mitochondrial inhibitors induced apoptosis of PC12 cells as determined by nuclear morphology. The presence of apoptotic cells was prevented completely by benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-fluoromethyl ketone (a nonspecific caspase inhibitor), indicating that apoptosis was mediated by caspase activation. Indeed, both NO donors and mitochondrial inhibitors in PC12 cells caused the activation of caspase-3- and caspase-3-processing-like proteases. Caspase-1 activity was not activated. Cyclosporin A (an inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore) decreased the activity of caspase-3- and caspase-3-processing-like proteases after treatment with NO donors, but was not effective in the case of the mitochondrial inhibitors. The activation of caspases was accompanied by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, which was partially prevented by

  15. Pristimerin triggers AIF-dependent programmed necrosis in glioma cells via activation of JNK.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Chen; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Zijian; Jin, Yong; Wang, Zongqi; Zheng, Linjie; Liu, Kai; Luo, Tianfei; Zhu, Dong; Chi, Guangfan; Luo, Yinan; Ge, Pengfei

    2016-04-28

    Programmed necrosis is established as a new form of programmed cell death and is emerging as a new strategy of treatment for cancers. Pristimerin is a natural chemical with anti-tumor effect despite the fact that its mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we used glioma cell lines and mice model of xenograft glioma to investigate the effect of pristimerin on glioma and its underlying mechanism. We found that pristimerin inhibited the viabilities of glioma cells in vitro and the growth of xenograft gliomas in vivo, which was accompanied by upregulation of JNK and phosphor-JNK, nuclear accumulation of AIF, and elevation in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. In vitro studies showed that pristimerin induced necrosis in glioma cells, as well as mitochondrial depolarization, overproduction of ROS and reduction of GSH. Ablation of AIF level with SiRNA mitigated pristimerin-induced nuclear accumulation of AIF and prevented necrosis in glioma cells. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of JNK with SP600125 or knockdown of its level with SiRNA reversed mitochondrial depolarization attenuated the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 and suppressed nuclear accumulation of AIF. Further, inhibition of ROS with NAC not only rescued glioma cell necrosis but also suppressed JNK activation, mitigated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, maintained mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibited AIF translocation into nucleus. Therefore, we demonstrated first in this study that pristimerin triggered AIF-dependent necroptosis in glioma cells via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction by activation of JNK through overproduction of ROS. These results suggest that pristimerin has potential therapeutic effects on glioma. PMID:26854718

  16. Slug inhibits pancreatic cancer initiation by blocking Kras-induced acinar-ductal metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ebine, Kazumi; Chow, Christina R.; DeCant, Brian T.; Hattaway, Holly Z.; Grippo, Paul J.; Kumar, Krishan; Munshi, Hidayatullah G.

    2016-01-01

    Cells in the pancreas that have undergone acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM) can transform into premalignant cells that can eventually become cancerous. Although the epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulator Snail (Snai1) can cooperate with Kras in acinar cells to enhance ADM development, the contribution of Snail-related protein Slug (Snai2) to ADM development is not known. Thus, transgenic mice expressing Slug and Kras in acinar cells were generated. Surprisingly, Slug attenuated Kras-induced ADM development, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and proliferation. Co-expression of Slug with Kras also attenuated chronic pancreatitis-induced changes in ADM development and fibrosis. In addition, Slug attenuated TGF-α-induced acinar cell metaplasia to ductal structures and TGF-α-induced expression of ductal markers in ex vivo acinar explant cultures. Significantly, blocking the Rho-associated protein kinase ROCK1/2 in the ex vivo cultures induced expression of ductal markers and reversed the effects of Slug by inducing ductal structures. In addition, blocking ROCK1/2 activity in Slug-expressing Kras mice reversed the inhibitory effects of Slug on ADM, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, proliferation and fibrosis. Overall, these results increase our understanding of the role of Slug in ADM, an early event that can eventually lead to pancreatic cancer development. PMID:27364947

  17. Monitoring cell morphology during necrosis and apoptosis by quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnano, Martina; Calabuig, Alejandro; Grilli, Simonetta; Miccio, Lisa; Ferraro, Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Cellular morphology changes and volume alterations play significant roles in many biological processes and they are mirrors of cell functions. In this paper, we propose the Digital Holographic microscope (DH) as a non-invasive imaging technique for a rapid and accurate extraction of morphological information related to cell death. In particular, we investigate the morphological variations that occur during necrosis and apoptosis. The study of necrosis is extremely important because it is often associated with unwarranted loss of cells in human pathologies such as ischemia, trauma, and some forms of neurodegeneration; therefore, a better elucidation in terms of cell morphological changes could pave the way for new treatments. Also, apoptosis is extremely important because it's involved in cancer, both in its formation and in medical treatments. Because the inability to initiate apoptosis enhances tumour formation, current cancer treatments target this pathway. Within this framework, we have developed a transmission off-axis DH apparatus integrated with a micro incubator for investigation of living cells in a temperature and CO2 controlled environment. We employ DH to analyse the necrosis cell death induced by laser light (wavelength 473 nm, light power 4 mW). We have chosen as cellular model NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts because their adhesive features such as morphological changes, and the time needed to adhere and spread have been well characterized in the literature. We have monitored cell volume changes and morphological alterations in real time in order to study the necrosis process accurately and quantitatively. Cell volume changes were evaluated from the measured phase changes of light transmitted through cells. Our digital holographic experiments showed that after exposure of cells to laser light for 90-120 min., they swell and then take on a balloon-like shape until the plasma membrane ruptures and finally the cell volume decreases. Furthermore, we

  18. Dendritic cell-derived tumor necrosis factor α modifies airway epithelial cell responses.

    PubMed

    Lutfi, R; Ledford, J R; Zhou, P; Lewkowich, I P; Page, K

    2012-01-01

    Mucosal dendritic cells (DC) are intimately associated with the airway epithelium and thus are ideally situated to be first responders to pathogens. We hypothesize that DC drive innate immune responses through early release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, which drives airway epithelial cell responses. In a mouse model, TNFα release was significantly increased following a single exposure to German cockroach (GC) frass, an event independent of neutrophil recruitment into the airways. While lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages failed to release TNFα following GC frass exposure, bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) produced substantial amounts of TNFα suggesting their importance as early responding cells. This was confirmed by flow cytometry of pulmonary myeloid DC. Addition of GC frass-pulsed BMDC or conditioned media from GC frass-pulsed BMDC to primary mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTEC) or MLE-15 cells induced chemokine (C-C) motif ligand (CCL) 20 and granulocyte macrophage (GM) colony-stimulating factor (CSF), both of which are important for DC recruitment, survival and differentiation. Importantly, DC do not produce CCL20 or GM-CSF following allergen exposure. Blocking TNFα receptor 1 (TNFR1) completely abolished chemokine production, suggesting that BMDC-derived TNFα induced airway epithelial cell activation and enhancement of the innate immune response. Lastly, blocking TNFR1 in vivo resulted in significantly decreased CCL20 and GM-CSF production in the lungs of mice. Together, our data strongly suggest that DC-derived TNFα plays a crucial role in the initiation of innate immune responses through the modification of airway epithelial cell responses. PMID:22517116

  19. Glycans coated silver nanoparticles induces autophagy and necrosis in HeLa cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzarini, Elisa; Mariano, Stefania; Dini, Luciana

    2015-06-01

    This study reports the induction of autophagy by two concentrations (2×103 or 2×104 NPs/cell) of 30 nm sized β-D-Glucose- and β-D-Glucose/Sucrose-coated silver NanoParticles (AgNPs-G and AgNPs-GS respectively) in HeLa cells treated for 6, 12, 24 and 48 hrs. Cell viability was assessed by Neutral Red (NR) test and morphological evaluation. In addition ROS generation (NBT test) and induction of apoptosis/necrosis (Annexin V/Propidium Iodide-Annexin V/PI staining) and autophagy (Monodansylcadaverine-MDC staining) were evaluated. Cytotoxicity, ROS generation and morphology changes depend on NPs type and amount, and incubation time. As a general result, AgNPs-G are more toxic than AgNPs-GS. Moreover, the lowest AgNPs-GS concentration is ineffective on cell viability and ROS generation. Only 10% and 25% of viable HeLa cells were found at the end of incubation time in the presence of higher amount of AgNPs - G and AgNPs-GS respectively and in parallel ROS generation is induced. To elucidate the type of cell death, Annexin V/PI and MDC staining was performed. Interestingly, irrespective of coating type and NPs amount the percentage of apoptotic cells (Annexin V+/PI-) is similar to viable HeLa cells. At contrary, we observed a NPs amount dependent autophagy and necrosis induction. In fact, the lower amount of NPs induces autophagy (MDC+/PI- cells) whereas the higher one induces necrosis (Annexin V+/PI+ cells). Our findings suggest that AgNPs-induced cytotoxicity depends on AgNPs amount and type and provide preliminary evidence of induction of autophagy in HeLa cells cultured in the presence of AgNPs.

  20. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) programmed necrosis contributes to ischemia-reperfusion-induced retinal damage

    PubMed Central

    Dvoriantchikova, Galina; Degterev, Alexei; Ivanov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    Retinal ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury remains a common cause of blindness and has a final pathway of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death by apoptosis and necrosis. RGC apoptosis was intensively studied in IR injury, while RGC necrosis did not receive nearly enough consideration since it was viewed as an accidental and unregulated cellular event. However, there is evidence that necrosis, like apoptosis, can be implemented by a programmed mechanism. In this study, we tested the role of RGC programmed necrosis (necroptosis) in IR-induced retinal injury. We employed the mouse model of retinal IR injury for in vivo experiments. The oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model was used as an IR model in vitro. Primary RGCs were isolated by an immunopanning technique. Necrostatin 1 (Nec1) was used to inhibit necroptosis in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The changes in gene expression were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The distribution of proteins in the retina and in RGC cultures was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Our data suggest that proteins (Ripk1 and Ripk3), which initiate necroptosis, were present in normal and ischemic RGCs. Treatment with Nec1 significantly reduced retinal damage after IR. Increased RGC survival and reduced RGC necrosis following OGD were observed in Nec1-treated cultures. We found significantly reduced expression of genes coding pro-inflammatory markers Il1b, Ccl5, Cxcl10, Nos2 and Cybb in Nec1-treated ischemic retinas. Thus, our findings suggest that RGC necroptosis contributes to retinal damage after IR through direct loss of cells and induction of associated inflammatory responses. PMID:24751757

  1. Loss of caspase-3 sensitizes colon cancer cells to genotoxic stress via RIP1-dependent necrosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, M F; Leibowitz, B J; Chen, D; He, K; Zou, F; Sobol, R W; Beer-Stolz, D; Zhang, L; Yu, J

    2015-01-01

    Caspase-3 is the best known executioner caspase in apoptosis. We generated caspase-3 knockout (C3KO) and knockdown human colorectal cancer cells, and found that they are unexpectedly sensitized to DNA-damaging agents including 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), etoposide, and camptothecin. C3KO xenograft tumors also displayed enhanced therapeutic response and cell death to 5-FU. C3KO cells showed intact apoptosis and activation of caspase-7 and -9, impaired processing of caspase-8, and induction of necrosis in response to DNA-damaging agents. This form of necrosis is associated with HMGB1 release and ROS production, and suppressed by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of RIP1, MLKL1, or caspase-8, but not inhibitors of pan-caspases or RIP3. 5-FU treatment led to the formation of a z-VAD-resistant pro-caspase-8/RIP1/FADD complex, which was strongly stabilized by caspase-3 KO. These data demonstrate a key role of caspase-3 in caspase-8 processing and suppression of DNA damage-induced necrosis, and provide a potentially novel way to chemosensitize cancer cells. PMID:25906152

  2. Loss of Caspase-3 sensitizes colon cancer cells to genotoxic stress via RIP1-dependent necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M F; Leibowitz, B J; Chen, D; He, K; Zou, F; Sobol, R W; Beer-Stolz, D; Zhang, L; Yu, J

    2015-01-01

    Caspase-3 is the best known executioner caspase in apoptosis. We generated caspase-3 knockout (C3KO) and knockdown human colorectal cancer cells, and found that they are unexpectedly sensitized to DNA-damaging agents including 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), etoposide, and camptothecin. C3KO xenograft tumors also displayed enhanced therapeutic response and cell death to 5-FU. C3KO cells showed intact apoptosis and activation of caspase-7 and -9, impaired processing of caspase-8, and induction of necrosis in response to DNA-damaging agents. This form of necrosis is associated with HMGB1 release and ROS production, and suppressed by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of RIP1, MLKL1, or caspase-8, but not inhibitors of pan-caspases or RIP3. 5-FU treatment led to the formation of a z-VAD-resistant pro-caspase-8/RIP1/FADD complex, which was strongly stabilized by caspase-3 KO. These data demonstrate a key role of caspase-3 in caspase-8 processing and suppression of DNA damage-induced necrosis, and provide a potentially novel way to chemosensitize cancer cells. PMID:25906152

  3. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous Topic Granular cell tumors Next Topic Mastitis Fat necrosis and oil cysts Fat necrosis happens when ... lumpy area if it becomes bothersome. How do fat necrosis and oil cysts affect your risk for ...

  4. Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells exposed to beryllium.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, G M; Pandey, J P; Schmidt, M G; Arnaud, P; Goust, J M

    1996-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease, which results from occupational exposure to particulate beryllium, is characterized by the development of lung granulomas and progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta) by pulmonary alveolar macrophages occurs in many chronic fibrotic lung diseases and is thought to contribute to the disease process. The purpose of the present study was to investigate cytokine production by human monocytic cells exposed to beryllium in vitro. The results indicated that such cells respond to beryllium ions in the presence of fluoride by accumulation of messenger ribonucleic acid for both tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta. These findings suggest that inhaled beryllium may directly stimulate the production of these cytokines by alveolar macrophages in vitro. PMID:8629860

  5. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2: Its Contribution to Acute Cellular Rejection and Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Al-Lamki, Rafia S.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein and one of the two receptors that orchestrate the complex biological functions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, also designed TNF-α). Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that TNFR2 plays an important role in renal disorders associated with acute cellular rejection and clear cell renal carcinoma but its exact role in these settings is still not completely understood. This papers reviews the factors that may mediate TNFR2 induction in acute cellular rejection and clear cell renal carcinoma and its contribution to these conditions and discusses its therapeutic implications. A greater understanding of the function of TNFR2 may lead to the development of new anti-TNF drugs. PMID:24350291

  6. The acinar differentiation determinant PTF1A inhibits initiation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Krah, Nathan M; De La O, Jean-Paul; Swift, Galvin H; Hoang, Chinh Q; Willet, Spencer G; Chen Pan, Fong; Cash, Gabriela M; Bronner, Mary P; Wright, Christopher VE; MacDonald, Raymond J; Murtaugh, L Charles

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the initiation and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) may provide therapeutic strategies for this deadly disease. Recently, we and others made the surprising finding that PDAC and its preinvasive precursors, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), arise via reprogramming of mature acinar cells. We therefore hypothesized that the master regulator of acinar differentiation, PTF1A, could play a central role in suppressing PDAC initiation. In this study, we demonstrate that PTF1A expression is lost in both mouse and human PanINs, and that this downregulation is functionally imperative in mice for acinar reprogramming by oncogenic KRAS. Loss of Ptf1a alone is sufficient to induce acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, potentiate inflammation, and induce a KRAS-permissive, PDAC-like gene expression profile. As a result, Ptf1a-deficient acinar cells are dramatically sensitized to KRAS transformation, and reduced Ptf1a greatly accelerates development of invasive PDAC. Together, these data indicate that cell differentiation regulators constitute a new tumor suppressive mechanism in the pancreas. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07125.001 PMID:26151762

  7. Staphylococcus sciuri Exfoliative Toxin C (ExhC) is a Necrosis-Inducer for Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haihua; Wang, Yongqiang; Ding, Lin; Zheng, Shijun J.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus sciuri (S. sciuri) is a rare pathogen in humans, but it can cause a wide array of human infections. Recently a S. sciuri isolate (HBXX06) was reported to cause fatal exudative epidermitis (EE) in piglets and thus considered as a potential zoonotic agent. To investigate the pathogenicity of this bacterium, we cloned exfoliative toxin C (ExhC), a major toxin of the S. sciuri isolate and performed functional analysis of the recombinant ExhC-his (rExhC) protein using in vitro cell cultures and newborn mice as models. We found that rExhC could induce necrosis in multiple cell lines and peritoneal macrophages as well as skin lesions in newborn mice, and that the rExhC-induced necrosis in cells or skin lesions in newborn mice could be completely abolished if amino acids 79-128 of rExhC were deleted or blocked with a monoclonal antibody (3E4), indicating aa 79-128 portion as an essential necrosis-inducing domain. This information contributes to further understandings of the mechanisms underlying S. sciuri infection. PMID:21829591

  8. RADIAL TRANSPORT ALONG THE HUMAN ACINAR TREE

    PubMed Central

    Henry, F.S.; Tsuda, A.

    2013-01-01

    A numerical model of an expanding asymmetric alveolated duct was developed and used to investigate lateral transport between the central acinar channel and the surrounding alveoli along the acinar tree. Our results indicate that some degree of recirculation occurs in all but the terminal generations. We found that the rate of diffusional transport of axial momentum, from the duct to the alveolus, was by far the largest contributor to the resulting momentum in the alveolar flow but that the magnitude of the axial momentum is critical in determining the nature of the flow in the alveolus. Further, we found that alveolar flow rotation, and by implication chaotic mixing, are strongest in the entrance generations. We also found that the expanding alveolus provides a pathway by which particles with little intrinsic motion can enter the alveoli. Thus, our results offer a possible explanation for why submicron particles deposit preferentially in acinar entrance region. PMID:20887011

  9. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus detected by separation and incubation of cells from salmonid cavity fluid.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Batts, W.N.

    1987-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus is usually detected by inoculating susceptible cell cultures with cavity ("ovarian") fluid (CF) from spawning females. We identified additional adult carriers of virus in spawning populations of steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) by collecting nonerythrocytic cells from CF samples by low-speed centrifugation, culturing the cells for at least 7 d at 15 °C, and then testing the culture medium for virus. Virus appeared in the cultured cells from some samples of CF that remained negative during incubation. In additional samples of CF from these species, the virus titer increased in cultured cells compared with the titer in the original CF sample. With chinook salmon (O.tshawytscha), no negative samples converted to positive during incubation, but the virus titer was retained in incubated CF cells, but not in cell-free CF.

  10. A locus on chromosome 7 determines myocardial cell necrosis and calcification (dystrophic cardiac calcinosis) in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Ivandic, B T; Qiao, J H; Machleder, D; Liao, F; Drake, T A; Lusis, A J

    1996-01-01

    Dystrophic cardiac calcinosis, an age-related cardiomyopathy that occurs among certain inbred strains of mice, involves myocardial injury, necrosis, and calcification. Using a complete linkage map approach and quantitative trait locus analysis, we sought to identify genetic loci determining dystrophic cardiac calcinosis in an F2 intercross of resistant C57BL/6J and susceptible C3H/HeJ inbred strains. We identified a single major locus, designated Dyscalc, located on proximal chromosome 7 in a region syntenic with human chromosomes 19q13 and 11p15. The statistical significance of Dyscalc (logarithm of odds score 14.6) was tested by analysis of permuted trait data. Analysis of BxH recombinant inbred strains confirmed the mapping position. The inheritance pattern indicated that this locus influences susceptibility of cells both to enter necrosis and to subsequently undergo calcification. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8643601

  11. Two sides of one coin: massive hepatic necrosis and progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Hong-Lei; Cai, Xiaobo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liebe, Roman; Dooley, Steven; Li, Hai; Wang, Tai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Massive hepatic necrosis is a key event underlying acute liver failure, a serious clinical syndrome with high mortality. Massive hepatic necrosis in acute liver failure has unique pathophysiological characteristics including extremely rapid parenchymal cell death and removal. On the other hand, massive necrosis rapidly induces the activation of liver progenitor cells, the so-called “second pathway of liver regeneration.” The final clinical outcome of acute liver failure depends on whether liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration can efficiently restore parenchymal mass and function within a short time. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding massive hepatic necrosis and liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in patients with acute liver failure, the two sides of one coin. PMID:26136687

  12. Two sides of one coin: massive hepatic necrosis and progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hong-Lei; Cai, Xiaobo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liebe, Roman; Dooley, Steven; Li, Hai; Wang, Tai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Massive hepatic necrosis is a key event underlying acute liver failure, a serious clinical syndrome with high mortality. Massive hepatic necrosis in acute liver failure has unique pathophysiological characteristics including extremely rapid parenchymal cell death and removal. On the other hand, massive necrosis rapidly induces the activation of liver progenitor cells, the so-called "second pathway of liver regeneration." The final clinical outcome of acute liver failure depends on whether liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration can efficiently restore parenchymal mass and function within a short time. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding massive hepatic necrosis and liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in patients with acute liver failure, the two sides of one coin. PMID:26136687

  13. Chronic alcohol exposure exacerbates inflammation and triggers pancreatic acinar-to-ductal metaplasia through PI3K/Akt/IKK

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, XIN; LI, XUQI; MA, QINGYONG; XU, QINHONG; DUAN, WANXING; LEI, JIANJUN; ZHANG, LUN; WU, ZHENG

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) has been identified as an initiating event that can progress to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) or pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Acini transdifferentiation can be induced by persistent inflammation. Notably, compelling evidence has emerged that chronic alcohol exposure may trigger an inflammatory response of macrophages/monocytes stimulated by endotoxins. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the role of inflammation induced by chronic alcohol and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in the progression of pancreatic ADM, as well as to elucidate the possible mechanisms involved. For this purpose, cultured macrophages were exposed to varying doses of alcohol for 1 week prior to stimulation with LPS. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and regulated upon activation, normal T cell expression and secreted (RANTES) expression were upregulated in the intoxicated macrophages with activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Following treatment with the supernatant of intoxicated macrophages, ADM of primary acinar cells was induced. Furthermore, the expression of TNF-α and RANTES, as well as the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt)/inhibitory κB kinase (IKK) signaling pathway have been proven to be involved in the ADM of acinar cells. Moreover, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were employed to further explore the induction of pancreatic ADM by chronic alcohol and LPS exposure in vivo. At the end of the treatment period, a number of physiological parameters, such as body weight, liver weight and pancreatic weight were reduced in the exposed rats. Plasma alcohol concentrations and oxidative stress levels in the serum, as well as TNF-α and RANTES expression in monocytes were also induced following chronic alcohol and LPS exposure. In addition, pancreatic ADM was induced through the PI3K/Akt/IKK signaling pathway by the augmented TNF-α and RANTES expression levels in the exposed rats. Overall, we

  14. Programmed necrosis in the Cross Talk of Cell Death and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Francis Ka-Ming; Luz, Nivea Farias; Moriwaki, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    Cell proliferation and cell death are integral elements in maintaining homeostatic balance in metazoans. Disease pathologies ensue when these processes are disturbed. A plethora of evidence indicates that malfunction of cell death can lead to inflammation, autoimmunity or immuno-deficiency. Programmed necrosis or necroptosis is a form of non-apoptotic cell death driven by the receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and its substrate mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). RIPK3 partners with its upstream adaptors RIPK1, TRIF or DAI to signal for necroptosis in response to death receptor or toll-like receptor stimulation, pathogen infection, or sterile cell injury. Necroptosis promotes inflammation through leakage of cellular contents from damaged plasma membrane. Intriguingly, many of the signal adaptors of necroptosis have dual functions in innate immune signaling. This unique signature illustrates the cooperative nature of necroptosis and innate inflammatory signaling pathways in managing cell and organismal stresses from pathogen infection and sterile tissue injury. PMID:25493335

  15. CD45 negatively regulates tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-6 production in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Piercy, Jenny; Petrova, Svetla; Tchilian, Elma Z; Beverley, Peter C L

    2006-06-01

    CD45 is known to regulate signalling through many different surface receptors in diverse haemopoietic cell types. Here we report for the first time that CD45-/- bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDC) are more activated than CD45+/+ cells and that tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by BMDC and splenic dendritic cells (sDC), is increased following stimulation via Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 and TLR9. Nuclear factor-kappaB activation, an important downstream consequence of TLR3 and TLR9 signalling, is also increased in CD45-/- BMDC. BMDC of CD45-/- mice also produce more TNF and IL-6 following stimulation with the cytokines TNF and interferon-alpha. These results show that TLR signalling is increased in CD45-/- dendritic cells and imply that CD45 is a negative regulator of TLR and cytokine receptor signalling in dendritic cells. PMID:16771860

  16. Cadmium overkill: autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis signalling in endothelial cells exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Messner, Barbara; Türkcan, Adrian; Ploner, Christian; Laufer, Günther; Bernhard, David

    2016-04-01

    Apoptosis, necrosis, or autophagy-it is the mode of cell demise that defines the response of surrounding cells and organs. In case of one of the most toxic substances known to date, cadmium (Cd), and despite a large number of studies, the mode of cell death induced is still unclear. As there exists conflicting data as to which cell death mode is induced by Cd both across various cell types and within a single one, we chose to analyse Cd-induced cell death in primary human endothelial cells by investigating all possibilities that a cell faces in undergoing cell death. Our results indicate that Cd-induced death signalling starts with the causation of DNA damage and a cytosolic calcium flux. These two events lead to an apoptosis signalling-related mitochondrial membrane depolarisation and a classical DNA damage response. Simultaneously, autophagy signalling such as ER stress and phagosome formation is initiated. Importantly, we also observed lysosomal membrane permeabilization. It is the integration of all signals that results in DNA degradation and a disruption of the plasma membrane. Our data thus suggest that Cd causes the activation of multiple death signals in parallel. The genotype (for example, p53 positive or negative) as well as other factors may determine the initiation and rate of individual death signals. Differences in the signal mix and speed may explain the differing results recorded as to the Cd-induced mode of cell death thus far. In human endothelial cells it is the sum of most if not all of these signals that determine the mode of Cd-induced cell death: programmed necrosis. PMID:26588916

  17. Root bark extracts of Juncus effusus and Paeonia suffruticosa protect salivary gland acinar cells from apoptotic cell death induced by cis-platinum (II) diammine dichloride.

    PubMed

    Mukudai, Yoshiki; Kondo, Seiji; Shiogama, Sunao; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Li, Chunnan; Yazawa, Kazunaga; Shintani, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    Cis-platinum (II) diammine dichloride (CDDP) is a platinum-based anticancer agent, and is often used for chemotherapy for malignant tumors, albeit CDDP has serious side-effects, including xerostomia (dry mouth). Since patients with xerostomia have reduced quality of life, it is urgent and important to identify nontoxic and natural agents capable of reducing the adverse effect of chemotherapy on salivary gland function. Therefore, we commenced an institutional collaborative project in which candidates of herbal extracts were selected from more than 400 bioactive herbal products for their potential therapeutic effects not only on xerostomia, but also on oral diseases. In the present study, we report on two Chinese medical herbal extracts from the root barks of Juncus effusus and Paeonia suffruticosa. The two extracts showed a protective effect in NS-SV-Ac cells from the cytotoxicity and apoptosis caused by CDDP. The effect was dependent on the p53 pathway, protein kinase B/Akt 1 and mitochondrial apoptosis-related proteins (i.e. Bcl-2 and Bax), but was not dependent on nuclear factor κB. Notably, the apoptosis-protective effect of the extracts was not observed in adenocystic carcinoma cell lines. Although these extracts have been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, there are no reports to our knowledge, on their therapeutic effects on xerostomia. Thus, in the present study, we elucidated the potency of these herbal extracts as novel candidates for xerostomia to improve the quality of life of patients undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:24064583

  18. Spontaneous Proliferation of H2M-/- CD4 T Cells Results in Unusual Acute Hepatocellular Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Do, Jeong-su; Baldwin, William M.; Min, Booki

    2014-01-01

    Naïve CD4 T cells are triggered to undergo spontaneous proliferation, a proliferative response induced in response to homeostatic stimulation, when exposed to severe lymphopenic environments. They spontaneously acquire proinflammatory effector phenotypes, playing a major role in inducing chronic inflammation in the intestine that is believed to be induced by T cell recognition of commensal antigens. While the antigens inducing the T cell responses and inflammation are being extensively investigated, the role of clonality of T cells involved in this process remains poorly understood. In this study, we utilized naïve CD4 T cells isolated from B6 H2M−/− mice, in which MHCII molecules are complexed with a single CLIP molecule, and examined spontaneous proliferation and intestinal inflammation of CD4 T cells expressing limited T cell receptor repertoire diversity. We found that H2M−/− CD4 T cells undergo robust spontaneous proliferation, differentiate into IFNγ-producing Th1 type effector cells, and, most unexpectedly, induce severe acute hepatocellular necrosis. T cell interaction with MHCII molecule on cells of hematopoietic origin was essential to induce the pathology. Interestingly, B cells are fully capable of preventing necrotic inflammation via IL-10-independent and B7-H1-dependent mechanism. This could be a useful animal model to examine T cell-mediated liver inflammation and B cell-mediated immune regulation. PMID:25313460

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE68 and Rv2626c genes contribute to the host cell necrosis and bacterial escape from macrophages.

    PubMed

    Danelishvili, Lia; Everman, Jamie; Bermudez, Luiz E

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are the main line of innate immune response against M. tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. However, these cells serve as the major intracellular niche for Mtb enhancing its survival, replication and, later on, cell-to-cell spread. Mtb-associated cytotoxicity of macrophages has been well documented, but limited information exists about mechanisms by which the pathogen induces cell necrosis. To identify virulence factors involved in the induction of necrosis, we screened 5,000 transposon mutants of Mtb for clones that failed to promote the host cell necrosis in a similar manner as the wild-type bacterium. Five Mtb mutants were identified as potential candidates inducing significantly lower levels of THP-1 cell damage in contrast to the H37Rv wild-type infection. Reduced levels of the cell damage by necrosis deficient mutants (NDMs) were also associated with delayed damage of mitochondrial membrane permeability when compared with the wild-type infection over time. Two knockout mutants of the Rv3873 gene, encoding a cell wall PPE68 protein of RD1 region, were identified out of 5 NDMs. Further investigation lead to the observation that PPE68 protein interacts and exports several unknown or known surface/secreted proteins, among them Rv2626c is associated with the host cell necrosis. When the Rv2626c gene is deleted from the genome of Mtb, the bacterium displays significantly less necrosis in THP-1 cells and, conversely, the overexpression of Rv2626c promotes the host cell necrosis at early time points of infections in contrast to the wild-type strain. PMID:26605666

  20. Bilateral scalp necrosis as a rare but devastating complication of giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Akram, Q; Knight, S; Saravanan, R

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a medium to large vessel vasculitis of unknown aetiology. Commonly, it affects the temporal arteries and is known as temporal arteritis. It has an association with polymyalgia rheumatica and can result in severe complications such as loss of vision and rarely scalp necrosis. There are approximately 100 cases of scalp necrosis in patients with GCA published in the literature to date. We report a case of a man who presented with a 4-week history of bilateral scalp necrosis associated with headache, jaw claudication, temporal artery tenderness, and raised inflammatory markers. He did not have any visual loss. A diagnosis of GCA was made and he was started on high-dose steroids immediately. The scalp lesions did improve and his symptoms resolved without any visual loss but, sadly he died due to severe sepsis. This case report is important as it describes a rare but severe complication of a common large vessel vasculitis seen by both primary care physicians and rheumatologists. Prompt recognition and early treatment by the physician are crucial to the patient to prevent visual loss or a fatal stroke. It also highlights complications associated with steroids which are the mainstay of treatment for this condition. PMID:25318611

  1. Enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-induced endothelial cell injury by cycloheximide

    SciTech Connect

    Nolop, K.B.; Ryan, U.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent polypeptide mediator released by activated monocytes and macrophages, has a number of proinflammatory effects on endothelial cells. TNF is cytotoxic to tumor cells in vivo and in vitro, but TNF-induced toxicity to endothelial cells is less well established. We now report that cycloheximide (CHX), an inhibitor of protein synthesis, renders endothelial cells highly susceptible to TNF-induced lysis. TNF alone did not change the overall rate of protein synthesis by endothelial cells, whereas the addition of CHX completely abolished protein synthesis. Endothelial cells incubated in TNF alone in high concentrations (up to 1,000 U/ml) showed minimal rounding up and release of 51Cr. Likewise, CHX alone (5 micrograms/ml) had no significant effect on endothelial cell morphology and release of 51Cr. However, incubation of endothelial cells in both CHX and TNF caused injury in a dose-dependent manner. Morphological evidence of cell retraction, rounding, and detachment began within 2 h, but specific 51Cr release did not begin to rise until after 4 h. These changes were not observed when endothelial cells were incubated with TNF/CHX at 4 degrees C. The combination of TNF/CHX was lethal to all endothelial cells tested (bovine pulmonary artery, human umbilical vein, and human aorta), with human aortic cells showing the most pronounced changes. We conclude that healthy endothelial cells are resistant to TNF-induced lysis, but inhibition of their ability to make protein renders them highly susceptible.

  2. Mode of cell death after acetaminophen overdose in mice: apoptosis or oncotic necrosis?

    PubMed

    Gujral, Jaspreet S; Knight, Tamara R; Farhood, Anwar; Bajt, Mary Lynn; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2002-06-01

    Acetaminophen (AAP) overdose can cause severe liver injury and liver failure in experimental animals and humans. Recently, several authors proposed that apoptosis might be a major mechanism of cell death after AAP treatment. To address this controversial issue, we evaluated a detailed time course of liver injury after AAP (300 mg/kg) in fasted C3Heb/FeJ mice. Apoptotic hepatocytes were quantified in H&E-stained liver sections using morphologic criteria (cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and margination, and apoptotic bodies). The number of apoptotic hepatocytes remained at baseline (0.2 +/- 0.1 cells/10 high-power fields [HPF]) up to 2 h after AAP administration. However, between 3 and 24 h, apoptotic cell death increased significantly, e.g., 6.3 +/- 0.8 cells/10 HPF at 6 h. Despite the increase in the number of hepatocytes meeting the morphological criteria of apoptosis, this cell fraction remained well below 1% of all parenchymal cells. No evidence for caspase-3 processing or increase in enzyme activity was detected at any time. These results were compared to the overall percent of necrotic cells in liver sections. Confluent areas of centrilobular necrosis were estimated to involve 40-60% of all hepatocytes between 3 and 24 h after AAP administration. These numbers correlated with the increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase activities, which reached a peak level of 5900 +/- 1350 U/l at 24 h. A similar result was obtained with higher doses of AAP and with the use of fed animals. Thus, oncotic necrosis and not apoptosis is the principal mechanism of liver-cell death after AAP overdose in vivo. PMID:12011492

  3. Mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas with neuroendocrine predominance.

    PubMed

    Ogbonna, Onyekachi Henry; Garcon, Marie Carmel; Syrigos, Kostas N; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2013-01-01

    Background. Pancreatic tumors are rare and could arise from either the exocrine (ductal and acinar cells) or the endocrine (neuroendocrine cells) components of the pancreas. In some instances, the occurrence of pancreatic tumors comprising both acinar cells and neuroendocrine cells, with neuroendocrine cells making up more than 30% of the tumor, has been identified. This unique entity has been referred to as mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Only about 20 such cases have been reported in the literature. Case Report. We report an interesting case of MANEC with neuroendocrine cell predominance in a woman presenting with epigastric pain secondary to a pancreatic mass with acinar and endocrine differentiation. She underwent surgical resection of the tumor and was offered adjuvant treatment chemotherapy with carboplatin, etoposide, and radiotherapy for positive tumor resection margins. Conclusions. Given the paucity of the cases of MANEC, continuous reporting of these cases when identified should be encouraged to aid oncologists in understanding the disease and help establish standardized management. PMID:24348574

  4. Mixed Acinar-Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Neuroendocrine Predominance

    PubMed Central

    Ogbonna, Onyekachi Henry; Syrigos, Kostas N.; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2013-01-01

    Background. Pancreatic tumors are rare and could arise from either the exocrine (ductal and acinar cells) or the endocrine (neuroendocrine cells) components of the pancreas. In some instances, the occurrence of pancreatic tumors comprising both acinar cells and neuroendocrine cells, with neuroendocrine cells making up more than 30% of the tumor, has been identified. This unique entity has been referred to as mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Only about 20 such cases have been reported in the literature. Case Report. We report an interesting case of MANEC with neuroendocrine cell predominance in a woman presenting with epigastric pain secondary to a pancreatic mass with acinar and endocrine differentiation. She underwent surgical resection of the tumor and was offered adjuvant treatment chemotherapy with carboplatin, etoposide, and radiotherapy for positive tumor resection margins. Conclusions. Given the paucity of the cases of MANEC, continuous reporting of these cases when identified should be encouraged to aid oncologists in understanding the disease and help establish standardized management. PMID:24348574

  5. A histological and flow cytometric study of dog brain endothelial cell injuries in delayed radiation necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, N.; Yamashima, T.; Yamashita, J. )

    1991-04-01

    The pathogenesis of delayed cerebral radiation necrosis was studied histologically and biochemically in 25 dogs with special attention to vascular endothelial cell injuries. The dogs were sacrificed 3 to 30 months after irradiation with a single dose of 15 Gy to the head. Brain specimens were appropriately fixed for light and electron microscopic studies, and capillary endothelial cells were isolated for flow cytometric study. The endothelial cells were stained with acridine orange, then the cell ratios in the reproductive phase (S + G2 + M) were investigated with flow cytometry. Thereafter, Feulgen hydrolysis and computer analysis of the hydrolysis curves were performed to examine the qualitative changes in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of endothelial cells after irradiation. Under light microscopy, spongy degeneration with small cell infiltration was observed, especially in the frontal white matter, at 6 months after irradiation. At 9 months, necrotic foci appeared and developed until 15 months after irradiation. Blood vessels around the necrotic area showed luminal narrowing with endothelial hyperplasia and proliferation. At 30 months, no fresh necrotic lesions were observed. Under electron microscopy, endothelial cells of capillaries and small vessels around the necrotic area showed an increase of pinocytosis, and in the nuclei there was an increase of infoldings and euchromatin. The cell ratios in the reproductive phase were 14.5% to 23.3% (maximum at 9 months) in the irradiated group compared to 6.4% in the control group. The rate constant of apurinic acid production, a parameter correlating with DNA transcriptional activity, was minimum at 3 months and maximum at 9 months after irradiation. The data suggest that impairment of the microcirculation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of delayed radiation necrosis.

  6. Enhanced detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus by pretreatment of cell monolayers with polyethylene glycol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    To improve quantification of very low levels of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in samples of tissue, ovarian fluid, or natural water supplies, we tested the ability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to enhance the sensitivity and speed of the plaque assay system. We compared 4, 7, and 10% solutions of PEG of molecular weight 6,000, 8,000, or 20,000 applied at selected volumes and for various durations. When cell monolayers of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC), fathead minnow (FHM), chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214), and bluegill fry (BF2) were pretreated with 7% PEG-20,000, they produced 4-17-fold increases in plaque assay titers of IHNV. The plaque assay titers of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, chum salmon reovirus, and chinook salmon paramyxovirus were also enhanced by exposure of CHSE-214 cells to PEG, but the titers of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and Oncorhynchus masou virus were not substantially changed. Plaques formed by IHNV on PEG-treated EPC cells incubated at 15°C had a larger mean diameter at 6 d than those on control cells at 8 d; this suggests the assay could be shortened by use of PEG. Pretreatment of EPC cell monolayers with PEG enabled detection of IHNV in some samples that appeared negative with untreated cells. For example, when ovarian fluid samples from chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were inoculated onto untreated monolayers of EPC cells, IHNV was detected in only 11 of 51 samples; 17 of the samples were positive when PEG-treated EPC cells were used.PDF

  7. The contribution of apoptosis and necrosis in freezing injury of sea urchin embryonic cells.

    PubMed

    Boroda, Andrey V; Kipryushina, Yulia O; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2016-08-01

    Sea urchins have recently been reported to be a promising tool for investigations of oxidative stress, UV light perturbations and senescence. However, few available data describe the pathway of cell death that occurs in sea urchin embryonic cells after cryopreservation. Our study is focused on the morphological and functional alterations that occur in cells of these animals during the induction of different cell death pathways in response to cold injury. To estimate the effect of cryopreservation on sea urchin cell cultures and identify the involved cell death pathways, we analyzed cell viability (via trypan blue exclusion test, MTT assay and DAPI staining), caspase activity (via flow cytometry and spectrophotometry), the level of apoptosis (via annexin V-FITC staining), and cell ultrastructure alterations (via transmission electron microscopy). Using general caspase detection, we found that the level of caspase activity was low in unfrozen control cells, whereas the number of apoptotic cells with activated caspases rose after freezing-thawing depending on cryoprotectants used, also as the number of dead cells and cells in a late apoptosis. The data using annexin V-binding assay revealed a very high apoptosis level in all tested samples, even in unfrozen cells (about 66%). Thus, annexin V assay appears to be unsuitable for sea urchin embryonic cells. Typical necrotic cells with damaged mitochondria were not detected after freezing in sea urchin cell cultures. Our results assume that physical cell disruption but not freezing-induced apoptosis or necrosis is the predominant reason of cell death in sea urchin cultures after freezing-thawing with any cryoprotectant combination. PMID:27364314

  8. Snail1 is required for the maintenance of the pancreatic acinar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Loubat-Casanovas, Jordina; Peña, Raúl; Gonzàlez, Núria; Alba-Castellón, Lorena; Rosell, Santi; Francí, Clara; Navarro, Pilar; de Herreros, Antonio García

    2016-01-01

    The Snail1 transcriptional factor is required for correct embryonic development, yet its expression in adult animals is very limited and its functional roles are not evident. We have now conditionally inactivated Snail1 in adult mice and analyzed the phenotype of these animals. Snail1 ablation rapidly altered pancreas structure: one month after Snail1 depletion, acinar cells were markedly depleted, and pancreas accumulated adipose tissue. Snail1 expression was not detected in the epithelium but was in pancreatic mesenchymal cells (PMCs). Snail1 ablation in cultured PMCs downregulated the expression of several β-catenin/Tcf-4 target genes, modified the secretome of these cells and decreased their ability to maintain acinar markers in cultured pancreas cells. Finally, Snail1 deficiency modified the phenotype of pancreatic tumors generated in transgenic mice expressing c-myc under the control of the elastase promoter. Specifically, Snail1 depletion did not significantly alter the size of the tumors but accelerated acinar-ductal metaplasia. These results demonstrate that Snail1 is expressed in PMCs and plays a pivotal role in maintaining acinar cells within the pancreas in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:26735179

  9. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells activate the survival protein Akt in cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells that limits apoptosis and necrosis during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Henning, Robert J; Dennis, Steve; Sawmiller, Darrell; Hunter, Lorynn; Sanberg, Paul; Miller, Leslie

    2012-06-01

    We have previously reported that human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HUCBC), which contain hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and endothelial stem cells, can significantly reduce acute myocardial infarction size. To determine the mechanism whereby HUCBC increase myocyte and vascular endothelial cell survival, we treated cardiac myocytes and coronary artery endothelial cells in separate experiments with HUCBC plus culture media or culture media alone and subjected the cells to 24 h of hypoxia or normoxia. We then determined in myocytes and endothelial cells activation of the cell survival protein Akt by Western blots. We also determined in these cells apoptosis by annexin V staining and necrosis by propidium iodide staining. Thereafter, we inhibited with API, a specific and sensitive Akt inhibitor, Akt activation in myocytes and endothelial cells cultured with HUCBC during hypoxia and determined cell apoptosis and necrosis. In cells cultured without HUCBC, hypoxia only slightly activated Akt. Moreover, hypoxia increased myocyte apoptosis by ≥ 226% and necrosis by 58% in comparison with myocytes in normoxia. Hypoxic treatment of endothelial cells without HUCBC increased apoptosis by 94% and necrosis by 59%. In contrast, hypoxia did not significantly affect HUCBC. Moreover, in myocyte + HUCBC cultures in hypoxia, HUCBC induced a ≥ 135% increase in myocyte phospho-Akt. Akt activation decreased myocyte apoptosis by 76% and necrosis by 35%. In endothelial cells, HUCBC increased phospho-Akt by 116%. HUCBC also decreased endothelial cell apoptosis by 58% and necrosis by 42%. Inhibition of Akt with API in myocytes and endothelial cells cultured with HUCBC during hypoxia nearly totally prevented the HUCBC-induced decrease in apoptosis and necrosis. We conclude that HUCBC can significantly decrease hypoxia-induced myocyte and endothelial cell apoptosis and necrosis by activating Akt in these cells and in this manner HUCBC can limit myocardial ischemia and injury. PMID

  10. A novel structural derivative of natural alkaloid ellipticine, MDPSQ, induces necrosis in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Shahabuddin, M S; Nambiar, Mridula; Moorthy, Balaji T; Naik, Prakruthi L; Choudhary, Bibha; Advirao, Gopal M; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2011-08-01

    DNA intercalating molecules are promising chemotherapeutic agents. In the present study, a novel DNA intercalating compound of pyrimido[4',5':4,5]selenolo(2,3-b)quinoline series having 8-methyl-4-(3 diethylaminopropylamino) side chain is studied for its chemotherapeutic properties. Our results showed that 8-methyl-4-(3 diethylaminopropylamino) pyrimido [4',5':4,5] selenolo(2,3-b)quinoline (MDPSQ) induces cytotoxicity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner on leukemic cell lines. Both cell cycle analysis and tritiated thymidine assays revealed that MDPSQ affects DNA replication. Treatment with MDPSQ resulted in both elevated levels of DNA strand breaks and repair proteins, further indicating its cytotoxic effects. Besides, Annexin V/PI staining revealed that MDPSQ induces cell death by triggering necrosis rather than apoptosis. PMID:20069337

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhances IL-15-induced natural killer cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jiwon; Lee, Suk Hyung; Shin, Nara; Jeong, Mira; Kim, Mi Sun; Kim, Mi Jeong; Yoon, Suk Ran; Chung, Jin Woong; Kim, Tae-Don; Choi, Inpyo

    2009-09-04

    The differentiation of natural killer (NK) cells is regulated by various factors including soluble growth factors and transcription factors. Here, we have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) is a positive regulator of NK cell differentiation. TNF-{alpha} augmented the IL-15-induced expression of NK1.1 and CD122 in mature NK cells, and TNF-{alpha} alone also induced NK cell maturation as well as IL-15. TNF-{alpha} also increased IFN-{gamma} production in NK cells in the presence of IL-15. Meanwhile, mRNA expression of several transcription factors, including T-bet and GATA-3, was increased by the addition of TNF-{alpha} and IL-15. In addition, TNF-{alpha} increased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity in NK cells and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B impeded TNF-{alpha}-enhanced NK cell maturation. Overall, these data suggest that TNF-{alpha} significantly increased IL-15-driven NK cell differentiation by increasing the expression of transcription factors that play crucial roles in NK cell maturation and inducing the NF-{kappa}B activity.

  12. A novel steroidal saponin glycoside from Fagonia indica induces cell-selective apoptosis or necrosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Abdul; Barker, James; Barton, Stephen J; Owen, Caroline P; Ahmed, Sabbir; Carew, Mark A

    2012-09-29

    Fagonia indica is a small spiny shrub of great ethnopharmacological importance in folk medicine. The aqueous decoction of aerial parts is a popular remedy against various skin lesions, including cancer. We used a biological activity-guided fractionation approach to isolate the most potent fraction of the crude extract on three cancer cell lines: MCF-7 oestrogen-dependent breast cancer, MDA-MB-468 oestrogen-independent breast cancer, and Caco-2 colon cancer cells. A series of chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures were utilised on the EtOAc fraction, which resulted in the isolation of a new steroidal saponin glycoside. The cytotoxic activity of the saponin glycoside was determined in cancer cells using the MTT and neutral red uptake assays. After 24h treatment, the observed IC(50) values of the saponin glycoside were 12.5 μM on MDA-MB-468 and Caco-2 cells, but 100 μM on MCF-7 cells. Several lines of evidence: PARP cleavage, caspase-3 cleavage, DNA ladder assays, and reversal of growth inhibition with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk, suggested stimulation of apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 and Caco-2 cells, but not in MCF-7 cells, which do not express caspase-3. The haemolytic activity of the saponin glycoside was confirmed in sheep red blood cells, with cell lysis observed at >100 μM, suggesting that, at this concentration, the saponin glycoside caused necrosis through cell lysis in MCF-7 cells. Using the DNA ladder assay, the saponin glycoside (12.5 μM) was not toxic to HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) or U937 cells, indicating some selectivity between malignant and normal cells. We conclude that the steroidal saponin glycoside isolated from F. indica is able to induce apoptosis or necrosis in cancer cells depending on the cell type. PMID:22800968

  13. Mechanism of cell death during warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion in rats: apoptosis or necrosis?

    PubMed

    Gujral, J S; Bucci, T J; Farhood, A; Jaeschke, H

    2001-02-01

    Reperfusion injury can cause liver dysfunction after cold storage and warm ischemia. Recently it has been suggested that more than 50% of hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC) are undergoing apoptosis during the first 24 hours of reperfusion. The aim of our study was to quantify apoptotic and necrotic hepatocytes and apoptotic SEC after 60 or 120 minutes of warm, partial no-flow ischemia and 0 to 24 hours reperfusion in male SD rats. Apoptotic cells were identified by TUNEL assay in combination with morphological criteria. After 60 minutes of ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion there was a significant increase of apoptotic hepatocytes (0.7 +/- 0.1% vs. 0.3 +/- 0.1% in controls) and SEC (1.5 +/- 0.6% vs. 0.3 +/- 0.1% in controls). The number of apoptotic SEC and hepatocytes was not different from controls at 6 hours or 24 hours of reperfusion. In contrast, the number of necrotic hepatocytes was quantified as 12 +/- 2% at 1 hour, 34 +/- 6% at 6 hours, and 57 +/- 11% at 24 hours. These results correlated with the increase in plasma ALT levels at these time points. Longer (120 min) ischemia times did not affect the number of apoptotic cells but increased hepatocellular necrosis to 58 +/- 4% at 6 hours reperfusion. No significant increase in caspase-3 activity and processing was detectable in any of these livers. Moreover, the caspase inhibitor Z-Asp-cmk (2 mg/kg IV) had no significant effect on reperfusion injury. Our results suggest that only a small minority of SEC and hepatocytes undergo apoptosis after 60 to 120 minutes of warm ischemia followed by 0 to 24 hours of reperfusion. Oncotic necrosis appears to be the principal mechanism of cell death for both cell types. PMID:11172341

  14. Hydrodynamic Determinants of Cell Necrosis and Molecular Delivery Produced by Pulsed Laser Microbeam Irradiation of Adherent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Jonathan L.; Hellman, Amy N.; Venugopalan, Vasan

    2013-01-01

    Time-resolved imaging, fluorescence microscopy, and hydrodynamic modeling were used to examine cell lysis and molecular delivery produced by picosecond and nanosecond pulsed laser microbeam irradiation in adherent cell cultures. Pulsed laser microbeam radiation at λ = 532 nm was delivered to confluent monolayers of PtK2 cells via a 40×, 0.8 NA microscope objective. Using laser microbeam pulse durations of 180–1100 ps and pulse energies of 0.5–10.5 μJ, we examined the resulting plasma formation and cavitation bubble dynamics that lead to laser-induced cell lysis, necrosis, and molecular delivery. The cavitation bubble dynamics are imaged at times of 0.5 ns to 50 μs after the pulsed laser microbeam irradiation, and fluorescence assays assess the resulting cell viability and molecular delivery of 3 kDa dextran molecules. Reductions in both the threshold laser microbeam pulse energy for plasma formation and the cavitation bubble energy are observed with decreasing pulse duration. These energy reductions provide for increased precision of laser-based cellular manipulation including cell lysis, cell necrosis, and molecular delivery. Hydrodynamic analysis reveals critical values for the shear-stress impulse generated by the cavitation bubble dynamics governs the location and spatial extent of cell necrosis and molecular delivery independent of pulse duration and pulse energy. Specifically, cellular exposure to a shear-stress impulse J≳0.1 Pa s ensures cell lysis or necrosis, whereas exposures in the range of 0.035≲J≲0.1 Pa s preserve cell viability while also enabling molecular delivery of 3 kDa dextran. Exposure to shear-stress impulses of J≲0.035 Pa s leaves the cells unaffected. Hydrodynamic analysis of these data, combined with data from studies of 6 ns microbeam irradiation, demonstrates the primacy of shear-stress impulse in determining cellular outcome resulting from pulsed laser microbeam irradiation spanning a nearly two

  15. Hydrodynamic determinants of cell necrosis and molecular delivery produced by pulsed laser microbeam irradiation of adherent cells.

    PubMed

    Compton, Jonathan L; Hellman, Amy N; Venugopalan, Vasan

    2013-11-01

    Time-resolved imaging, fluorescence microscopy, and hydrodynamic modeling were used to examine cell lysis and molecular delivery produced by picosecond and nanosecond pulsed laser microbeam irradiation in adherent cell cultures. Pulsed laser microbeam radiation at λ = 532 nm was delivered to confluent monolayers of PtK2 cells via a 40×, 0.8 NA microscope objective. Using laser microbeam pulse durations of 180-1100 ps and pulse energies of 0.5-10.5 μJ, we examined the resulting plasma formation and cavitation bubble dynamics that lead to laser-induced cell lysis, necrosis, and molecular delivery. The cavitation bubble dynamics are imaged at times of 0.5 ns to 50 μs after the pulsed laser microbeam irradiation, and fluorescence assays assess the resulting cell viability and molecular delivery of 3 kDa dextran molecules. Reductions in both the threshold laser microbeam pulse energy for plasma formation and the cavitation bubble energy are observed with decreasing pulse duration. These energy reductions provide for increased precision of laser-based cellular manipulation including cell lysis, cell necrosis, and molecular delivery. Hydrodynamic analysis reveals critical values for the shear-stress impulse generated by the cavitation bubble dynamics governs the location and spatial extent of cell necrosis and molecular delivery independent of pulse duration and pulse energy. Specifically, cellular exposure to a shear-stress impulse J≳0.1 Pa s ensures cell lysis or necrosis, whereas exposures in the range of 0.035≲J≲0.1 Pa s preserve cell viability while also enabling molecular delivery of 3 kDa dextran. Exposure to shear-stress impulses of J≲0.035 Pa s leaves the cells unaffected. Hydrodynamic analysis of these data, combined with data from studies of 6 ns microbeam irradiation, demonstrates the primacy of shear-stress impulse in determining cellular outcome resulting from pulsed laser microbeam irradiation spanning a nearly two-orders-of-magnitude range of

  16. Growth promoting effect of recombinant interleukin I and tumor necrosis factor for human astrocytoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Giulian, D.; Dinarello, C.A.; Brown, D.C.; Lachman, L.B.

    1986-03-01

    Human IL I has been demonstrated to stimulate the growth of rat astrocytes in vitro. To determine if IL I has a similar growth promoting effect upon human brain cells, two astrocytoma cell lines were tested for their ability to incorporate /sup 3/H-thymidine in response to various types of IL I and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The U373 astrocytoma was found to respond mitogenically to human native IL I, human recombinant IL I, rat IL I and murine recombinant IL I. The cell line failed to respond to recombinant IL 2 and recombinant ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. interferon. The sensitivity of the U373 cells paralleled the murine thymocyte assay for IL I. Interestingly, the U373 responded mitogenically to recombinant TNF prepared by two different companies, thus indicating that TNF stimulates proliferation of this cell line and does not lead to cell death. In the murine thymocyte assay for IL I, TNF was not active. The results indicate that 1) both IL I and TNF are mitogenic for a human astrocytoma cell line and 2) the U373 cells may be used to assay both IL I and TNF in a highly sensitive mitogenic assay.

  17. Isolated guinea pig gastric chief cells express tumour necrosis factor receptors coupled with the sphingomyelin pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Fiorucci, S; Santucci, L; Migliorati, G; Riccardi, C; Amorosi, A; Mancini, A; Roberti, R; Morelli, A

    1996-01-01

    The tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastropathy and Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis. Both conditions are characterised by high plasma pepsinogen concentrations, which are thought to reflect an increased rate of enzyme release by the pepsinogen secreting (chief) cells. The mechanisms responsible for this cell dysfunction are unknown. This study investigates whether chief cells express TNF receptors and, if so, whether their activation results in cell death. Immunohistochemical studies conducted with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against two TNF receptor associated proteins of 55 kDa (TNF-R1) and 75 kDa (TNF-R2) showed that TNF binding sites were expressed in approximately 100% gastric chief cells. Western blot analysis of whole chief cell lysates probed with the TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 mAbs gave two distinct bands of 55 and 75 kDa in the immunoprecipitate. Incubating chief cells with TNF caused concentration and time dependent cell death, which was prevented by pretreating the cells with anti-TNF receptor mAbs. Exposing the cells to TNF reduced sphingomyelin content by 25%. Sphingomyelinase (10(-6) to 10(-2) IU/ml) mimicked the effect of TNF in that it provoked a concentration and time dependent reduction in chief cell viability and increased pepsinogen release. In conclusion, gastric chief cells express two TNF receptors partially linked to the sphingomyelin pathway. TNF induced chief cell dysfunction might be responsible for the high plasma pepsinogen concentrations seen in patients with NSAID gastropathy or H pylori induced gastritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8801194

  18. Endothelial cells undergo morphological, biomechanical, and dynamic changes in response to tumor necrosis factor-α.

    PubMed

    Stroka, Kimberly M; Vaitkus, Janina A; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-11-01

    The immune response triggers a complicated sequence of events, one of which is release of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from stromal cells, for example monocytes and macrophages. In this work we investigated the biophysical effects of TNF-α on endothelial cells (ECs), including changes in cell morphology, biomechanics, migration, and cytoskeletal dynamics. We found that TNF-α induces a wide distribution of cell area and aspect ratio, with these properties increasing on average during treatment. Interestingly, aspect ratio peaks after approximately 10 h of exposure to TNF-α, corresponding also to a peak in exerted traction forces. Meanwhile, ECs treated with TNF-α soften, and we associate this with significant increases in estimated cellular volume. In addition, our evaluation of migratory dynamics revealed an inverse correlation between cell aspect ratio and migration speed after TNF-α treatment, suggesting that cell shape may be an important functional regulator of EC migration during an inflammatory response. Finally, we addressed the basic mechanics of how the reorganization of F-actin filaments occurs during TNF-α treatment, and observed a dynamic shift of existing actin filaments. Together, our results suggest a functional link between EC morphology, biomechanics, migration, and cytoskeletal dynamics during an inflammatory response. PMID:22940754

  19. Endothelial cells undergo morphological, biomechanical, and dynamic changes in response to tumor necrosis factor-α

    PubMed Central

    Stroka, Kimberly M.; Vaitkus, Janina A.; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-01-01

    The immune response triggers a complicated sequence of events, one of which is release of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from stromal cells such as monocytes and macrophages. In this work we explored the biophysical effects of TNF-α on endothelial cells (ECs), including changes in cell morphology, biomechanics, migration, and cytoskeletal dynamics. We found that TNF-α induces a wide distribution of cell area and aspect ratio, with these properties increasing on average during treatment. Interestingly, aspect ratio peaks around 10 hours of exposure to TNF-α, corresponding also to a peak in exerted traction forces. Meanwhile, ECs treated with TNF-α soften, and we associate this with significant increases in estimated cellular volume. In addition, our evaluation of migratory dynamics demonstrates an inverse correlation between cell aspect ratio and migration speed after TNF-α treatment, suggesting that cell shape may be an important functional regulator of EC migration during an inflammatory response. Finally, we address the basic mechanics of how the reorganization of F-actin filaments occurs during TNF-α treatment, and we demonstrate a dynamic shift of existing actin filaments. Together, our results suggest a functional link between EC morphology, biomechanics, migration, and cytoskeletal dynamics during an inflammatory response. PMID:22940754

  20. Bcl2-low-expressing MCF7 cells undergo necrosis rather than apoptosis upon staurosporine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Poliseno, Laura; Bianchi, Laura; Citti, Lorenzo; Liberatori, Sabrina; Mariani, Laura; Salvetti, Alessandra; Evangelista, Monica; Bini, Luca; Pallini, Vitaliano; Rainaldi, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    We present a ribozyme-based strategy for studying the effects of Bcl2 down-regulation. The anti-bcl2 hammerhead ribozyme Rz-bcl2 was stably transfected into MCF7 cancer cells and the cleavage of Bcl2 mRNA was demonstrated using a new assay for cleavage product detection, while Western blot analysis showed a concomitant depletion of Bcl2 protein. Rz-bcl2-expressing cells were more sensitive to staurosporine than control cells. Moreover, both molecular and cellular read-outs indicated that staurosporine-induced cell death was necrosis rather than apoptosis in these cells. The study of the effects of Bcl2 down-regulation was extended to the global MCF7 protein expression profile, exploiting a proteomic approach. Two reference electro-pherograms of Rz-bcl2-transfected cells, one with the ribozyme in a catalytically active form and the other with the ribozyme in a catalytically inactive form, were obtained. When comparing the two-dimensional maps, 53 differentially expressed spots were found, four of which were identified by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight) MS as calreticulin, nucleophosmin, phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase. How the up-regulation of these proteins might help to explain the modification of Bcl2 activity is discussed. PMID:14748742

  1. Protective effects of Tougu Xiaotong capsule on tumor necrosis factor-α-injured UMR-106 cells

    PubMed Central

    LIAO, NAISHUN; HUANG, YUNMEI; YE, JINXIA; CHEN, WENLIE; LI, ZUAN FANG; LIN, RUHUI; LI, XIHAI; ZHENG, LIANGPU; LIU, XIANXIANG

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays an important role in the abnormal metabolism of osteoblasts (OBs), which leads to subchondral bone (SB) alterations in osteoarthritis. In the present study, Tougu Xiaotong capsule (TXC), a traditional Chinese medicine, was used to treat TNF-α-injured OB-like cells. The cellular viability, mortality and ultramicroscopic morphology were evaluated. Thereafter, the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), secretion of osteocalcin (OCN) and mineralization of nodules were analyzed. The results showed that TXC treatment significantly promoted cell proliferation, reduced cellular mortality and improved cellular ultrastructure, particularly that of the endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus. These data indicate that TXC is able to promote cell growth, as well as prevent inflammation in OB-like cells. Furthermore, the activity of ALP, secretion of OCN and mineralization of nodules were accelerated, and the calcium content of the TNF-α-injured OB-like cells was promoted by TXC treatment. These results indicate that TXC protected the OB-like cells from TNF-α-induced injuries. This may be a potential mechanism through which TXC regulates SB remodeling in the clinical treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID:26640571

  2. Oxaliplatin triggers necrosis as well as apoptosis in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ping; Zhu, Xueping; Jin, Wei; Hao, Shumei; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Linjie

    2015-05-01

    Intrinsic apoptotic pathway is considered to be responsible for cell death induced by platinum anticancer drugs. While in this study, we found that, necrosis is an indispensable pathway besides apoptosis in oxaliplatin-treated gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Upon exposure to oxaliplatin, both apoptotic and necrotic features were observed. The majority of dead cells were double positive for Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI). Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential collapsed and caspase cascades were activated. However, ultrastructural changes under transmission electron microscope, coupled with the release of cellular contents, demonstrated the rupture of the plasma membrane. Oxaliplatin administration did not stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and autophagy, but elevated the protein level of Bmf. In addition, receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), but not receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3) and its downstream components participated in this death process. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) blocked oxaliplatin-induced cell death nearly completely, whereas z-VAD-fmk could partially suppress cell death. Oxaliplatin treatment resulted in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) overactivation, as indicated by the increase of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which led to NAD{sup +} and ATP depletion. PARP-1 inhibitor, olaparib, could significantly block oxaliplatin-induced cell death, thus confirming that PARP-1 activation is mainly responsible for the cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin. Phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser139 and translocalization of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) are critical for this death process. Taken together, these results indicate that oxaliplatin can bypass canonical cell death pathways to kill gastric cancer cells, which may be of therapeutic advantage in the treatment of gastric cancer. - Highlights: • Oxaliplatin induces apoptotic and necrotic cell death. • Nec-1 can inhibit oxaliplatin-induced cell death nearly completely. • RIP3 and its

  3. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation in human sublingual glands: a microscopic postmortem study

    PubMed Central

    AZEVEDO-ALANIS, Luciana Reis; TOLENTINO, Elen de Souza; de ASSIS, Gerson Francisco; CESTARI, Tânia Mary; LARA, Vanessa Soares; DAMANTE, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Although some morphological investigations on aged human sublingual glands (HSG) found eventual phenomena identified as autolysis and mucous extravasation, the exact meaning of these findings has not been elucidated. Objective The aim of this work is to investigate whether acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation are related to the aging process in human sublingual glands. We also speculate if autolytic changes may assist forensic pathologists in determining time of death. Material and Methods 186 cadavers’ glands were allocated to age groups: I (0–30 years); II (31–60), and III (61–90). Time and mode of death were also recorded. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation were classified as present or absent. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (p<0.05). Results There was correlation between age and acinar autolysis (r=0.38; p=0.0001). However, there was no correlation between autolysis and time of death. No differences were observed between genders. TEM showed mucous and serous cells presenting nuclear and membrane alterations and mucous cells were more susceptible to autolysis. Conclusion Acinar autolysis occurred in all age groups and increased with age while mucous extravasation was rarely found. Both findings are independent. Autolysis degrees in HSG could not be used to determine time of death. PMID:26537715

  4. Regulation of necrotic cell death: p53, PARP1 and cyclophilin D-overlapping pathways of regulated necrosis?

    PubMed

    Ying, Yuan; Padanilam, Babu J

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to apoptosis and autophagy, necrotic cell death was considered to be a random, passive cell death without definable mediators. However, this dogma has been challenged by recent developments suggesting that necrotic cell death can also be a regulated process. Regulated necrosis includes multiple cell death modalities such as necroptosis, parthanatos, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP)-mediated necrosis. Several distinctive executive molecules, particularly residing on the mitochondrial inner and outer membrane, amalgamating to form the MPTP have been defined. The c-subunit of the F1F0ATP synthase on the inner membrane and Bax/Bak on the outer membrane are considered to be the long sought components that form the MPTP. Opening of the MPTP results in loss of mitochondrial inner membrane potential, disruption of ATP production, increased ROS production, organelle swelling, mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent necrosis. Cyclophilin D, along with adenine nucleotide translocator and the phosphate carrier are considered to be important regulators involved in the opening of MPTP. Increased production of ROS can further trigger other necrotic pathways mediated through molecules such as PARP1, leading to irreversible cell damage. This review examines the roles of PARP1 and cyclophilin D in necrotic cell death. The hierarchical role of p53 in regulation and integration of key components of signaling pathway to elicit MPTP-mediated necrosis and ferroptosis is explored. In the context of recent insights, the indistinct role of necroptosis signaling in tubular necrosis after ischemic kidney injury is scrutinized. We conclude by discussing the participation of p53, PARP1 and cyclophilin D and their overlapping pathways to elicit MPTP-mediated necrosis and ferroptosis in acute kidney injury. PMID:27048819

  5. Tumor necrosis factor-α modifies the effects of Shiga toxin on glial cells.

    PubMed

    Leu, Hue; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Shimizu, Masaki; Toma, Tomoko; Wada, Taizo; Ohta, Kunio; Yachie, Akihiro

    2016-09-01

    Shiga toxin (STX) is one of the main factors inducing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in infections with STX-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Approximately 62% of patients with HUS showed symptoms of encephalopathy in the 2011 Japanese outbreak of STEC infections. At that time, we reported elevated serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in patients with acute encephalopathy during the HUS phase. In the current study, we investigated whether TNF-α augments the effects of STX in glial cell lines and primary glial cells. We found that TNF-α alone or STX in combination with TNF-α activates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling and inhibits growth of glial cells. The magnitude of the NF-κB activation and the inhibition of cell growth by the STX and TNF-α combination was greater than that obtained with TNF-α alone or STX alone. Thus, this in vitro study reveals the role of TNF-α in glial cells during STEC infections. PMID:27268285

  6. Inhibition of Cellular DNA Synthesis in Cells Infected with Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lothrop, David; Nicholson, Bruce L.

    1974-01-01

    In asynchronous RTG-2 cell cultures infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus, inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis, but not protein synthesis, was detected 5 to 6 h postinfection and was 80 to 90% complete by 7 to 8 h. Inhibition of DNA synthesis was largely abolished by UV irradiation of the virus. Sedimentation analyses of phenol-extracted DNA indicated that native cellular DNA was not degraded during infection. Sedimentation on alkaline sucrose gradients of DNA from cells pulsed with radioactive thymidine for varying periods indicated that elongation of nascent DNA chains proceeded normally in infected cells. These and previous results suggest that IPN virus infection results in a reduction of the number of chromosomal sites active in DNA synthesis but does not affect the rate of polymerization at active sites. Cells synchronized with excess thymidine and hydroxyurea and infected with virus at the time of release from the block demonstrated an inhibition of DNA synthesis 3 h postinfection. Cells infected 4 h prior to release continued to synthesize normal amounts of DNA for 1 to 2 h after release. These results indicated that DNA synthesis in early synthetic phase is relatively insensitive to inhibition by IPN virus. PMID:4852469

  7. Alterations of cell volume regulation in the development of hepatocyte necrosis.

    PubMed

    Carini, R; Autelli, R; Bellomo, G; Albano, E

    1999-04-10

    Intracellular Na+ accumulation has been shown to contribute to hepatocyte death caused by anoxia or oxidative stress. In this study we have investigated the mechanism by which Na+ overload can contribute to the development of cytotoxicity. ATP depletion in isolated hepatocytes exposed to menadione-induced oxidative stress or to KCN was followed by Na+ accumulation, loss of intracellular K+, and cell swelling. Hepatocyte swelling occurred in two phases: a small amplitude swelling (about 15% of the initial size) with preservation of plasma membrane integrity and a terminal large amplitude swelling associated with cell death. Inhibition of Na+ accumulation by the use of a Na+-free medium prevented K+ loss, cell swelling, and cytotoxicity. Conversely, blocking K+ efflux by the addition of BaCl2 did not influence Na+ increase and small amplitude swelling, but greatly stimulated large amplitude swelling and cytotoxicity. Menadione or KCN killing of hepatocytes was also enhanced by inducing cell swelling in an hypotonic medium. However, increasing the osmolarity of the incubation medium did not protect against large amplitude swelling and cytotoxicity, since stimulated Na+ accumulation and K+ efflux. Altogether these results indicate that the impairment of volume regulation in response to the osmotic load caused by Na+ accumulation is critical for the development of cell necrosis induced by mitochondrial inhibition or oxidative stress. PMID:10094834

  8. Disturbance of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Mediated Beta Interferon Signaling in Cervical Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Anastasia; Hanke, Brigitte; Zawatzky, Rainer; Soto, Ubaldo; van Riggelen, Jan; zur Hausen, Harald; Rösl, Frank

    2002-01-01

    In the present study we show that malignant human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cells lost their ability to synthesize endogenous beta interferon (IFN-β) upon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) treatment. IFN-β transcription, however, was reinducible in nonmalignant HPV-positive cells, which was confirmed in functional protection assays against encephalomyocarditis virus or vesicular stomatitis virus infections. Addition of neutralizing antibodies against IFN-β blocked the antiviral effect, excluding the possibility that other IFN types were involved. Conversely, both malignant and immortalized cells could be protected against viral cytolysis when either IFN-β, IFN-α, or IFN-γ was added exogenously. This indicates that only the cross talk between TNF-α and the IFN-β pathways, and not IFN-α/β and IFN-γ signaling in general, is perturbed in cervical carcinoma cells. Notably, full virus protection was restricted exclusively to nonmalignant cells, indicating that the antiviral effect correlates with the growth-inhibitory and virus-suppressive properties of TNF-α. The IFN-regulatory factors IRF-1 and p48 (ISGF3γ) emerged as key regulatory molecules in the differential IFN-β response, since their transcription was either absent or only inefficiently enhanced in tumorigenic cells upon treatment with TNF-α. Inducibility of both genes, however, became reestablished in cervical carcinoma cells, which were complemented to nontumorigenicity after somatic cell hybridization. Complementation was paralleled by the entire reconstitution of cytokine-mediated IFN-β expression and the ability of TNF-α to exert an antiviral state. In contrast, under conditions where tumor suppression was not accomplished upon somatic cell hybridization, neither expression of IRF-1, p48, and IFN-β nor antiviral activity could be restored. PMID:11739693

  9. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures exposed to low-level infrared laser.

    PubMed

    Alexsandra da Silva Neto Trajano, Larissa; da Silva, Camila Luna; de Carvalho, Simone Nunes; Cortez, Erika; Mencalha, André Luiz; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson; Stumbo, Ana Carolina

    2016-07-01

    Low-level infrared laser is considered safe and effective for treatment of muscle injuries. However, the mechanism involved on beneficial effects of laser therapy are not understood. The aim was to evaluate cell viability, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures exposed to low-level infrared laser at therapeutic fluences. C2C12 myoblast cultures at different (2 and 10 %) fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentrations were exposed to low-level infrared laser (808 nm, 100 mW) at different fluences (10, 35, and 70 J/cm(2)) and evaluated after 24, 48, and 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated by WST-1 assay; reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, and necrosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cell viability was decreased atthe lowest FBS concentration. Laser exposure increased the cell viability in myoblast cultures at 2 % FBS after 48 and 72 h, but no significant increase in ROS was observed. Apoptosis was decreased at the higher fluence and necrosis was increased at lower fluence in myoblast cultures after 24 h of laser exposure at 2 % FBS. No laser-induced alterations were obtained at 10 % FBS. Results show that level of reactive oxygen species is not altered, at least to those evaluated in this study, but low-level infrared laser exposure affects cell viability, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures depending on laser fluence and physiologic conditions of cells. PMID:26886589

  10. Peripancreatic fat necrosis worsens acute pancreatitis independent of pancreatic necrosis via unsaturated fatty acids increased in human pancreatic necrosis collections

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Pawan; Patel, Krutika; Durgampudi, Chandra; Trivedi, Ram N; de Oliveira, Cristiane; Crowell, Michael D; Pannala, Rahul; Lee, Kenneth; Brand, Randall; Chennat, Jennifer; Slivka, Adam; Papachristou, Georgios I; Khalid, Asif; Whitcomb, David C; DeLany, James P; Cline, Rachel A; Acharya, Chathur; Jaligama, Deepthi; Murad, Faris M; Yadav, Dhiraj; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Peripancreatic fat necrosis occurs frequently in necrotising pancreatitis. Distinguishing markers from mediators of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is important since targeting mediators may improve outcomes. We evaluated potential agents in human pancreatic necrotic collections (NCs), pseudocysts (PCs) and pancreatic cystic neoplasms and used pancreatic acini, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and an acute pancreatitis (AP) model to determine SAP mediators. Methods We measured acinar and PBMC injury induced by agents increased in NCs and PCs. Outcomes of caerulein pancreatitis were studied in lean rats coadministered interleukin (IL)-1β and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene, triolein alone or with the lipase inhibitor orlistat. Results NCs had higher fatty acids, IL-8 and IL-1β versus other fluids. Lipolysis of unsaturated triglyceride and resulting unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) oleic and linoleic acids induced necro-apoptosis at less than half the concentration in NCs but other agents did not do so at more than two times these concentrations. Cytokine coadministration resulted in higher pancreatic and lung inflammation than caerulein alone, but only triolein coadministration caused peripancreatic fat stranding, higher cytokines, UFAs, multisystem organ failure (MSOF) and mortality in 97% animals, which were prevented by orlistat. Conclusions UFAs, IL-1β and IL-8 are elevated in NCs. However, UFAs generated via peripancreatic fat lipolysis causes worse inflammation and MSOF, converting mild AP to SAP. PMID:25500204

  11. Vpr Enhances Tumor Necrosis Factor Production by HIV-1-Infected T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Roesch, Ferdinand; Richard, Léa; Rua, Réjane; Porrot, Françoise; Casartelli, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr displays different activities potentially impacting viral replication, including the arrest of the cell cycle in the G2 phase and the stimulation of apoptosis and DNA damage response pathways. Vpr also modulates cytokine production by infected cells, but this property remains partly characterized. Here, we investigated the effect of Vpr on the production of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We report that Vpr significantly increases TNF secretion by infected lymphocytes. De novo production of Vpr is required for this effect. Vpr mutants known to be defective for G2 cell cycle arrest induce lower levels of TNF secretion, suggesting a link between these two functions. Silencing experiments and the use of chemical inhibitors further implicated the cellular proteins DDB1 and TAK1 in this activity of Vpr. TNF secreted by HIV-1-infected cells triggers NF-κB activity in bystander cells and allows viral reactivation in a model of latently infected cells. Thus, the stimulation of the proinflammatory pathway by Vpr may impact HIV-1 replication in vivo. IMPORTANCE The role of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr remains only partially characterized. This protein is important for viral pathogenesis in infected individuals but is dispensable for viral replication in most cell culture systems. Some of the functions described for Vpr remain controversial. In particular, it remains unclear whether Vpr promotes or instead prevents proinflammatory and antiviral immune responses. In this report, we show that Vpr promotes the release of TNF, a proinflammatory cytokine associated with rapid disease progression. Using Vpr mutants or inhibiting selected cellular genes, we show that the cellular proteins DDB1 and TAK1 are involved in the release of TNF by HIV-infected cells. This report provides novel insights into how Vpr manipulates TNF production and helps clarify the role of Vpr in innate immune responses and inflammation

  12. PKR Activation Favors Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Replication in Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gamil, Amr A.A.; Xu, Cheng; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR) is a Type I interferon (IFN) stimulated gene that has important biological and immunological functions. In viral infections, in general, PKR inhibits or promotes viral replication, but PKR-IPNV interaction has not been previously studied. We investigated the involvement of PKR during infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) infection using a custom-made rabbit antiserum and the PKR inhibitor C16. Reactivity of the antiserum to PKR in CHSE-214 cells was confirmed after IFNα treatment giving an increased protein level. IPNV infection alone did not give increased PKR levels by Western blot, while pre-treatment with PKR inhibitor before IPNV infection gave decreased eukaryotic initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2α) phosphorylation. This suggests that PKR, despite not being upregulated, is involved in eIF2α phosphorylation during IPNV infection. PKR inhibitor pre-treatment resulted in decreased virus titers, extra- and intracellularly, concomitant with reduction of cells with compromised membranes in IPNV-permissive cell lines. These findings suggest that IPNV uses PKR activation to promote virus replication in infected cells. PMID:27338445

  13. Erythropoietin protects myocardin-expressing cardiac stem cells against cytotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Madonna, Rosalinda; Shelat, Harnath; Xue, Qun; Willerson, James T.; De Caterina, Raffaele; Geng, Yong-Jian

    2009-10-15

    Cardiac stem cells are vulnerable to inflammation caused by infarction or ischemic injury. The growth factor, erythropoietin (Epo), ameliorates the inflammatory response of the myocardium to ischemic injury. This study was designed to assess the role of Epo in regulation of expression and activation of the cell death-associated intracellular signaling components in cardiac myoblasts stimulated with the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}. Cardiac myoblasts isolated from canine embryonic hearts characterized by expression of myocardin A, a promyogenic transcription factor for cardiovascular muscle development were pretreated with Epo and then exposed to TNF-{alpha}. Compared to untreated cells, the Epo-treated cardiac myoblasts exhibited better morphology and viability. Immunoblotting revealed lower levels of active caspase-3 and reductions in iNOS expression and NO production in Epo-treated cells. Furthermore, Epo pretreatment reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B and inhibited phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B (I{kappa}B) in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated cardiac myoblasts. Thus, Epo protects cardiac myocyte progenitors or myoblasts against the cytotoxic effects of TNF-{alpha} by inhibiting NF-{kappa}B-mediated iNOS expression and NO production and by preventing caspase-3 activation.

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is expressed by glomerular visceral epithelial cells in human membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Neale, T. J.; Rüger, B. M.; Macaulay, H.; Dunbar, P. R.; Hasan, Q.; Bourke, A.; Murray-McIntosh, R. P.; Kitching, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was examined in biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, immunogold electron microscopy, immunoassay in serum and urine, and urinary immunoblot. Striking glomerular capillary wall and visceral glomerular epithelial cell TNF-alpha protein staining was observed in all cases of membranous nephropathy and membranous lupus nephropathy. Staining was less frequently observed in crescentic glomerulonephritis and in isolated cases of other histological subtypes of glomerulonephritis, usually in association with glomerular macrophages. By immunogold electron microscopy TNF-alpha was localized in membranous nephropathy within the visceral glomerular epithelial cells, and also in the glomerular basement membrane, especially in relation to immune deposits. In situ hybridization localized TNF-alpha mRNA exclusively to glomerular epithelial cells in all biopsies with membranous morphology but not in other histological subtypes. Concentrations of TNF-alpha were significantly increased compared with normal controls in the urine of patients with membranous nephropathy and with crescentic glomerulonephritis. The expression of TNF-alpha by glomerular epithelial cells exclusively and universally in biopsies showing a membranous morphology strongly suggests this cytokine has a role in the pathogenesis of membranous nephropathy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7778683

  15. p21(WAF1) (/Cip1) limits senescence and acinar-to-ductal metaplasia formation during pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Grabliauskaite, Kamile; Hehl, Adrian B; Seleznik, Gitta M; Saponara, Enrica; Schlesinger, Kathryn; Zuellig, Richard A; Dittmann, Anja; Bain, Martha; Reding, Theresia; Sonda, Sabrina; Graf, Rolf

    2015-02-01

    Trans-differentiation of pancreatic acinar cells into ductal-like lesions, a process defined as acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), is observed in the course of organ regeneration following pancreatitis. In addition, ADM is found in association with pre-malignant PanIN lesions and correlates with an increased risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Human PDAC samples show down-regulation of p21(WAF1) (/Cip1) , a key regulator of cell cycle and cell differentiation. Here we investigated whether p21 down-regulation is implicated in controlling the early events of acinar cell trans-differentiation and ADM formation. p21-mediated regulation of ADM formation and regression was analysed in vivo during the course of cerulein-induced pancreatitis, using wild-type (WT) and p21-deficient (p21(-/-) ) mice. Biochemical and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate disease progression over 2 weeks of the disease and during a recovery phase. We found that p21 was strongly up-regulated in WT acinar cells during pancreatitis, while it was absent in ADM areas, suggesting that p21 down-regulation is associated with ADM formation. In support of this hypothesis, p21(-/-) mice showed a significant increase in number and size of metaplasia. In addition, p21 over-expression in acinar cells reduced ADM formation in vitro, suggesting that the protein regulates the metaplastic transition in a cell-autonomous manner. p21(-/-) mice displayed increased expression and relocalization of β-catenin both during pancreatitis and in the subsequent recovery phase. Finally, loss of p21 was accompanied by increased DNA damage and development of senescence. Our findings are consistent with a gate-keeper role of p21 in acinar cells to limit senescence activation and ADM formation during pancreatic regeneration. PMID:25212177

  16. Pinosylvin at a high concentration induces AMPK-mediated autophagy for preventing necrosis in bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinsun; Pyee, Jaeho; Park, Heonyong

    2014-12-01

    Pinosylvin is a known functional compound of the Pinus species. Pinosylvin at low concentrations (∼ pmol/L) was reported to promote cell proliferation in endothelial cells. However, this study found that pinosylvin at a high concentration (100 μmol/L) induces cell death in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Therefore, we examined how pinosylvin was associated with apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis. Pinosylvin at a high concentration appeared to promote caspase-3 activation, nuclear condensation, and the "flip-flop" of phosphatidylserine, indicating that pinosylvin induces apoptosis. However, based on flow cytometry data obtained from double-staining with annexin V and propidium iodide, pinosylvin was shown to inhibit necrosis, a postapoptotic process. Pinosylvin induced LC3 conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II and p62 degradation, which are important indicators of autophagy. In addition, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) appeared to be activated by pinosylvin, and an AMPK inhibitor was markedly shown to reduce the LC3 conversion. The inhibitory effect of an AMPK inhibitor was reversed by pinosylvin. These results suggest that pinosylvin induces autophagy via AMPK activation. Further, necrosis was found to be promoted by an autophagy inhibitor and then restored by pinosylvin, while the caspase-3 inhibitor had no effect on necrosis. These findings indicate that pinosylvin-induced autophagy blocks necrotic progress in endothelial cells. PMID:25393712

  17. The morphology of apoptosis and necrosis of fat cells after photodynamic treatment at a constant temperature in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Orlova, Tatyana G.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy with temperature control is a new approach for treatment of obesity and cellulite. Cell death can occur under the action of various physical, chemical and biological factors. Depending on the inductor, this is apoptosis or necrosis. These two forms of cell death differ on the biochemical and morphological levels. Biochemical changes occur quickly enough and it raises difficulties of their detection. One of the morphological characteristics of apoptosis is a decrease (contraction) of cells, and necrosis - an increase in the size of the cell (swelling). This attribute simply determined visually using a digital microscope. The program was designed using LabVEIW media, which allowed us to develop the software for providing interaction with the measuring and control equipment, data collection, processing and displaying the information and results of calculations and simulations for the individual cells and ensembles of cells, and, in general, to automate process.

  18. Regulation of Adipose Tissue Stem Cells Angiogenic Potential by Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Zubkova, Ekaterina S; Beloglazova, Irina B; Makarevich, Pavel I; Boldyreva, Maria A; Sukhareva, Olga Yu; Shestakova, Marina V; Dergilev, Konstantin V; Parfyonova, Yelena V; Menshikov, Mikhail Yu

    2016-01-01

    Tissue regeneration requires coordinated "teamwork" of growth factors, proteases, progenitor and immune cells producing inflammatory cytokines. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) might play a pivotal role by substituting cells or by secretion of growth factors or cytokines, and attraction of progenitor and inflammatory cells, which participate in initial stages of tissue repair. Due to obvious impact of inflammation on regeneration it seems promising to explore whether inflammatory factors could influence proangiogenic abilities of MSC. In this study we investigated effects of TNF-α on activity of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC). We found that treatment with TNF-α enhances ADSC proliferation, F-actin microfilament assembly, increases cell motility and migration through extracellular matrix. Exposure of ADSC to TNF-α led to increased mRNA expression of proangiogenic factors (FGF-2, VEGF, IL-8, and MCP-1), inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6), proteases (MMPs, uPA) and adhesion molecule ICAM-1. At the protein level, VEGF, IL-8, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 production was also up-regulated. Pre-incubation of ADSC with TNF-α-enhanced adhesion of monocytes to ADSC but suppressed adherence of ADSC to endothelial cells (HUVEC). Stimulation with TNF-α triggers ROS generation and activates a number of key intracellular signaling mediators known to positively regulate angiogenesis (Akt, small GTPase Rac1, ERK1/2, and p38 MAP-kinases). Pre-treatment with TNF-α-enhanced ADSC ability to promote growth of microvessels in a fibrin gel assay and accelerate blood flow recovery, which was accompanied by increased arteriole density and reduction of necrosis in mouse hind limb ischemia model. These findings indicate that TNF-α plays a role in activation of ADSC angiogenic and regenerative potential. PMID:26096299

  19. Mitochondrial bax translocation accelerates DNA fragmentation and cell necrosis in a murine model of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bajt, Mary Lynn; Farhood, Anwar; Lemasters, John J; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondria generate reactive oxygen and peroxynitrite and release endonucleases during acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Because mitochondrial translocation of Bax can initiate these events, we investigated the potential role of Bax in the pathophysiology of hepatic necrosis after 300 mg/kg APAP in fasted C57BL/6 mice. APAP overdose induced Bax translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria as early as 1 h after APAP injection. At 6 h, there was extensive centrilobular nitrotyrosine staining (indicator for peroxynitrite formation) and nuclear DNA fragmentation. In addition, mitochondrial intermembrane proteins were released into the cytosol. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities of 5610 +/- 600 U/l indicated extensive necrotic cell death. Conversely, Bax gene knockout (Bax(-/-)) mice had 80% lower ALT activities, less DNA fragmentation, and less intermembrane protein release at 6 h. However, immunohistochemical staining for nitrotyrosine or APAP protein adducts did not show differences between wild-type and Bax(-/-) mice. In contrast to the early hepatoprotection in Bax(-/-) mice, plasma ALT activities (7605 +/- 480 U/l) and area of necrosis (53 +/- 6% hepatocytes) in wild-type animals was similar to values in Bax(-/-) mice at 12 h. In addition, there was no difference in DNA fragmentation or nitrotyrosine immunostaining. We concluded that the rapid mitochondrial Bax translocation after APAP overdose has no effect on peroxynitrite formation but that it contributes to the mitochondrial release of proteins, which cause nuclear DNA fragmentation. However, the persistent oxidant stress and peroxynitrite formation in mitochondria may eventually trigger the permeability transition pore opening and release intermembrane proteins independently of Bax. PMID:17906064

  20. Induction of manganese superoxide dismutase by tumour necrosis factor-alpha in human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Karube-Harada, A; Sugino, N; Kashida, S; Takiguchi, S; Takayama, H; Yamagata, Y; Nakamura, Y; Kato, H

    2001-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) on superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression in human endometrial stromal cells (ESC) and to determine whether there is a difference in responsiveness to TNFalpha between ESC and decidualized ESC. TNFalpha increased manganese-SOD (Mn-SOD) mRNA level and Mn-SOD activity in a dose-dependent manner in ESC. The concentration of TNFalpha required for an effect was lower for decidualized ESC than for non-decidualized ESC. TNFalpha had no effect on copper-zinc-SOD (Cu,Zn-SOD) expression in either type of cell. Incubation of ESC with actinomycin D, an RNA synthesis inhibitor, blocked TNFalpha-induced Mn-SOD mRNA expression, but cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, had no effect. H7, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), also inhibited TNFalpha-stimulated Mn-SOD mRNA expression in both types of cells. These findings suggest that TNFalpha-induced Mn-SOD expression is regulated at the transcription level and mediated by PKC-dependent phosphorylation and that de-novo protein synthesis is not required for the TNFalpha effect. In summary, TNFalpha induces Mn-SOD expression in human ESC. This phenomenon may be important for protection of ESC from cytokine-mediated oxidative stress. PMID:11675473

  1. MicroRNA-351 Regulates Two-Types of Cell Death, Necrosis and Apoptosis, Induced by 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Omi, Takuya; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Satake, Akito; Hiramoto, Akiko; Masutani, Mitsuko; Tanuma, Sei-ichi; Wataya, Yusuke; Kim, Hye-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Cell-death can be necrosis and apoptosis. We are investigating the mechanisms regulating the cell death that occurs on treatment of mouse cancer cell-line FM3A with antitumor 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR): necrosis occurs for the original clone F28-7, and apoptosis for its variant F28-7-A. Here we report that a microRNA (miR-351) regulates the cell death pattern. The miR-351 is expressed strongly in F28-7-A but only weakly in F28-7. Induction of a higher expression of miR-351 in F28-7 by transfecting an miRNA mimic into F28-7 resulted in a change of the death mode; necrosis to apoptosis. Furthermore, transfection of an miR-351 inhibitor into F28-7-A resulted in the morphology change, apoptosis to necrosis, in this death-by-FUdR. Possible mechanism involving lamin B1 in this miR-351's regulatory action is discussed. PMID:27071035

  2. MicroRNA-351 Regulates Two-Types of Cell Death, Necrosis and Apoptosis, Induced by 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Takuya; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Satake, Akito; Hiramoto, Akiko; Masutani, Mitsuko; Tanuma, Sei-ichi; Wataya, Yusuke; Kim, Hye-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Cell-death can be necrosis and apoptosis. We are investigating the mechanisms regulating the cell death that occurs on treatment of mouse cancer cell-line FM3A with antitumor 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR): necrosis occurs for the original clone F28-7, and apoptosis for its variant F28-7-A. Here we report that a microRNA (miR-351) regulates the cell death pattern. The miR-351 is expressed strongly in F28-7-A but only weakly in F28-7. Induction of a higher expression of miR-351 in F28-7 by transfecting an miRNA mimic into F28-7 resulted in a change of the death mode; necrosis to apoptosis. Furthermore, transfection of an miR-351 inhibitor into F28-7-A resulted in the morphology change, apoptosis to necrosis, in this death-by-FUdR. Possible mechanism involving lamin B1 in this miR-351’s regulatory action is discussed. PMID:27071035

  3. Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily costimulation couples T cell receptor signal strength to thymic regulatory T cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Shawn A.; Manlove, Luke S.; Schmitz, Heather M.; Xing, Yan; Wang, Yanyan; Owen, David L.; Schenkel, Jason M.; Boomer, Jonathan S.; Green, Jonathan M.; Yagita, Hideo; Chi, Hongbo; Hogquist, Kristin A.; Farrar, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells express tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) members, but their role in thymic Treg development is undefined. We demonstrate that Treg progenitors highly express the TNFRSF members GITR, OX40, and TNFR2. Expression of these receptors correlates directly with T cell receptor (TCR) signal strength, and requires CD28 and the kinase TAK1. Neutralizing TNFSF ligands markedly reduced Treg development. Conversely, TNFRSF agonists enhanced Treg differentiation by augmenting IL-2R/STAT5 responsiveness. GITR-ligand costimulation elicited a dose-dependent enrichment of lower-affinity cells within the Treg repertoire. In vivo, combined inhibition of GITR, OX40 and TNFR2 abrogated Treg development. Thus TNFRSF expression on Treg progenitors translates strong TCR signals into molecular parameters that specifically promote Treg differentiation and shape the Treg repertoire. PMID:24633226

  4. Is Liver Enzyme Release Really Associated with Cell Necrosis Induced by Oxidant Stress?

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Zentella, Martha Lucinda; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic diseases are a major concern worldwide. Increased specific plasma enzyme activities are considered diagnostic features for liver diseases, since enzymes are released into the blood compartment following the deterioration of the organ. Release of liver mitochondrial enzymes is considered strong evidence for hepatic necrosis, which is associated with an increased production of ROS, often leading to greater hepatic lipid peroxidation. Lipotoxic mediators and intracellular signals activated Kupffer cells, which provides evidence strongly suggesting the participation of oxidant stress in acute liver damage, inducing the progression of liver injury to chronic liver damage. Elevated transaminase activities are considered as an index marker of hepatotoxicity, linked to oxidant stress. However, a drastic increase of serum activities of liver enzyme markers ought not necessarily to reflect liver cell death. In fact, increased serum levels of cytoplasmic enzymes have readily been observed after partial hepatectomy (PH) in the regenerating liver of rats. In this regard, we are now showing that in vitro modifications of the oxidant status affect differentially the release of liver enzymes, indicating that this release is a strictly controlled event and not directly related to the onset of oxidant stress of the liver. PMID:26798419

  5. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3-mediated programmed cell necrosis in rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    DONG, YANRU; BAO, CUIFEN; YU, JINGWEI; LIU, XIA

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the activation of tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) and receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) were investigated following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI). Healthy SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: Sham operation group, model group and inhibitor group. The model group and inhibitor group were further divided into 4 subgroups of 6, 12, 24 and 72 h following CIRI. Using right middle cerebral artery embolization, the CIRI model was generated. To confirm that the CIRI model was established, neurological scores, TTC staining and brain water content measurements were conducted. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were conducted to investigate the expression of TNFR1 and RIP3 in the cerebral cortex. It was observed that nerve cell necrosis occurred following 6 h of CIRI. The appearance of necrotic cells was gradually increased with increasing CIRI duration. TNFR1 and RIP3 were positively expressed following 6 h of CIRI. With increasing durations of CIRI, the protein expression levels of TNFR1 and RIP3 were significantly increased. Pre-administration with Z-VAD-FMK (zVAD) significantly increased the protein level of RIP3, however, had no effect on the levels of TNFR1, and was accompanied by a reduction in necrosis. In conclusion, RIP3-mediated cell necrosis was enhanced by caspase blockade zVAD and the function of zVAD was independent of TNFR1 signaling following IR. PMID:27220678

  6. Simultaneous induction of apoptotic, autophagic, and necrosis-like cell death by monoclonal antibodies recognizing chicken transferrin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Yoshiya; Yagi, Hideki; Nakamura, Masanori; Masuko, Kazue; Hashimoto, Yoshiyuki; Masuko, Takashi

    2008-03-21

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is categorized as apoptotic, autophagic, or necrosis-like. Although the possibility that plural (two or three) death signals could be induced by a given stimulus has been reported, the precise mechanisms regulating PCD are not well understood. Recently, we have obtained two anti-chicken transferrin receptor (TfR) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; D18 and D19) inducing a unique cell death. Although the cell death had several features of apoptosis, autophagic and necrosis-like morphological alterations were simultaneously observed in electron microphotographs. In addition to cells with condensed chromatin and an intact plasma membrane (apoptotic cells), cells having many vacuoles in the cytoplasm (autophagic cells), and enlarged cells with ruptured plasma membranes (necrosis-like cells) were observed in DT40 cells treated with the mAbs, however, the latter two types of dead cells were not detected upon treatment with staurosporine, a typical apoptosis inducer. In autophagic cells, numerous membrane-bound vesicles occupying most of the cytoplasmic space, which frequently contained electron-dense materials from cytoplasmic fragments and organelles, were observed. The simultaneous induction of multiple death signals from a stimulus via the TfR is of great interest to those researching cell death. In addition, activation of caspases was observed in DT40 cells treated with D19, however, the cell death was not inhibited with z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, suggesting that at least in part, a caspase-independent pathway is involved in the TfR-mediated cell death.

  7. Alveolar mechanics using realistic acinar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Haribalan; Lin, Ching-Long; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2009-11-01

    Accurate modeling of the mechanics in terminal airspaces of the lung is desirable for study of particle transport and pathology. The flow in the acinar region is traditionally studied by employing prescribed boundary conditions to represent rhythmic breathing and volumetric expansion. Conventional models utilize simplified spherical or polygonal units to represent the alveolar duct and sac. Accurate prediction of flow and transport characteristics may require geometries reconstructed from CT-based images and serve to understand the importance of physiologically realistic representation of the acinus. In this effort, we present a stabilized finite element framework, supplemented with appropriate boundary conditions at the alveolar mouth and septal borders for simulation of the alveolar mechanics and the resulting airflow. Results of material advection based on Lagrangian tracking are presented to complete the study of transport and compare the results with simplified acinar models. The current formulation provides improved understanding and realization of a dynamic framework for parenchymal mechanics with incorporation of alveolar pressure and traction stresses.

  8. Canarypox Virus-Induced Maturation of Dendritic Cells Is Mediated by Apoptotic Cell Death and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ignatius, Ralf; Marovich, Mary; Mehlhop, Erin; Villamide, Loreley; Mahnke, Karsten; Cox, William I.; Isdell, Frank; Frankel, Sarah S.; Mascola, John R.; Steinman, Ralph M.; Pope, Melissa

    2000-01-01

    Recombinant avipox viruses are being widely evaluated as vaccines. To address how these viruses, which replicate poorly in mammalian cells, might be immunogenic, we studied how canarypox virus (ALVAC) interacts with primate antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs). When human and rhesus macaque monocyte-derived DCs were exposed to recombinant ALVAC, immature DCs were most susceptible to infection. However, many of the infected cells underwent apoptotic cell death, and dying infected cells were engulfed by uninfected DCs. Furthermore, a subset of DCs matured in the ALVAC-exposed DC cultures. DC maturation coincided with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion and was significantly blocked in the presence of anti-TNF-α antibodies. Interestingly, inhibition of apoptosis with a caspase 3 inhibitor also reduced some of the maturation induced by exposure to ALVAC. This indicates that both TNF-α and the presence of primarily apoptotic cells contributed to DC maturation. Therefore, infection of immature primate DCs with ALVAC results in apoptotic death of infected cells, which can be internalized by noninfected DCs driving DC maturation in the presence of the TNF-α secreted concomitantly by exposed cells. This suggests an important mechanism that may influence the immunogenicity of avipox virus vectors. PMID:11070033

  9. Inhibition of ERK attenuates autophagy and potentiates tumour necrosis factor-α-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sivaprasad, U; Basu, A

    2008-01-01

    The role of autophagy in cell death is under considerable debate. The process of autophagy has been shown to lead to either cell survival or cell death depending on cell type and stimulus. In the present study, we determined the contribution of ERK1/2 signalling to autophagy and cell death induced by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with TNF caused a time-dependent increase in ERK1/2 activity. There was an induction of autophagy and cleavage of caspase-7, -8, -9 and PARP. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation with U0126 or PD98059 resulted in a decrease in TNF-induced autophagy that was accompanied by an increase in cleavage of caspase-7, -8, -9 and PARP Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 signalling resulted in decreased clonogenic capacity of MCF-7 cells. These data suggest that TNF-induces autophagy through ERK1/2 and that inhibition of autophagy increases cellular sensitivity to TNF. PMID:18266953

  10. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB) Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Infection.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jiagang; Chen, Wenjie; Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Chang, Ouqin; Zhao, Lijuan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Li, Ningqiu; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future. PMID:27213348

  11. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB) Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jiagang; Chen, Wenjie; Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Chang, Ouqin; Zhao, Lijuan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Li, Ningqiu; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future. PMID:27213348

  12. Genistein promotes cell death of ethanol-stressed HeLa cells through the continuation of apoptosis or secondary necrosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is a major target and treatment effect of multiple chemotherapeutical agents in cancer. A soybean isoflavone, genistein, is a well-studied chemopreventive agent and has been reported to potentiate the anticancer effect of some chemotherapeutics. However, its mechanistic basis of chemo-enhancement effect remains to be fully elucidated. Methods Apoptotic features of low concentration stressed cancer cells were studied by microscopic method, western blot, immunostaining and annexin V/PI assay. Genistein’s effects on unstressed cells and recovering cells were investigated using MTT cell viability assay and LDH cytotoxicity assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to analyze the possible gene targets involved in the recovery and genistein’s effect. Results Low-concentration ethanol stressed cancer cells showed apoptotic features and could recover after stress removal. In stressed cells, genistein at sub-toxic dosage promoted the cell death. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes MDM2 and XIAP during the recovery process in HeLa cells, and genistein treatment suppressed their expression. The application of genistein, MDM2 inhibitor and XIAP inhibitor to the recovering HeLa cells caused persistent caspase activity and enhanced cell death. Flow cytometry study indicated that genistein treatment could lead to persistent phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization and necrotic events in the recovering HeLa cells. Caspase activity inhibition shifted the major effect of genistein to necrosis. Conclusions These results suggested two possible mechanisms through which genistein promoted cell death in stressed cancer cells. Genistein could maintain the existing apoptotic signal to enhance apoptotic cell death. It could also disrupt the recovering process in caspase-independent manner, which lead to necrotic events. These effects may be related to the enhanced antitumor effect of chemotherapeutic drugs when they were

  13. Cationic nanocarriers induce cell necrosis through impairment of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and cause subsequent inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiawei; Shao, Bin; He, Zhiyao; Ye, Tinghong; Luo, Min; Sang, Yaxiong; Liang, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Luo, Shuntao; Yang, Shengyong; Zhang, Shuang; Gong, Changyang; Gou, Maling; Deng, Hongxing; Zhao, Yinglan; Yang, Hanshuo; Deng, Senyi; Zhao, Chengjian; Yang, Li; Qian, Zhiyong; Li, Jiong; Sun, Xun; Han, Jiahuai; Jiang, Chengyu; Wu, Min; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-02-01

    Nanocarriers with positive surface charges are known for their toxicity which has limited their clinical applications. The mechanism underlying their toxicity, such as the induction of inflammatory response, remains largely unknown. In the present study we found that injection of cationic nanocarriers, including cationic liposomes, PEI, and chitosan, led to the rapid appearance of necrotic cells. Cell necrosis induced by cationic nanocarriers is dependent on their positive surface charges, but does not require RIP1 and Mlkl. Instead, intracellular Na(+) overload was found to accompany the cell death. Depletion of Na(+) in culture medium or pretreatment of cells with the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase cation-binding site inhibitor ouabain, protected cells from cell necrosis. Moreover, treatment with cationic nanocarriers inhibited Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity both in vitro and in vivo. The computational simulation showed that cationic carriers could interact with cation-binding site of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Mice pretreated with a small dose of ouabain showed improved survival after injection of a lethal dose of cationic nanocarriers. Further analyses suggest that cell necrosis induced by cationic nanocarriers and the resulting leakage of mitochondrial DNA could trigger severe inflammation in vivo, which is mediated by a pathway involving TLR9 and MyD88 signaling. Taken together, our results reveal a novel mechanism whereby cationic nanocarriers induce acute cell necrosis through the interaction with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, with the subsequent exposure of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns as a key event that mediates the inflammatory responses. Our study has important implications for evaluating the biocompatibility of nanocarriers and designing better and safer ones for drug delivery. PMID:25613571

  14. Correlation between liver cell necrosis and circulating alanine aminotransferase after ischaemia/reperfusion injuries in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Anders R; Andersen, Kasper J; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Nyengaard, Jens R; Mortensen, Frank V

    2016-04-01

    Circulating liver enzymes such as alanine transaminase are often used as markers of hepatocellular damage. Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an inevitable consequence of prolonged liver ischaemia. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between liver enzymes and volume of liver cell necrosis after ischaemia/reperfusion injuries, using design-unbiased stereological methods. Forty-seven male Wistar rats were subjected to 1 h of partial liver ischaemia, followed by either 4 or 24 h of reperfusion. Within each group, one-third of animals were subjected to ischaemic preconditioning and one-third to ischaemic postconditioning. At the end of reperfusion, blood and liver samples were collected for analysis. The volume of necrotic liver tissue was subsequently correlated to circulating markers of I/R injury. Correlation between histological findings and circulating markers was performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Alanine transferase peaked after 4 h of reperfusion; however, at this time-point, only mild necrosis was observed, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.663 (P = 0.001). After 24 h of reperfusion, alanine aminotransferase was found to be highly correlated to the degree of hepatocellular necrosis R = 0.836 (P = 0.000). Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase (R = 0.806) and α-2-macroglobulin (R = 0.655) levels were also correlated with the degree of necrosis. We show for the first time that there is a close correlation between the volume of hepatocellular necrosis and alanine aminotransferase levels in a model of I/R injury. This is especially apparent after 24 h of reperfusion. Similarly, increased levels of alkaline phosphatase and α-2-macroglobulin are correlated to the volume of liver necrosis. PMID:27292534

  15. Renal papillary necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... renal papillary necrosis, especially after taking over-the-counter pain medicines ... diabetes or sickle cell anemia may reduce your risk. To prevent renal ... over-the-counter pain relievers. Do not take more than the ...

  16. Avascular necrosis of bone after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaxin; Brazauskas, Ruta; Wang, Zhiwei; Al-Seraihy, Amal; Baker, K Scott; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Frangoul, Haydar A; Gajewski, James L; Hale, Gregory A; Hsu, Jack W; Kamble, Rammurti T; Lazarus, Hillard M; Marks, David I; Maziarz, Richard T; Savani, Bipin N; Shah, Ami J; Shah, Nirali; Sorror, Mohamed L; Wood, William A; Majhail, Navneet S

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort of 6244 patients to assess risk factors for avascular necrosis (AVN) of bone in children and adolescents after allogeneic transplantation. Eligible patients were ≤21 years of age, received their first allogeneic transplant between 1990 and 2008 in the United States, and had survived ≥ 6 months from transplantation. Overall, 160 patients with AVN and 478 control subjects matched by year of transplant, length of follow-up and transplant center were identified. Patients and control subjects were confirmed via central review of radiology, pathology, and/or surgical procedure reports. Median time from transplant to diagnosis of AVN was 14 months. On conditional logistic regression, increasing age at transplant (≥5 years), female gender, and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were significantly associated with increased risks of AVN. Compared with patients receiving myeloablative regimens for malignant diseases, lower risks of AVN were seen in patients with nonmalignant diseases and those who had received reduced-intensity conditioning regimens for malignant diseases. Children at high risk for AVN include those within the age group where rapid bone growth occurs as well as those who experience exposure to myeloablative conditioning regimens and immunosuppression after hematopoietic cell transplantation for the treatment of GVHD. More research is needed to determine whether screening strategies specifically for patients at high risk for developing AVN with early interventions may mitigate the morbidity associated with this complication. PMID:24388803

  17. Protective effects of tanshinone IIA on endothelial progenitor cells injured by tumor necrosis factor-α

    PubMed Central

    WANG, XING-XIANG; YANG, JIN-XIU; PAN, YAN-YUN; ZHANG, YE-FEI

    2015-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine commonly used in Asian and Western countries for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders, such as atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction and associated inflammatory processes have a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been demonstrated to be involved in certain aspects of the endothelial repair process. The present study aimed to investigate the putative protective effects of Tan IIA on EPCs injured by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The potential effects of Tan IIA on TNF-α-stimulated EPC proliferation, migration, adhesion, in vitro tube formation ability and paracrine activity were investigated in the current study. The results indicated that TNF-α impaired EPC proliferation, migration, adhesion capacity and vasculogenesis ability in vitro as well as promoted EPC secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L). However, Tan IIA was able to reverse these effects. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that Tan IIA may have the potential to protect EPCs against damage induced by TNF-α. Therefore, these results may provide evidence for the pharmacological basis of Tan IIA and its potential use in the prevention and treatment of early atherosclerosis associated with EPC and endothelial damage. PMID:26095681

  18. A Microfluidic Model of Biomimetically Breathing Pulmonary Acinar Airways.

    PubMed

    Fishler, Rami; Sznitman, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying respiratory flow characteristics in the pulmonary acinar depths and how they influence inhaled aerosol transport is critical towards optimizing drug inhalation techniques as well as predicting deposition patterns of potentially toxic airborne particles in the pulmonary alveoli. Here, soft-lithography techniques are used to fabricate complex acinar-like airway structures at the truthful anatomical length-scales that reproduce physiological acinar flow phenomena in an optically accessible system. The microfluidic device features 5 generations of bifurcating alveolated ducts with periodically expanding and contracting walls. Wall actuation is achieved by altering the pressure inside water-filled chambers surrounding the thin PDMS acinar channel walls both from the sides and the top of the device. In contrast to common multilayer microfluidic devices, where the stacking of several PDMS molds is required, a simple method is presented to fabricate the top chamber by embedding the barrel section of a syringe into the PDMS mold. This novel microfluidic setup delivers physiological breathing motions which in turn give rise to characteristic acinar air-flows. In the current study, micro particle image velocimetry (µPIV) with liquid suspended particles was used to quantify such air flows based on hydrodynamic similarity matching. The good agreement between µPIV results and expected acinar flow phenomena suggest that the microfluidic platform may serve in the near future as an attractive in vitro tool to investigate directly airborne representative particle transport and deposition in the acinar regions of the lungs. PMID:27214269

  19. Infection of human fallopian tube epithelial cells with Neisseria gonorrhoeae protects cells from tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis

    2006-06-01

    Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-alpha was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-alpha induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596

  20. Attenuation of tumor necrosis factor-induced endothelial cell cytotoxicity and neutrophil chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, H.; Crowley, J.J.; Chan, J.C.; Hoffmann, H.; Hatherill, J.R.; Ishizaka, A.; Raffin, T.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Our laboratory has previously shown that the administration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a cytokine produced by activated mononuclear cells, to guinea pigs produces a syndrome similar to gram-negative sepsis or ARDS. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine, protects against TNF-induced and sepsis-induced acute lung injury in vivo. We now report on in vitro cellular studies of PMN-mediated cellular injury and its attenuation. We studied TNF-induced bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell (EC) cytotoxicity both with and without PMN. A 51Cr release assay was used to measure EC damage. Further, we investigated PMN function in response to TNF by measuring chemiluminescence. Agents that attenuate EC damage and PMN activation were evaluated in the above assays. Results revealed that TNF causes EC injury (p less than 0.05) and PMN increase TNF-induced EC injury. Furthermore, PTX, aminophylline (AMPH), caffeine, and forskolin attenuate TNF-induced EC cytotoxicity only in the presence of PMN (p less than 0.05). Of interest, dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) protects EC from TNF-induced injury both with and without PMN. Agents that may increase cAMP levels in PMN (PTX, DBcAMP, forskolin, isobutyl methylxanthine, and terbutaline) significantly attenuate TNF-induced PMN chemiluminescence (p less than 0.05). We conclude that TNF causes EC damage and PMN increase this damage. Furthermore, PTX, AMPH, caffeine, and forskolin can attenuate TNF-induced EC injury in the presence of PMN, whereas DBcAMP attenuates TNF-induced EC injury with and without PMN. In addition, agents that may increase intracellular cAMP levels in PMN can attenuate TNF-induced PMN chemiluminescence. Thus, these agents likely attenuate TNF-induced PMN-mediated EC injury through their inhibitory effects on PMN.

  1. The Excretion of Renal Cells Following Necrosis of the Distal Segment of the Nephron by Hexadi-Methrine Bromide

    PubMed Central

    Davies, D. J.; Kennedy, A.; Roberts, C.

    1969-01-01

    The rate of excretion of renal cells was determined in rats with necrosis of the distal convoluted tubules and broad ascending limbs of the loops of Henle caused by injection of hexadimethrine bromide. The magnitude and the duration of abnormal cell excretion were correlated both with the dose of hexadimethrine and with the degree of damage that was evident on histological examination of the kidney. In general cell excretion studies provided a satisfactory indication of the degree of renal damage but the smallest lesions did not cause a significant increase in cell excretion and occasionally a rat with a very large lesion failed to show an increase in cell excretion rate. The changes in excretion rates observed in the present experiments were less than those found previously in animals with necrosis of proximal convoluted tubules caused by mercuric chloride. This is probably due firstly to the smaller number of cells in the distal nephron and secondly to the toxin causing disintegration of many of the cells. These findings have implications for the investigation of analgesic nephrotoxicity by measurement of urinary cell excretion rates. In order to appreciate the significance of increases in renal cell excretion following administration of various substances their site of action and the type of cell damage that they cause must first be established. ImagesFigs. 1-4 PMID:5792904

  2. Chronic Tumor Necrosis Factor Alters T Cell Responses by Attenuating T Cell Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Andrew P.; Liblau, Roland S.; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Congia, Mauro; Laudanna, Carlo; Schreiber, Robert D.; Probert, Lesley; Kollias, George; McDevitt, Hugh O.

    1997-01-01

    Repeated injections of adult mice with recombinant murine TNF prolong the survival of NZB/W F1 mice, and suppress type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. To determine whether repeated TNF injections suppress T cell function in adult mice, we studied the responses of influenza hemagglutinin-specific T cells derived from T cell receptor (HNT-TCR) transgenic mice. Treatment of adult mice with murine TNF for 3 wk suppressed a broad range of T cell responses, including proliferation and cytokine production. Furthermore, T cell responses of HNT-TCR transgenic mice also expressing the human TNF-globin transgene were markedly reduced compared to HNT-TCR single transgenic littermates, indicating that sustained p55 TNF-R signaling is sufficient to suppress T cell function in vivo. Using a model of chronic TNF exposure in vitro, we demonstrate that (a) chronic TNF effects are dose and time dependent, (b) TNF suppresses the responses of both Th1 and Th2 T helper subsets, (c) the suppressive effects of endogenous TNF produced in T cell cultures could be reversed with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to TNF, and (d) prolonged TNF exposure attenuates T cell receptor signaling. The finding that anti-TNF treatment in vivo enhances T cell proliferative responses and cytokine production provides evidence for a novel regulatory effect of TNF on T cells in healthy laboratory mice. These effects are more pronounced in chronic inflammatory disease. In addition, our data provide a mechanism through which prolonged TNF exposure suppresses disease in animal models of autoimmunity. PMID:9151895

  3. Epiplakin Deficiency Aggravates Murine Caerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis and Favors the Formation of Acinar Keratin Granules

    PubMed Central

    Wögenstein, Karl L.; Szabo, Sandra; Lunova, Mariia; Wiche, Gerhard; Haybaeck, Johannes; Strnad, Pavel; Boor, Peter; Wagner, Martin; Fuchs, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Epiplakin, a member of the plakin protein family, is exclusively expressed in epithelial tissues and was shown to bind to keratins. Epiplakin-deficient (EPPK−/−) mice showed no obvious spontaneous phenotype, however, EPPK−/− keratinocytes displayed faster keratin network breakdown in response to stress. The role of epiplakin in pancreas, a tissue with abundant keratin expression, was not yet known. We analyzed epiplakin’s expression in healthy and inflamed pancreatic tissue and compared wild-type and EPPK−/− mice during caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. We found that epiplakin was expressed primarily in ductal cells of the pancreas and colocalized with apicolateral keratin bundles in murine pancreatic acinar cells. Epiplakin’s diffuse subcellular localization in keratin filament-free acini of K8-deficient mice indicated that its filament-associated localization in acinar cells completely depends on its binding partner keratin. During acute pancreatitis, epiplakin was upregulated in acinar cells and its redistribution closely paralleled keratin reorganization. EPPK−/− mice suffered from aggravated pancreatitis but showed no obvious regeneration phenotype. At the most severe stage of the disease, EPPK−/− acinar cells displayed more keratin aggregates than those of wild-type mice. Our data propose epiplakin to be a protective protein during acute pancreatitis, and that its loss causes impaired disease-associated keratin reorganization. PMID:25232867

  4. Nitric oxide released from JS-K induces cell death by mitotic catastrophe as part of necrosis in glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Günzle, Jessica; Osterberg, Nadja; Saavedra, Joseph E; Weyerbrock, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) donor JS-K is specifically activated by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in GST-overexpressing cells. We have shown the induction of cell death in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells at high JS-K doses but the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether NO-induced cell death is triggered by induction of apoptotic or necrotic pathways. For the first time, we demonstrate that NO induces cell death via mitotic catastrophe (MC) with non-apoptotic mechanisms in GBM cells. Moreover, the level of morphological changes indicating MC correlates with increased necrosis. Therefore, we conclude that MC is the main mechanism by which GBM cells undergo cell death after treatment with JS-K associated with necrosis rather than apoptosis. In addition, we show that PARP1 is not an exclusive marker for late apoptosis but is also involved in MC. Activating an alternative way of cell death can be useful for the multimodal cancer therapy of GBM known for its strong anti-apoptotic mechanisms and drug resistance. PMID:27584787

  5. In vitro effects of a new fused azaisocytosine-like congener on relative cell proliferation, necrosis and cell cycle in cancer and normal cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Sztanke, Małgorzata; Rzymowska, Jolanta; Sztanke, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    The study was aimed at describing the mode of action of an innovative drug-like congener of fused azaisocytosine-EIMTC (ethyl 8-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-6,7-dihydroimidazo[2,1-c][1,2,4]triazine-3-carboxylate)-on cancer cells in early in vitro oncology-related bioassays. Micromolar concentrations of EIMTC were effective at inhibiting the growth of two types of malignant multiple myeloma cells (including cells resistant to thalidomide) while having less cytotoxic effect on normal HSF cells. Furthermore, EIMTC was disclosed as capable of producing the statistically significant decrease in the number of cells in the S phase (in HeLa, TOV112D, T47D and Vero cells) and in the G2/M phase (in TOV112D cells) as well as evoking the distinctly higher necrosis rates in malignant than normal cells of the same epithelial origin. These results are promising in the sense that the bicyclic nucleobase-like structure related to azaisocytosine may target epithelial cancer cells and inhibit their growth while having less effect on normal cells. This may be due to induction of necrosis. PMID:27334755

  6. Effect of Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha on Estrogen Metabolic Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Marwa; Shouman, Samia; El-Merzebany, Mahmoud; Kilic, Gokhan; Veenstra, Timothy; Saeed, Muhammad; Wagih, Mohamed; Diaz-Arrastia, Concepcion; Patel, Deepa; Salama, Salama

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been linked to breast cancer development. Estrogen metabolic pathway is also involved in breast carcinogenesis and DNA adducts formation. In this study we investigated the effect of TNF-α on the estrogen metabolic pathway in MCF-7, a breast cancer cell line. Capillary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for analysis of estrogen metabolites and estrogen-DNA adducts levels respectively. Reporter gene assay, Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to assess the expression of estrogen metabolizing genes and enzymes. TNF-α significantly increased the total EM and decreased the estrone (E1) / 17-β estradiol (E2) ratio. Moreover, it altered the expression of genes and enzymes involved in E2 activation and deactivation pathways e.g. Cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Cytochrome P-450 1B1 (CYP1B1), Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). In addition, there were increased levels of some catechol estrogens e.g. 4-hydroxy-estrone (4-OHE1) and 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) with decreased levels of methylated catechols e.g. 2-methoxy estradiol (2-MeOE2). DNA adducts especially 4-OHE1-[2]-1-N3 Adenine was significantly increased. TNF-α directs the estrogen metabolism into more hormonally active and carcinogenic products in MCF-7. This may implicate a new possible explanation for inflammation associated breast cancer. PMID:22866165

  7. Regulated Necrosis in HeLa Cells Induced by ZnPc Photodynamic Treatment: A New Nuclear Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Jorge; Villanueva, Angeles; Stockert, Juan Carlos; Cañete, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality based on the administration of a photosensitizer (PS), which accumulates preferentially in tumor cells. Subsequent irradiation of the neoplastic area triggers a cascade of photochemical reactions that leads to the formation of highly reactive oxygen species responsible for cell inactivation. Photodynamic treatments in vitro are performed with the PS, zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc). The PS is near the plasma membrane during uptake and internalization. Inactivation clearly occurs by a necrotic process, manifested by nuclear pyknosis, negative TUNEL and Annexin V assays and non-relocation of cytochrome c. In contrast, by increasing the incubation time, ZnPc is accumulated in the Golgi apparatus and produces cell inactivation with characteristics of apoptosis and necrosis: TUNEL positive, relocated cytochrome c and negative Annexin V assay. This type of death produces a still undescribed granulated nuclear morphology, which is different from that of necrosis or apoptosis. This morphology is inhibited by necrostatin-1, a specific inhibitor of regulated necrosis. PMID:25501332

  8. Regulated necrosis in HeLa cells induced by ZnPc photodynamic treatment: a new nuclear morphology.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Jorge; Villanueva, Angeles; Stockert, Juan Carlos; Cañete, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality based on the administration of a photosensitizer (PS), which accumulates preferentially in tumor cells. Subsequent irradiation of the neoplastic area triggers a cascade of photochemical reactions that leads to the formation of highly reactive oxygen species responsible for cell inactivation. Photodynamic treatments in vitro are performed with the PS, zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc). The PS is near the plasma membrane during uptake and internalization. Inactivation clearly occurs by a necrotic process, manifested by nuclear pyknosis, negative TUNEL and Annexin V assays and non-relocation of cytochrome c. In contrast, by increasing the incubation time, ZnPc is accumulated in the Golgi apparatus and produces cell inactivation with characteristics of apoptosis and necrosis: TUNEL positive, relocated cytochrome c and negative Annexin V assay. This type of death produces a still undescribed granulated nuclear morphology, which is different from that of necrosis or apoptosis. This morphology is inhibited by necrostatin-1, a specific inhibitor of regulated necrosis. PMID:25501332

  9. Arsenite enhances tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, T.-C. . E-mail: tctsou@nhri.org.tw; Yeh, Szu Ching; Tsai, E.-M.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chao, H.-R.; Chang, Louis W.

    2005-11-15

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a high association of vascular diseases with arsenite exposure. We hypothesize that arsenite potentiates the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on vascular endothelial cells, and hence contributes to atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of arsenite and its induction of glutathione (GSH) on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in response to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), a typical proinflammatory cytokine. Our study demonstrated that arsenite pretreatment potentiated the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression with up-regulations of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). To elucidate the role of GSH in regulation of AP-1, NF-{kappa}B, and VCAM-1 expression, we employed L-buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a specific {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS) inhibitor, to block intracellular GSH synthesis. Our investigation revealed that, by depleting GSH, arsenite attenuated the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression as well as a potentiation of AP-1 and an attenuation of NF-{kappa}B activations by TNF-{alpha}. Moreover, we found that depletion of GSH would also attenuate the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression with a down-regulation of the TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activation and without significant effect on AP-1. On the other hand, the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression could be completely abolished by inhibition of AP-1 or NF-{kappa}B activity, suggesting that activation of both AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B was necessary for VCAM-1 expression. In summary, we demonstrate that arsenite enhances the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression in HUVECs via regulation of AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B activities in a GSH-sensitive manner. Our present study suggested a potential mechanism for arsenite in the induction of vascular inflammation and vascular diseases via modulating the actions

  10. Apoptosis and necrosis of human breast cancer cells by an aqueous extract of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Mahassni, Sawsan Hassan; Al-Reemi, Roaa Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Conventional treatments for breast cancer are costly and have serious side effects. Non-conventional natural treatments have gained wide acceptance due to their promise of a cure with minimal or no side effects, but little scientific evidence exists. One such common remedy is the seed of the Lepidium sativum plant. Presented here is the first reported use of the aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum seeds on breast cancer cells. The ability of the extract to induce apoptosis and necrosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, compared to normal human skin fibroblasts (HFS), was determined by morphological changes in the cells using light microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and florescent stains (Annexin V and propidium iodide) using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in both cells, and more in MCF-7, when they were treated with 25% and 50% extract, while necrosis was observed mainly after exposure to elevated extract concentrations (75%). DNA fragmentation resulted for both cells, in a time and dose-dependent manner. Both cells, at all extract concentrations, showed no significant differences in the number of living, dead, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. Finally, the results may indicate that apoptotic changes in MCF-7 may be independent of caspase-3, which is involved in apoptosis and is lacking in MCF-7 cells. PMID:23961228

  11. Tumor Necrosis Adds Prognostically Significant Information to Grade in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Study of 842 Consecutive Cases From a Single Institution.

    PubMed

    Khor, Li-Yan; Dhakal, Hari P; Jia, Xuefei; Reynolds, Jordan P; McKenney, Jesse K; Rini, Brian I; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Przybycin, Christopher G

    2016-09-01

    Tumor necrosis has been shown to be an independent predictor of adverse outcome in renal cell carcinoma. A modification of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading system for renal cell carcinomas has recently been proposed, which incorporates the presence of tumor necrosis into grade. The investigators proposing this system found that necrosis added significant prognostic information to ISUP grade. We attempted to describe our experience with the effect of tumor necrosis in relationship to nuclear grade by reviewing the slides from a large consecutive series of localized clear cell renal cell carcinomas from our institution and obtaining long-term clinical follow-up information (overall survival). Of the 842 clear cell renal cell carcinomas reviewed, 265 (31.5%) were ISUP grade 1 or 2, 437 (51.9%) were ISUP grade 3, and 140 (16.6%) were ISUP grade 4. Tumor necrosis was present in 177 (21%) cases. Five hundred and forty-seven (64.9%) cases were stage pT1, 83 (9.9%) were stage pT2, 193 (22.9%) were stage pT3a, and 19 (2.3%) were pT3b or higher. Median follow-up was 73.2 months (range 0.12 to 273.6), and 310 (36.8%) patients died. On univariable analysis, there was no significant difference in outcome for tumors of ISUP grades 1 to 3. After adjustment for age, tumor stage, and tumor size, ISUP grade 4 and necrosis were significant predictors of overall survival on multivariable analysis. When the recently proposed modified grading system incorporating tumor necrosis was applied to our data, there was no significant difference in overall survival between patients with modified grade 1 tumors and those with modified grade 2 tumors (P=0.31); however, there was a statistically significant difference between patients with modified grade 1 or 2 tumors and those with modified grade 3 tumors (P=0.04),and a substantial difference in outcome between those with modified grade 3 and modified grade 4 tumors (P<0.001). When a recursive partitioning approach

  12. Comparative study of cell cycle kinetics and induction of apoptosis or necrosis after exposure of human Mono Mac 6 cells to radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Lantow, M; Viergutz, T; Weiss, D G; Simkó, M

    2006-09-01

    The possible harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) are controversial. We have used human Mono Mac 6 cells to investigate the influence of RF EMFs in vitro on cell cycle alterations and BrdU uptake, as well as the induction of apoptosis and necrosis in human Mono Mac 6 cells, using flow cytometry after exposure to a 1,800 MHz, 2 W/kg specific absorption rate (SAR), GSM-DTX signal for 12 h. No statistically significant differences in the induction of apoptosis or necrosis, cell cycle kinetics, or BrdU uptake were detected after RF EMF exposure compared to sham or incubator controls. However, in the positive control cells treated with gliotoxin and PMA (phorbol 12 myristate-13 acetate), a significant increase in apoptotic and necrotic cells was seen. Cell cycle analysis or BrdU incorporation for 72 h showed no differences between RF EMF- or sham-exposed cells, whereas PMA treatment induced a significant accumulation of cells in G(0)/G(1)-phase and a reduction in S-phase cells. RF EMF radiation did not induce cell cycle alterations or changes in BrdU incorporation or induce apoptosis and necrosis in Mono Mac 6 cells under the exposure conditions used. PMID:16953672

  13. Human dermal mast cells contain and release tumor necrosis factor alpha, which induces endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, L J; Trinchieri, G; Waldorf, H A; Whitaker, D; Murphy, G F

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine that mediates endothelial leukocyte interactions by inducing expression of adhesion molecules. In this report, we demonstrate that human dermal mast cells contain sizeable stores of immunoreactive and biologically active TNF-alpha within granules, which can be released rapidly into the extracellular space upon degranulation. Among normal human dermal cells, mast cells are the predominant cell type that expresses both TNF-alpha protein and TNF-alpha mRNA. Moreover, induction of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 expression is a direct consequence of release of mast cell-derived TNF-alpha. These findings establish a role for human mast cells as "gatekeepers" of the dermal microvasculature and indicate that mast cell products other than vasoactive amines influence endothelium in a proinflammatory fashion. Images PMID:1709737

  14. The antileishmanial drug miltefosine (Impavido(®)) causes oxidation of DNA bases, apoptosis, and necrosis in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Castelo Branco, Patrícia Valéria; Soares, Rossy-Eric Pereira; de Jesus, Luís Cláudio Lima; Moreira, Vanessa Ribeiro; Alves, Hugo José; de Castro Belfort, Marta Regina; Silva, Vera Lucia Maciel; Ferreira Pereira, Silma Regina

    2016-08-01

    Miltefosine was developed to treat skin cancer; further studies showed that the drug also has activity against Leishmania. Miltefosine is the first oral agent for treating leishmaniasis. However, its mechanism of action is not completely understood. We have evaluated the induction of DNA damage by miltefosine. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity (comet assay) tests were performed on human leukocytes exposed to the drug in vitro. Apoptosis and necrosis were also evaluated. In vivo tests were conducted in Swiss male mice (Mus musculus) treated orally with miltefosine. Oxidation of DNA bases in peripheral blood cells was measured using the comet assay followed by digestion with formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG), which removes oxidized guanine bases. The micronucleus test was performed on bone marrow erythrocytes. Miltefosine caused DNA damage, apoptosis, and necrosis in vitro. Mice treated with miltefosine showed an increase in the DNA damage score, which was further increased following FPG digestion. The micronucleus test was also positive. PMID:27476333

  15. Endothelial Outgrowth Cells Regulate Coagulation, Platelet Accumulation, and Respond to Tumor Necrosis Factor Similar to Carotid Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are central regulators of hemostasis, inflammation, and other vascular processes. ECs have been used to cover vascular graft materials in an attempt to improve the biological integration of the grafts with the surrounding tissue. Although EC seeded grafts demonstrated improved patency, the invasive nature of EC harvest has limited the clinical translation of this technique. Endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs) can be derived from circulating endothelial progenitor cells, which are noninvasively isolated from a peripheral blood draw. Although EOCs have been presumed to regulate hemostasis and inflammation similarly to arterial ECs, there has been limited research that directly compares EOCs to arterial ECs, particularly using pairs of donor-matched cells. This study provides a multifaceted characterization of hemostasis regulation by baboon EOCs and carotid ECs, both in the presence and absence of an inflammatory stimulus, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). The expression of genes involved in thrombosis and inflammation was highly similar between ECs and EOCs at a basal state and following TNFα stimulation. ECs and EOCs activated similar levels of protein C and Factor X (FX) at a basal state. Following TNFα treatment, EOCs had less of an increase in tissue factor activity than ECs. Cell-seeded expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vascular grafts demonstrated no significant differences between ECs and EOCs in platelet accumulation or fibrinogen incorporation in a baboon femoral arteriovenous shunt loop. This work demonstrates that EOCs regulate thrombus formation and respond to an inflammatory stimulus similar to ECs, and supports utilizing EOCs as a source for an autologous endothelium in tissue engineering applications. PMID:24965131

  16. Apoptosis and necrosis induced by novel realgar quantum dots in human endometrial cancer cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Liu, Zhengyun; Gou, Ying; Qin, Yu; Xu, Yaze; Liu, Jie; Wu, Jin-Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Realgar (AS4S4) has been used in traditional medicines for malignancy, but the poor water solubility is still a major hindrance to its clinical use. Realgar quantum dots (RQDs) were therefore synthesized with improved water solubility and bioavailability. Human endometrial cancer JEC cells were exposed to various concentrations of RQDs to evaluate their anticancer effects and to explore mechanisms by the MTT assay, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), flow cytometry, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. Results revealed that the highest photoluminescence quantum yield of the prepared RQDs was up to approximately 70%, with the average size of 5.48 nm. RQDs induced antipro-liferative activity against JEC cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In light microscopy and TEM examinations, RQDs induced vacuolization and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dilation in JEC cells in a concentration-dependent manner. ER stress by RQDs were further confirmed by increased expression of GADD153 and GRP78 at both mRNA and protein levels. ER stress further led to JEC cell apoptosis and necrosis, as evidenced by flow cytometry and mitochondrial membrane potential detection. Our findings demonstrated that the newly synthesized RQDs were effective against human endometrial cancer cells. The underlying mechanism appears to be, at least partly, due to ER stress leading to apoptotic cell death and necrosis. PMID:26357474

  17. Duration of injury correlates with necrosis in caerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis: implications for pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Tony G; Raghav, Rahul; Kumar, Ajay; Garg, Pramod K; Roy, Tara S

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell necrosis is indicative of severe pancreatitis and the degree of necrosis is an index of its outcome. We studied whether the dose and duration of injury correlates with severity, particularly in terms of necrosis, in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in Swiss albino mice. In addition to control group 1 (G1), groups 2 and 3 received four injections of caerulein every hour but were sacrificed at five hours (G2) and nine hours (G3) respectively, and group 4 received eight injections and was sacrificed at nine hours (G4). The severity of pancreatitis was assessed histopathologically and biochemically. The histopathological scores of pancreatitis in groups 3 and 4 were significantly higher than in groups 1 and 2 (4 vs. 1, 4 vs. 2, 3 vs. 1, 3 vs. 2; P < 0.05). TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were significantly higher in groups 2 and 3 compared with groups 1 and 4 (P < 0.05). Necrosis was significantly more in group 4 than other groups (37.49% (4.68) vs. 19.97% (1.60) in G2; 20.36% (1.56) in G3; P = 0.006 for G 2 vs. 4 and P = 0.019 for G 3 vs. 4). Electron microscopy revealed numerous autophagosomes in groups 2 and 3 and mitochondrial damage and necrosis in group 4. The pancreatic and pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity in group 4 was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P < 0.01). Hence, severity of pancreatitis is a function of the dose of injurious agent, while inflammation is both dose and duration dependent, which may also explain the wide spectrum of severity of AP seen in clinical practice. PMID:24761825

  18. Tumor-necrosis factor impairs CD4(+) T cell-mediated immunological control in chronic viral infection.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Marc; Abdullah, Zeinab; Chemnitz, Jens M; Maisel, Daniela; Sander, Jil; Lehmann, Clara; Thabet, Yasser; Shinde, Prashant V; Schmidleithner, Lisa; Köhne, Maren; Trebicka, Jonel; Schierwagen, Robert; Hofmann, Andrea; Popov, Alexey; Lang, Karl S; Oxenius, Annette; Buch, Thorsten; Kurts, Christian; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Lang, Philipp A; Hartmann, Pia; Knolle, Percy A; Schultze, Joachim L

    2016-05-01

    Persistent viral infections are characterized by the simultaneous presence of chronic inflammation and T cell dysfunction. In prototypic models of chronicity-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-we used transcriptome-based modeling to reveal that CD4(+) T cells were co-exposed not only to multiple inhibitory signals but also to tumor-necrosis factor (TNF). Blockade of TNF during chronic infection with LCMV abrogated the inhibitory gene-expression signature in CD4(+) T cells, including reduced expression of the inhibitory receptor PD-1, and reconstituted virus-specific immunity, which led to control of infection. Preventing signaling via the TNF receptor selectively in T cells sufficed to induce these effects. Targeted immunological interventions to disrupt the TNF-mediated link between chronic inflammation and T cell dysfunction might therefore lead to therapies to overcome persistent viral infection. PMID:26950238

  19. Tumor necrosis factor alpha induces expression of human immunodeficiency virus in a chronically infected T-cell clone.

    PubMed Central

    Folks, T M; Clouse, K A; Justement, J; Rabson, A; Duh, E; Kehrl, J H; Fauci, A S

    1989-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), also known as cachectin, was demonstrated to induce the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a chronically infected T-cell clone (ACH-2). Concentrations of recombinant TNF-alpha as low as 50 pg/ml induced a significant increase over background of HIV expression in the ACH-2 cells as determined by supernatant reverse transcriptase activity. The HIV-inducing effects of TNF-alpha could not be explained by toxic effects on the cells. In addition, both the uninfected parental cell line (A3.01) and the infected ACH-2 cells were shown to have high-affinity receptors for TNF-alpha. Transient-transfection experiments demonstrated that the inductive effects of TNF-alpha were due to specific activation of the HIV long terminal repeat. These studies provide evidence that TNF-alpha may play a role in the mechanisms of pathogenesis of HIV infection. Images PMID:2784570

  20. Pathologic assessment of myocardial cell necrosis and apoptosis after ischemia and reperfusion with molecular and morphological markers.

    PubMed

    Takashi, E; Ashraf, M

    2000-02-01

    The present work illustrates the critical subcellular changes in the rat heart after 10-30 min of left coronary artery (LCA) occlusion and 120 min of reperfusion with a combination of several staining techniques. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to detect non-injured myocytes, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and terminal deoxynucleotide nick-end labeling (TUNEL) to detect necrotic and apoptotic cells were employed and electron microscopy (EM) was used to validate these changes. After 20 min of LCA occlusion, myocytes began to undergo necrosis whilst after 10 min occlusion, no myocyte underwent irreversible cell injury in the risk area. After 30 min of LCA occlusion and 120 min reperfusion, 36.3, 26.6 and 25% cells were normal, necrotic, and reversibly injured, respectively; the remaining 12.8% cells were apoptotic. Necrotic cells were strongly positive with HRP and negative for TTC and TUNEL. TUNEL-positive or apoptotic cells were slightly HRP-positive, indicating altered cell membrane permeability. Reversibly-injured myocytes were TTC-, HRP- and TUNEL-negative. These changes were more accurately defined in the 100- microm thick sections than in the traditional slices. It is concluded that: (1) TTC-staining of 100- microm thick sections is far superior and accurate for the detection of ischemic changes with shorter period of ischemia (10 min); (2) the combination of TTC-staining, HRP reaction and TUNEL method is excellent for demarcation of early ischemic changes; (3) TTC-negativity in ischemia less than 20 min does not indicate necrosis but only represents reversible changes; (4) the apoptosis is absent in early ischemia of 20 min with or without reperfusion at a time when sufficient ATP is present, and appears only after 30 min of coronary ligation and reperfusion; and (5) the apoptotic cells lose membrane integrity accompanied by decreased glycocalyx thickness and cell swelling as opposed to commonly known characteristics of apoptotic cells. PMID:10722798

  1. Mast Cell-Derived Tumor Necrosis Factor Can Promote Nerve Fiber Elongation in the Skin during Contact Hypersensitivity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kakurai, Maki; Monteforte, Rossella; Suto, Hajime; Tsai, Mindy; Nakae, Susumu; Galli, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    In humans, lesions of contact eczema or atopic dermatitis can exhibit increases in epidermal nerves, but the mechanism resulting in such nerve elongation are not fully understood. We found that contact hypersensitivity reactions to oxazolone in mice were associated with significant increases in the length of nerves in the epidermis and dermis. Using genetically mast cell-deficient c-kit mutant mice selectively repaired of their dermal mast cell deficiency with either wild-type or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-deficient mast cells, we found that mast cells, and mast cell-derived TNF, significantly contributed to the elongation of epidermal and dermal PGP 9.5+ nerves and dermal CGRP+ nerves, as well as to the inflammation observed at sites of contact hypersensitivity in response to oxazolone. Moreover, the percentage of mast cells in close proximity to dermal PGP 9.5+ nerve fibers was significantly higher in wild-type mice and in c-kit mutant mice repaired of their dermal mast cell deficiency by the adoptive transfer of wild-type mast cells than in TNF-deficient mice or in TNF−/− mast cell-engrafted c-kit mutant mice. These observations show that mast cells, and mast cell-derived TNF, can promote the elongation of cutaneous nerve fibers during contact hypersensitivity in the mouse. PMID:17071594

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhanced fusions between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and endothelial cells via VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kai; Zhu, Fei; Zhang, Han-zhong; Shang, Zheng-jun

    2012-08-15

    Fusion between cancer cells and host cells, including endothelial cells, may strongly modulate the biological behavior of tumors. However, no one is sure about the driving factors and underlying mechanism involved in such fusion. We hypothesized in this study that inflammation, one of the main characteristics in tumor microenvironment, serves as a prominent catalyst for fusion events. Our results showed that oral cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with endothelial cells in co-culture and inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) increased fusion of human umbilical vein endothelium cells and oral cancer cells by up to 3-fold in vitro. Additionally, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 35 out of 50 (70%) oral squamous carcinoma specimens express VLA-4, an integrin, previously implicated in fusions between human peripheral blood CD34-positive cells and murine cardiomyocytes. Expression of VCAM-1, a ligand for VLA-4, was evident on vascular endothelium of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis revealed that expression of VCAM-1 increased obviously in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated endothelial cells. Anti-VLA-4 or anti-VCAM-1 treatment can decrease significantly cancer-endothelial adhesion and block such fusion. Collectively, our results suggested that TNF-{alpha} could enhance cancer-endothelial cell adhesion and fusion through VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway. This study provides insights into regulatory mechanism of cancer-endothelial cell fusion, and has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of metastasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous oral cancer-endothelial cell fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} enhanced cell fusions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCAM-1/VLA-4 expressed in oral cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} increased expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells. Black

  3. A New theraphosid Spider Toxin Causes Early Insect Cell Death by Necrosis When Expressed In Vitro during Recombinant Baculovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Morgado, Fabrício Da Silva; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Corzo, Gerardo; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2013-01-01

    Baculoviruses are the most studied insect viruses in the world and are used for biological control of agricultural and forest insect pests. They are also used as versatile vectors for expression of heterologous proteins. One of the major problems of their use as biopesticides is their slow speed to kill insects. Thus, to address this shortcoming, insect-specific neurotoxins from arachnids have been introduced into the baculovirus genome solely aiming to improve its virulence. In this work, an insecticide-like toxin gene was obtained from a cDNA derived from the venom glands of the theraphosid spider Brachypelma albiceps. The mature form of the peptide toxin (called Ba3) has a high content of basic amino acid residues, potential for three possible disulfide bonds, and a predicted three-stranded β-sheetDifferent constructions of the gene were engineered for recombinant baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclepolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) expression. Five different forms of Ba3 were assessed; (1) the full-length sequence, (2) the pro-peptide and mature region, (3) only the mature region, and the mature region fused to an (4) insect or a (5) virus-derived signal peptide were inserted separately into the genome of the baculovirus. All the recombinant viruses induced cell death by necrosis earlier in infection relative to a control virus lacking the toxin gene. However, the recombinant virus containing the mature portion of the toxin gene induced a faster cell death than the other recombinants. We found that the toxin construct with the signal peptide and/or pro-peptide regions delayed the necrosis phenotype. When infected cells were subjected to ultrastructural analysis, the cells showed loss of plasma membrane integrity and structural changes in mitochondria before death. Our results suggest this use of baculovirus is a potential tool to help understand or to identify the effect of insect-specific toxic peptides when produced during infection of insect cells. PMID

  4. Targeting of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 to Low Density Plasma Membrane Domains in Human Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessio, Alessio; Kluger, Martin S.; Li, Jie H.; Al-Lamki, Rafia; Bradley, John R.; Pober, Jordan S.

    2010-01-01

    TNFR1 (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1) localizes to caveolae of human endothelial-derived EA.hy926 cells. Transduced TNFR1 molecules lacking amino acid residues 229–244 (spanning the transmembrane/intercellular boundary) are expressed on the cell surface equivalently to full-length TNFR1 molecules but incompletely localize to caveolae. A peptide containing this sequence pulls down CAV-1 (caveolin-1) and TNFR1 from cell lysates but fails to do so following disruption of caveolae with methyl-β-cyclodextrin. We previously reported that methyl-β-cyclodextrin eliminates caveolae and blocks tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced internalization of TNFR1 but not TNF-induced activation of NF-κB in EA.hy926 cells. Both CAV-1 and FLOT-2 (flotillin-2), organizing proteins of caveolae and lipid rafts, respectively, associate with caveolae in EA.hy926 cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CAV-1 but not FLOT-2 strikingly reduces caveolae number. Both knockdowns reduce total TNFR1 protein expression, but neither prevents TNFR1 localization to low density membrane domains, TNF-induced internalization of TNFR1, or NF-κB activation by TNF. Both CAV-1 and FLOT-2 knockdowns reduce TNF-mediated activation of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK). However, both knockdowns reduce expression of TRAF2 (TNF receptor-associated factor-2) protein, and small interfering RNA targeting of TRAF2 also selectively inhibits SAPK activation. We conclude that TNFR1 contains a membrane-proximal sequence that targets the receptor to caveolae/lipid rafts. Neither TNFR1 targeting to nor internalization from these low density membrane domains depends upon CAV-1 or FLOT-2. Furthermore, both NF-κB and SAPK activation appear independent of both TNFR1 localization to low density membrane domains and to TNF-induced receptor internalization. PMID:20511226

  5. Nano-ZnO leads to tubulin macrotube assembly and actin bundling, triggering cytoskeletal catastrophe and cell necrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Hevia, Lorena; Valiente, Rafael; Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa; Renero-Lecuna, Carlos; González, Jesús; Rodríguez-Fernández, Lidia; Aguado, Fernando; Villegas, Juan C.; Fanarraga, Mónica L.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc is a crucial element in biology that plays chief catalytic, structural and protein regulatory roles. Excess cytoplasmic zinc is toxic to cells so there are cell-entry and intracellular buffering mechanisms that control intracellular zinc availability. Tubulin and actin are two zinc-scavenging proteins that are essential components of the cellular cytoskeleton implicated in cell division, migration and cellular architecture maintenance. Here we demonstrate how exposure to different ZnO nanostructures, namely ZnO commercial nanoparticles and custom-made ZnO nanowires, produce acute cytotoxic effects in human keratinocytes (HaCat) and epithelial cells (HeLa) triggering a dose-dependent cell retraction and collapse. We show how engulfed ZnO nanoparticles dissolve intracellularly, triggering actin filament bundling and structural changes in microtubules, transforming these highly dynamic 25 nm diameter polymers into rigid macrotubes of tubulin, severely affecting cell proliferation and survival. Our results demonstrate that nano-ZnO causes acute cytoskeletal collapse that triggers necrosis, followed by a late reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptotic process.Zinc is a crucial element in biology that plays chief catalytic, structural and protein regulatory roles. Excess cytoplasmic zinc is toxic to cells so there are cell-entry and intracellular buffering mechanisms that control intracellular zinc availability. Tubulin and actin are two zinc-scavenging proteins that are essential components of the cellular cytoskeleton implicated in cell division, migration and cellular architecture maintenance. Here we demonstrate how exposure to different ZnO nanostructures, namely ZnO commercial nanoparticles and custom-made ZnO nanowires, produce acute cytotoxic effects in human keratinocytes (HaCat) and epithelial cells (HeLa) triggering a dose-dependent cell retraction and collapse. We show how engulfed ZnO nanoparticles dissolve intracellularly, triggering actin

  6. Involvement of Lysosome Membrane Permeabilization and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in the Necrosis Induced by Chlamydia muridarum Infection in L929 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lixiang; Wang, Cong; Li, Shun; Yu, Xin; Liu, Xue; Ren, Rongrong; Liu, Wenwen; Zhou, Xiaojing; Zhang, Xiaonan; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2016-04-28

    Chlamydiae, obligate intracellular bacteria, are associated with a variety of human diseases. The chlamydial life cycle undergoes a biphasic development: replicative reticulate bodies (RBs) phase and infectious elementary bodies (EBs) phase. At the end of the chlamydial intracellular life cycle, EBs have to be released to the surrounded cells. Therefore, the interactions between Chlamydiae and cell death pathways could greatly influence the outcomes of Chlamydia infection. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated host cell death after Chlamydia infection in vitro, in L929 cells, and showed that Chlamydia infection induces cell necrosis, as detected by the propidium iodide (PI)-Annexin V double-staining flow-cytometric assay and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), an important factor in induction of necrosis, was increased after Chlamydia infection, and inhibition of ROS with specific pharmacological inhibitors, diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), led to significant suppression of necrosis. Interestingly, live-cell imaging revealed that Chlamydia infection induced lysosome membrane permeabilization (LMP). When an inhibitor upstream of LMP, CA-074-Me, was added to cells, the production of ROS was reduced with concomitant inhibition of necrosis. Taken together, our results indicate that Chlamydia infection elicits the production of ROS, which is dependent on LMP at least partially, followed by induction of host-cell necrosis. To our best knowledge, this is the first live-cell-imaging observation of LMP post Chlamydia infection and report on the link of LMP to ROS to necrosis during Chlamydia infection. PMID:26838343

  7. A Nonpolar Blueberry Fraction Blunts NADPH Oxidase Activation in Neuronal Cells Exposed to Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Sally J.; Dunlap, Kriya L.; McGill, Colin M.; Kuhn, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are key to the progressive neuronal degeneration common to chronic pathologies, traumatic injuries, and aging processes in the CNS. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) orchestrates cellular stress by stimulating the production and release of neurotoxic mediators including reactive oxygen species (ROS). NADPH oxidases (NOX), ubiquitously expressed in all cells, have recently emerged as pivotal ROS sources in aging and disease. We demonstrated the presence of potent NOX inhibitors in wild Alaska bog blueberries partitioning discretely into a nonpolar fraction with minimal antioxidant capacity and largely devoid of polyphenols. Incubation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with nonpolar blueberry fractions obstructed the coalescing of lipid rafts into large domains disrupting NOX assembly therein and abolishing ROS production characteristic for TNF-α exposure. These findings illuminate nutrition-derived lipid raft modulation as a novel therapeutic approach to blunt inflammatory and oxidative stress in the aging or diseased CNS. PMID:22530077

  8. De Novo CD5 Negative Blastic Mantle Cell Lymphoma Presented with Massive Bone Marrow Necrosis without Adenopathy or Organomegaly

    PubMed Central

    Elyamany, Ghaleb; Alzahrani, Ali Matar; Al Mussaed, Eman; Aljasem, Hassan; Alotaibi, Sultan; Elghezal, Hatem

    2015-01-01

    The recent World Health Organization (WHO) classification defines mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) as a distinct entity characterized by a unique immunophenotype and a molecular hallmark of chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32). We report an unusual case of an advanced stage of CD5 negative MCL with a blastoid variant with a massive bone marrow (BM) necrosis as an initial presenting feature, with no adenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. The pathologic features showed blastoid variant of MCL and flow cytometry showed that the tumor cells were CD5−, CD19+, CD20+, FMC-7+, CD23−, and lambda light chain restricted. Chromosomal analysis, using karyotype and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), demonstrated karyotypic abnormalities in addition to the t(11;14). Our case study may be reported as a unique case of CD5− blastic MCL with unusual presentation and findings which made the diagnosis of MCL difficult. PMID:26347832

  9. In Autoimmune Diabetes the Transition from Benign to Pernicious Insulitis Requires an Islet Cell Response to Tumor Necrosis Factor α

    PubMed Central

    Pakala, Syamasundar V.; Chivetta, Marylee; Kelly, Colleen B.; Katz, Jonathan D.

    1999-01-01

    The islet-infiltrating and disease-causing leukocytes that are a hallmark of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus produce and respond to a set of cytokine molecules. Of these, interleukin 1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ are perhaps the most important. However, as pleiotropic molecules, they can impact the path leading to β cell apoptosis and diabetes at multiple points. To understand how these cytokines influence both the formative and effector phases of insulitis, it is critical to determine their effects on the assorted cell types comprising the lesion: the effector T cells, antigen-presenting cells, vascular endothelium, and target islet tissue. Here, we report using nonobese diabetic chimeric mice harboring islets deficient in specific cytokine receptors or cytokine-induced effector molecules to assess how these compartmentalized loss-of-function mutations alter the events leading to diabetes. We found that islets deficient in Fas, IFN-γ receptor, or inducible nitric oxide synthase had normal diabetes development; however, the specific lack of TNF- α receptor 1 (p55) afforded islets a profound protection from disease by altering the ability of islet-reactive, CD4+ T cells to establish insulitis and subsequently destroy islet β cells. These results argue that islet cells play a TNF-α–dependent role in their own demise. PMID:10190896

  10. Transactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeats by cell surface tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Tadmori, W; Mondal, D; Tadmori, I; Prakash, O

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is expressed in secreted and cell surface (csTNF-alpha) forms by activated monocytic and T cells. In this report, we demonstrate that csTNF-alpha may predominantly regulate the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) activation in the promonocytic cell line U937 and in the Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell line BH1. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody suppressed both the constitutive expression of the HIV-1 LTR in BH1 cells and the expression induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in U937 cells. This suppression was found to be mediated via csTNF-alpha. No correlation between the HIV-1 LTR activation and the secretion of TNF-alpha was evident in these cell lines. Suppression of TNF-alpha secretion by cyclosporin A or by a serine protease inhibitor did not suppress the HIV-1 LTR activation. These observations suggest a novel biological role for csTNF-alpha in the immunopathogenesis of AIDS. PMID:1942242

  11. Apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat hepatocyte cell lines expressing hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, S.; Miller, T.; Cornman, G.; Isom, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    Three well differentiated SV40-immortalized rat hepatocyte cell lines, CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14, and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-producing cell lines derived from them were examined for sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14 cells were co-transfected with a DNA construct containing a dimer of the HBV genome and the neo gene and selected in G418 to generate stable cell lines. Characterization of these cell lines indicated that they contain integrated HBV DNA, contain low molecular weight HBV DNA compatible with the presence of HBV replication intermediates, express HBV transcripts, and produce HBV proteins. The viability of CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV2 cells was not significantly altered when they were treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations as high as 20,000 U/ml. The HBV-expressing CWSV1 cell line, SV1di36, and the HBV-expressing CWSV14 cell line, SV14di208, were also not killed when treated with TNF-alpha. However, the HBV-expressing CWSV2 cell line, SV2di366, was extensively killed when treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations ranging from 200 to 20,000 U/ml. Analysis of several different HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines indicated that TNF-alpha killing depended upon the level of HBV expression. The TNF-alpha-induced cell killing in high HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines was accompanied by the presence of an oligonucleosomal DNA ladder characteristic of apoptosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8774135

  12. Bacterium-Generated Nitric Oxide Hijacks Host Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling and Modulates the Host Cell Cycle In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mocca, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian cells, nitric oxide (NO·) is an important signal molecule with concentration-dependent and often controversial functions of promoting cell survival and inducing cell death. An inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in various mammalian cells produces higher levels of NO· from l-arginine upon infections to eliminate pathogens. In this study, we reveal novel pathogenic roles of NO· generated by bacteria in bacterium-host cell cocultures using Moraxella catarrhalis, a respiratory tract disease-causing bacterium, as a biological producer of NO·. We recently demonstrated that M. catarrhalis cells that express the nitrite reductase (AniA protein) can produce NO· by reducing nitrite. Our study suggests that, in the presence of pathophysiological levels of nitrite, this opportunistic pathogen hijacks host cell signaling and modulates host gene expression through its ability to produce NO· from nitrite. Bacterium-generated NO· significantly increases the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and modulates the expression of apoptotic proteins, therefore triggering host cell programmed death partially through TNF-α signaling. Furthermore, our study reveals that bacterium-generated NO· stalls host cell division and directly results in the death of dividing cells by reducing the levels of an essential regulator of cell division. This study provides unique insight into why NO· may exert more severe cytotoxic effects on fast growing cells, providing an important molecular basis for NO·-mediated pathogenesis in infections and possible therapeutic applications of NO·-releasing molecules in tumorigenesis. This study strongly suggests that bacterium-generated NO· can play important pathogenic roles during infections. PMID:22636782

  13. Nano-ZnO leads to tubulin macrotube assembly and actin bundling, triggering cytoskeletal catastrophe and cell necrosis.

    PubMed

    García-Hevia, Lorena; Valiente, Rafael; Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa; Renero-Lecuna, Carlos; González, Jesús; Rodríguez-Fernández, Lidia; Aguado, Fernando; Villegas, Juan C; Fanarraga, Mónica L

    2016-06-01

    Zinc is a crucial element in biology that plays chief catalytic, structural and protein regulatory roles. Excess cytoplasmic zinc is toxic to cells so there are cell-entry and intracellular buffering mechanisms that control intracellular zinc availability. Tubulin and actin are two zinc-scavenging proteins that are essential components of the cellular cytoskeleton implicated in cell division, migration and cellular architecture maintenance. Here we demonstrate how exposure to different ZnO nanostructures, namely ZnO commercial nanoparticles and custom-made ZnO nanowires, produce acute cytotoxic effects in human keratinocytes (HaCat) and epithelial cells (HeLa) triggering a dose-dependent cell retraction and collapse. We show how engulfed ZnO nanoparticles dissolve intracellularly, triggering actin filament bundling and structural changes in microtubules, transforming these highly dynamic 25 nm diameter polymers into rigid macrotubes of tubulin, severely affecting cell proliferation and survival. Our results demonstrate that nano-ZnO causes acute cytoskeletal collapse that triggers necrosis, followed by a late reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptotic process. PMID:27228212

  14. Interferon-γ and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Polarize Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Uniformly to a Th1 Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ping; Zhao, Yuanlong; Liu, Hui; Chen, Jinguo; Ren, Jiaqiang; Jin, Jianjian; Bedognetti, Davide; Liu, Shutong; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco; Stroncek, David

    2016-01-01

    Activated T cells polarize mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to a proinflammatory Th1 phenotype which likely has an important role in amplifying the immune response in the tumor microenvironment. We investigated the role of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), two factors produced by activated T cells, in MSC polarization. Gene expression and culture supernatant analysis showed that TNF-α and IFN-γ stimulated MSCs expressed distinct sets of proinflammatory factors. The combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α was synergistic and induced a transcriptome most similar to that found in MSCs stimulated with activated T cells and similar to that found in the inflamed tumor microenvironment; a Th1 phenotype with the expression of the immunosuppressive factors IL-4, IL-10, CD274/PD-L1 and indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO). Single cell qRT-PCR analysis showed that the combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α polarized uniformly to this phenotype. The combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α results in the synergist uniform polarization of MSCs toward a primarily Th1 phenotype. The stimulation of MSCs by IFN-γ and TNF-α released from activated tumor infiltrating T cells is likely responsible for the production of many factors that characterize the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27211104

  15. Interferon-γ and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Polarize Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Uniformly to a Th1 Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ping; Zhao, Yuanlong; Liu, Hui; Chen, Jinguo; Ren, Jiaqiang; Jin, Jianjian; Bedognetti, Davide; Liu, Shutong; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco; Stroncek, David

    2016-01-01

    Activated T cells polarize mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to a proinflammatory Th1 phenotype which likely has an important role in amplifying the immune response in the tumor microenvironment. We investigated the role of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), two factors produced by activated T cells, in MSC polarization. Gene expression and culture supernatant analysis showed that TNF-α and IFN-γ stimulated MSCs expressed distinct sets of proinflammatory factors. The combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α was synergistic and induced a transcriptome most similar to that found in MSCs stimulated with activated T cells and similar to that found in the inflamed tumor microenvironment; a Th1 phenotype with the expression of the immunosuppressive factors IL-4, IL-10, CD274/PD-L1 and indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO). Single cell qRT-PCR analysis showed that the combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α polarized uniformly to this phenotype. The combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α results in the synergist uniform polarization of MSCs toward a primarily Th1 phenotype. The stimulation of MSCs by IFN-γ and TNF-α released from activated tumor infiltrating T cells is likely responsible for the production of many factors that characterize the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27211104

  16. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha up-regulates decay-accelerating factor gene expression in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, A; Fujiyama, Y; Sumiyoshi, K; Sakumoto, H; Okabe, H; Bamba, T

    1997-01-01

    The increased expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) has been detected in intestinal epithelial cells at the inflamed mucosa. In this study, we examined the effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on DAF expression in three intestinal epithelial cell lines. DAF mRNA expression was evaluated by Northern blot analysis, and DAF protein expression was analysed by biotin labelling and immunoprecipitation. TNF-alpha induced a marked increase in DAF mRNA and protein expression in HT-29, T84 and Caco-2 cells. In HT-29 cells, the effects of TNF-a on DAF mRNA accumulation were observed in a dose-dependent manner; DAF mRNA accumulation reached a maximum at 3-6 hr, and then gradually decreased. These effects of TNF-alpha required de novo protein synthesis. Messenger RNA stability studies suggested that TNF-alpha partially regulated DAF gene expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism. Moreover, the combination of TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL)-4 induced an additive increase in DAF mRNA accumulation in HT-29 and T84 cells. In human intestinal epithelial cells, TNF-alpha acts as a potent inducer of DAF mRNA expression, indicating an important role for TNF-alpha in the regulation of DAF expression at the inflamed mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9155641

  17. Pamidronate Down-regulates Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Induced Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression in Human Intervertebral Disc Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Young-Mi; Hong, Seong-Hwan; Yang, Jae-Ho; Oh, Jin-Cheol; Park, Jin-Oh; Lee, Byung Ho; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Hak-Sun; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background N-containing bisphosphonates (BPs), such as pamidronate and risedronate, can inhibit osteoclastic function and reduce osteoclast number by inducing apoptotic cell death in osteoclasts. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effect of pamidronate, second generation nitrogen-containing BPs and to elucidate matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) mRNA expression under serum starvation and/or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulation on metabolism of intervertebral disc (IVD) cells in vitro. Methods Firstly, to test the effect of pamidronate on IVD cells in vitro, various concentrations (10-12, 10-10, 10-8, and 10-6 M) of pamidronate were administered to IVD cells. Then DNA and proteoglycan synthesis were measured and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of type I collagen, type II collagen, and aggrecan were analyzed. Secondly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in human IVD cells under the lower serum status, IVD cells were cultivated in full serum or 1% serum. Thirdly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in IVD cells under the stimulation of 1% serum and TNF-α (10 ng/mL) In this study, IVD cells were cultivated in three dimensional alginate bead. Results Under the lower serum culture, IVD cells in alginate beads showed upregulation of MMP 2, 3, 9, 13 mRNA. The cells in lower serum and TNF-α also demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2, 3, 9, and 13 mRNA. The cells with various doses of pamidronate and lower serum and TNF-α were reveled partial down-regulation of MMPs. Conclusions Pamidronate, N-containing second generation BPs, was safe in metabolism of IVD in vitro maintaining chondrogenic phenotype and matrix synthesis, and down-regulated TNF-α induced MMPs expression. PMID:27622181

  18. Necrosis avid near infrared fluorescent cyanines for imaging cell death and their use to monitor therapeutic efficacy in mouse tumor models

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bangwen; Stammes, Marieke A.; van Driel, Pieter B.A.A.; Cruz, Luis J.; Knol-Blankevoort, Vicky T.; Löwik, Martijn A.M.; Mezzanotte, Laura; Que, Ivo; Chan, Alan; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P.H.M.; Siebes, Maria; Gottschalk, Sven; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Keereweer, Stijn; Horobin, Richard W.; Hoehn, Mathias; Kaijzel, Eric L.; van Beek, Ermond R.; Snoeks, Thomas J.A.; Löwik, Clemens W.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of tumor necrosis in cancer patients is of diagnostic value as the amount of necrosis is correlated with disease prognosis and it could also be used to predict early efficacy of anti-cancer treatments. In the present study, we identified two near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) carboxylated cyanines, HQ5 and IRDye 800CW (800CW), which possess strong necrosis avidity. In vitro studies showed that both dyes selectively bind to cytoplasmic proteins of dead cells that have lost membrane integrity. Affinity for cytoplasmic proteins was confirmed using quantitative structure activity relations modeling. In vivo results, using NIRF and optoacoustic imaging, confirmed the necrosis avid properties of HQ5 and 800CW in a mouse 4T1 breast cancer tumor model of spontaneous necrosis. Finally, in a mouse EL4 lymphoma tumor model, already 24 h post chemotherapy, a significant increase in 800CW fluorescence intensity was observed in treated compared to untreated tumors. In conclusion, we show, for the first time, that the NIRF carboxylated cyanines HQ5 and 800CW possess strong necrosis avid properties in vitro and in vivo. When translated to the clinic, these dyes may be used for diagnostic or prognostic purposes and for monitoring in vivo tumor response early after the start of treatment. PMID:26472022

  19. Tumor necrosis factor-α mediates interactions between macrophages and epithelial cells underlying proinflammatory gene expression induced by particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Musah, Sadiatu; DeJarnett, Natasha; Hoyle, Gary W

    2012-09-28

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is known to have adverse effects on respiratory health, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. We tested the hypothesis that macrophages and epithelial cells synergize to produce maximal cytokine release in response to PM exposure, thereby promoting inflammatory responses. We developed a co-culture model using MLE-12 (mouse lung epithelial) cells and RAW 264.7 (mouse monocyte/macrophage) cells. MLE-12 cells produced KC (Cxcl1) but not tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), and KC was upregulated only at high levels of urban particulate matter (UPM; NIST 1648a). RAW 264.7 cells produced TNF but not KC, and TNF production was increased by treatment with UPM. In contrast, KC production was upregulated by co-culture of MLE-12 and RAW 264.7 cells, and it was further increased by treatment with a concentration of UPM that had no effect on MLE-12 cells alone. Multiplex cytokine assay revealed a similar pattern of synergistic production of MIG (Cxcl9) and IP-10 (Cxcl10) in co-cultures in response to UPM. TNF was implicated as mediating the synergistic increase in KC production because TNF upregulated KC production in MLE-12 cells, and UPM-induced KC production in co-cultures could be inhibited by a TNF blocking antibody. Intratracheal instillation of UPM into both wild-type and TNF receptor knockout mice resulted in increased TNF production in lavage fluid and increased TNF mRNA expression in cells recovered from lavage fluid. Additionally, UPM instillation into wild-type mice resulted in increased neutrophils and KC in lavage fluid, and these were inhibited in UPM-exposed TNF receptor knockout mice. These results are consistent with a model in which PM activates TNF production in macrophages which in turn stimulates epithelial cells to produce proinflammatory cytokines such as KC. The findings suggest a potential mechanism by which inhaled PM induces inflammation in the lung. PMID:22634322

  20. Isolation and characterisation of Kasumi-1 human myeloid leukaemia cell line resistant to tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ido, M.; Hayashi, K.; Kato, S.; Ogawa, H.; Komada, Y.; Zhau, Y. W.; Zhang, X. L.; Sakurai, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induces apoptosis in a human acute myeloid leukaemia cell line, Kasumi-1. To examine the role of protein phosphorylation in signal transduction of TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis, a variant cell line resistant to TNF-alpha was established by an intermittent challenge of Kasumi-1 cells with increasing concentrations of TNF-alpha for 6 months. The mechanism of resistance to TNF-alpha appears to be in the post-receptor pathway because expression of p55 TNF receptor in the variant cells is increased compared with that of the parental Kasumi-1 cells. In renaturation assays, TNF-alpha induced a rapid activation of different protein kinases of different molecular weights, including the 50 kDa protein kinase (PK50) followed by the 35 kDa protein kinase (PK35), in the parental Kasumi-1 cells. The dose-response of TNF-alpha required to activate PK50 and PK35 was closely related to concentrations of TNF-alpha that induced apoptosis. Treatment of Kasumi-1 cells with ceramide also activated PK35. In TNF-resistant variant cells, activation of PK35 in response to TNF-alpha or ceramide was practically nil. These findings suggest that activation of PK35 through the ceramide pathway may play an important role in signal transduction of TNF-alpha in the Kasumi-1 cell line, while the decreased activation of PK35 may explain the insensitivity of the variant cells towards TNF-alpha. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8562342

  1. Osteocytic cell necrosis is caused by a combination of glucocorticoid-induced Dickkopf-1 and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shusuke; Ichiseki, Toru; Yoshitomi, Yasuo; Yonekura, Hideto; Ueda, Yoshimichi; Kaneuji, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2015-06-01

    Osteonecrosis is a major glucocorticoid-induced complication in the orthopedics field. Despite the extensive researches, mechanisms underlining the glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis are largely unknown. Here, we first provide the evidence that a combined treatment of cultured osteocytic cells with glucocorticoid and hypoxia caused necrotic cell death, which is assumed to occur in the acute bone injuries induced by glucocorticoids. We cultured MLO-Y4 murine osteocytic cells under hypoxia in the presence or absence of Dexamethasone (Dex) and examined the rates of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Dex or hypoxia alone increased apoptotic cells, but not necrotic cells. The combination of Dex and hypoxia dramatically increased osteocytic cell death, notably necrotic cell death. The expression of Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signal, was scarcely expressed in the control and hypoxic cells, but a dramatic increase of the Dkk-1 expression was detected in Dex-treated cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Dkk-1 in Dex and hypoxia-treated osteocytic cells showed the significant decreases in both apoptotic and necrotic cells. The results indicated that the combination of Dkk-1 overexpression by Dex and hypoxia causes the necrotic osteocytic cell death. The results also indicated that blocking of Dkk-1 can protect bone cells from glucocorticoid and hypoxia-induced cell injury. PMID:24819581

  2. Rate-equation modelling and ensemble approach to extraction of parameters for viral infection-induced cell apoptosis and necrosis.

    PubMed

    Domanskyi, Sergii; Schilling, Joshua E; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav; Libert, Sergiy; Privman, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    We develop a theoretical approach that uses physiochemical kinetics modelling to describe cell population dynamics upon progression of viral infection in cell culture, which results in cell apoptosis (programmed cell death) and necrosis (direct cell death). Several model parameters necessary for computer simulation were determined by reviewing and analyzing available published experimental data. By comparing experimental data to computer modelling results, we identify the parameters that are the most sensitive to the measured system properties and allow for the best data fitting. Our model allows extraction of parameters from experimental data and also has predictive power. Using the model we describe interesting time-dependent quantities that were not directly measured in the experiment and identify correlations among the fitted parameter values. Numerical simulation of viral infection progression is done by a rate-equation approach resulting in a system of "stiff" equations, which are solved by using a novel variant of the stochastic ensemble modelling approach. The latter was originally developed for coupled chemical reactions. PMID:27608985

  3. Fluctuation of probe beam in thermolens schematics as potential indicator of cell metabolism, apoptosis, necrosis and laser impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Shashkov, Evgeny V.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Scheludko, Andrei V.; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2006-02-01

    Recently we discovered that in developed integrated flow cytometry using combination high resolution transmission and two beam (pump-probe) of photothermal microscopy with flow module the temporal fluctuation of probe beam even without pump laser pulse are very sensitive to functional states of single cells (e.g. with 2-3 differences in average fluctuation amplitude for live and dead cells). In this paper we are focusing on theoretical and experimental studies of these new phenomena using thermolens schematics with highly stabilized continuous-wave He-Ne laser and photodiode/photomultiplier with pinhole. This scheme allows to study both random and laser-induced thermolens effects in passive and active mode including short and long term monitoring of scattered light fluctuation in trans-illumination mode at single cellular and even sub-cellular levels in vitro, and in vivo. We demonstrate these schematics has some potential to monitor intracellular dynamics including change in cell metabolism, and necrosis, especially, under pump laser impacts in vitro in stationary condition. Besides, we present some relevant data obtained with other similar schematics, including evaluation of bacterial motility by dynamic light scattering. We discuss further potential developing this approach for flow cytometry with fast speed photodetector and digital camera and the multi- wavelength statistical and correlation analysis of speckle-related signals in applications to analysis of complex motions and functional properties of cells in bioflows including the evaluation of the rotational and translational components of the motion of individual live and dead cells.

  4. Roles of tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 3 (TRAF3) and TRAF5 in immune cell functions

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Joanne M.; Yi, Zuoan; Buchta, Claire M.; Poovassery, Jayakumar; Stunz, Laura L.; Bishop, Gail A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary A large and diverse group of receptors utilizes the family of cytoplasmic signaling proteins known as tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factors (TRAFs). In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest and exploration of the roles played by TRAF3 and TRAF5 in cellular regulation, particularly in cells of the immune system, the cell types of focus in this review. This work has revealed that TRAF3 and TRAF5 can play diverse roles for different receptors even in the same cell type, as well as distinct roles in different cell types. Evidence indicates that TRAF3 and TRAF5 play important roles beyond the TNFR-superfamily (SF) and viral mimics of its members, mediating certain innate immune receptor and cytokine receptor signals, and most recently, signals delivered by the T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling complex. Additionally, much research has demonstrated the importance of TRAF3-mediated cellular regulation via its cytoplasmic interactions with additional signaling proteins. In particular, we discuss below evidence for the participation by TRAF3 in a number of the regulatory post-translational modifications involving ubiquitin that are important in various signaling pathways. PMID:22017431

  5. Glucocorticoid-Induced Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor-Related Protein: A Key Marker of Functional Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ronchetti, Simona; Ricci, Erika; Petrillo, Maria Grazia; Cari, Luigi; Migliorati, Graziella; Nocentini, Giuseppe; Riccardi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR, TNFRSF18, and CD357) is expressed at high levels in activated T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs). In this review, we present data from mouse and human studies suggesting that GITR is a crucial player in the differentiation of thymic Tregs (tTregs), and expansion of both tTregs and peripheral Tregs (pTregs). The role of GITR in Treg expansion is confirmed by the association of GITR expression with markers of memory T cells. In this context, it is not surprising that GITR appears to be a marker of active Tregs, as suggested by the association of GITR expression with other markers of Treg activation or cytokines with suppressive activity (e.g., IL-10 and TGF-β), the presence of GITR+ cells in tissues where Tregs are active (e.g., solid tumours), or functional studies on Tregs. Furthermore, some Treg subsets including Tr1 cells express either low or no classical Treg markers (e.g., FoxP3 and CD25) and do express GITR. Therefore, when evaluating changes in the number of Tregs in human diseases, GITR expression must be evaluated. Moreover, GITR should be considered as a marker for isolating Tregs. PMID:25961057

  6. Realgar quantum dots induce apoptosis and necrosis in HepG2 cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    QIN, YU; WANG, HUAN; LIU, ZHENG-YUN; LIU, JIE; WU, JIN-ZHU

    2015-01-01

    Realgar (As4S4) has been used in traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of malignancies. However, the poor water solubility of realgar limits its clinical application. To overcome this problem, realgar quantum dots (RQDs; 5.48±1.09 nm) were prepared by a photoluminescence method. The mean particle size was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Our recent studies revealed that the RQDs were effective against tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice without producing apparent toxicity. The present study investigated their anticancer effects and mechanisms in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The HepG2 cells and human normal liver (L02) cells were used to determine the cytotoxicity of RQDs. The portion of apoptotic and dead cells were measured by flow cytometry with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining. Apoptosis-related proteins and genes were examined by western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was assayed by confocal microscope with JC-1 as a probe. RQDs exhibited cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner and HepG2 cells were more sensitive compared with normal L02 cells. At 15 µg/ml, 20% of the cells were apoptotic, while 60% of the cells were necrotic at 30 µg/ml. The anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 was dose-dependently decreased, while pro-apoptotic protein Bax was increased. There was a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of the stress genes C/EBP-homologous protein 10 and glucose-regulated protein 78 was increased by RQDs. RQDs were effective in the inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation and this effect was due to induction of apoptosis and necrosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26405541

  7. Selective cytotoxicity of transformed cells but not normal cells by a sialoglycopeptide growth regulator in the presence of tumor necrosis factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, K. M.; Fattaey, H.; Johnson, T. C.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-resistant, SV40-transformed, murine fibroblast cell lines, F5b and F5m, became sensitive to TNF-mediated cytolysis after treatment with a biologically active 18 kDa peptide fragment (SGP) derived from a 66-kDa parental cell surface sialoglycoprotein. Neither TNF nor the SGP alone exhibited cytotoxicity to the two SV40-transformed cell lines. However, Balb/c 3T3 cells, incubated with SGP alone or with SGP and TNF, were not killed. Therefore, SGP can selectively sensitize cells for TNF alpha-mediated cytotoxicity. This selective sensitization may be due to the previously documented ability of the SGP to selectively mediate cell cycle arrest.

  8. CD8+ T Cells Specific to Apoptosis-Associated Antigens Predict the Response to Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Citro, Alessandra; Scrivo, Rossana; Martini, Helene; Martire, Carmela; De Marzio, Paolo; Vestri, Anna Rita; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Barnaba, Vincenzo; Valesini, Guido

    2015-01-01

    CD8+ T cells specific to caspase-cleaved antigens derived from apoptotic T cells (apoptotic epitopes) represent a principal player in chronic immune activation, which is known to amplify immunopathology in various inflammatory diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship involving these autoreactive T cells, the rheumatoid arthritis immunopathology, and the response to tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy. The frequency of autoreactive CD8+ T cells specific to various apoptotic epitopes, as detected by both enzyme-linked immunospot assay and dextramers of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules complexed with relevant apoptotic epitopes, was longitudinally analyzed in the peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients who were submitted to etanercept treatment (or other tumor necrosis factor inhibitors as a control). The percentage of apoptotic epitope-specific CD8+ T cells was significantly higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients than in healthy donors, and correlated with the disease activity. More important, it was significantly more elevated in responders to tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy than in non-responders before the start of therapy; it significantly dropped only in the former following therapy. These data indicate that apoptotic epitope-specific CD8+ T cells may be involved in rheumatoid arthritis immunopathology through the production of inflammatory cytokines and that they may potentially represent a predictive biomarker of response to tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy to validate in a larger cohort of patients. PMID:26061065

  9. Alpha tumor necrosis factor contributes to CD8{sup +} T cell survival in the transition phase

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Meiqing; Ye, Zhenmin; Umeshappa, Keshav Sokke; Moyana, Terence; Xiang, Jim . E-mail: jxiang@scf.sk.ca

    2007-08-31

    Cytokine and costimulation signals determine CD8{sup +} T cell responses in proliferation phase. In this study, we assessed the potential effect of cytokines and costimulations to CD8{sup +} T cell survival in transition phase by transferring in vitro ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed dendritic cell-activated CD8{sup +} T cells derived from OVA-specific T cell receptor transgenic OT I mice into wild-type C57BL/6 mice or mice with designated gene knockout. We found that deficiency of IL-10, IL-12, IFN-{gamma}, CD28, CD40, CD80, CD40L, and 41BBL in recipients did not affect CD8{sup +} T cell survival after adoptive transfer. In contrast, TNF-{alpha} deficiency in both recipients and donor CD8{sup +} effector T cells significantly reduced CD8{sup +} T cell survival. Therefore, our data demonstrate that the host- and T cell-derived TNF-{alpha} signaling contributes to CD8{sup +} effector T cell survival and their transition to memory T cells in the transition phase, and may be useful information when designing vaccination.

  10. Glutathione and the rate of cellular proliferation determine tumour cell sensitivity to tumour necrosis factor in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Obrador, E; Navarro, J; Mompo, J; Asensi, M; Pellicer, J A; Estrela, J M

    1997-01-01

    Low rates of cellular proliferation are associated with low GSH content and enhanced sensitivity of Ehrlich ascites-tumour (EAT) cells to the cytotoxic effects of recombinant human tumour necrosis factor (rhTNF-alpha). Buthionine sulphoximine, a selective inhibitor of GSH synthesis, inhibited tumour growth and increased rhTNF-alpha cytoxicity in vitro. Administration of sublethal doses (10(6)units/kg per day) of rhTNF-alpha to EAT-bearing mice promoted oxidative stress (as measured by increases in intracellular peroxide levels, O2(-); generation and mitochondrial GSSG) and resulted in a slight reduction (19%) in tumour cell number when controls showed the highest rate of cellular proliferation. ATP (1mmol/kg per day)-induced selective GSH depletion, when combined with rhTNF-alpha administration, afforded a 61% inhibition of tumour growth and resulted in a significant extension of host survival. Administration of N-acetylcysteine (1mmol/kg per day) or GSH ester (5mmol/kg per day) abolished the rhTNF-alpha- and ATP-induced effects on tumour growth by maintaining high GSH levels in the cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that the sensitivity of tumour cells to rhTNF-alpha in vivo depends on their GSH content and their rate of proliferation. PMID:9224645

  11. Oxidative stress signalling: a potential mediator of tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced genomic instability in primary vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, M; Gibbons, C F; Mohan, S; Moore, S; Kadhim, M A

    2007-09-01

    Studying the potential role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha in the initiation of genomic instability is necessary to understand whether TNFalpha can serve as a signalling mediator of radiation-induced genomic instability in non-irradiated bystander cells. In this study, we examined whether TNFalpha could initiate processes through oxidative stress signalling that lead to DNA damage and genomic instability in primary vascular endothelium. In these cells, low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (0.1-2 Gy) induced the secretion of TNFalpha into the culture medium. When added ectopically, TNFalpha at concentrations ranging from 0.1 ng ml(-1) to 10 ng ml(-1) increased (twofold to threefold) intracellular oxidative stress. Next, to examine whether TNFalpha induces genetic damage, cells were treated with TNFalpha for 5 h and analysed immediately using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay or after 3 days, 12 days and 20 days using solid stain chromosomal analysis. Cells exposed to 0.1 Gy, 1 Gy or 2 Gy or treated with 100 microM H2O2 were used as positive controls. The results showed that TNFalpha as low as 0.1 ng ml(-1) could initiate increased DNA damage compared with untreated controls. When examined in the progeny cells after several generations, the chromosomal instability appeared to be carried over even after day 12 and day 20. The increased genetic damage is inhibited in cells that are pre-incubated with the antioxidant enzyme catalase, the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or the metal chelator pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. These results clearly indicate that TNFalpha at concentrations at which no cytotoxicity is observed could induce genetic damage through free radical generation, which could, in turn, lead to the delayed events associated with genomic instability. PMID:17704321

  12. T Cell Cancer Therapy Requires CD40-CD40L Activation of Tumor Necrosis Factor and Inducible Nitric-Oxide-Synthase-Producing Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Marigo, Ilaria; Zilio, Serena; Desantis, Giacomo; Mlecnik, Bernhard; Agnellini, Andrielly H R; Ugel, Stefano; Sasso, Maria Stella; Qualls, Joseph E; Kratochvill, Franz; Zanovello, Paola; Molon, Barbara; Ries, Carola H; Runza, Valeria; Hoves, Sabine; Bilocq, Amélie M; Bindea, Gabriela; Mazza, Emilia M C; Bicciato, Silvio; Galon, Jérôme; Murray, Peter J; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2016-09-12

    Effective cancer immunotherapy requires overcoming immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments. We found that local nitric oxide (NO) production by tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells is important for adoptively transferred CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells to destroy tumors. These myeloid cells are phenotypically similar to inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2)- and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-producing dendritic cells (DC), or Tip-DCs. Depletion of immunosuppressive, colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R)-dependent arginase 1(+) myeloid cells enhanced NO-dependent tumor killing. Tumor elimination via NOS2 required the CD40-CD40L pathway. We also uncovered a strong correlation between survival of colorectal cancer patients and NOS2, CD40, and TNF expression in their tumors. Our results identify a network of pro-tumor factors that can be targeted to boost cancer immunotherapies. PMID:27622331

  13. Necrosis-induced TLR3 Activation Promotes TLR2 Expression in Gingival Cells.

    PubMed

    Mori, K; Yanagita, M; Hasegawa, S; Kubota, M; Yamashita, M; Yamada, S; Kitamura, M; Murakami, S

    2015-08-01

    Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), endogenous molecules released from injured or dying cells, evoke sterile inflammation that is not induced by microbial pathogens. Periodontal diseases are infectious diseases caused by oral microorganisms; however, in some circumstances, DAMPs might initiate inflammatory responses before host cells recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Here, we showed that the necrotic cell supernatant (NCS) functioned as an endogenous danger signal when released from necrotic epithelial cells exposed to repeat freeze thawing. The NCS contained RNA and stimulated the production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 from gingival epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Targeted knockdown of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in these cells significantly suppressed the ability of the NCS to induce IL-6 and IL-8 production. Epithelial cells and fibroblasts recognized the NCS from heterologous cells. Interestingly, the activation of TLR3, rather than other TLRs, induced TLR2 mRNA expression and proteins in gingival epithelial cells, and pretreatment with the NCS or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly(I:C)), a strong TLR3 activator, enhanced inflammatory cytokine production induced by subsequent stimulation with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) lipopolysaccharide, a TLR2 agonist. Moreover, the NCS reduced the expression of epithelial tight junction molecules zona occludens 1 and occludin and increased the permeability of epithelial tight junctions. These findings suggest that endogenous danger signal molecules such as self-RNA released from necrotic cells are recognized by TLR3 and that a subsequent increase of TLR2 expression in periodontal compartments such as gingival epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts may enhance the inflammatory response to periodontopathic microbes recognized by TLR2 such as P. gingivalis, which also disrupts epithelial barrier functions. Thus, DAMPs may be involved in the

  14. Pathophysiological role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation during acetaminophen-induced liver cell necrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Cover, Cathleen; Fickert, Peter; Knight, Tamara R; Fuchsbichler, Andrea; Farhood, Anwar; Trauner, Michael; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2005-03-01

    DNA fragmentation in hepatocytes occurs early after acetaminophen (AAP) overdose in mice. DNA strandbreaks can induce excessive activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP), which may lead to oncotic necrosis. Based on controversial findings with chemical PARP inhibitors, the role of PARP-1 activation in AAP hepatotoxicity remains unclear. To investigate PARP-1 activation and evaluate a pathophysiological role of PARP-1, we used both PARP inhibitors (3-aminobenzamide; 5-aminoisoquinolinone) and PARP gene knockout mice (PARP-/-). Treatment of C3Heb/FeJ mice with 300 mg/kg AAP resulted in DNA fragmentation and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) release as early as 3 h, with further increase of these parameters up to 12 h. Few nuclei of hepatocytes stained positive for poly-ADP-ribosylated nuclear proteins (PAR) as indicator for PARP-1 activation at 4.5 h. However, the number of PAR-positive cells and staining intensity increased substantially at 6 and 12 h. Pretreatment with 500 mg/kg 3-aminobenzamide before AAP attenuated hepatic glutathione depletion and completely eliminated DNA fragmentation and liver injury. Delayed treatment several hours after AAP was still partially protective. On the other hand, liver injury was not attenuated in PARP-/- mice compared to wild-type animals. Similarly, the specific PARP-1 inhibitor 5-aminoisoquinolinone (5 mg/kg) was not protective. However, 3-aminobenzamide attenuated liver injury in WT and PARP-/- mice. In summary, PARP-1 activation is a consequence of DNA fragmentation after AAP overdose. However, PARP-1 activation is not a relevant event for AAP-induced oncotic necrosis. The protection of 3-aminobenzamide against AAP-induced liver injury was due to reduced metabolic activation and potentially its antioxidant effect but independent of PARP-1 inhibition. PMID:15601672

  15. RAC1 regulate tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated impaired osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guijuan; Shen, Qijie; Lian, Min; Gu, Zhifeng; Xing, Jing; Lu, Xiaohui; Huang, Dan; Li, Liren; Huang, Shen; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Jinlong; Shi, Jiahai; Zhang, Dongmei; Feng, Xingmei

    2015-09-01

    Human dental pulp contains a rapidly proliferative subpopulation of precursor cells termed dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) that show self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, including neurogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic. We previously reported that tomuor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (10 ng/mL) triggered osteogenic differentiation of human DPSCs via the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. While previous studies showed that cells treated with TNF-α at higher concentrations showed decreased osteogenic differentiation capability. In this study we analyze the function of TNF-α (100 ng/mL) on osteogenic differentiation of human DPSCs for the first time and identify the underlying molecule mechanisms. Our data revealed that TNF-α with higher concentration significantly reduced mineralization and the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). Further, we revealed that TNF-α could suppress the osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs via increasing the expression of RAC1, which could activate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and liberate β-catenin to translocate into the nucleus. Genetic silencing of RAC1 expression using siRNA restored osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Our findings may provide a potential approach to bone regeneration in inflammatory microenvironments. PMID:26219349

  16. Studies on uptake and intracellular processing of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus by Atlantic cod scavenger endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Martin-Armas, M; Sommer, A-I; Smedsrød, B

    2007-11-01

    Previous work in our group has identified the scavenger endothelial cells (SECs) of heart endocardium in cod, Gadus morhua L., as the major site for elimination of both physiological and foreign macromolecular waste from the circulation. The present study was undertaken to establish the role of cod SECs in the clearance of virus. We focused on infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) as it is a well-known virus with a broad host range, and causes significant economic losses in the salmon industry. Our results showed that cod SEC cultures infected by the IPNV produce high titres of new virus. Ligand-receptor inhibition experiments suggested that the virus did not enter the cells through any of the major endocytosis receptors of cod SECs. Yet, the infection lowered the capacity of the cells to endocytose ligands via the scavenger receptor. Inhibitors of receptor recycling and vesicle acidification did not affect virus infectivity. The finding that SEC cultures prepared from 25% of the cod produced high titres of IPNV without being infected in the laboratory, suggests that SECs of cod may serve as reservoirs for IPNV in persistently infected cod. PMID:17958614

  17. Microglial Derived Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Drives Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Neuronal Cell Cycle Events

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Kiran; Maphis, Nicole; Xu, Guixiang; Varvel, Nicholas H.; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N; Weick, Jason P.; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Cardona, Astrid; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Herrup, Karl; Lamb, Bruce T.

    2013-01-01

    Massive neuronal loss is a key pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the mechanisms are still unclear. Here we demonstrate that neuroinflammation, cell autonomous to microglia, is capable of inducing neuronal cell cycle events (CCEs), which are toxic for terminally differentiated neurons. First, oligomeric amyloid-beta peptide (ApO)-mediated microglial activation induced neuronal CCEs via the tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and the c-Jun Kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. Second, adoptive transfer of CD11b+ microglia from AD transgenic mice (R1.40) induced neuronal cyclin D1 expression via TNFα signaling pathway. Third, genetic deficiency of TNFα in R1.40 mice (R1 .40-Tnfα−/−) iled to induce neuronal CCEs. Finally, the mitotically active neurons spatially co-exist with F4/80+ activated microglia in the human AD brain and that a portion of these neurons are apoptotic. Together our data suggest a cell-autonomous role of microglia, and identify TNFα as the responsible cytokine, in promoting neuronal CCEs in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:24141019

  18. Activity of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in cultured rabbit corneal epithelium cells stimulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z-Q; Zhang, Z-L; Nie, S-W; Yuan, J; Yang, Y-N

    2015-01-01

    We studied the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 generated by cultured rabbit corneal epithelium cells that had been stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), to investigate the possible regulative mechanisms of MMP-2/9 and their potential effect on corneal inflammatory diseases. The rabbit corneal epithelium cells were cultured in vitro and incubated with different concentrations of TNF-α (0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL) for 24 h. The activity of MMP-2/9 was examined using gelatin zymography. The results were analyzed by computer image analysis and statistical tests. TNF-α stimulated the secretion of MMP-2/9 in a dose-dependent manner, and MMP-2 was activated by TNF-α. Inflammatory factors such as TNF-α can stimulate MMP-2/9 activity in corneal epithelium cells. This may be a potential manipulating mechanism of MMP expression in the pathogenesis of corneal diseases, and could play an important role in the prevention and treatment of corneal inflammatory diseases. PMID:26125840

  19. Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (a fish iridovirus) enters Mandarin fish fry cells via caveola-dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Jun; Wu, Yan-Yan; Yang, Li-Shi; Yang, Xiao-Bo; He, Jian; Mi, Shu; Jia, Kun-Tong; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2012-03-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the type species of the genus Megalocytivirus from the family Iridoviridae. Megalocytiviruses have been implicated in more than 50 fish species infections and currently threaten the aquaculture industry, causing great economic losses in China, Japan, and Southeast Asia. However, the cellular entry mechanisms of megalocytiviruses remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, the main internalization mechanism of ISKNV was investigated by using mandarin fish fry (MFF-1) cells. The progression of ISKNV infection is slow, and infection is not inhibited when the cells are treated with ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl), chloroquine, sucrose, and chlorpromazine, which are inhibitors of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. The depletion of cellular cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin results in the significant inhibition of ISKNV infection; however, the infection is resumed with cholesterol replenishment. Inhibitors of caveolin-1-involved signaling events, including phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), genistein, and wortmannin, impair ISKNV entry into MFF-1 cells. Moreover, ISKNV entry is dependent on dynamin and the microtubule cytoskeleton. Cofraction analysis of ISKNV and caveolin-1 showed that ISKNV colocates with caveolin-1 during virus infection. These results indicate that ISKNV entry into MFF-1 cells proceeds via classical caveola-mediated endocytosis and is dependent on the microtubules that serve as tracks along which motile cavicles may move via a caveola-caveosome-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway. As a fish iridovirus, ISKNV entry into MFF-1 cells is different from the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of frog virus 3 entry into mammalian cells (BHK-21) at 28°C, which has been recognized as a model for iridoviruses. Thus, our work may help further the understanding of the initial steps of iridovirus infection. PMID:22171272

  20. Effect of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α gene silencing on mouse gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration

    PubMed Central

    SUN, ZHONGWEI; MENG, YAN; LIU, GUOQIN; JIANG, YONGSHENG; MENG, QINGHUA; HU, SANYUAN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) gene co-silencing in mouse gastric cancer (GC) cells. Respectively, three pairs of liposome-encapsulated IL-1β and TNFα small interfering RNA (siRNA) were transfected into the mouse GC cell line MFC. The most effective siRNA, as identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, was used for co-suppression of IL-1β and TNFα genes. The activities of cell proliferation, colony formation and migration were determined by the Cell Counting Kit 8 method, colony formation assay and Transwell assay, respectively. Protein array analysis was performed to identify the differentially expressed factors. The possible signaling pathways of the various factors targeting the genes were identified by pathway enrichment analysis using KOBAS 2.0. siRNA1 and siRNAc were the most effective interference sequences for IL-1β and TNFα, respectively. Following co-transfection of siRNA1 and siRNAc, the expression of IL-1β and TNFα was inhibited at the mRNA and protein levels, and the cell proliferation, colony forming and migration abilities were reduced (P<0.05). The expression of inflammatory factors, including chemokine ligand 5, cyclooxygenase-2, IL-6, transforming growth factor β, IL-17A, matrix metallopeptidase 9 and stromal cell-derived factor 1α were also inhibited (P<0.05). These factors are mainly involved in the rheumatoid arthritis pathway, the intestinal immune network for IgA production, the TNF signaling pathway and the inflammatory bowel disease pathway. IL-1β and TNFα gene silencing inhibits the proliferation and migration of MFC. The mechanisms may involve multiple inflammatory factors that participate in the signaling pathways of tumor tissue inflammation, the immune network and TNF. PMID:27073517

  1. Apoptosis, necrosis and necroptosis: cell death regulation in the intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Günther, Claudia; Neumann, Helmut; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph

    2013-07-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are organised as a single cell layer which covers the intestine. Their primary task is to absorb nutrients present in the intestinal lumen. However, IEC also play an important role in the immune defence of our body by building a barrier that separates the bowel wall from potentially hazardous bacteria present in the gut lumen. The life cycle of IEC is determined by the time span in which cells migrate from their place of origin at the crypt base to the villus tip, from where they are shed into the lumen. Cell death in the intestinal epithelium has to be tightly regulated and irregularities might cause pathologies. Excessive cell death has been associated with chronic inflammation as seen in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. While until recently apoptosis was discussed as being essential for epithelial turnover and tissue homeostasis in the intestinal epithelium, recent data using gene deficient mice have challenged this concept. Moreover, an apoptosis-independent mode of programmed cell death, termed necroptosis, has been identified and described in the intestinal epithelium. The following article reviews previous studies on cell death regulation in IEC and a potential role of necroptosis for gut homeostasis. PMID:22689519

  2. Extracellular photosensitization reaction progress and effect on myocardial cell necrosis for arrhythmia treatment application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Emiyu; Takahashi, Mei; Ito, Arisa; Arai, Tsunenori

    2013-06-01

    We investigated detailed extracellular photosensitization reaction effect on rat myocardial cells and the photosensitization reaction progress in a well to study a new application of photodynamic therapy for arrhythmia therapy.

  3. (+)-Nootkatone inhibits tumor necrosis factor α/interferon γ-induced production of chemokines in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeon-Jae; Lee, Jin-Hwee; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2014-05-01

    Chemokines are important mediators of cell migration, and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) are well-known typical inflammatory chemokines involved in atopic dermatitis (AD). (+)-Nootkatone is the major component of Cyperus rotundus. (+)-Nootkatone has antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of (+)-nootkatone on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)/interferon γ (IFN-γ)-induced expression of Th2 chemokines in HaCaT cells. We found that (+)-nootkatone inhibited the TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced expression of TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 mRNA in HaCaT cells. It also significantly inhibited TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ). Furthermore, we showed that PKCζ and p38 MAPK contributed to the inhibition of TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 expression by blocking IκBα degradation in HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results suggest that (+)-nootkatone may suppress TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 expression in HaCaT cells by inhibiting of PKCζ and p38 MAPK signaling pathways that lead to activation of NF-κB. We propose that (+)-nootkatone may be a useful therapeutic candidate for inflammatory skin diseases such as AD. PMID:24704449

  4. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha stimulates invasiveness of T-cell hybridomas and cytotoxic T-cell clones by a pertussis toxin-insensitive mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    La Rivière, G; Klein Gebbinck, J W; Schipper, C A; Roos, E

    1992-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulated invasion by mouse T-cell hybridomas and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones into rat embryo fibroblast monolayers. The effect on these highly invasive cells was limited: invasion was stimulated maximally to 130% of controls. However, when cells were pretreated with pertussis toxin (PT), which inhibits invasion to +/- 20% of controls, a clearcut effect was observed: 400 U TNF-alpha per ml stimulated invasion usually two- to threefold, and sometimes even up to 10-fold. Therefore, experiments were done with PT-pretreated cells. Stimulation was dose dependent and maximal at 200-400 U TNF-alpha per ml. An anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody completely abolished TNF-alpha-induced invasion. The effect was maximal 30 min after addition of cells and TNF-alpha to the monolayer and then declined. TNF-alpha preincubation of T-cell hybridoma cells, but not of fibroblasts, had a similar stimulatory effect, which was also maximal after 30 min. This shows that TNF-alpha acts directly on the T-cell hybridoma cells. Invasive T-cell hybridomas colonize many tissues from the blood similarly as normal T cells. Our data thus suggest that TNF-alpha can stimulate migration of normal T lymphocytes into inflamed tissues and can promote metastasis of malignant T lymphomas. The signals involved are transmitted via a pertussis toxin-insensitive pathway. PMID:1551690

  5. Savinin, a lignan from Pterocarpus santalinus inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and T cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Cho, J Y; Park, J; Kim, P S; Yoo, E S; Baik, K U; Park, M H

    2001-02-01

    Two lignans were isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus by activity-guided fractionation and investigated for their biological properties and molecular mechanism of action. On the basis of their spectroscopic data, these compounds were identified as savinin (1) and calocedrin (2), dibenzyl butyrolactone-type lignan compounds having an alpha-arylidene gamma-lactone structure. These lignans significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and T cell proliferation elicited by concanavalin (Con A), without displaying cytotoxicity. The molecular inhibitory mechanism of compound 1 was confirmed to be mediated by the non-polar butyrolactone ring, according to a structure-relationship study with structurally related and unrelated compounds, such as arctigenin (a dibenzyl butyrolactone type lignan), eudesmin (a furofuran type lignan), isolariciresinol (a dibenzylbutane type lignan), and cynaropicrin (a sesquiterpene lactone). The results suggest that savinin may act as an active principle in the reported biological activities of P. santalinus, such as antiinflammatory effect, by mediation of the butyrolactone ring as a valuable pharmacophore. PMID:11217086

  6. Combined effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha and radiation in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma grown as radia spheroids.

    PubMed

    Van Moorselaar, R J; Schwachöfer, J H; Crooijmans, R P; Van Stratum, P; Debruyne, F M; Schalken, J A

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the antiproliferative effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF) and radiation on a recently described rat renal cell tumor line grown as multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS). Treatment commenced when the spheroids had reached a diameter of 250 microns. TNF was diluted in the tissue culture medium in different concentrations, ranging from 250-1000 ng/ml. TNF monotherapy had a dose-dependent inhibiting effect on spheroid growth. Single-dose irradiation with 2, 4 or 6 Gy also retarded spheroids significantly in their growth. In the combination treatment the highest dose of TNF (1000 ng/ml) was added 4 hours prior to radiation. TNF could not induce a potentiation of the radiation injury at 2 Gy. The combination with 4 Gy, however, had additive and the combination with 6 Gy synergistic antiproliferative effects; in these treatment regimens respectively 2 and 5 out of 24 spheroids were controlled, i.e. cured. These experiments suggest that TNF in combination with radiotherapy may be beneficial for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma or cancer in general. PMID:2285257

  7. Tumor Necrosis Factor α Regulates Endothelial Progenitor Cell Migration via CADM1 and NF-kB.

    PubMed

    Prisco, Anthony R; Hoffmann, Brian R; Kaczorowski, Catherine C; McDermott-Roe, Chris; Stodola, Timothy J; Exner, Eric C; Greene, Andrew S

    2016-07-01

    Shortly after the discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in 1997, many clinical trials were conducted using EPCs as a cellular based therapy with the goal of restoring damaged organ function by inducing growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Results were disappointing, largely because the cellular and molecular mechanisms of EPC-induced angiogenesis were not clearly understood. Following injection, EPCs must migrate to the target tissue and engraft prior to induction of angiogenesis. In this study EPC migration was investigated in response to tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, to test the hypothesis that organ damage observed in ischemic diseases induces an inflammatory signal that is important for EPC homing. In this study, EPC migration and incorporation were modeled in vitro using a coculture assay where TNFα treated EPCs were tracked while migrating toward vessel-like structures. It was found that TNFα treatment of EPCs increased migration and incorporation into vessel-like structures. Using a combination of genomic and proteomic approaches, NF-kB mediated upregulation of CADM1 was identified as a mechanism of TNFα induced migration. Inhibition of NF-kB or CADM1 significantly decreased migration of EPCs in vitro suggesting a role for TNFα signaling in EPC homing during tissue repair. Stem Cells 2016;34:1922-1933. PMID:26867147

  8. Valproic Acid Limits Pancreatic Recovery after Pancreatitis by Inhibiting Histone Deacetylases and Preventing Acinar Redifferentiation Programs.

    PubMed

    Eisses, John F; Criscimanna, Angela; Dionise, Zachary R; Orabi, Abrahim I; Javed, Tanveer A; Sarwar, Sheharyar; Jin, Shunqian; Zhou, Lili; Singh, Sucha; Poddar, Minakshi; Davis, Amy W; Tosun, Akif Burak; Ozolek, John A; Lowe, Mark E; Monga, Satdarshan P; Rohde, Gustavo K; Esni, Farzad; Husain, Sohail Z

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms by which drugs induce pancreatitis are unknown. A definite cause of pancreatitis is due to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA). On the basis of three crucial observations-that VPA inhibits histone deacetylases (HDACs), HDACs mediate pancreas development, and aspects of pancreas development are recapitulated during recovery of the pancreas after injury-we hypothesized that VPA does not cause injury on its own, but it predisposes patients to pancreatitis by inhibiting HDACs and provoking an imbalance in pancreatic recovery. In an experimental model of pancreatic injury, we found that VPA delayed recovery of the pancreas and reduced acinar cell proliferation. In addition, pancreatic expression of class I HDACs (which are the primary VPA targets) increased in the midphase of pancreatic recovery. VPA administration inhibited pancreatic HDAC activity and led to the persistence of acinar-to-ductal metaplastic complexes, with prolonged Sox9 expression and sustained β-catenin nuclear activation, findings that characterize a delay in regenerative reprogramming. These effects were not observed with valpromide, an analog of VPA that lacks HDAC inhibition. This is the first report, to our knowledge, that VPA shifts the balance toward pancreatic injury and pancreatitis through HDAC inhibition. The work also identifies a new paradigm for therapies that could exploit epigenetic reprogramming to enhance pancreatic recovery and disorders of pancreatic injury. PMID:26476347

  9. Effect of UV irradiation on the apoptosis and necrosis of Jurkat cells using UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Shunko A.; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu; Morita, Akimichi; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2009-02-01

    Phototherapy is a very effective method for treating most of the incurable skin diseases. A fluorescent light bulb is used as a conventional UV light source for this type of therapy. However, infrared radiation from the light source sometimes causes serious problems on patient's health. In addition, the normal part of the skin is irradiated when a large fluorescent light bulb is used. Moreover, a conventional UV irradiation system is heavy and has a short lifetime and a high electrical power consumption. Therefore, a new UV light source for solving the problems of phototherapy is required. To realize low-power-consumption, lightweight and long-lifetime systems, group III nitride-based UV-A1 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were investigated. We examined the UV LED irradiation of Jurkat cell, which is a tumor cell and more sensitive to UV light than a healthy cell. The numbers of apoptotic and necrotic cells were confirmed to be the same using a UV LED and a conventional lamp system. The UV LED showed the possibility of realizing a new UV light source for phototherapy.

  10. Novel Analogue of Colchicine Induces Selective Pro-Death Autophagy and Necrosis in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Larocque, Kristen; Ovadje, Pamela; Djurdjevic, Sinisa; Mehdi, Mariam; Green, James; Pandey, Siyaram

    2014-01-01

    Colchicine, a natural product of Colchicum autumnae currently used for gout treatment, is a tubulin targeting compound which inhibits microtubule formation by targeting fast dividing cells. This tubulin-targeting property has lead researchers to investigate the potential of colchicine and analogs as possible cancer therapies. One major study conducted on an analogue of allocolchicine, ZD 6126, was halted in phase 2 clinical trials due to severe cardio-toxicity associated with treatment. This study involves the development and testing of novel allocolchicine analogues that hold non-toxic anti-cancer properties. Currently we have synthesized and evaluated the anti-cancer activities of two analogues; N-acetyl-O-methylcolchinol (NSC 51046 or NCME), which is structurally similar to ZD 6126, and (S)-3,8,9,10-tetramethoxyallocolchicine (Green 1), which is a novel derivative of allocolchicine that is isomeric in the A ring. NSC 51046 was found to be non-selective as it induced apoptosis in both BxPC-3 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells and in normal human fibroblasts. Interestingly, we found that Green 1 was able to modestly induce pro-death autophagy in these pancreatic cancer cells and E6-1 leukemia cells but not in normal human fibroblasts. Unlike colchicine and NSC 51046, Green 1 does not appear to affect tubulin polymerization indicating that it has a different molecular target. Green 1 also caused increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria isolated from pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, in vivo studies revealed that Green 1 was well tolerated in mice. Our findings suggest that a small change in the structure of colchicine has apparently changed the mechanism of action and lead to improved selectivity. This may lead to better selective treatments in cancer therapy. PMID:24466327

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent TRPC1 expression in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Paria, Biman C; Malik, Asrar B; Kwiatek, Angela M; Rahman, Arshad; May, Michael J; Ghosh, Sankar; Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy

    2003-09-26

    We investigated the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in activating the store-operated Ca2+ channels in endothelial cells via the expression of transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) isoforms. We observed that TNF-alpha exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells resulted in TRPC1 mRNA and protein expression, whereas it had no effect on TRPC3, TRPC4, or TRPC5 expression. The TRPC1 expression was associated with increased Ca2+ influx after intracellular Ca2+ store depletion with either thrombin or thapsigargin. We cloned the 5'-regulatory region of the human TRPC1 (hTRPC1) gene which contained a TATA box and CCAAT sequence close to the transcription initiation site. We also identified four nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-binding sites in the 5'-regulatory region. To address the contribution of NF-kappaB in the mechanism of TRPC1 expression, we determined the effects of TNF-alpha on expression of the reporter luciferase after transfection of hTRPC1 promoter-luciferase (hTRPC1-Pro-Luc) construct in the human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line. Reporter activity increased >4-fold at 4 h after TNF-alpha challenge. TNF-alpha-induced increase in reporter activity was markedly reduced by co-expression of either kinase-defective IKKbeta kinase mutant or non-phosphorylatable IkappaB mutant. Treatment with NEMO-binding domain peptide, which prevents NF-kappaB activation by selectively inhibiting IKKgamma interaction with IKK complex, also blocked the TNF-alpha-induced TRPC1 expression. Thus, TNF-alpha induces TRPC1 expression through an NF-kappaB-dependent pathway in endothelial cells, which can trigger augmented Ca2+ entry following Ca2+ store depletion. The augmented Ca2+ entry secondary to TRPC1 expression may be an important mechanism of endothelial injury induced by TNF-alpha. PMID:12855710

  12. Epidermal growth factor attenuates tubular necrosis following mercuric chloride damage by regeneration of indigenous, not bone marrow-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Alison, Malcolm R; Goodlad, Robert A; Otto, William R; Jeffery, Rosemary; Cook, H Terence; Wright, Nicholas A; Poulsom, Richard

    2015-01-01

    To assess effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and pegylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (P-GCSF; pegfilgrastim) administration on the cellular origin of renal tubular epithelium regenerating after acute kidney injury initiated by mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Female mice were irradiated and male whole bone marrow (BM) was transplanted into them. Six weeks later recipient mice were assigned to one of eight groups: control, P-GCSF+, EGF+, P-GCSF+EGF+, HgCl2, HgCl2+P-GCSF+, HgCl2+EGF+ and HgCl2+P-GCSF+EGF+. Following HgCl2, injection tubular injury scores increased and serum urea nitrogen levels reached uraemia after 3 days, but EGF-treated groups were resistant to this acute kidney injury. A four-in-one analytical technique for identification of cellular origin, tubular phenotype, basement membrane and S-phase status revealed that BM contributed 1% of proximal tubular epithelium in undamaged kidneys and 3% after HgCl2 damage, with no effects of exogenous EGF or P-GCSF. Only 0.5% proximal tubular cells were seen in S-phase in the undamaged group kidneys; this increased to 7–8% after HgCl2 damage and to 15% after addition of EGF. Most of the regenerating tubular epithelium originated from the indigenous pool. BM contributed up to 6.6% of the proximal tubular cells in S-phase after HgCl2 damage, but only to 3.3% after additional EGF. EGF administration attenuated tubular necrosis following HgCl2 damage, and the major cause of this protective effect was division of indigenous cells, whereas BM-derived cells were less responsive. P-GCSF did not influence damage or regeneration. PMID:25389045

  13. Evidence that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) inhibits angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial cell apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pei-Lin; Easton, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its related ligands TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas ligand (FasL) play roles in the regulation of vascular responses, but their effect on the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is unclear. Therefore, we have examined the effects of these ligands on angiogenesis modeled with primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). To examine angiogenesis in the context of the central nervous system, we have also modeled cerebral angiogenesis with the human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Parameters studied were bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and cell number (MTT) assay (to assess endothelial proliferation), scratch assay (migration) and networks on Matrigel (tube formation). In our hands, neither TRAIL nor FasL (1, 10, and 100 ng/ml) had an effect on parameters of angiogenesis in the HUVEC model. In hCMEC/D3 cells by contrast, TRAIL inhibited all parameters (10-100 ng/ml, 24 h). This was due to apoptosis, since its action was blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVADfmk (5 x 10{sup -5} mol/l) and TRAIL increased caspase-3 activity 1 h after application. However FasL (100 ng/ml) increased BrdU uptake without other effects. We conclude that TRAIL has different effects on in vitro angiogenesis depending on which model is used, but that FasL is generally ineffective when applied in vitro. The data suggest that TRAIL primarily influences angiogenesis by the induction of vascular endothelial apoptosis, leading to vessel regression.

  14. The role of Gr-1+ cells and tumour necrosis factor-α signalling during Clostridium difficile colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Andrew J; Higdon, Kathryn E; Muraglia, Ryan; Erb-Downward, John R; Falkowski, Nicole R; McDonald, Roderick A; Young, Vincent B; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2015-01-01

    The host response to Clostridium difficile infection in antibiotic-treated mice is characterized by robust recruitment of Gr-1+ cells, increased expression of inflammatory cytokines including tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the development of severe epithelial damage. To investigate the role of Gr-1+ cells and TNF-α during C. difficile colitis, we treated infected mice with monoclonal antibodies against Gr-1 or TNF-α. Mice were challenged with vegetative cells of C. difficile strain VPI 10463 following treatment with the third-generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone treatment alone was associated with significant changes in cytokine expression within the colonic mucosa but not overt inflammatory histopathological changes. In comparison, C. difficile infection following ceftriaxone treatment was associated with increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including Cxcl1, Cxcl2, Il1b, Il17f and Tnfa, as well as robust recruitment of Ly6CMid Gr-1High neutrophils and Ly6CHigh Gr-1Mid monocytes and the development of severe colonic histopathology. Anti-Gr-1 antibody treatment resulted in effective depletion of both Ly6CMid Gr-1High neutrophils and Ly6CHigh Gr-1Mid monocytes: however, we observed no protection from the development of severe pathology or reduction in expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines Il1b, Il6, Il33 and Tnfa following anti-Gr-1 treatment. By contrast, anti-TNF-α treatment did not affect Gr-1+ cell recruitment, but was associated with increased expression of Il6 and Il1b. Additionally, Ffar2, Ffar3, Tslp, Tff and Ang4 expression was significantly reduced in anti-TNF-α-treated animals, in association with marked intestinal histopathology. These studies raise the possibility that TNF-α may play a role in restraining inflammation and protecting the epithelium during C. difficile infection. PMID:25399934

  15. Low Concentrations of Uncouplers of Oxidative Phosphorylation Prevent Inflammatory Activation of Endothelial Cells by Tumor Necrosis Factor.

    PubMed

    Romaschenko, V P; Zinovkin, R A; Galkin, I I; Zakharova, V V; Panteleeva, A A; Tokarchuk, A V; Lyamzaev, K G; Pletjushkina, O Yu; Chernyak, B V; Popova, E N

    2015-05-01

    In endothelial cells, mitochondria play an important regulatory role in physiology as well as in pathophysiology related to excessive inflammation. We have studied the effect of low doses of mitochondrial uncouplers on inflammatory activation of endothelial cells using the classic uncouplers 2,4-dinitrophenol and 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2-trifluoromethylbenzimidazole, as well as the mitochondria-targeted cationic uncoupler dodecyltriphenylphosphonium (C12TPP). All of these uncouplers suppressed the expression of E-selectin, adhesion molecules ICAM1 and VCAM1, as well as the adhesion of neutrophils to endothelium induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The antiinflammatory action of the uncouplers was at least partially mediated by the inhibition of NFκB activation due to a decrease in phosphorylation of the inhibitory subunit IκBα. The dynamic concentration range for the inhibition of ICAM1 expression by C12TPP was three orders of magnitude higher compared to the classic uncouplers. Probably, the decrease in membrane potential inhibited the accumulation of penetrating cations into mitochondria, thus lowering the uncoupling activity and preventing further loss of mitochondrial potential. Membrane potential recovery after the removal of the uncouplers did not abolish its antiinflammatory action. Thus, mild uncoupling could induce TNF resistance in endothelial cells. We found no significant stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis or autophagy by the uncouplers. However, we observed a decrease in the relative amount of fragmented mitochondria. The latter may significantly change the signaling properties of mitochondria. Earlier we showed that both classic and mitochondria-targeted antioxidants inhibited the TNF-induced NFκB-dependent activation of endothelium. The present data suggest that the antiinflammatory effect of mild uncoupling is related to its antioxidant action. PMID:26071781

  16. Reoxygenation enhances tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced degradation of the extracellular matrix produced by chondrogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Markway, B D; Cho, H; Anderson, D E; Holden, P; Ravi, V; Little, C B; Johnstone, B

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered as a potential source for cell-based therapies in arthritic diseases for both their chondrogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, we examined how MSC-based neocartilage responds to tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) compared to articular chondrocyte (AC)-based neocartilage. Since oxygen tension is altered in arthritic joints, we also examined how increased oxygen tension influences this process. Monolayer-expanded healthy human ACs and bone marrow MSCs were cultured in chondrogenic medium in three-dimensional culture under hypoxia. They were then exposed to TNF-α under hypoxic or increased oxygen tension. We found no inherent anti-inflammatory potential of MSC-derived neocartilage as it pertains to the enzymes studied here: more degradative enzymes were upregulated by TNF-α in MSCs than in ACs, regardless of the oxygen tension. MSCs were also more sensitive to reoxygenation during TNF-α exposure, as indicated by increased proteoglycan loss, increased aggrecanase-generated metabolites, and further upregulation of the major aggrecanases, ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5. There was also evidence of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated aggrecan interglobular domain cleavage and type II collagen loss in response to TNF-α in both MSCs and ACs, but more MMPs were further upregulated by reoxygenation in MSCs than in ACs. Our study provides further evidence that consideration of oxygen tension is essential for studying cartilage degradation; for example, neocartilage produced from MSCs may be more sensitive to the negative effects of repeated hypoxia/reoxygenation events than AC-derived neocartilage. Consideration of the differences in responses may be important for cell-based therapies and selection of adjunctive chondroprotective agents. PMID:27341301

  17. Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha/cachectin (TNF alpha) in sera from patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Malavé, I; Perdomo, Y; Escalona, E; Rodriguez, E; Anchustegui, M; Malavé, H; Arends, T

    1993-01-01

    Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha/cachectin (TNF alpha) were studied in a group of adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), which include 31 patients with homozygous SS hemoglobinopathy and 10 patients bearing double heterozygous SC hemoglobinopathy and in their matched normal controls. All patients tested did not show any form of crisis for at least 4 weeks prior to the extraction of the sample. The amount of TNF alpha in serum was quantitated by means of an immunoenzymatic assay with a lower limit of detection of 25 pg/ml. The percentage of sera with detectable levels of TNF alpha was significantly increased in SCD patients as compared with the normal controls. Mean TNF alpha values in individuals with detectable levels of the cytokine were also significantly higher in the whole group of SCD patients and in patients bearing either SS or SC hemoglobinopathies than in the control group. An inverse correlation was observed between the percentages of Hb F and the levels of TNF alpha found in the sera from the patients. PMID:8140855

  18. In vitro production of tumour necrosis factor and prostaglandin E2 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Cadranel, J; Philippe, C; Perez, J; Milleron, B; Akoun, G; Ardaillou, R; Baud, L

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from tuberculosis patients and healthy controls. PBMC from tuberculosis patients generated constitutively more TNF-alpha than did control PBMC. This production was significantly higher for patients with high-grade fever and cachexia. The increase of TNF-alpha production by PBMC from tuberculosis patients was associated with a comparatively weaker elevation of PGE2 synthesis which did not parallel fever or weight loss. In vitro treatment of control PBMC with the tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) promoted an increased TNF-alpha production which was similar to that of untreated PBMC from tuberculosis patients. Thus, the increased TNF-alpha production in tuberculosis could be explained by the in vivo exposure of PBMC to mycobacterial antigens. In contrast, the concentration of PGE2 was weaker in the medium of untreated PBMC from tuberculosis patients than in the medium of PPD-treated control PBMC, suggesting that PGE2 synthesis by PBMC was limited in tuberculosis by unidentified factors. PMID:2387094

  19. Melatonin reversed tumor necrosis factor-alpha-inhibited osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells by stabilizing SMAD1 protein.

    PubMed

    Lian, Chengjie; Wu, Zizhao; Gao, Bo; Peng, Yan; Liang, Anjing; Xu, Caixia; Liu, Lei; Qiu, Xianjian; Huang, Junjun; Zhou, Hang; Cai, Yifeng; Su, Peiqiang; Huang, Dongsheng

    2016-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) plays a pivotal role in inflammation-related osteoporosis through the promotion of bone resorption and suppression of bone formation. Numerous drugs have been produced to treat osteoporosis by inhibiting bone resorption, but they offer few benefits to bone formation, which is what is needed by patients with severe bone loss. Melatonin, which can exert both anti-inflammatory and pro-osteogenic effects, shows promise in overcoming TNFα-inhibited osteogenesis and deserves further research. This study demonstrated that melatonin rescued TNFα-inhibited osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells and that the interactions between SMURF1 and SMAD1 mediated the crosstalk between melatonin signaling and TNFα signaling. Additionally, melatonin treatment was found to downregulate TNFα-induced SMURF1 expression and then decrease SMURF1-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of SMAD1 protein, leading to steady bone morphogenetic protein-SMAD1 signaling activity and restoration of TNFα-impaired osteogenesis. Thus, melatonin has prospects for treating osteoporosis caused by inflammatory factors due to its multifaceted functions on regulation of bone formation, bone resorption, and inflammation. Further studies will focus on unveiling the specific mechanisms by which melatonin downregulates SMURF1 expression and confirming the clinical therapeutic value of melatonin in the prevention and therapy of bone loss associated with inflammation. PMID:27265199

  20. Tumour necrosis factor α enhances CCL2 and ICAM-1 expression in peripheral nerve microvascular endoneurial endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Langert, Kelly A.; Von Zee, Cynthia L.; Stubbs, Evan B.

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment and trafficking of autoreactive leucocytes across the BNB (blood–nerve barrier) is an early pathological insult in GBS (Guillain-Barré syndrome), an aggressive autoimmune disorder of the PNS (peripheral nervous system). Whereas the aetiology and pathogenesis of GBS remain unclear, pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α), are reported to be elevated early in the course of GBS and may initiate nerve injury by activating the BNB. Previously, we reported that disrupting leucocyte trafficking in vivo therapeutically attenuates the course of an established animal model of GBS. Here, PNMECs (peripheral nerve microvascular endothelial cells) that form the BNB were harvested from rat sciatic nerves, immortalized by SV40 (simian virus 40) large T antigen transduction and subsequently challenged with TNFα. Relative changes in CCL2 (chemokine ligand 2) and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) expression were determined. We report that TNFα elicits marked dose- and time-dependent increases in CCL2 and ICAM-1 mRNA and protein content and promotes secretion of functional CCL2 from immortalized and primary PNMEC cultures. TNFα-mediated secretion of CCL2 promotes, in vitro, the transendothelial migration of CCR2-expressing THP-1 monocytes. Increased CCL2 and ICAM-1 expression in response to TNFα may facilitate recruitment and trafficking of autoreactive leucocytes across the BNB in autoimmune disorders, including GBS. PMID:23293927

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: a consequence of immunosuppression resulting from inhibiting tumour necrosis factor (TNF)?

    PubMed

    Silverton, Alexandra; Raad, Roy A; Katz, Leah; Downey, Andrea; Muggia, Franco M

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists may lead to enhanced susceptibility to certain malignancies. In particular, an association is seen emerging between TNF antagonists and development of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin (in association with psoriasis), the oral cavity, and in the anogenital areas (possibly related to prior human papilloma virus infection). We present here a case of a 53-year old woman with a history of severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA), most recently treated with the TNF antagonist etanercept plus methotrexate, presented to our service after several months of increasing left pelvis and buttock pain. Evaluation with a computerised tomography (CT)-directed biopsy of a pelvic side wall mass revealed a metastatic SCC. On a fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) an additional area of uptake was identified in the left posterior rectum corresponding to a 1 cm nodule palpable on digital exam. Colonoscopic biopsy revealed a basaloid SCC of the rectum as the likely primary site. Immunosuppression following TNF antagonist therapy may have given arise to this unrestrained neoplastic growth. It thereby underscores the need for an initial baseline study of risk factors and identification of patients who are at higher risk for development of a malignancy, in order to achieve a diagnosis at an early stage. PMID:27350791

  2. Suppression of Kupffer cell function prevents cadmium induced hepatocellular necrosis in the male Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Sauer, J M; Waalkes, M P; Hooser, S B; Kuester, R K; McQueen, C A; Sipes, I G

    1997-08-15

    Exposure of humans to toxic metals and metalloids is a major environmental problem. Many metals, such as cadmium, can be hepatotoxic. However, the mechanisms by which metals cause acute hepatic injury are in many cases unknown. Previous reports suggest a major role for inflammation in acute cadmium induced hepatotoxicity. In initial experiments we found that a non-hepatotoxic dose of cadmium chloride (CdCl2; 2.0 mg/kg, i.v.) markedly increased the clearance rate of colloidal carbon from the blood, which is indicative of enhanced phagocytic activity by Kupffer cells (resident hepatic macrophages). Thus. the objective these studies was to determine the involvement of Kupffer cells in cadmium induced liver injury by inhibiting their function with gadolinium chloride (GdCl3). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered GdCl3 (10 mg/kg, i.v.) followed 24 h later by a single dose of CdCl2 (3.0 and 4.0 mg/kg, i.v.). Twenty four hours after CdCl2 administration animals were killed and the degree of liver toxicity was assessed using plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as light microscopy. Cadmium chloride administration produced multifocal hepatocellular necrosis and increased plasma ALT activity. Pretreatment with GdCl3 significantly reduced both the morphological changes and hepatic ALT release caused by CdCl2. However, the protection was specific to the liver, and did not alter CdCl2 induced testicular injury, as determined by histopathological damage. In many cases, the inducible cadmium-binding protein, metallothionein (MT) is often an essential aspect of the acquisition of cadmium tolerance in the liver. Although cadmium caused a dramatic induction of hepatic MT (32-fold), GdCl3 caused only a minor increase (2-fold). Combined CdCl2 and GdCl3 treatment did not induce levels to an extent greater than CdCl2 alone. As expected, GdCl3 also caused a slight increase in the amount of cadmium associated with the liver. In cultured hepatocytes isolated from GdCl3

  3. Avascular Necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

  4. (+)-Nootkatone inhibits tumor necrosis factor α/interferon γ-induced production of chemokines in HaCaT cells

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hyeon-Jae; Lee, Jin-Hwee; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • (+)-Nootkatone inhibits TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC and MDC expression in HaCaT cells. • PKCζ, p38 MAPK, or NF-κB mediate TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC and MDC expression. • (+)-Nootkatone inhibits TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced activation of PKCζ, p38 MAPK, or NF-κB. • (+)-Nootkatone suppresses chemokine expression by inhibiting of PKCζ and p38 pathways. - Abstract: Chemokines are important mediators of cell migration, and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) are well-known typical inflammatory chemokines involved in atopic dermatitis (AD). (+)-Nootkatone is the major component of Cyperus rotundus. (+)-Nootkatone has antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of (+)-nootkatone on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)/interferon γ (IFN-γ)-induced expression of Th2 chemokines in HaCaT cells. We found that (+)-nootkatone inhibited the TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced expression of TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 mRNA in HaCaT cells. It also significantly inhibited TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ). Furthermore, we showed that PKCζ and p38 MAPK contributed to the inhibition of TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 expression by blocking IκBα degradation in HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results suggest that (+)-nootkatone may suppress TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 expression in HaCaT cells by inhibiting of PKCζ and p38 MAPK signaling pathways that lead to activation of NF-κB. We propose that (+)-nootkatone may be a useful therapeutic candidate for inflammatory skin diseases such as AD.

  5. Intratumoral application of standardized mistletoe extracts down regulates tumor weight via decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and necrosis in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Beuth, J; Ko, H L; Schneider, H; Tawadros, S; Kasper, H U; Zimst, H; Schierholz, J M

    2006-01-01

    The cytotoxic in vitro activity of standardized mistletoe extracts (ME) was examined by established assays towards the human ductal breast carcinoma cell line BT474. A dose-dependent (optimum 25 mg/mL medium) and significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced cytotoxic activity towards the BT474 cells was demonstrated. In vivo experiments on the antitumor activity of ME-A and ME-M were performed in a BALB/c-mouse / BT474 ductal breast carcinoma model. ME-A and ME-M were intratumorally administered according to an application schedule which was found to be optimal concerning dosage and time of administration. Standardized intratumoral application of ME-A and ME-M induced a significantly (p < 0.05) decreased tumor weight in experimental mice. Histological investigations were performed comprising analysis of mitosis and proliferation rates (Ki67 expression), as well as necrosis and apoptosis induction (ssDNA detection). As compared to tumors of control mice with intratumoral phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) injections, tumors of the ME-A and ME-M treated groups showed a decreased cell proliferation rate, as well as an increased cell necrosis and apoptosis rate. Standardized mistletoe extracts, interfering with defined tumor cell functions, e.g., proliferation, necrosis and apoptosis, may have an impact on local cancer treatment. PMID:17201168

  6. Gliotoxin causes apoptosis and necrosis of rat Kupffer cells in vitro and in vivo in the absence of oxidative stress: Exacerbation by caspase and serine protease inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, Kristin; Stolz, Donna B.; Nalesnik, Michael; Watkins, Simon C.; Kamath, Ravindra; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims A potential application of gliotoxin therapy for liver fibrosis was suggested by its apoptotic effect on fibrogenic activated stellate cells. We investigated if gliotoxin exerts similar effects on hepatic macrophages Kupffer cells. Methods Effects of gliotoxin on Kupffer cells isolated from the normal liver and in vivo following its administration to CCl4–induced cirrhotic rats were studied. Results Gliotoxin caused apoptosis of cultured Kupffer cells, the effect being apparent at 0.3 μM concentration within 1 hour; longer incubation caused necrosis. This effect was associated with mitochondroial cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation and ATP depletion. Interestingly, inhibition of caspase-3 and serine proteases accelerated and augmented gliotoxin-induced cell death via necrosis. Gliotoxin stimulated nuclear translocation of NFκB, and phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2 and JNK MAP kinases, but these signaling molecules were not involved in gliotoxin-induced death of Kupffer cells. In vivo administration of gliotoxin to cirrhotic rats caused apoptosis of Kupffer cells, stellate cells and hepatocytes. In control rats, the effect was minimal on the nonparenchymal cells and not apparent on hepatocytes. Conclusions In the fibrotic liver, gliotoxin nonspecifically causes death of hepatic cell types. Modification of gliotoxin molecule may be necessary for selective targeting and elimination of activated stellate cells. PMID:17466404

  7. Skin sensitization induced Langerhans' cell mobilization: variable requirements for tumour necrosis factor-α.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Laura H; Roberts, Ruth A; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J; Metryka, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Upon antigen/allergen recognition, epidermal Langerhans' cells (LC) are mobilized and migrate to the local lymph node where they play a major role in initiating or regulating immune responses. It had been proposed that all chemical allergens induce LC migration via common cytokine signals delivered by TNF-α and IL-1β. Here the dependence of LC migration on TNF-α following treatment of mice with various chemical allergens has been investigated. It was found that under standard conditions the allergens oxazolone, paraphenylene diamine, and trimellitic anhydride, in addition to the skin irritant sodium lauryl sulfate, were unable to trigger LC mobilization in the absence of TNF-α signalling. In contrast, two members of the dinitrohalobenezene family (2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene [DNCB] and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene [DNFB]) promoted LC migration independently of TNF-R2 (the sole TNF-α receptor expressed by LC) and TNF-α although the presence of IL-1β was still required. However, increasing doses of oxazolone overcame the requirement of TNF-α for LC mobilization, whereas lower doses of DNCB were still able to induce LC migration in a TNF-α-independent manner. These novel findings demonstrate unexpected heterogeneity among chemical allergens and furthermore that LC can be induced to migrate from the epidermis via different mechanisms that are either dependent or independent of TNF-α. Although the exact mechanisms with regard to the signals that activate LC have yet to be elucidated, these differences may translate into functional speciation that will likely impact on the extent and quality of allergic sensitization. PMID:25039377

  8. Skin sensitization induced Langerhans’ cell mobilization: variable requirements for tumour necrosis factor-α

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Laura H; Roberts, Ruth A; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J; Metryka, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Upon antigen/allergen recognition, epidermal Langerhans’ cells (LC) are mobilized and migrate to the local lymph node where they play a major role in initiating or regulating immune responses. It had been proposed that all chemical allergens induce LC migration via common cytokine signals delivered by TNF-α and IL-1β. Here the dependence of LC migration on TNF-α following treatment of mice with various chemical allergens has been investigated. It was found that under standard conditions the allergens oxazolone, paraphenylene diamine, and trimellitic anhydride, in addition to the skin irritant sodium lauryl sulfate, were unable to trigger LC mobilization in the absence of TNF-α signalling. In contrast, two members of the dinitrohalobenezene family (2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene [DNCB] and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene [DNFB]) promoted LC migration independently of TNF-R2 (the sole TNF-α receptor expressed by LC) and TNF-α although the presence of IL-1β was still required. However, increasing doses of oxazolone overcame the requirement of TNF-α for LC mobilization, whereas lower doses of DNCB were still able to induce LC migration in a TNF-α-independent manner. These novel findings demonstrate unexpected heterogeneity among chemical allergens and furthermore that LC can be induced to migrate from the epidermis via different mechanisms that are either dependent or independent of TNF-α. Although the exact mechanisms with regard to the signals that activate LC have yet to be elucidated, these differences may translate into functional speciation that will likely impact on the extent and quality of allergic sensitization. PMID:25039377

  9. Infliximab therapy balances regulatory T cells, tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) expression and soluble TNFR2 in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Verwoerd, A; Hijdra, D; Vorselaars, A D M; Crommelin, H A; van Moorsel, C H M; Grutters, J C; Claessen, A M E

    2016-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology that most commonly affects the lungs. Although elevated levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs ) have been reported, the extent to which they play a role in sarcoidosis pathogenesis remains unclear. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is thought to be one of the driving forces behind granuloma formation, illustrated by the efficacy of infliximab in severe sarcoidosis. Tregs express TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2) highly. Here, we examined the influence of infliximab therapy on Tregs and (soluble) TNFR2 levels in sarcoidosis, and correlated these with response to therapy. We observed that relative frequencies of Tregs were significantly higher in patients (n = 54) compared to healthy controls (n = 26; median 6·73 versus 4·36%; P < 0·001) and decreased following therapy (4·95; P < 0·001). Baseline TNFR2 expression on Tregs was increased significantly in patients versus controls (99·4 versus 96·2%; P = 0·031), and also in responders to therapy versus non-responders (99·6 versus 97·3%; P = 0·012). Furthermore, baseline soluble TNFR2 (sTNFR2) was higher in responders than in non-responders (mean 174 versus 107 pg/ml; P = 0·015). After treatment, responders showed a significant reduction in sTNFR2 levels in peripheral blood (-44·7 pg/ml; P < 0·001), in contrast to non-responders (+3·59 pg/ml). Our results demonstrated that Treg frequencies and TNFR2 expression on Tregs are increased in sarcoidosis, followed by a decline during infliximab therapy, suggesting a pathophysiological role of this T cell subset. Interestingly, sTNFR2 levels at baseline differed significantly between responders and non-responders, making it a potential marker in predicting which patients might benefit from infliximab. PMID:27158798

  10. DNA polymorphisms and mutations of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) promoter in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH).

    PubMed

    Wu, W S; McClain, K L

    1997-10-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal proliferation of dendritic histiocytes expressing elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The cause of the increased cytokine levels is unknown, but DNA sequence changes in promoters could alter expression. The TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma promoter DNA sequences of 12 LCH patients were studied and compared with normal individuals by dideoxy fingerprinting and DNA sequencing. Functional consequences of polymorphic or mutated sequences were assessed by cloning altered and control promoter sequences into a luciferase reporter gene vector. Electrophoretic mobility shifts (EMSA) after binding of nuclear extracts from a macrophage cell line (U-937) by mutated promoters were compared with controls. Five of 12 LCH patients had alterations in the TNF-alpha promoter DNA sequence. None were found in the IFN-gamma gene promoter. Of the 5 with TNF-alpha DNA alterations, 2 were at position -308, which has been described as a G-A polymorphism associated with upregulation of TNF-alpha in some patients with infections or immune-mediated diseases. The polymorphism at -308 but not the other TNF-alpha promoter mutations caused a 3-fold to 7-fold increased production of the luciferase reporter gene. EMSA showed that the -308 mutant promoters bound fewer nuclear proteins than normals. Polymorphisms of the TNF-alpha promoter in LCH patients could increase the production of that cytokine. PMID:9355965

  11. Tumor Necrosis Factor Improves Vascularization in Osteogenic Grafts Engineered with Human Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Daphne L.; Kondragunta, Renu; Moore, Erika M.; Hung, Ben P.; Jia, Xiaofeng; Grayson, Warren L.

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune response following bone injury plays an important role in promoting cellular recruitment, revascularization, and other repair mechanisms. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) is a prominent pro-inflammatory cytokine in this cascade, and has been previously shown to improve bone formation and angiogenesis in a dose- and timing-dependent manner. This ability to positively impact both osteogenesis and vascular growth may benefit bone tissue engineering, as vasculature is essential to maintaining cell viability in large grafts after implantation. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous TNF on the induction of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) to engineer pre-vascularized osteogenic tissue in vitro with respect to dose, timing, and co-stimulation with other inflammatory mediators. We found that acute (2-day), low-dose exposure to TNF promoted vascularization, whereas higher doses and continuous exposure inhibited vascular growth. Co-stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), another key factor released following bone injury, increased vascular network formation synergistically with TNF. ASC-seeded grafts were then cultured within polycaprolactone-fibrin composite scaffolds and implanted in nude rats for 2 weeks, resulting in further tissue maturation and increased angiogenic ingrowth in TNF-treated grafts. VEGF-A expression levels were significantly higher in TNF-treated grafts immediately prior to implantation, indicating a long-term pro-angiogenic effect. These findings demonstrate that TNF has the potential to promote vasculogenesis in engineered osteogenic grafts both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, modulation and/or recapitulation of the immune response following bone injury may be a beneficial strategy for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25248109

  12. Antibodies against amino acids 1-15 of tumor necrosis factor block its binding to cell-surface receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Socher, S H; Riemen, M W; Martinez, D; Friedman, A; Tai, J; Quintero, J C; Garsky, V; Oliff, A

    1987-01-01

    Human tumor necrosis factor (hTNF) mediates a variety of biologic activities, which are dependent on the attachment of hTNF to cell-surface receptors. To identify regions of the hTNF protein involved in binding hTNF to its receptor, we prepared five synthetic peptides [hTNF-(1-15), hTNF-(1-31), hTNF-(65-79), hTNF-(98-111), and hTNF-(124-141)] and two hydroxylamine cleavage fragments [hTNF-(1-39) and hTNF-(40-157)] of hTNF. The hTNF-synthetic peptides and hTNF fragments were tested in hTNF receptor binding assays and in two biologic assays: cytolysis of tumor cells and suppression of lipoprotein lipase in adipocytes. Neither the synthetic peptides nor hTNF fragments were active agonists or antagonists in these assays. The synthetic peptides were also conjugated to thyroglobulin, and peptide-specific antisera were raised. All five peptide-thyroglobulin conjugates induced antibody responses to the immunizing peptide and to hTNF. Each antiserum was tested for antagonist activity in hTNF binding assays. Only antisera raised against hTNF-(1-15) or hTNF-(1-31) and antisera against whole hTNF blocked binding. IgGs purified from these three antisera also block hTNF-induced cytolysis and lipoprotein lipase suppression. We conclude that antibodies that recognize the N-terminus of hTNF block the attachment of hTNF to its cellular receptor and inhibit the biologic effects of hTNF. PMID:2827156

  13. Thermal inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosting, L.; Gould, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A plaque assay was used to follow the inactivation kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in cell culture media at various temperatures. Inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a visceral organ slurry was compared with that in culture media.

  14. Comparison of drug and cell-based delivery: engineered adult mesenchymal stem cells expressing soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II prevent arthritis in mouse and rat animal models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linda N; Wang, Gang; Hendricks, Kyle; Lee, Keunmyoung; Bohnlein, Ernst; Junker, Uwe; Mosca, Joseph D

    2013-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with unknown etiology where tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) plays a critical role. Etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (hsTNFR) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1, is used to treat RA based on the rationale that sTNFR binds TNFα and blocks TNFα-mediated inflammation. We compared hsTNFR protein delivery from genetically engineered human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with etanercept. Blocking TNFα-dependent intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on transduced hMSCs and inhibition of nitric oxide production from TNFα-treated bovine chondrocytes by conditioned culture media from transduced hMSCs demonstrated the functionality of the hsTNFR construction. Implanted hsTNFR-transduced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduced mouse serum circulating TNFα generated from either implanted TNFα-expressing cells or lipopolysaccharide induction more effectively than etanercept (TNFα, 100%; interleukin [IL]-1α, 90%; and IL-6, 60% within 6 hours), suggesting faster clearance of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-TNFα complex from the animals. In vivo efficacy of sTNFR-transduced MSCs was illustrated in two (immune-deficient and immune-competent) arthritic rodent models. In the antibody-induced arthritis BalbC/SCID mouse model, intramuscular injection of hsTNFR-transduced hMSCs reduced joint inflammation by 90% compared with untransduced hMSCs; in the collagen-induced arthritis Fischer rat model, both sTNFR-transduced rat MSCs and etanercept inhibited joint inflammation by 30%. In vitro chondrogenesis assays showed the ability of TNFα and IL1α, but not interferon γ, to inhibit hMSC differentiation to chondrocytes, illustrating an additional negative role for inflammatory cytokines in joint repair. The data support the utility of hMSCs as therapeutic gene delivery vehicles and their potential to be used in alleviating inflammation

  15. The coffee diterpene kahweol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Kim, Ji Young; Hwang, Yong Pil; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Hye Gwang . E-mail: hgjeong@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-12-15

    Endothelial cells produce adhesion molecules after being stimulated with various inflammatory cytokines. These adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of atherogenesis. Recent studies have highlighted the chemoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of kahweol, a coffee-specific diterpene. This study examined the effects of kahweol on the cytokine-induced monocyte/human endothelial cell interaction, which is a crucial early event in atherogenesis. Kahweol inhibited the adhesion of TNF{alpha}-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF{alpha}-induced protein and mRNA expression of the cell adhesion molecules, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Furthermore, kahweol inhibited the TNF{alpha}-induced JAK2-PI3K/Akt-NF-{kappa}B activation pathway in these cells. Overall, kahweol has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities, which occurs partly by down-regulating the pathway that affects the expression and interaction of the cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells.

  16. trans activation of the tumor necrosis factor alpha promoter by the human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax1 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, H; Shakhov, A N; Jongeneel, C V

    1992-01-01

    In a cotransfection assay, the human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax1 gene product specifically activated transcription from the mouse tumor necrosis factor alpha promoter. The activation patterns of 5' deletion mutants, artificial enhancer constructs, and point mutations in the promoter indicate that the major Tax1-responsive element is a site at position -655 which binds the NF-kappa B/rel and NF-GMa transcription factors. Images PMID:1527856

  17. Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 Released by Skin-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Critical for Inhibiting Th17 Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fang; Zhang, Lingyun; Liu, Zhaoyuan; Yan, Sha; Xu, Zhenyao; Bai, Jing; Zhu, Huiyuan; Lou, Fangzhou; Cai, Wei; Sun, Yang; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Hong; Wang, Honglin

    2016-03-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Th17 cell differentiation from naïve T cells can be induced in vitro by the cytokines transforming growth factor β1 and interleukin-6. However, it remains unclear whether other regulatory factors control the differentiation of Th17 cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising candidate for inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation and autoimmune diseases. Despite the fact that several molecules have been linked to the immunomodulatory function of MSCs, many other key MSC-secreted regulators that are involved in inhibiting Th17 cell polarization are ill-defined. In this study, we demonstrated that the intraperitoneal administration of skin-derived MSCs (S-MSCs) substantially ameliorated the development of EAE in mice. We found that the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a key mediator in the pathophysiology of MS and EAE, was capable of promoting Th17 cell differentiation. Moreover, under inflammatory conditions, we demonstrated that S-MSCs produced high amounts of soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNFR1), which binds TNF-α and antagonizes its function. Knockdown of sTNFR1 in S-MSCs decreased their inhibitory effect on Th17 cell differentiation ex vivo and in vivo. Thus, our data identified sTNFR1 and its target TNF-α as critical regulators for Th17 cell differentiation, suggesting a previously unrecognized mechanism for MSC therapy in Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:26819253

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor/bone morphogenetic protein-2 bone marrow combined modification of the mesenchymal stem cells to repair the avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Da-Ping; Zhao, De-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) combined with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) was used to repair avascular necrosis of the femoral head, which can maintain the osteogenic phenotype of seed cells, and effectively secrete VEGF and BMP-2, and effectively promote blood vessel regeneration and contribute to formation and revascularization of tissue engineered bone tissues. To observe the therapeutic effect on the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head by using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) modified by VEGF-165 and BMP-2 in vitro. The models were avascular necrosis of femoral head of rabbits on right leg. There groups were single core decompression group, core decompression + BMSCs group, core decompression + VEGF-165/BMP-2 transfect BMSCs group. Necrotic bone was cleared out under arthroscope. Arthroscopic observation demonstrated that necrotic bone was cleared out in each group, and fresh blood flowed out. Histomorphology determination showed that blood vessel number and new bone area in the repair region were significantly greater at various time points following transplantation in the core decompression + VEGF-165/BMP-2 transfect BMSCs group compared with single core decompression group and core decompression + BMSCs group (P < 0.05). These suggested that VEGF-165/BMP-2 gene transfection strengthened osteogenic effects of BMSCs, elevated number and quality of new bones and accelerated the repair of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. PMID:26629044

  19. Renal papillary necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Ruggenenti P, Cravedi P, Remuzzi G. Microvascular and macrovascular diseases of the kidney. In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, ...

  20. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Johanna A; Pietilä, Mika; Salonen, Riikka J; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V; Lehenkari, Petri

    2011-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-α exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-α exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-α exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-α exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-α exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity. PMID:21182837

  1. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, Johanna A.; Pietilae, Mika; Salonen, Riikka J.; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Lehenkari, Petri

    2011-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-{alpha} exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-{alpha} exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-{alpha} exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-{alpha} exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-{alpha} exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity.

  2. Enhancement of radiosensitivity by topoisomerase II inhibitor, amrubicin and amrubicinol, in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and kinetics of apoptosis and necrosis induction.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Sachiko; Hatashita, Masanori; Matsumoto, Hideki; Shioura, Hiroki; Kitai, Ryuhei; Kano, Eiichi

    2006-11-01

    The effects of amrubicin (AMR) and its active metabolite, amrubicinol (AMROH), on the sensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to ionizing radiation were investigated in vitro. Further, the kinetics of apoptosis and necrosis induction were also analyzed. The cytocidal effects of X-ray irradiation on A549 cells resulted in a low level of radiosensitivity with a D0 value of 12 Gy. The slopes of the survival curves in the exponential phase were plotted on semilogarithmic paper for radiation combined with AMR (2.5 microg/ml) and AMROH (0.02 microg/ml) treatment, and were shown to be approximately parallel to treatment with irradiation alone. The initial shoulder-shape portion of the survival curve for radiation alone, indicating the repair of sublethal damage, was reduced as compared to that for sequential combined treatment with AMR or AMROH. Sequential treatments with AMR or AMROH prior to ionizing radiation resulted in an additive radio-enhancement effect that reduced not only survival, but also the shoulder width. Fractionated irradiation with 2 Gy per fraction of A549 cells was carried out in vitro similar to that commonly performed in clinical radiotherapy and the radio-resistance of the cells was shown to be inhibited by AMR and AMROH. Similar to AMR and AMROH, adriamycin and etoposide (VP-16) are DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors. The effects of these 4 agents on cells that received X-ray irradiation were compared and all of the agents exhibited comparable radio-enhancement effects. The induction of apoptosis was investigated at 48 and 72 h after administration of AMROH, radiation or combined treatment, and apoptosis was not significantly induced after any of the treatments. We also examined the induction of necrosis, and found that the incidence of necrosis following combined treatment was approximately 2 times higher than that with either of the single treatments. PMID:17016621

  3. Metastatic mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas to the liver: a cytopathology case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lili; Bajor-Dattilo, Ewa B; Das, Kasturi

    2013-02-01

    A case of metastatic mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) of the pancreas to the liver is reported. A diagnostic percutaneous US-guided FNA and core biopsy of a liver nodule was performed. The FNA smears were cellular and showed neoplastic cells in clusters with acinar formation, isolated single cells, and scattered naked nuclei. The cytoplasm was finely granular. The nuclei were relatively uniform, some with speckled chromatin and prominent nucleoli. The immunohistochemistry performed on the cell block showed strong positivity for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, chromogranin, and synaptophysin. Furthermore, the tumor cells were weakly positive for α1-antichymotrypsin. The Ki-67 mitotic index was up to 50%. Based on the morphology and supporting immunohistochemical stains, the final cytopathologic diagnosis rendered was "Positive for malignant cells. Carcinoma with mixed acinar and endocrine features." To our knowledge, this is the first report of a metastatic MANEC to the liver diagnosed based on cytology with confirmatory histology. The difficulties in the cytopathologic diagnosis and differential diagnosis of MANEC are discussed in this article. PMID:22903971

  4. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and Fas receptor contribute to cognitive deficits independent of cell death after concussive traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Khuman, Jugta; Meehan, William P; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Qiu, Jianhua; Hoffmann, Ulrike; Zhang, Jimmy; Giovannone, Eric; Lo, Eng H; Whalen, Michael J

    2011-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and Fas receptor contribute to cell death and cognitive dysfunction after focal traumatic brain injury (TBI). We examined the role of TNFα/Fas in postinjury functional outcome independent of cell death in a novel closed head injury (CHI) model produced with weight drop and free rotational head movement in the anterior-posterior plane. The CHI produced no cerebral edema or blood-brain barrier damage at 24 to 48 hours, no detectable cell death, occasional axonal injury (24 hours), and no brain atrophy or hippocampal cell loss (day 60). Microglia and astrocytes were activated (48 to 72 hours). Tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA, Fas mRNA, and TNFα protein were increased in the brain at 3 to 6 hours after injury (P<0.001 versus sham injured). In wild-type (WT) mice, CHI produced hidden platform (P=0.009) and probe deficits (P=0.001) in the Morris water maze versus sham. Surprisingly, injured TNFα/Fas knockout (KO) mice performed worse in hidden platform trials (P=0.036) but better in probe trials than did WT mice (P=0.0001). Administration of recombinant TNFα to injured TNFα/Fas KO mice reduced probe trial performance to that of WT. Thus, TNFα/Fas influence cognitive deficits independent of cell death after CHI. Therapies targeting TNFα/Fas together may be inappropriate for patients with concussive TBI. PMID:20940727

  5. Functional and toxicological consequences of metabolic bioactivation of methapyrilene via thiophene S-oxidation: Induction of cell defence, apoptosis and hepatic necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, Amy E.; Regan, Sophie L.; Hirst, Charlotte M.; Graham, Emma E.; Antoine, Daniel J.; Benson, Craig A.; Williams, Dominic P. Foster, John; Kenna, J. Gerry; Park, B. Kevin

    2009-09-15

    Methapyrilene, [N,N-dimethyl-N'-pyridyl-N'(2-thienylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine] (MP) was withdrawn from, clinical use due to reported periportal hepatic necrosis and hepatocarcinogenicity in the rat, via S-oxidation of the thiophene group. In this study MP is used as a model hepatotoxin to further characterise the functional consequences of S-oxidation of the thiophene group in vivo, in rat models and in vitro, in freshly isolated rat hepatocyte suspensions. In vivo histological studies revealed the early depletion of glutathione (GSH), which was confined to the damaged periportal area, in contrast to an increase in GSH levels in the centrilobular region. Additionally, the induction of cell defence was demonstrated by an increase in the protein levels of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and glutamate cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) in vivo. Histological examination demonstrated that cytotoxicity progresses initially via apoptosis before an increase in necrosis over the 3-day administration. An apoptotic-like mechanism was observed in vitro via the measurement of cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for a complex pathway of MP-induced hepatotoxicity which progresses through early adaptation, apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation, all underpinned by the zonal induction and depletion of GSH within the liver.

  6. Tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 13 is a novel biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis and promotes cancer cell proliferation in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru; Guo, Yichao; Ma, Hongzhi; Feng, Lin; Wang, Qi; Chen, Xiaohong; Lian, Meng; Wang, Haizhou; Fang, Jugao

    2016-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 13 (TNFSF13) modulates cell proliferation and apoptosis and participates in the pathogenesis of solid tumors, but its role in laryngeal cancer development is not clearly defined. In order to investigate whether TNFSF13 can be used as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and the role of TNFSF13 in laryngeal cancer carcinogenesis, we conducted immunohistochemistry and ELISA assays to evaluate the expression level of TNFSF13 in laryngeal cancer patients and the contrast. We also conducted experiments on the functional study of TNFSF13 in vitro. We found that the expression levels of TNFSF13, ki-67, and NF-κB p65 in LSCC tumor tissues were higher than those in vocal polyp and para-carcinoma tissues. The Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the expression of TNFSF13 had a positive correlation with the expression of ki-67 and NF-κB p65. Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier plots confirmed the expression level of TNFSF13 was a prognostic factor for LSCC. Moreover, the serum TNFSF13 level was significantly higher in LSCC patients than in the controls, and the serum expression level of TNFSF13 can distinguish LSCC from healthy people, precancerosis, or laryngeal benign tumor. In addition, functional study of TNFSF13 in vitro revealed that knockdown of TNFSF13 inhibited cell proliferation by inducing G1 phase cell cycle arrest in Hep-2 cells. In conclusion, TNFSF13 may be a potential novel molecular target for diagnosis and prognosis in human LSCC, and therapies that target TNFSF13 may have clinical significance for the treatment of LSCC. PMID:26395262

  7. Rheumatoid arthritis, anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment, and risk of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancer: cohort study based on nationwide prospectively recorded data from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Simard, Julia F; Asker Hagelberg, Charlotte; Askling, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis naive to biologic drugs, in patients starting tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor treatment, and in the general population. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Nationwide data from Sweden. Participants Cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis naive to biologics (n=46 409), cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis starting TNF inhibitor treatment as first biologic in 1998-2012 (n=12 558), and matched general population comparator cohort, identified through national quality of care and health registers. Main outcome measure Hazard ratio of first in situ or invasive squamous cell skin cancer (1998-2012) and first basal cell cancer (2004-12). Results For basal cell cancer, the hazard ratio was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.41) comparing biologics-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients with the general population and 1.14 (0.98 to 1.33; 236 v 1587 events) comparing TNF inhibitor treated patients with biologics-naive patients. For squamous cell cancer, the hazard ratio was 1.88 (1.74 to 2.03) comparing biologics-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients with the general population and 1.30 (1.10 to 1.55; 191 v 847 events) comparing TNF inhibitors with biologics-naive patients; the latter translated to an annual number needed to harm in the order of 1600. Among people with a history of squamous cell or basal cell cancer, TNF inhibitors did not further increase risks. Conclusion A small to moderately increased risk of basal cell cancer was seen in biologics-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients, with no further effect of TNF inhibitors. For squamous cell cancer, the risk was nearly doubled in biologics-naive patients, with a further 30% increase in risk among patients treated with TNF inhibitors; this translates to one additional case for every 1600 years of treatment experience, assuming that this association reflected causality

  8. Replication-induced DNA damage after PARP inhibition causes G2 delay, and cell line-dependent apoptosis, necrosis and multinucleation.

    PubMed

    Dale Rein, Idun; Solberg Landsverk, Kirsti; Micci, Francesca; Patzke, Sebastian; Stokke, Trond

    2015-01-01

    PARP inhibitors have been approved for treatment of tumors with mutations in or loss of BRCA1/2. The molecular mechanisms and particularly the cellular phenotypes resulting in synthetic lethality are not well understood and varying clinical responses have been observed. We have investigated the dose- and time-dependency of cell growth, cell death and cell cycle traverse of 4 malignant lymphocyte cell lines treated with the PARP inhibitor Olaparib. PARP inhibition induced a severe growth inhibition in this cell line panel and increased the levels of phosphorylated H2AX-associated DNA damage in S phase. Repair of the remaining replication related damage caused a G2 phase delay before entry into mitosis. The G2 delay, and the growth inhibition, was more pronounced in the absence of functional ATM. Further, Olaparib treated Reh and Granta-519 cells died by apoptosis, while U698 and JVM-2 cells proceeded through mitosis with aberrant chromosomes, skipped cytokinesis, and eventually died by necrosis. The TP53-deficient U698 cells went through several rounds of DNA replication and mitosis without cytokinesis, ending up as multinucleated cells with DNA contents of up to 16c before dying. In summary, we report here for the first time cell cycle-resolved DNA damage induction, and cell line-dependent differences in the mode of cell death caused by PARP inhibition. PMID:26312527

  9. Replication-induced DNA damage after PARP inhibition causes G2 delay, and cell line-dependent apoptosis, necrosis and multinucleation

    PubMed Central

    Dale Rein, Idun; Solberg Landsverk, Kirsti; Micci, Francesca; Patzke, Sebastian; Stokke, Trond

    2015-01-01

    PARP inhibitors have been approved for treatment of tumors with mutations in or loss of BRCA1/2. The molecular mechanisms and particularly the cellular phenotypes resulting in synthetic lethality are not well understood and varying clinical responses have been observed. We have investigated the dose- and time-dependency of cell growth, cell death and cell cycle traverse of 4 malignant lymphocyte cell lines treated with the PARP inhibitor Olaparib. PARP inhibition induced a severe growth inhibition in this cell line panel and increased the levels of phosphorylated H2AX-associated DNA damage in S phase. Repair of the remaining replication related damage caused a G2 phase delay before entry into mitosis. The G2 delay, and the growth inhibition, was more pronounced in the absence of functional ATM. Further, Olaparib treated Reh and Granta-519 cells died by apoptosis, while U698 and JVM-2 cells proceeded through mitosis with aberrant chromosomes, skipped cytokinesis, and eventually died by necrosis. The TP53-deficient U698 cells went through several rounds of DNA replication and mitosis without cytokinesis, ending up as multinucleated cells with DNA contents of up to 16c before dying. In summary, we report here for the first time cell cycle-resolved DNA damage induction, and cell line-dependent differences in the mode of cell death caused by PARP inhibition. PMID:26312527

  10. Daidzein suppresses tumor necrosis factor-α induced migration and invasion by inhibiting hedgehog/Gli1 signaling in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bao, Cheng; Namgung, Hyeju; Lee, Jaehoo; Park, Hyun-Chang; Ko, Jiwon; Moon, Heejung; Ko, Hyuk Wan; Lee, Hong Jin

    2014-04-30

    In breast cancer, the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induces cell invasion, although the molecular basis of it has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of daidzein in regulating TNF-α induced cell invasion and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Daidzein inhibited TNF-α induced cellular migration and invasion in estrogen receptor (ER) negative MCF10DCIS.com human breast cancer cells. TNF-α activated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling by enhancing Gli1 nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity, which resulted in increased invasiveness; these effects were blocked by daidzein and the Hh signaling inhibitors, cyclopamine and vismodegib. Moreover, these compounds suppressed TNF-α induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 mRNA expression and activity. Taken together, mammary tumor cell invasiveness was stimulated by TNF-α induced activation of Hh signaling; these effects were abrogated by daidzein, which suppressed Gli1 activation, thereby inhibiting migration and invasion. PMID:24724627

  11. Activation, Impaired Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production, and Deficiency of Circulating Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in Patients with Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Won, Eun Jeong; Cho, Young-Nan; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Kee, Hae Jin; Ju, Jae Kyun; Kim, Jung-Chul; Kim, Uh Jin; Jang, Hee-Chang; Jung, Sook-In; Kee, Seung-Jung; Park, Yong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells contribute to protection against certain microorganism infections. However, little is known about the role of MAIT cells in Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. Hence, the aims of this study were to examine the level and function of MAIT cells in patients with scrub typhus and to evaluate the clinical relevance of MAIT cell levels. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-eight patients with scrub typhus and 53 health control subjects were enrolled in the study. The patients were further divided into subgroups according to disease severity. MAIT cell level and function in the peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. Circulating MAIT cell levels were found to be significantly reduced in scrub typhus patients. MAIT cell deficiency reflects a variety of clinical conditions. In particular, MAT cell levels reflect disease severity. MAIT cells in scrub typhus patients displayed impaired tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production, which was restored during the remission phase. In addition, the impaired production of TNF-α by MAIT cells was associated with elevated CD69 expression. Conclusions This study shows that circulating MAIT cells are activated, numerically deficient, and functionally impaired in TNF-α production in patients with scrub typhus. These abnormalities possibly contribute to immune system dysregulation in scrub typhus infection. PMID:27463223

  12. Simple modifications to Methimazole that enhance its inhibitory effect on Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-induced Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 expression by human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Alapati, Anuja; Deosarkar, Sudhir P.; Lanier, Olivia L.; Qi, Chunyan; Carlson, Grady E.; Burdick, Monica M.; Schwartz, Frank L.; McCall, Kelly D.; Bergmeier, Stephen C.; Goetz, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on the vascular endothelium can be increased by pro-inflammatory cytokines [e.g. tumor necrosis factor – α (TNF-α)]. VCAM-1 contributes to leukocyte adhesion to, and emigration from, the vasculature which is a key aspect of pathological inflammation. As such, a promising therapeutic approach for pathological inflammation is to inhibit the expression of VCAM-1. Methimazole [3-methyl-1, 3 imidazole-2 thione (MMI)] is routinely used for the treatment of Graves’ disease and patients treated with MMI have decreased levels of circulating VCAM-1. In this study we used cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to investigate the effect of MMI structural modifications on TNF-α induced VCAM-1 expression. We found that addition of a phenyl ring at the 4-nitrogen of MMI yields a compound that is significantly more potent than MMI at inhibiting 24 h TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 protein expression. Addition of a para methoxy to the appended phenyl group increases the inhibition while substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl derivatives yields no clear difference in inhibition. Addition of the phenyl ring to MMI appears to increase toxicity as does substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl MMI derivatives. Each of the compounds reduced TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 mRNA expression and had a functional inhibitory effect, i.e. each inhibited monocytic cell adhesion to 24 h TNF-α-activated HUVEC under fluid flow conditions. Combined, these studies provide important insights into the design of MMI-related anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25641748

  13. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis by chemotherapy in thyroid cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Woo; Wong, Mariwil G; Lobo, Margaret; Hyun, William C; Duh, Quan-Yang; Clark, Orlo H

    2003-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in many human cancer cells but not in normal cells. Thyroid cancer cells, however, appear to be relatively resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We therefore investigated the effect of chemotherapy on TRAIL-induced apoptosis in thyroid cancer cells. We used six thyroid cancer cell lines: TPC-1, FTC-133, FTC-236, FTC-238, XTC-1, and ARO82-1. We used flow cytometry to measure apoptosis, dimethyl-thiazol-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to measure antiproliferation effects and Western blot to determine the expression of Bcl family proteins. Troglitazone, paclitaxel, geldanamycin, and cycloheximide were used for pretreatment. We used the Student's t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for statistical analysis. All thyroid cancer cell lines, except the TPC-1 cell line, were resistant to TRAIL, and growth inhibition was less than 20% at concentration of 800 ng/mL of TRAIL. In both TPC-1 (TRAIL-sensitive) and FTC-133 (TRAIL-resistant) thyroid cancer cell lines, pretreatment with troglitazone, cycloheximide, and paclitaxel enhanced TRAIL-induced cell death significantly but pretreatment with geldanamycin did not. There were no significant changes in Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and Bax protein expression after troglitazone treatment. In conclusion, TRAIL in combination with troglitazone, paclitaxel, and cycloheximide induces apoptosis in thyroid cancer cells at suboptimal concentrations that cannot be achieved using TRAIL alone. PMID:14751030

  14. A nuclear localization signal in the matrix of spleen necrosis virus (SNV) does not allow efficient gene transfer into quiescent cells with SNV-derived vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Caron, Marie-Christine; Caruso, Manuel . E-mail: manuel.caruso@crhdq.ulaval.ca

    2005-08-01

    A major limitation in gene therapy for vectors derived from Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) is that they only deliver genes into dividing cells. In this study, a careful comparison of spleen necrosis virus (SNV)-derived vectors with MLV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 retroviral vectors indicated that SNV vectors can deliver genes 4-fold more efficiently than MLV vectors into aphidicolin-arrested cells, although at a 25-fold lower efficiency than HIV-1-derived vectors. Furthermore, the addition of a NLS in the SNV matrix (MA) that mimics the one located in HIV-1 MA did not increase the ability of SNV vectors to transfer genes into arrested cells. Also, we found that the RD114 envelope was able to pseudotype SNV viral particles in a very efficient manner.

  15. Multiorgan chronic inflammatory hepatobiliary pancreatic murine model deficient in tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S

    2016-01-01

    inflammatory cells, degeneration, vacuolization, and necrosis of acinar cells and distention of pancreatic ducts. Extent of pancreatic damage and pancreatitis were scored 3.6 ± 0.4 (severe) for DBTC-treated in contrast to score 0 (normal) in sham-treated animals. The gall bladder became expanded with ductal distention, and occasional bile stones were detected along with microscopic hepatic lesions. DBTC-treated animals developed splenic hypertrophy with increased weight and length (P < 0.01) along with thymic atrophy (P < 0.001). Finally, colitic lesions and colitis were prominent in DBTC-treated animals and scored 3.4 ± 0.3 (moderately severe) vs 0 (normal) for the sham-treated animals. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of chronic inflammatory multiorgan hepatobiliary pancreatitis, along with fibrosis and calculi formation induced reliably utilizing oral DBTC administration in TNFR1/R2 deficient mice. PMID:27275091

  16. Replacement of a quinone by a 5-O-acetylhydroquinone abolishes the accidental necrosis inducing effect while preserving the apoptosis-inducing effect of renieramycin M on lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheun-Arom, Thaniwan; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Sirimangkalakitti, Natchanun; Chuanasa, Taksina; Saito, Naoki; Abe, Ikuro; Suwanborirux, Khanit

    2013-08-23

    Renieramycin M (1), a bistetrahydroisoquinolinequinone alkaloid isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia sp., has been reported to possess promising anticancer effects. However, its accidental necrosis inducing effect has limited further development due to concerns of unwanted toxicity. The presence of two quinone moieties in its structure was demonstrated to induce accidental necrosis and increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Therefore, one quinone of 1 was modified to produce the 5-O-acetylated hydroquinone derivative (2), and 2 dramatically reduced the accidental necrosis inducing effect while preserving the apoptosis-inducing effect of parent 1 on lung cancer H23 cells. Addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine suppressed the accidental necrosis mediated by 1, suggesting that its accidental necrosis inducing effect was ROS-dependent. The fluorescent probe dihydroethidium revealed that the accidental necrosis mediated by 1 was due to its ability to generate intracellular superoxide anions. Interestingly, the remaining quinone in 2 was required for its cytotoxicity, as the 5,8,15,18-O-tetraacetylated bishydroquinone derivative (3) exhibited weak cytotoxicity compared to 1 and 2. The present study demonstrates a simple way to eliminate the undesired accidental necrosis inducing effect of substances that may be developed as improved anticancer drug candidates. PMID:23876104

  17. Parthenolide and DMAPT exert cytotoxic effects on breast cancer stem-like cells by inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Carlisi, D; Buttitta, G; Di Fiore, R; Scerri, C; Drago-Ferrante, R; Vento, R; Tesoriere, G

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are aggressive forms of breast carcinoma associated with a high rate of recidivism. In this paper, we report the production of mammospheres from three lines of TNBC cells and demonstrate that both parthenolide (PN) and its soluble analog dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT) suppressed this production and induced cytotoxic effects in breast cancer stem-like cells, derived from dissociation of mammospheres. In particular, the drugs exerted a remarkable inhibitory effect on viability of stem-like cells. Such an effect was suppressed by N-acetylcysteine, suggesting a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the cytotoxic effect. Instead z-VAD, a general inhibitor of caspase activity, was ineffective. Analysis of ROS generation, performed using fluorescent probes, showed that both the drugs stimulated in the first hours of treatment a very high production of hydrogen peroxide. This event was, at least in part, a consequence of activation of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), as it was reduced by apocynin and diphenylene iodinium, two inhibitors of NOXs. Moreover, both the drugs caused downregulation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), which is a critical regulator of the intracellular antioxidant response. Prolonging the treatment with PN or DMAPT we observed between 12 and 24 h that the levels of both superoxide anion and hROS increased in concomitance with the downregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, during this phase dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential occurred together with necrosis of stem-like cells. Finally, our results suggested that the effect on ROS generation found in the first hours of treatment was, in part, responsible for the cytotoxic events observed in the successive phase. In conclusion, PN and DMAPT markedly inhibited viability of stem-like cells derived from three lines of TNBCs by inducing ROS generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell necrosis

  18. Parthenolide and DMAPT exert cytotoxic effects on breast cancer stem-like cells by inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and necrosis.

    PubMed

    Carlisi, D; Buttitta, G; Di Fiore, R; Scerri, C; Drago-Ferrante, R; Vento, R; Tesoriere, G

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are aggressive forms of breast carcinoma associated with a high rate of recidivism. In this paper, we report the production of mammospheres from three lines of TNBC cells and demonstrate that both parthenolide (PN) and its soluble analog dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT) suppressed this production and induced cytotoxic effects in breast cancer stem-like cells, derived from dissociation of mammospheres. In particular, the drugs exerted a remarkable inhibitory effect on viability of stem-like cells. Such an effect was suppressed by N-acetylcysteine, suggesting a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the cytotoxic effect. Instead z-VAD, a general inhibitor of caspase activity, was ineffective. Analysis of ROS generation, performed using fluorescent probes, showed that both the drugs stimulated in the first hours of treatment a very high production of hydrogen peroxide. This event was, at least in part, a consequence of activation of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), as it was reduced by apocynin and diphenylene iodinium, two inhibitors of NOXs. Moreover, both the drugs caused downregulation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), which is a critical regulator of the intracellular antioxidant response. Prolonging the treatment with PN or DMAPT we observed between 12 and 24 h that the levels of both superoxide anion and hROS increased in concomitance with the downregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, during this phase dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential occurred together with necrosis of stem-like cells. Finally, our results suggested that the effect on ROS generation found in the first hours of treatment was, in part, responsible for the cytotoxic events observed in the successive phase. In conclusion, PN and DMAPT markedly inhibited viability of stem-like cells derived from three lines of TNBCs by inducing ROS generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell necrosis

  19. Coherence-controlled holographic microscopy enabled recognition of necrosis as the mechanism of cancer cells death after exposure to cytopathic turbid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Collakova, Jana; Krizova, Aneta; Kollarova, Vera; Dostal, Zbynek; Slaba, Michala; Vesely, Pavel; Chmelik, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Coherence-controlled holographic microscopy (CCHM) in low-coherence mode possesses a pronounced coherence gate effect. This offers an option to investigate the details of cellular events leading to cell death caused by cytopathic turbid emulsions. CCHM capacity was first assessed in model situations that showed clear images obtained with low coherence of illumination but not with high coherence of illumination. Then, the form of death of human cancer cells induced by treatment with biologically active phospholipids (BAPs) preparation was investigated. The observed overall retraction of cell colony was apparently caused by the release of cell-to-substratum contacts. This was followed by the accumulation of granules decorating the nuclear membrane. Then, the occurrence of nuclear membrane indentations signaled the start of damage to the integrity of the cell nucleus. In the final stage, cells shrunk and disintegrated. This indicated that BAPs cause cell death by necrosis and not apoptosis. An intriguing option of checking the fate of cancer cells caused by the anticipated cooperative effect after adding another tested substance sodium dichloroacetate to turbid emulsion is discussed on grounds of pilot experiments. Such observations should reveal the impact and mechanism of action of the interacting drugs on cell behavior and fate that would otherwise remain hidden in turbid milieu. PMID:26334859

  20. Constitutive activity of the tumor necrosis factor promoter is canceled by the 3' untranslated region in nonmacrophage cell lines; a trans-dominant factor overcomes this suppressive effect.

    PubMed Central

    Kruys, V; Kemmer, K; Shakhov, A; Jongeneel, V; Beutler, B

    1992-01-01

    The role of the mouse tumor necrosis factor (TNF) promoter, 5' untranslated region (UTR), and 3' UTR in TNF gene expression has been examined in three nonmacrophage cell lines (HeLa, NIH 3T3, and L-929). The TNF promoter is not macrophage-specific. On the contrary, it constitutively drives reporter gene expression in all three cell lines. Not only the full-length promoter but also truncated versions of the promoter, lacking NF-kappa B binding motifs, are active in each type of cell. The TNF 3' UTR effectively cancels reporter gene expression in HeLa cells and in NIH 3T3 cells but fails to block expression in L-929 cells. L-929 cells contain a factor that overcomes the inhibitory influence of the TNF 3' UTR. Its action depends upon the presence of sequences found in the TNF 5' UTR. Cell-fusion experiments reveal that this activator is trans-dominant. These studies highlight the essential role played by the TNF 3' UTR, which silences the TNF gene in cells that might otherwise express TNF. They also reveal the existence of an escape mechanism whereby inappropriate synthesis of TNF might occur. Images PMID:1731340

  1. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma production measured at the single cell level in normal and inflamed human intestine.

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, T T; Hutchings, P; Choy, M Y; Murch, S; Cooke, A

    1990-01-01

    The spot-ELISA technique has been used to enumerate the frequency of cells secreting tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), isolated from biopsies of normal intestine and from biopsies of children with inflammatory bowel disease. TNF-alpha production was undetectable in six out of 12 biopsies from normal intestine and in the other six biopsies it ranged from 60 to 580 TNF-alpha-secreting cells/10(6) isolated intestinal cells. In contrast, cells isolated from biopsies of children with Crohn's disease (n = 9) all showed elevated frequencies of TNF-alpha-secreting cells (500-12,000 secreting cells/10(6) cells). In ulcerative colitis, four out of eight children had increased production of TNF-alpha and in children with indeterminate colitis two out of three had elevated levels. There was no correlation between plasma TNF-alpha levels and the number of intestinal cells secreting TNF-alpha. In controls and all groups of patients IFN-gamma-secreting cells were uncommon. These results suggest that TNF-alpha is an important mediator of inflammation in the human gut, and, furthermore, may play a role in the growth failure frequently seen in children with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:2117510

  2. Coherence-controlled holographic microscopy enabled recognition of necrosis as the mechanism of cancer cells death after exposure to cytopathic turbid emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collakova, Jana; Krizova, Aneta; Kollarova, Vera; Dostal, Zbynek; Slaba, Michala; Vesely, Pavel; Chmelik, Radim

    2015-11-01

    Coherence-controlled holographic microscopy (CCHM) in low-coherence mode possesses a pronounced coherence gate effect. This offers an option to investigate the details of cellular events leading to cell death caused by cytopathic turbid emulsions. CCHM capacity was first assessed in model situations that showed clear images obtained with low coherence of illumination but not with high coherence of illumination. Then, the form of death of human cancer cells induced by treatment with biologically active phospholipids (BAPs) preparation was investigated. The observed overall retraction of cell colony was apparently caused by the release of cell-to-substratum contacts. This was followed by the accumulation of granules decorating the nuclear membrane. Then, the occurrence of nuclear membrane indentations signaled the start of damage to the integrity of the cell nucleus. In the final stage, cells shrunk and disintegrated. This indicated that BAPs cause cell death by necrosis and not apoptosis. An intriguing option of checking the fate of cancer cells caused by the anticipated cooperative effect after adding another tested substance sodium dichloroacetate to turbid emulsion is discussed on grounds of pilot experiments. Such observations should reveal the impact and mechanism of action of the interacting drugs on cell behavior and fate that would otherwise remain hidden in turbid milieu.

  3. Induction of the hyaluronic acid-binding protein, tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6, in cervical smooth muscle cells by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and prostaglandin E(2).

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Toshio; Savani, Rashmin C; Watari, Michiko; Day, Anthony J; Strauss, Jerome F

    2002-04-01

    Immediately before parturition the cervix undergoes striking changes in structure (ripening) that facilitate dilatation and effacement. Cervical ripening shares many features in common with inflammation-associated tissue remodeling, making it a valuable process to explore with respect to the biochemical events in extracellular matrix restructuring. Cervical ripening can be pharmacologically induced with prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Among the biochemical changes in the cervix at parturition is a marked increase in the hyaluronic acid (HA) content. HA and HA-binding proteins have been implicated in tissue hydration, release of collagenase, and leukocyte migration, but their roles in cervical ripening have not been explored. In the present study we examined the ability of PGE(2) to induce expression of the HA-binding protein, tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene (TSG)-6, in human cervical smooth muscle cells (hCSMCs) and compared the PGE(2) response to that of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), an established inducer of TSG-6. TNF-alpha stimulated TSG-6 mRNA accumulation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with the maximal response observed at 10 ng/ml after 6 hours of incubation. PGE(2) stimulated TSG-6 mRNA expression, but the magnitude of response was substantially less than that produced by TNF-alpha, and it was maximal only after 24 hours of incubation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess the induction of TSG-6 mRNA and nascent transcripts at 24 hours of treatment. Induction of TSG-6 mRNA and nascent transcripts in response to 10 micromol/L of PGE(2) was 5.7-fold and 6.3-fold greater than control values, respectively, whereas TNF-alpha (10 ng/ml) induced TSG-6 mRNA and nascent transcripts by 80-fold and 134-fold, respectively. TNF-alpha and PGE(2) stimulated secretion of TSG-6 into the culture medium as detected by Western blotting. The effects of PGE(2) on secretion of TSG-6 were delayed compared to TNF-alpha. A 1

  4. Unsteady diffusional screening in 3D pulmonary acinar structures: from infancy to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hofemeier, Philipp; Shachar-Berman, Lihi; Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Filoche, Marcel; Sznitman, Josué

    2016-07-26

    Diffusional screening in the lungs is a physical phenomenon where the specific topological arrangement of alveolated airways of the respiratory region leads to a depletion, or 'screening', of oxygen molecules with increasing acinar generation. Here, we revisit diffusional screening phenomena in anatomically-inspired pulmonary acinar models under realistic breathing maneuvers. By modelling 3D bifurcating alveolated airways capturing both convection and diffusion, unsteady oxygen transport is investigated under cyclic breathing motion. To evaluate screening characteristics in the developing lungs during growth, four representative stages of lung development were chosen (i.e. 3 months, 1 year and 9 months, 3 years and adulthood) that capture distinct morphological acinar changes spanning alveolarization phases to isotropic alveolar growth. Numerical simulations unveil the dramatic changes in O2 transport occurring during lung development, where young infants exhibit highest acinar efficiencies that rapidly converge with age to predictions at adulthood. With increased ventilatory effort, transient dynamics of oxygen transport is fundamentally altered compared to tidal breathing and emphasizes the augmented role of convection. Resolving the complex convective acinar flow patterns in 3D acinar trees allows for the first time a spatially-localized and time-resolved characterization of oxygen transport in the pulmonary acinus, from infancy to adulthood. PMID:26699945

  5. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma on expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, K Y; Moon, H S; Park, H Y; Lee, T Y; Woo, Y N; Kim, H J; Lee, S J; Kong, G

    2000-10-31

    We have investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon (INF-gamma), the potent Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced cytokines on the production of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP in high grade human bladder cancer cell lines, T-24, J-82 and HT-1376 cell lines. MMP-2 expression and activity were decreased in T-24 cells treated with both cytokines in a dose dependent manner. However, J-82 cells treated with TNF-alpha and INF-gamma revealed dose dependent increases of MMP-9 expression and activity with similar baseline expression and activity of MMP-2. HT-1376 cells after exposure to TNF-alpha only enhanced the expression and activity of MMP-9. These results indicate that TNF-alpha and INF-gamma could regulate the production of MMP-2 or MMP-9 on bladder cancer cells and their patterns of regulation are cell specific. Furthermore, this diverse response of bladder cancer cells to TNF-alpha and INF-gamma suggests that BCG immunotherapy may enhance the invasiveness of bladder cancer in certain conditions with induction of MMPs. PMID:10996723

  6. Cyclooxygenase-2 or tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors attenuate the mechanotransductive effects of pulsed focused ultrasound to suppress mesenchymal stromal cell homing to healthy and dystrophic muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tebebi, Pamela A.; Burks, Scott R.; Kim, Saejeong J.; Williams, Rashida A.; Nguyen, Ben A.; Venkatesh, Priyanka; Frenkel, Victor; Frank, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Maximal homing of infused stem cells to diseased tissue is critical for regenerative medicine. Pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS) is a clinically relevant platform to direct stem cell migration. Through mechanotransduction, pFUS establishes local gradients of cytokines, chemokines, trophic factors (CCTF) and cell adhesion molecules (CAM) in treated skeletal muscle that subsequently infused mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) can capitalize to migrate into the parenchyma. Characterizing molecular responses to mechanical pFUS effects revealed tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) drives cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) signaling to locally increase CCTF/CAM that are necessary for MSC homing. pFUS failed to increase chemoattractants and induce MSC homing to treated muscle in mice pretreated with ibuprofen (non-specific COX inhibitor) or etanercept (TNFα inhibitor). pFUS-induced MSC homing was also suppressed in COX2-knockout mice, demonstrating ibuprofen blocked the mechanically-induced CCTF/CAM by acting on COX2. Anti-inflammatory drugs, including ibuprofen, are administered to muscular dystrophy (MD) patients and ibuprofen also suppressed pFUS-induced homing to muscle in a mouse model of MD. Drug interactions with cell therapies remain unexplored and are not controlled for during clinical cell therapy trials. This study highlights potentially negative drug-host interactions that suppress stem cell homing and could undermine cell-based approaches for regenerative medicine. PMID:25534849

  7. Mesenchymal stromal cell delivery of full-length tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand is superior to soluble type for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, ZhengQiang; Kolluri, Krishna K.; Sage, Elizabeth K.; Gowers, Kate H.C.; Janes, Sam M.

    2015-01-01

    Background aims Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) delivery of pro-apoptotic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an attractive strategy for anticancer therapy. MSCs expressing full-length human TRAIL (flT) or its soluble form (sT) have previously been shown to be effective for cancer killing. However, a comparison between the two forms has never been performed, leaving it unclear which approach is most effective. This study addresses the issue for the possible clinical application of TRAIL-expressing MSCs in the future. Methods MSCs were transduced with lentiviruses expressing flT or an isoleucine zipper-fused sT. TRAIL expression was examined and cancer cell apoptosis was measured after treatment with transduced MSCs or with MSC-derived soluble TRAIL. Results The transduction does not adversely affect cell phenotype. The sT-transduced MSCs (MSC-sT) secrete abundant levels of soluble TRAIL but do not present the protein on the cell surface. Interestingly, the flT-transduced MSCs (MSC-flT) not only express cell-surface TRAIL but also release flT into medium. These cells were examined for inducing apoptosis in 20 cancer cell lines. MSC-sT cells showed very limited effects. By contrast, MSC-flT cells demonstrated high cancer cell-killing efficiency. More importantly, MSC-flT cells can overcome some cancer cell resistance to recombinant TRAIL. In addition, both cell surface flT and secreted flT are functional for inducing apoptosis. The secreted flT was found to have higher cancer cell-killing capacity than either recombinant TRAIL or MSC-secreted sT. Conclusions These observations demonstrate that MSC delivery of flT is superior to MSC delivery of sT for cancer therapy. PMID:25888191

  8. Human recombinant interleukin-1 beta- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated suppression of heparin-like compounds on cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, M.; Shimada, K.; Ozawa, T. )

    1990-09-01

    Cytokines are known to tip the balance of the coagulant-anticoagulant molecules on the endothelial cell surface toward intravascular coagulation. Their effects on endothelial cell surface-associated heparin-like compounds have not been examined yet. Incorporation of (35S)sulfate into heparan sulfate on cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells was suppressed by human recombinant interleukin-1 beta (rIL-1 beta) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF alpha) in a dose- and time-dependent manner with little effect on cell number, protein content, and (3H)leucine incorporation of cells. Maximal inhibition was achieved by incubation of cells with 100 ng/ml of rIL-1 beta or 5 ng/ml of rTNF alpha for 12-24 hours, resulting in a reduction of the synthesis of heparan sulfate on the cell surface by approximately 50%. The dose dependency was consistent with that seen in the stimulation of endothelial cell procoagulant activity by each cytokine. The suppression of heparan sulfate synthesis was sustained for at least 48 hours after pretreatment of cells with cytokines and was unchanged after the addition of indomethacin or polymyxin B. The rate of degradation of prelabeled 35S-heparan sulfate on the cell surface was not altered by cytokine treatments. Neither the size, the net negative charge, nor the proportion of the molecule with high affinity for antithrombin III of endothelial cell heparan sulfate was changed by cytokines. Furthermore, specific binding of 125I-labeled antithrombin III to the endothelial cell surface was reduced to 40-60% of control by cytokines. In parallel with reduction in binding, antithrombin III cofactor activity was partially diminished in cytokine-treated endothelial cells. Thus, cytokine-mediated suppression of heparin-like substance on endothelial cells appears to be another cytokine-inducible endothelial effects affecting coagulation.

  9. High levels of memory B cells are associated with response to a first tumor necrosis factor inhibitor in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a longitudinal prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) therapy is effective for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Some researchers have suggested that TNFi therapy affects B-cell homeostasis. We studied the effect of TNFi therapy on the distribution of peripheral B-cell subsets to elucidate B-cell–related biomarkers to predict the TNFi response. Methods Peripheral B cells were analyzed for expression of CD19, CD27, CD38 and immunoglobulin D in 31 healthy donors and 96 RA patients, including 21 patients who were followed 3 months after TNFi initiation. Results Treatment with steroids significantly altered the distribution of B-cell subsets. After we adjusted for age, sex and steroid dose, we found that patients with RA had B-cell subset proportions similar to controls. B-cell subset distributions did not differ upon use of TNFi at baseline or before or after TNFi introduction. TNFi responders (according to European League Against Rheumatism criteria) at 3 months had significantly higher proportions of CD27+ memory B cells at baseline, and ≥26% CD27+ cells at inclusion was associated with a relative risk of 4.9 (1.3 to 18.6) for response to TNFi treatment. CD27+ cells produced three times more TNFα than did TNFi-naïve B cells and were correlated with interferon γ produced from CD4+ cells in patients without TNFi treatment. Conclusions In patients with RA, high levels of baseline memory B cells were associated with response to TNFi, which may be related to TNFα-dependent activation of the T helper type 1 cell pathway. PMID:24735586

  10. Tumour necrosis factor-α expression and cell recruitment in Sephadex particle-induced lung inflammation: effects of dexamethasone and cyclosporin A

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cara M M; Smith, Lance; Flanagan, Brian F; Steve Clegg, L; Coleman, John W

    1997-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a cytokine with diverse properties consistent with a possible role in inflammatory disease. We investigated whether TNF-α is induced during the progression of lung inflammation elicited by a particulate non-antigenic stimulus, and whether pharmacological control of TNF-α expression influences recruitment of specific inflammatory cell types. A single intravenous injection of Sephadex particles into rats led to extensive granulomatous inflammation in lung alveolar and bronchial tissue that peaked in intensity after 24–72 h. Mononuclear cells were the principal component of granulomas, but neutrophils and eosinophils were also abundant. Numbers of mononuclear cells, neutrophils and eosinophils recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) peaked at 72 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Messenger RNA encoding TNF-α was induced in lung epithelial cells, lung granulomas and BAL cells 6 h after Sephadex administration and remained elevated for 72 h before declining to baseline by 7 days. In BAL cell populations TNF-α protein was localized to mononuclear cells at all times points pre- and post-Sephadex administration. Treatment of rats with dexamethasone significantly reduced the Sephadex-induced recruitment of mononuclear cells, neutrophils and eosinophils into the bronchoalveolar cavity, and significantly reduced TNF-α mRNA expression by BAL cells. Treatment of rats with cyclosporin A was without effect on Sephadex-induced elevations of mononuclear cell numbers and expression of TNF-α, but did reduce significantly recruitment of neutrophils and eosinophils to BAL cell populations. These results show that a sequential asthma-like recruitment of neutrophils, eosinophils and mononuclear cells into lung tissue can be induced by single exposure to a non-antigenic stimulus. Pharmacological and histological studies reveal that mononuclear cell mobilization relates closely to induced TNF-α expression, whereas mobilization of

  11. Silencer of Death Domains Controls Cell Death through Tumour Necrosis Factor-Receptor 1 and Caspase-10 in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naveed I.; Welschinger, Robert; Basnett, Jordan; Fung, Carina; Rizos, Helen; Bradstock, Kenneth F.; Bendall, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to apoptosis remains a significant problem in drug resistance and treatment failure in malignant disease. NO-aspirin is a novel drug that has efficacy against a number of solid tumours, and can inhibit Wnt signaling, and although we have shown Wnt signaling to be important for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell proliferation and survival inhibition of Wnt signaling does not appear to be involved in the induction of ALL cell death. Treatment of B lineage ALL cell lines and patient ALL cells with NO-aspirin induced rapid apoptotic cell death mediated via the extrinsic death pathway. Apoptosis was dependent on caspase-10 in association with the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) incorporating pro-caspase-10 and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1). There was no measurable increase in TNF-R1 or TNF-α in response to NO-aspirin, suggesting that the process was ligand-independent. Consistent with this, expression of silencer of death domain (SODD) was reduced following NO-aspirin exposure and lentiviral mediated shRNA knockdown of SODD suppressed expansion of transduced cells confirming the importance of SODD for ALL cell survival. Considering that SODD and caspase-10 are frequently over-expressed in ALL, interfering with these proteins may provide a new strategy for the treatment of this and potentially other cancers. PMID:25061812

  12. Blockade of Glucocorticoid-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor-Receptor-Related Protein Signaling Ameliorates Murine Collagen-Induced Arthritis by Modulating Follicular Helper T Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Feng, Dingqi; Wei, Yancai; Tian, Jie; Tang, Xinyi; Rui, Ke; Lu, Liwei; Xu, Huaxi; Wang, Shengjun

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-receptor-related protein (GITR) and its ligand (GITRL) are critically involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis, but the role of GITRL/GITR signaling in modulating CD4(+) follicular helper T (Tfh) cell response during autoimmune arthritis remains largely unclear. We showed that splenic Tfh cells from mice with collagen-induced arthritis expressed higher levels of GITR compared with non-Tfh cells. In vitro, GITRL treatment markedly enhanced the percentage and number of Tfh cells. The administration of GITR fused to fragment crystallizable of IgG protein in mice with collagen-induced arthritis suppressed the Tfh cell response, resulting in ameliorated disease severity, and reduced production of autoantibody and the number of autoantibody-secreting cells in both the spleen and bone marrow. Together, these results indicate that blockade of GITR signaling can ameliorate arthritis progression mainly by modulating the Tfh cell response. PMID:27106763

  13. Europium-doped Gd2O3 nanotubes cause the necrosis of primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells through lysosome and mitochondrion damage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Chen, Shizhu; Duan, Jianlei; Jia, Guang; Zhang, Jinchao

    2015-05-01

    With the wide applications of europium-doped Gd2O3 nanoparticles (Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NPs) in biomedical fields, it will inevitably increase the chance of human exposure. It was reported that Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NPs could accumulate in bone. However, there have been few reports about the potential effect of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NPs on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). In this study, the Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes were prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission spectra, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cytotoxicity of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes on BMSCs and the associated mechanisms were further studied. The results indicated that they could be uptaken into BMSCs by an energy-dependent and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis process, and primarily localized in lysosome. Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes effectively inhibited the viability of BMSCs in concentration and time-dependent manners. A significant increase in the percentage of late apoptotic/necrotic cells, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and the number of PI-stained cells was found after BMSCs were treated by 10, 20, and 40μg/mL of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes for 12h. No obvious DNA ladders were detected, but a dispersed band was observed. The above results revealed that Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes could trigger cell death by necrosis instead of apoptosis. Two mechanisms were involved in Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotube-induced BMSCs necrosis: lysosomal rupture and release of cathepsins B; and the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) injury to the mitochondria and DNA. The study provides novel evidence to elucidate the toxicity mechanisms and may be beneficial to more rational applications of these nanomaterials in the future. PMID:25725393

  14. The 19-kilodalton adenovirus E1B transforming protein inhibits programmed cell death and prevents cytolysis by tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    White, E; Sabbatini, P; Debbas, M; Wold, W S; Kusher, D I; Gooding, L R

    1992-01-01

    The adenovirus E1A and E1B proteins are required for transformation of primary rodent cells. When expressed in the absence of the 19,000-dalton (19K) E1B protein, however, the E1A proteins are acutely cytotoxic and induce host cell chromosomal DNA fragmentation and cytolysis, analogous to cells undergoing programmed cell death (apoptosis). E1A alone can efficiently initiate the formation of foci which subsequently undergo abortive transformation whereby stimulation of cell growth is counteracted by continual cell death. Cell lines with an immortalized growth potential eventually arise with low frequency. Coexpression of the E1B 19K protein with E1A is sufficient to overcome abortive transformation to produce high-frequency transformation. Like E1A, the tumoricidal cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) evokes a programmed cell death response in many tumor cell lines by inducing DNA fragmentation and cytolysis. Expression of the E1B 19K protein by viral infection, by transient expression, or in transformed cells completely and specifically blocks this TNF-alpha-induced DNA fragmentation and cell death. Cosegregation of 19K protein transforming activity with protection from TNF-alpha-mediated cytolysis demonstrates that both activities are likely the consequence of the same function of the protein. Therefore, we propose that by suppressing an intrinsic cell death mechanism activated by TNF-alpha or E1A, the E1B 19K protein enhances the transforming activity of E1A and enables adenovirus to evade TNF-alpha-dependent immune surveillance. Images PMID:1317006

  15. Subacute hepatic necrosis mimicking veno-occlusive disease in a patient with HFE H63D homozygosity after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with busulfan conditioning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sylvia; Osborn, James Dane; Chen, Xinjian; Boyer, Michael W; McDonald, George B; Hildebrandt, Gerhard Carl

    2015-12-01

    Busulfan is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in myeloablative conditioning regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). It has been associated with sinusoidal-obstructive syndrome(SOS) as a life-threatening complication of myeloablative allo-HCT, yet it has not been found to cause severe hepatocellular injury, even in cases of significant accidental overdose.We report the case of a 31-year-old male with a history of high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome transitioning to acute myeloid leukemia, who in complete remission underwent allo-HCT using myeloablative busulfan–fludarabine conditioning, and who developed hepatic failure. While he met clinical criteria for SOS and was treated with defibrotide,liver biopsy demonstrated severe subacute hepatic necrosis and lacked characteristics of SOS. Further evaluation revealed that the patient was homozygous for the HFE H63D gene mutation, associated with hereditary hemochromatosis.Both Busulfan and iron overload related to HFE H63D homozygosity can cause oxidative stress resulting in cellular injury, and the cumulative effects of these risk factors are possibly responsible for the severe hepatocellular injury in this case, making our patient the first-known case of subacute hepatic necrosis related to busulfan administration. PMID:26497867

  16. Synergistic Induction of Apoptosis in Primary B-CLL Cells after Treatment with Recombinant Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Norian, Lyse A.; Kucaba, Tamara A.; Earel, James K.; Knutson, Tina; vanOosten, Rebecca L.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is currently being investigated as a therapeutic agent for a variety of malignancies, as it triggers apoptosis specifically in transformed cells. However, TRAIL use as a stand alone therapeutic is hampered by the fact that many primary tumor cells are resistant to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Here, we investigated the extent to which pretreatment of TRAIL-resistant primary B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) could render them susceptible to killing by TRAIL. We found that HDAC inhibition in B-CLL cells led to increased TRAIL receptor expression, increased caspase activation, decreased expression of antiapoptotic regulators such as Bcl-2, and ultimately, enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Importantly, untransformed peripheral blood mononuclear cells remained largely resistant to TRAIL, even in the presence of HDACis. These results suggest that combination therapies using HDAC inhibition and TRAIL could prove beneficial for the treatment of B-CLL. PMID:19547714

  17. Lindane-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione do not result in necrosis in renal distal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Piskac-Collier, Amanda L; Smith, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Lindane is a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide, currently used in prescription shampoos and lotions to treat scabies and lice infestations. Lindane is known to be nephrotoxic; however, the mechanism of action is not well understood. In other organ systems, lindane produces cellular damage by generation of free radicals and oxidative stress. Morphological changes were observed in lindane-treated Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells indicative of apoptosis. Lindane treatment induced time-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Onset of ROS generation correlated with an initial increase in total glutathione (GSH) levels above control values, with a subsequent decline in a time-dependent manner. This decline may be attributed to quenching of free radicals by GSH, thereby decreasing the cellular stores of this antioxidant. Necrotic injury was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage from the cell after lindane exposure. No significant LDH leakage was noted for all concentrations tested over time. Generation of ROS and alterations in cellular protective mechanisms did not result in necrotic injury in MDCK cells, which corresponds with our morphological findings of lindane-induced apoptotic changes as opposed to necrosis in MDCK cells. Thus, lindane exposure results in oxidative damage and alterations in antioxidant response in renal distal tubule cells, followed by cell death not attributed to necrotic injury. PMID:20077184

  18. Down-regulation of protein kinase Ceta potentiates the cytotoxic effects of exogenous tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in PC-3 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Jürgen; Gekeler, Volker; Sagrauske, Antje; Müller, Cornelia; Hofmann, Hans-Peter; Beck, James F

    2004-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a highly promising candidate for the treatment of cancer because it elicits cell death in the majority of tumor cells while sparing most normal cells. Some cancers, however, display resistance to TRAIL, suggesting that treatment with TRAIL alone may be insufficient for cancer therapy. In the present study, we explored whether the apoptotic responsiveness of PC-3 prostate cancer cells to TRAIL could be enhanced by targeting the novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoform eta. Transfection of PC-3 cells with second-generation chimeric antisense oligonucleotides against PKCeta caused a time- and dose-dependent knockdown of PKCeta, as revealed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Knockdown of PKCeta resulted in a marked amplification of TRAIL's cytotoxic activity. Cell killing could be substantially prevented by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. In addition, PKCeta knockdown and administration of TRAIL significantly synergized in activation of caspase-3 and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Knockdown of PKCeta augmented TRAIL-induced dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, indicating that PKCeta acts upstream of mitochondria. We conclude that PKCeta represents a considerable resistance factor with respect to TRAIL and a promising target to exploit the therapeutic potential of TRAIL. PMID:15252138

  19. Role of ascorbate in the activation of NF-kappaB by tumour necrosis factor-alpha in T-cells.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, E; Blázquez, M V; Ortiz, C; Gomez-Díaz, C; Navas, P

    1997-01-01

    The first product of ascorbate oxidation, the ascorbate free radical (AFR), acts in biological systems mainly as an oxidant, and through its role in the plasma membrane redox system exerts different effects on the cell. We have investigated the role of ascorbate, AFR and dehydroascorbate (DHA) in the activation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor in Jurkat T-cells stimulated by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Here we show, by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, that ascorbate increases the binding of NF-kappaB to DNA in TNF-alpha-stimulated Jurkat cells. The ability of ascorbate to enhance cytoplasmic inhibitory IkBalpha protein degradation correlates completely with its capacity to induce NF-kappaB binding to DNA and to potentiate NF-kappaB-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat promoter in TNF-alpha-stimulated Jurkat cells but not in cells stimulated with PMA plus ionomycin. AFR behaves like ascorbate, while DHA and ascorbate phosphate do not affect TNF-alpha-mediated NF-kappaB activation. These results provide new evidence for a possible relationship between the activation of the electron-transport system at the plasma membrane by ascorbate or its free radical and redox-dependent gene transcription in T-cells. PMID:9224625

  20. Programmed necrosis induced by asbestos in human mesothelial cells causes high-mobility group box 1 protein release and resultant inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haining; Rivera, Zeyana; Jube, Sandro; Nasu, Masaki; Bertino, Pietro; Goparaju, Chandra; Franzoso, Guido; Lotze, Michael T.; Krausz, Thomas; Pass, Harvey I.; Bianchi, Marco E.; Carbone, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Asbestos carcinogenesis has been linked to the release of cytokines and mutagenic reactive oxygen species (ROS) from inflammatory cells. Asbestos is cytotoxic to human mesothelial cells (HM), which appears counterintuitive for a carcinogen. We show that asbestos-induced HM cell death is a regulated form of necrosis that links to carcinogenesis. Asbestos-exposed HM activate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, secrete H2O2, deplete ATP, and translocate high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and into the extracellular space. The release of HMGB1 induces macrophages to secrete TNF-α, which protects HM from asbestos-induced cell death and triggers a chronic inflammatory response; both favor HM transformation. In both mice and hamsters injected with asbestos, HMGB1 was specifically detected in the nuclei, cytoplasm, and extracellular space of mesothelial and inflammatory cells around asbestos deposits. TNF-α was coexpressed in the same areas. HMGB1 levels in asbestos-exposed individuals were significantly higher than in nonexposed controls (P < 0.0001). Our findings identify the release of HMGB1 as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related disease, and provide mechanistic links between asbestos-induced cell death, chronic inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Chemopreventive approaches aimed at inhibiting the chronic inflammatory response, and especially blocking HMGB1, may decrease the risk of malignant mesothelioma among asbestos-exposed cohorts. PMID:20616036

  1. Scopadulciol, Isolated from Scoparia dulcis, Induces β-Catenin Degradation and Overcomes Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis Ligand Resistance in AGS Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Rolly G; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-04-24

    Scopadulciol (1), a scopadulan-type diterpenoid, was isolated from Scoparia dulcis along with three other compounds (2-4) by an activity-guided approach using the TCF reporter (TOP) luciferase-based assay system. A fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) revealed that compound 1 was cytotoxic to AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. The treatment of AGS cells with 1 decreased β-catenin levels and also inhibited its nuclear localization. The pretreatment of AGS cells with a proteasome inhibitor, either MG132 or epoxomicin, protected against the degradation of β-catenin induced by 1. The 1-induced degradation of β-catenin was also abrogated in the presence of pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of p53 transcriptional activity. Compound 1 inhibited TOP activity in AGS cells and downregulated the protein levels of cyclin D1, c-myc, and survivin. Compound 1 also sensitized AGS cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis by increasing the levels of the death receptors, DR4 and DR5, and decreasing the level of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Collectively, our results demonstrated that 1 induced the p53- and proteasome-dependent degradation of β-catenin, which resulted in the inhibition of TCF/β-catenin transcription in AGS cells. Furthermore, 1 enhanced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant AGS when combined with TRAIL. PMID:25793965

  2. Tumor necrosis factor receptor p75 mediates cell-specific activation of nuclear factor kappa B and induction of human cytomegalovirus enhancer.

    PubMed

    Laegreid, A; Medvedev, A; Nonstad, U; Bombara, M P; Ranges, G; Sundan, A; Espevik, T

    1994-03-11

    The functional role of human tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) p75 was studied by the use of TNFR p75-specific agonistic antibodies. Human SW480T adenocarcinoma cells, stably transfected with a reporter construct containing beta-galactosidase under the control of human cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer, were stimulated with anti-TNFR p75 polyclonal antiserum or monoclonal antibodies followed by measurement of beta-galactosidase activity and analysis by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. It was found that cross-linking of TNFR p75 led to strong induction of the human cytomegalovirus enhancer as well as activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B). Stimulation of TNFR p75 also mediated activation of NF-kappa B in human KYM-1 rhabdomyosarcoma cells but not in other cell types such as U937 and HL-60 monocytic cells or in Eahy 926 endothelial cells. NF-kappa B activation induced by TNFR p75 was delayed approximately 15 min compared with NF-kappa B activation induced by TNFR p55, indicating that the two TNFRs activate NF-kappa B through different signaling pathways. The data presented in this study identify intracellular responses mediated by TNFR p75 which have not been reported previously and suggest that TNFR p75-induced activation of NF-kappa B is strictly cell type-specific. PMID:8126005

  3. Enhancement by tumor necrosis factor alpha of dengue virus-induced endothelial cell production of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species is key to hemorrhage development.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Hsuen-Chin; Chen, Hseun-Chin; Lin, Yang-Ding; Shieh, Chi-Chang; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A

    2008-12-01

    Hemorrhage is a severe manifestation of dengue disease. Virus strain and host immune response have been implicated as the risk factors for hemorrhage development. To delineate the complex interplay between the virus and the host, we established a dengue hemorrhage model in immune-competent mice. Mice inoculated intradermally with dengue virus develop hemorrhage within 3 days. In the present study, we showed by the presence of NS1 antigen and viral nuclei acid that dengue virus actively infects the endothelium at 12 h and 24 h after inoculation. Temporal studies showed that beginning at day 2, there was macrophage infiltration into the vicinity of the endothelium, increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production, and endothelial cell apoptosis in the tissues. In the meantime, endothelial cells in the hemorrhage tissues expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine. In vitro studies showed that primary mouse and human endothelial cells were productively infected by dengue virus. Infection by dengue virus induced endothelial cell production of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species and apoptotic cell death, which was greatly enhanced by TNF-alpha. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and N-acetyl cysteine reversed the effects of dengue virus and TNF-alpha on endothelial cells. Importantly, hemorrhage development and the severity of hemorrhage were greatly reduced in mice lacking iNOS or p47(phox) or treatment with oxidase inhibitor, pointing to the critical roles of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species in dengue hemorrhage. PMID:18842737

  4. Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha on Erythropoietin- and Erythropoietin Receptor-Induced Erythroid Progenitor Cell Proliferation in β-Thalassemia/Hemoglobin E Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tanyong, Dalina I; Panichob, Prapaporn; Kheansaard, Wasinee; Fucharoen, Suthat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Thalassemia is one of the genetic diseases that cause anemia and ineffective erythropoiesis. Increased levels of several inflammatory cytokines have been reported in β-thalassemia and might contribute to ineffective erythropoiesis. However, the mechanism by which tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is involved in ineffective erythropoiesis in thalassemic patients remains unclear. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of TNF-α on the erythropoietin (EPO) and erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) expression involved in proliferation of β-thalassemia/hemoglobin (Hb) E erythroid progenitor cells compared with cells from healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: CD34-positive cells were isolated from heparinized blood by using the EasySep® CD34 selection kit. Cells were then cultured with suitable culture medium in various concentrations of EPO for 14 days. The effect of TNF-α on percent cell viability was analyzed by trypan blue staining. In addition, the percentage of apoptosis and levels of EPOR protein were measured by flow cytometry. Results: Upon EPO treatment, a higher cell number was observed for erythroid progenitor cells from both healthy participants and β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. However, a reduction of apoptosis was found in EPO-treated cells especially for β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. Interestingly, TNF-α caused higher levels of cell apoptosis and lower levels of EPOR protein in thalassemic erythroid progenitor cells. Conclusion: TNF-α caused a reduction in the level of EPOR protein and EPO-induced erythroid progenitor cell proliferation. It is possible that TNF-α could be involved in the mechanism of ineffective erythropoiesis in β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. PMID:26376749

  5. Necrosis is increased in lymphoblastoid cell lines from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Main, Penelope A E; Thomas, Philip; Esterman, Adrian; Fenech, Michael F

    2013-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterised by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, communication and stereotyped behaviours. As increased DNA damage events have been observed in a range of other neurological disorders, it was hypothesised that they would be elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) obtained from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings. Six case-sibling pairs of LCLs from children with autistic disorder and their non-autistic siblings were obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and cultured in standard RPMI-1640 tissue culture medium. Cells were exposed to medium containing either 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (an oxidative stressor) or 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µM s-nitroprusside (a nitric oxide producer) for 1h. Following exposure, the cells were microscopically scored for DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity biomarkers as measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Necrosis was significantly increased in cases relative to controls when exposed to oxidative and nitrosative stress (P = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Nuclear division index was significantly lower in LCLs from children with autistic disorder than their non-autistic siblings when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (P = 0.016), but there was no difference in apoptosis, micronucleus frequency, nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds. Exposure to s-nitroprusside significantly increased the number of micronuclei in non-autistic siblings compared with cases (P = 0.003); however, other DNA damage biomarkers, apoptosis and nuclear division did not differ significantly between groups. The findings of this study show (i) that LCLs from children with autism are more sensitive to necrosis under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress than their non-autistic siblings and (ii) refutes the hypothesis that children with autistic disorder are abnormally

  6. Liver Necrosis and Lethal Systemic Inflammation in a Murine Model of Rickettsia typhi Infection: Role of Neutrophils, Macrophages and NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Stefanie; Moderzynski, Kristin; Rauch, Jessica; Heine, Liza; Kuehl, Svenja; Richardt, Ulricke; Mueller, Heidelinde; Fleischer, Bernhard; Osterloh, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia (R.) typhi is the causative agent of endemic typhus, an emerging febrile disease that is associated with complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis and liver dysfunction. To elucidate how innate immune mechanisms contribute to defense and pathology we here analyzed R. typhi infection of CB17 SCID mice that are congenic to BALB/c mice but lack adaptive immunity. CB17 SCID mice succumbed to R. typhi infection within 21 days and showed high bacterial load in spleen, brain, lung, and liver. Most evident pathological changes in R. typhi-infected CB17 SCID mice were massive liver necrosis and splenomegaly due to the disproportionate accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages (MΦ). Both neutrophils and MΦ infiltrated the liver and harbored R. typhi. Both cell populations expressed iNOS and produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, thus, exhibited an inflammatory and bactericidal phenotype. Surprisingly, depletion of neutrophils completely prevented liver necrosis but neither altered bacterial load nor protected CB17 SCID mice from death. Furthermore, the absence of neutrophils had no impact on the overwhelming systemic inflammatory response in these mice. This response was predominantly driven by activated MΦ and NK cells both of which expressed IFNγ and is considered as the reason of death. Finally, we observed that iNOS expression by MΦ and neutrophils did not correlate with R. typhi uptake in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrate that MΦ hardly respond to R. typhi in vitro. These findings indicate that R. typhi enters MΦ and also neutrophils unrecognized and that activation of these cells is mediated by other mechanisms in the context of tissue damage in vivo. PMID:27548618

  7. Apolipoprotein E receptor-2 deficiency enhances macrophage susceptibility to lipid accumulation and cell death to augment atherosclerotic plaque progression and necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Waltmann, Meaghan D.; Basford, Joshua E.; Konaniah, Eddy S.; Weintraub, Neal L.; Hui, David Y.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have linked LRP8 polymorphisms to premature coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in humans. However, the mechanisms by which dysfunctions of apolipoprotein E receptor-2 (apoER2), the protein encoded by LRP8 gene, influence atherosclerosis have not been elucidated completely. The current study focused on the role of apoER2 in macrophages, a cell type that plays an important role in atherosclerosis. Results showed that apoER2-deficient mouse macrophages accumulated more lipids and were more susceptible to oxidized LDL (oxLDL)-induced death compared to control cells. Consistent with these findings, apoER2 deficient macrophages also displayed defective serum-induced Akt activation and higher levels of the pro-apoptotic protein phosphorylated p53. Furthermore, the expression and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) was increased in apoER2-deficient macrophages. Deficiency of apoER2 in hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor-null mice (Lrp8−/−Ldlr−/− mice) also resulted in accelerated atherosclerosis with more complex lesions and extensive lesion necrosis compared to Lrp8+/+Ldlr−/− mice. The atherosclerotic plaques of Lrp8−/−Ldlr−/− mice displayed significantly higher levels of p53-positive macrophages, indicating that the apoER2-deficient macrophages contribute to the accelerated atherosclerotic lesion necrosis observed in these animals. Taken together, this study indicates that apoER2 in macrophages limits PPARγ expression and protects against oxLDL-induced cell death. Thus, abnormal apoER2 functions in macrophages may at least in part contribute to the premature coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in humans with LRP8 polymorphisms. Moreover, the elevated PPARγ expression in apoER2-deficient macrophages suggests that LRP8 polymorphism may be a genetic modifier of cardiovascular risk with PPARγ therapy. PMID:24840660

  8. Necrosis is increased in lymphoblastoid cell lines from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress

    PubMed Central

    Fenech, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterised by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, communication and stereotyped behaviours. As increased DNA damage events have been observed in a range of other neurological disorders, it was hypothesised that they would be elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) obtained from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings. Six case–sibling pairs of LCLs from children with autistic disorder and their non-autistic siblings were obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and cultured in standard RPMI-1640 tissue culture medium. Cells were exposed to medium containing either 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (an oxidative stressor) or 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µM s-nitroprusside (a nitric oxide producer) for 1h. Following exposure, the cells were microscopically scored for DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity biomarkers as measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Necrosis was significantly increased in cases relative to controls when exposed to oxidative and nitrosative stress (P = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Nuclear division index was significantly lower in LCLs from children with autistic disorder than their non-autistic siblings when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (P = 0.016), but there was no difference in apoptosis, micronucleus frequency, nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds. Exposure to s-nitroprusside significantly increased the number of micronuclei in non-autistic siblings compared with cases (P = 0.003); however, other DNA damage biomarkers, apoptosis and nuclear division did not differ significantly between groups. The findings of this study show (i) that LCLs from children with autism are more sensitive to necrosis under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress than their non-autistic siblings and (ii) refutes the hypothesis that children with autistic disorder are abnormally

  9. Production of interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha by human T-cell clones expressing different forms of the gamma delta receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, S E; Meager, A

    1990-01-01

    Panels of human T-cell clones bearing the gamma delta T-cell receptor (TcR) were obtained from peripheral blood and decidual tissue and maintained in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). TcR V gamma and V delta gene expression was determined in 40 TcR delta 1+ clones using the gamma delta T-cell subset markers Ti gamma A and delta TCS1, in conjunction with Southern blot analysis using TcR J gamma and J delta probes. gamma delta T-cell clones, together with control alpha beta T-cell clones derived from the same lymphocyte populations, were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and their ability to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) tested using specific ELISA. Many clones representative of the major peripheral V gamma 9/V delta 2J1 subset produced high amounts of both cytokines and mean levels were not significantly different from those produced by alpha beta T-cell clones. Panels of clones expressing V gamma 9 and V delta 2J1 produced significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha than clones not expressing V delta 2J1 and those expressing V delta 1J1. There was no relationship between levels of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha produced by individual gamma delta T-cell clones and also no relationship between their non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxic activity and levels of either cytokine. There was a significant tendency for gamma delta T-cell clones to produce more TNF-alpha than IFN-gamma in comparison to alpha beta T-cell clones. The significance of these findings is discussed in the light of the reported differences in distribution in vivo of V delta 1J1+ and V delta 2J1+ cells. Images Figure 1 PMID:2126252

  10. Extract of corn silk (stigma of Zea mays) inhibits the tumour necrosis factor-alpha- and bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced cell adhesion and ICAM-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, S

    1998-05-01

    Treatment of human endothelial cells with cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) or E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the expression of several adhesion molecules and enhances leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell surface. Interfering with this leukocyte adhesion or adhesion molecules upregulation is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of bacterial sepsis and various inflammatory diseases. In the course of screening marketed European anti-inflammatory herbal drugs for TNF antagonistic activity, a crude ethanolic extract of corn silk (stigma of Zea mays) exhibited significant activity. The extract at concentrations of 9-250 micrograms/ml effectively inhibited the TNF- and LPS-induced adhesiveness of EAhy 926 endothelial cells to monocytic U937 cells. Similar concentration ranges of corn silk extract did also block the TNF and LPS but not the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced ICAM-1 expression on EAhy 926 endothelial cell surface. The extract did not alter the production of TNF by LPS-activated macrophages and failed to inhibit the cytotoxic activity of TNF. It is concluded that corn silk possesses important therapeutic potential for TNF- and LPS-mediated leukocyte adhesion and trafficking. PMID:9619111

  11. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein co-stimulation facilitates tumor regression by inducing IL-9-producing helper T cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kyu; Kim, Byung-Seok; Koh, Choong-Hyun; Seok, Jae-Won; Park, Jun-Seok; Shin, Kwang-Soo; Bae, Eun-Ah; Lee, Ga-Eun; Jeon, Hyewon; Cho, Jaebeom; Jung, Yujin; Han, Daehee; Kwon, Byoung S; Lee, Ho-Young; Chung, Yeonseok; Kang, Chang-Yuil

    2015-09-01

    T cell stimulation via glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-related protein (GITR) elicits antitumor activity in various tumor models; however, the underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we demonstrate a crucial role for interleukin (IL)-9 in antitumor immunity generated by the GITR agonistic antibody DTA-1. IL-4 receptor knockout (Il4ra(-/-)) mice, which have reduced expression of IL-9, were resistant to tumor growth inhibition by DTA-1. Notably, neutralization of IL-9 considerably impaired tumor rejection induced by DTA-1. In particular, DTA-1-induced IL-9 promoted tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses by enhancing the function of dendritic cells in vivo. Furthermore, GITR signaling enhanced the differentiation of IL-9-producing CD4(+) T-helper (TH9) cells in a TNFR-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)- and NF-κB-dependent manner and inhibited the generation of induced regulatory T cells in vitro. Our findings demonstrate that GITR co-stimulation mediates antitumor immunity by promoting TH9 cell differentiation and enhancing CTL responses and thus provide a mechanism of action for GITR agonist-mediated cancer immunotherapies. PMID:26280119

  12. Putative Promoters Isolated From Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus of Shrimp Drive Expression of a Reporter Gene in Bacteria, Insect Cells, Fish Cells, and Shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) of shrimp contains a linear single-stranded DNA genome of approximately 4.1 kb with three putative open reading frames (ORFs) namely, the left ORF, middle ORF and the right ORF on the same DNA strand. Whereas the left ORF codes for non-s...

  13. Taci Is a Traf-Interacting Receptor for Tall-1, a Tumor Necrosis Factor Family Member Involved in B Cell Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xing-Zhong; Treanor, James; Senaldi, Giorgio; Khare, Sanjay D.; Boone, Tom; Kelley, Michael; Theill, Lars E.; Colombero, Anne; Solovyev, Irina; Lee, Frances; McCabe, Susan; Elliott, Robin; Miner, Kent; Hawkins, Nessa; Guo, Jane; Stolina, Marina; Yu, Gang; Wang, Judy; Delaney, John; Meng, Shi-Yuan; Boyle, William J.; Hsu, Hailing

    2000-01-01

    We and others recently reported tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and apoptosis ligand–related leukocyte-expressed ligand 1 (TALL-1) as a novel member of the TNF ligand family that is functionally involved in B cell proliferation. Transgenic mice overexpressing TALL-1 have severe B cell hyperplasia and lupus-like autoimmune disease. Here, we describe expression cloning of a cell surface receptor for TALL-1 from a human Burkitt's lymphoma RAJI cell library. The cloned receptor is identical to the previously reported TNF receptor (TNFR) homologue transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand (CAML) interactor (TACI). Murine TACI was subsequently isolated from the mouse B lymphoma A20 cells. Human and murine TACI share 54% identity overall. Human TACI exhibits high binding affinities to both human and murine TALL-1. Soluble TACI extracellular domain protein specifically blocks TALL-1–mediated B cell proliferation without affecting CD40- or lipopolysaccharide-mediated B cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, when injected into mice, soluble TACI inhibits antibody production to both T cell–dependent and –independent antigens. By yeast two-hybrid screening of a B cell library with TACI intracellular domain, we identified that, like many other TNFR family members, TACI intracellular domain interacts with TNFR-associated factor (TRAF)2, 5, and 6. Correspondingly, TACI activation in a B cell line results in nuclear factor κB and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. The identification and characterization of the receptor for TALL-1 provides useful information for the development of a treatment for B cell–mediated autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:10880535

  14. Electrochemical control of cell death by reduction-induced intrinsic apoptosis and oxidation-induced necrosis on CoCrMo alloy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Morteza; Wӧllert, Torsten; Langford, George M; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2012-09-01

    Electrochemical voltage shifts in metallic biomedical implants occur in-vivo due to a number of processes including mechanically assisted corrosion. These excursions may compromise the biocompatibility of metallic implants. Voltages can also be controlled to modulate cell function and fate. The in vitro effect of static voltages on the behavior of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts cultured on CoCrMo alloy (ASTM-1537) was studied to determine the range of cell viability and mode of cell death beyond the viable range. Cell viability and morphology, changes in actin cytoskeleton, adhesion complexes and nucleus, and mode of cell death (necrosis, or intrinsic or extrinsic apoptosis) were characterized at different voltages ranging from -1000 to +500 mV (Ag/AgCl). Moreover, electrochemical currents and metal ion concentrations at each voltage were measured and related to the observed responses. Results show that cathodic and anodic voltages outside the voltage viability range (-400 < V < +500) lead to primarily intrinsic apoptotic and necrotic cell death, respectively. Cell death is associated with cathodic current densities of 0.1 μA cm(-2) and anodic current densities of 10 μA cm(-2). Significant increase in metallic ions (Co, Cr, Ni, Mo) was seen at +500 mV, and -1000 mV (Cr only) compared to open circuit potential. The number and total projected area of adhesion complexes was also lower on the polarized alloy (p < 0.05). These results show that reduction reactions on CoCrMo alloys leads to apoptosis of cells on the surface and may be a relevant mode of cell death for metallic implants in-vivo. PMID:22704843

  15. Mixed acinar-neuroendocrine-ductal carcinoma of the pancreas: a tale of three lineages.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark J; Kwong, Christina A; Atieh, Mohammed; Pappas, Sam G

    2016-01-01

    Most pancreatic cancers arise from a single cell type, although mixed pancreatic carcinomas represent a rare exception. The rarity of these aggressive malignancies and the limitations of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) pose significant barriers to diagnosis and appropriate management. We report a case of a 54-year-old man presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice and a hypodense lesion within the uncinate process on CT. FNA suggested poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, which was subsequently resected via pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pathological analysis yielded diagnosis of invasive mixed acinar-neuroendocrine-ductal pancreatic carcinoma. Given the rare and deadly nature of these tumours, clinicians must be aware of their pathophysiology and do practice with a high degree of clinical suspicion, when appropriate. Surgical resection and thorough pathological analysis with immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy remain the standards of care for mixed pancreatic tumours without gross evidence of metastasis. Diligent characterisation of the presentation and histological findings associated with these neoplasms should continue in order to promote optimal diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27257019

  16. Recognition of Linear B-Cell Epitope of Betanodavirus Coat Protein by RG-M18 Neutralizing mAB Inhibits Giant Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (GGNNV) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Wen; Wu, Ming-Shan; Huang, Yi-Jen; Cheng, Chao-An; Chang, Chi-Yao

    2015-01-01

    Betanodavirus is a causative agent of viral nervous necrosis syndrome in many important aquaculture marine fish larvae, resulting in high global mortality. The coat protein of Betanodavirus is the sole structural protein, and it can assemble the virion particle by itself. In this study, we used a high-titer neutralizing mAB, RG-M18, to identify the linear B-cell epitope on the viral coat protein. By mapping a series of recombinant proteins generated using the E. coli PET expression system, we demonstrated that the linear epitope recognized by RG-M18 is located at the C-terminus of the coat protein, between amino acid residues 195 and 338. To define the minimal epitope region, a set of overlapping peptides were synthesized and evaluated for RG-M18 binding. Such analysis identified the 195VNVSVLCR202 motif as the minimal epitope. Comparative analysis of Alanine scanning mutagenesis with dot-blotting and ELISA revealed that Valine197, Valine199, and Cysteine201 are critical for antibody binding. Substitution of Leucine200 in the RGNNV, BFNNV, and TPNNV genotypes with Methionine200 (thereby simulating the SJNNV genotype) did not affect binding affinity, implying that RG-M18 can recognize all genotypes of Betanodaviruses. In competition experiments, synthetic multiple antigen peptides of this epitope dramatically suppressed giant grouper nervous necrosis virus (GGNNV) propagation in grouper brain cells. The data provide new insights into the protective mechanism of this neutralizing mAB, with broader implications for Betanodavirus vaccinology and antiviral peptide drug development. PMID:25938761

  17. Autophagy Plays a Protective Role in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Induced Apoptosis of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Ouyang, Yi; Li, Weiping; Wang, Peng; Deng, Haiquan; Song, Bin; Hou, Jingyi; Chen, Zhong; Xie, Zhongyu; Liu, Zhenhua; Li, Jinteng; Cen, Shuizhong; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong

    2016-05-15

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are being broadly investigated for treating numerous inflammatory diseases. However, the low survival rate of BMSCs during the transplantation process has limited their application. Autophagy can maintain cellular homeostasis and protect cells against environmental stresses. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an important inflammatory cytokine that can induce both autophagy and apoptosis of BMSCs. However, the actual role of autophagy in TNF-α-induced apoptosis of BMSCs remains poorly understood. In the current study, BMSCs were treated with TNF-α/cycloheximide (CHX), and cell death was examined by the Cell Counting Kit-8, Hoechst 33342 staining, and flow cytometric analysis as well as by the level of caspase-3 and caspase-8. Meanwhile, autophagic flux was examined by analyzing the level of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 B (LC3B)-II and SQSTEM1/p62 and by examining the amount of green fluorescent protein-LC3B by fluorescence microscopy. Then, the cell death and autophagic flux of BMSCs were examined after pretreatment and cotreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor) or rapamycin (Rap, autophagy activator) together with TNF-α/CHX. Moreover, BMSCs pretreated with lentiviruses encoding short hairpin RNA of beclin-1 (BECN1) were treated with TNF-α/CHX, and then cell death and autophagic flux were detected. We showed that BMSCs treated with TNF-α/CHX presented dramatically elevated autophagic flux and cell death. Furthermore, we showed that 3-MA and shBECN1 treatment accelerated TNF-α/CHX-induced apoptosis, but that Rap treatment ameliorated cell death. Our results demonstrate that autophagy protects BMSCs against TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Enhancing the autophagy of BMSCs may elevate cellular survival in an inflammatory microenvironment. PMID:26985709

  18. Disruption of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 5 Exacerbates Murine Experimental Colitis via Regulating T Helper Cell-Mediated Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jian; Li, Lixia; Wang, Xiaobing; Pan, Huaqin; Liu, Shi; He, Ruohang; Li, Jin; Zhao, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 5 (TRAF5) is a key mediator of TNF receptor superfamily members and is important in both T helper (Th) cell immunity and the regulation of multiple signaling pathways. To clarify TRAF5's influence on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), we investigated TRAF5 deficiency's effect on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis. Colitis was induced in TRAF5 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates by administering 3% DSS orally for 7 days. The mice were then sacrificed, and their colons were removed. Our data suggested that KO mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis. TRAF5 deficiency significantly enhanced IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17a mRNA and protein levels in the colons of DSS-fed mice, and the mRNA expression of T-bet and GATA-3 was also markedly elevated. However, ROR-α and ROR-γt mRNA levels did not differ between DSS-induced KO and WT mice. Flow cytometry showed increased frequencies of Th2 and IFN-γ/IL-17a-coproducing CD4+ T cells in the colons of DSS-induced KO mice. Additionally, TRAF5 deficiency significantly enhanced the activation of NF-κB in CD4+ T cells after DSS administration. These results indicated that TRAF5 deficiency significantly aggravated DSS-induced colitis, most likely by regulating Th cell-mediated inflammation. PMID:27110068

  19. PFR peptide, one of the antimicrobial peptides identified from the derivatives of lactoferrin, induces necrosis in leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Zhang, Teng-Fei; Shi, Yue; Zhou, Han-Wei; Chen, Qi; Wei, Bu-Yun; Wang, Xi; Yang, Tian-Xin; Chinn, Y. Eugene; Kang, Jian; Fu, Cai-Yun

    2016-01-01

    LF11-322 (PFWRIRIRR-NH2) (PFR peptide), a nine amino acid-residue peptide fragment derived from human lactoferricin, possesses potent cytotoxicity against bacteria. We report here the discovery and characterization of its antitumor activity in leukemia cells. PFR peptide inhibited the proliferation of MEL and HL-60 leukemia cells by inducing cell death in the absence of the classical features of apoptosis, including chromatin condensation, Annexin V staining, Caspase activation and increase of abundance of pro-apoptotic proteins. Instead, necrotic cell death as evidenced by increasing intracellular PI staining and LDH release, inducing membrane disruption and up-regulating intracellular calcium level, was observed following PFR peptide treatment. In addition to necrotic cell death, PFR peptide also induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Moreover, PFR peptide exhibited favorable antitumor activity and tolerability in vivo. These findings thus provide a new clue of antimicrobial peptides as a potential novel therapy for leukemia. PMID:26860588

  20. Zinc pyrithione induces ERK- and PKC-dependent necrosis distinct from TPEN-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Carraway, Robert E; Dobner, Paul R

    2012-02-01

    Zinc dyshomeostasis can induce cell death. However, the mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, which differ dramatically from normal cells in their zinc handling ability. Here, we studied the effects of the ionophore Zn-pyrithione (ZP) and the chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN). Both compounds induced cell death at micromolar concentrations when incubated with androgen-dependent (LNCaP), androgen-independent (PC3, DU145) and androgen-sensitive (C4-2) PCa cell-lines. Compared to PCa cells, RWPE1 prostate epithelial cells were less sensitive to ZP and more sensitive to TPEN, but total cellular zinc levels were changed similarly. ZnSO4 enhanced the toxicity of ZP, but inhibited the effects of TPEN as expected. The morphological/biochemical responses to ZP and TPEN differed. ZP decreased ATP levels and stimulated ERK, AKT and PKC phosphorylation. DNA laddering was observed only at low doses of ZP but all doses of TPEN. TPEN activated caspase 3/7 and induced PARP-cleavage, DNA-fragmentation, ROS-formation and apoptotic bodies. PKC and ERK-pathway inhibitors, and antioxidants protected against ZP-induced but not TPEN-induced death. Inhibitors of MPTP-opening protected both. Cell death in response to TPEN (but not ZP) was diminished by a calpain inhibitor and largely prevented by a caspase 3 inhibitor. Overall, the results indicated primarily a necrotic cell death for ZP and an apoptotic cell death for TPEN. The enhanced sensitivity of PCa cells to ZP and the apparent ability of ZP and TPEN to kill quiescent and rapidly dividing cells in a p53-independent manner suggest that ZP/TPEN might be used to develop adjunct treatments for PCa. PMID:22027089

  1. Mechanisms for virus-induced liver disease: tumor necrosis factor-mediated pathology independent of natural killer and T cells during murine cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Orange, J S; Salazar-Mather, T P; Opal, S M; Biron, C A

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of endogenous NK cells and cytokines to virus-induced liver pathology was evaluated during murine cytomegalovirus infections of mice. In immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice, the virus induced a self-limited liver disease characterized by hepatitis, with focal inflammation, and large grossly visible subcapsular necrotic foci. The inflammatory foci were most numerous and contained the greatest number of cells 3 days after infection; they colocalized with areas of viral antigen expression. The largest number of necrotic foci was found 2 days after infection. Overall hepatic damage, assessed as increased expression of liver enzymes in serum, accompanied the development of inflammatory and necrotic foci. Experiments with neutralizing antibodies demonstrated that although virus-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) can have antiviral effects, it also mediated significant liver pathology. TNF was required for development of hepatic necrotic foci and increased levels of liver enzymes in serum but not for increased numbers of inflammatory foci. The necrotic foci and liver enzyme indications of pathology occurred independently of NK and T cells, because mice rendered NK-cell deficient by treatment with antibodies, T- and B-cell-deficient Rag-/- mice, and NK- and T-cell-deficient E26 mice all manifested both parameters of disease. Development of necrotic foci and maximally increased levels of liver enzymes in serum also were TNF dependent in NK-cell-deficient mice. Moreover, in the immunodeficient E26 mice, virus-induced liver disease was progressive, with eventual death of the host, and neutralization of TNF significantly increased longevity. These results establish conditions separating hepatitis from significant liver damage and demonstrate a cytokine-mediated component to viral pathogenesis. PMID:9371583

  2. Induction of necrosis and apoptosis to KB cancer cells by sanguinarine is associated with reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, M.-C.; Chan, C.-P.; Wang, Y.-J.; Lee, P.-H.; Chen, L.-I; Tsai, Y.-L.; Lin, B.-R.; Wang, Y.-L.; Jeng, J.-H. . E-mail: huei@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2007-01-15

    Sanguinarine is a benzopheanthridine alkaloid present in the root of Sanguinaria canadensis L. and Chellidonium majus L. In this study, sanguinarine (2 and 3 {mu}M) exhibited cytotoxicity to KB cancer cells by decreasing MTT reduction to 83% and 52% of control after 24-h of exposure. Sanguinarine also inhibited the colony forming capacity (> 52-58%) and growth of KB cancer cells at concentrations higher than 0.5-1 {mu}M. Short-term exposure to sanguinarine (> 0.5 {mu}M) effectively suppressed the adhesion of KB cells to collagen and fibronectin (FN). Sanguinarine (2 and 3 {mu}M) induced evident apoptosis as indicated by an increase in sub-G0/G1 populations, which was detected after 6-h of exposure. Only a slight increase in cells arresting in S-phase and G2/M was noted. Induction of KB cell apoptosis and necrosis by sanguinarine (2 and 3 {mu}M) was further confirmed by Annexin V-PI dual staining flow cytometry and the presence of DNA fragmentation. The cytotoxicity by sanguinarine was accompanied by an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential as indicated by single cell flow cytometric analysis of DCF and rhodamine fluorescence. NAC (1 and 3 mM) and catalase (2000 U/ml) prevented the sanguinarine-induced ROS production and cytotoxicity, whereas dimethylthiourea (DMT) showed no marked preventive effect. These results suggest that sanguinarine has anticarcinogenic properties with induction of ROS production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, which mediate cancer cell death.

  3. CCL20/macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and tumor necrosis factor alpha production by primary uterine epithelial cells in response to treatment with lipopolysaccharide or Pam3Cys.

    PubMed

    Crane-Godreau, Mardi A; Wira, Charles R

    2005-01-01

    Having previously shown that CCL20/macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) are released by polarized primary rat uterine epithelial cells (UEC) in response to Escherichia coli but not to Lactobacillus rhamnosus, we sought to determine if epithelial cells are responsive to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP), including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and Pam(3)Cys, a bacterial lipoprotein analog. Epithelial cells were grown to confluence on Nunc cell culture inserts prior to apical treatment with PAMPs. In response to LPS, LTA, and Pam(3)Cys (EMC Microcollection GmbH, Tubingen, Germany), CCL20 levels increased (4- to 10-fold) while PAMPs caused increased TNF-alpha (1- to 4-fold) in the medium collected after 24 h of incubation. Both apical and basolateral secretion of CCL20 and TNF-alpha increased in response to PAMPs, but treatments had no effect on cell viability and integrity, as measured by transepithelial resistance. Time course studies of CCL20 and TNF-alpha release in response to Pam(3)Cys and LPS indicated that CCL20 release peaked between 2 and 4 h after treatment, whereas TNF-alpha release was gradual over the length of the incubation. Freeze-thaw and cell lysis experiments, along with actinomycin D studies, suggested that CCL20 and TNF-alpha are synthesized in response to PAMP stimulation. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that E. coli and selected PAMPs have direct effects on the production of CCL20 and TNF-alpha without affecting cell integrity. Since CCL20 is known to be both chemotactic and antimicrobial, the increase in apical and basolateral release by UEC in response to PAMPs suggests a new mechanism of innate immune protection in the female reproductive tract. PMID:15618187

  4. Benzo[a]pyrene and tumor necrosis factor-α coordinately increase genotoxic damage and the production of proinflammatory mediators in alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Umannová, Lenka; Machala, Miroslav; Topinka, Jan; Schmuczerová, Jana; Krčmář, Pavel; Neča, Jiří; Šujanová, Klára; Kozubík, Alois; Vondráček, Jan

    2011-10-10

    Alveolar type II epithelial (AEII) cells regulate lung inflammatory response and, simultaneously, they are a target of environmental carcinogenic factors. We employed an in vitro model of rat AEII cells, the RLE-6TN cell line, in order to analyze the interactive effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a cytokine which plays a key role in the initiation of inflammatory responses in the lung, and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a highly carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. TNF-α strongly augmented the formation of stable BaP diol epoxide-DNA adducts in AEII cells, which was associated with enhanced p53-Ser15 phosphorylation and decreased cell survival. The increased genotoxicity of BaP was associated with altered expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in its bioactivation, a simultaneous suppression of CYP1A1 and enhancement of CYP1B1 expression. Importantly, BaP and TNF-α acted synergistically to upregulate key inflammatory regulators in AEII cells, including the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and enhanced prostaglandin E2 production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6. We observed that BaP and TNF-α together strongly activated p38 kinase, a principal regulator of inflammatory response. SB202190, a specific p38 inhibitor, prevented induction of both COX-2 and proinflammatory cytokines, thus confirming that p38 activity was crucial for the observed inflammatory reaction. Taken together, our data demonstrated, for the first time, that a proinflammatory cytokine and an environmental PAH may interact to potentiate both DNA damage and the inflammatory response in AEII cells, which may occur through coordinated upregulation of p38 activity. PMID:21745554

  5. Phenotypic expansion of TBX4 mutations to include acinar dysplasia of the lungs.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Coban-Akdemir, Zeynep H; Rupps, Rosemarie; Grazioli, Serge; Wensley, David; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Popek, Edwina; Lee, Anna F; Lupski, James R; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Stankiewicz, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    Mutations in the T-box transcription factor TBX4 gene have been reported in patients with Ischiocoxopodopatellar syndrome (MIM# 147891) and childhood-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension. Whole exome sequencing of DNA from a 1 day old deceased newborn, with severe diffuse developmental lung disorder exhibiting features of acinar dysplasia, and her unaffected parents identified a de novo TBX4 missense mutation p.E86Q (c.256G>C) in the DNA-binding T-box domain. We propose phenotypic expansion of the TBX4-related clinical disease spectrum to include acinar dysplasia of the lungs. The reported mutation is the first identified genetic variant causative for acinar dysplasia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27374786

  6. Identification of novel molecular regulators of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells by RNAi screening

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) binds to its receptors, TRAIL-receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1) and TRAIL-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2), leading to apoptosis by activation of caspase-8 and the downstream executioner caspases, caspase-3 and caspase-7 (caspase-3/7). Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines with a mesenchymal phenotype are sensitive to TRAIL, whereas other breast cancer cell lines are resistant. The underlying mechanisms that control TRAIL sensitivity in breast cancer cells are not well understood. Here, we performed small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens to identify molecular regulators of the TRAIL pathway in breast cancer cells. Methods We conducted siRNA screens of the human kinome (691 genes), phosphatome (320 genes), and about 300 additional genes in the mesenchymal TNBC cell line MB231. Forty-eight hours after transfection of siRNA, parallel screens measuring caspase-8 activity, caspase-3/7 activity, or cell viability were conducted in the absence or presence of TRAIL for each siRNA, relative to a negative control siRNA (siNeg). A subset of genes was screened in cell lines representing epithelial TNBC (MB468), HER2-amplified breast cancer (SKBR3), and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (T47D). Selected putative negative regulators of the TRAIL pathway were studied by using small-molecule inhibitors. Results The primary screens in MB231 identified 150 genes, including 83 kinases, 4 phosphatases, and 63 nonkinases, as potential negative regulators of TRAIL. The identified genes are involved in many critical cell processes, including apoptosis, growth factor-receptor signaling, cell-cycle regulation, transcriptional regulation, and DNA repair. Gene-network analysis identified four genes (PDPK1, IKBKB, SRC, and BCL2L1) that formed key nodes within the interaction network of negative regulators. A secondary screen of a subset of the genes identified in additional cell lines representing different breast cancer

  7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits stem cell factor-induced proliferation of human bone marrow progenitor cells in vitro. Role of p55 and p75 tumor necrosis factor receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Rusten, L S; Smeland, E B; Jacobsen, F W; Lien, E; Lesslauer, W; Loetscher, H; Dubois, C M; Jacobsen, S E

    1994-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF), a key regulator of hematopoiesis, potently synergizes with a number of hematopoietic growth factors. However, little is known about growth factors capable of inhibiting the actions of SCF. TNF-alpha has been shown to act as a bidirectional regulator of myeloid cell proliferation and differentiation. This study was designed to examine interactions between TNF-alpha and SCF. Here, we demonstrate that TNF-alpha potently and directly inhibits SCF-stimulated proliferation of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. Furthermore, TNF-alpha blocked all colony formation stimulated by SCF in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CSF) or CSF-1. The synergistic effect of SCF observed in combination with GM-CSF or IL-3 was also inhibited by TNF-alpha, resulting in colony numbers similar to those obtained in the absence of SCF. These effects of TNF-alpha were mediated through the p55 TNF receptor, whereas little or no inhibition was signaled through the p75 TNF receptor. Finally, TNF-alpha downregulated c-kit cell-surface expression on CD34+ bone marrow cells, and this was predominantly a p55 TNF receptor-mediated event as well. Images PMID:7518828

  8. Hypericum triquetrifolium—Derived Factors Downregulate the Production Levels of LPS-Induced Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Bashar; AbouAtta, Bernadette Soudah; Basha, Walid; Hmade, Alaa; Kmail, Abdalsalam; Khasib, Said; Said, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Based on knowledge from traditional Arab herbal medicine, this in vitro study aims to examine the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Hypericum triquetrifolium by measuring the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukine-6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in human monocytic cells, THP-1. The effects were assessed by measuring the levels of secretory proteins and mRNA of TNF-α and IL-6, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) secretion and the expression of iNOS in THP-1 cells. Cells were treated with 5 μg lipopolysaccharide/ml (LPS) in the presence and absence of increasing concentrations of extracts from the aerial parts of H. triquetrifolium. During the entire experimental period, we used extract concentrations (up to 250 μg mL−1) that had no cytotoxic effects, as measured with MTT and LDH assays. Hypericum triquetrifolium extracts remarkably suppressed the LPS-induced NO release, significantly attenuated the LPS-induced transcription of iNOS and inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the expression and release of TNF-α. No significant effects were observed on the release of IL-6. Taken together, these results suggest that H. triquetrifolium probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects through the suppression of TNF-α and iNOS expressions. PMID:18955363

  9. In vitro protective effects of two extracts from bergamot peels on human endothelial cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).

    PubMed

    Trombetta, Domenico; Cimino, Francesco; Cristani, Mariateresa; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Saija, Antonella; Ginestra, Giovanna; Speciale, Antonio; Chirafisi, Joselita; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Waldron, Keith; Narbad, Arjan; Faulds, Craig B

    2010-07-28

    Bergamot ( Citrus bergamia Risso) is a less commercialized Citrus fruit, mainly used for its essential oil extracted from the peel. Bergamot peel (BP) represents about 60% of the processed fruits and is regarded as primary waste. However, it contains good amounts of useful compounds, such as pectins and flavonoids. Many of the bioactivities of Citrus flavonoids appear to impact vascular endothelial cells. Herein, we report the protective effect of two flavonoid-rich extracts from BP (endowed with radical-scavenging properties and lacking genotoxic activity) against alterations in cell modifications induced by the pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), as demonstrated by monitoring intracellular levels of malondialdehyde/4-hydroxynonenal, reduced and oxidized glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity, and the activation status of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Thus, BP appears to be a potential source of natural antioxidant/anti-inflammatory phytocomplexes to be employed as ingredients of nutraceutical products or functional foods. PMID:20578719

  10. Suppression of tumor cell proliferation by quinine via the inhibition of the tumor necrosis factor receptor‑associated factor 6‑AKT interaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjuan; Qi, Yonghao; Liu, Lingyu; Tang, Yu; Wei, Jing; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-09-01

    Protein kinase B (AKT), is a pivotal component of pathways associated with cell survival, metabolism, invasion and metastasis. AKT mediates anti‑apoptotic and proliferative signaling in response to essential cytokines. Tumor necrosis factor receptor‑associated factor (TRAF)6, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, has been shown to ubiquitylate, as well as activate AKT. The present study used computational methods to determine the relevant amino acid residues at the binding site of TRAF6 and selected small molecules, which may bind to TRAF6. An ex vivo assay was performed to determine their antitumor activities and the possible mechanism of action. Quinine, a natural alkaloid that is well‑known for its therapeutic treatment of malaria, exhibited a distinct antiproliferative and pro‑apoptotic effect in HeLa and A549 tumor cell lines via the inhibition of the antiapoptotic protein, B‑cell lymphoma (BCL)‑2, and activation of the pro‑apoptotic factor, BCL‑2‑associated X protein. Quinine inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced activation of AKT by inhibiting its phosphorylation at Thr‑308 and Ser‑473, and reversing LPS‑induced proliferation. These results suggested that the inhibition of AKT activation via targeting of TRAF6 with quinine may be a viable anticancer therapeutic approach and a successful example of the alternative use of the original therapeutic properties of this well‑known natural product. PMID:27430155

  11. Experimental evidence of age-related adaptive changes in human acinar airways.

    PubMed

    Quirk, James D; Sukstanskii, Alexander L; Woods, Jason C; Lutey, Barbara A; Conradi, Mark S; Gierada, David S; Yusen, Roger D; Castro, Mario; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A

    2016-01-15

    The progressive decline of lung function with aging is associated with changes in lung structure at all levels, from conducting airways to acinar airways (alveolar ducts and sacs). While information on conducting airways is becoming available from computed tomography, in vivo information on the acinar airways is not conventionally available, even though acini occupy 95% of lung volume and serve as major gas exchange units of the lung. The objectives of this study are to measure morphometric parameters of lung acinar airways in living adult humans over a broad range of ages by using an innovative MRI-based technique, in vivo lung morphometry with hyperpolarized (3)He gas, and to determine the influence of age-related differences in acinar airway morphometry on lung function. Pulmonary function tests and MRI with hyperpolarized (3)He gas were performed on 24 healthy nonsmokers aged 19-71 years. The most significant age-related difference across this population was a 27% loss of alveolar depth, h, leading to a 46% increased acinar airway lumen radius, hence, decreased resistance to acinar air transport. Importantly, the data show a negative correlation between h and the pulmonary function measures forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity. In vivo lung morphometry provides unique information on age-related changes in lung microstructure and their influence on lung function. We hypothesize that the observed reduction of alveolar depth in subjects with advanced aging represents a remodeling process that might be a compensatory mechanism, without which the pulmonary functional decline due to other biological factors with advancing age would be significantly larger. PMID:26542518

  12. Infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by herpes simplex and Epstein-Barr viruses. Differential induction of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin, J; Flamand, L; D'Addario, M; Hiscott, J; Menezes, J

    1992-01-01

    Infection by herpesviruses can result in profound immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory effects. However, no significant information is available on the effect of such infections on the production of immunoregulatory cytokines. We studied the kinetics of production of two monocyte-derived cytokines, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures and in fractionated cell populations. We observed that, when compared to HSV-1, EBV is a stronger inducer of IL-6. In EBV-infected cultures, IL-6 protein was detected at day 1 postinfection and gradually increased with time. In contrast, lower amounts of IL-6 were detected 5 d postinfection in HSV-1-infected cultures. HSV-1-infected cultures secreted significant amounts of TNF alpha protein after 5 d of culture and reached a maximal level of production at day 7, whereas EBV inhibited TNF alpha production. In fractionated cell populations, monocytic cells were found to be the main source of IL-6 synthesis after EBV or HSV-1 infection. However, TNF alpha synthesis in HSV-1-infected cultures was from both B and monocytic cells. By using the polymerase chain reaction technique we show that, after infection by these two herpesviruses, differences in cytokine gene products are also observed at the transcriptional level. These observations demonstrate that EBV and HSV-1 exert differential effects on IL-6 and TNF alpha gene transcription and on the resulting protein secretion in human mononuclear blood cells. Images PMID:1318324

  13. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α/CD40 Ligand-Engineered Mesenchymal Stem Cells Greatly Enhanced the Antitumor Immune Response and Lifespan in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmandi, Saeed; Menaa, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and dendritic cells (DCs) affects T cell development and function. Further, the chemotactic capacity of MSCs, their interaction with the tumor microenvironment, and the intervention of immune-stimulatory molecules suggest possible exploitation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and CD40 ligand (CD40L) to genetically modify MSCs for enhanced cancer therapy. Both DCs and MSCs were isolated from BALB/c mice. DCs were then cocultured with MSCs transduced with TNF-α and/or CD40L [(TNF-α/CD40L)-MSCs]. Major DCs' maturation markers, DC and T cell cytokines such as interleukin-4, -6, -10, -12, TNF-α, tumor growth factor-β, as well as T cell proliferation, were assessed. Meantime, a BALB/c mouse breast tumor model was inducted by injecting 4T1 cells subcutaneously. Mice (n=10) in each well-defined test groups (n=13) were cotreated with DCs and/or (TNF-α/CD40L)-MSCs. The controls included untreated, empty vector-MSC, DC-lipopolysaccharide, and immature DC mouse groups. Eventually, cytokine levels from murine splenocytes, as well as tumor volume and survival of mice, were assessed. Compared with the corresponding controls, both in vitro and in vivo analyses showed induction of T helper 1 (Th1) as well as suppression of Th2 and Treg responses in test groups, which led to a valuable antitumor immune response. Further, the longest mouse survival was observed in mouse groups that were administered with DCs plus (TNF-α/CD40L)-MSCs. In our experimental setting, the present pioneered study demonstrates that concomitant genetic modification of MSCs with TNF-α and CD40L optimized the antitumor immunity response in the presence of DCs, meantime increasing the mouse lifespan. PMID:24372569

  14. Differential growth of U and M type infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in a rainbow trout–derived cell line, RTG-2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Purcell, Maureen K.; Wargo, Andrew; Park, Jeong Woo; Moon, Chang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of salmonids. In rainbow trout, IHNV isolates in the M genogroup are highly pathogenic, while U genogroup isolates are significantly less pathogenic. We show here that, at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1, a representative U type strain yielded 42-fold less infectious virus than an M type strain in the rainbow trout–derived RTG-2 cell line at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). However, at an MOI of 10, there was only fivefold difference in the yield of infectious virus between the U and M strains. Quantification of extracellular viral genomic RNA suggested that the number of virus particles released from cells infected with the U strain at a MOI of 1 was 47-fold lower than from M-infected cells, but U and M virions were equally infectious by particle to infectivity ratios. At an MOI of 1, U strain intracellular viral genome accumulation and transcription were 37- and 12-fold lower, respectively, than those of the M strain at 24 h p.i. Viral nucleocapsid (N) protein accumulation in U strain infections was fivefold lower than in M strain infections. These results suggest that the block in U type strain growth in RTG-2 cells was because of the effects of reduced genome replication and transcription. The reduced growth of the U strain does not seem to be caused by defective genes, because the U and M strains grew equally well in the permissive epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line at an MOI of 1. This suggests that host-specific factors in RTG-2 cells control the growth of the IHNV U and M strains differently, leading to growth restriction of the U type virus during the RNA synthesis step.

  15. Kuppfer Cells Trigger Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Development in Diet-induced Mouse Model through Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production*

    PubMed Central

    Tosello-Trampont, Annie-Carole; Landes, Susan G.; Nguyen, Virginia; Novobrantseva, Tatiana I.; Hahn, Young S.

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), characterized by lipid deposits within hepatocytes (steatosis), is associated with hepatic injury and inflammation and leads to the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocarcinoma. However, the pathogenic mechanism of NASH is not well understood. To determine the role of distinct innate myeloid subsets in the development of NASH, we examined the contribution of liver resident macrophages (i.e. Kupffer cells) and blood-derived monocytes in triggering liver inflammation and hepatic damage. Employing a murine model of NASH, we discovered a previously unappreciated role for TNFα and Kupffer cells in the initiation and progression of NASH. Sequential depletion of Kupffer cells reduced the incidence of liver injury, steatosis, and proinflammatory monocyte infiltration. Furthermore, our data show a differential contribution of Kupffer cells and blood monocytes during the development of NASH; Kupffer cells increased their production of TNFα, followed by infiltration of CD11bintLy6Chi monocytes, 2 and 10 days, respectively, after starting the methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diet. Importantly, targeted knockdown of TNFα expression in myeloid cells decreased the incidence of NASH development by decreasing steatosis, liver damage, monocyte infiltration, and the production of inflammatory chemokines. Our findings suggest that the increase of TNFα-producing Kupffer cells in the liver is crucial for the early phase of NASH development by promoting blood monocyte infiltration through the production of IP-10 and MCP-1. PMID:23066023

  16. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects against tumor necrosis factor alpha induced inhibition of osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Fan, Jian-Bo; Xu, Da-Wei; Zhang, Jie; Cui, Zhi-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Anabolic bone accruement through osteogenic differentiation is important for the maintenance of physiological bone mass and often disrupted in various inflammatory diseases. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, has been suggested for potential therapeutic use in this context, possibly by the inhibition of bone resorption as well as the enhancement of bone formation through directly activating osteoblast differentiation. However, the reported effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulating osteoblast differentiation are mixed, and the underlying molecular mechanism is still elusive. Moreover, there is limited information regarding the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cell in inflammation. Here, we examined the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. We found that the cell viability and osteoblast differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are significantly inhibited by inflammatory cytokine TNFα treatment. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is able to enhance the cell viability and osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and is capable of reversing the TNFα-induced inhibition. Notably, only low doses of epigallocatechin-3-gallate have such benefits, which potentially act through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling that is stimulated by TNFα. These data altogether clarify the controversy on epigallocatechin-3-gallate promoting osteoblast differentiation and further provide molecular basis for the putative clinical use of epigallocatechin-3-gallate in stem cell-based bone regeneration for inflammatory bone loss diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and prosthetic osteolysis. PMID:26748399

  17. Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) induces apoptosis and necrosis mediated cell death through mitochondrial membrane potential damage and elevated production of reactive oxygen species in PLHC-1 fish cell line.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Armistead, Mindy Yeager; Cohenford, Menashi; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Several environmental pollutants, including metals can induce toxicological effect on aquatic animal species. Most studies to understand the toxicity of arsenic compounds were performed in mammalian cells; however, the study of the arsenic toxicity to the aquatic animals' species, including fish, is limited. So the objective of this study was first to investigate the effects of As(2)O(3) induced toxicity particularly on apoptosis and necrosis mediated cell death in fish cell PLHC-1 as compared to the mechanism of toxicity from known mammalian cell lines, secondly to relate in vitro effects in fish to those demonstrated by in vivo systems. To conduct this study, PLHC-1 cells were exposed to various concentrations of As(2)O(3) (0-100 μM) for 10, 20 and 40 h. The results indicate that As(2)O(3) exposure promoted apoptotic and necrotic mediated cell death in a concentration and time dependent manner. Cell death (apoptotic and necrotic) induced by As(2)O(3) was further confirmed by changes in various phases of cell cycle, DNA fragmentation (necro- comet and apo-comet) in the comet assay, alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential and formation of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Apoptotic mediated cell death was confirmed further by observing the increased caspase-3 activity and elevated expression of p53, cytochrome c and Bax proteins levels in the same experimental conditions. PLHC-1 cells were shown to be a good model for evaluating biochemical/cytotoxic effects following exposure to various reference chemicals and environmental contaminants. In vitro data obtained from this study provides a comprehensive approach for the elucidating the actual molecular mechanism for As(2)O(3) induced toxicity particularly apoptosis and necrosis mediated cell death in PLHC-1 cell line. PMID:23121984

  18. Crocin Effects on Human Myeloma Cells Regarding Intracellular Redox State, DNA Fragmentation, and Apoptosis or Necrosis Profile

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee, Ramin; Jamialahmadi, Khadijeh; Riahi Zanjani, Bamdad; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Abnous, Khalil; Zamani Taghizadeh Rabe, Shahrzad; Tabasi, Nafiseh; Zali, Marjan; Rezaee, Marjan; Amin, Bahareh; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Well-documented studies reported several pharmacological properties for crocin, the active compound of Crocus sativus, such as its antitumor, radical scavenging, antidepressant, and memory-enhancing effects. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the possible cytotoxic activity of crocin on B lymphocytes in human myeloma (U266 cell line) after 24- and 48-hour treatment. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, cell viability was determined by the colorimetric MTT assay and cell death pattern was evaluated using Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis detection kit. ROS (reactive oxygen species) production and DNA fragmentation were assessed using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) kit and PI staining, respectively. Results: The highest concentration of crocin significantly decreased ROS production after 48 hours of treatment. However, crocin had no effect on the expression level of HSP (Heat shock protein). Additionally, its administration caused a mild decline in cell viability and a mild increase in the population of DNA fragmented cells as well as apoptosis. Conclusions: In our study, no prominent effect was seen; therefore, in order to have a better perspective of crocin activity against cancerous cell lines, further studies are highly recommended. PMID:25625054

  19. Cholangiocarcinoma-derived exosomes inhibit the antitumor activity of cytokine-induced killer cells by down-regulating the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α and perforin*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiong-huang; Xiang, Jian-yang; Ding, Guo-ping; Cao, Li-ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study is to observe the impact of cholangiocarcinoma-derived exosomes on the antitumor activities of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells and then demonstrate the appropriate mechanism. Methods: Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs), which are derived from RBE cells (human cholangiocarcinoma line), were collected by ultracentrifugation. CIK cells induced from peripheral blood were stimulated by TEXs. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was performed to determine the phenotypes of TEX-CIK and N-CIK (normal CIK) cells. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and perforin in the culture medium supernatant were examined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. A CCK-8 kit was used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of the CIK cells to the RBE cell line. Results: The concentrations of TNF-α and perforin of the group TEX-CIK were 138.61 pg/ml and 2.41 ng/ml, respectively, lower than those of the group N-CIK 194.08 pg/ml (P<0.01) and 3.39 ng/ml (P<0.05). The killing rate of the group TEX-CIK was 33.35%, lower than that of the group N-CIK (47.35% (P<0.01)). The population of CD3+, CD8+, NK (CD56+), and CD3+CD56+ cells decreased in the TEX-CIK group ((63.2±6.8)%, (2.5±1.0)%, (0.53±0.49)%, (0.45±0.42)%) compared with the N-CIK group ((90.3±7.3)%, (65.7±3.3)%, (4.2±1.2)%, (15.2±2.7)%), P<0.01. Conclusions: Our results suggest that RBE cells-derived exosomes inhibit the antitumor activity of CIK cells by down-regulating the population of CD3+, CD8+, NK (CD56+), and CD3+CD56+ cells and the secretion of TNF-α and perforin. TEX may play an important role in cholangiocarcinoma immune escape. PMID:27381730

  20. LOXL2 induces aberrant acinar morphogenesis via ErbB2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is a matrix-remodeling enzyme that has been shown to play a key role in invasion and metastasis of breast carcinoma cells. However, very little is known about its role in normal tissue homeostasis. Here, we investigated the effects of LOXL2 expression in normal mammary epithelial cells to gain insight into how LOXL2 mediates cancer progression. Methods LOXL2 was expressed in MCF10A normal human mammary epithelial cells. The 3D acinar morphogenesis of these cells was assessed, as well as the ability of the cells to form branching structures on extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated surfaces. Transwell-invasion assays were used to assess the invasive properties of the cells. Clinically relevant inhibitors of ErbB2, lapatinib and Herceptin (traztuzumab), were used to investigate the role of ErbB2 signaling in this model. A retrospective study on a previously published breast cancer patient dataset was carried out by using Disease Specific Genomic Analysis (DSGA) to investigate the correlation of LOXL2 mRNA expression level with metastasis and survival of ErbB2-positive breast cancer patients. Results Fluorescence staining of the acini revealed increased proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and disrupted polarity, leading to abnormal lumen formation in response to LOXL2 expression in MCF10A cells. When plated onto ECM, the LOXL2-expressing cells formed branching structures and displayed increased invasion. We noted that LOXL2 induced ErbB2 activation through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and ErbB2 inhibition by using Herceptin or lapatinib abrogated the effects of LOXL2 on MCF10A cells. Finally, we found LOXL2 expression to be correlated with decreased overall survival and metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients with ErbB2-positive tumors. Conclusions These findings suggest that LOXL2 expression in normal epithelial cells can induce abnormal changes that resemble oncogenic transformation and cancer progression

  1. Novel Piperazine-based Compounds Inhibit Microtubule Dynamics and Sensitize Colon Cancer Cells to Tumor Necrosis Factor-induced Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Avijeet; Anderson, Amy; Giardina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We recently identified a series of mitotically acting piperazine-based compounds that potently increase the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to apoptotic ligands. Here we describe a structure-activity relationship study on this compound class and identify a highly active derivative ((4-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)(2-ethoxyphenyl)methanone), referred to as AK301, the activity of which is governed by the positioning of functional groups on the phenyl and benzoyl rings. AK301 induced mitotic arrest in HT29 human colon cancer cells with an ED50 of ≈115 nm. Although AK301 inhibited growth of normal lung fibroblast cells, mitotic arrest was more pronounced in the colon cancer cells (50% versus 10%). Cells arrested by AK301 showed the formation of multiple microtubule organizing centers with Aurora kinase A and γ-tubulin. Employing in vitro and in vivo assays, tubulin polymerization was found to be slowed (but not abolished) by AK301. In silico molecular docking suggests that AK301 binds to the colchicine-binding domain on β-tubulin, but in a novel orientation. Cells arrested by AK301 expressed elevated levels of TNFR1 on their surface and more readily activated caspases-8, -9, and -3 in the presence of TNF. Relative to other microtubule destabilizers, AK301 was the most active TNF-sensitizing agent and also stimulated Fas- and TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In summary, we report a new class of mitosis-targeting agents that effectively sensitizes cancer cells to apoptotic ligands. These compounds should help illuminate the role of microtubules in regulating apoptotic ligand sensitivity and may ultimately be useful for developing agents that augment the anti-cancer activities of the immune response. PMID:24338023

  2. Propanil inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by reducing nuclear levels of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappab in the macrophage cell line ic-21.

    PubMed

    Frost, L L; Neeley, Y X; Schafer, R; Gibson, L F; Barnett, J B

    2001-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an essential proinflammatory cytokine whose production is normally stimulated by bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), during an infection. Macrophages stimulated with LPS in vitro produce several cytokines, including TNF-alpha. LPS-stimulated primary mouse macrophages produced less TNF-alpha protein and message after treatment with the herbicide propanil (Xie et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 145, 184-191, 1997). Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) tightly regulates TNF-alpha transcription. Therefore, as a step toward understanding the mechanism of the effect of propanil on TNF-alpha transcription, IC-21 cells were transfected with a TNF-alpha promoter-luciferase construct, and the effect of propanil on luciferase activity was measured. Cells transfected with promoter constructs containing a kappaB site showed decreased luciferase activity relative to controls after propanil treatment. These observations implicated NF-kappaB binding as an intracellular target of propanil. Further studies demonstrated a marked reduction in the nuclear levels of the stimulatory p65 subunit of NF-kappaB after propanil treatment, as measured by fluorescence confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. The p50 subunit of NF-kappaB was not found to be reduced after propanil exposure by Western blot. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays showed decreased DNA binding of both p65/p50 heterodimers and p50/p50 homodimers to the kappaB3 site of the TNF-alpha promoter of propanil-treated cells. The marked reduction in nuclear p65/p50 NF-kappaB levels and diminished binding to the TNF-alpha promoter in propanil-treated cells are consistent with reduced TNF-alpha levels induced by LPS. PMID:11312646

  3. Anti tumour necrosis-α therapy increases the number of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in children affected by Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ricciardelli, Ida; Lindley, Keith J; Londei, Marco; Quaratino, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Its pathogenesis is not completely understood, though the prevailing model is that the intestinal flora drives a strong intestinal T helper 1 (Th1)/Th17 type immune response and inflammation in the genetically susceptible host. This leads to overly aggressive T-cell responses to normal bacteria causing tissue damage. Intestinal homeostasis and maintenance of tolerance to harmless antigens in the intestine has been shown to be maintained by CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells (Treg) in animal models of inflammatory bowel diseases. Here we investigated whether Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α shown to be highly effective in the treatment of CD, has any effect on mucosal CD4+ CD25+ (FOXP3+) Tregs. Colonic mucosal biopsies from children with active Crohn's disease treated in vivo with Infliximab and controls were analysed to determine FOXP3 expression by immunofluorescence and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. We observed that FOXP3+ T cells were significantly reduced in mucosa of CD patients with active disease compared with controls and restored to normal following Infliximab treatment. The frequency of FOXP3+ cells and mRNA expression was significantly increased in CD mucosa from patients treated in vivo with Infliximab compared with CD patients treated with conventional therapies. In conclusion, we show that Infliximab treatment does not solely neutralize soluble TNF-α, but also affects activation and possibly expansion of mucosal regulatory T cells. We suggest that anti TNF-α immunotherapy can also restore mucosal homeostasis in Crohn's disease. PMID:18422560

  4. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-infected T lymphocytes impair catabolism and uptake of glutamate by astrocytes via Tax-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Szymocha, R; Akaoka, H; Dutuit, M; Malcus, C; Didier-Bazes, M; Belin, M F; Giraudon, P

    2000-07-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of a chronic progressive myelopathy called tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). In this disease, lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with perivascular infiltration by lymphocytes. We and others have hypothesized that these T lymphocytes infiltrating the CNS may play a prominent role in TSP/HAM. Here, we show that transient contact of human or rat astrocytes with T lymphocytes chronically infected by HTLV-1 impairs some of the major functions of brain astrocytes. Uptake of extracellular glutamate by astrocytes was significantly decreased after transient contact with infected T cells, while the expression of the glial transporters GLAST and GLT-1 was decreased. In two-compartment cultures avoiding direct cell-to-cell contact, similar results were obtained, suggesting possible involvement of soluble factors, such as cytokines and the viral protein Tax-1. Recombinant Tax-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) decreased glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Tax-1 probably acts by inducing TNF-alpha, as the effect of Tax-1 was abolished by anti-TNF-alpha antibody. The expression of glutamate-catabolizing enzymes in astrocytes was increased for glutamine synthetase and decreased for glutamate dehydrogenase, the magnitudes of these effects being correlated with the level of Tax-1 transcripts. In conclusion, Tax-1 and cytokines produced by HTLV-1-infected T cells impair the ability of astrocytes to manage the steady-state level of glutamate, which in turn may affect neuronal and oligodendrocytic funct