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Sample records for acinar cell proliferation

  1. Cell cycle control in isoproterenol-induced murine salivary acinar cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, T; Yamamoto, H; Bowen, E; Broverman, R L; Nguyen, K H; Humphreys-Beher, M G

    1996-11-01

    The eukaryotic cell cycle is a summary of a complex network of signal transduction pathways resulting in both DNA replication and cell division. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) control the cell cycle in all eukaryotes, whereas other proteins, known as cyclins, act as their regulatory subunits. Chronic injection with isoproterenol (ISO) can induce acinar cell proliferation in rodent salivary glands. Cyclins and CDK proteins from control and ISO-treated murine parotid acinar cells were detected by using Western blotting techniques. By comparing the expression of these cell cycle regulatory kinases in the parotid acinar cell transition from a quiescent state to a hypertrophic state, we found rapid increases in the protein levels of all CDKs, cyclin D and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The highest protein levels for CDKs and cyclins appeared at about 72 hr of ISO stimulation and were coincident with the highest rate of increase in gland wet weight. After 72 hr, the increase of both cell cycle protein and gland wet weight began to subside. By using a co-immunoprecipitation method, the following cell cycle regulators (CDK-cyclin complexes) were detected, CDK4-cyclin D, CDK2-cyclin E, CDK2-cyclin A, and cdc2-cyclin B, along with an increase in kinase activity over control untreated animals. Additionally, we detected significant decreases in the newly isolated CDK inhibitor (CKI) p27kip but not Wee 1 kinase. The increased levels of CKI correlated with a decrease in kinase activity of CDK/cyclin complexes by 144 hr of chronic isoproterenol treatment. Our data suggest that the holoenzymes for cell cycle control (cyclin-CDK complexes) function as a final regulatory mechanism leading to salivary gland acinar cell proliferation. The gradual decline in protein levels of the CDKs and cyclins after 3 days of chronic treatment further indicates that ISO-induced proliferation of parotid acinar cells is self-limiting and non-tumorigenic. PMID:9375366

  2. Inactivation of TGFβ receptor II signalling in pancreatic epithelial cells promotes acinar cell proliferation, acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and fibrosis during pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Grabliauskaite, Kamile; Saponara, Enrica; Reding, Theresia; Bombardo, Marta; Seleznik, Gitta M; Malagola, Ermanno; Zabel, Anja; Faso, Carmen; Sonda, Sabrina; Graf, Rolf

    2016-02-01

    Determining signalling pathways that regulate pancreatic regeneration following pancreatitis is critical for implementing therapeutic interventions. In this study we elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) in pancreatic epithelial cells during tissue regeneration. To this end, we conditionally inactivated TGFβ receptor II (TGFβ-RII) using a Cre-LoxP system under the control of pancreas transcription factor 1a (PTF1a) promoter, specific for the pancreatic epithelium, and evaluated the molecular and cellular changes in a mouse model of cerulein-induced pancreatitis. We show that TGFβ-RII signalling does not mediate the initial acinar cell damage observed at the onset of pancreatitis. However, TGFβ-RII signalling not only restricts acinar cell replication during the regenerative phase of the disease but also limits ADM formation in vivo and in vitro in a cell-autonomous manner. Analyses of molecular mechanisms underlying the observed phenotype revealed that TGFβ-RII signalling stimulates the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and intersects with the EGFR signalling axis. Finally, TGFβ-RII ablation in epithelial cells resulted in increased infiltration of inflammatory cells in the early phases of pancreatitis and increased activation of pancreatic stellate cells in the later stages of pancreatitis, thus highlighting a TGFβ-based crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells regulating the development of pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis. Collectively, our data not only contribute to clarifying the cellular processes governing pancreatic tissue regeneration, but also emphasize the conserved role of TGFβ as a tumour suppressor, both in the regenerative process following pancreatitis and in the initial phases of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26510396

  3. Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Béchade, Dominique; Desjardin, Marie; Salmon, Emma; Désolneux, Grégoire; Bécouarn, Yves; Evrard, Serge; Fonck, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant neoplasm that accounts for 1–2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. Here we report two cases of ACC and describe their clinical features, the therapies used to treat them, and their prognosis. The first patient was a 65-year-old woman who had an abdominal CT scan for a urinary infection. Fortuitously, a rounded and well-delimited corporeal pancreatic tumor was discovered. An endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration revealed an ACC. During the puncture, a hypoechoic cavity appeared inside the lesion, corresponding to a probable necrotic area. Treatment consisted of a distal splenopancreatectomy. The second patient was a 75-year-old man who complained of abdominal pain. An abdominal CT scan showed a cephalic pancreatic lesion and two hepatic metastases. An EUS-guided fine needle aspiration showed a pancreatic ACC. The patient received chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (GEMOX regimen), which enabled an objective response after 6 cycles.

  4. Gabapentin-induced mitogenic activity in rat pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Dethloff, L; Barr, B; Bestervelt, L; Bulera, S; Sigler, R; LaGattuta, M; de La Iglesia, F

    2000-05-01

    Gabapentin induces pancreatic acinar cell tumors in rats through unknown, yet apparently nongenotoxic mechanisms. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether gabapentin acts as a tumor promoter by stimulating acinar cell proliferation in rat pancreas. To this end, indices of pancreatic growth, including increased pancreatic weight, stimulation of acinar cell proliferation, and/or enhanced expression of immediate-early oncogenes were monitored in rats given gabapentin in the diet at 2 g/kg/day for up to 12 months. Rats fed raw soy flour (RSF), a known inducer of pancreatic acinar cell tumors through cholecystokinin-mediated mitogenic stimulation, were used throughout as positive controls. In addition, recent data suggests that gabapentin binds to the alpha(2)delta subunit of a voltage-gated, L-type calcium channel. Because signaling pathways for proliferative processes in pancreatic acinar cells involve intracellular calcium mobilization, the effects of gabapentin on intracellular calcium mobilization ([Ca(2+)](i)) and (3)H-thymidine incorporation were investigated in pancreatic acinar cells isolated from normal rat pancreas and in the AR42J rat pancreatic tumor cell line. As indicated by BrdU labeling indices, acinar cell proliferation increased 3-fold by Day 3 of RSF treatment and remained slightly greater than controls throughout the experiment. Pancreatic weights of RSF-fed rats were 32 to 56% greater than controls throughout the experiment. In contrast, gabapentin had no effect on pancreatic weight or acinar cell labeling index, and therefore had no apparent effect on pancreatic growth. In isolated pancreatic acinar cells, however, gabapentin induced mobilization of intracellular calcium and caused a slight increase in (3)H-thymidine incorporation. The data suggest that gabapentin may possess low level mitogenic activity, which is not easily detectable in in vivo assays. PMID:10788559

  5. TGF-β1 promotes acinar to ductal metaplasia of human pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Akanuma, Naoki; Liu, Chengyang; Naji, Ali; Halff, Glenn A.; Washburn, William K.; Sun, Luzhe; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that pancreatitis-induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) is a key event for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) initiation. However, there has not been an adequate system to explore the mechanisms of human ADM induction. We have developed a flow cytometry-based, high resolution lineage tracing method and 3D culture system to analyse ADM in human cells. In this system, well-known mouse ADM inducers did not promote ADM in human cells. In contrast, TGF-β1 efficiently converted human acinar cells to duct-like cells (AD) in a SMAD-dependent manner, highlighting fundamental differences between the species. Functionally, AD cells gained transient proliferative capacity. Furthermore, oncogenic KRAS did not induce acinar cell proliferation, but did sustain the proliferation of AD cells, suggesting that oncogenic KRAS requires ADM-associated-changes to promote PDAC initiation. This ADM model provides a novel platform to explore the mechanisms involved in the development of human pancreatic diseases. PMID:27485764

  6. TGF-β1 promotes acinar to ductal metaplasia of human pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Akanuma, Naoki; Liu, Chengyang; Naji, Ali; Halff, Glenn A; Washburn, William K; Sun, Luzhe; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that pancreatitis-induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) is a key event for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) initiation. However, there has not been an adequate system to explore the mechanisms of human ADM induction. We have developed a flow cytometry-based, high resolution lineage tracing method and 3D culture system to analyse ADM in human cells. In this system, well-known mouse ADM inducers did not promote ADM in human cells. In contrast, TGF-β1 efficiently converted human acinar cells to duct-like cells (AD) in a SMAD-dependent manner, highlighting fundamental differences between the species. Functionally, AD cells gained transient proliferative capacity. Furthermore, oncogenic KRAS did not induce acinar cell proliferation, but did sustain the proliferation of AD cells, suggesting that oncogenic KRAS requires ADM-associated-changes to promote PDAC initiation. This ADM model provides a novel platform to explore the mechanisms involved in the development of human pancreatic diseases. PMID:27485764

  7. Effects of Benzodiazepines on Acinar and Myoepithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Tatiana M. F.; Alanis, Luciana R. A.; Sapelli, Silvana da Silva; de Lima, Antonio A. S.; de Noronha, Lucia; Rosa, Edvaldo A. R.; Althobaiti, Yusuf S.; Almalki, Atiah H.; Sari, Youssef; Ignacio, Sergio A.; Johann, Aline C. B. R.; Gregio, Ana M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Benzodiazepines (BZDs), the most commonly prescribed psychotropic drugs with anxiolytic action, may cause hyposalivation. It has been previously shown that BZDs can cause hypertrophy and decrease the acini cell number. In this study, we investigated the effects of BZDs and pilocarpine on rat parotid glands, specifically on acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cells. Methods: Ninety male Wistar rats were divided into nine groups. Control groups received a saline solution for 30 days (C30) and 60 days (C60), and pilocarpine (PILO) for 60 days. Experimental groups received lorazepam (L30) and midazolam (M30) for 30 days. Another group (LS60 or MS60) received lorazepam or midazolam for 30 days, respectively, and saline for additional 30 days. Finally, other groups (LP60 or MP60) received either lorazepam or midazolam for 30 days, respectively, and pilocarpine for additional 30 days. The expression of calponin in myoepithelial cells and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in acinar and ductal cells were evaluated. Results: Animals treated with lorazepam showed an increase in the number of positive staining cells for calponin as compared to control animals (p < 0.05). Midazolam administered with pilocarpine (MP60) induced an increase in the proliferation of acinar and ductal cells and a decrease in the positive staining cells for calponin as compared to midazolam administered with saline (MS60). Conclusion: We found that myoepithelial cells might be more sensitive to the effects of BZD than acinar and ductal cells in rat parotid glands. PMID:27445812

  8. PD2/Paf1 depletion in pancreatic acinar cells promotes acinar-to-ductal metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Parama; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Vaz, Arokia P.; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P.; Batra, Surinder K.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic differentiation 2 (PD2), a PAF (RNA Polymerase II Associated Factor) complex subunit, is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells and has demonstrated potential oncogenic property. Here, we report that PD2/Paf1 expression was restricted to acinar cells in the normal murine pancreas, but its expression increased in the ductal cells of Pdx1Cre; KrasG12D (KC) mouse model of pancreatic cancer with increasing age, showing highest expression in neoplastic ductal cells of 50 weeks old mice. PD2/Paf1 was specifically expressed in amylase and CK19 double positive metaplastic ducts, representing intermediate structures during pancreatic acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). Similar PD2/Paf1 expression was observed in murine pancreas that exhibited ADM-like histology upon cerulein challenge. In normal mice, cerulein-mediated inflammation induced a decrease in PD2/Paf1 expression, which was later restored upon recovery of the pancreatic parenchyma. In KC mice, however, PD2/Paf1 mRNA level continued to decrease with progressive dysplasia and subsequent neoplastic transformation. Additionally, knockdown of PD2/Paf1 in pancreatic acinar cells resulted in the abrogation of Amylase, Elastase and Lipase (acinar marker) mRNA levels with simultaneous increase in CK19 and CAII (ductal marker) transcripts. In conclusion, our studies indicate loss of PD2/Paf1 expression during acinar transdifferentiation in pancreatic cancer initiation and PD2/Paf1 mediated regulation of lineage specific markers. PMID:24947474

  9. PD2/Paf1 depletion in pancreatic acinar cells promotes acinar-to-ductal metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Dey, Parama; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Vaz, Arokia P; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P; Batra, Surinder K

    2014-06-30

    Pancreatic differentiation 2 (PD2), a PAF (RNA Polymerase II Associated Factor) complex subunit, is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells and has demonstrated potential oncogenic property. Here, we report that PD2/Paf1 expression was restricted to acinar cells in the normal murine pancreas, but its expression increased in the ductal cells of KrasG12D/Pdx1Cre (KC) mouse model of pancreatic cancer with increasing age, showing highest expression in neoplastic ductal cells of 50 weeks old mice. PD2/Paf1 was specifically expressed in amylase and CK19 double positive metaplastic ducts, representing intermediate structures during pancreatic acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). Similar PD2/Paf1 expression was observed in murine pancreas that exhibited ADM-like histology upon cerulein challenge. In normal mice, cerulein-mediated inflammation induced a decrease in PD2/Paf1 expression, which was later restored upon recovery of the pancreatic parenchyma. In KC mice, however, PD2/Paf1 mRNA level continued to decrease with progressive dysplasia and subsequent neoplastic transformation. Additionally, knockdown of PD2/Paf1 in pancreatic acinar cells resulted in the abrogation of Amylase, Elastase and Lipase (acinar marker) mRNA levels with simultaneous increase in CK19 and CAII (ductal marker) transcripts. In conclusion, our studies indicate loss of PD2/Paf1 expression during acinar transdifferentiation in pancreatic cancer initiation and PD2/Paf1 mediated regulation of lineage specific markers. PMID:24947474

  10. Therapeutic potential of targeting acinar cell reprogramming in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chi-Hin; Li, You-Jia; Chen, Yang-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a common pancreatic cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Treating this life-threatening disease remains challenging due to the lack of effective prognosis, diagnosis and therapy. Apart from pancreatic duct cells, acinar cells may also be the origin of PDAC. During pancreatitis or combined with activating KRasG12D mutation, acinar cells lose their cellular identity and undergo a transdifferentiation process called acinar-to-ductal-metaplasia (ADM), forming duct cells which may then transform into pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and eventually PDAC. During ADM, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, Wnt, Notch and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/Akt signaling inhibits the transcription of acinar-specific genes, including Mist and amylase, but promotes the expression of ductal genes, such as cytokeratin-19. Inhibition of this transdifferentiation process hinders the development of PanIN and PDAC. In addition, the transdifferentiated cells regain acinar identity, indicating ADM may be a reversible process. This provides a new therapeutic direction in treating PDAC through cancer reprogramming. Many studies have already demonstrated the success of switching PanIN/PDAC back to normal cells through the use of PD325901, the expression of E47, and the knockdown of Dickkopf-3. In this review, we discuss the signaling pathways involved in ADM and the therapeutic potential of targeting reprogramming in order to treat PDAC. PMID:27610015

  11. Therapeutic potential of targeting acinar cell reprogramming in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-Hin; Li, You-Jia; Chen, Yang-Chao

    2016-08-21

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a common pancreatic cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Treating this life-threatening disease remains challenging due to the lack of effective prognosis, diagnosis and therapy. Apart from pancreatic duct cells, acinar cells may also be the origin of PDAC. During pancreatitis or combined with activating KRas(G12D) mutation, acinar cells lose their cellular identity and undergo a transdifferentiation process called acinar-to-ductal-metaplasia (ADM), forming duct cells which may then transform into pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and eventually PDAC. During ADM, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, Wnt, Notch and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/Akt signaling inhibits the transcription of acinar-specific genes, including Mist and amylase, but promotes the expression of ductal genes, such as cytokeratin-19. Inhibition of this transdifferentiation process hinders the development of PanIN and PDAC. In addition, the transdifferentiated cells regain acinar identity, indicating ADM may be a reversible process. This provides a new therapeutic direction in treating PDAC through cancer reprogramming. Many studies have already demonstrated the success of switching PanIN/PDAC back to normal cells through the use of PD325901, the expression of E47, and the knockdown of Dickkopf-3. In this review, we discuss the signaling pathways involved in ADM and the therapeutic potential of targeting reprogramming in order to treat PDAC. PMID:27610015

  12. Loss of acinar cell IKKα triggers spontaneous pancreatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Wu, Xuefeng; Holzer, Ryan G.; Lee, Jun-Hee; Todoric, Jelena; Park, Eek-Joong; Ogata, Hisanobu; Gukovskaya, Anna S.; Gukovsky, Ilya; Pizzo, Donald P.; VandenBerg, Scott; Tarin, David; Atay, Çiǧdem; Arkan, Melek C.; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Moscat, Jorge; Diaz-Meco, Maria; Dawson, David; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Jörg; Karin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease that causes progressive destruction of pancreatic acinar cells and, ultimately, loss of pancreatic function. We investigated the role of IκB kinase α (IKKα) in pancreatic homeostasis. Pancreas-specific ablation of IKKα (IkkαΔpan) caused spontaneous and progressive acinar cell vacuolization and death, interstitial fibrosis, inflammation, and circulatory release of pancreatic enzymes, clinical signs resembling those of human chronic pancreatitis. Loss of pancreatic IKKα causes defective autophagic protein degradation, leading to accumulation of p62-mediated protein aggregates and enhanced oxidative and ER stress in acinar cells, but none of these effects is related to NF-κB. Pancreas-specific p62 ablation prevented ER and oxidative stresses and attenuated pancreatitis in IkkαΔpan mice, suggesting that cellular stress induced by p62 aggregates promotes development of pancreatitis. Importantly, downregulation of IKKα and accumulation of p62 aggregates were also observed in chronic human pancreatitis. Our studies demonstrate that IKKα, which may control autophagic protein degradation through its interaction with ATG16L2, plays a critical role in maintaining pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis, whose dysregulation promotes pancreatitis through p62 aggregate accumulation. PMID:23563314

  13. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Clinical and Cytomorphologic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Toll, Adam D.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2013-01-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma is a rare malignant epithelial neoplasm with predominantly exocrine acinar differentiation and is seen primarily in older men (mean age, 62 years). The presenting symptoms are usually non-specific, and jaundice is often not present. Symptoms relating to the overproduction and release of lipase into the circulation are present in 10-15% of patients. Characteristic cytomorphologic features include a population of cells with minimal pleomorphism, eccentrically placed nuclei with a single prominent nucleoli and moderate hyperchromasia. The cytoplasm is finely granular, and the background may contain granular debris secondary to cytolysis. A significant proportion of the cases also have a minor neuroendocrine component or scattered neuroendocrine cells. Approximately 50% of patients have metastatic disease at presentation, often restricted to the regional lymph nodes and liver. The prognosis is poor, only slightly better than that of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:23667367

  14. Transient cytokine treatment induces acinar cell reprogramming and regenerates functional beta cell mass in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Baeyens, Luc; Lemper, Marie; Leuckx, Gunter; De Groef, Sofie; Bonfanti, Paola; Stangé, Geert; Shemer, Ruth; Nord, Christoffer; Scheel, David W.; Pan, Fong C.; Ahlgren, Ulf; Gu, Guoqiang; Stoffers, Doris A.; Dor, Yuval; Ferrer, Jorge; Gradwohl, Gerard; Wright, Christopher VE; Van de Casteele, Mark; German, Michael S.; Bouwens, Luc; Heimberg, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Reprogramming of pancreatic exocrine cells into cells resembling beta cells may provide a strategy for treating diabetes. Here we show that transient administration of epidermal growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor to adult mice with chronic hyperglycemia efficiently stimulates the conversion of terminally differentiated acinar cells to beta-like cells. Newly generated beta-like cells are epigenetically reprogrammed, functional and glucose-responsive, and reinstate normal glycemic control for up to 248 days. The regenerative process depends on Stat3 signaling and requires a threshold number of Neurogenin 3 (Ngn3) expressing acinar cells. In contrast to previous work demonstrating in vivo conversion of acinar cells to beta-like cells by viral delivery of exogenous transcription factors, our approach achieves acinar-to-beta cell reprogramming through transient cytokine exposure rather than genetic modification. PMID:24240391

  15. Functional somatostatin receptors on a rat pancreatic acinar cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Viguerie, N.; Tahiri-Jouti, N.; Esteve, J.P.; Clerc, P.; Logsdon, C.; Svoboda, M.; Susini, C.; Vaysse, N.; Ribet, A. Mount Zion Hospital and Medical Center, San Francisco, CA Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels )

    1988-07-01

    Somatostatin receptors from a rat pancreatic acinar cell line, AR4-2J, were characterized biochemically, structurally, and functionally. Binding of {sup 125}I-(Tyr{sup 11})Somatostatin to AR4-2J cells was saturable, exhibiting a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a maximal binding capacity of 258 {plus minus} 20 fmol/10{sup 6} cells. Somatostatin receptor structure was analyzed by covalently cross-linking {sup 125}I-(Tyr{sup 11})somatostatin to its plasma membrane receptors. Gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of cross-linked proteins revealed a peptide containing the somatostatin receptor. Somatostatin inhibited vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) formation in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of somatostatin that caused half-maximal inhibition of cAMP formation was close to the receptor affinity for somatostatin. Pertussis toxin pretreatment of AR4-2J cells prevented somatostatin inhibition of VIP-stimulated cAMP formation as well as somatostatin binding. The authors conclude that AR4-2J cells exhibit functional somatostatin receptors that retain both specificity and affinity of the pancreatic acinar cell somatostatin receptors and act via the pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein N{sub i} to inhibit adenylate cyclase.

  16. Duct Cells Contribute to Regeneration of Endocrine and Acinar Cells Following Pancreatic Damage in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    CRISCIMANNA, ANGELA; SPEICHER, JULIE A.; HOUSHMAND, GOLBAHAR; SHIOTA, CHIYO; PRASADAN, KRISHNA; Ji, BAOAN; LOGSDON, CRAIG D.; GITTES, GEORGE K.; ESNI, FARZAD

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS There have been conflicting results on a cell of origin in pancreatic regeneration. These discrepancies predominantly stem from lack of specific markers for the pancreatic precursors/stem cells, as well as differences in the targeted cells and severity of tissue injury in the experimental models so far proposed. We attempted to create a model that used diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) to ablate specific cell populations, control the extent of injury, and avoid induction of the inflammatory response. METHODS To target specific types of pancreatic cells, we crossed R26DTR or R26dtR/lacZ mice with transgenic mice that express the Cre recombinase in the pancreas, under control of the Pdx1 (global pancreatic) or elastase (acinar-specific) promoters. RESULTS Exposure of PdxCre;R26DTR mice to diphtheria toxin resulted in extensive ablation of acinar and endocrine tissues but not ductal cells. Surviving cells within the ductal compartment contributed to regeneration of endocrine and acinar cells via recapitulation of the embryonic pancreatic developmental program. However, following selective ablation of acinar tissue in ElaCre-ERT2;R26DTR mice, regeneration likely occurred by reprogramming of ductal cells to acinar lineage. CONCLUSIONS In the pancreas of adult mice, epithelial cells within the ductal compartment contribute to regeneration of endocrine and acinar cells. The severity of injury determines the regenerative mechanisms and cell types that contribute to this process. PMID:21763240

  17. Proteoglycans support proper granule formation in pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Aroso, Miguel; Agricola, Brigitte; Hacker, Christian; Schrader, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Zymogen granules (ZG) are specialized organelles in the exocrine pancreas which allow digestive enzyme storage and regulated secretion. The molecular mechanisms of their biogenesis and the sorting of zymogens are still incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the role of proteoglycans in granule formation and secretion of zymogens in pancreatic AR42J cells, an acinar model system. Cupromeronic Blue cytochemistry and biochemical studies revealed an association of proteoglycans primarily with the granule membrane. Removal of proteoglycans by carbonate treatment led to a loss of membrane curvature indicating a supportive role in the maintenance of membrane shape and stability. Chemical inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis impaired the formation of normal electron-dense granules in AR42J cells and resulted in the formation of unusually small granule structures. These structures still contained the zymogen carboxypeptidase, a cargo molecule of secretory granules, but migrated to lighter fractions after density gradient centrifugation. Furthermore, the basal secretion of amylase was increased in AR42J cells after inhibitor treatment. In addition, irregular-shaped granules appeared in pancreatic lobules. We conclude that the assembly of a proteoglycan scaffold at the ZG membrane is supporting efficient packaging of zymogens and the proper formation of stimulus-competent storage granules in acinar cells of the pancreas. PMID:26105026

  18. PNA lectin for purifying mouse acinar cells from the inflamed pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiangwei; Fischbach, Shane; Fusco, Joseph; Zimmerman, Ray; Song, Zewen; Nebres, Philip; Ricks, David Matthew; Prasadan, Krishna; Shiota, Chiyo; Husain, Sohail Z.; Gittes, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Better methods for purifying human or mouse acinar cells without the need for genetic modification are needed. Such techniques would be advantageous for the specific study of certain mechanisms, such as acinar-to-beta-cell reprogramming and pancreatitis. Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectin has been used to label and isolate acinar cells from the pancreas. However, the purity of the UEA-I-positive cell fraction has not been fully evaluated. Here, we screened 20 widely used lectins for their binding specificity for major pancreatic cell types, and found that UEA-I and Peanut agglutinin (PNA) have a specific affinity for acinar cells in the mouse pancreas, with minimal affinity for other major pancreatic cell types including endocrine cells, duct cells and endothelial cells. Moreover, PNA-purified acinar cells were less contaminated with mesenchymal and inflammatory cells, compared to UEA-I purified acinar cells. Thus, UEA-I and PNA appear to be excellent lectins for pancreatic acinar cell purification. PNA may be a better choice in situations where mesenchymal cells or inflammatory cells are significantly increased in the pancreas, such as type 1 diabetes, pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:26884345

  19. Derivation of ductlike cell lines from a transplantable acinar cell carcinoma of the rat pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, O. S.; Faris, R. A.; Bell, R. H.; Kuhlmann, E. T.; Longnecker, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Two cell lines were derived from a transplantable acinar cell carcinoma that had been established from a primary carcinoma of the pancreas in an azaserine-treated Lewis rat. The cultured tumor cells initially produced amylase, but production of exocrine enzymes ceased after 1-2 weeks in culture. The cultured cells were tumorigenic in Lewis rats, and one line produced solid tumors composed of ductlike structures surrounded by dense fibrous tissue. The second cell line produced partially solid and partially cystic tumors with a mixed phenotype of squamous, mucinous, and glandular areas when it grew in vivo following regrafting. Both cell lines lost structural and immunohistochemical acinar cell markers while acquiring duct cell markers during culture and regrafting. These studies provide strong support for the hypothesis that ductlike carcinomas can arise from neoplastic pancreatic acinar cells in rats. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8391218

  20. KRAS Mutations in Canine and Feline Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Crozier, C; Wood, G A; Foster, R A; Stasi, S; Liu, J H W; Bartlett, J M S; Coomber, B L; Sabine, V S

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals may serve as valuable models for studying human cancers. Although KRAS is the most commonly mutated gene in human ductal pancreatic cancers (57%), with mutations frequently occurring at codons 12, 13 and 61, human pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) lack activating KRAS mutations. In the present study, 32 pancreatic ACC samples obtained from 14 dogs and 18 cats, including seven metastases, were analyzed for six common activating KRAS mutations located in codons 12 (n = 5) and 13 (n = 1) using Sequenom MassARRAY. No KRAS mutations were found, suggesting that, similar to human pancreatic ACC, KRAS mutations do not play a critical role in feline or canine pancreatic ACC. Due to the similarity of the clinical disease in dogs and cats to that of man, this study confirms that companion animals offer potential as a suitable model for investigating this rare subtype of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:27290644

  1. Effect of ionizing radiation on acinar morphogenesis of human prostatic epithelial cells under three-dimensional culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; X, S Ma; Kong, D; Yi, H; Wang, X; Liang, B; Xu, H; He, M; Jia, L; Qased, A B; Yang, Y; Liu, X

    2012-01-01

    Homeostasis is maintained by the interplay of multiple factors that directly or indirectly regulate cell proliferation and cell death. Complex multiple interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix occur during acinar morphogenesis and changes in these might indicate carcinogenesis of cells from a normal to a malignant, invasive phenotype. In this study, the human prostatic epithelial cell line RWPE-1 was cultured under three-dimensional (3-D) culture conditions, and the effect of ionizing radiation on acinar morphogenesis and its association with autophagy were discussed. The results illustrated that formation of specific spheroid (acinar) structures was detectable under 3-D culture conditions. Radiation induced the disruption of acini in different cell models using either gene overexpression (Akt) or gene knock-down (Beclin 1 and ATG7). Introduction of Akt not only accelerated the growth of cells (i.e., caused the cells to manifest elongating and microspike-like structures that are obviously different from structures seen in wild-type RWPE-1 cells under two-dimensional conditions), but also changed their morphological characteristics under 3-D culture conditions. Knock-down of autophagy-related genes (Beclin 1 and ATG7) increased the radiosensitivity of cells under 3-D culture conditions, and cells died of non-apoptotic death after radiation. The results suggested that ionizing radiation may change the cell phenotype and the formation of acini. Additionally even the autophagy mechanism may play a role in these processes. PMID:22296497

  2. Basal autophagy maintains pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis and protein synthesis and prevents ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Laura; Fagman, Johan B.; Kim, Ju Youn; Todoric, Jelena; Gukovsky, Ilya; Mackey, Mason; Ellisman, Mark H.; Karin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells possess very high protein synthetic rates as they need to produce and secrete large amounts of digestive enzymes. Acinar cell damage and dysfunction cause malnutrition and pancreatitis, and inflammation of the exocrine pancreas that promotes development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a deadly pancreatic neoplasm. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that maintain acinar cell function and whose dysregulation can lead to tissue damage and chronic pancreatitis are poorly understood. It was suggested that autophagy, the principal cellular degradative pathway, is impaired in pancreatitis, but it is unknown whether impaired autophagy is a cause or a consequence of pancreatitis. To address this question, we generated Atg7Δpan mice that lack the essential autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7) in pancreatic epithelial cells. Atg7Δpan mice exhibit severe acinar cell degeneration, leading to pancreatic inflammation and extensive fibrosis. Whereas ATG7 loss leads to the expected decrease in autophagic flux, it also results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria, oxidative stress, activation of AMPK, and a marked decrease in protein synthetic capacity that is accompanied by loss of rough ER. Atg7Δpan mice also exhibit spontaneous activation of regenerative mechanisms that initiate acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), a process that replaces damaged acinar cells with duct-like structures. PMID:26512112

  3. Characterization of single potassium channels in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, A; Schulz, I

    1995-01-01

    1. Single K(+)-selective channels with a conductance of about 48 pS (pipette, 145 mM KCl; bath, 140 mM NaCl + 4.7 mM KCl) were recorded in the patch-clamp whole-cell configuration in isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. 2. Neither application of the secretagogues acetylcholine (second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) or secretin (second messenger, cAMP), nor addition of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A to the pipette solution changed the activity of the 48 pS K+ channel. 3. Intracellular acidification with sodium propionate (20 mM) diminished activity of the 48 pS channel, whereas channel open probability was increased by cytosolic alkalization with 20 mM NH4Cl. 4. BaCl2 (5 mM), TEA (10 mM) or apamin (1 microM) added to the bath solution had no obvious effect on the kinetics of the 48 pS channel. Similarly, glibenclamide and diazoxide failed to influence the channel activity. 5. When extracellular NaCl was replaced by KCl, whole-cell recordings revealed an inwardly rectifying K+ current carried by a 17 pS K+ channel. 6. The inwardly rectifying K+ current was not pH dependent and could largely be blocked by Ba2+ but not by TEA. 7. Since the 48 pS K+ channel is neither Ca2+ nor cAMP regulated, we suggest that this channel could play a role in the maintenance of the negative cell resting potential. PMID:7623283

  4. Identification of miRNAs Involved in Reprogramming Acinar Cells into Insulin Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Teichenne, Joan; Morró, Meritxell; Casellas, Alba; Jimenez, Veronica; Tellez, Noelia; Leger, Adrien; Bosch, Fatima; Ayuso, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming acinar cells into insulin producing cells using adenoviral (Ad)-mediated delivery of Pdx1, Ngn3 and MafA (PNM) is an innovative approach for the treatment of diabetes. Here, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process and in particular, the role of microRNAs. To this end, we performed a comparative study of acinar-to-β cell reprogramming efficiency in the rat acinar cell line AR42J and its subclone B13 after transduction with Ad-PNM. B13 cells were more efficiently reprogrammed than AR42J cells, which was demonstrated by a strong activation of β cell markers (Ins1, Ins2, IAPP, NeuroD1 and Pax4). miRNome panels were used to analyze differentially expressed miRNAs in acinar cells under four experimental conditions (i) non-transduced AR42J cells, (ii) non-transduced B13 cells, (iii) B13 cells transduced with Ad-GFP vectors and (iv) B13 cells transduced with Ad-PNM vectors. A total of 59 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between non-transduced AR42J and B13 cells. Specifically, the miR-200 family was completely repressed in B13 cells, suggesting that these cells exist in a less differentiated state than AR42J cells and as a consequence they present a greater plasticity. Adenoviral transduction per se induced dedifferentiation of acinar cells and 11 miRNAs were putatively involved in this process, whereas 8 miRNAs were found to be associated with PNM expression. Of note, Ad-PNM reprogrammed B13 cells presented the same levels of miR-137-3p, miR-135a-5p, miR-204-5p and miR-210-3p of those detected in islets, highlighting their role in the process. In conclusion, this study led to the identification of miRNAs that might be of compelling importance to improve acinar-to-β cell conversion for the future treatment of diabetes. PMID:26690959

  5. Acinar cell-specific knockout of the PTHrP gene decreases the proinflammatory and profibrotic responses in pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Vandanajay; Rastellini, Cristiana; Han, Song; Aronson, Judith F.; Greeley, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatitis is a necroinflammatory disease with acute and chronic manifestations. Accumulated damage incurred during repeated bouts of acute pancreatitis (AP) can lead to chronic pancreatitis (CP). Pancreatic parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels are elevated in a mouse model of cerulein-induced AP. Here, we show elevated PTHrP levels in mouse models of pancreatitis induced by chronic cerulein administration and pancreatic duct ligation. Because acinar cells play a major role in the pathophysiology of pancreatitis, mice with acinar cell-specific targeted disruption of the Pthrp gene (PTHrPΔacinar) were generated to assess the role of acinar cell-secreted PTHrP in pancreatitis. These mice were generated using Cre-LoxP technology and the acinar cell-specific elastase promoter. PTHrPΔacinar exerted protective effects in cerulein and pancreatic duct ligation models, evident as decreased edema, histological damage, amylase secretion, pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) activation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Treating acinar cells in vitro with cerulein increased IL-6 expression and NF-κB activity; these effects were attenuated in PTHrPΔacinar cells, as were the cerulein- and carbachol-induced elevations in amylase secretion. The cerulein-induced upregulation of procollagen I expression was lost in PSCs from PTHrPΔacinar mice. PTHrP immunostaining was elevated in human CP sections. The cerulein-induced upregulation of IL-6 and ICAM-1 (human acinar cells) and procollagen I (human PSCs) was suppressed by pretreatment with the PTH1R antagonist, PTHrP (7–34). These findings establish PTHrP as a novel mediator of inflammation and fibrosis associated with CP. Acinar cell-secreted PTHrP modulates acinar cell function via its effects on proinflammatory cytokine release and functions via a paracrine pathway to activate PSCs. PMID:25035110

  6. Exocyst subunits are involved in isoproterenol-induced amylase release from rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Imai, Akane; Yoshie, Sumio; Haga-Tsujimura, Maiko; Nashida, Tomoko; Shimomura, Hiromi

    2012-04-01

    Exocytosis of secretory granules in parotid acinar cells requires multiple events: tethering, docking, priming, and fusion with a luminal plasma membrane. The exocyst complex, which is composed of eight subunits (Sec3, Sec5, Sec6, Sec8, Sec10, Sec15, Exo70, and Exo84) that are conserved in yeast and mammalian cells, is thought to participate in the exocytotic pathway. However, to date, no exocyst subunit has been identified in salivary glands. In the present study, we investigated the expression and function of exocyst subunits in rat parotid acinar cells. The expression of mRNA for all eight exocyst subunits was detected in parotid acinar cells by RT-PCR, and Sec6 and Sec8 proteins were localized on the luminal plasma membrane. Sec6 interacted with Sec8 after 5 min of stimulation with isoproterenol. In addition, antibodies to-Sec6 and Sec8 inhibited isoproterenol-induced amylase release from streptolysin O-permeabilized parotid acinar cells. These results suggest that an exocyst complex of eight subunits is required for amylase release from parotid acinar cells. PMID:22409218

  7. Pancreatic acinar cells-derived cyclophilin A promotes pancreatic damage by activating NF-κB pathway in experimental pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Ge; Wan, Rong; Hu, Yanling; Ni, Jianbo; Yin, Guojian; Xing, Miao; Shen, Jie; Tang, Maochun; Chen, Congying; Fan, Yuting; Xiao, Wenqin; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xingpeng; and others

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • CypA is upregulated in experimental pancreatitis. • CCK induces expression and release of CypA in acinar cell in vitro. • rCypA aggravates CCK-induced acinar cell death and inflammatory cytokine production. • rCypA activates the NF-κB pathway in acinar cells in vitro. - Abstract: Inflammation triggered by necrotic acinar cells contributes to the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP), but its precise mechanism remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that Cyclophilin A (CypA) released from necrotic cells is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. We therefore investigated the role of CypA in experimental AP induced by administration of sodium taurocholate (STC). CypA was markedly upregulated and widely expressed in disrupted acinar cells, infiltrated inflammatory cells, and tubular complexes. In vitro, it was released from damaged acinar cells by cholecystokinin (CCK) induction. rCypA (recombinant CypA) aggravated CCK-induced acinar cell necrosis, promoted nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 activation, and increased cytokine production. In conclusion, CypA promotes pancreatic damage by upregulating expression of inflammatory cytokines of acinar cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  8. Protein kinase D1 drives pancreatic acinar cell reprogramming and progression to intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Geou-Yarh; Döppler, Heike; Braun, Ursula B.; Panayiotou, Richard; Scotti Buzhardt, Michele; Radisky, Derek C.; Crawford, Howard C.; Fields, Alan P.; Murray, Nicole R.; Wang, Q. Jane; Leitges, Michael; Storz, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The transdifferentiation of pancreatic acinar cells to a ductal phenotype (acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, ADM) occurs after injury or inflammation of the pancreas and is a reversible process. However, in the presence of activating Kras mutations or persistent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) signalling, cells that underwent ADM can progress to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and eventually pancreatic cancer. In transgenic animal models, ADM and PanINs are initiated by high-affinity ligands for EGF-R or activating Kras mutations, but the underlying signalling mechanisms are not well understood. Here, using a conditional knockout approach, we show that protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is sufficient to drive the reprogramming process to a ductal phenotype and progression to PanINs. Moreover, using 3D explant culture of primary pancreatic acinar cells, we show that PKD1 acts downstream of TGFα and Kras, to mediate formation of ductal structures through activation of the Notch pathway.

  9. Acinar phenotype is preserved in human exocrine pancreas cells cultured at low temperature: implications for lineage-tracing of β-cell neogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mfopou, Josué K; Houbracken, Isabelle; Wauters, Elke; Mathijs, Iris; Song, Imane; Himpe, Eddy; Baldan, Jonathan; Heimberg, Harry; Bouwens, Luc

    2016-06-01

    The regenerative medicine field is expanding with great successes in laboratory and preclinical settings. Pancreatic acinar cells in diabetic mice were recently converted into β-cells by treatment with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). This suggests that human acinar cells might become a cornerstone for diabetes cell therapy in the future, if they can also be converted into glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells. Presently, studying pancreatic acinar cell biology in vitro is limited by their high plasticity, as they rapidly lose their phenotype and spontaneously transdifferentiate to a duct-like phenotype in culture. We questioned whether human pancreatic acinar cell phenotype could be preserved in vitro by physico-chemical manipulations and whether this could be valuable in the study of β-cell neogenesis. We found that culture at low temperature (4°C) resulted in the maintenance of morphological and molecular acinar cell characteristics. Specifically, chilled acinar cells did not form the spherical clusters observed in controls (culture at 37°C), and they maintained high levels of acinar-specific transcripts and proteins. Five-day chilled acinar cells still transdifferentiated into duct-like cells upon transfer to 37°C. Moreover, adenoviral-mediated gene transfer evidenced an active Amylase promoter in the 7-day chilled acinar cells, and transduction performed in chilled conditions improved acinar cell labelling. Together, our findings indicate the maintenance of human pancreatic acinar cell phenotype at low temperature and the possibility to efficiently label acinar cells, which opens new perspectives for the study of human acinar-to-β-cell transdifferentiation. PMID:26987985

  10. Acinar phenotype is preserved in human exocrine pancreas cells cultured at low temperature: implications for lineage-tracing of β-cell neogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mfopou, Josué K.; Houbracken, Isabelle; Wauters, Elke; Mathijs, Iris; Song, Imane; Himpe, Eddy; Baldan, Jonathan; Heimberg, Harry; Bouwens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The regenerative medicine field is expanding with great successes in laboratory and preclinical settings. Pancreatic acinar cells in diabetic mice were recently converted into β-cells by treatment with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). This suggests that human acinar cells might become a cornerstone for diabetes cell therapy in the future, if they can also be converted into glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells. Presently, studying pancreatic acinar cell biology in vitro is limited by their high plasticity, as they rapidly lose their phenotype and spontaneously transdifferentiate to a duct-like phenotype in culture. We questioned whether human pancreatic acinar cell phenotype could be preserved in vitro by physico-chemical manipulations and whether this could be valuable in the study of β-cell neogenesis. We found that culture at low temperature (4°C) resulted in the maintenance of morphological and molecular acinar cell characteristics. Specifically, chilled acinar cells did not form the spherical clusters observed in controls (culture at 37°C), and they maintained high levels of acinar-specific transcripts and proteins. Five-day chilled acinar cells still transdifferentiated into duct-like cells upon transfer to 37°C. Moreover, adenoviral-mediated gene transfer evidenced an active Amylase promoter in the 7-day chilled acinar cells, and transduction performed in chilled conditions improved acinar cell labelling. Together, our findings indicate the maintenance of human pancreatic acinar cell phenotype at low temperature and the possibility to efficiently label acinar cells, which opens new perspectives for the study of human acinar-to-β-cell transdifferentiation. PMID:26987985

  11. Transgenic Expression of a Single Transcription Factor Pdx1 Induces Transdifferentiation of Pancreatic Acinar Cells to Endocrine Cells in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Satsuki; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    A promising approach to new diabetes therapies is to generate β cells from other differentiated pancreatic cells in vivo. Because the acinar cells represent the most abundant cell type in the pancreas, an attractive possibility is to reprogram acinar cells into β cells. The transcription factor Pdx1 (Pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1) is essential for pancreatic development and cell lineage determination. Our objective is to examine whether exogenous expression of Pdx1 in acinar cells of adult mice might induce reprogramming of acinar cells into β cells. We established a transgenic mouse line in which Pdx1 and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) could be inducibly expressed in the acinar cells. After induction of Pdx1, we followed the acinar cells for their expression of exocrine and endocrine markers using cell-lineage tracing with EGFP. The acinar cell-specific expression of Pdx1 in adult mice reprogrammed the acinar cells as endocrine precursor cells, which migrated into the pancreatic islets and differentiated into insulin-, somatostatin-, or PP (pancreatic polypeptide)-producing endocrine cells, but not into glucagon-producing cells. When the mice undergoing such pancreatic reprogramming were treated with streptozotocin (STZ), the newly generated insulin-producing cells were able to ameliorate STZ-induced diabetes. This paradigm of in vivo reprogramming indicates that acinar cells hold promise as a source for new islet cells in regenerative therapies for diabetes. PMID:27526291

  12. Transgenic Expression of a Single Transcription Factor Pdx1 Induces Transdifferentiation of Pancreatic Acinar Cells to Endocrine Cells in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Satsuki; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    A promising approach to new diabetes therapies is to generate β cells from other differentiated pancreatic cells in vivo. Because the acinar cells represent the most abundant cell type in the pancreas, an attractive possibility is to reprogram acinar cells into β cells. The transcription factor Pdx1 (Pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1) is essential for pancreatic development and cell lineage determination. Our objective is to examine whether exogenous expression of Pdx1 in acinar cells of adult mice might induce reprogramming of acinar cells into β cells. We established a transgenic mouse line in which Pdx1 and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) could be inducibly expressed in the acinar cells. After induction of Pdx1, we followed the acinar cells for their expression of exocrine and endocrine markers using cell-lineage tracing with EGFP. The acinar cell-specific expression of Pdx1 in adult mice reprogrammed the acinar cells as endocrine precursor cells, which migrated into the pancreatic islets and differentiated into insulin-, somatostatin-, or PP (pancreatic polypeptide)-producing endocrine cells, but not into glucagon-producing cells. When the mice undergoing such pancreatic reprogramming were treated with streptozotocin (STZ), the newly generated insulin-producing cells were able to ameliorate STZ-induced diabetes. This paradigm of in vivo reprogramming indicates that acinar cells hold promise as a source for new islet cells in regenerative therapies for diabetes. PMID:27526291

  13. Constitutive IKK2 activation in acinar cells is sufficient to induce pancreatitis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Bernd; Wagner, Martin; Aleksic, Tamara; von Wichert, Götz; Weber, Christoph K; Adler, Guido; Wirth, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    Activation of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB (IKK/NF-kappaB) system and expression of proinflammatory mediators are major events in acute pancreatitis. However, the in vivo consequences of IKK activation on the onset and progression of acute pancreatitis remain unclear. Therefore, we modulated IKK activity conditionally in pancreatic acinar cells. Transgenic mice expressing the reverse tetracycline-responsive transactivator (rtTA) gene under the control of the rat elastase promoter were generated to mediate acinar cell-specific expression of IKK2 alleles. Expression of dominant-negative IKK2 ameliorated cerulein-induced pancreatitis but did not affect activation of trypsin, an initial event in experimental pancreatitis. Notably, expression of constitutively active IKK2 was sufficient to induce acute pancreatitis. This acinar cell-specific phenotype included edema, cellular infiltrates, necrosis, and elevation of serum lipase levels as well as pancreatic fibrosis. IKK2 activation caused increased expression of known NF-kappaB target genes, including mediators of the inflammatory response such as TNF-alpha and ICAM-1. Indeed, inhibition of TNF-alpha activity identified this cytokine as an important effector of IKK2-induced pancreatitis. Our data identify the IKK/NF-kappaB pathway in acinar cells as being key to the development of experimental pancreatitis and the major factor in the inflammatory response typical of this disease. PMID:17525799

  14. Omental acinar cell carcinoma of pancreatic origin in a child: a clinicopathological rarity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shilpa; Agarwal, Shipra; Nagendla, Murali Krishna; Gupta, Devendra K

    2016-03-01

    A 6-year-old boy presented with a large subhepatic mass associated with pain abdomen. Exploration revealed a tumor in lesser omentum, completely separate from the normal pancreas that was excised completely. Histopathology suggested acinar cell carcinoma of pancreatic origin in an ectopic location. The child is well at 5 months follow-up. PMID:26694824

  15. Internalization and cellular processing of cholecystokinin in rat pancreatic acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Izzo, R.S.; Pellecchia, C.; Praissman, M. )

    1988-12-01

    To evaluate the internalization of cholecystokinin, monoiodinated imidoester of cholecystokinin octapeptide ({sup 125}I-(IE)-CCK-8) was bound to dispersed pancreatic acinar cells, and surface-bound and internalized radioligand were differentiated by treating with an acidified glycine buffer. The amount of internalized radioligand was four- and sevenfold greater at 24 and 37{degree}C than at 4{degree}C between 5 and 60 min of association. Specific binding of radioligand to cell surface receptors was not significantly different at these temperatures. Chloroquine, a lysosomotropic agent that blocks intracellular proteolysis, significantly increased the amount of CCK-8 internalized by 18 and 16% at 30 and 60 min of binding, respectively, compared with control. Dithiothreitol (DTT), a sulfhydryl reducing agent, also augmented the amount of CCK-8 radioligand internalized by 25 and 29% at 30 and 60 min, respectively. The effect of chloroquine and DTT on the processing of internalized radioligand was also considered after an initial 60 min of binding of radioligand to acinar cells. After 180 min of processing, the amount of radioligand internalized was significantly greater in the presence of chloroquine compared with controls, whereas the amount of radioligand declined in acinar cells treated with DTT. Internalized and released radioactivity from acinar cells was rebound to pancreatic membrane homogenates to determine the amount of intact radioligand during intracellular processing. Chloroquine significantly increased the amount of intact {sup 125}I-(IE)-CCK-8 radioligand in released and internalized radioactivity while DTT increased the amount of intact radioligand only in internalized samples. This study shows that pancreatic acinar cells rapidly internalize large amounts of CCK-8 and that chloroquine and DTT inhibit intracellular degradation.

  16. [Vital fluorochrome staining of isolated pancreatic acinar cells for the characterization of cell-structural changes].

    PubMed

    Dietzmann, K; Letko, G; Spormann, H

    1986-01-01

    Rhodamine 6 G as a cationic fluorophore is demonstrated to be selectively accumulated by mitochondria of living pancreatic acinar cells (cell isolation see Spormann et al. [1986]. The accumulation of rhodamine was studied under using of electron transport inhibitors, ionophores and some hydrogen donors. The application of DNP as wellknown protonophore resulted in a rapid dissipation of any fluorescent signals, whereas application of sodium succinate, hyperosmolaric exhibited a remarkable increase of fluorescence intensity. Using this technique it is possible to estimate the energy state of living cells under various conditions of energy supply and demand. PMID:2426729

  17. Transdifferentiation of human amniotic epithelial cells into acinar cells using a double-chamber system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gui-Lin; Zhang, Ni-Ni; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Yao, Li; Zhao, Yu-Jie; Wang, Yu-Ying

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the transdifferentiation of stem cells from human amnion tissue into functional acinar cells (ACs) using a co-culture system. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) were isolated from amnion tissue by mechanical mincing and enzymatic digestion. After primary culture, the phenotype of the cells was identified by flow cytometry (FCM) and immunocytochemical staining. hAECs were co-cultured with submandibular gland acinar cells of SD rats using a double-chamber system. The expression of α-amylase was determined by immunocytochemical method and fluorescent real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after induction for 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. Digestion with trypsin is an effective method for isolating hAECs from amnion tissue. These cells were positive for CD29 and CK19 and weakly positive for CD44 and α-amylase. Within 2 weeks, α-amylase in hAECs increased with induction time. The expression of α-amylase in hAECs was increased 3.38-fold after co-culturing for 1 week. This ratio increased to 6.6-fold, and these cells were positive for mucins, after co-culturing for 2 weeks. hAECs possess the potential to differentiate into ACs in vitro. They might be a stem cell resource for clinical applications of cell replacement therapy in salivary gland dysfunction diseases. PMID:22800093

  18. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  19. Loss of Ifnar1 in Pancreatic Acinar Cells Ameliorates the Disease Course of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katharina J; Raulefs, Susanne; Kong, Bo; Steiger, Katja; Regel, Ivonne; Gewies, Andreas; Kleeff, Jörg; Michalski, Christoph W

    2015-01-01

    Type I interferon constitutes an essential component of the combinational therapy against viral disease. Acute pancreatitis is one side effect of type I interferon-based therapy, implying that activation of type I interferon signaling affects the homeostasis and integrity of pancreatic acinar cells. Here, we investigated the role of type I interferon signaling in pancreatic acinar cells using a caerulein-induced murine model of acute pancreatitis. Pancreas-specific ablation of interferon (alpha and beta) receptor 1 (Ifnar1) partially protected animals from caerulein-induced pancreatitis, as demonstrated by reduced tissue damage. Profiling of infiltrating immune cells revealed that this dampened tissue damage response correlated with the number of macrophages in the pancreas. Pharmacologic depletion of macrophages reversed the protective effect of Ifnar1 deficiency. Furthermore, expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), a potent factor for macrophage recruitment, was significantly increased in the Ifnar1-deficient pancreas. Thus, type I interferon signaling in pancreatic acinar cells controls pancreatic homeostasis by affecting the macrophage-mediated inflammatory response in the pancreas. PMID:26618925

  20. Rab27b regulates exocytosis of secretory vesicles in acinar epithelial cells from the lacrimal gland

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Lilian; Ngo, Julie; Schechter, Joel E.; Karvar, Serhan; Tolmachova, Tanya; Seabra, Miguel C.; Hume, Alistair N.

    2011-01-01

    Tear proteins are supplied by the regulated fusion of secretory vesicles at the apical surface of lacrimal gland acinar cells, utilizing trafficking mechanisms largely yet uncharacterized. We investigated the role of Rab27b in the terminal release of these secretory vesicles. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of primary cultured rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cells revealed that Rab27b was enriched on the membrane of large subapical vesicles that were significantly colocalized with Rab3D and Myosin 5C. Stimulation of cultured acinar cells with the secretagogue carbachol resulted in apical fusion of these secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane. Evaluation of morphological changes by transmission electron microscopy of lacrimal glands from Rab27b−/− and Rab27ash/ash/Rab27b−/− mice, but not ashen mice deficient in Rab27a, showed changes in abundance and organization of secretory vesicles, further confirming a role for this protein in secretory vesicle exocytosis. Glands lacking Rab27b also showed increased lysosomes, damaged mitochondria, and autophagosome-like organelles. In vitro, expression of constitutively active Rab27b increased the average size but retained the subapical distribution of Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicles, whereas dominant-negative Rab27b redistributed this protein from membrane to the cytoplasm. Functional studies measuring release of a cotransduced secretory protein, syncollin-GFP, showed that constitutively active Rab27b enhanced, whereas dominant-negative Rab27b suppressed, stimulated release. Disruption of actin filaments inhibited vesicle fusion to the apical membrane but did not disrupt homotypic fusion. These data show that Rab27b participates in aspects of lacrimal gland acinar cell secretory vesicle formation and release. PMID:21525430

  1. Functional differences in the acinar cells of the murine major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Jaramillo, Y; Choi, S; Catalan, M A; Melvin, J E

    2015-05-01

    In humans, approximately 90% of saliva is secreted by the 3 major salivary glands: the parotid (PG), the submandibular (SMG), and the sublingual glands (SLG). Even though it is known that all 3 major salivary glands secrete saliva by a Cl(-)-dependent mechanism, salivary secretion rates differ greatly among these glands. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the properties of the ion-transporting pathways in acinar cells that might account for the differences among the major salivary glands. Pilocarpine-induced saliva was simultaneously collected in vivo from the 3 major salivary glands of mice. When normalized by gland weight, the amount of saliva secreted by the PG was more than 2-fold larger than that obtained from the SMG and SLG. At the cellular level, carbachol induced an increase in the intracellular [Ca(2+)] that was more than 2-fold larger in PG and SMG than in SLG acinar cells. Carbachol-stimulated Cl(-) efflux and the protein levels of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A, the major apical Cl(-) efflux pathway in salivary acinar cells, were significantly greater in PG compared with SMG and SLG. In addition, we evaluated the transporter activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1) and anion exchangers (AE), the 2 primary basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in acinar cells. The SMG NKCC1 activity was about twice that of the PG and more than 12-fold greater than that of the SLG. AE activity was similar in PG and SLG, and both PG and SLG AE activity was about 2-fold larger than that of SMG. In summary, the salivation kinetics of the 3 major glands are distinct, and these differences can be explained by the unique functional properties of each gland related to Cl(-) movement, including the transporter activities of the Cl(-) uptake and efflux pathways, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. PMID:25680367

  2. Serotonin promotes acinar dedifferentiation following pancreatitis-induced regeneration in the adult pancreas.

    PubMed

    Saponara, Enrica; Grabliauskaite, Kamile; Bombardo, Marta; Buzzi, Raphael; Silva, Alberto B; Malagola, Ermanno; Tian, Yinghua; Hehl, Adrian B; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Seleznik, Gitta M; Zabel, Anja; Reding, Theresia; Sonda, Sabrina; Graf, Rolf

    2015-12-01

    The exocrine pancreas exhibits a distinctive capacity for tissue regeneration and renewal following injury. This regenerative ability has important implications for a variety of disorders, including pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, diseases associated with high morbidity and mortality. Thus, understanding its underlying mechanisms may help in developing therapeutic interventions. Serotonin has been recognized as a potent mitogen for a variety of cells and tissues. Here we investigated whether serotonin exerts a mitogenic effect in pancreatic acinar cells in three regenerative models, inflammatory tissue injury following pancreatitis, tissue loss following partial pancreatectomy, and thyroid hormone-stimulated acinar proliferation. Genetic and pharmacological techniques were used to modulate serotonin levels in vivo. Acinar dedifferentiation and cell cycle progression during the regenerative phase were investigated over the course of 2 weeks. By comparing acinar proliferation in the different murine models of regeneration, we found that serotonin did not affect the clonal regeneration of mature acinar cells. Serotonin was, however, required for acinar dedifferentiation following inflammation-mediated tissue injury. Specifically, lack of serotonin resulted in delayed up-regulation of progenitor genes and delayed the formation of acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and defective acinar cell proliferation. We identified serotonin-dependent acinar secretion as a key step in progenitor-based regeneration, as it promoted acinar cell dedifferentiation and the recruitment of type 2 macrophages. Finally, we identified a regulatory Hes1-Ptfa axis in the uninjured adult pancreas, activated by zymogen secretion. Our findings indicated that serotonin plays a critical role in the regeneration of the adult pancreas following pancreatitis by promoting the dedifferentiation of acinar cells. PMID:26235267

  3. Effect of ethanol on cholecystokinin-stimulated zymogen conversion in pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Katz, M; Carangelo, R; Miller, L J; Gorelick, F

    1996-01-01

    Exocrine pancreatic zymogens are proteolytically processed to active forms after they are secreted into the small intestine. However, intracellular conversion of zymogens to active forms can be stimulated by treating pancreatic acinar cells with high doses of cholecystokinin (0.1 microM) or carbamylcholine (0.1 mM). The high doses of cholecystokinin are unlikely to be achieved physiologically. The ability of ethanol to sensitize the acinar cell to zymogen conversion Induced by cholecystokinin or carbamylcholine was examined. Ethanol (10-200 mM) had no effect alone or when combined with carbamylcholine. However, ethanol (25 mM) added with low-dose cholecystokinin (0.1 nM) generated zymogen conversion that was 1) sixfold higher than cholecystokinin alone and 2) equivalent to that generated by highdose cholecystokinin (10 microM). The ability of ethanol to enhance cholecystokinin-induced zymogen conversion was dependent on the dose of ethanol and the duration of ethanol treatment. The cholecystokinin receptor antagonist, L-364,718, blocked the conversion stimulated by the addition of ethanol with cholecystokinin. This effect of ethanol did not change the affinity or number of cholecystokinin receptors, suggesting an effect more distal in the stimulus-activation cascade. These findings demonstrate that ethanol selectively sensitizes the pancreatic acinar cell to cholecystokinin-stimulated zymogen proteolysis. PMID:8772515

  4. Replacement of Rbpj with Rbpjl in the PTF1 complex controls the final maturation of pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Masui, Toshihiko; Swift, Galvin H.; Deering, Tye; Shen, Chengcheng; Coats, Ward S.; Long, Qiaoming; Elsässer, Hans-Peter; Magnuson, Mark A.; MacDonald, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims The mature pancreatic acinar cell is dedicated to the production of very large amounts of digestive enzymes. The early stages of pancreatic development require the Rbpj-form of the trimeric transcription factor complex PTF1 (PTF1-J). As acinar development commences, Rbpjl gradually replaces Rbpj; in the mature pancreas, PTF1 contains Rbpjl (PTF1-L). We investigated whether PTF1-L controls the expression of genes that complete the final stage of acinar differentiation. Methods We analyzed acinar development and transcription in mice with disrupted Rbpjl (Rbpjlko/ko mice). We performed comprehensive analyses of the mRNA population and PTF1 target genes in pancreatic acinar cells from these and wild-type mice. Results In Rbpjlko/ko mice, acinar differentiation was incomplete and characterized by decreased expression (as much as 99%) of genes that encode digestive enzymes or proteins of regulated exocytosis and mitochondrial metabolism. Whereas PTF1-L bound regulatory sites of genes in normal adult pancreatic cells, the embryonic form (PTF1-J) persisted in the absence of Rbpjl and replaced PTF1-L; the extent of replacement determined gene expression levels. Loss of PTF1-L reduced expression (>2-fold) of only about 50 genes, 90% of which were direct targets of PTF1-L. The magnitude of the effects on individual digestive enzyme genes correlated with the developmental timing of gene activation. Absence of Rbpjl increased pancreatic expression of liver-restricted mRNAs. Conclusions Replacement of Rbpj by Rbpjl in the PTF1 complex drives acinar differentiation by maximizing secretory protein synthesis, stimulating mitochondrial metabolism and cytoplasmic creatine-phosphate energy stores, completing the packaging and secretory apparatus, and maintaining acinar-cell homeostasis. PMID:20398665

  5. Transdifferentiation of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells into acinar cells of the submandibular gland using a co-culture system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jingu; Park, Sangkyu; Roh, Sangho

    2015-05-15

    A loss of salivary gland function often occurs after radiation therapy in head and neck tumors, though secretion of saliva by the salivary glands is essential for the health and maintenance of the oral environment. Transplantation of salivary acinar cells (ACs), in part, may overcome the side effects of therapy. Here we directly differentiated mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) into ACs using a co-culture system. Multipotent ADSCs can be easily collected from stromal vascular fractions of adipose tissues. The isolated ADSCs showed positive expression of markers such as integrin beta-1 (CD29), cell surface glycoprotein (CD44), endoglin (CD105), and Nanog. The cells were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neural-like cells after 14 days in culture. ADSCs at passage 2 were co-cultured with mouse ACs in AC culture medium using the double-chamber (co-culture system) to avoid mixing the cell types. The ADSCs in this co-culture system expressed markers of ACs, such as α-amylases and aquaporin5, in both mRNA and protein. ADSCs cultured in AC-conditioned medium also expressed AC markers. Cellular proliferation and senescence analyses demonstrated that cells in the co-culture group showed lower senescence and a higher proliferation rate than the AC-conditioned medium group at Days 14 and 21. The results above imply direct conversion of ADSCs into ACs under the co-culture system; therefore, ADSCs may be a stem cell source for the therapy for salivary gland damage. - Highlights: • ADSCs could transdifferentiate into acinar cells (ACs) using ACs co-culture (CCA). • Transdifferentiated ADSCs expressed ACs markers such as α-amylase and aquaporin5. • High proliferation and low senescence were presented in CCA at Day 14. • Transdifferentiation of ADSCs into ACs using CCA may be an appropriate method for cell-based therapy.

  6. Genetic deletion of Rab27B in pancreatic acinar cells affects granules size and has inhibitory effects on amylase secretion.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanan; Ernst, Stephen A; Lentz, Stephen I; Williams, John A

    2016-03-18

    Small G protein Rab27B is expressed in various secretory cell types and plays a role in mediating secretion. In pancreatic acinar cells, Rab27B was found to be expressed on the zymogen granule membrane and by overexpression to regulate the secretion of zymogen granules. However, the effect of Rab27B deletion on the physiology of pancreatic acinar cells is unknown. In the current study, we utilized the Rab27B KO mouse model to better understand the role of Rab27B in the secretion of pancreatic acinar cells. Our data show that Rab27B deficiency had no obvious effects on the expression of major digestive enzymes and other closely related proteins, e.g. similar small G proteins, such as Rab3D and Rab27A, and putative downstream effectors. The overall morphology of acinar cells was not changed in the knockout pancreas. However, the size of zymogen granules was decreased in KO acinar cells, suggesting a role of Rab27B in regulating the maturation of secretory granules. The secretion of digestive enzymes was moderately decreased in KO acini, compared with the WT control. These data indicate that Rab27B is involved at a different steps of zymogen granule maturation and secretion, which is distinct from that of Rab3D. PMID:26845357

  7. Amylase release from dissociated mouse pancreatic acinar cells stimulated by glucagon: effect of membrane stabilizers.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M

    1980-01-01

    1. The effect of membrane stabilizers and cytochalasin-B on amylase secretion, basal and induced by ionophore A23187, CCK-PZ, bethanechol and glucagon, was studied in dissociated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. 2. Cytochalasin-B did not affect basal or secretagogue-stimulated amylase secretion. 3. Membrane stabilizers [thymol (10(-7)-10(-4) M), chlorpromazine (10(-7)-10(-4) M) and propranolol (10(-7)-10(-5) M) did not alter basal release of amylase. At higher concentrations of thymol (10(-3) M), chlorpromazine (10(-3) M) and propranolol (10(-4) M), dissociated acinar cells were lysed as indicated by an increase in release of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). 4. Ionophore A23187, CCK-PZ (maximal effective concentrations, 0.01 u. ml.-1), bethanechol (maximal effective concentrations, 10(-4) M) and glucagon increased amylase secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. Concentrations of CCK-PZ and bethanechol beyond optimal levels decreased amylase secretion. Concentrations of ionophore A23187 and glucagon when tested beyond 10(-6) M and 10(-4) M respectively increased the release of LDH. In concentrations that were non-toxic, membrane stabilizers blocked the stimulating effect of cholecystokinin-pancreozymin and bethanechol on amylase secretion but did not alter the response to A23187 and glucagon. 5. Unlike bethanechol, glucagon neither increased the uptake of 45Ca nor did it alter the release of 45Ca from cells previously loaded with 45CaCl2. 6. These data provide evidence that stimulus-secretion coupling in dissociated pancreatic acinar cells is basically similar to cells in situ. The effect of glucagon is consistent with the model in which hormone-dependent mobilization of Ca2+ from intra- or extracellular sources is bypassed leading to digestive enzyme secretion. PMID:6166745

  8. A comparative ultrastructural study of the parotid gland acinar cells of nine wild ruminant species (mammalia, artiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Stolte, M; Ito, S

    1996-01-01

    The ultrastructural similarities and differences of the parotid gland acinar cells of nine wild ruminants (roe deer, nyala, tahr, Eld's deer, red deer, Pere David's deer, European mouflon, African buffalo, sable antelope) representing three feeding types i.e. concentrate selectors (CS), grass and roughage eaters (GR) and intermediate feeders (IM) were compared. The parotid acinar cells of the CS contained more granular endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi-complexes and secretory granules than those of the GR. The acinar cells of the latter were characterized by numerous mitochondria, folded plasma membranes and intercellular secretory canaliculi. The ultrastructure of the secretory granules varied in different species but their morphology was not related to feeding type. An unusual feature of the parotid acinar cells of all feeding types was the evidence of an apocrine-like mode of secretion. A typical morphological change of some parotid acinar cells was the compression of the nucleus by large vacuoles. No distinctive differences were found in the ultrastructure of the parotid gland of wild and captive ruminants. PMID:9090994

  9. Clinicopathologic study of 62 acinar cell carcinomas of the pancreas: insights into the morphology and immunophenotype and search for prognostic markers.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Stefano; Adsay, Volkan; Albarello, Luca; Asioli, Sofia; Casnedi, Selenia; Franzi, Francesca; Marando, Alessandro; Notohara, Kenji; Sessa, Fausto; Vanoli, Alessandro; Zhang, Lizhi; Capella, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) of the pancreas is a very rare tumor that has various morphologic features, which may give rise to diagnostic difficulties. Because of its rarity, many clinicopathologic characteristics remain to be further elucidated, and prognostic factors are yet to be well established. With the aim of better characterizing this carcinoma and searching for prognostic indicators, we collected 62 ACCs and investigated the following parameters: site, size, local infiltration, node and distant metastases, architectural pattern, nuclear atypia, presence of necrosis, lymphovascular and perineural invasion, proliferation, BCL10, trypsin, carboxyl ester lipase, amylase, lipase, PDX1, cytokeratin 19 (CK19), CK7, p53, and β-catenin expression. Twelve cases showing >30% of endocrine cells were reclassified as mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinomas, whereas 1 tumor was reclassified as a mixed ductal-acinar carcinoma and was excluded from the statistical prognostic evaluations. BCL10 and trypsin were the most reliable immunohistochemical markers, whereas amylase and lipase were not. Surgery was statistically correlated with a better prognosis (P=0.0008). Among resected tumors there was no difference in survival between ACCs and mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinomas, and factors that significantly correlated with poor prognosis were size >6.5 cm (P=0.004), lymph node (P=0.0039) and distant (P=0.008) metastases, and UICC stage (P=0.009). Stage was the only independent prognostic factor at multivariable analysis, and the best prognostic discrimination was observed on grouping together stages I and II and grouping together stages III and IV, suggesting a simplification of the UICC staging for such cancers. In addition, vascular and perineural invasion and CK19 and p53 expression showed a trend for poor prognosis, not reaching statistical significance. PMID:23026929

  10. Ligand-bound Thyroid Hormone Receptor Contributes to Reprogramming of Pancreatic Acinar Cells into Insulin-producing Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Fumihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Asami, Keiichi; Ichijo, Sayaka; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kaneshige, Masahiro; Oikawa, Yoichi; Aida, Kaoru; Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    One goal of diabetic regenerative medicine is to instructively convert mature pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells. We recently reported that ligand-bound thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα) plays a critical role in expansion of the β-cell mass during postnatal development. Here, we used an adenovirus vector that expresses TRα driven by the amylase 2 promoter (AdAmy2TRα) to induce the reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells into insulin-producing cells. Treatment with l-3,5,3-triiodothyronine increases the association of TRα with the p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), leading to the phosphorylation and activation of Akt and the expression of Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA in purified acinar cells. Analyses performed with the lectin-associated cell lineage tracing system and the Cre/loxP-based direct cell lineage tracing system indicate that newly synthesized insulin-producing cells originate from elastase-expressing pancreatic acinar cells. Insulin-containing secretory granules were identified in these cells by electron microscopy. The inhibition of p85α expression by siRNA or the inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 prevents the expression of Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA and the reprogramming to insulin-producing cells. In immunodeficient mice with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia, treatment with AdAmy2TRα leads to the reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells to insulin-producing cells in vivo. Our findings suggest that ligand-bound TRα plays a critical role in β-cell regeneration during postnatal development via activation of PI3K signaling. PMID:23595988

  11. Ligand-bound thyroid hormone receptor contributes to reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Fumihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Asami, Keiichi; Ichijo, Sayaka; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kaneshige, Masahiro; Oikawa, Yoichi; Aida, Kaoru; Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-05-31

    One goal of diabetic regenerative medicine is to instructively convert mature pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells. We recently reported that ligand-bound thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα) plays a critical role in expansion of the β-cell mass during postnatal development. Here, we used an adenovirus vector that expresses TRα driven by the amylase 2 promoter (AdAmy2TRα) to induce the reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells into insulin-producing cells. Treatment with l-3,5,3-triiodothyronine increases the association of TRα with the p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), leading to the phosphorylation and activation of Akt and the expression of Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA in purified acinar cells. Analyses performed with the lectin-associated cell lineage tracing system and the Cre/loxP-based direct cell lineage tracing system indicate that newly synthesized insulin-producing cells originate from elastase-expressing pancreatic acinar cells. Insulin-containing secretory granules were identified in these cells by electron microscopy. The inhibition of p85α expression by siRNA or the inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 prevents the expression of Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA and the reprogramming to insulin-producing cells. In immunodeficient mice with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia, treatment with AdAmy2TRα leads to the reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells to insulin-producing cells in vivo. Our findings suggest that ligand-bound TRα plays a critical role in β-cell regeneration during postnatal development via activation of PI3K signaling. PMID:23595988

  12. Pancreatic acinar cells: effect of acetylcholine, pancreozymin, gastrin and secretin on membrane potential and resistance in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, O H; Ueda, N

    1975-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings of membrane potential and input resistance have been made in vivo and in vitro from the exocrine acinar cells of rat pancreas using indwelling glass micro-electrodes. 2. The resting cell membrane potential and input resistance in the in vivo experiments were not markedly different from the values obtained in the in vitro experiments. The effect of both acetylcholine (ACh) and pancreozymin (CCK-Pz) on the pancreas in vivo as well as in vitro was to reduce both the acinar cell membrane potential and the input resistance narkedly. The amplitude of the evoked depolarization and the change in input resistance evoked by supramaximal stimuli were of the same magnitude in both types of preparations. 3. Gastrin had an effect on the acinar cell potential and resistance which was indistinguishable from that of CCK-Pz or ACh. The effect of gastrin or CCK-Pz was, in contrast to that of ACh, not influenced by the presence of atropine. The reversal potential for the gastrin evoked potential change was about -20 mV. 4. Secretin in doses producing maximal volume secretion in vivo had no effect on acinar cell membrane potential and input resistance. 5. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (5mM) and cyclic GMP (1mM) had no effect on cell membrane potential or resistance. 6. It is concluded that the in vitro superfused pancreas segment preparation is a useful model system in electrophysiological studies since it functions essentially as the in vivo preparation. In contrast to both gastrin and CCK-Pz, secretin has no effect on the bioelectrical properties of the acinar cells, indicating that there are no physiologically important secretin receptors in rat acinar cells. PMID:168355

  13. Glycyrrhizin down-regulates CCL2 and CXCL2 expression in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Panahi, Yaser; Fakhari, Shohreh; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeid; Jalili, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Many inflammatory chemokines release from leukocytes and pancreatic acinar cells which play important roles in pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP). Of interests, CXCL2 and CCL2 have been shown elevated in the plasma of patients with AP. We have recently found that Glycyrrhizin (GZ) attenuates AP in mice model. In this study, we aimed to investigate the direct effect of GZ on expression levels of CCL2 and CXCl2 in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. Isolated acinar cells were isolated from the pancreas of healthy C57BL/6 mice, stimulated with cerulein (10-7 M) and then treated with either PBS or different doses of GZ. The levels of CCL2 and CXCL2 expression at mRNA were assessed by qRT-PCR. Conditioned media from supernatants of each cells culture condition were collected for detection of CCL2 and CXCL2 levels by ELISA. First, we observed that cerulein significantly upregulates both cytokines expression in acinar cells. Moreover, we treated the acinar cells with GZ and found that GZ significantly downregulates CCL2 and CXCL2 expression at mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, the conditioned media of GZ-treated cells contained a significant lower levels of CCL2 and CXCL2 (p<0.05). In conclusion, our data demonstrate for the first time that GZ directly downregulates CCL2 and CXCL2 levels in cerulein-stimulated acinar cells which may explain the mechanism of therapeutic effects of GZ in cerulein-induced AP in mice. PMID:26155433

  14. Functional involvement of Noc2, a Rab27 effector, in rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Imai, Akane; Yoshie, Sumio; Nashida, Tomoko; Shimomura, Hiromi; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2006-11-15

    Noc2 has recently been proposed to regulate exocytosis in both endocrine and exocrine cells; however, protein expression, subcellular localization and function of Noc2 in exocrine cells have never been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether Noc2, a Rab27 effector, is involved in isoproterenol (IPR)-stimulated amylase release from acinar cells. Rab27 was detected in the apical plasma membrane (APM) and secretory granule membrane (SGM) fractions, and was translocated to the APM after IPR stimulation for 5 min, but was detected at lower levels in the APM after 30 min. In contrast, although Noc2 was expressed in SGM bound to Rab27, Noc2 was not translocated to APM and the Noc2/Rab27 complex was disrupted after stimulation with IPR for short time. In addition, the anti-Noc2-Rab-binding-domain antibody inhibited IPR-stimulated amylase release from streptolysin O-permeabilized parotid acinar cells. Our results suggest that the Noc2/Rab27 complex is an important constituent of the early stages of IPR-stimulated amylase release. PMID:17067543

  15. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  16. The econobiology of pancreatic acinar cells granule inventory and the stealthy nano-machine behind it.

    PubMed

    Hammel, Ilan; Meilijson, Isaac

    2016-03-01

    The pancreatic gland secretes most of the enzymes and many other macromolecules needed for food digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. These molecules play an important role in digestion, host defense and lubrication. The secretion of pancreatic proteins ensures the availability of the correct mix of proteins when needed. This review describes model systems available for the study of the econobiology of secretory granule content. The secretory pancreatic molecules are stored in large dense-core secretory granules that may undergo either constitutive or evoked secretion, and constitute the granule inventory of the cell. It is proposed that the Golgi complex functions as a distribution center for secretory proteins in pancreatic acinar cells, packing the newly formed secretory molecules into maturing secretory granules, also known functionally as condensing vacuoles. Mathematical modelling brings forward a process underlying granule inventory maintenance at various physiological states of condensation and aggregation by homotypic fusion. These models suggest unique but simple mechanisms accountable for inventory buildup and size, as well as for the distribution of secretory molecules into different secretory pathways in pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:26702787

  17. Kinetic Control of Multiple Forms of Ca2+ Spikes by Inositol Trisphosphate in Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Koichi; Miyashita, Yasushi; Kasai, Haruo

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms of agonist-induced Ca2+ spikes have been investigated using a caged inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and a low-affinity Ca2+ indicator, BTC, in pancreatic acinar cells. Rapid photolysis of caged IP3 was able to reproduce acetylcholine (ACh)-induced three forms of Ca2+ spikes: local Ca2+ spikes and submicromolar (<1 μM) and micromolar (1–15 μM) global Ca2+ spikes (Ca2+ waves). These observations indicate that subcellular gradients of IP3 sensitivity underlie all forms of ACh-induced Ca2+ spikes, and that the amplitude and extent of Ca2+ spikes are determined by the concentration of IP3. IP3-induced local Ca2+ spikes exhibited similar time courses to those generated by ACh, supporting a role for Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in local Ca2+ spikes. In contrast, IP3- induced global Ca2+ spikes were consistently faster than those evoked with ACh at all concentrations of IP3 and ACh, suggesting that production of IP3 via phospholipase C was slow and limited the spread of the Ca2+ spikes. Indeed, gradual photolysis of caged IP3 reproduced ACh-induced slow Ca2+ spikes. Thus, local and global Ca2+ spikes involve distinct mechanisms, and the kinetics of global Ca2+ spikes depends on that of IP3 production particularly in those cells such as acinar cells where heterogeneity in IP3 sensitivity plays critical role. PMID:10427093

  18. Cathepsin B Activity Initiates Apoptosis via Digestive Protease Activation in Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Experimental Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sendler, Matthias; Maertin, Sandrina; John, Daniel; Persike, Maria; Weiss, F Ulrich; Krüger, Burkhard; Wartmann, Thomas; Wagh, Preshit; Halangk, Walter; Schaschke, Norbert; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatitis is associated with premature activation of digestive proteases in the pancreas. The lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin B (CTSB) is a known activator of trypsinogen, and its deletion reduces disease severity in experimental pancreatitis. Here we studied the activation mechanism and subcellular compartment in which CTSB regulates protease activation and cellular injury. Cholecystokinin (CCK) increased the activity of CTSB, cathepsin L, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and caspase 3 in vivo and in vitro and induced redistribution of CTSB to a secretory vesicle-enriched fraction. Neither CTSB protein nor activity redistributed to the cytosol, where the CTSB inhibitors cystatin-B/C were abundantly present. Deletion of CTSB reduced and deletion of cathepsin L increased intracellular trypsin activation. CTSB deletion also abolished CCK-induced caspase 3 activation, apoptosis-inducing factor, as well as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein degradation, but these depended on trypsinogen activation via CTSB. Raising the vesicular pH, but not trypsin inhibition, reduced CTSB activity. Trypsin inhibition did not affect apoptosis in hepatocytes. Deletion of CTSB affected apoptotic but not necrotic acinar cell death. In summary, CTSB in pancreatitis undergoes activation in a secretory, vesicular, and acidic compartment where it activates trypsinogen. Its deletion or inhibition regulates acinar cell apoptosis but not necrosis in two models of pancreatitis. Caspase 3-mediated apoptosis depends on intravesicular trypsinogen activation induced by CTSB, not CTSB activity directly, and this mechanism is pancreas-specific. PMID:27226576

  19. Polyethylenimine-mediated expression of transgenes in the acinar cells of rats salivary glands in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sramkova, Monika; Parente, Laura; Wigand, Timothy; Aye, Myo-Pale'; Shitara, Akiko; Weigert, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Non viral-mediated transfection of plasmid DNA provides a fast and reliable way to express various transgenes in selected cell populations in live animals. Here, we show an improvement of a previously published method that is based on injecting plasmid DNA into the ductal system of the salivary glands in live rats. Specifically, using complexes between plasmid DNA and polyethyleneimine (PEI) we show that the expression of the transgenes is directed selectively to the salivary acinar cells. PEI does not affect the ability of cells to undergo regulated exocytosis, which was one of the main drawbacks of the previous methods. Moreover PEI does not affect the proper localization and targeting of transfected proteins, as shown for the apical plasma membrane water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5). Overall, this approach, coupled with the use of intravital microscopy, permits to conduct localization and functional studies under physiological conditions, in a rapid, reliable, and affordable fashion. PMID:25621283

  20. Effect of glucagon on digestive enzyme synthesis, transport and secretion in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M

    1980-01-01

    1. Effect of glucagon on amylase secretion and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release from functionally intact dissociated pancreatic acinar cells and acini was studied. 2. In dissociated rat pancreatic acinar cells, the rate of amylase secretion was increased by 70% with bethanechol (maximally effective concentration, 10(-4) M) and 125% with A23187 (10(-5) M), but the response to cholecystokinin-pancreozymin (CCK-PZ) was inconsistent. In dissociated cells from mouse pancreas, the increases amounted to 78% with bethanechol (10(-4) M), 134% with A23187 (10(-5) M) and 82% with CCK-PZ (maximally effective concentration, 0 . 01 u. ml.-1). Glucagon in concentrations ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-4) M increased amylase secretion by 3, 26, 67 and 80%, whereas secretin (10(-8)--10(-5) M) increased amylase secretion by 8, 39, 88 and 138%. LDH release was increased with A23187 in concentrations greater than 10(-6) M. 3. CCK-PZ, bethanechol and A23187 used in maximal concentrations potentiated the effect of a submaximal dose of glucagon whereas secretin did not have an additive or a potentiating effect. 4. Pancreatic acini were approximately 3 times more responsive to secretagogues than cells. The dose--response curves to bethanechol, glucagon and CCK-PZ for increase in amylase secretion were similar. LDH release was not increased by these agents. Cytochalasin B (5 microgram ml.-1) which is known to disrupt the integrity of luminal membrane inhibited the amylase secretion stimulated by glucagon, bethanechol and CCK-PZ. 5. Glucagon inhibited incorporation of a mixture of fifteen 14C-labelled amino acids (algal profile, Schwarz Mann) into perchloric acid precipitable proteins in dissociated mouse pancreatic acini within 30 min. 6. In 'pulse-chase' experiments, glucagon decreased the specific activity of zymogen granules isolated by differential centrifugation, from pancreatic lobules (120 min) and increased the specific activity of radiolabelled proteins in the medium (60 and 120 min

  1. Activation of neurokinin-1 receptors up-regulates substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor expression in murine pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Yung-Hua; Moochhala, Shabbir; Bhatia, Madhav

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Acute pancreatitis (AP) has been associated with an up-regulation of substance P (SP) and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) in the pancreas. Increased SP-NK1R interaction was suggested to be pro-inflammatory during AP. Previously, we showed that caerulein treatment increased SP/NK1R expression in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, but the effect of SP treatment was not evaluated. Pancreatic acinar cells were obtained from pancreas of male swiss mice (25–30 g). We measured mRNA expression of preprotachykinin-A (PPTA) and NK1R following treatment of SP (10−6M). SP treatment increased PPTA and NK1R expression in isolated pancreatic acinar cells, which was abolished by pretreatment of a selective NK1R antagonist, CP96,345. SP also time dependently increased protein expression of NK1R. Treatment of cells with a specific NK1R agonist, GR73,632, up-regulated SP protein levels in the cells. Using previously established concentrations, pre-treatment of pancreatic acinar cells with Gö6976 (10 nM), rottlerin (5 μM), PD98059 (30 μM), SP600125 (30 μM) or Bay11-7082 (30 μM) significantly inhibited up-regulation of SP and NK1R. These observations suggested that the PKC-ERK/JNK-NF-κB pathway is necessary for the modulation of expression levels. In comparison, pre-treatment of CP96,345 reversed gene expression in SP-induced cells, but not in caerulein-treated cells. Overall, the findings in this study suggested a possible auto-regulatory mechanism of SP/NK1R expression in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, via activation of NK1R. Elevated SP levels during AP might increase the occurrence of a positive feedback loop that contributes to abnormally high expression of SP and NK1R. PMID:22040127

  2. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is present in pancreatic acinar cells and regulates amylase secretion through cAMP.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanan; Ernst, Stephen A; Heidenreich, Kaeli; Williams, John A

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a glucoincretin hormone that can act through its receptor (GLP-1R) on pancreatic β-cells and increase insulin secretion and production. GLP-1R agonists are used clinically to treat type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 may also regulate the exocrine pancreas at multiple levels, including inhibition through the central nervous system, stimulation indirectly through insulin, and stimulation directly on acinar cells. However, it has been unclear whether GLP-1R is present in pancreatic acini and what physiological functions these receptors regulate. In the current study we utilized GLP-1R knockout (KO) mice to study the role of GLP-1R in acinar cells. RNA expression of GLP-1R was detected in acutely isolated pancreatic acini. Acinar cell morphology and expression of digestive enzymes were not affected by loss of GLP-1R. GLP-1 induced amylase secretion in wild-type (WT) acini. In GLP-1R KO mice, this effect was abolished, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced amylase release in KO acini showed a pattern similar to that in WT acini. GLP-1 stimulated cAMP production and increased protein kinase A-mediated protein phosphorylation in WT acini, and these effects were absent in KO acini. These data show that GLP-1R is present in pancreatic acinar cells and that GLP-1 can regulate secretion through its receptor and cAMP signaling pathway. PMID:26542397

  3. A Systems Biology Approach Identifies a Regulatory Network in Parotid Acinar Cell Terminal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Melissa A.; Venkatesh, Srirangapatnam G.; Lakshmanan, Jaganathan; Carenbauer, Anne L.; Perez, Sara M.; Andres, Sarah A.; Appana, Savitri; Brock, Guy N.; Wittliff, James L.; Darling, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transcription factor networks that drive parotid salivary gland progenitor cells to terminally differentiate, remain largely unknown and are vital to understanding the regeneration process. Methodology A systems biology approach was taken to measure mRNA and microRNA expression in vivo across acinar cell terminal differentiation in the rat parotid salivary gland. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to specifically isolate acinar cell RNA at times spanning the month-long period of parotid differentiation. Results Clustering of microarray measurements suggests that expression occurs in four stages. mRNA expression patterns suggest a novel role for Pparg which is transiently increased during mid postnatal differentiation in concert with several target gene mRNAs. 79 microRNAs are significantly differentially expressed across time. Profiles of statistically significant changes of mRNA expression, combined with reciprocal correlations of microRNAs and their target mRNAs, suggest a putative network involving Klf4, a differentiation inhibiting transcription factor, which decreases as several targeting microRNAs increase late in differentiation. The network suggests a molecular switch (involving Prdm1, Sox11, Pax5, miR-200a, and miR-30a) progressively decreases repression of Xbp1 gene transcription, in concert with decreased translational repression by miR-214. The transcription factor Xbp1 mRNA is initially low, increases progressively, and may be maintained by a positive feedback loop with Atf6. Transfection studies show that Xbp1Mist1 promoter. In addition, Xbp1 and Mist1 each activate the parotid secretory protein (Psp) gene, which encodes an abundant salivary protein, and is a marker of terminal differentiation. Conclusion This study identifies novel expression patterns of Pparg, Klf4, and Sox11 during parotid acinar cell differentiation, as well as numerous differentially expressed microRNAs. Network analysis identifies a novel stemness arm, a

  4. Tmem16A Encodes the Ca2+-activated Cl− Channel in Mouse Submandibular Salivary Gland Acinar Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, Victor G.; Catalán, Marcelo A.; Brown, David A.; Putzier, Ilva; Hartzell, H. Criss; Marmorstein, Alan D.; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Rock, Jason R.; Harfe, Brian D.; Melvin, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of an apical Ca2+-dependent Cl− channel (CaCC) is the rate-limiting step for fluid secretion in many exocrine tissues. Here, we compared the properties of native CaCC in mouse submandibular salivary gland acinar cells to the Ca2+-gated Cl− currents generated by Tmem16A and Best2, members from two distinct families of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels found in salivary glands. Heterologous expression of Tmem16A and Best2 transcripts in HEK293 cells produced Ca2+-activated Cl− currents with time and voltage dependence and inhibitor sensitivity that resembled the Ca2+-activated Cl− current found in native salivary acinar cells. Best2−/− and Tmem16A−/− mice were used to further characterize the role of these channels in the exocrine salivary gland. The amplitude and the biophysical footprint of the Ca2+-activated Cl− current in submandibular gland acinar cells from Best2-deficient mice were the same as in wild type cells. Consistent with this observation, the fluid secretion rate in Best2 null mice was comparable with that in wild type mice. In contrast, submandibular gland acinar cells from Tmem16A−/− mice lacked a Ca2+-activated Cl− current and a Ca2+-mobilizing agonist failed to stimulate Cl− efflux, requirements for fluid secretion. Furthermore, saliva secretion was abolished by the CaCC inhibitor niflumic acid in wild type and Best2−/− mice. Our results demonstrate that both Tmem16A and Best2 generate Ca2+-activated Cl− current in vitro with similar properties to those expressed in native cells, yet only Tmem16A appears to be a critical component of the acinar Ca2+-activated Cl− channel complex that is essential for saliva production by the submandibular gland. PMID:20177062

  5. A resected case of symptomatic acinar cell cystadenoma of the pancreas displacing the main pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Haruyoshi; Hatsuno, Tsuyoshi; Kinoshita, Mitsuru; Hasegawa, Kazuya; Ishihara, Hiromasa; Takano, Nao; Shimoyama, Satofumi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Masato; Ichihara, Shu; Kanda, Mitsuro; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Ken

    2016-12-01

    Acinar cell cystadenoma (ACA) of the pancreas has been newly recognized as an entity by the World Health Organization (WHO) definition (2010), and its pathogenesis has not been known adequately because of the rarity. Here, we report a case of a 22-year-old female who had been followed up for a cystic lesion at the tail of the pancreas pointed out by a screening computed tomography (CT) scan 7 years ago. The tumor grew in size from 3.3 to 5.1 cm in diameter for 6 years (0.3 cm per year). Particularly, it rapidly grew up to 6.3 cm in the latest 3 months in concurrence with the emergence of epigastralgia. A contrasted CT scan revealed the irregularly formed, multilocular cystic tumor having thin septum and calcification. The intratumoral magnetic resonance imaging intensity in the T1 and T2 weighted images were low and high, respectively. No communications between the tumor and the main pancreatic duct (MPD) were found, but the tumor displaced the MPD. She underwent surgical resection because the tumor was growing, turned symptomatic, and it seemed difficult to be diagnosed correctly until totally biopsied. Spleen-preserved distal pancreatectomy was performed. It was pathologically diagnosed as ACA; the cyst was lined by cells with normal acinar differentiation; cuboidal cells with round, basally oriented nuclei and eosinophilic granules in its apical cytoplasm. The abdominal pain has disappeared, and no recurrences have been found during a 5-year follow-up. Clinicians are recommended to consider an ACA as one of differential diagnoses of cystic tumors of the pancreas to provide appropriate diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:27108123

  6. Cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) agonist, GW405833 reduces agonist-induced Ca2+ oscillations in mouse pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zebing; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Jingke; Zhao, Mengqin; Sun, Nana; Sun, Fangfang; Shen, Jianxin; Zhang, Haiying; Xia, Kunkun; Chen, Dejie; Gao, Ming; Hammer, Ronald P.; Liu, Qingrong; Xi, Zhengxiong; Fan, Xuegong; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that the blockade of intracellular Ca2+ signals may protect pancreatic acinar cells against Ca2+ overload, intracellular protease activation, and necrosis. The activation of cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) prevents acinar cell pathogenesis in animal models of acute pancreatitis. However, whether CB2Rs modulate intracellular Ca2+ signals in pancreatic acinar cells is largely unknown. We evaluated the roles of CB2R agonist, GW405833 (GW) in agonist-induced Ca2+ oscillations in pancreatic acinar cells using multiple experimental approaches with acute dissociated pancreatic acinar cells prepared from wild type, CB1R-knockout (KO), and CB2R-KO mice. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed that CB2R protein was expressed in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Electrophysiological experiments showed that activation of CB2Rs by GW reduced acetylcholine (ACh)-, but not cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced Ca2+ oscillations in a concentration-dependent manner; this inhibition was prevented by a selective CB2R antagonist, AM630, or was absent in CB2R-KO but not CB1R-KO mice. In addition, GW eliminated L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca2+ oscillations, pancreatic amylase, and pulmonary myeloperoxidase. Collectively, we provide novel evidence that activation of CB2Rs eliminates ACh-induced Ca2+ oscillations and L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca2+ signaling in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, which suggests a potential cellular mechanism of CB2R-mediated protection in acute pancreatitis. PMID:27432473

  7. Cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) agonist, GW405833 reduces agonist-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zebing; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Jingke; Zhao, Mengqin; Sun, Nana; Sun, Fangfang; Shen, Jianxin; Zhang, Haiying; Xia, Kunkun; Chen, Dejie; Gao, Ming; Hammer, Ronald P; Liu, Qingrong; Xi, Zhengxiong; Fan, Xuegong; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that the blockade of intracellular Ca(2+) signals may protect pancreatic acinar cells against Ca(2+) overload, intracellular protease activation, and necrosis. The activation of cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) prevents acinar cell pathogenesis in animal models of acute pancreatitis. However, whether CB2Rs modulate intracellular Ca(2+) signals in pancreatic acinar cells is largely unknown. We evaluated the roles of CB2R agonist, GW405833 (GW) in agonist-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in pancreatic acinar cells using multiple experimental approaches with acute dissociated pancreatic acinar cells prepared from wild type, CB1R-knockout (KO), and CB2R-KO mice. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed that CB2R protein was expressed in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Electrophysiological experiments showed that activation of CB2Rs by GW reduced acetylcholine (ACh)-, but not cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in a concentration-dependent manner; this inhibition was prevented by a selective CB2R antagonist, AM630, or was absent in CB2R-KO but not CB1R-KO mice. In addition, GW eliminated L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca(2+) oscillations, pancreatic amylase, and pulmonary myeloperoxidase. Collectively, we provide novel evidence that activation of CB2Rs eliminates ACh-induced Ca(2+) oscillations and L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca(2+) signaling in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, which suggests a potential cellular mechanism of CB2R-mediated protection in acute pancreatitis. PMID:27432473

  8. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Overview of Clinicopathologic Features and Insights into the Molecular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Stefano; Sessa, Fausto; Capella, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) of the pancreas are rare pancreatic neoplasms accounting for about 1–2% of pancreatic tumors in adults and about 15% in pediatric subjects. They show different clinical symptoms at presentation, different morphological features, different outcomes, and different molecular alterations. This heterogeneous clinicopathological spectrum may give rise to difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis with consequential therapeutic and prognostic implications. The molecular mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of ACCs are still not completely understood, although in recent years, several attempts have been made to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in ACC biology. In this paper, we will review the main clinicopathological and molecular features of pancreatic ACCs of both adult and pediatric subjects to give the reader a comprehensive overview of this rare tumor type. PMID:26137463

  9. Prolonged Survival in a Patient with a Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ploquin, Anne; Baldini, Capucine; Vuagnat, Perrine; Makhloufi, Samira; Desauw, Christophe; Hebbar, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare entity. Herein we present the case of a 50-year-old male patient with an unlimited mass on the pancreatic corpus and tail with peripancreatic effusion and multiple metastases in the liver and spleen. A liver biopsy showed a pancreatic ACC. The patient received 9 cycles of gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (GEMOX regimen), which had to be stopped because of a persistent grade 2 neuropathy. A CT scan showed complete response after 14 years. At the age of 61 years, a localized prostatic cancer was diagnosed, treated by prostatectomy. The patient carried a BRCA2 mutation. None of the precedent case reports describe a chemosensibility to the GEMOX regimen. In spite of the lack of study in these patients, chemotherapy with oxaliplatin seems to be the most effective. Long survival can be expected. PMID:26600777

  10. Prolonged Survival in a Patient with a Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ploquin, Anne; Baldini, Capucine; Vuagnat, Perrine; Makhloufi, Samira; Desauw, Christophe; Hebbar, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare entity. Herein we present the case of a 50-year-old male patient with an unlimited mass on the pancreatic corpus and tail with peripancreatic effusion and multiple metastases in the liver and spleen. A liver biopsy showed a pancreatic ACC. The patient received 9 cycles of gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (GEMOX regimen), which had to be stopped because of a persistent grade 2 neuropathy. A CT scan showed complete response after 14 years. At the age of 61 years, a localized prostatic cancer was diagnosed, treated by prostatectomy. The patient carried a BRCA2 mutation. None of the precedent case reports describe a chemosensibility to the GEMOX regimen. In spite of the lack of study in these patients, chemotherapy with oxaliplatin seems to be the most effective. Long survival can be expected. PMID:26600777

  11. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini

    PubMed Central

    Gaiko-Shcherbak, Aljona; Fabris, Gloria; Dreissen, Georg; Merkel, Rudolf; Hoffmann, Bernd; Noetzel, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa) experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN) without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function. PMID:26674091

  12. Up-regulation of Store-operated Ca2+ Entry and Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Promote the Acinar Phenotype of the Primary Human Salivary Gland Cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Shyh-Ing; Ong, Hwei Ling; Liu, Xibao; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu S

    2016-04-15

    The signaling pathways involved in the generation and maintenance of exocrine gland acinar cells have not yet been established. Primary human salivary gland epithelial cells, derived from salivary gland biopsies, acquired an acinar-like phenotype when the [Ca(2+)] in the serum-free medium (keratinocyte growth medium, KGM) was increased from 0.05 mm (KGM-L) to 1.2 mm (KGM-H). Here we examined the mechanism underlying this Ca(2+)-dependent generation of the acinar cell phenotype. Compared with cells in KGM-L, those in KGM-H display enhancement of Orai1, STIM1, STIM2, and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFAT1) expression together with an increase in store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), SOCE-dependent nuclear translocation of pGFP-NFAT1, and NFAT-dependent but not NFκB-dependent gene expression. Importantly, AQP5, an acinar-specific protein critical for function, is up-regulated in KGM-H via SOCE/NFAT-dependent gene expression. We identified critical NFAT binding motifs in the AQP5 promoter that are involved in Ca(2+)-dependent up-regulation of AQP5. These important findings reveal that the Ca(2+)-induced switch of salivary epithelial cells to an acinar-like phenotype involves remodeling of SOCE and NFAT signaling, which together control the expression of proteins critically relevant for acinar cell function. Our data provide a novel strategy for generating and maintaining acinar cells in culture. PMID:26903518

  13. The monoclonal anti-BCL10 antibody (clone 331.1) is a sensitive and specific marker of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma and pancreatic metaplasia.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Stefano; Franzi, Francesca; Marchet, Silvia; Finzi, Giovanna; Clerici, Moira; Vigetti, Davide; Chiaravalli, Anna Maria; Sessa, Fausto; Capella, Carlo

    2009-02-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare pancreatic cancer which may be difficult to distinguish from other solid nonadenocarcinoma tumors. The diagnosis depends on the demonstration of acinar differentiation, obtained with antibodies recognizing various pancreatic enzymes that, although specific, show different sensitivity. The C-terminal portion of the BCL10 protein shows homology with carboxyl ester hydrolase (CEH), an enzyme produced by pancreatic acinar cells. We investigated the usefulness of a C-terminal BCL10 monoclonal antibody in the diagnosis of ACCs. We examined normal pancreases and different pancreatic tumors including ACCs, mixed acinar-endocrine carcinomas, ductal adenocarcinomas, mucinous, serous, solid pseudopapillary, and endocrine neoplasms. In addition, various normal tissues and cases of pancreatic metaplasia of the gastroesophageal mucosa, cases of ectopic pancreas, gastrointestinal endocrine tumors, salivary and breast acinic cell carcinomas, gastric adenocarcinomas with and without acinar differentiation, and hepatocellular carcinomas were studied. BCL10 immunoreactivity paralleled that of CEH and was restricted to acinar cells of normal and ectopic pancreas, of pancreatic metaplasia, and of ACCs. The anti-BCL10 antibody was more sensitive in detecting ACCs and pancreatic metaplasia than antibodies directed against other pancreatic enzymes. We suggest using BCL10 antibody for diagnosing pancreatic tumors and whenever an acinar differentiation is suspected in gastrointestinal neoplastic and metaplastic lesions. PMID:19066953

  14. The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor E47 Reprograms Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells to a Quiescent Acinar State With Reduced Tumorigenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SangWun; Lahmy, Reyhaneh; Riha, Chelsea; Yang, Challeng; Jakubison, Brad L.; van Niekerk, Jaco; Staub, Claudio; Wu, Yifan; Gates, Keith; Dong, Duc Si; Konieczny, Stephen F.; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) initiates from quiescent acinar cells that attain a Kras mutation, lose signaling from basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, undergo acinar-ductal metaplasia, and rapidly acquire increased growth potential. We queried whether PDA cells can be reprogrammed to revert to their original quiescent acinar cell state by shifting key transcription programs. Methods Human PDA cell lines were engineered to express an inducible form of the bHLH protein E47. Gene expression, growth, and functional studies were investigated using microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblots, immunohistochemistry, small interfering RNA, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, and cell transplantation into mice. Results In human PDA cells, E47 activity triggers stable G0/G1 arrest, which requires the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and the stress response protein TP53INP1. Concurrently, E47 induces high level expression of acinar digestive enzymes and feed forward activation of the acinar maturation network regulated by the bHLH factor MIST1. Moreover, induction of E47 in human PDA cells in vitro is sufficient to inhibit tumorigenesis. Conclusions Human PDA cells retain a high degree of plasticity, which can be exploited to induce a quiescent acinar cell state with reduced tumorigenic potential. Moreover, bHLH activity is a critical node coordinately regulating human PDA cell growth versus cell fate. PMID:25894862

  15. Activation of Ca2+ entry into acinar cells by a non-phosphorylatable inositol trisphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, G. S. J.; Rossier, M. F.; Hughes, A. R.; Shears, S. B.; Armstrong, D. L.; , J. W. Putney, Jr.

    1991-07-01

    IN many cell types, receptor activation of phosphoinositidase C results in an initial release of intracellular Ca2+ stores followed by sustained Ca2+ entry across the plasma membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is the mediator of the initial Ca2+ release1, although its role in the mechanism underlying Ca2+ entry remains controversial1-6. We have now used two techniques to introduce inositol phosphates into mouse lacrimal acinar cells and measure their effects on Ca2+ entry: microinjection into cells loaded with Fura-2, a fluorescent dye which allows the measurement of intra-cellular free calcium concentration by microspectrofluorimetry, and perfusion of patch clamp pipettes in the whole-cell configuration while monitoring the activity of Ca2+-activated K+ channels as an indicator of intracellular Ca2+. We report here that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate serves as a signal that is both necessary and sufficient for receptor activation of Ca2+ entry across the plasma membrane in these cells.

  16. A model system for the study of stimulus - enzyme secretion coupling in rat pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Heisler, S

    1980-08-01

    A superfusion technique was developed as a model system for the study of stimulus-secretion coupling in collagenase-dispersed rat pancreatic acinar cells. Cells (10(7)) were combined with a slurry of Biogel P-4 beads and the mixture was decanted into a plastic column (1.5 cm X 8.5 cm) and perfused with Krebs-Ringer. Amylase activity was determined in sequentially collected effusate fractions and used to estimate the secretory rate. Carbachol, carbachol plus dibutyryl cyclic AMP, cholecystokinin-pancreozymin, and the ionophore A-23187 all stimulated a rapid increase in the rate of secretion. Cell integrity was unaffected by these stimulants as evidenced microscopically and by the lack of lactate dehydrogenase activity in the effusates. Enzymes secreted in response to secretagogues were collected, concentrated, and isoelectrofocused on polyacrylamide gels. A film detection technique was developed to localize amylase activity. The model system has the following advantages: (1) secreted proteolytic products are removed from the vicinity of cells, thereby preventing direct cellular damage and hydrolysis of peptide agonist; (2) the need to add trypsin inhibitors is eliminated and only a minimal addition of albumin (0.001%) is required, thus allowing the separation and distortion-free analysis of secreted proteins; (3) the perfusion conditions can be changed rapidly without disturbing the cells. The model described is therefore well suited to the study of both molecular and kinetic events involved in the enzyme secretory phenomenon in exocrine pancreas. PMID:6164455

  17. Cell Proliferation in Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Stafman, Laura L; Beierle, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, continues to carry a dismal prognosis for children diagnosed with advanced stage or relapsed disease. This review focuses upon factors responsible for cell proliferation in neuroblastoma including transcription factors, kinases, and regulators of the cell cycle. Novel therapeutic strategies directed toward these targets in neuroblastoma are discussed. PMID:26771642

  18. Cell Proliferation in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Stafman, Laura L.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, continues to carry a dismal prognosis for children diagnosed with advanced stage or relapsed disease. This review focuses upon factors responsible for cell proliferation in neuroblastoma including transcription factors, kinases, and regulators of the cell cycle. Novel therapeutic strategies directed toward these targets in neuroblastoma are discussed. PMID:26771642

  19. Rab27A Is Present in Mouse Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Is Required for Digestive Enzyme Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yanan; Ernst, Stephen A.; Stuenkel, Edward L.; Lentz, Stephen I.; Williams, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The small G-protein Rab27A has been shown to regulate the intracellular trafficking of secretory granules in various cell types. However, the presence, subcellular localization and functional impact of Rab27A on digestive enzyme secretion by mouse pancreatic acinar cells are poorly understood. Ashen mice, which lack the expression of Rab27A due to a spontaneous mutation, were used to investigate the function of Rab27A in pancreatic acinar cells. Isolated pancreatic acini were prepared from wild-type or ashen mouse pancreas by collagenase digestion, and CCK- or carbachol-induced amylase secretion was measured. Secretion occurring through the major-regulated secretory pathway, which is characterized by zymogen granules secretion, was visualized by Dextran-Texas Red labeling of exocytotic granules. The minor-regulated secretory pathway, which operates through the endosomal/lysosomal pathway, was characterized by luminal cell surface labeling of lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1). Compared to wild-type, expression of Rab27B was slightly increased in ashen mouse acini, while Rab3D and digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, chymotrypsin and elastase) were not affected. Localization of Rab27B, Rab3D and amylase by immunofluorescence was similar in both wild-type and ashen acinar cells. The GTP-bound states of Rab27B and Rab3D in wild-type and ashen mouse acini also remained similar in amount. In contrast, acini from ashen mice showed decreased amylase release induced by CCK- or carbachol. Rab27A deficiency reduced the apical cell surface labeling of LAMP1, but did not affect that of Dextran-Texas Red incorporation into the fusion pockets at luminal surface. These results show that Rab27A is present in mouse pancreatic acinar cells and mainly regulates secretion through the minor-regulated pathway. PMID:25951179

  20. A Novel Function of Noc2 in Agonist-Induced Intracellular Ca2+ Increase during Zymogen-Granule Exocytosis in Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Sho; Miki, Takashi; Seino, Susumu; Tamai, Seiichi; Kasai, Haruo; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2012-01-01

    Noc2, a putative Rab effector, contributes to secretory-granule exocytosis in neuroendocrine and exocrine cells. Here, using two-photon excitation live-cell imaging, we investigated its role in Ca2+-dependent zymogen granule (ZG) exocytosis in pancreatic acinar cells from wild-type (WT) and Noc2-knockout (KO) mice. Imaging of a KO acinar cell revealed an expanded granular area, indicating ZG accumulation. In our spatiotemporal analysis of the ZG exocytosis induced by agonist (cholecystokinin or acetylcholine) stimulation, the location and rate of progress of ZG exocytosis did not differ significantly between the two strains. ZG exocytosis from KO acinar cells was seldom observed at physiological concentrations of agonists, but was normal (vs. WT) at high concentrations. Flash photolysis of a caged calcium compound confirmed the integrity of the fusion step of ZG exocytosis in KO acinar cells. The decreased ZG exocytosis present at physiological concentrations of agonists raised the possibility of impaired elicitation of calcium spikes. When calcium spikes were evoked in KO acinar cells by a high agonist concentration: (a) they always started at the apical portion and traveled to the basal portion, and (b) calcium oscillations over the 10 µM level were observed, as in WT acinar cells. At physiological concentrations of agonists, however, sufficient calcium spikes were not observed, suggesting an impaired [Ca2+]i-increase mechanism in KO acinar cells. We propose that in pancreatic acinar cells, Noc2 is not indispensable for the membrane fusion of ZG per se, but instead performs a novel function favoring agonist-induced physiological [Ca2+]i increases. PMID:22615885

  1. A novel function of Noc2 in agonist-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase during zymogen-granule exocytosis in pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Sho; Miki, Takashi; Seino, Susumu; Tamai, Seiichi; Kasai, Haruo; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2012-01-01

    Noc2, a putative Rab effector, contributes to secretory-granule exocytosis in neuroendocrine and exocrine cells. Here, using two-photon excitation live-cell imaging, we investigated its role in Ca(2+)-dependent zymogen granule (ZG) exocytosis in pancreatic acinar cells from wild-type (WT) and Noc2-knockout (KO) mice. Imaging of a KO acinar cell revealed an expanded granular area, indicating ZG accumulation. In our spatiotemporal analysis of the ZG exocytosis induced by agonist (cholecystokinin or acetylcholine) stimulation, the location and rate of progress of ZG exocytosis did not differ significantly between the two strains. ZG exocytosis from KO acinar cells was seldom observed at physiological concentrations of agonists, but was normal (vs. WT) at high concentrations. Flash photolysis of a caged calcium compound confirmed the integrity of the fusion step of ZG exocytosis in KO acinar cells. The decreased ZG exocytosis present at physiological concentrations of agonists raised the possibility of impaired elicitation of calcium spikes. When calcium spikes were evoked in KO acinar cells by a high agonist concentration: (a) they always started at the apical portion and traveled to the basal portion, and (b) calcium oscillations over the 10 µM level were observed, as in WT acinar cells. At physiological concentrations of agonists, however, sufficient calcium spikes were not observed, suggesting an impaired [Ca(2+)](i)-increase mechanism in KO acinar cells. We propose that in pancreatic acinar cells, Noc2 is not indispensable for the membrane fusion of ZG per se, but instead performs a novel function favoring agonist-induced physiological [Ca(2+)](i) increases. PMID:22615885

  2. CCK independently activates intracellular trypsinogen and NF-kappaB in rat pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Han, B; Ji, B; Logsdon, C D

    2001-03-01

    In the cholecystokinin (CCK) hyperstimulation model of acute pancreatitis, two early intracellular events, activation of trypsinogen and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), are thought to be important in the development of the disease. In this study, the relationship between these two events was investigated. NF-kappaB activity was monitored by using a DNA binding assay and mob-1 chemokine gene expression. Intracellular trypsin activity was measured by using a fluorogenic substrate. Protease inhibitors including FUT-175, Pefabloc, and E-64d prevented CCK stimulation of intracellular trypsinogen and NF-kappaB activation. Likewise, the NF-kappaB inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibited CCK stimulation of NF-kappaB and intracellular trypsinogen activation. These results suggested a possible codependency of these two events. However, CCK stimulated NF-kappaB activation in Chinese hamster ovary-CCK(A) cells, which do not express trypsinogen, indicating that trypsin is not necessary for CCK activation of NF-kappaB. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated expression in acinar cells of active p65 subunits to stimulate NF-kappaB, or of inhibitory kappaB-alpha molecules to inhibit NF-kappaB, did not affect either basal or CCK-mediated trypsinogen activation. Thus trypsinogen and NF-kappaB activation are independent events stimulated by CCK. PMID:11171565

  3. Quantitative description of the spatial arrangement of organelles in a polarised secretory epithelial cell: the salivary gland acinar cell

    PubMed Central

    MAYHEW, TERRY M.

    1999-01-01

    Previous quantitative descriptions of cellular ultrastructure have focused on spatial content (volume, surface area and number of organelles and membrane domains). It is possible to complement such descriptions by also quantifying spatial arrangements. Hitherto, applications of stereological methods for achieving this (notably, estimation of covariance and pair correlation functions) have been confined to organ and tissue levels. This study explores 3-dimensional subcellular arrangements of key organelles within acinar cells of rabbit parotid salivary glands, highly polarised epithelial cells specialised for exocrine secretion of α-amylase. It focuses on spatial arrangements of secretion product stores (zymogen granules), rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and mitochondria. Systematic random samples of electron microscopical fields of view from 3 rabbits were analysed using test grids bearing linear dipole probes of different sizes. Unbiased estimates of organelle volume densities were obtained by point counting and estimates of covariance and pair correlation functions by dipole counting. Plots of pair correlation functions against dipole length identified spatial arrangement differences between organelle types. Volumes within RER and mitochondrial compartments were positively correlated with themselves at distances below 4 μm and 2 μm respectively but were essentially randomly arranged at longer distances. In sharp contrast, zymogen granules were not randomly arranged. They were clustered at distances below 6–7 μm and more widely scattered at greater distances. These findings provide quantitative confirmation of the polarised arrangement of zymogen granules within acinar cells and further support for the relative invariance of biological organisation between subjects. PMID:10337960

  4. Whole exome sequencing reveals recurrent mutations in BRCA2 and FAT genes in acinar cell carcinomas of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Toru; Sakamoto, Hitomi; Takeuchi, Shoko; Ameri, Mitra; Kuboki, Yuko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Hatori, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Sugiyama, Masanori; Ohike, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Michio; Shibata, Noriyuki; Shimizu, Kyoko; Shiratori, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis. Compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, its molecular features are poorly known. We studied a total of 11 acinar cell carcinomas, including 3 by exome and 4 by target sequencing. Exome sequencing revealed 65 nonsynonymous mutations and 22 indels with a mutation rate of 3.4 mutations/Mb per tumor, on average. By accounting for not only somatic but also germline mutations with loss of the wild-type allele, we identified recurrent mutations of BRCA2 and FAT genes. BRCA2 showed somatic or germline premature termination mutations, with loss of the wild-type allele in 3 of 7 tumors. FAT1, FAT3, and FAT4 showed somatic or germline missense mutations in 4 of 7 tumors. The germline FAT mutations were with loss of the wild-type allele. Loss of BRCA2 expression was observed in 5 of 11 tumors. One patient with a BRCA2-mutated tumor experienced complete remission of liver metastasis following cisplatinum chemotherapy. In conclusion, acinar cell carcinomas show a distinct mutation pattern and often harbor somatic or germline mutations of BRCA2 and FAT genes. This result may warrant assessment of BRCA2 abrogation in patients with the carcinoma to determine their sensitivity to chemotherapy. PMID:25743105

  5. Effects of caerulein on the apical cytoskeleton of the pancreatic acinar cell.

    PubMed Central

    O'Konski, M S; Pandol, S J

    1990-01-01

    In this study experiments were performed to correlate the rate of digestive enzyme secretion to morphologic observations of the apical cytoskeleton using dispersed rat pancreatic acini with various concentrations of caerulein. Caerulein at concentrations of 10 pM to 0.1 nM stimulated increasing rates of secretion of amylase, a digestive enzyme. Greater concentrations of caerulein caused progressively less amylase secretion. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated several characteristics of the apical cytoskeleton in untreated acini that were altered with the "inhibitory" concentrations of caerulein. In control acini and acini stimulated with concentrations of caerulein up to 0.1 nM, the micrographs reveal an apical actin network extending into microvilli, an intermediate filament band, and electron-dense structures contained in both the actin filament network and the intermediate filament band. With concentrations of caerulein greater than 0.1 nM, these structures were progressively ablated. The findings with respect to the actin filament network were confirmed with light microscopic observations of dispersed acini stained with rhodamine-phalloidin. These results indicate that caerulein has marked morphologic effects on the pancreatic acinar cell cytoskeleton and that the cytoskeletal changes may modulate the secretory response. Images PMID:1700797

  6. Characterization of receptors for VIP on pancreatic acinar cell plasma membranes using covalent cross-linking

    SciTech Connect

    McArthur, K.E.; Wood, C.L.; O'Dorisio, M.S.; Zhou, Z.C.; Gardner, J.D.; Jensen, R.T.

    1987-03-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors on guinea pig pancreatic acini differ from those on all other tissues in containing a high-affinity VIP receptor and a low-affinity VIP receptor that has a high affinity for secretin. To characterize the molecular components of these receptors, /sup 125/I-VIP was covalently cross-linked to these receptors by four different cross-linking agents: disuccinimidyl suberate, ethylene glycol bis (succinimidyl succinate), dithiobis (succinimidylpropionate), and m-maleimidobenzoyl N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated a single major polypeptide band of M/sub r/ 45,000 and a minor polypeptide band of M/sub r/ 30,000 were cross-linked to /sup 125/I-VIP. Covalent cross-linking only occurred when a cross-linking agent was added, was inhibited by GTP, was inhibited by VIP receptor agonist or antagonists that interact with VIP receptors, and not by other pancreatic secretagogues that interact with difference receptors. Thus the high-affinity VIP receptor on pancreatic acinar cell membranes consists of a single major polypeptide of M/sub r/ 45,000, and this polypeptide is not a subunit of a larger disulfide-linked structure. Furthermore, either the low-affinity VIP/secretin-preferring receptor was not covalently cross-linked under the experimental conditions or it consist of a major polypeptide with the same molecular weight as the high-affinity VIP receptor.

  7. Endogenous and monoclonal antibodies to the rat pancreatic acinar cell Golgi complex

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Normal, unimmunized mouse serum from several strains (BALB/c, C57/b, DBA/2, NZB, SJL, CD/1) contains an endogenous IgG antibody that localizes to the Golgi complex of rat pancreatic acinar cells. Treatment of pancreatic acini with 5 microM monensin resulted in the swelling and vacuolization of the Golgi cisternae, and in a corresponding annular staining by the mouse serum as observed by immunofluorescence, suggesting that the antigen recognized is on the Golgi complex cisternal membrane. The antiserum did not react with pancreatic secretory proteins, and its binding to smooth microsomal membranes was retained following sodium carbonate washing, supporting a Golgi membrane localization. Advantage was taken of the existence of the endogenous murine antibody for the isolation of monoclonal antibodies directed to the Golgi complex of the rat pancreas. Two antibodies, antiGolgi 1 and antiGolgi 2, are described. Both antibodies are IgMs that recognize integral membrane proteins of the trans-Golgi cisternae, with lighter and patchy staining of the pancreatic lumen membrane, as observed both by light and electron microscopy. AntiGolgi 1 recognizes predominately a protein of molecular weight 103,000- 108,000, whereas antiGolgi 2 shows a strong reaction to a 180-kd band as well as the 103-108-kd protein. PMID:6373788

  8. Mechanisms underlying InsP3-evoked global Ca2+ signals in mouse pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, Kevin E; Kidd, Jackie F; Tuft, Dick A; Thorn, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In secretory epithelial cells, complex patterns of Ca2+ signals regulate physiological processes. How these patterns are generated is still not fully understood. In particular, the basis of global Ca2+ waves is not clear. We have studied regional differences in InsP3-evoked Ca2+ release in single mouse pancreatic acinar cells, using high-speed (∼90 frames s−1), high-sensitivity Ca2+ imaging combined with rapid (10 ms) spot photolysis (2 μm diameter) of caged InsP3. Within a single region we measured Ca2+ response latency and rate of rise to construct an InsP3 dose-response relationship. Spot InsP3 liberation in the secretory pole region consistently elicited a dose-dependent, rapid release of Ca2+. Spot InsP3 liberation in the basal pole region of ∼50 % of cells elicited a similar dose-response relationship but with a lower apparent InsP3 affinity than in the secretory pole. In the other cells, basal pole InsP3 liberation did not elicit active Ca2+ release, even at the highest stimulus intensities we employed, although these same cells did respond when the stimulus spot was moved to different regions. We conclude that in the basal pole active sites of rapid Ca2+ release have a lower functional affinity for InsP3 than those in the secretory pole and are spread out in discrete sites across the basal pole. These properties explain the propagation of Ca2+ waves across the basal pole that are only observed at higher stimulus levels. PMID:10922004

  9. Functional role of an islet transcription factor, INSM1/IA-1, on pancreatic acinar cell trans-differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Saunee, Nicolle A.; Breslin, Mary B.; Song, Kejing; Lan, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the functional role of INSM1 is examined with an AR42J acinar cell model for trans-differentiation into insulin-positive cells. Islet transcription factors (ITFs: INSM1, Pdx-1, and NeuroD1) are over-expressed in AR42J cells using adenoviral vectors. Addition of Ad-INSM1 alone or the combination of three ITFs to the AR42J cells triggers cellular trans-differentiation. Ectopic expression of INSM1 directly induces insulin, Pax6, and Nkx6.1 expression, whereas Pdx-1 and NeuroD1 were slightly suppressed by INSM1. Addition of Pdx-1 and NeuroD1 with INSM1 further enhances endocrine trans-differentiation by increasing both the numbers and intensity of the insulin positive cells with simultaneous activation of ITFs, Ngn3 and MafA. INSM1 expression alone partially inhibits dexamethasone-induced exocrine amylase expression. The combination of the three ITFs completely inhibits amylase expression and concomitantly induces greater acinar cell trans-differentiation into endocrine cells. Also, addition of the three ITFs promotes EGF and TGFβ receptors expression. Stimulation by the three ITFs along with the EGF/TGFβ growth factors strongly promotes insulin gene expression. The combination of the three ITFs and EGF/TGFβ growth factors with the primary cultured pancreatic acini also facilitates exocrine to endocrine cell differentiation. Taken together, both the AR42J cell line and the primary cultured mouse acinar cells support INSM1 induced acini trans-differentiation model. PMID:21830214

  10. Apical Ca2+-activated potassium channels in mouse parotid acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Almassy, Janos; Won, Jong Hak; Begenisich, Ted B.

    2012-01-01

    Ca2+ activation of Cl and K channels is a key event underlying stimulated fluid secretion from parotid salivary glands. Cl channels are exclusively present on the apical plasma membrane (PM), whereas the localization of K channels has not been established. Mathematical models have suggested that localization of some K channels to the apical PM is optimum for fluid secretion. A combination of whole cell electrophysiology and temporally resolved digital imaging with local manipulation of intracellular [Ca2+] was used to investigate if Ca2+-activated K channels are present in the apical PM of parotid acinar cells. Initial experiments established Ca2+-buffering conditions that produced brief, localized increases in [Ca2+] after focal laser photolysis of caged Ca2+. Conditions were used to isolate K+ and Cl− conductances. Photolysis at the apical PM resulted in a robust increase in K+ and Cl− currents. A localized reduction in [Ca2+] at the apical PM after photolysis of Diazo-2, a caged Ca2+ chelator, resulted in a decrease in both K+ and Cl− currents. The K+ currents evoked by apical photolysis were partially blocked by both paxilline and TRAM-34, specific blockers of large-conductance “maxi-K” (BK) and intermediate K (IK), respectively, and almost abolished by incubation with both antagonists. Apical TRAM-34–sensitive K+ currents were also observed in BK-null parotid acini. In contrast, when the [Ca2+] was increased at the basal or lateral PM, no increase in either K+ or Cl− currents was evoked. These data provide strong evidence that K and Cl channels are similarly distributed in the apical PM. Furthermore, both IK and BK channels are present in this domain, and the density of these channels appears higher in the apical versus basolateral PM. Collectively, this study provides support for a model in which fluid secretion is optimized after expression of K channels specifically in the apical PM. PMID:22291145

  11. Depletion of intracellular calcium stores activates a calcium conducting nonselective cation current in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Krause, E; Pfeiffer, F; Schmid, A; Schulz, I

    1996-12-20

    Receptor-mediated Ca2+ release from inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca2+ stores causes "capacitative calcium entry" in many cell types (Putney, J. W., Jr. (1986) Cell Calcium 7, 1-12; Putney, J. W., Jr. (1990) Cell Calcium 11, 611-624). We used patch-clamp and fluorescence techniques in isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells to identify ion currents and cytosolic calcium concentrations under conditions in which intracellular Ca2+ stores were emptied. We found that depletion of Ca2+ stores activated a calcium-release-activated nonselective cation current (ICRANC) which did not discriminate between monovalent cations. ICRANC possessed a significant conductance for Ca2+ and Ba2+. It was not inhibited by La3+, Gd3+, Co2+, or Cd2+ but was completely abolished by flufenamic acid or genistein. In whole cell and cell-attached recordings, a 40-45 pS nonselective cation channel was identified which was activated by Ca2+ store depletion. Calcium entry as detected by single cell fluorescence measurements with fluo-3 or fura-2, showed the same pharmacological properties as ICRANC. We conclude that in mouse pancreatic acinar cells 40-45 pS nonselective cation channels serve as a pathway for capacitative Ca2+ entry. This entry pathway differs from the previously described ICRAC (Hoth, M., and Penner, R. (1992) Nature 355, 353-356) in its ion-selectivity, pharmacological profile, and single-channel conductance. PMID:8955076

  12. G protein in stimulation of PI hydrolysis by CCK (cholecystokinin) in isolated rat pancreatic acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matozaki, Takashi; Sakamoto, Choitsu; Nagao, Munehiko; Nishizaki, Hogara; Baba, Shigeaki )

    1988-11-01

    To clarify the possible role of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) in the signal transducing system activated by cholecystokinin (CCK), actions of CCK on rat pancreatic acini were compared with those of fluoride, a well-known activator of stimulatory (G{sub s}) or inhibitory (G{sub i}) G protein. When acini were incubated with increasing concentrations of either CCK-octapeptide (CCK8) or NaF, a maximal stimulation of amylase release from acini occurred at 100 pM CCK8 or 10 mM NaF, respectively; this secretory rate decreased as CCK8 or NaF concentration was increased. NaF caused an increase in cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} concentration from the internal Ca{sup 2+} store and stimulated accumulation of inositol phosphates in acini, as observed with CCK. Guanylimidodiphosphate activated the generation of inositol phosphates in the ({sup 3}H)inositol-labeled pancreatic acinar cell membrane preparation, with half-maximal and maximal stimulation at 1 and 10 {mu}M, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of submaximal CCK concentrations on inositol phosphate accumulation in membranes were markedly potentiated in the presence of 100 {mu}M GTP, which alone was ineffective. Combined findings of the present study strongly suggest that pancreatic CCK receptors are probably coupled to the activation of polyphosphoinositide (PI) breakdown by a G protein, which appears to be fluoride sensitive but is other than G{sub s}- or G{sub i}-like protein.

  13. Atp2c2 Is Transcribed From a Unique Transcriptional Start Site in Mouse Pancreatic Acinar Cells.

    PubMed

    Fenech, Melissa A; Sullivan, Caitlin M; Ferreira, Lucimar T; Mehmood, Rashid; MacDonald, William A; Stathopulos, Peter B; Pin, Christopher L

    2016-12-01

    Proper regulation of cytosolic Ca(2+) is critical for pancreatic acinar cell function. Disruptions in normal Ca(2+) concentrations affect numerous cellular functions and are associated with pancreatitis. Membrane pumps and channels regulate cytosolic Ca(2+) homeostasis by promoting rapid Ca(2+) movement. Determining how expression of Ca(2+) modulators is regulated and the cellular alterations that occur upon changes in expression can provide insight into initiating events of pancreatitis. The goal of this study was to delineate the gene structure and regulation of a novel pancreas-specific isoform for Secretory Pathway Ca(2+) ATPase 2 (termed SPCA2C), which is encoded from the Atp2c2 gene. Using Next Generation Sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq), chromatin immunoprecipitation for epigenetic modifications and promoter-reporter assays, a novel transcriptional start site was identified that promotes expression of a transcript containing the last four exons of the Atp2c2 gene (Atp2c2c). This region was enriched for epigenetic marks and pancreatic transcription factors that promote gene activation. Promoter activity for regions upstream of the ATG codon in Atp2c2's 24th exon was observed in vitro but not in in vivo. Translation from this ATG encodes a protein aligned with the carboxy terminal of SPCA2. Functional analysis in HEK 293A cells indicates a unique role for SPCA2C in increasing cytosolic Ca(2+) . RNA analysis indicates that the decreased Atp2c2c expression observed early in experimental pancreatitis reflects a global molecular response of acinar cells to reduce cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Combined, these results suggest SPCA2C affects Ca(2+) homeostasis in pancreatic acinar cells in a unique fashion relative to other Ca(2+) ATPases. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2768-2778, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27017909

  14. Cluster of Differentiation 38 (CD38) Mediates Bile Acid-induced Acinar Cell Injury and Pancreatitis through Cyclic ADP-ribose and Intracellular Calcium Release*

    PubMed Central

    Orabi, Abrahim I.; Muili, Kamaldeen A.; Javed, Tanveer A.; Jin, Shunqian; Jayaraman, Thottala; Lund, Frances E.; Husain, Sohail Z.

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant Ca2+ signals within pancreatic acinar cells are an early and critical feature in acute pancreatitis, yet it is unclear how these signals are generated. An important mediator of the aberrant Ca2+ signals due to bile acid exposure is the intracellular Ca2+ channel ryanodine receptor. One putative activator of the ryanodine receptor is the nucleotide second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), which is generated by an ectoenzyme ADP-ribosyl cyclase, CD38. In this study, we examined the role of CD38 and cADPR in acinar cell Ca2+ signals and acinar injury due to bile acids using pharmacologic inhibitors of CD38 and cADPR as well as mice deficient in Cd38 (Cd38−/−). Cytosolic Ca2+ signals were imaged using live time-lapse confocal microscopy in freshly isolated mouse acinar cells during perifusion with the bile acid taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLCS; 500 μm). To focus on intracellular Ca2+ release and to specifically exclude Ca2+ influx, cells were perifused in Ca2+-free medium. Cell injury was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase leakage and propidium iodide uptake. Pretreatment with either nicotinamide (20 mm) or the cADPR antagonist 8-Br-cADPR (30 μm) abrogated TLCS-induced Ca2+ signals and cell injury. TLCS-induced Ca2+ release and cell injury were reduced by 30 and 95%, respectively, in Cd38-deficient acinar cells compared with wild-type cells (p < 0.05). Cd38-deficient mice were protected against a model of bile acid infusion pancreatitis. In summary, these data indicate that CD38-cADPR mediates bile acid-induced pancreatitis and acinar cell injury through aberrant intracellular Ca2+ signaling. PMID:23940051

  15. DNA quantification as prognostic factor in a case of acinar cell carcinoma of the parotid gland, diagnosed by FNA.

    PubMed

    Azúa-Romeo, Javier; Sánchez-Garnica, Juan Carlos; Azúa-Blanco, Javier; Tovar-Lázaro, Mayte

    2005-01-01

    Hereby we present a case of a 43-years-old male who complained of a three years history preauricular painful mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed, diagnosing of compatible with acinar cell carcinoma, thus DNA quantification by image cytometry was carried out. Biological parameters studied (ploidy, S-phase, 5-c exceeding rate) showed that it is a low grade of malignancy lesion. Total parotidectomy conservative of facial nerve was recommended, without regional lymphadenectomy. Patient remains, one year later, asymptomatic and free of disease. PMID:16056182

  16. Slug inhibits pancreatic cancer initiation by blocking Kras-induced acinar-ductal metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ebine, Kazumi; Chow, Christina R.; DeCant, Brian T.; Hattaway, Holly Z.; Grippo, Paul J.; Kumar, Krishan; Munshi, Hidayatullah G.

    2016-01-01

    Cells in the pancreas that have undergone acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM) can transform into premalignant cells that can eventually become cancerous. Although the epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulator Snail (Snai1) can cooperate with Kras in acinar cells to enhance ADM development, the contribution of Snail-related protein Slug (Snai2) to ADM development is not known. Thus, transgenic mice expressing Slug and Kras in acinar cells were generated. Surprisingly, Slug attenuated Kras-induced ADM development, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and proliferation. Co-expression of Slug with Kras also attenuated chronic pancreatitis-induced changes in ADM development and fibrosis. In addition, Slug attenuated TGF-α-induced acinar cell metaplasia to ductal structures and TGF-α-induced expression of ductal markers in ex vivo acinar explant cultures. Significantly, blocking the Rho-associated protein kinase ROCK1/2 in the ex vivo cultures induced expression of ductal markers and reversed the effects of Slug by inducing ductal structures. In addition, blocking ROCK1/2 activity in Slug-expressing Kras mice reversed the inhibitory effects of Slug on ADM, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, proliferation and fibrosis. Overall, these results increase our understanding of the role of Slug in ADM, an early event that can eventually lead to pancreatic cancer development. PMID:27364947

  17. Delayed expression of large conductance K+ channels reshaping agonist-induced currents in mouse pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Oshiro, Takako; Takahashi, Hidenori; Ohsaga, Atsushi; Ebihara, Satoru; Sasaki, Hidetada; Maruyama, Yoshio

    2005-01-01

    Epithelial secretory cells display cell-specific mechanisms of fluid secretion and express large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (Maxi-K) channels that generate the membrane negativity for effective Cl− exit to the lumen. Rat and mouse pancreatic acinar cells had been thought to be peculiar in this sense because of the previously reported lack of Maxi-K channels. However, this view is not entirely correct as evidenced in the present paper. Searching for their presence in pancreatic acinar cells in mice from 5 to 84 weeks of age with patch-clamp current measurements, we demonstrated that the expression of Maxi-K channels is regulated in an age-associated manner after birth. The expression started at approximately 12 postnatal weeks and increased steadily up to 84 weeks. In support of this, RT-PCR could not detect mSlo mRNA, the Maxi-K gene, at either 7 or 8 weeks but could at 58 and 64 postnatal weeks. These results suggest that a key steering element for fluid secretion, the Maxi-K channel, is progressively re-organized in rodent pancreas. A pancreatic secretagogue, acetylcholine, evoked Maxi-K channel current overlapping to various degrees on the previously known current response. This suggests that the rise in internal Ca2+ activates Maxi-K channels which reshape the mode of secretagogue-evoked current response and contribute to Cl− driving in fluid secretion in an age-associated fashion. PMID:15611028

  18. Evidence that zymogen granules do not function as an intracellular Ca2+ store for the generation of the Ca2+ signal in rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nezu, Akihiro; Tanimura, Akihiko; Morita, Takao; Irie, Kazuharu; Yajima, Toshihiko; Tojyo, Yosuke

    2002-01-01

    Rat parotid acinar cells lacking zymogen granules were obtained by inducing granule discharge with the beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol. To assess whether zymogen granules are involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) signalling as intracellular Ca(2+) stores, changes in cytosolic free Ca(2+) ion concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) were studied with imaging microscopy in fura-2-loaded parotid acinar cells lacking zymogen granules. The increase in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by muscarinic receptor stimulation was initiated at the apical pole of the acinar cells, and rapidly spread as a Ca(2+) wave towards the basolateral region. The magnitude of the [Ca(2+)](i) response and the speed of the Ca(2+) wave were essentially similar to those in control acinar cells containing zymogen granules. Western blot analysis of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) was performed on zymogen granule membranes and microsomes using anti-IP(3)R antibodies. The immunoreactivity of all three IP(3)Rs was clearly observed in the microsomal preparations. Although a weak band of IP(3)R type-2 was detected in the zymogen granule membranes, this band probably resulted from contamination by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), because calnexin, a marker protein of the ER, was also detected in the same preparation. Furthermore, Western blotting and reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis failed to provide evidence for the expression of ryanodine receptors in rat parotid acinar cells, whereas expression was clearly detectable in rat skeletal muscle, heart and brain. These results suggest that zymogen granules do not have a critical role in Ca(2+) signalling in rat parotid acinar cells. PMID:11903047

  19. Insulation of a G protein-coupled receptor on the plasmalemmal surface of the pancreatic acinar cell

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Receptor desensitization is a key process for the protection of the cell from continuous or repeated exposure to high concentrations of an agonist. Well-established mechanisms for desensitization of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors include phosphorylation, sequestration/internalization, and down-regulation. In this work, we have examined some mechanisms for desensitization of the cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor which is native to the pancreatic acinar cell, and have found the predominant mechanism to be distinct from these recognized processes. Upon fluorescent agonist occupancy of the native receptor, it becomes "insulated" from the effects of acid washing and becomes immobilized on the surface of the plasma membrane in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. This localization was assessed by ultrastructural studies using a colloidal gold conjugate of CCK, and lateral mobility of the receptor was assessed using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Of note, recent application of the same morphologic techniques to a CCK receptor-bearing Chinese hamster ovary cell line demonstrated prominent internalization via the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway, as well as entry into caveolae (Roettger, B.F., R.U. Rentsch, D. Pinon, E. Holicky, E. Hadac, J.M. Larkin, and L.J. Miller, 1995, J. Cell Biol. 128: 1029-1041). These organelles are not observed to represent prominent compartments for the same receptor to traverse in the acinar cell, although fluorescent insulin is clearly internalized in these cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. In this work, the rate of lateral mobility of the CCK receptor is observed to be similar in both cell types (1-3 x 10(-10) cm2/s), while the fate of the agonist-occupied receptor is quite distinct in each cell. This supports the unique nature of desensitization processes which occur in a cell-specific manner. A plasmalemmal site of insulation of this important receptor on the pancreatic acinar cell

  20. Morphometric studies of secretory granule formation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Dissecting the early structural changes following pilocarpine injection

    PubMed Central

    HAMMEL, ILAN; SHOR-HAZAN, OSNAT; ELDAR, TORA; AMIHAI, DINA; LEW, SYLVIA

    1999-01-01

    Secretory granule formation in pancreatic acinar cells is known to involve massive membrane flow. In previous studies we have undertaken morphometry of the regranulation mechanism in these cells and in mast cells as a model for cellular membrane movement. In our current work, electron micrographs of pancreatic acinar cells from ICR mice were taken at several time points after extensive degranulation induced by pilocarpine injection in order to investigate the volume changes of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), nucleus, mitochondria and autophagosomes. At 2–4 h after stimulation, when the pancreatic cells demonstrated a complete loss of granules, this was accompanied by an increased proportion of autophagosomal activity. This change primarily reflected a greatly increased proportion of profiles retaining autophagic vacuoles containing recognisable cytoplasmic structures such as mitochondria, granule profiles and fragments of RER. The mitochondrial structures reached a significant maximal size 4 h following injection (before degranulation 0.178±0.028 μm3; at 4 h peak value, 0.535±0.109 μm3). Nucleus size showed an early volume increase approaching a maximum value 2 h following degranulation. The regranulation span was thus divided into 3 stages. The first was the membrane remodelling stage (0–2 h). During this period the volume of the RER and secretory granules was greatly decreased. At the intermediate stage (2–4 h) a significant increase of the synthesis zone was observed within the nucleus. The volume of the mitochondria was increasing. At the last step, the major finding was a significant granule accumulation in parallel with an active Golgi zone. PMID:10227666

  1. Role of protein kinase C in caerulein induced expression of substance P and neurokinin-1-receptors in murine pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Yung-Hua; Tamizhselvi, Ramasamy; Moochhala, Shabbir; Bian, Jin-Song; Bhatia, Madhav

    2011-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is involved in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP) via binding to its high-affinity receptor, neurokinin-1-receptor (NK1R). An up-regulation of SP and NK1R expression was observed in experimental AP and in caerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. However, the mechanisms that lead to this up-regulation are not fully understood. In this study, we showed the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in caerulein-induced SP and NK1R production in isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Caerulein (10−7 M) stimulation rapidly activated the conventional PKC-α and novel PKC-δ as observed by the phosphorylation of these molecules. Pre-treatment of pancreatic acinar cells with Gö6976 (1–10 nM) and rottlerin (1–10 μM) inhibited PKC-α and PKC-δ phosphorylation, respectively, but not the other way round. At these concentrations used, PKC-α and PKC-δ inhibition reversed the caerulein-induced up-regulation of SP and NK1R, indicating an important role of PKCs in the modulation of SP and NK1R expression. Further experiments looking into signalling mechanisms showed that treatment of pancreatic acinar cells with both Gö6976 and rottlerin inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Inhibition of PKC-α or PKC-δ also affected caerulein-induced transcription factor activation, as represented by nuclear factor-κB and AP-1 DNA-binding activity. The findings in this study suggested that PKC is upstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinases and transcription factors, which then lead to the up-regulation of SP/NK1R expression in caerulein-treated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:20973912

  2. Ae4 (Slc4a9) Anion Exchanger Drives Cl- Uptake-dependent Fluid Secretion by Mouse Submandibular Gland Acinar Cells.

    PubMed

    Peña-Münzenmayer, Gaspar; Catalán, Marcelo A; Kondo, Yusuke; Jaramillo, Yasna; Liu, Frances; Shull, Gary E; Melvin, James E

    2015-04-24

    Transcellular Cl(-) movement across acinar cells is the rate-limiting step for salivary gland fluid secretion. Basolateral Nkcc1 Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters play a critical role in fluid secretion by promoting the intracellular accumulation of Cl(-) above its equilibrium potential. However, salivation is only partially abolished in the absence of Nkcc1 cotransporter activity, suggesting that another Cl(-) uptake pathway concentrates Cl(-) ions in acinar cells. To identify alternative molecular mechanisms, we studied mice lacking Ae2 and Ae4 Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchangers. We found that salivation stimulated by muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptor agonists was normal in the submandibular glands of Ae2(-/-) mice. In contrast, saliva secretion was reduced by 35% in Ae4(-/-) mice. The decrease in salivation was not related to loss of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter or Na(+)/H(+) exchanger activity in Ae4(-/-) mice but correlated with reduced Cl(-) uptake during β-adrenergic receptor activation of cAMP signaling. Direct measurements of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger activity revealed that HCO3 (-)-dependent Cl(-) uptake was reduced in the acinar cells of Ae2(-/-) and Ae4(-/-) mice. Moreover, Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger activity was nearly abolished in double Ae4/Ae2 knock-out mice, suggesting that most of the Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger activity in submandibular acinar cells depends on Ae2 and Ae4 expression. In conclusion, both Ae2 and Ae4 anion exchangers are functionally expressed in submandibular acinar cells; however, only Ae4 expression appears to be important for cAMP-dependent regulation of fluid secretion. PMID:25745107

  3. Platelet-activating factor promotes motility in breast cancer cells and disrupts non-transformed breast acinar structures.

    PubMed

    Anandi, V Libi; Ashiq, K A; Nitheesh, K; Lahiri, M

    2016-01-01

    A plethora of studies have demonstrated that chronic inflammatory microenvironment influences the genesis and progression of tumors. Such microenvironments are enriched with various lipid mediators. Platelet activating factor (PAF, 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is one such lipid mediator that is secreted by different immune cell types during inflammation and by breast cancer cells upon stimulation with growth factors. Overexpression of PAF-receptor has also been observed in many other cancers. Here we report the possible roles of PAF in tumor initiation and progression. MCF10A, a non-transformed and non-malignant mammary epithelial cell line, when grown as 3D 'on-top' cultures form spheroids that have a distinct hollow lumen surrounded by a monolayer of epithelial cells. Exposure of these spheroids to PAF resulted in the formation of large deformed acinar structures with disrupted lumen, implying transformation. We then examined the response of transformed cells such as MDA-MB 231 to stimulation with PAF. We observed collective cell migration as well as motility at the single cell level on PAF induction, suggesting its role during metastasis. This increase in collective cell migration is mediated via PI3-kinase and/or JNK pathway and is independent of the MAP-kinase pathway. Taken together this study signifies a novel role of PAF in inducing transformation of non-tumorigenic cells and the vital role in promotion of breast cancer cell migration. PMID:26531049

  4. Actin and non-muscle myosin II facilitate apical exocytosis of tear proteins in rabbit lacrimal acinar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jerdeva, Galina V.; Wu, Kaijin; Yarber, Francie A.; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Kalman, Daniel; Schechter, Joel E.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The acinar epithelial cells of the lacrimal gland exocytose the contents of mature secretory vesicles containing tear proteins at their apical membranes in response to secretagogues. Here we use time-lapse confocal fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to investigate the changes in actin filaments located beneath the apical membrane during exocytosis evoked by the muscarinic agonist, carbachol (100 μM). Time-lapse confocal fluorescence microscopy of apical actin filaments in reconstituted rabbit lacrimal acini transduced with replication-deficient adenovirus containing GFP-actin revealed a relatively quiescent apical actin array in resting acini. Carbachol markedly increased apical actin filament turnover and also promoted transient actin assembly around apparent fusion intermediates. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements revealed significant (p≤0.05) increases and decreases, respectively, in mobile fraction (Mf) and turnover times (t½) for apical actin filaments in carbachol-stimulated acini relative to untreated acini. The myosin inhibitors, 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM, 10 mM, 15 min) and ML-7 (40 μM, 15 min), significantly decreased carbachol-stimulated secretion of bulk protein and the exogenous secretory vesicle marker, syncollin-GFP; these agents also promoted accumulation of actin-coated structures which were enriched, in transduced acini, in syncollin-GFP, confirming their identity as fusion intermediates. Actin-coated fusion intermediates were sized consistent with incorporation of multiple rather than single secretory vesicles; moreover, BDM and ML-7 caused a shift towards formation of multiple secretory vesicle aggregates while significantly increasing the diameter of actin-coated fusion intermediates. Our findings suggest that the increased turnover of apical actin filaments and the interaction of actin with non-muscle myosin II assembled around aggregates of secretory vesicles facilitate

  5. Adenovirus-mediated hAQP1 expression in irradiated mouse salivary glands causes recovery of saliva secretion by enhancing acinar cell volume decrease.

    PubMed

    Teos, L Y; Zheng, C-Y; Liu, X; Swaim, W D; Goldsmith, C M; Cotrim, A P; Baum, B J; Ambudkar, I S

    2016-07-01

    Head and neck irradiation (IR) during cancer treatment causes by-stander effects on the salivary glands leading to irreversible loss of saliva secretion. The mechanism underlying loss of fluid secretion is not understood and no adequate therapy is currently available. Delivery of an adenoviral vector encoding human aquaporin-1 (hAQP1) into the salivary glands of human subjects and animal models with radiation-induced salivary hypofunction leads to significant recovery of saliva secretion and symptomatic relief in subjects. To elucidate the mechanism underlying loss of salivary secretion and the basis for AdhAQP1-dependent recovery of salivary gland function we assessed submandibular gland function in control mice and mice 2 and 8 months after treatment with a single 15-Gy dose of IR (delivered to the salivary gland region). Salivary secretion and neurotransmitter-stimulated changes in acinar cell volume, an in vitro read-out for fluid secretion, were monitored. Consistent with the sustained 60% loss of fluid secretion following IR, a carbachol (CCh)-induced decrease in acinar cell volume from the glands of mice post IR was transient and attenuated as compared with that in cells from non-IR age-matched mice. The hAQP1 expression in non-IR mice induced no significant effect on salivary fluid secretion or CCh-stimulated cell volume changes, except in acinar cells from 8-month group where the initial rate of cell shrinkage was increased. Importantly, the expression of hAQP1 in the glands of mice post IR induced recovery of salivary fluid secretion and a volume decrease in acinar cells to levels similar to those in cells from non-IR mice. The initial rates of CCh-stimulated cell volume reduction in acinar cells from hAQP1-expressing glands post IR were similar to those from control cells. Altogether, the data suggest that expression of hAQP1 increases the water permeability of acinar cells, which underlies the recovery of fluid secretion in the salivary glands

  6. Calcium signaling and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Goulart, Vânia A M; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2015-11-01

    Cell proliferation is orchestrated through diverse proteins related to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling inside the cell. Cellular Ca(2+) influx that occurs first by various mechanisms at the plasma membrane, is then followed by absorption of Ca(2+) ions by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and, finally, there is a connection of calcium stores to the nucleus. Experimental evidence indicates that the fluctuation of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum provides a pivotal and physiological role for cell proliferation. Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmatic reticulum triggers Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane in an phenomenon called store-operated calcium entries (SOCEs). SOCE is activated through a complex interplay between a Ca(2+) sensor, denominated STIM, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and a Ca(2+) channel at the cell membrane, denominated Orai. The interplay between STIM and Orai proteins with cell membrane receptors and their role in cell proliferation is discussed in this review. PMID:26275497

  7. HCO3(-) secretion by murine nasal submucosal gland serous acinar cells during Ca2+-stimulated fluid secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert J; Harlow, Janice M; Limberis, Maria P; Wilson, James M; Foskett, J Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Airway submucosal glands contribute to airway surface liquid (ASL) composition and volume, both important for lung mucociliary clearance. Serous acini generate most of the fluid secreted by glands, but the molecular mechanisms remain poorly characterized. We previously described cholinergic-regulated fluid secretion driven by Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion in primary murine serous acinar cells revealed by simultaneous differential interference contrast (DIC) and fluorescence microscopy. Here, we evaluated whether Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion was accompanied by secretion of HCO(3)(-), possibly a critical ASL component, by simultaneous measurements of intracellular pH (pH(i)) and cell volume. Resting pH(i) was 7.17 +/- 0.01 in physiological medium (5% CO(2)-25 mM HCO(3)(-)). During carbachol (CCh) stimulation, pH(i) fell transiently by 0.08 +/- 0.01 U concomitantly with a fall in Cl(-) content revealed by cell shrinkage, reflecting Cl(-) secretion. A subsequent alkalinization elevated pH(i) to above resting levels until agonist removal, whereupon it returned to prestimulation values. In nominally CO(2)-HCO(3)(-)-free media, the CCh-induced acidification was reduced, whereas the alkalinization remained intact. Elimination of driving forces for conductive HCO(3)(-) efflux by ion substitution or exposure to the Cl(-) channel inhibitor niflumic acid (100 microM) strongly inhibited agonist-induced acidification by >80% and >70%, respectively. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) inhibitor dimethylamiloride (DMA) increased the magnitude (greater than twofold) and duration of the CCh-induced acidification. Gene expression profiling suggested that serous cells express NHE isoforms 1-4 and 6-9, but pharmacological sensitivities demonstrated that alkalinization observed during both CCh stimulation and pH(i) recovery from agonist-induced acidification was primarily due to NHE1, localized to the basolateral membrane. These results suggest that serous acinar cells secrete HCO(3

  8. Differentially expressed microRNA identification and target gene function analysis in starvation-induced autophagy of AR42J pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Wang, Duanping; Sun, Wang; Meng, Xianzhi; Zhang, Weihui; Xue, Dongbo

    2016-07-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute digestive tract disease, with increased morbidity and mortality, and an unclear pathogenesis. Trypsinogen activation in pancreatic acinar cells may be the primary mechanism underlying the development of AP. Previous studies reported that autophagy participates in the formation of acinar cell vacuoles in AP and in the process of trypsinogen activation as an important cause of AP. Furthermore, microRNAs (miRNAs) maintain the autophagy process by regulating the expression of autophagy‑associated genes. In the present study, an in vitro pancreatic acinar cell autophagy model was established using the AR42J starvation‑induced pancreatic acinar cell line. Twenty differentially expressed microRNAs were identified using miRNA microarray. Bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the target genes of miRNAs and analyze the functions of differentially expressed miRNAs. The results demonstrated that only the downregulated miRNA rno‑miR‑148b‑3p predicted 593 target genes with a statistical significance (P<0.05), from which 10 genes were autophagy‑associated. The results of gene ontology and pathway analyses demonstrated that the target genes of miRNAs were enriched in the Response to insulin stimulus, Regulation of cell death and the Insulin signaling pathways (P<0.05, FDR<0.05). In addition, protein‑protein interaction network analysis demonstrated a widespread interaction among the 593 target genes. The results of the present study may provide novel targets for research on the mechanisms of autophagy-promoted AP and AP treatment. PMID:27175615

  9. E-cadherin-negative acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas: report of a case showing a solid pseudopapillary growth pattern.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Waki, Michihiko; Azuma, Masaki; Koda, Kenji; Ohata, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    E-cadherin expression patterns in acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) of the pancreas have not been well documented. Herein, we present a hitherto undescribed case of E-cadherin-negative ACC with a solid pseudopapillary growth pattern in a 65-year-old man. We used an antibody against the extracellular domain of E-cadherin. As a further unusual status in ACC, faint β-catenin expression was observed in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells. Morphological distinction from a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas might be problematic in such a case, because of their similarities concerned with the growth pattern and E-cadherin negativity. Without nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, a diagnosis of SPN was almost excluded. Immunoreactivity for trypsin and BCL10 made an accurate diagnosis of ACC to this case. The tumor recurred 10 months post-surgery as rapidly enlarging masses in the liver, presumably indicating the aggressiveness of the E-cadherin-negative phenotype among ACCs. PMID:25600280

  10. Negative regulators of cell proliferation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cell proliferation is governed by the influence of both mitogens and inhibitors. Although cell contact has long been thought to play a fundamental role in cell cycling regulation, and negative regulators have long been suspected to exist, their isolation and purification has been complicated by a variety of technical difficulties. Nevertheless, over recent years an ever-expanding list of putative negative regulators have emerged. In many cases, their biological inhibitory activities are consistent with density-dependent growth inhibition. Most likely their interactions with mitogenic agents, at an intracellular level, are responsible for either mitotic arrest or continued cell cycling. A review of naturally occurring cell growth inhibitors is presented with an emphasis on those factors shown to be residents of the cell surface membrane. Particular attention is focused on a cell surface sialoglycopeptide, isolated from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells, which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of an unusually wide range of target cells. The glycopeptide arrest cells obtained from diverse species, both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and a broad variety of transformed cells. Signal transduction events and a limited spectrum of cells that are refractory to the sialoglycopeptide have provided insight into the molecular events mediated by this cell surface inhibitor.

  11. Exocytosis in the dissociated pancreatic acinar cells of the guinea pig directly visualized by VEC-DIC microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Y; Sakurai, T; Habara, Y; Busik, J V; Kanno, T; Terakawa, S

    2000-10-14

    To elucidate the detailed process of exocytosis at the highest possible accuracy, we dissociated the pancreatic acinus of the guinea pig and observed zymogen granules under a video-enhanced contrast differential interference contrast (VEC-DIC) microscope. The preparation was thin enough to resolve each zymogen granule with the best clarity. When acinar cells were stimulated with ACh (20 microM), many zymogen granules near the lumen showed an abrupt light intensity change. For a period of 10 s immediately before exocytosis, zymogen granules neither shifted their position nor altered their shape within an accuracy of 38 nm. The time required for individual granules to change the light intensity (the releasing time) ranged from 0.15 to 0.70 s. After each response, the granule maintained its altered contrast for a few seconds until it was retrieved to a planar membrane. No compound exocytosis including granule-granule fusion was observed. We concluded that the exocytosis is not directly initiated by any supramolecular change but by a purely molecular event. PMID:11027653

  12. Ionizing irradiation induces apoptotic damage of salivary gland acinar cells via NADPH oxidase 1-dependent superoxide generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tateishi, Yoshihisa Sasabe, Eri; Ueta, Eisaku; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2008-02-08

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important roles in various physiological processes. Recently, several novel homologues of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase have been discovered and this protein family is now designated as the Nox family. We investigated the involvement of Nox family proteins in ionizing irradiation-induced ROS generation and impairment in immortalized salivary gland acinar cells (NS-SV-AC), which are radiosensitive, and immortalized ductal cells (NS-SV-DC), which are radioresistant. Nox1-mRNA was upregulated by {gamma}-ray irradiation in NS-SV-AC, and the ROS level in NS-SV-AC was increased to approximately threefold of the control level after 10 Gy irradiation. The increase of ROS level in NS-SV-AC was suppressed by Nox1-siRNA-transfection. In parallel with the suppression of ROS generation and Nox1-mRNA expression by Nox1-siRNA, ionizing irradiation-induced apoptosis was strongly decreased in Nox1-siRNA-transfected NS-SV-AC. There were no large differences in total SOD or catalase activities between NS-SV-AC and NS-SV-DC although the post-irradiation ROS level in NS-SV-AC was higher than that in NS-SV-DC. In conclusion, these results indicate that Nox1 plays a crucial role in irradiation-induced ROS generation and ROS-associated impairment of salivary gland cells and that Nox1 gene may be targeted for preservation of the salivary gland function from radiation-induced impairment.

  13. p40 as a Basal Cell Marker in the Diagnosis of Prostate Glandular Proliferations: A Comparative Immunohistochemical Study with 34betaE12

    PubMed Central

    Brustmann, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry is important for the accurate diagnosis of basal cells in atypical glandular proliferations of the prostate. p40, an isoform of p63, may be an adjunct to a marker panel in this setting. Biopsies of 68 patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies to 34betaE12 and p40. Basal cell staining was classified as negative, partial (<60%), or diffuse (≥60%); irregular staining was defined as discordant staining patterns. In acinar proliferations (N = 41), partial staining for both markers was seen in 42%, and diffuse staining in 46% of reactive cases. An irregular reactivity was noted in one case only (2%). Finally, these lesions were signed out as benign. Acinar proliferations negative for both markers and limited amount of glands (≤4) were termed atypical small acinar proliferations (ASAP). Out of six PIN lesions two cases showed partial, three cases showed diffuse reactivity for both markers, and one case was stained irregular. All cases diagnosed as prostate carcinomas (N = 20) had no evidence of basal cell staining for neither of the markers. p40 expression is closely correlated to 34betaE12 with respect to demonstration of basal cells of prostate glands and may provide further information on the dignity of glandular proliferations of the prostate. PMID:25852959

  14. Cholecystokinin activates Gi1-, Gi2-, Gi3- and several Gs-proteins in rat pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schnefel, S; Pröfrock, A; Hinsch, K D; Schulz, I

    1990-01-01

    On separation of rat pancreatic plasma membrane proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 15 GTP-binding protein (G-protein) alpha-subunits could be detected immunochemically using an alpha common antibody. These consisted of five 48 kDa proteins (pI 5.70, 5.80, 5.90, 6.10 and 6.25) and five 45 kDa proteins (pI 5.90, 6.05, 6.25, 6.30 and 6.70), presumably corresponding to low- and high-molecular mass forms of the Gs-protein, as well as three 40/41 kDa proteins (pI 5.50, 5.70 and 6.00) and two 39 kDa proteins (pI 5.50 and 6.00). All of these proteins except for the more acidic 39 kDa protein were ADP-ribosylated by cholera toxin (CT). In addition, the three 40/41 kDa proteins and the more alkaline 39 kDa protein were also ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin (PT). CT- and PT-induced ADP-ribosylation changed the pI values of G-protein alpha-subunits by 0.2 pI units to more acidic values. Preincubation of isolated pancreatic membranes with cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-OP), which stimulates phospholipase C in acinar cells, decreased CT-induced as well as PT-induced ADP-ribosylation of the three 40/41 kDa proteins, whereas CT-induced ADP-ribosylation of one 45 kDa (pI 5.80) and all 48 kDa proteins was enhanced in the presence of CCK. Carbachol, another stimulant of phospholipase C, had no effect. The three 40/41 kDa proteins and one 48 kDa protein could be labelled with the GTP analogue [alpha-32P]GTP-gamma-azidoanilide. CCK, but not carbachol, stimulated incorporation of the GTP analogue into all of these four proteins. Using different anti-peptide antisera specific for alpha-subunits of G-proteins we identified the three 40/41 kDa Gi-proteins as Gi1 (pI 6.00), Gi2 (pI 5.50) and Gi3 (pI 5.70). The Gi3-protein was found to be the major Gi-protein of pancreatic plasma membranes. One of the 39 kDa proteins (pI 6.0) was identified as Go. These results indicate that CCK receptors functionally interact with six Gs-proteins and with Gi1, Gi2 and Gi3-proteins. Since

  15. Chronic Nicotine Exposure In Vivo and In Vitro Inhibits Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Uptake by Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Thrower, Edwin C.; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Balamurugan, A. N.; Subramanian, Veedamali S.; Gorelick, Fred S.; Said, Hamid M.

    2015-01-01

    Thiamin (vitamin B1), a member of the water-soluble family of vitamins, is essential for normal cellular functions; its deficiency results in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Pancreatic acinar cells (PAC) obtain thiamin from the circulation using a specific carrier-mediated process mediated by both thiamin transporters -1 and -2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2; encoded by the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes, respectively). The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of chronic exposure of mouse PAC in vivo and human PAC in vitro to nicotine (a major component of cigarette smoke that has been implicated in pancreatic diseases) on thiamin uptake and to delineate the mechanism involved. The results showed that chronic exposure of mice to nicotine significantly inhibits thiamin uptake in murine PAC, and that this inhibition is associated with a marked decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein, mRNA and hnRNAs level. Furthermore, expression of the important thiamin-metabolizing enzyme, thiamin pyrophosphokinase (TPKase), was significantly reduced in PAC of mice exposed to nicotine. Similarly, chronic exposure of cultured human PAC to nicotine (0.5 μM, 48 h) significantly inhibited thiamin uptake, which was also associated with a decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 proteins and mRNAs. This study demonstrates that chronic exposure of PAC to nicotine impairs the physiology and the molecular biology of the thiamin uptake process. Furthermore, the study suggests that the effect is, in part, mediated through transcriptional mechanism(s) affecting the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes. PMID:26633299

  16. Chronic Nicotine Exposure In Vivo and In Vitro Inhibits Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Uptake by Pancreatic Acinar Cells.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Thrower, Edwin C; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Balamurugan, A N; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Gorelick, Fred S; Said, Hamid M

    2015-01-01

    Thiamin (vitamin B1), a member of the water-soluble family of vitamins, is essential for normal cellular functions; its deficiency results in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Pancreatic acinar cells (PAC) obtain thiamin from the circulation using a specific carrier-mediated process mediated by both thiamin transporters -1 and -2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2; encoded by the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes, respectively). The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of chronic exposure of mouse PAC in vivo and human PAC in vitro to nicotine (a major component of cigarette smoke that has been implicated in pancreatic diseases) on thiamin uptake and to delineate the mechanism involved. The results showed that chronic exposure of mice to nicotine significantly inhibits thiamin uptake in murine PAC, and that this inhibition is associated with a marked decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein, mRNA and hnRNAs level. Furthermore, expression of the important thiamin-metabolizing enzyme, thiamin pyrophosphokinase (TPKase), was significantly reduced in PAC of mice exposed to nicotine. Similarly, chronic exposure of cultured human PAC to nicotine (0.5 μM, 48 h) significantly inhibited thiamin uptake, which was also associated with a decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 proteins and mRNAs. This study demonstrates that chronic exposure of PAC to nicotine impairs the physiology and the molecular biology of the thiamin uptake process. Furthermore, the study suggests that the effect is, in part, mediated through transcriptional mechanism(s) affecting the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes. PMID:26633299

  17. Autophagy in pancreatic acinar cells in caerulein-treated mice: immunolocalization of related proteins and their potential as markers of pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leshuai; Zhang, Jun; Shea, Katherine; Xu, Lin; Tobin, Grainne; Knapton, Alan; Sharron, Stewart; Rouse, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced pancreatitis (DIP) is an underdiagnosed condition that lacks sensitive and specific biomarkers. To better understand the mechanisms of DIP and to identify potential tissue biomarkers, we studied experimental pancreatitis induced in male C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection of caerulein (10 or 50 μg/kg) at 1-hr intervals for a total of 7 injections. Pancreata from caerulein-treated mice exhibited consistent acinar cell autophagy and apoptosis with infrequent necrosis. Kinetic assays for serum amylase and lipase also showed a dose-dependent increase. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-dNTP nick labeling (TUNEL) detected dose-dependent acinar cell apoptosis. By light microscopy, autophagy was characterized by the formation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes (ALs) within the cytoplasm of acinar cells. Immunohistochemical studies with specific antibodies for proteins related to autophagy and pancreatic stress were conducted to evaluate these proteins as potential biomarkers of pancreatitis. Western blots were used to confirm immunohistochemical results using pancreatic lysates from control and treated animals. Autophagy was identified as a contributing process in caerulein-induced pancreatitis and proteins previously associated with autophagy were upregulated following caerulein treatment. Autophagosomes and ALs were found to be a common pathway, in which cathepsins, lysosome-associated membrane protein 2, vacuole membrane protein 1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), autophagy-related protein 9, Beclin1, and pancreatitis-associated proteins were simultaneously involved in response to caerulein stimulus. Regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma (Reg3γ), a pancreatic acute response protein, was dose-dependently induced in caerulein-treated mice and colocalized with the autophagosomal marker, LC3. This finding supports Reg3γ as a candidate biomarker for pancreatic injury. PMID:23640381

  18. Cell proliferation in normal epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, G.D.; McCullough, J.L.; Ross, P.

    1984-06-01

    A detailed examination of cell proliferation kinetics in normal human epidermis is presented. Using tritiated thymidine with autoradiographic techniques, proliferative and differentiated cell kinetics are defined and interrelated. The proliferative compartment of normal epidermis has a cell cycle duration (Tc) of 311 h derived from 3 components: the germinative labeling index (LI), the duration of DNA synthesis (ts), and the growth fraction (GF). The germinative LI is 2.7% +/- 1.2 and ts is 14 h, the latter obtained from a composite fraction of labeled mitoses curve obtained from 11 normal subjects. The GF obtained from the literature and from human skin xenografts to nude mice is estimated to be 60%. Normal-appearing epidermis from patients with psoriasis appears to have a higher proliferation rate. The mean LI is 4.2% +/- 0.9, approximately 50% greater than in normal epidermis. Absolute cell kinetic values for this tissue, however, cannot yet be calculated for lack of other information on ts and GF. A kinetic model for epidermal cell renewal in normal epidermis is described that interrelates the rate of birth/entry, transit, and/or loss of keratinocytes in the 3 epidermal compartments: proliferative, viable differentiated (stratum malpighii), and stratum corneum. Expected kinetic homeostasis in the epidermis is confirmed by the very similar ''turnover'' rates in each of the compartments that are, respectively, 1246, 1417, and 1490 cells/day/mm2 surface area. The mean epidermal turnover time of the entire tissue is 39 days. The Tc of 311 h in normal cells in 8-fold longer than the psoriatic Tc of 36 h and is necessary for understanding the hyperproliferative pathophysiologic process in psoriasis.

  19. Blockade of ATP binding site of P2 purinoceptors in rat parotid acinar cells by isothiocyanate compounds.

    PubMed

    Soltoff, S P; McMillian, M K; Talamo, B R; Cantley, L C

    1993-05-01

    Extracellular ATP activates a P2Z-type purinergic receptor (purinoceptor) in rat parotid acinar cells that increases the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration via the entry of extracellular Ca2+ through an ATP-sensitive cation channel (Soltoff et al., Am J Physiol 262: C934-C940, 1992). To learn more about the ATP binding site of the purinoceptor, we examined the effects of several stilbene isothiocyanate analogs of DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid), which block the binding of [32P]ATP to intact parotid cells (McMillian et al., Biochem J 255:291-300, 1988) and blocked the activation of the P2Z purinoceptor. The ATP-stimulated 45Ca2+ uptake was blocked by DIDS, H2DIDS (dihydro-DIDS; 4,4'-diisothiocyanatodihydrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid), and SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid), but not by DNDS (4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid), a stilbene disulfonate compound lacking isothiocyanate (SCN-) groups, or by KSCN. The potency of the stilbene disulfonates was related to the number of isothiocyanate groups on each compound. Under the experimental conditions, the IC50 value of DIDS (approximately 35 microM), which has two SCN-groups, was much lower than that of SITS (approximately 125 microM), which has only one SCN-group. The inhibitory effects of DIDS appeared to be much more potent than those of SITS due to the kinetics of their binding to the purinoceptors. Eosin-5-isothiocyanate (EITC) and fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC), non-stilbene isothiocyanate compounds with single SCN-groups, also blocked the response to ATP and were less potent than DIDS. Trinitrophenyl-ATP (TNP-ATP), an ATP derivative that is not an effective agonist of the parotid P2Z receptor, blocked the covalent binding of DIDS to the plasma membrane, suggesting that ATP and DIDS bind to the same site. Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA), an anthraquinone-sulfonic acid derivative that is a noncovalent purinergic antagonist, also blocked

  20. Quantitative characterization of the protein contents of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell by soft x-ray microscopy and advanced digital imaging methods

    SciTech Connect

    Loo Jr., Billy W.

    2000-06-09

    The study of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell has been central to the development of models of many cellular processes, especially of protein transport and secretion. Traditional methods used to examine this system have provided a wealth of qualitative information from which mechanistic models have been inferred. However they have lacked the ability to make quantitative measurements, particularly of the distribution of protein in the cell, information critical for grounding of models in terms of magnitude and relative significance. This dissertation describes the development and application of new tools that were used to measure the protein content of the major intracellular compartments in the acinar cell, particularly the zymogen granule. Soft x-ray microscopy permits image formation with high resolution and contrast determined by the underlying protein content of tissue rather than staining avidity. A sample preparation method compatible with x-ray microscopy was developed and its properties evaluated. Automatic computerized methods were developed to acquire, calibrate, and analyze large volumes of x-ray microscopic images of exocrine pancreatic tissue sections. Statistics were compiled on the protein density of several organelles, and on the protein density, size, and spatial distribution of tens of thousands of zymogen granules. The results of these measurements, and how they compare to predictions of different models of protein transport, are discussed.

  1. PKCαβγ- and PKCδ-dependent endocytosis of NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B in salivary parotid acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Clint; Baker, Olga J.; Reyland, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined membrane trafficking of NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B variants of the electrogenic Na+-HCO3− cotransporter (NBCe1) encoded by the SLC4A4 gene, using confocal fluorescent microscopy in rat parotid acinar cells (ParC5 and ParC10). We showed that yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged NBCe1-A and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NBCe1-B are colocalized with E-cadherin in the basolateral membrane (BLM) but not with the apical membrane marker zona occludens 1 (ZO-1). We inhibited constitutive recycling with monensin and W13 and detected that NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B accumulated in vesicles marked with the early endosomal marker early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1), with a parallel loss from the BLM. We observed that NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B undergo massive carbachol (CCh)-stimulated redistribution from the BLM into early endosomes. We showed that internalization of NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B was prevented by the general PKC inhibitor GF-109203X, the PKCαβγ-specific inhibitor Gö-6976, and the PKCδ-specific inhibitor rottlerin. We verified the involvement of PKCδ by blocking CCh-induced internalization of NBCe1-A-cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) in cells transfected with dominant-negative kinase-dead (Lys376Arg) PKCδ-GFP. Our data suggest that NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B undergo constitutive and CCh-stimulated endocytosis regulated by conventional PKCs (PKCαβγ) and by novel PKCδ in rat epithelial cells. To help develop a more complete model of the role of NBCe1 in parotid acinar cells we also investigated the initial phase of the secretory response to cholinergic agonist. In an Ussing chamber study we showed that inhibition of basolateral NBCe1 with 5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-3-(hydroxy-2-thienylmethylene)-2-oxo-1H-indole-1-carboxamide (tenidap) significantly decreases an initial phase of luminal anion secretion measured as a transient short-circuit current (Isc) across ParC10 cell monolayers. Using trafficking and functional data we propose a model that describes a physiological role of

  2. The Distribution of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate in Acinar Cells of Rat Pancreas Revealed with the Freeze-Fracture Replica Labeling Method

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] is a phospholipid that has been implicated in multiple cellular activities. The distribution of PI(4,5)P2 has been analyzed extensively using live imaging of the GFP-coupled phospholipase C-δ1 pleckstrin homology domain in cultured cell lines. However, technical difficulties have prevented the study of PI(4,5)P2 in cells of in vivo tissues. We recently developed a method to analyze the nanoscale distribution of PI(4,5)P2 in cultured cells by using the quick-freezing and freeze-fracture replica labeling method. In principle, this method can be applied to any cell because it does not require the expression of artificial probes. In the present study, we modified the method to study cells of in vivo tissues and applied it to pancreatic exocrine acinar cells of the rat. We found that PI(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane is distributed in an equivalent density in the apical and basolateral domains, but exists in a significantly higher concentration in the gap junction. The intracellular organelles did not show labeling for PI(4,5)P2. The results are novel or different from the reported distribution patterns in cell lines and highlight the importance of studying cells differentiated in vivo. PMID:21858170

  3. Cell proliferation and differentiation in chemical leukemogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, R. D.; Stillman, W. S.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    In tissues such as bone marrow with normally high rates of cell division, proliferation is tightly coordinated with cell differentiation. Survival, proliferation and differentiation of early hematopoietic progenitor cells depend on the growth factors, interleukin 3 (IL-3) and/or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and their synergism with other cytokines. We provide evidence that a characteristic shared by a diverse group of compounds with demonstrated leukemogenic potential is the ability to act synergistically with GM-CSF. This results in an increase in recruitment of a resting population of hematopoietic progenitor cells normally unresponsive to the cytokine and a twofold increase in the size of the proliferating cell population normally regarded to be at risk of transformation in leukemogenesis. These findings support the possibility that transient alterations in hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation may be an important factor in the early stages of development of leukemia secondary to chemical or drug exposure.

  4. Germ Cells Need Folate to Proliferate.

    PubMed

    Walker, Amy K

    2016-07-11

    In this issue of Developmental Cell, Chaudhari and colleagues (2016) use a novel method to create an in vitro proliferative cell line from tumorous C. elegans germ cells, and in the process discover that bacterial folates act as signals for proliferation, independent of their roles as vitamins. PMID:27404353

  5. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  6. Proliferating pancreatic beta-cells upregulate ALDH.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinglan; Jiang, Xiaoxin; Zeng, Yong; Zhou, Hui; Yang, Jing; Cao, Renxian

    2014-12-01

    High levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity have been regarded as a specific feature of progenitor cells and stem cells. Hence, as an indicator of ALDH activity, aldefluor fluorescence has been widely used for the identification and isolation of stem and progenitor cells. ALDH activity was recently detected in embryonic mouse pancreas, and specifically and exclusively in adult centroacinar and terminal duct cells, suggesting that these duct cells may harbor cells of endocrine and exocrine differentiation potential in the adult pancreas. Here, we report the presence of aldefluor+ beta-cells in a beta-cell proliferation model, partial pancreatectomy. The aldefluor+ beta-cells are essentially all positive for Ki-67 and expressed high levels of cell-cycle activators such as CyclinD1, CyclinD2, and CDK4, suggesting that they are mitotic cells. Our data thus reveal a potential change in ALDH activity of proliferating beta-cells, which provides a novel method for the isolation and analysis of proliferating beta-cells. Moreover, our data also suggest that aldefluor lineage-tracing is not a proper method for analyzing progenitor or stem activity in the adult pancreas. PMID:25028343

  7. Lensless imaging system to quantify cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinjimore Kesavan, S.; Allier, C. P.; Navarro, F.; Mittler, F.; Chalmond, B.; Dinten, J.-M.

    2013-02-01

    Owing to its simplicity, lensless imaging system is adept at continuous monitoring of adherent cells inside the incubator. The setup consists of a CMOS sensor with pixel pitch of 2.2 μm and field of view of 24 mm2, LED with a dominating wavelength of 525 nm, along with a pinhole of 150 μm as the source of illumination. The in-line hologram obtained from cells depends on the degree of cell-substrate adhesion. Drastic difference is observed between the holographic patterns of floating and adherent cells. In addition, the well-established fact of reduction of cell-substrate contact during cell division is observed with our system based on corresponding spontaneous transition in the holographic pattern. Here, we demonstrate that by recognizing this specific holographic pattern, number of cells undergoing mitosis in a cell culture with a population of approximately 5000 cells, can be estimated in real-time. The method is assessed on comparison with Edu-based proliferation assay. The approach is straightforward and it eliminates the use of markers to estimate the proliferation rate of a given cell culture. Unlike most proliferation assays, the cells are not harvested enabling continuous monitoring of cell culture.

  8. Pancreatic Acinar Cells Employ miRNAs as Mediators of Intercellular Communication to Participate in the Regulation of Pancreatitis-Associated Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Hao; Qiao, Xin; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage activation plays an important role in the inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis. In the present study, the activation of AR42J pancreatic acinar cells was induced by taurolithocholate treatment. The results showed that the culture medium from the activated AR42J cells significantly enhanced NFκB activation in the macrophages compared to that without taurolithocholate treatment. Additionally, the precipitates obtained from ultracentrifugation of the culture media that were rich in exosomes were markedly more potent in activating macrophages compared with the supernatant fraction lacking exosomes. The results indicated that the mediators carried by the exosomes played important roles in macrophage activation. Exosomal miRNAs were extracted and examined using microarrays. A total of 115 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, and 30 showed upregulated expression, while 85 displayed downregulated expression. Target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using TargetScan, MiRanda, and PicTar software programs. The putative target genes were subjected to KEGG functional analysis. The functions of the target genes were primarily enriched in MAPK pathways. Specifically, the target genes regulated macrophage activation through the TRAF6-TAB2-TAK1-NIK/IKK-NFκB pathway. As the mediators of signal transduction, miRNAs and their predicted target mRNAs regulate every step in the MAPK pathway. PMID:27546996

  9. Pancreatic Acinar Cells Employ miRNAs as Mediators of Intercellular Communication to Participate in the Regulation of Pancreatitis-Associated Macrophage Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Hao; Lu, Ming; Qiao, Xin; Sun, Bei; Zhang, Weihui; Xue, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage activation plays an important role in the inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis. In the present study, the activation of AR42J pancreatic acinar cells was induced by taurolithocholate treatment. The results showed that the culture medium from the activated AR42J cells significantly enhanced NFκB activation in the macrophages compared to that without taurolithocholate treatment. Additionally, the precipitates obtained from ultracentrifugation of the culture media that were rich in exosomes were markedly more potent in activating macrophages compared with the supernatant fraction lacking exosomes. The results indicated that the mediators carried by the exosomes played important roles in macrophage activation. Exosomal miRNAs were extracted and examined using microarrays. A total of 115 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, and 30 showed upregulated expression, while 85 displayed downregulated expression. Target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using TargetScan, MiRanda, and PicTar software programs. The putative target genes were subjected to KEGG functional analysis. The functions of the target genes were primarily enriched in MAPK pathways. Specifically, the target genes regulated macrophage activation through the TRAF6-TAB2-TAK1-NIK/IKK-NFκB pathway. As the mediators of signal transduction, miRNAs and their predicted target mRNAs regulate every step in the MAPK pathway. PMID:27546996

  10. TWEAK induces liver progenitor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Aniela; Ambrose, Christine; Parr, Michael; Lincecum, John M; Wang, Monica Z; Zheng, Timothy S; Browning, Beth; Michaelson, Jennifer S; Baetscher, Manfred; Baestcher, Manfred; Wang, Bruce; Bissell, D Montgomery; Burkly, Linda C

    2005-09-01

    Progenitor ("oval") cell expansion accompanies many forms of liver injury, including alcohol toxicity and submassive parenchymal necrosis as well as experimental injury models featuring blocked hepatocyte replication. Oval cells can potentially become either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells and may be critical to liver regeneration, particularly when hepatocyte replication is impaired. The regulation of oval cell proliferation is incompletely understood. Herein we present evidence that a TNF family member called TWEAK (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis) stimulates oval cell proliferation in mouse liver through its receptor Fn14. TWEAK has no effect on mature hepatocytes and thus appears to be selective for oval cells. Transgenic mice overexpressing TWEAK in hepatocytes exhibit periportal oval cell hyperplasia. A similar phenotype was obtained in adult wild-type mice, but not Fn14-null mice, by administering TWEAK-expressing adenovirus. Oval cell expansion induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) was significantly reduced in Fn14-null mice as well as in adult wild-type mice with a blocking anti-TWEAK mAb. Importantly, TWEAK stimulated the proliferation of an oval cell culture model. Finally, we show increased Fn14 expression in chronic hepatitis C and other human liver diseases relative to its expression in normal liver, which suggests a role for the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in human liver injury. We conclude that TWEAK has a selective mitogenic effect for liver oval cells that distinguishes it from other previously described growth factors. PMID:16110324

  11. APC alterations are frequently involved in the pathogenesis of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, mainly through gene loss and promoter hypermethylation.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Daniela; Sahnane, Nora; Bernasconi, Barbara; Frattini, Milo; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Molinari, Francesca; Marando, Alessandro; Zhang, Lizhi; Vanoli, Alessandro; Casnedi, Selenia; Adsay, Volkan; Notohara, Kenji; Albarello, Luca; Asioli, Sofia; Sessa, Fausto; Capella, Carlo; La Rosa, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Genetic and epigenetic alterations involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) are poorly characterized, including the frequency and role of gene-specific hypermethylation, chromosome aberrations, and copy number alterations (CNAs). A subset of ACCs is known to show alterations in the APC/β-catenin pathway which includes mutations of APC gene. However, it is not known whether, in addition to mutation, loss of APC gene function can occur through alternative genetic and epigenetic mechanisms such as gene loss or promoter methylation. We investigated the global methylation profile of 34 tumor suppressor genes, CNAs of 52 chromosomal regions, and APC gene alterations (mutation, methylation, and loss) together with APC mRNA level in 45 ACCs and related peritumoral pancreatic tissues using methylation-specific multiplex ligation probe amplification (MS-MLPA), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), mutation analysis, and reverse transcription-droplet digital PCR. ACCs did not show an extensive global gene hypermethylation profile. RASSF1 and APC were the only two genes frequently methylated. APC mutations were found in only 7 % of cases, while APC loss and methylation were more frequently observed (48 and 56 % of ACCs, respectively). APC mRNA low levels were found in 58 % of cases and correlated with CNAs. In conclusion, ACCs do not show extensive global gene hypermethylation. APC alterations are frequently involved in the pathogenesis of ACCs mainly through gene loss and promoter hypermethylation, along with reduction of APC mRNA levels. PMID:24590585

  12. Allograft pancreas: pale acinar nodules.

    PubMed

    Troxell, Megan L; Drachenberg, Cinthia

    2016-08-01

    Microscopic pale-staining acinar nodules were characterized in native pancreas in the 1980s under a variety of names but have been infrequently reported since. We retrospectively studied the frequency and characteristics of pale acinar nodules in allograft pancreas biopsies, as compared to a sampling of native pancreas specimens at our center. Pale acinar nodules were present in 13% (9/69) of allograft biopsies from 22% (7/32) of transplant patients, and 23% (5/22) of native pancreas surgical specimens, although more nodules per pancreas area were present in allograft needle biopsies. Acinar nodules had size of 100 to 700 μm, were periodic acid-Schiff pale, were synaptophysin negative, stained more weakly with keratin CAM 5.2 compared to surrounding parenchyma, and had a low proliferative rate. Ultrastructural evaluation revealed paucity of zymogen granules with dilated cistern-like structures. In our experience, pale acinar nodules have similar features in allograft and native pancreas specimens, yet remain of uncertain etiology and significance. PMID:27063474

  13. Cell-Specific Cre Strains For Genetic Manipulation in Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Eri O.; Aure, Marit H.; Xie, Xiaoling; Myal, Yvonne; Gan, Lin; Ovitt, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    The secretory acinar cells of the salivary gland are essential for saliva secretion, but are also the cell type preferentially lost following radiation treatment for head and neck cancer. The source of replacement acinar cells is currently a matter of debate. There is evidence for the presence of adult stem cells located within specific ductal regions of the salivary glands, but our laboratory recently demonstrated that differentiated acinar cells are maintained without significant stem cell contribution. To enable further investigation of salivary gland cell lineages and their origins, we generated three cell-specific Cre driver mouse strains. For genetic manipulation in acinar cells, an inducible Cre recombinase (Cre-ER) was targeted to the prolactin-induced protein (Pip) gene locus. Targeting of the Dcpp1 gene, encoding demilune cell and parotid protein, labels intercalated duct cells, a putative site of salivary gland stem cells, and serous demilune cells of the sublingual gland. Duct cell-specific Cre expression was attempted by targeting the inducible Cre to the Tcfcp2l1 gene locus. Using the R26Tomato Red reporter mouse, we demonstrate that these strains direct inducible, cell-specific expression. Genetic tracing of acinar cells using PipGCE supports the recent finding that differentiated acinar cells clonally expand. Moreover, tracing of intercalated duct cells expressing DcppGCE confirms evidence of duct cell proliferation, but further analysis is required to establish that renewal of secretory acinar cells is dependent on stem cells within these ducts. PMID:26751783

  14. Spatial constraints control cell proliferation in tissues

    PubMed Central

    Streichan, Sebastian J.; Hoerner, Christian R.; Schneidt, Tatjana; Holzer, Daniela; Hufnagel, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Control of cell proliferation is a fundamental aspect of tissue formation in development and regeneration. Cells experience various spatial and mechanical constraints depending on their environmental context in the body, but we do not fully understand if and how such constraints influence cell cycle progression and thereby proliferation patterns in tissues. Here, we study the impact of mechanical manipulations on the cell cycle of individual cells within a mammalian model epithelium. By monitoring the response to experimentally applied forces, we find a checkpoint at the G1–S boundary that, in response to spatial constraints, controls cell cycle progression. This checkpoint prevents cells from entering S phase if the available space remains below a characteristic threshold because of crowding. Stretching the tissue results in fast cell cycle reactivation, whereas compression rapidly leads to cell cycle arrest. Our kinetic analysis of this response shows that cells have no memory of past constraints and allows us to formulate a biophysical model that predicts tissue growth in response to changes in spatial constraints in the environment. This characteristic biomechanical cell cycle response likely serves as a fundamental control mechanism to maintain tissue integrity and to ensure control of tissue growth during development and regeneration. PMID:24706777

  15. Microfluidic devices for cell cultivation and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Tehranirokh, Masoomeh; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Francis, Paul S.; Kanwar, Jagat R.

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic technology provides precise, controlled-environment, cost-effective, compact, integrated, and high-throughput microsystems that are promising substitutes for conventional biological laboratory methods. In recent years, microfluidic cell culture devices have been used for applications such as tissue engineering, diagnostics, drug screening, immunology, cancer studies, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurite guidance. Microfluidic technology allows dynamic cell culture in microperfusion systems to deliver continuous nutrient supplies for long term cell culture. It offers many opportunities to mimic the cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions of tissues by creating gradient concentrations of biochemical signals such as growth factors, chemokines, and hormones. Other applications of cell cultivation in microfluidic systems include high resolution cell patterning on a modified substrate with adhesive patterns and the reconstruction of complicated tissue architectures. In this review, recent advances in microfluidic platforms for cell culturing and proliferation, for both simple monolayer (2D) cell seeding processes and 3D configurations as accurate models of in vivo conditions, are examined. PMID:24273628

  16. Effects of hyperprolactinemia on toxicological parameters and proliferation of islet cells in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ose, Keiko; Miyata, Kaori; Yoshioka, Kaoru; Okuno, Yasuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    Prolactin has a wide variety of biological effects. Consequences of hyperprolactinemia on islet B cell proliferation as well as general toxicological parameters were here examined using anterior pituitary-grafted rats. Three or six anterior pituitary glands were implanted under single renal capsules of F344 male rats and left there for 13 weeks afterward. Clinical observation along with measurement of body weight and food consumption was conducted during the observation period, and subsequently hematology, blood biochemistry, gross pathology, organ weights and histopathology were examined. In addition, the proliferation rate of islet B cells was measured by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) labeling technique. Serum prolactin concentrations at week 13 were 36, 70, 75 and 105 ng/ml in the sham-operated, 3-pituitary-grafted groups from male or female donors, and 6-pituitary-grafted group from male donors, respectively. Higher cholinesterase and total cholesterol values, lower trigriceride and leutenizing hormones (LH) values, and higher adrenal weights compared to those in the sham-operated group were apparent in the 3- and/or 6-pituitary-grafted groups. Also, the study revealed that mammary gland structure was transformed with change of differentiation from a male to a female acinar pattern. Furthermore a specific increase of islet cell proliferation rate was found, positively correlated with serum prolactin concentration. These findings suggest that elevation of serum prolactin level over 13 weeks induces islet cell proliferation and changes in toxicological parameters, including cholinesterase activity, elements of lipid metabolism and histopathology/morphology of the adrenals and mammary glands in male rats. PMID:19336972

  17. BCOR regulates myeloid cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Q; Gearhart, M D; Gery, S; Shojaee, S; Yang, H; Sun, H; Lin, D-C; Bai, J-W; Mead, M; Zhao, Z; Chen, Q; Chien, W-W; Alkan, S; Alpermann, T; Haferlach, T; Müschen, M; Bardwell, V J; Koeffler, H P

    2016-05-01

    BCOR is a component of a variant Polycomb group repressive complex 1 (PRC1). Recently, we and others reported recurrent somatic BCOR loss-of-function mutations in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, the role of BCOR in normal hematopoiesis is largely unknown. Here, we explored the function of BCOR in myeloid cells using myeloid murine models with Bcor conditional loss-of-function or overexpression alleles. Bcor mutant bone marrow cells showed significantly higher proliferation and differentiation rates with upregulated expression of Hox genes. Mutation of Bcor reduced protein levels of RING1B, an H2A ubiquitin ligase subunit of PRC1 family complexes and reduced H2AK119ub upstream of upregulated HoxA genes. Global RNA expression profiling in murine cells and AML patient samples with BCOR loss-of-function mutation suggested that loss of BCOR expression is associated with enhanced cell proliferation and myeloid differentiation. Our results strongly suggest that BCOR plays an indispensable role in hematopoiesis by inhibiting myeloid cell proliferation and differentiation and offer a mechanistic explanation for how BCOR regulates gene expression such as Hox genes. PMID:26847029

  18. Novel Lipophilic Probe for Detecting Near-Membrane Reactive Oxygen Species Responses and Its Application for Studies of Pancreatic Acinar Cells: Effects of Pyocyanin and L-Ornithine

    PubMed Central

    Chvanov, Michael; Huang, Wei; Jin, Tao; Wen, Li; Armstrong, Jane; Elliot, Vicky; Alston, Ben; Burdyga, Alex; Criddle, David N.; Sutton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The aim of this study was to develop a fluorescent reactive oxygen species (ROS) probe, which is preferentially localized in cellular membranes and displays a strong change in fluorescence upon oxidation. We also aimed to test the performance of this probe for detecting pathophysiologically relevant ROS responses in isolated cells. Results: We introduced a novel lipophilic ROS probe dihydrorhodamine B octadecyl ester (H2RB-C18). We then applied the new probe to characterize the ROS changes triggered by inducers of acute pancreatitis in pancreatic acinar cells. We resolved ROS changes produced by L-ornithine, L-arginine, cholecystokinin-8, acetylcholine, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate, palmitoleic acid ethyl ester, and the bacterial toxin pyocyanin. Particularly prominent ROS responses were induced by pyocyanin and L-ornithine. These ROS responses were accompanied by changes in cytosolic Ca2+concentration ([Ca2+]i), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), and NAD(P)H concentration. Innovation: The study describes a novel sensitive lipophilic ROS probe. The probe is particularly suitable for detecting ROS in near-membrane regions and therefore for reporting the ROS environment of plasma membrane channels and pumps. Conclusions: In our experimental conditions, the novel probe was more sensitive than 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (CM-H2DCF) and dihydrorhodamine123 (H2R123) and allowed us to resolve ROS responses to secretagogues, pyocyanin, and L-ornithine. Changes in the fluorescence of the new probe were particularly prominent in the peripheral plasma membrane-associated regions. Our findings suggest that the new probe will be a useful tool in studies of the contribution of ROS to the pathophysiology of exocrine pancreas and other organs/tissues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 451–464. PMID:24635199

  19. The Stochastic Theory of Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bronk, Burt V.; Dienes, G. J.; Paskin, Arthur

    1968-01-01

    A stochastic theory of cell kinetics has been developed based on a realistic model of cell proliferation. A characteristic transit time, t̄i, has been assigned to each of the four states (G1, S, G2, M) of the cell cycle. The actual transit time, ti, for any cell is represented by a distribution around t̄i with a variance σi2. Analytic and computer formulations have been used to describe the time development of such characteristics as age distribution, labeling experiments, and response to perturbations of the system by, for example, irradiation and temperature. The decay of synchrony is analyzed in detail and is shown to proceed as a damped wave. From the first few peaks of the synchrony decay one can obtain the distribution function for the cell cycle time. The later peaks decay exponentially with a characteristic decay constant, λ, which depends only on the average cell-cycle time, T̄, and the associated variance. It is shown that the system, upon any sudden disturbance, approaches new “equilibrium” proliferation characteristics via damped periodic transients, the damping being characterized by λ. Thus, the response time of the system, T̄/λ, is as basic a parameter of the system as the cell-cycle time. PMID:5696217

  20. Mitochondrial Regulation of Cell Cycle and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Antico Arciuch, Valeria Gabriela; Elguero, María Eugenia; Poderoso, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Eukaryotic mitochondria resulted from symbiotic incorporation of α-proteobacteria into ancient archaea species. During evolution, mitochondria lost most of the prokaryotic bacterial genes and only conserved a small fraction including those encoding 13 proteins of the respiratory chain. In this process, many functions were transferred to the host cells, but mitochondria gained a central role in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, and in the modulation of metabolism; accordingly, defective organelles contribute to cell transformation and cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Most cell and transcriptional effects of mitochondria depend on the modulation of respiratory rate and on the production of hydrogen peroxide released into the cytosol. The mitochondrial oxidative rate has to remain depressed for cell proliferation; even in the presence of O2, energy is preferentially obtained from increased glycolysis (Warburg effect). In response to stress signals, traffic of pro- and antiapoptotic mitochondrial proteins in the intermembrane space (B-cell lymphoma-extra large, Bcl-2-associated death promoter, Bcl-2 associated X-protein and cytochrome c) is modulated by the redox condition determined by mitochondrial O2 utilization and mitochondrial nitric oxide metabolism. In this article, we highlight the traffic of the different canonical signaling pathways to mitochondria and the contributions of organelles to redox regulation of kinases. Finally, we analyze the dynamics of the mitochondrial population in cell cycle and apoptosis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 1150–1180. PMID:21967640

  1. Cell proliferation inhibition in reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moos, P. J.; Fattaey, H. K.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Extended durations of spaceflight have been shown to be deleterious on an organismic level; however, mechanisms underlying cellular sensitivity to the gravitational environment remain to be elucidated. The majority of the gravitational studies to date indicates that cell regulatory pathways may be influenced by their gravitational environment. Still, few cell biology experiments have been performed in space flight and even fewer experiments have been repeated on subsequent flights. With flight opportunities on STS-50, 54, and 57, Sf9 cells were flown in the BioServe Fluids Processing Apparatus and cell proliferation was measured with and without exposure to a cell regulatory sialoglycopeptide (CeReS) inhibitor. Results from these flights indicate that the Sf9 cells grew comparable to ground controls, that the CeReS inhibitor bound to its specific receptor, and that its signal transduction cascade was not gravity sensitive.

  2. Changes in the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) of proliferating rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Broverman, R L; Nguyen, K H; da Silveira, A; Brinkley, L L; Macauley, S P; Zeng, T; Yamamoto, H; Tarnuzzer, R W; Schultz, G S; Kerr, M; Humphreys-Beher, M G

    1998-07-01

    Tissue morphogenesis, development, and maintenance of function are mediated by signals generated through the composition of the extracellular matrix. The regulation of the composition of matrix is determined by enzymes specific for their degradation, the matrix metalloproteinases. Chronic injections of the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, isoproterenol, result in a non-neoplastic hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the rat parotid gland. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases, as measured by gelatin zymography and enzymatic digestion of Azocoll substrates by gland lysates, decreased significantly (P < 0.05) following 24 hrs of agonist treatment, and slowly recovered to control values by 6 days of treatment. Daily administration of the broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor Galardin for 3 days in combination with isoproterenol resulted in enhanced gland hypertrophy compared with that produced by isoproterenol alone. Given alone, Galardin also caused hypertrophy. The relative abundance of mRNA for the extracellular matrix molecules, collagens I and III and fibronectin, declined rapidly following the initiation of beta-agonist treatment in vivo, while laminin B1 and B2 mRNA levels increased initially before declining below control levels. These changes in patterns of mRNA levels also were observed in the concentrations of glandular protein when Western dot blot analysis of collagens I and III and laminin, respectively, was used. The importance of laminin, in vivo, was demonstrated by coinjection of anti-laminin antibody along with isoproterenol, which resulted in the inhibition of beta-agonist-induced parotid gland hypertrophy and hyperplasia. These data suggest that modulation of the ECM is associated with isoproterenol-induced salivary gland hypertrophy and hyperplasia. It is likely that this modulation of the ECM takes place through transcriptional regulation of some ECM genes and regulation of matrix-degrading enzyme activity. PMID:9663435

  3. Biofilms’ Role in Planktonic Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bester, Elanna; Wolfaardt, Gideon M.; Aznaveh, Nahid B.; Greener, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    The detachment of single cells from biofilms is an intrinsic part of this surface-associated mode of bacterial existence. Pseudomonas sp. strain CT07gfp biofilms, cultivated in microfluidic channels under continuous flow conditions, were subjected to a range of liquid shear stresses (9.42 mPa to 320 mPa). The number of detached planktonic cells was quantified from the effluent at 24-h intervals, while average biofilm thickness and biofilm surface area were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis. Biofilm accumulation proceeded at the highest applied shear stress, while similar rates of planktonic cell detachment was maintained for biofilms of the same age subjected to the range of average shear rates. The conventional view of liquid-mediated shear leading to the passive erosion of single cells from the biofilm surface, disregards the active contribution of attached cell metabolism and growth to the observed detachment rates. As a complement to the conventional conceptual biofilm models, the existence of a biofilm surface-associated zone of planktonic cell proliferation is proposed to highlight the need to expand the traditional perception of biofilms as promoting microbial survival, to include the potential of biofilms to contribute to microbial proliferation. PMID:24201127

  4. [Enhanced control of proliferation in telomerized cells].

    PubMed

    Egorov, E E; Moldaver, M V; Vishniakova, Kh S; Terekhov, S M; Dashinimaev, E B; Cheglakov, I B; Toropygin, I Iu; Iarygin, K N; Chumakov, P M; Korochkin, L I; Antonova, G A; Rybalkina, E Iu; Saburina, I N; Burnaevskiĭ, N S; Zelenin, A V

    2007-01-01

    Clones of telomerized fibroblasts of adult human skin have earlier been obtained. It was shown that despite their fast growth in mass cultures, these cells poorly form colonies. Conditioned medium, antioxidants, and reduced partial oxygen pressure enhanced their colony formation, but not to the level characteristic of the initial cells. The conditioned medium of telomerized cells enhanced colony formation to a much greater extent than that of the initial cells. A study of proteome of the telomerized fibroblasts has revealed changes in the activities of tens of genes. A general trend consists in weakening and increased lability of the cytoskeleton and in activation of the mechanisms controlling protein degradation. However, these changes are not very pronounced. During the formation of immortal telomerized cells, selection takes place, which appears to determine changes in the expression of some genes. It was proposed that a decrease in the capacity of telomerized cells for colony formation is due to increased requirements of these cells to cell-cell contacts. The rate of cell growth reached that characteristic of mass cultures only in the largest colonies. In this respect, the telomerized fibroblasts resembled stem cells: they are capable of self-maintenance, but "escape" to differentiation in the absence of the corresponding microenvironment (niche), which is represented by other fibroblasts. Non-dividing cells in the test of colony formation should be regarded as differentiated cells, since they have no features of degradation, preserve their viability, actively move, grow, phagocytized debris, etc. It was also shown that telomerization did not prevent differentiation of myoblasts and human neural stem cells. Thus, the results obtained suggest the existence of normal mechanisms underlying the regulation of proliferation in the telomerized cells, which opens possibilities of their use in cell therapy, especially in the case of autotransplantation to senior people

  5. Collagen coated tantalum substrate for cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinli; Zhang, Shuai; Guo, Lijun; Dong, Mingdong; Liu, Bo; Mamdouh, Wael

    2012-06-15

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a key role in cell culture in various physiological and pathological processes in the field of tissue engineering. Recently, the type I collagen ECM has been widely utilized in vitro model systems for the attachment of many different cell lines since it has multi-functions in human tissues. For example it accounts for 6% of the weight of strong, tendinous muscles. In this paper, we reported a new material by coating tantalum (Ta), one highly biocompatible metal, with type I collagen fibrils. The morphology of the new material was studied by high resolution atomic force microscope. It was shown that the adhesion force between type I collagen fibrils network and Ta was strong enough to overcome surface defects. A possible way to explain the phenomenon is that the longitudinal periodicity of collagen fibrils matches the grain size of the Ta domains, which results in increase of the physical adsorption contact area, thereby inducing the dramatic adhesion enhancement between collagen fibrils and Ta. The obtained material was then employed as a template for cell proliferation. Although the surface of this template is more hydrophobic by comparison with the bare Ta surface, the cells on this material were successfully incubated, indicating that the collagen coated Ta might be used as the buffer layer for proliferating cells in hydrophobic biomaterials. PMID:22494669

  6. Selective cell proliferation can be controlled with CPC particle coatings

    PubMed Central

    Szivek, J.A.; Margolis, D.S.; Schnepp, A.B.; Grana, W.A.; Williams, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    To develop implantable, engineered, cartilage constructs supported by a scaffold, techniques to encourage rapid tissue growth into, and on the scaffold are essential. Preliminary studies indicated that human endothelial cells proliferated at different rates on different calcium phosphate ceramic (CPC) particles. Judicious selection of particles may encourage specific cell proliferation, leading to an ordered growth of tissues for angiogenesis, osteogenesis, and chondrogenesis. The goal of this study was to identify CPC surfaces that encourage bone and vascular cell growth, and other surfaces that support chondrocyte growth while inhibiting proliferation of vascular cells. Differences in bone and vascular cell proliferation were observed when using epoxy without embedded CPCs to encourage bone cells, and when three CPCs were tested, which encouraged vascular cell proliferation. One of these (CPC 7) also substantially depressed cartilage cell proliferation. Only one small-diameter crystalline CPC (CPC 2) supported rapid chondrocyte proliferation, and maintained the cartilage cell phenotype. PMID:17252549

  7. The p21-activated kinase, PAK2, is important in the activation of numerous pancreatic acinar cell signaling cascades and in the onset of early pancreatitis events.

    PubMed

    Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Ramos-Álvarez, Irene; Jensen, R T

    2016-06-01

    In a recent study we explored Group-1-p21-activated kinases (GP.1-PAKs) in rat pancreatic acini. Only PAK2 was present; it was activated by gastrointestinal-hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors in a PKC-, Src- and small-GTPase-mediated manner. PAK2 was required for enzyme-secretion and ERK/1-2-activation. In the present study we examined PAK2's role in CCK and TPA-activation of important distal signaling cascades mediating their physiological/pathophysiological effects and analyzed its role in pathophysiological processes important in early pancreatitis. In rat pancreatic acini, PAK2-inhibition by the specific, GP.1.PAK-inhibitor, IPA-3-suppressed cholecystokinin (CCK)/TPA-stimulated activation of focal-adhesion kinases and mitogen-activated protein-kinases. PAK2-inhibition reversed the dual stimulatory/inhibitory effect of CCK/TPA on the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway. However, its inhibition did not affect PKC activation. PAK2-inhibition protected acini from CCK-induced ROS-generation; caspase/trypsin-activation, important in early pancreatitis; as well as from cell-necrosis. Furthermore, PAK2-inhibition reduced proteolytic-activation of PAK-2p34, which is involved in programmed-cell-death. To ensure that the study did not only rely in the specificity of IPA-3 as a PAK inhibitor, we used two other approaches for PAK inhibition, FRAX597 a ATP-competitive-GP.1-PAKs-inhibitor and infection with a PAK2-dominant negative(DN)-Advirus. Those two approaches confirmed the results obtained with IPA-3. This study demonstrates that PAK2 is important in mediating CCK's effect on the activation of signaling-pathways known to mediate its physiological/pathophysiological responses including several cellular processes linked to the onset of pancreatitis. Our results suggest that PAK2 could be a new, important therapeutic target to consider for the treatment of diseases involving deregulation of pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:26912410

  8. Leptin promotes cell proliferation and survival of trophoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Magariños, María Paula; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor; Kotler, Mónica; Calvo, Juan Carlos; Varone, Cecilia L

    2007-02-01

    Leptin, the 16-kDa protein product of the obese gene, was originally considered as an adipocyte-derived signaling molecule for the central control of metabolism. However, leptin has been suggested to be involved in other functions during pregnancy, particularly in placenta. In the present work, we studied a possible effect of leptin on trophoblastic cell proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. Recombinant human leptin added to JEG-3 and BeWo choriocarcinoma cell lines showed a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation up to 3 and 2.4 times, respectively, measured by (3)H-thymidine incorporation and cell counting. These effects were time and dose dependent. Maximal effect was achieved at 250 ng leptin/ml for JEG-3 cells and 50 ng leptin/ml for BeWo cells. Moreover, by inhibiting endogenous leptin expression with 2 microM of an antisense oligonucleotide (AS), cell proliferation was diminished. We analyzed cell population distribution during the different stages of cell cycle by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and we found that leptin treatment displaced the cells towards a G2/M phase. We also found that leptin upregulated cyclin D1 expression, one of the key cell cycle-signaling proteins. Since proliferation and death processes are intimately related, the effect of leptin on cell apoptosis was investigated. Treatment with 2 microM leptin AS increased the number of apoptotic cells 60 times, as assessed by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, and the caspase-3 activity was increased more than 2 fold. This effect was prevented by the addition of 100 ng leptin/ml. In conclusion, we provide evidence that suggests that leptin is a trophic and mitogenic factor for trophoblastic cells by virtue of its inhibiting apoptosis and promoting proliferation. PMID:17021346

  9. Nonenzymatic cryogenic isolation of therapeutic cells: novel approach for enzyme-free isolation of pancreatic islets using in situ cryopreservation of islets and concurrent selective freeze destruction of acinar tissue.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael J; Baicu, Simona C

    2014-01-01

    Cell-based therapies, which all involve processes for procurement and reimplantation of living cells, currently rely upon expensive, inconsistent, and even toxic enzyme digestion processes. A prime example is the preparation of isolated pancreatic islets for the treatment of type 1 diabetes by transplantation. To avoid the inherent pitfalls of these enzymatic methods, we have conceptualized an alternative approach based on the hypothesis that cryobiological techniques can be used for differential freeze destruction of the pancreas (Px) to release islets that are selectively cryopreserved in situ. Pancreata were procured from juvenile pigs using approved procedures. The concept of cryoisolation is based on differential processing of the pancreas in five stages: 1) infiltrating islets in situ preferentially with a cryoprotectant (CPA) cocktail via antegrade perfusion of the major arteries; 2) retrograde ductal infusion of water to distend the acinar; 3) freezing the entire Px solid to < -160°C for storage in liquid nitrogen; 4) mechanically crushing and pulverizing the frozen Px into small fragments; 5) thawing the frozen fragments, filtering, and washing to remove the CPA. Finally, the filtered effluent (cryoisolate) was stained with dithizone for identification of intact islets and with Syto 13/PI for fluorescence viability testing and glucose-stimulated insulin release assessment. As predicted, the cryoisolate contained small fragments of residual tissue comprising an amorphous mass of acinar tissue with largely intact and viable (>90%) embedded islets. Islets were typically larger (range 50-500 µm diameter) than their counterparts isolated from juvenile pigs using conventional enzyme digestion techniques. Functionally, the islets from replicate cryoisolates responded to a glucose challenge with a mean stimulation index = 3.3 ± 0.7. An enzyme-free method of islet isolation relying on in situ cryopreservation of islets with simultaneous freeze

  10. Maintaining human fetal pancreatic stellate cell function and proliferation require β1 integrin and collagen I matrix interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bijun; Li, Jinming; Fellows, George F.; Sun, Zilin; Wang, Rennian

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs) are cells that are located around the acinar, ductal, and vasculature tissue of the rodent and human pancreas, and are responsible for regulating extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover and maintaining the architecture of pancreatic tissue. This study examines the contributions of integrin receptor signaling in human PaSC function and survival. Human PaSCs were isolated from pancreata collected during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy and identified by expression of stellate cell markers, ECM proteins and associated growth factors. Multiple integrins are found in isolated human PaSCs, with high levels of β1, α3 and α5. Cell adhesion and migration assays demonstrated that human PaSCs favour collagen I matrix, which enhanced PaSC proliferation and increased TGFβ1, CTGF and α3β1 integrin. Significant activation of FAK/ERK and AKT signaling pathways, and up-regulation of cyclin D1 protein levels, were observed within PaSCs cultured on collagen I matrix. Blocking β1 integrin significantly decreased PaSC adhesion, migration and proliferation, further complementing the aforementioned findings. This study demonstrates that interaction of β1 integrin with collagen I is required for the proliferation and function of human fetal PaSCs, which may contribute to the biomedical engineering of the ECM microenvironment needed for the efficient regulation of pancreatic development. PMID:26062655

  11. Liver epithelial cells inhibit proliferation and invasiveness of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Kuo-Shyang; Jeng, Chi-Juei; Jeng, Wen-Juei; Sheen, I-Shyan; Li, Shih-Yun; Hung, Zih-Hang; Hsiau, Hsin-I; Yu, Ming-Che; Chang, Chiung-Fang

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a worldwide malignancy with poor prognosis. Liver progenitors or stem cells could be a potential therapy for HCC treatment since they migrate toward tumors. Rat liver epithelial (RLE) cells have both progenitor and stem cell-like properties. Therefore, our study elucidated the therapeutic effect of RLE cells in rat hepatoma cells. RLE cells were isolated from 10-day old rats and characterized for stem cell marker expression. RLE cells and rat hepatoma cells (H4-IIE-C3 cells) were co-cultured and divided into four groups with different ratios of RLE and hepatoma cells. Group A had only rat hepatoma cells as a control group. The ratios of rat hepatoma and RLE cells in group B, C and D were 5:1, 1:1 and 1:5, respectively. Effective inhibition of cell proliferation and migration was found in group D when compared to group A. There was a significant decrease in Bcl2 expression and increase in late apoptosis of rat hepatoma cells when adding more RLE cells. RLE cells reduced cell proliferation and migration of rat hepatoma cells. These results suggested that RLE cells could be used as a potential cell therapy. PMID:26647726

  12. Post microtextures accelerate cell proliferation and osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jung; Boehm, Cynthia A; Mata, Alvaro; Fleischman, Aaron J; Muschler, George F; Roy, Shuvo

    2010-01-01

    The influence of surface microtexture on osteogenesis was investigated in vitro by examining the proliferation and differentiation characteristics of a class of adult stem cells and their progeny, collectively known as connective tissue progenitor cells (CTPs). Human bone marrow-derived CTPs were cultured for up to 60 days on smooth polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces and on PDMS with post microtextures that were 10 microm in diameter and 6 microm in height, with 10 microm separation. DNA quantification revealed that the numbers of CTPs initially attached to both substrates were similar. However, cells on microtextured PDMS transitioned from lag phase after 4 days of culture, in contrast to 6 days for cells on smooth surfaces. By day 9 cells on the smooth surfaces exhibited arbitrary flattened shapes and migrated without any preferred orientation. In contrast, cells on the microtextured PDMS grew along the array of posts in an orthogonal manner. By days 30 and 60 cells grew and covered all surfaces with extracellular matrix. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of integrin alpha5 was greater on the microtextured PDMS compared with smooth surfaces. Real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that gene expression of alkaline phosphatase had decreased by days 30 and 60, compared with that on day 9, for both substrates. Gene expression of collagen I and osteocalcin was consistently greater on post microtextures relative to smooth surfaces at all time points. PMID:19539062

  13. Post microtextures accelerate cell proliferation and osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Jung; Boehm, Cynthia A.; Mata, Alvaro; Fleischman, Aaron J.; Muschler, George F.; Roy, Shuvo

    2013-01-01

    The influence of surface microtexture on osteogenesis was investigated in vitro by examining the proliferation and differentiation characteristics of a class of adult stem cells and their progeny, collectively known as connective tissue progenitor cells (CTPs). Human bone marrow-derived CTPs were cultured for up to 60 days on smooth polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces and on PDMS with post microtextures that were 10 µm in diameter and 6 µm in height, with 10 µm separation. DNA quantification revealed that the numbers of CTPs initially attached to both substrates were similar. However, cells on microtextured PDMS transitioned from lag phase after 4 days of culture, in contrast to 6 days for cells on smooth surfaces. By day 9 cells on the smooth surfaces exhibited arbitrary flattened shapes and migrated without any preferred orientation. In contrast, cells on the microtextured PDMS grew along the array of posts in an orthogonal manner. By days 30 and 60 cells grew and covered all surfaces with extracellular matrix. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of integrin α5 was greater on the microtextured PDMS compared with smooth surfaces. Real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that gene expression of alkaline phosphatase had decreased by days 30 and 60, compared with that on day 9, for both substrates. Gene expression of collagen I and osteocalcin was consistently greater on post microtextures relative to smooth surfaces at all time points. PMID:19539062

  14. Quantitative analysis of in vivo cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Heather A

    2006-11-01

    Injection and immunohistochemical detection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) has become the standard method for studying the birth and survival of neurons, glia, and other cell types in the nervous system. BrdU, a thymidine analog, becomes stably incorporated into DNA during the S-phase of mitosis. Because DNA containing BrdU can be specifically recognized by antibodies, this method allows dividing cells to be marked at any given time and then identified at time points from a few minutes to several years later. BrdU immunohistochemistry is suitable for cell counting to examine the regulation of cell proliferation and cell fate. It can be combined with labeling by other antibodies, allowing confocal analysis of cell phenotype or expression of other proteins. The potential for nonspecific labeling and toxicity are discussed. Although BrdU immunohistochemistry has almost completely replaced tritiated thymidine autoradiography for labeling dividing cells, this method and situations in which it is still useful are also described. PMID:18428635

  15. Numb-deficient satellite cells have regeneration and proliferation defects.

    PubMed

    George, Rajani M; Biressi, Stefano; Beres, Brian J; Rogers, Erik; Mulia, Amanda K; Allen, Ronald E; Rawls, Alan; Rando, Thomas A; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne

    2013-11-12

    The adaptor protein Numb has been implicated in the switch between cell proliferation and differentiation made by satellite cells during muscle repair. Using two genetic approaches to ablate Numb, we determined that, in its absence, muscle regeneration in response to injury was impaired. Single myofiber cultures demonstrated a lack of satellite cell proliferation in the absence of Numb, and the proliferation defect was confirmed in satellite cell cultures. Quantitative RT-PCR from Numb-deficient satellite cells demonstrated highly up-regulated expression of p21 and Myostatin, both inhibitors of myoblast proliferation. Transfection with Myostatin-specific siRNA rescued the proliferation defect of Numb-deficient satellite cells. Furthermore, overexpression of Numb in satellite cells inhibited Myostatin expression. These data indicate a unique function for Numb during the initial activation and proliferation of satellite cells in response to muscle injury. PMID:24170859

  16. Potassium channels in cell cycle and cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Urrego, Diana; Tomczak, Adam P.; Zahed, Farrah; Stühmer, Walter; Pardo, Luis A.

    2014-01-01

    Normal cell-cycle progression is a crucial task for every multicellular organism, as it determines body size and shape, tissue renewal and senescence, and is also crucial for reproduction. On the other hand, dysregulation of the cell-cycle progression leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation is the hallmark of cancer. Therefore, it is not surprising that it is a tightly regulated process, with multifaceted and very complex control mechanisms. It is now well established that one of those mechanisms relies on ion channels, and in many cases specifically on potassium channels. Here, we summarize the possible mechanisms underlying the importance of potassium channels in cell-cycle control and briefly review some of the identified channels that illustrate the multiple ways in which this group of proteins can influence cell proliferation and modulate cell-cycle progression. PMID:24493742

  17. Valproic Acid Limits Pancreatic Recovery after Pancreatitis by Inhibiting Histone Deacetylases and Preventing Acinar Redifferentiation Programs.

    PubMed

    Eisses, John F; Criscimanna, Angela; Dionise, Zachary R; Orabi, Abrahim I; Javed, Tanveer A; Sarwar, Sheharyar; Jin, Shunqian; Zhou, Lili; Singh, Sucha; Poddar, Minakshi; Davis, Amy W; Tosun, Akif Burak; Ozolek, John A; Lowe, Mark E; Monga, Satdarshan P; Rohde, Gustavo K; Esni, Farzad; Husain, Sohail Z

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms by which drugs induce pancreatitis are unknown. A definite cause of pancreatitis is due to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA). On the basis of three crucial observations-that VPA inhibits histone deacetylases (HDACs), HDACs mediate pancreas development, and aspects of pancreas development are recapitulated during recovery of the pancreas after injury-we hypothesized that VPA does not cause injury on its own, but it predisposes patients to pancreatitis by inhibiting HDACs and provoking an imbalance in pancreatic recovery. In an experimental model of pancreatic injury, we found that VPA delayed recovery of the pancreas and reduced acinar cell proliferation. In addition, pancreatic expression of class I HDACs (which are the primary VPA targets) increased in the midphase of pancreatic recovery. VPA administration inhibited pancreatic HDAC activity and led to the persistence of acinar-to-ductal metaplastic complexes, with prolonged Sox9 expression and sustained β-catenin nuclear activation, findings that characterize a delay in regenerative reprogramming. These effects were not observed with valpromide, an analog of VPA that lacks HDAC inhibition. This is the first report, to our knowledge, that VPA shifts the balance toward pancreatic injury and pancreatitis through HDAC inhibition. The work also identifies a new paradigm for therapies that could exploit epigenetic reprogramming to enhance pancreatic recovery and disorders of pancreatic injury. PMID:26476347

  18. Damage to pancreatic acinar cells and preservation of islets of Langerhans in a rat model of acute pancreatitis induced by Karwinskia humboldtiana (buckthorn).

    PubMed

    Carcano-Diaz, Katya; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Segoviano-Ramirez, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Loera-Arias, Maria de Jesus; Garcia-Juarez, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    Karwinskia humboldtiana (Kh) is a poisonous plant that grows in some regions of the American continent. Consuming large amounts of Kh fruit results in acute intoxication leading to respiratory failure, culminating in death within days. There is evidence of histological damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys following accidental and experimental Kh intoxication. To date, the microscopic effect of Kh consumption on the pancreas has not been described. We examined the early effects of Kh fruit on pancreatic tissue at different stages of acute intoxication in the Wistar rat. We found progressive damage confined to the exocrine pancreas, starting with a reduction in the number of zymogen granules, loss of acinar architecture, the presence of autophagy-like vesicles, apoptosis and inflammatory infiltrate. The pancreatic pathology culminated in damaged acini characterized by necrosis and edema, with a complete loss of lobular architecture. Interestingly, the morphology of the islets of Langerhans was conserved throughout our evaluations. Taken together, our results indicate the damage induced by a high dose of Kh fruit in the Wistar rat is consistent with an early acute necrotizing pancreatitis that exclusively affects the exocrine pancreas. Therefore, this system might be useful as an animal model to study the treatment of pancreatic diseases. More importantly, as the islets of Langerhans were preserved, the active compounds of Kh fruit could be utilized for the treatment of acinar pancreatic cancer. Further studies might provide insight into the severity of acute Kh intoxication in humans and influence the design of treatments for pancreatic diseases and acinar pancreatic cancer. PMID:26877198

  19. [The effects of actovegin on cell proliferation of permanent lines].

    PubMed

    Gulevskiĭ, A K; Trifonova, A V; Lavrik, A A

    2008-01-01

    The influence of Actovegin on proliferation activity and mitotic regimen of cells of permanent lines PK-15-IEKVM and BHK-21 clone 13/04 was investigated. Addition of Actovegin into growth media containing bovine serums of different components and concentrations stimulates cell proliferation. Conclusion has been made that Actovegin can be used in cell culture biotechnology. PMID:18411759

  20. Proliferation of mutators in A cell population.

    PubMed Central

    Mao, E F; Lane, L; Lee, J; Miller, J H

    1997-01-01

    A Lac- strain of Escherichia coli that reverts by the addition of a G to a G-G-G-G-G-G sequence was used to study the proliferation of mutators in a bacterial culture. Selection for the Lac+ phenotype, which is greatly stimulated in mismatch repair-deficient strains, results in an increase in the percentage of mutators in the selected population from less than 1 per 100,000 cells to 1 per 200 cells. All the mutators detected were deficient in the mismatch repair system. Mutagenesis results in a similar increase in the percentage of mutators. Mutagenesis combined with a single selection can result in a population of more than 50% mutators when a sample of several thousand cells is grown out and selected. Mutagenesis combined with two or more successive selections can generate a population that is 100% mutator. These experiments are discussed in relation to ideas that an early step in carcinogenesis is the creation of a mutator phenotype. PMID:8990293

  1. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen in neutrophil fate.

    PubMed

    Witko-Sarsat, Véronique; Ohayon, Delphine

    2016-09-01

    The life span of a neutrophil is a tightly regulated process as extended survival is beneficial for pathogen elimination and cell death necessary to prevent cytotoxic content release from activated neutrophils at the inflammatory site. Therefore, the control between survival and death must be a dynamic process. We have previously described that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) which is known as a nuclear protein pivotal in DNA synthesis, is a key element in controlling neutrophil survival through its association with procaspases. Contrary to the dogma which asserted that PCNA has a strictly nuclear function, in mature neutrophils, PCNA is present exclusively within the cytosol due to its nuclear export at the end of the granulocytic differentiation. More recent studies are consistent with the notion that the cytosolic scaffold of PCNA is aimed at modulating neutrophil fate rather than simply preventing death. Ultimately, targeting neutrophil survival might have important applications not just in the field of immunology and inflammation, but also in hematology and transfusion. The neutrophil emerges as a unique and powerful cellular model to unravel the basic mechanisms governing the cell cycle-independent functions of PCNA and should be considered as a leader of the pack. PMID:27558345

  2. Regulation of cell proliferation by hypoxia-inducible factors.

    PubMed

    Hubbi, Maimon E; Semenza, Gregg L

    2015-12-15

    Hypoxia is a physiological cue that impacts diverse physiological processes, including energy metabolism, autophagy, cell motility, angiogenesis, and erythropoiesis. One of the key cell-autonomous effects of hypoxia is as a modulator of cell proliferation. For most cell types, hypoxia induces decreased cell proliferation, since an increased number of cells, with a consequent increase in O2 demand, would only exacerbate hypoxic stress. However, certain cell populations maintain cell proliferation in the face of hypoxia. This is a common pathological hallmark of cancers, but can also serve a physiological function, as in the maintenance of stem cell populations that reside in a hypoxic niche. This review will discuss major molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia regulates cell proliferation in different cell populations, with a particular focus on the role of hypoxia-inducible factors. PMID:26491052

  3. Differential Glutamate Metabolism in Proliferating and Quiescent Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Coloff, Jonathan L; Murphy, J Patrick; Braun, Craig R; Harris, Isaac S; Shelton, Laura M; Kami, Kenjiro; Gygi, Steven P; Selfors, Laura M; Brugge, Joan S

    2016-05-10

    Mammary epithelial cells transition between periods of proliferation and quiescence during development, menstrual cycles, and pregnancy, and as a result of oncogenic transformation. Utilizing an organotypic 3D tissue culture model coupled with quantitative metabolomics and proteomics, we identified significant differences in glutamate utilization between proliferating and quiescent cells. Relative to quiescent cells, proliferating cells catabolized more glutamate via transaminases to couple non-essential amino acid (NEAA) synthesis to α-ketoglutarate generation and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle anaplerosis. As cells transitioned to quiescence, glutamine consumption and transaminase expression were reduced, while glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) was induced, leading to decreased NEAA synthesis. Highly proliferative human tumors display high transaminase and low GLUD expression, suggesting that proliferating cancer cells couple glutamine consumption to NEAA synthesis to promote biosynthesis. These findings describe a competitive and partially redundant relationship between transaminases and GLUD, and they reveal how coupling of glutamate-derived carbon and nitrogen metabolism can be regulated to support cell proliferation. PMID:27133130

  4. Skin cell proliferation stimulated by microneedles.

    PubMed

    Liebl, Horst; Kloth, Luther C

    2012-03-01

    A classical wound may be defined as a disruption of tissue integrity. Wounds, caused by trauma from accidents or surgery, that close via secondary intention rely on the biological phases of healing, i.e., hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling (HIPR). Depending on the wound type and severity, the inflammation phase begins immediately after injury and may last for an average of 7-14 days. Concurrent with the inflammation phase or slightly delayed, cell proliferation is stimulated followed by the activation of the remodeling (maturation) phase. The latter phase can last as long as 1 year or more, and the final healed state is represented by a scar tissue, a cross-linked collagen formation that usually aligns collagen fibers in a single direction. One may assume that skin microneedling that involves the use of dozens or as many as 200 needles that limit penetration to 1.5 mm over 1 cm(2) of skin would cause trauma and bleeding followed by the classical HIPR. However, this is not the case or at least the HIPR phases are significantly curtailed and healing never ends in a scar formation. Conversely dermabrasion used in aesthetic medicine for improving skin quality is based on "ablation" (destruction or wounding of superficial skin layers), which requires several weeks for healing that involves formation of new skin layers. Such procedures provoke an acute inflammatory response. We believe that a less intense inflammatory response occurs following microneedle perforation of the skin. However, the mechanism of action of microneedling appears to be different. Here we review the potential mechanisms by which microneedling of the skin facilitates skin repair without scarring after the treatment of superficial burns, acne, hyperpigmentation, and the non-advancing periwound skin surrounding the chronic ulcerations of the integument. PMID:24527373

  5. Skin Cell Proliferation Stimulated by Microneedles

    PubMed Central

    Liebl, Horst; Kloth, Luther C.

    2012-01-01

    A classical wound may be defined as a disruption of tissue integrity. Wounds, caused by trauma from accidents or surgery, that close via secondary intention rely on the biological phases of healing, i.e., hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling (HIPR). Depending on the wound type and severity, the inflammation phase begins immediately after injury and may last for an average of 7–14 days. Concurrent with the inflammation phase or slightly delayed, cell proliferation is stimulated followed by the activation of the remodeling (maturation) phase. The latter phase can last as long as 1 year or more, and the final healed state is represented by a scar tissue, a cross-linked collagen formation that usually aligns collagen fibers in a single direction. One may assume that skin microneedling that involves the use of dozens or as many as 200 needles that limit penetration to 1.5 mm over 1 cm2 of skin would cause trauma and bleeding followed by the classical HIPR. However, this is not the case or at least the HIPR phases are significantly curtailed and healing never ends in a scar formation. Conversely dermabrasion used in aesthetic medicine for improving skin quality is based on “ablation” (destruction or wounding of superficial skin layers), which requires several weeks for healing that involves formation of new skin layers. Such procedures provoke an acute inflammatory response. We believe that a less intense inflammatory response occurs following microneedle perforation of the skin. However, the mechanism of action of microneedling appears to be different. Here we review the potential mechanisms by which microneedling of the skin facilitates skin repair without scarring after the treatment of superficial burns, acne, hyperpigmentation, and the non-advancing periwound skin surrounding the chronic ulcerations of the integument. PMID:24527373

  6. Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

  7. Ventromedial hypothalamic lesions change the expression of cell proliferation-related genes and morphology-related genes in rat pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Kiba, Takayoshi; Ishigaki, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    Studies in normal rats and ob/ob mice indicated that islet neogenesis does not occur in the intact rodent pancreas. We previously reported that ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) lesions stimulated cell proliferation of rat pancreatic islet B and acinar cells primarily through a cholinergic receptor mechanism and examined how gene families involved in cell proliferation in total pancreatic tissue are regulated after VMH lesions formation. This study examined how gene families involved in cell proliferation in pancreatic islets alone are regulated after VMH lesions formation. Pancreatic islet RNA was extracted, and differences in gene expression profiles between rats at day 3 after VMH lesioning and sham-VMH-lesioned rats were investigated using DNA microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction. VMH lesions regulated genes that were involved in functions related to cell cycle and differentiation, growth, binding, apoptosis and morphology in pancreas islets. Real-time polymerase chain reaction also confirmed that gene expression of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and topoisomerase (DNA) II α 170 kDa (Top2a), and stanniocalcin 1 (Stc1) were upregulated at day 3 after the VMH lesions. Ventromedial hypothalamic lesions may change the expression of cell proliferation-related genes and morphology-related genes in rat pancreatic islets. PMID:25658146

  8. Src Dependent Pancreatic Acinar Injury Can Be Initiated Independent of an Increase in Cytosolic Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vivek; Cline, Rachel; Noel, Pawan; Karlsson, Jenny; Baty, Catherine J.; Orlichenko, Lidiya; Patel, Krutika; Trivedi, Ram Narayan; Husain, Sohail Z.; Acharya, Chathur; Durgampudi, Chandra; Stolz, Donna B.; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P.

    2013-01-01

    Several deleterious intra-acinar phenomena are simultaneously triggered on initiating acute pancreatitis. These culminate in acinar injury or inflammatory mediator generation in vitro and parenchymal damage in vivo. Supraphysiologic caerulein is one such initiator which simultaneously activates numerous signaling pathways including non-receptor tyrosine kinases such as of the Src family. It also causes a sustained increase in cytosolic calcium- a player thought to be crucial in regulating deleterious phenomena. We have shown Src to be involved in caerulein induced actin remodeling, and caerulein induced changes in the Golgi and post-Golgi trafficking to be involved in trypsinogen activation, which initiates acinar cell injury. However, it remains unclear whether an increase in cytosolic calcium is necessary to initiate acinar injury or if injury can be initiated at basal cytosolic calcium levels by an alternate pathway. To study the interplay between tyrosine kinase signaling and calcium, we treated mouse pancreatic acinar cells with the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate. We studied the effect of the clinically used Src inhibitor Dasatinib (BMS-354825) on pervanadate or caerulein induced changes in Src activation, trypsinogen activation, cell injury, upstream cytosolic calcium, actin and Golgi morphology. Pervanadate, like supraphysiologic caerulein, induced Src activation, redistribution of the F-actin from its normal location in the sub-apical area to the basolateral areas, and caused antegrade fragmentation of the Golgi. These changes, like those induced by supraphysiologic caerulein, were associated with trypsinogen activation and acinar injury, all of which were prevented by Dasatinib. Interestingly, however, pervanadate did not cause an increase in cytosolic calcium, and the caerulein induced increase in cytosolic calcium was not affected by Dasatinib. These findings suggest that intra-acinar deleterious phenomena may be initiated independent of an

  9. Dual effect of LPS on murine myeloid leukemia cells: Pro-proliferation and anti-proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lingling; Zhao, Yingmin; Gu, Xin; Wang, Jijun; Pang, Lei; Zhang, Yanqing; Li, Yaoyao; Jia, Xiaoqin; Wang, Xin; Gu, Jian; Yu, Duonan

    2016-06-10

    Modification of the bone marrow microenvironment is considered as a promising strategy to control leukemic cell proliferation, diseases progression and relapse after treatment. However, due to the diversity and complexity of the cellular and molecular compartments in the leukemic microenvironment, it is extremely difficult to dissect the role of each individual molecule or cell type in vivo. Here we established an in vitro system to dissect the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stromal cells and endothelial cells in the growth of mouse myeloid tumor cells and B-lymphoma cells. We found that either LPS or bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer in culture is required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. Surprisingly, the growth of myeloid leukemic cells on stromal cells is strongly inhibited when coupled with LPS in culture. This opposing effect of LPS, a complete switch from pro-proliferation to antitumor growth is due, at least in part, to the rapidly increased production of interleukin 12, Fas ligand and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 from stromal cells stimulated by LPS. These results demonstrate that LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor cell proliferation, thus changing the disease course of myeloid leukemias through its direct effect or modulation of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26968634

  10. Human regulatory T cells suppress proliferation of B lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Grygorowicz, Monika Anna; Biernacka, Marzena; Bujko, Mateusz; Nowak, Eliza; Rymkiewicz, Grzegorz; Paszkiewicz-Kozik, Ewa; Borycka, Ilona Sara; Bystydzienski, Zbigniew; Walewski, Jan; Markowicz, Sergiusz

    2016-08-01

    Activated regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress proliferation and differentiation of normal B cells. In our study, allogeneic polyclonal CD4 (+) CD25 (+) Tregs and CD4 (+) CD25 (+) CD127(lo)Tregs expanded in vitro in the presence of rapamycin and low dose IL-2 suppressed proliferation of 11 out of 12 established lymphoma B-cell lines. The effect of expanded CD4 (+) CD25 (+) Tregs on survival of freshly isolated lymphoma B cells maintained in culture with soluble multimeric CD40L and IL-4 was variable across lymphoma entities. The survival of freshly isolated follicular lymphoma cells usually decreased in cocultures with CD4 (+) CD25 (+) Tregs. Treg effect on chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma cells ranged from suppression to help in individual patients. CD4 (+) CD25 (+) Tregs or CD4 (+) CD25 (+) CD127(lo)Tregs expanded ex vivo with rapamycin could be used to suppress regrowth of residual lymphoma after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), and to counteract both graft-versus-host disease and lymphoma re-growth after allogeneic HCT in select patients with lymphoma susceptible to the regulation by Tregs. PMID:26758248

  11. Regulation of global gene expression and cell proliferation by APP.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Si; Xu, Qin; Zou, Haiyan; Zhou, Weihui; Cai, Fang; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is one of the most common genetic disorders. Patients with DS display growth retardation and inevitably develop characteristic Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. The expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is increased in both DS and AD patients. To reveal the function of APP and elucidate the pathogenic role of increased APP expression in DS and AD, we performed gene expression profiling using microarray method in human cells overexpressing APP. A set of genes are significantly altered, which are involved in cell cycle, cell proliferation and p53 signaling. We found that overexpression of APP inhibits cell proliferation. Furthermore, we confirmed that the downregulation of two validated genes, PSMA5 and PSMB7, inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting that the downregulation of PSMA5 and PSMB7 is involved in APP-induced cell proliferation impairment. Taken together, this study suggests that APP regulates global gene expression and increased APP expression inhibits cell proliferation. Our study provides a novel insight that APP overexpression may contribute to the growth impairment in DS patients and promote AD pathogenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation including neural stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis. PMID:26936520

  12. Regulation of global gene expression and cell proliferation by APP

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Si; Xu, Qin; Zou, Haiyan; Zhou, Weihui; Cai, Fang; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is one of the most common genetic disorders. Patients with DS display growth retardation and inevitably develop characteristic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology, including neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. The expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is increased in both DS and AD patients. To reveal the function of APP and elucidate the pathogenic role of increased APP expression in DS and AD, we performed gene expression profiling using microarray method in human cells overexpressing APP. A set of genes are significantly altered, which are involved in cell cycle, cell proliferation and p53 signaling. We found that overexpression of APP inhibits cell proliferation. Furthermore, we confirmed that the downregulation of two validated genes, PSMA5 and PSMB7, inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting that the downregulation of PSMA5 and PSMB7 is involved in APP-induced cell proliferation impairment. Taken together, this study suggests that APP regulates global gene expression and increased APP expression inhibits cell proliferation. Our study provides a novel insight that APP overexpression may contribute to the growth impairment in DS patients and promote AD pathogenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation including neural stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis. PMID:26936520

  13. Simvastatin suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation induced by senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Su; Uppal, Harpreet; Demaria, Marco; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by preventing the proliferation of damaged cells, but senescent cells can also promote cancer though the pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Simvastatin, an HMG-coA reductase inhibitor, is known to attenuate inflammation and prevent certain cancers. Here, we show that simvastatin decreases the SASP of senescent human fibroblasts by inhibiting protein prenylation, without affecting the senescent growth arrest. The Rho family GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 were activated in senescent cells, and simvastatin reduced both activities. Further, geranylgeranyl transferase, Rac1 or Cdc42 depletion reduced IL-6 secretion by senescent cells. We also show that simvastatin mitigates the effects of senescent conditioned media on breast cancer cell proliferation and endocrine resistance. Our findings identify a novel activity of simvastatin and mechanism of SASP regulation. They also suggest that senescent cells, which accumulate after radio/chemo therapy, promote endocrine resistance in breast cancer and that simvastatin might suppress this resistance. PMID:26658759

  14. Effects of thyroid hormones on human breast cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Linda C; Salazar, Eddie P; Kane, Staci R; Liu, Nan

    2008-03-01

    The involvement of estrogens in breast cancer development and growth has been well established. However, the effects of thyroid hormones and their combined effects with estrogens are not well studied. We investigated the response of human breast cancer cells to thyroid hormone, particularly the role of T3 in mediating cell proliferation and gene expression. We demonstrated that 17beta-estradiol (E2) or triiodothyronine (T3) promoted cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in both MCF-7 and T47-D cell lines. The E2- or T3-dependent cell proliferation was suppressed by co-administration of the ER antagonist ICI. We also demonstrated that T3 could enhance the effect of E2 on cell proliferation in T47-D cells. Using an estrogen response element (ERE)-mediated luciferase assay, we determined that T3 was able to induce the activation of ERE-mediated gene expression in MCF-7 cells, although the effects were much weaker than that induced by E2. These results suggest that T3 can promote breast cancer cell proliferation and increase the effect of E2 on cell proliferation in some breast cancer cell lines and thus that T3 may play a role in breast cancer development and progression. PMID:18328691

  15. Microenvironmental stimuli for proliferation of functional islet β-cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is characterized by high blood glucose level due to either autoimmune destruction of islet β-cells or insufficient insulin secretion or glucose non-responsive production of insulin by β-cells. It is highly desired to replace biological functional β-cells for the treatment of diabetes. Unfortunately, β-cells proliferate with an extremely low rate. This cellular property hinders cell-based therapy for clinical application. Many attempts have been made to develop techniques that allow production of large quantities of clinically relevant islet β-cells in vitro. A line of studies evidently demonstrate that β-cells can proliferate under certain circumstances, giving the hopes for generating and expanding these cells in vitro and transplanting them to the recipient. In this review, we discuss the requirements of microenvironmental stimuli that stimulate β-cell proliferation in cell cultures. We highlight advanced approaches for augmentation of β-cell expansion that have recently emerged in this field. Furthermore, knowing the signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms would enable manipulating cell proliferation and optimizing its insulin secretory function. Thus, signaling pathways involved in the enhancement of cell proliferation are discussed as well. PMID:24594290

  16. Vitamin D inhibition of lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Lou, Yuqing; Zhang, Weiyan; Dong, Qianggang; Han, Baohui

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin D has the capability to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and promote tumor cell apoptosis but whether this mechanism exists in lung adenocarcinoma cells remains to be studied. Our objective is to explore whether vitamin D has the capability to inhibit lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and synergize with cisplatin. Our method was to explore the effect of different concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 with or without cisplatin on lung adenocarcinoma cells by detecting cell proliferation rates at different time points. 1,25(OH)2D3 was capsulated with nanomaterial before acting on lung adenocarcinoma cells, and cell proliferation rates at different time points were detected with the CCK-8 method. When vitamin D was applied at a concentration of 1 × 10(-7) and 1 × 10(-6) mol/L on A549, PC9, SPC-A1, and H1650 cells for 72 h, no inhibition occurred on cell proliferation. Between the concentrations of 1 × 10(-5) and 0.5 × 10(-5) mol/L, inhibition on cell proliferation increased with drug action time. Between the concentration of 2.5 × 10(-5) and 0.03 × 10(-5) mol/L, inhibition on cell proliferation increased with increasing drug concentration. Analysis using bivariate correlations showed that the correlation coefficient of the proliferation inhibition rate and drug content was 0.580 (p < 0.0001). The correlation coefficient of proliferation inhibition rate and the drug action time was 0.379 (p = 0.01). The combined use of vitamin D and dichlorodiammine-platinum(II) (DDP) significantly increased the inhibition rate on A549 cell proliferation, which peaked after culturing for 96 h (Table 4). Further analysis using bivariate correlations showed that the correlation coefficient between proliferation inhibition rate and DDP concentration was 0.319 (p < 0.0001). The correlation coefficient of the proliferation inhibition rate and vitamin D concentration was 0.269 (p < 0.0001). The correlation coefficient of proliferation inhibition and drug action time was 0.221(p

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma overexpression suppresses proliferation of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the correlation between PPAR{gamma} expression and cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} overexpression reduces cell viability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show the synergistic effect of cell growth inhibition by a PPAR{gamma} agonist. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) plays an important role in the differentiation of intestinal cells and tissues. Our previous reports indicate that PPAR{gamma} is expressed at considerable levels in human colon cancer cells. This suggests that PPAR{gamma} expression may be an important factor for cell growth regulation in colon cancer. In this study, we investigated PPAR{gamma} expression in 4 human colon cancer cell lines, HT-29, LOVO, DLD-1, and Caco-2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis revealed that the relative levels of PPAR{gamma} mRNA and protein in these cells were in the order HT-29 > LOVO > Caco-2 > DLD-1. We also found that PPAR{gamma} overexpression promoted cell growth inhibition in PPAR{gamma} lower-expressing cell lines (Caco-2 and DLD-1), but not in higher-expressing cells (HT-29 and LOVO). We observed a correlation between the level of PPAR{gamma} expression and the cells' sensitivity for proliferation.

  18. Rac1 drives intestinal stem cell proliferation and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Myant, Kevin B; Scopelliti, Alessandro; Haque, Sara; Vidal, Marcos; Sansom, Owen J; Cordero, Julia B

    2013-01-01

    Adult stem cells are responsible for maintaining the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation within self-renewing tissues. The molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating such balance are poorly understood. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has emerged as an important mediator of stem cell homeostasis in various systems. Our recent work demonstrates that Rac1-dependent ROS production mediates intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation in mouse models of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we use the adult Drosophila midgut and the mouse small intestine to directly address the role of Rac1 in ISC proliferation and tissue regeneration in response to damage. Our results demonstrate that Rac1 is necessary and sufficient to drive ISC proliferation and regeneration in an ROS-dependent manner. Our data point to an evolutionarily conserved role of Rac1 in intestinal homeostasis and highlight the value of combining work in the mammalian and Drosophila intestine as paradigms to study stem cell biology. PMID:23974108

  19. Cell proliferation of Paramecium tetraurelia on a slow rotating clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Satoe; Mogami, Yoshihiro; Baba, Shoji A.

    Paramecium is known to proliferate faster under microgravity conditions, and slower under hypergravity. Experiments using axenic culture medium have demonstrated that hypergravity affected directly on the proliferation of Paramecium itself. In order to assess the mechanisms underlying the physiological effects of gravity on cell proliferation, Paramecium tetraurelia was grown under clinorotation (2.5 rpm) and the time course of the proliferation was investigated in detail on the basis of the logistic analysis. On the basis of the mechanical properties of Paramecium, this slow rate of the rotation appears to be enough to simulate microgravity in terms of the randomization of the cell orientation with respect to gravity. P. tetraurelia was cultivated in a closed chamber in which cells were confined without air bubbles, reducing the shear forces and turbulences under clinorotation. The chamber is made of quartz and silicone rubber film; the former is for the optically-flat walls for the measurement of cell density by means of a non-invasive laser optical-slice method, and the latter for gas exchange. Because of the small dimension for culture space, Paramecium does not accumulate at the top of the chamber in spite of its known negative gravitactic behavior. We measured the cell density at regular time intervals without breaking the configuration of the chamber, and analyzed the proliferation parameters by fitting the data to a logistic equation. As a result, P. tetraurelia showed reduced proliferation under slow clinorotation. The saturation of the cell density as well as the maximum proliferation rate decreased, although we found no significant changes on the half maximal time for proliferation. We also found that the mean swimming velocity decreased under slow clinorotation. These results were not consistent with those under microgravity and fast rotating clinostat. This may suggest that randomization of the cell orientation performed by slow rotating clinostat has

  20. Cell proliferation of Paramecium tetraurelia under simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, S.; Mogami, Y.; Baba, S. A.

    Paramecium is known to proliferate faster under microgravity in space and slower under hypergravity Experiments using axenic culture medium have demonstrated that the hypergravity affected directly on the proliferation of Paramecium itself Kato et al 2003 In order to assess the mechanisms underlying the physiological effects of gravity on cell proliferation Paramecium tetraurelia was grown under simulated microgravity performed by clinorotation and the time course of the proliferation was investigated in detail on the basis of the logistic analysis P tetraurelia was cultivated in a closed chamber in which cells were confined without air babbles reducing the shear stresses and turbulence under the rotation The chamber is made of quartz and silicone rubber film the former is for the optically-flat walls for the measurement of cell density by means of a non-invasive laser optical-slice method and the latter for gas exchange Because the closed chamber has an inner dimension of 3 times 3 times 60 mm Paramecium does not accumulate at the top of the chamber despite its negative gravitactic behavior We measured the cell density at regular time intervals without breaking the configuration of the chamber and analyzed the proliferation parameters by fitting the data to a logistic equation Clinorotation had the effects of reducing the proliferation of P tetraurelia It reduced both the saturation cell density and the maximum proliferation rate although it had little effect on the

  1. Laminin 5 regulates polycystic kidney cell proliferation and cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Joly, Dominique; Berissi, Sophie; Bertrand, Amélie; Strehl, Laetitia; Patey, Natacha; Knebelmann, Bertrand

    2006-09-29

    Renal cyst formation is the hallmark of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). ADPKD cyst-lining cells have an increased proliferation rate and are surrounded by an abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM). We have previously shown that Laminin 5 (Ln-5, a alpha(3)beta(3)gamma(2) trimer) is aberrantly expressed in the pericystic ECM of ADPKD kidneys. We report that ADPKD cells in primary cultures produce and secrete Ln-5 that is incorporated to the pericystic ECM in an in vitro model of cystogenesis. In monolayers, purified Ln-5 induces ERK activation and proliferation of ADPKD cells, whereas upon epidermal growth factor stimulation blocking endogenously produced Ln-5 with anti-gamma(2) chain antibody reduces the sustained ERK activation and inhibits proliferation. In three-dimensional gel culture, addition of purified Ln-5 stimulates cell proliferation and cyst formation, whereas blocking endogenous Ln-5 strongly inhibits cyst formation. Ligation of alpha(6)beta(4) integrin, a major Ln-5 receptor aberrantly expressed by ADPKD cells, induces beta(4) integrin phosphorylation, ERK activation, cell proliferation, and cyst formation. These findings indicate that Ln-5 is an important regulator of ADPKD cell proliferation and cystogenesis and suggest that Ln-5 gamma(2) chain and Ln-5-alpha(6)beta(4) integrin interaction both contribute to these phenotypic changes. PMID:16870608

  2. UNUSUAL EOSINOPHILIC GRANULE CELL PROLIFERATION IN COHO SALMON (ONCHORHYNCHUS KISUTCH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proliferative lesions comprised of eosinophilic granule cells (EGCs) extended throughout the gastrointestinal tract of several mature, spawning coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum). istological examination of the tumour showed extensive proliferation and infiltration of EGC...

  3. Differential migration and proliferation of geometrical ensembles of cell clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Girish; Chen, Bo; Co, Carlos C.; Ho, Chia-Chi

    2011-06-10

    Differential cell migration and growth drives the organization of specific tissue forms and plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue morphogenesis, and tumor invasion. Localized gradients of soluble factors and extracellular matrix have been shown to modulate cell migration and proliferation. Here we show that in addition to these factors, initial tissue geometry can feedback to generate differential proliferation, cell polarity, and migration patterns. We apply layer by layer polyelectrolyte assembly to confine multicellular organization and subsequently release cells to demonstrate the spatial patterns of cell migration and growth. The cell shapes, spreading areas, and cell-cell contacts are influenced strongly by the confining geometry. Cells within geometric ensembles are morphologically polarized. Symmetry breaking was observed for cells on the circular pattern and cells migrate toward the corners and in the direction parallel to the longest dimension of the geometric shapes. This migration pattern is disrupted when actomyosin based tension was inhibited. Cells near the edge or corner of geometric shapes proliferate while cells within do not. Regions of higher rate of cell migration corresponded to regions of concentrated growth. These findings demonstrate that multicellular organization can result in spatial patterns of migration and proliferation.

  4. Scaffold architecture and fibrin gels promote meniscal cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Pawelec, K. M. E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk; Best, S. M.; Cameron, R. E.; Wardale, R. J. E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk

    2015-01-01

    Stability of the knee relies on the meniscus, a complex connective tissue with poor healing ability. Current meniscal tissue engineering is inadequate, as the signals for increasing meniscal cell proliferation have not been established. In this study, collagen scaffold structure, isotropic or aligned, and fibrin gel addition were tested. Metabolic activity was promoted by fibrin addition. Cellular proliferation, however, was significantly increased by both aligned architectures and fibrin addition. None of the constructs impaired collagen type I production or triggered adverse inflammatory responses. It was demonstrated that both fibrin gel addition and optimized scaffold architecture effectively promote meniscal cell proliferation.

  5. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr; Sung, Jiwon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr; Koh, Eui Kwan

    2014-11-17

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields.

  6. EDA-containing fibronectin increases proliferation of embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Losino, Noelia; Waisman, Ariel; Solari, Claudia; Luzzani, Carlos; Espinosa, Darío Fernández; Sassone, Alina; Muro, Andrés F; Miriuka, Santiago; Sevlever, Gustavo; Barañao, Lino; Guberman, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) need a set of specific factors to be propagated. They can also grow in conditioned medium (CM) derived from a bovine granulosa cell line BGC (BGC-CM), a medium that not only preserves their main features but also increases ESC´s proliferation rate. The mitogenic properties of this medium were previously reported, ascribing this effect to an alternative spliced generated fibronectin isoform that contains the extra domain A (FN EDA(+)). Here, we investigated if the FN EDA(+) isoform increased proliferation of mouse and human ES cells. We analyzed cell proliferation using conditioned media produced by different mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) lines genetically engineered to express FN constitutively including or excluding the EDA domain (FN EDA(-)), and in media supplemented with recombinant peptides containing or not the EDA. We found that the presence of EDA in the medium increased mouse and human ESC's proliferation rate. Here we showed for the first time that this FN isoform enhances ESC's proliferation. These findings suggest a possible conserved behavior for regulation of ES cells proliferation by this FN isoform and could contribute to improve their culturing conditions both for research and cell therapy. PMID:24244705

  7. EDA-Containing Fibronectin Increases Proliferation of Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Losino, Noelia; Waisman, Ariel; Solari, Claudia; Luzzani, Carlos; Espinosa, Darío Fernández; Sassone, Alina; Muro, Andrés F.; Miriuka, Santiago; Sevlever, Gustavo; Barañao, Lino; Guberman, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) need a set of specific factors to be propagated. They can also grow in conditioned medium (CM) derived from a bovine granulosa cell line BGC (BGC-CM), a medium that not only preserves their main features but also increases ESC´s proliferation rate. The mitogenic properties of this medium were previously reported, ascribing this effect to an alternative spliced generated fibronectin isoform that contains the extra domain A (FN EDA+). Here, we investigated if the FN EDA+ isoform increased proliferation of mouse and human ES cells. We analyzed cell proliferation using conditioned media produced by different mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) lines genetically engineered to express FN constitutively including or excluding the EDA domain (FN EDA-), and in media supplemented with recombinant peptides containing or not the EDA. We found that the presence of EDA in the medium increased mouse and human ESC’s proliferation rate. Here we showed for the first time that this FN isoform enhances ESC’s proliferation. These findings suggest a possible conserved behavior for regulation of ES cells proliferation by this FN isoform and could contribute to improve their culturing conditions both for research and cell therapy. PMID:24244705

  8. Role of Calmodulin in Cell Proliferation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chafouleas, J.

    1983-01-01

    Calmodulin levels were found to increase as cells enter plateau. The data suggest that the cells are exiting the cell cycle late in the G sub 1 phase, or that the calmodulin levels in plateau cells are uncoupled to progression into S phase in plateau cells. Upon release, calmodulin levels rapidly decrease. Following this decrease, there is a increase prior to S phase.

  9. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang Zhang, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  10. Proliferation of differentiated glial cells in the brain stem.

    PubMed

    Barradas, P C; Cavalcante, L A

    1998-02-01

    Classical studies of macroglial proliferation in muride rodents have provided conflicting evidence concerning the proliferating capabilities of oligodendrocytes and microglia. Furthermore, little information has been obtained in other mammalian orders and very little is known about glial cell proliferation and differentiation in the subclass Metatheria although valuable knowledge may be obtained from the protracted period of central nervous system maturation in these forms. Thus, we have studied the proliferative capacity of phenotypically identified brain stem oligodendrocytes by tritiated thymidine radioautography and have compared it with known features of oligodendroglial differentiation as well as with proliferation of microglia in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. We have detected a previously undescribed ephemeral, regionally heterogeneous proliferation of oligodendrocytes expressing the actin-binding, ensheathment-related protein 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), that is not necessarily related to the known regional and temporal heterogeneity of expression of CNPase in cell bodies. On the other hand, proliferation of microglia tagged by the binding of Griffonia simplicifolia B4 isolectin, which recognizes an alpha-D-galactosyl-bearing glycoprotein of the plasma membrane of macrophages/microglia, is known to be long lasting, showing no regional heterogeneity and being found amongst both ameboid and differentiated ramified cells, although at different rates. The functional significance of the proliferative behavior of these differentiated cells is unknown but may provide a low-grade cell renewal in the normal brain and may be augmented under pathological conditions. PMID:9686148

  11. The acinar differentiation determinant PTF1A inhibits initiation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Krah, Nathan M; De La O, Jean-Paul; Swift, Galvin H; Hoang, Chinh Q; Willet, Spencer G; Chen Pan, Fong; Cash, Gabriela M; Bronner, Mary P; Wright, Christopher VE; MacDonald, Raymond J; Murtaugh, L Charles

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the initiation and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) may provide therapeutic strategies for this deadly disease. Recently, we and others made the surprising finding that PDAC and its preinvasive precursors, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), arise via reprogramming of mature acinar cells. We therefore hypothesized that the master regulator of acinar differentiation, PTF1A, could play a central role in suppressing PDAC initiation. In this study, we demonstrate that PTF1A expression is lost in both mouse and human PanINs, and that this downregulation is functionally imperative in mice for acinar reprogramming by oncogenic KRAS. Loss of Ptf1a alone is sufficient to induce acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, potentiate inflammation, and induce a KRAS-permissive, PDAC-like gene expression profile. As a result, Ptf1a-deficient acinar cells are dramatically sensitized to KRAS transformation, and reduced Ptf1a greatly accelerates development of invasive PDAC. Together, these data indicate that cell differentiation regulators constitute a new tumor suppressive mechanism in the pancreas. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07125.001 PMID:26151762

  12. Ethylene Inhibits Cell Proliferation of the Arabidopsis Root Meristem.

    PubMed

    Street, Ian H; Aman, Sitwat; Zubo, Yan; Ramzan, Aleena; Wang, Xiaomin; Shakeel, Samina N; Kieber, Joseph J; Schaller, G Eric

    2015-09-01

    The root system of plants plays a critical role in plant growth and survival, with root growth being dependent on both cell proliferation and cell elongation. Multiple phytohormones interact to control root growth, including ethylene, which is primarily known for its role in controlling root cell elongation. We find that ethylene also negatively regulates cell proliferation at the root meristem of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Genetic analysis indicates that the inhibition of cell proliferation involves two pathways operating downstream of the ethylene receptors. The major pathway is the canonical ethylene signal transduction pathway that incorporates CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2, and the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 family of transcription factors. The secondary pathway is a phosphorelay based on genetic analysis of receptor histidine kinase activity and mutants involving the type B response regulators. Analysis of ethylene-dependent gene expression and genetic analysis supports SHORT HYPOCOTYL2, a repressor of auxin signaling, as one mediator of the ethylene response and furthermore, indicates that SHORT HYPOCOTYL2 is a point of convergence for both ethylene and cytokinin in negatively regulating cell proliferation. Additional analysis indicates that ethylene signaling contributes but is not required for cytokinin to inhibit activity of the root meristem. These results identify key elements, along with points of cross talk with cytokinin and auxin, by which ethylene negatively regulates cell proliferation at the root apical meristem. PMID:26149574

  13. Cholesterol induces proliferation of chicken primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongyang; Chen, Meijuan; Lu, Zhenping; Yang, Mengmeng; Xie, Long; Zhang, Wenxin; Xu, Huiyan; Lu, Kehuan; Lu, Yangqing

    2016-08-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of sperm and eggs and may serve as suitable cells for use in research in developmental biology and transgenic animals. However, the long-term propagation of PGCs in vitro has so far been plagued by the loss of their germ cell characteristics. This is largely because of the scarcity of knowledge concerning cell division and proliferation in these cells and the poor optimization of the culture medium. The sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway is involved in proliferation of many types of cells, but little is known about its role in chicken PGCs. The results of the current study indicate that the proliferation of chicken PGCs increases significantly when cholesterol, a molecule that facilitates the trafficking of HH ligands, is supplemented in the culture medium. This effect was attenuated when an SHH antagonist, cyclopamine was added, suggesting the involvement of SHH signaling in this process. The characterization of PGCs treated with cholesterol has shown that these cells express germ-cell-related markers and retain their capability to colonize the embryonic gonad after re-introduction to vasculature of stage-15 HH embryos, indicating that proliferation of PGCs induced by cholesterol does not alter the germ cell characteristics of these cells. PMID:27269880

  14. RADIAL TRANSPORT ALONG THE HUMAN ACINAR TREE

    PubMed Central

    Henry, F.S.; Tsuda, A.

    2013-01-01

    A numerical model of an expanding asymmetric alveolated duct was developed and used to investigate lateral transport between the central acinar channel and the surrounding alveoli along the acinar tree. Our results indicate that some degree of recirculation occurs in all but the terminal generations. We found that the rate of diffusional transport of axial momentum, from the duct to the alveolus, was by far the largest contributor to the resulting momentum in the alveolar flow but that the magnitude of the axial momentum is critical in determining the nature of the flow in the alveolus. Further, we found that alveolar flow rotation, and by implication chaotic mixing, are strongest in the entrance generations. We also found that the expanding alveolus provides a pathway by which particles with little intrinsic motion can enter the alveoli. Thus, our results offer a possible explanation for why submicron particles deposit preferentially in acinar entrance region. PMID:20887011

  15. NDC80 promotes proliferation and metastasis of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xing, X K; Wu, H Y; Chen, H L; Feng, H G

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome instability is a common feature of tumor cells, and may be an important mechanism in tumor formation. Nuclear division cycle 80 (NDC80) is closely associated with the stability of chromosomes. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between NDC80 and development of colon cancer using a range of methods. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were employed to determine the expression of this protein in different colon cells and tissues, cell proliferation was measured with an MTT assay, levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen were examined by immunofluorescence, and cell migration was observed using wound healing tests. Our results showed that the expression of NDC80 in colon cancer cells (CACO2, HCT8, HCT116, and SW480) and tissues (from 20 patients) was higher than that in controls. Moreover, cell proliferation and migration rates were elevated in cells transfected with NDC80 compared to control groups. In summary, NDC80 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of colon cancer cells, and may constitute a new target for gene therapy in treating this disease. Combined with clinicopathological grading, measurement of positive NDC80 expression may be helpful in diagnosing and estimating the prognosis of colon cancer patients. PMID:27173328

  16. Tenuigenin promotes proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujing; Huang, Xiaobo; Chen, Wenqiang; Wang, Ningqun; Li, Lin

    2012-04-01

    The present study was to investigate the influence of tenuigenin, an active ingredient of Polygala tenuifolia Willd, on the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells in vitro. Tenuigenin was added to a neurosphere culture and neurosphere growth was measured using MTT assay. The influence of tenuigenin on the proliferation of neural progenitors was examined by Clone forming assay and BrdU detection. In addition, the differentiation of neural stem cells was compared using immunocytochemistry for β III-tubulin and GFAP. The results showed that addition of tenuigenin to the neural stem cell medium increased the number of newly formed neurospheres. More neurons were also obtained when tenuigenin was added in the differentiation medium. These findings suggest that tenuigenin is involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells. This result may be one of the underlying reasons for tenuigenin's nootropic and anti-aging effects. PMID:22179853

  17. Sensitivity of proliferating human breast epithelial cells to hypotonic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstone, S.E.; Stanyon, R.; Lan, S.

    1982-12-01

    An assay for colony-forming cells of breast epithelia derived from normal and malignant surgical specimens is described using an IMR 90 fibroblast feeder layer. Their radiosensitivity (DO: 120-172) is consistent with the proliferative origin of the colonies. Distilled water inhibits proliferation of a proportion of the colony-forming cells after a 1-minute exposure. Continued detection of colonies after 10 minutes of exposure indicates that it is an inefficient way of completely eradicating proliferating epithelial cells of normal and malignant origin.

  18. Neuropeptide Y directly affects ovarian cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Kardošová, Diana; Alwasel, Saleh Hamad; Harrath, Abdel Halim

    2015-12-01

    The effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY; 0, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/mL) on the expression of PCNA, bax and p53 were examined by immunocytochemistry in porcine luteinized granulosa cells. NPY inhibited proliferation as well as promoted apoptosis and accumulation of p53 in the cells. This is the first report to demonstrate the direct action of NPY on ovarian cell proliferation and apoptosis. The results of the study suggest that the effect is mediated by transcription factor p53. PMID:26679167

  19. Cell Proliferation in Cubozoan Jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Alatina moseri

    PubMed Central

    Gurska, Daniela; Garm, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Cubozoans (box jellyfish) undergo remarkable body reorganization throughout their life cycle when, first, they metamorphose from swimming larvae to sessile polyps, and second, through the metamorphosis from sessile polyps to free swimming medusae. In the latter they develop complex structures like the central nervous system (CNS) and visual organs. In the present study several aspects of cell proliferation at different stages of the life cycle of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Alatina moseri have been examined through in vivo labeling of cells in the synthetic phase (S phase) of the cell cycle. Proliferation zones were found in metamorphosing polyps, as well as in juvenile medusae, where both the rhopalia and pedalia have enhanced rates of proliferation. The results also indicate a rather fast cell turnover in the rhopalia including the rhopalial nervous system (RNS). Moreover, T. cystophora showed diurnal pattern of cell proliferation in certain body parts of the medusa, with higher proliferation rates at nighttime. This is true for two areas in close connection with the CNS: the stalk base and the rhopalia. PMID:25047715

  20. Nerve growth factor enhances Clara cell proliferation after lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sonar, S S; Schwinge, D; Kilic, A; Yildirim, A O; Conrad, M L; Seidler, K; Müller, B; Renz, H; Nockher, W A

    2010-07-01

    The lung epithelia facilitate wound closure by secretion of various cytokines and growth factors. Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been well described in airway inflammation; however, its likely role in lung repair has not been examined thus far. To investigate the repair function of NGF, experiments were performed in vitro using cultured alveolar epithelial cells and in vivo using a naphthalene-induced model of Clara epithelial cell injury. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed airway epithelial cell proliferation following injury to be dependent on NGF and the expression of its receptor, tropomyosin-receptor-kinase A. Additionally, NGF also augmented in vitro migration of alveolar type II cells. In vivo, transgenic mice over-expressing NGF in Clara cells (NGFtg) did not reveal any proliferation or alteration in Clara cell phenotype. However, following Clara cell specific injury, proliferation was increased in NGFtg and impaired upon inhibition of NGF. Furthermore, NGF also promoted the expression of collagen I and fibronectin in vitro and in vivo during repair, where significantly higher levels were measured in re-epithelialising NGFtg mice. Our study demonstrates that NGF promotes the proliferation of lung epithelium in vitro and the renewal of Clara cells following lung injury in vivo. PMID:20075049

  1. NFATc1 balances quiescence and proliferation of skin stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Horsley, Valerie; Aliprantis, Antonios O.; Polak, Lisa; Glimcher, Laurie H.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Quiescent adult stem cells reside in specialized niches where they become activated to proliferate and differentiate during tissue homeostasis and injury. How stem cell quiescence is governed is poorly understood. We report here that NFATc1 is preferentially expressed by hair follicle stem cells in their niche, where it's expression is activated by BMP signaling upstream and it acts downstream to transcriptionally repress CDK4 and maintain stem cell quiescence. As stem cells become activated during hair growth, NFATc1 is downregulated, relieving CDK4 repression and activating proliferation. When calcineurin/NFATc1 signaling is suppressed, pharmacologically or via complete or conditional NFATc1 gene ablation, stem cells are activated prematurely, resulting in precocious follicular growth. Our findings may explain why patients receiving cyclosporine A for immunosuppressive therapy display excessive hair growth, and unveil a functional role for calcium-NFATc1-CDK4 circuitry in governing stem cell quiescence. PMID:18243104

  2. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen: a marker for hepatocellular proliferation in rodents.

    PubMed

    Eldrige, S R; Butterworth, B E; Goldsworthy, T L

    1993-12-01

    Two different markers for quantitating cell proliferation were evaluated in livers of control and chemically treated mice and rats. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), an endogenous cell replication marker, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), an exogenously administered DNA precursor label, were detected in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using immunohistochemical techniques. The percentage of cells in S phase (labeling indexes, LI) evaluated as PCNA- or BrdU-positive hepatocellular nuclei was compared in recut tissue sections from animals given BrdU by a single IP injection 2 hr before killing the animals. Ten-week-old male B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats were exposed to known mitogenic hepatocarcinogens, Wy-14,643 (WY) in the diet at 0.1% for 2 days or 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB) in corn oil by gavage for 2 days (600 mg/kg/day in mice; 300 mg/kg/day in rats). In mice, PCNA and BrdU hepatocyte LI were similar in control, WY-treated, and DCB-treated animals. In rats, PCNA and BrdU gave similar LI in controls and Wy-treated animals. Although PCNA LI was statistically lower than BrdU LI in DCB-treated rats, both PCNA and BrdU LI for DCB-treated rats was increased over LI in control rats. Different patterns of PCNA immunohistochemical staining, interpreted to represent different subpopulations of cells at various phases of the cell cycle, were quantitated using PCNA immunohistochemistry. The proliferating index (PI), defined as the percentage of cells in the cell cycle (G1 + S + G2 + M), was more sensitive than the LI (S phase only) in detecting a chemically induced cell proliferative response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7912188

  3. Software for precise tracking of cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, Hiroshi; Noda, Hisayori; Sugiyama, Mayu; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Fukami, Kiyoko; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed software for analyzing cultured cells that divide as well as migrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The active contour model (Snakes) was used as the core algorithm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The time backward analysis was also used for efficient detection of cell division. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With user-interactive correction functions, the software enables precise tracking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The software was successfully applied to cells with fluorescently-labeled nuclei. -- Abstract: We have developed a multi-target cell tracking program TADOR, which we applied to a series of fluorescence images. TADOR is based on an active contour model that is modified in order to be free of the problem of locally optimal solutions, and thus is resistant to signal fluctuation and morphological changes. Due to adoption of backward tracing and addition of user-interactive correction functions, TADOR is used in an off-line and semi-automated mode, but enables precise tracking of cell division. By applying TADOR to the analysis of cultured cells whose nuclei had been fluorescently labeled, we tracked cell division and cell-cycle progression on coverslips over an extended period of time.

  4. Software for precise tracking of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Hiroshi; Noda, Hisayori; Sugiyama, Mayu; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Fukami, Kiyoko; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2012-01-20

    We have developed a multi-target cell tracking program TADOR, which we applied to a series of fluorescence images. TADOR is based on an active contour model that is modified in order to be free of the problem of locally optimal solutions, and thus is resistant to signal fluctuation and morphological changes. Due to adoption of backward tracing and addition of user-interactive correction functions, TADOR is used in an off-line and semi-automated mode, but enables precise tracking of cell division. By applying TADOR to the analysis of cultured cells whose nuclei had been fluorescently labeled, we tracked cell division and cell-cycle progression on coverslips over an extended period of time. PMID:22226970

  5. Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells

    PubMed Central

    Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

  6. Impact of 5-azacytidine on rat decidual cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Fabijanovic, Dora; Serman, Alan; Jezic, Marin; Katusic, Ana; Sincic, Nino; Curkovic-Perica, Mirna; Bulic-Jakus, Floriana; Vlahovic, Maja; Juric-Lekic, Gordana; Serman, Ljiljana

    2014-08-01

    The DNA demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) has a teratogenic influence during rat development influencing both the embryo and the placenta. Our aim was to investigate its impact on early decidual cell proliferation before the formation of placenta. Thus, female Fischer rats received 5-azaC (5 mg/kg, i.p.) on the 2nd, 5th or 8th day of gestation and the decidual tissues were harvested on gestation day 9. They were then analysed immunohistochemically for expression of cell proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in decidual cells and for global DNA methylation using the coupled restriction enzyme digestion, random amplification and pyrosequencing assays. We found that 5-azaC administered on the 5th and 8th (but not on 2nd) day of gestation led to increased PCNA expression in decidual cells compared with untreated controls. No significant changes in DNA methylation were detected, with either method, in any of the treated rat groups compared with untreated controls. Thus, we conclude that 5-azaC can stimulate decidual cell proliferation without simultaneously changing global DNA methylation level in treated cells. PMID:24945576

  7. Impact of 5-azacytidine on rat decidual cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Fabijanovic, Dora; Serman, Alan; Jezic, Marin; Katusic, Ana; Sincic, Nino; Curkovic-Perica, Mirna; Bulic-Jakus, Floriana; Vlahovic, Maja; Juric-Lekic, Gordana; Serman, Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    The DNA demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) has a teratogenic influence during rat development influencing both the embryo and the placenta. Our aim was to investigate its impact on early decidual cell proliferation before the formation of placenta. Thus, female Fischer rats received 5-azaC (5 mg/kg, i.p.) on the 2nd, 5th or 8th day of gestation and the decidual tissues were harvested on gestation day 9. They were then analysed immunohistochemically for expression of cell proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in decidual cells and for global DNA methylation using the coupled restriction enzyme digestion, random amplification and pyrosequencing assays. We found that 5-azaC administered on the 5th and 8th (but not on 2nd) day of gestation led to increased PCNA expression in decidual cells compared with untreated controls. No significant changes in DNA methylation were detected, with either method, in any of the treated rat groups compared with untreated controls. Thus, we conclude that 5-azaC can stimulate decidual cell proliferation without simultaneously changing global DNA methylation level in treated cells. PMID:24945576

  8. Piperine Congeners as Inhibitors of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mair, Christina E; Liu, Rongxia; Atanasov, Atanas G; Wimmer, Laurin; Nemetz-Fiedler, Daniel; Sider, Nadine; Heiss, Elke H; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Dirsch, Verena M; Rollinger, Judith M

    2015-08-01

    Successful vascular healing after percutaneous coronary interventions is related to the inhibition of abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and efficient re-endothelialization. In the search for vascular smooth muscle cell anti-proliferative agents from natural sources we identified piperine (1), the main pungent constituent of the fruits from Piper nigrum (black pepper). Piperine inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation with an IC50 of 21.6 µM, as quantified by a resazurin conversion assay. Investigations of ten piperamides isolated from black pepper fruits and 15 synthesized piperine derivatives resulted in the identification of three potent vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation inhibitors: the natural alkaloid pipertipine (4), and the two synthetic derivatives (2E,4E)-N,N-dibutyl-5-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dienamide (14) and (E)-N,N-dibutyl-3-(naphtho[2,3-d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)acrylamide (20). They showed IC50 values of 3.38, 6.00, and 7.85 µM, respectively. Furthermore, the synthetic compound (2E,4E)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(piperidin-1-yl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (12) was found to be cell type selective, by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation with an IC50 of 11.8 µM without influencing the growth of human endothelial cells. PMID:26132851

  9. Root bark extracts of Juncus effusus and Paeonia suffruticosa protect salivary gland acinar cells from apoptotic cell death induced by cis-platinum (II) diammine dichloride.

    PubMed

    Mukudai, Yoshiki; Kondo, Seiji; Shiogama, Sunao; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Li, Chunnan; Yazawa, Kazunaga; Shintani, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    Cis-platinum (II) diammine dichloride (CDDP) is a platinum-based anticancer agent, and is often used for chemotherapy for malignant tumors, albeit CDDP has serious side-effects, including xerostomia (dry mouth). Since patients with xerostomia have reduced quality of life, it is urgent and important to identify nontoxic and natural agents capable of reducing the adverse effect of chemotherapy on salivary gland function. Therefore, we commenced an institutional collaborative project in which candidates of herbal extracts were selected from more than 400 bioactive herbal products for their potential therapeutic effects not only on xerostomia, but also on oral diseases. In the present study, we report on two Chinese medical herbal extracts from the root barks of Juncus effusus and Paeonia suffruticosa. The two extracts showed a protective effect in NS-SV-Ac cells from the cytotoxicity and apoptosis caused by CDDP. The effect was dependent on the p53 pathway, protein kinase B/Akt 1 and mitochondrial apoptosis-related proteins (i.e. Bcl-2 and Bax), but was not dependent on nuclear factor κB. Notably, the apoptosis-protective effect of the extracts was not observed in adenocystic carcinoma cell lines. Although these extracts have been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, there are no reports to our knowledge, on their therapeutic effects on xerostomia. Thus, in the present study, we elucidated the potency of these herbal extracts as novel candidates for xerostomia to improve the quality of life of patients undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:24064583

  10. Phenobarbital-induced hepatocellular proliferation: anti-bromodeoxyuridine and anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Jones, H B; Clarke, N A; Barrass, N C

    1993-01-01

    We report modifications to immunocytochemical detection procedures for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) which permit its identification in liver samples previously fixed for BrdU immunocytochemistry. Both methods have been used for the assessment of phenobarbital-induced cell proliferation in rat liver. The difficulties associated with the hitherto unsuccessful application of PCNA immunocytochemical methods to tissues fixed in formalin for BrdU visualization were overcome by epitope unmasking with acid hydrolysis, extension of primary antiserum (PC10) incubation, and employment of streptavidin-ABC-HRP. BrdU delivery via osmotic minipumps for 48 hr before euthanasia, followed by fixation in cold formalin for 14 days, yielded reliable and reproducible hepatocellular labeling and a peak of cell proliferation in all lobes on Day 3 (i.e., labeling during Days 1-3) of dosing with 80 mg/kg/day phenobarbital. Labeling indices (LI) of both control and phenobarbital-treated liver were lower in the left and right median lobes as compared with the lateral lobes. In sections of the left lateral lobe from the same liver, PCNA immunocytochemistry revealed a peak of proliferative activity (about one third of the maximum LI generated by BrdU incorporation) on Day 1. These findings, together with the advantages and disadvantages of both techniques, are discussed in the context of their applications to different investigative requirements. PMID:8093255

  11. Gedunin, a novel natural substance, inhibits ovarian cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Siddharth G; Chen, Ning; Xiong, Yin; Wenham, Robert; Apte, Sachin; Humphrey, Marcia; Cragun, Janiel; Lancaster, Johnathan M

    2009-12-01

    The discovery of more active therapeutic compounds is essential if the outcome for patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer is to be improved. Gedunin, an extract of the neem tree, has been used as a natural remedy for centuries in Asia. Recently, gedunin has been shown to have potential in vitro antineoplastic properties; however, its effect on ovarian cancer cells is unknown. We evaluated the in vitro effect of gedunin on SKOV3, OVCAR4, and OVCAR8 ovarian cancer cell lines proliferation, alone and in the presence of cisplatin. Furthermore, we analyzed in vitro gedunin sensitivity data, integrated with genome-wide expression data from 54 cancer cell lines in an effort to identify genes and molecular pathways that underlie the mechanism of gedunin action. In vitro treatment of ovarian cancer cell lines with gedunin alone produced up to an 80% decrease in cell proliferation (P < 0.01) and, combining gedunin with cisplatin, demonstrated up to a 47% (P < 0.01) decrease in cell proliferation compared with cisplatin treatment alone. Bioinformatic analysis of integrated gedunin sensitivity and gene expression data identified 52 genes to be associated with gedunin sensitivity. These genes are involved in molecular functions related to cell cycle control, carcinogenesis, lipid metabolism, and molecular transportation. We conclude that gedunin has in vitro activity against ovarian cancer cells and, further, may enhance the antiproliferative effect of cisplatin. The molecular determinants of in vitro gedunin response are complex and may include modulation of cell survival and apoptosis pathways. PMID:19955938

  12. Novel factors modulating human β-cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, J; Kulkarni, R N

    2016-09-01

    β-Cell dysfunction in type 1 and type 2 diabetes is accompanied by a progressive loss of β-cells, and an understanding of the cellular mechanism(s) that regulate β-cell mass will enable approaches to enhance hormone secretion. It is becoming increasingly recognized that enhancement of human β-cell proliferation is one potential approach to restore β-cell mass to prevent and/or cure type 1 and type 2 diabetes. While several reports describe the factor(s) that enhance β-cell replication in animal models or cell lines, promoting effective human β-cell proliferation continues to be a challenge in the field. In this review, we discuss recent studies reporting successful human β-cell proliferation including WS6, an IkB kinase and EBP1 inhibitor; harmine and 5-IT, both DYRK1A inhibitors; GNF7156 and GNF4877, GSK-3β and DYRK1A inhibitors; osteoprotegrin and Denosmab, receptor activator of NF-kB (RANK) inhibitors; and SerpinB1, a protease inhibitor. These studies provide important examples of proteins and pathways that may prove useful for designing therapeutic strategies to counter the different forms of human diabetes. PMID:27615134

  13. FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation in human granulosa cell tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Qiu, Xin; Fang, Lanlan; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Activin A stimulates cell proliferation in KGN human granulosa cell tumor-derived cell line. •Cyclin D2 mediates activin A-induced KGN cell proliferation. •FOXL2 induces follistatin expression in KGN cells. •FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated KGN cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Human granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare, and their etiology remains largely unknown. Recently, the FOXL2 402C > G (C134W) mutation was found to be specifically expressed in human adult-type GCTs; however, its function in the development of human GCTs is not fully understood. Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, which has been shown to stimulate normal granulosa cell proliferation; however, little is known regarding the function of activins in human GCTs. In this study, we examined the effect of activin A on cell proliferation in the human GCT-derived cell line KGN. We show that activin A treatment stimulates KGN cell proliferation. Treatment with the activin type I receptor inhibitor SB431542 blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. In addition, our results show that cyclin D2 is induced by treatment with activin A and is involved in activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. Moreover, the activation of Smad signaling is required for activin A-induced cyclin D2 expression. Finally, we show that the overexpression of the wild-type FOXL2 but not the C134W mutant FOXL2 induced follistatin production. Treatment with exogenous follistatin blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation, and the overexpression of wild-type FOXL2 attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. These results suggest that FOXL2 may act as a tumor suppressor in human adult-type GCTs by inducing follistatin expression, which subsequently inhibits activin-stimulated cell proliferation.

  14. The cell proliferation antigen Ki-67 organises heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Sobecki, Michal; Mrouj, Karim; Camasses, Alain; Parisis, Nikolaos; Nicolas, Emilien; Llères, David; Gerbe, François; Prieto, Susana; Krasinska, Liliana; David, Alexandre; Eguren, Manuel; Birling, Marie-Christine; Urbach, Serge; Hem, Sonia; Déjardin, Jérôme; Malumbres, Marcos; Jay, Philippe; Dulic, Vjekoslav; Lafontaine, Denis Lj; Feil, Robert; Fisher, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Antigen Ki-67 is a nuclear protein expressed in proliferating mammalian cells. It is widely used in cancer histopathology but its functions remain unclear. Here, we show that Ki-67 controls heterochromatin organisation. Altering Ki-67 expression levels did not significantly affect cell proliferation in vivo. Ki-67 mutant mice developed normally and cells lacking Ki-67 proliferated efficiently. Conversely, upregulation of Ki-67 expression in differentiated tissues did not prevent cell cycle arrest. Ki-67 interactors included proteins involved in nucleolar processes and chromatin regulators. Ki-67 depletion disrupted nucleologenesis but did not inhibit pre-rRNA processing. In contrast, it altered gene expression. Ki-67 silencing also had wide-ranging effects on chromatin organisation, disrupting heterochromatin compaction and long-range genomic interactions. Trimethylation of histone H3K9 and H4K20 was relocalised within the nucleus. Finally, overexpression of human or Xenopus Ki-67 induced ectopic heterochromatin formation. Altogether, our results suggest that Ki-67 expression in proliferating cells spatially organises heterochromatin, thereby controlling gene expression. PMID:26949251

  15. The cell proliferation antigen Ki-67 organises heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Sobecki, Michal; Mrouj, Karim; Camasses, Alain; Parisis, Nikolaos; Nicolas, Emilien; Llères, David; Gerbe, François; Prieto, Susana; Krasinska, Liliana; David, Alexandre; Eguren, Manuel; Birling, Marie-Christine; Urbach, Serge; Hem, Sonia; Déjardin, Jérôme; Malumbres, Marcos; Jay, Philippe; Dulic, Vjekoslav; Lafontaine, Denis LJ; Feil, Robert; Fisher, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Antigen Ki-67 is a nuclear protein expressed in proliferating mammalian cells. It is widely used in cancer histopathology but its functions remain unclear. Here, we show that Ki-67 controls heterochromatin organisation. Altering Ki-67 expression levels did not significantly affect cell proliferation in vivo. Ki-67 mutant mice developed normally and cells lacking Ki-67 proliferated efficiently. Conversely, upregulation of Ki-67 expression in differentiated tissues did not prevent cell cycle arrest. Ki-67 interactors included proteins involved in nucleolar processes and chromatin regulators. Ki-67 depletion disrupted nucleologenesis but did not inhibit pre-rRNA processing. In contrast, it altered gene expression. Ki-67 silencing also had wide-ranging effects on chromatin organisation, disrupting heterochromatin compaction and long-range genomic interactions. Trimethylation of histone H3K9 and H4K20 was relocalised within the nucleus. Finally, overexpression of human or Xenopus Ki-67 induced ectopic heterochromatin formation. Altogether, our results suggest that Ki-67 expression in proliferating cells spatially organises heterochromatin, thereby controlling gene expression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13722.001 PMID:26949251

  16. Simvastatin modulates mesenchymal stromal cell proliferation and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Dalila Lucíola; Lorenzi, Julio Cesar Cetrulo; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre; Palma, Patricia Vianna Bonini; Dos Santos, Daiane Fernanda; Prata, Karen Lima; Silva, Wilson Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Statins are widely used hypocholesterolemic drugs that block the mevalonate pathway, responsible for the biosysnthesis of cholesterol. However, statins also have pleiotropic effects that interfere with several signaling pathways. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are a heterogeneous mixture of cells that can be isolated from a variety of tissues and are identified by the expression of a panel of surface markers and by their ability to differentiate in vitro into osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. MSC were isolated from amniotic membranes and bone marrows and characterized based on ISCT (International Society for Cell Therapy) minimal criteria. Simvastatin-treated cells and controls were directly assayed by CFSE (Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester) staining to assess their cell proliferation and their RNA was used for microarray analyses and quantitative PCR (qPCR). These MSC were also evaluated for their ability to inhibit PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) proliferation. We show here that simvastatin negatively modulates MSC proliferation in a dose-dependent way and regulates the expression of proliferation-related genes. Importantly, we observed that simvastatin increased the percentage of a subset of smaller MSC, which also were actively proliferating. The association of MSC decreased size with increased pluripotency and the accumulating evidence that statins may prevent cellular senescence led us to hypothesize that simvastatin induces a smaller subpopulation that may have increased ability to maintain the entire pool of MSC and also to protect them from cellular senescence induced by long-term cultures/passages in vitro. These results may be important to better understand the pleiotropic effects of statins and its effects on the biology of cells with regenerative potential. PMID:25874574

  17. Essential components for ex vivo proliferation of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Natalie; Rojewski, Markus Thomas; Lotfi, Ramin; Schrezenmeier, Hubert

    2014-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are highly interesting candidates for clinical applications in regenerative medicine. Due to their low occurrence in human tissues, extensive in vitro expansion is necessary to obtain sufficient cell numbers applicable as a clinical dose in the context of cellular therapy. Current cell culture media formulations for the isolation and expansion of MSCs include fetal calf serum (FCS), human AB serum (ABS), or human platelet lysate (PL) as a supplement. However, these established supplements are inherently ill-defined formulations that contain a variety of bioactive molecules in varying batch-to-batch compositions and the risk of transmitting pathogens that escape routine screening procedures. In this study, we have comparatively characterized the capacity of commonly used basal media, such as the Minimum Essential Medium alpha (αMEM), Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM), and RPMI 1640 as well as human- and animal-derived supplements, that is, PL, ABS, and FCS to stimulate cell proliferation. MSC proliferation was observed to be optimal in the PL-supplemented αMEM. Using a combinatorial approach, we then assessed a library of soluble factors, including mitogens (TGF-β1, Activin A, bFGF, EGF, IGF-I, PDGF-BB, and VEGF), chemokines (CCL21, CCL25, CXCL12, and RANTES), proteins (human serum albumin), lipids (e.g., oleic acid, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid), and hormones (dexamethasone, insulin, and TSH), to create a defined medium as well as coating of cell culture surfaces to promote robust MSC proliferation in vitro. A combination of recombinant human factors partially met the nutritional requirements of bone marrow-derived MSCs, and was able to promote cell proliferation comparable to about 5% PL if supplemented with auxiliary 0.6%-1.2% PL. Maximal MSC proliferation was achieved by combining 5% PL with a cocktail of recombinant factors and did not depend on coating of cell

  18. Capsaicin modulates proliferation, migration, and activation of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Shanna; Mesquita, Fernanda; Basso, Bruno; Schmid, Júlia; Ferreira, Gabriela; Rizzo, Lucas; Bauer, Moises; Bartrons, Ramon; Ventura, Francesc; Rosa, Jose Luis; Mannaerts, Inge; van Grunsven, Leo Adrianus; Oliveira, Jarbas

    2014-03-01

    Capsaicin, the active component of chili pepper, has been reported to have antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects on a variety of cell lines. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of capsaicin during HSC activation and maintenance. Activated and freshly isolated HSCs were treated with capsaicin. Proliferation was measured by incorporation of EdU. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were investigated using flow cytometry. The migratory response to chemotactic stimuli was evaluated by a modified Boyden chamber assay. Activation markers and inflammatory cytokines were determined by qPCR, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry. Our results show that capsaicin reduces HSC proliferation, migration, and expression of profibrogenic markers of activated and primary mouse HSCs. In conclusion, the present study shows that capsaicin modulates proliferation, migration, and activation of HSC in vitro. PMID:23955514

  19. Mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas with neuroendocrine predominance.

    PubMed

    Ogbonna, Onyekachi Henry; Garcon, Marie Carmel; Syrigos, Kostas N; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2013-01-01

    Background. Pancreatic tumors are rare and could arise from either the exocrine (ductal and acinar cells) or the endocrine (neuroendocrine cells) components of the pancreas. In some instances, the occurrence of pancreatic tumors comprising both acinar cells and neuroendocrine cells, with neuroendocrine cells making up more than 30% of the tumor, has been identified. This unique entity has been referred to as mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Only about 20 such cases have been reported in the literature. Case Report. We report an interesting case of MANEC with neuroendocrine cell predominance in a woman presenting with epigastric pain secondary to a pancreatic mass with acinar and endocrine differentiation. She underwent surgical resection of the tumor and was offered adjuvant treatment chemotherapy with carboplatin, etoposide, and radiotherapy for positive tumor resection margins. Conclusions. Given the paucity of the cases of MANEC, continuous reporting of these cases when identified should be encouraged to aid oncologists in understanding the disease and help establish standardized management. PMID:24348574

  20. Mixed Acinar-Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Neuroendocrine Predominance

    PubMed Central

    Ogbonna, Onyekachi Henry; Syrigos, Kostas N.; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2013-01-01

    Background. Pancreatic tumors are rare and could arise from either the exocrine (ductal and acinar cells) or the endocrine (neuroendocrine cells) components of the pancreas. In some instances, the occurrence of pancreatic tumors comprising both acinar cells and neuroendocrine cells, with neuroendocrine cells making up more than 30% of the tumor, has been identified. This unique entity has been referred to as mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Only about 20 such cases have been reported in the literature. Case Report. We report an interesting case of MANEC with neuroendocrine cell predominance in a woman presenting with epigastric pain secondary to a pancreatic mass with acinar and endocrine differentiation. She underwent surgical resection of the tumor and was offered adjuvant treatment chemotherapy with carboplatin, etoposide, and radiotherapy for positive tumor resection margins. Conclusions. Given the paucity of the cases of MANEC, continuous reporting of these cases when identified should be encouraged to aid oncologists in understanding the disease and help establish standardized management. PMID:24348574

  1. Identification of Predictive Gene Markers for Multipotent Stromal Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bellayr, Ian H; Marklein, Ross A; Lo Surdo, Jessica L; Bauer, Steven R; Puri, Raj K

    2016-06-01

    Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) are known for their distinctive ability to differentiate into different cell lineages, such as adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. They can be isolated from numerous tissue sources, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and others. Because of their differentiation potential and secretion of growth factors, MSCs are believed to have an inherent quality of regeneration and immune suppression. Cellular expansion is necessary to obtain sufficient numbers for use; however, MSCs exhibit a reduced capacity for proliferation and differentiation after several rounds of passaging. In this study, gene markers of MSC proliferation were identified and evaluated for their ability to predict proliferative quality. Microarray data of human bone marrow-derived MSCs were correlated with two proliferation assays. A collection of 24 genes were observed to significantly correlate with both proliferation assays (|r| >0.70) for eight MSC lines at multiple passages. These 24 identified genes were then confirmed using an additional set of MSCs from eight new donors using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The proliferative potential of the second set of MSCs was measured for each donor/passage for confluency fraction, fraction of EdU+ cells, and population doubling time. The second set of MSCs exhibited a greater proliferative potential at passage 4 in comparison to passage 8, which was distinguishable by 15 genes; however, only seven of the genes (BIRC5, CCNA2, CDC20, CDK1, PBK, PLK1, and SPC25) demonstrated significant correlation with MSC proliferation regardless of passage. Our analyses revealed that correlation between gene expression and proliferation was consistently reduced with the inclusion of non-MSC cell lines; therefore, this set of seven genes may be more strongly associated with MSC proliferative quality. Our results pave the way to determine the quality of an MSC population for a

  2. Persistence of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in proliferating and nonproliferating human mammary epithelial cells after exposure to gamma-rays or iron ions

    SciTech Connect

    Groesser, Torsten; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Chen, James; Costes, Sylvain V.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2010-12-22

    To investigate {gamma}-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) and 53BP1 (tumour protein 53 binding protein No. 1) foci formation and removal in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) after exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing radiation under different cell culture conditions. HMEC cells were grown either as monolayers (2D) or in extracellular matrix to allow the formation of acinar structures in vitro (3D). Foci numbers were quantified by image analysis at various time points after exposure. Our results reveal that in non-proliferating cells under 2D and 3D cell culture conditions, iron-ion induced {gamma}-H2AX foci were still present at 72 h after exposure, although 53BP1 foci returned to control levels at 48 h. In contrast in proliferating HMEC, both {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci decreased to control levels during the 24-48 h time interval after irradiation under 2D conditions. Foci numbers decreased faster after {gamma}-ray irradiation and returned to control levels by 12 h regardless of marker, cell proliferation status, and cell culture condition. Conclusions: The disappearance of radiation induced {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in HMEC have different dynamics that depend on radiation quality and proliferation status. Notably, the general patterns do not depend on the cell culture condition (2D versus 3D). We speculate that the persistent {gamma}-H2AX foci in iron-ion irradiated non-proliferating cells could be due to limited availability of double strand break (DSB) repair pathways in G0/G1-phase, or that repair of complex DSB requires replication or chromatin remodeling.

  3. Fractal Dimensions of In Vitro Tumor Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Lambrou, George I.

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems are characterized by their potential for dynamic adaptation. One of the challenges for systems biology approaches is their contribution towards the understanding of the dynamics of a growing cell population. Conceptualizing these dynamics in tumor models could help us understand the steps leading to the initiation of the disease and its progression. In vitro models are useful in answering this question by providing information over the spatiotemporal nature of such dynamics. In the present work, we used physical quantities such as growth rate, velocity, and acceleration for the cellular proliferation and identified the fractal structures in tumor cell proliferation dynamics. We provide evidence that the rate of cellular proliferation is of nonlinear nature and exhibits oscillatory behavior. We also calculated the fractal dimensions of our cellular system. Our results show that the temporal transitions from one state to the other also follow nonlinear dynamics. Furthermore, we calculated self-similarity in cellular proliferation, providing the basis for further investigation in this topic. Such systems biology approaches are very useful in understanding the nature of cellular proliferation and growth. From a clinical point of view, our results may be applicable not only to primary tumors but also to tumor metastases. PMID:25883653

  4. Poisson‐event‐based analysis of cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Wills, John W.; Brown, M. Rowan; Rees, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A protocol for the assessment of cell proliferation dynamics is presented. This is based on the measurement of cell division events and their subsequent analysis using Poisson probability statistics. Detailed analysis of proliferation dynamics in heterogeneous populations requires single cell resolution within a time series analysis and so is technically demanding to implement. Here, we show that by focusing on the events during which cells undergo division rather than directly on the cells themselves a simplified image acquisition and analysis protocol can be followed, which maintains single cell resolution and reports on the key metrics of cell proliferation. The technique is demonstrated using a microscope with 1.3 μm spatial resolution to track mitotic events within A549 and BEAS‐2B cell lines, over a period of up to 48 h. Automated image processing of the bright field images using standard algorithms within the ImageJ software toolkit yielded 87% accurate recording of the manually identified, temporal, and spatial positions of the mitotic event series. Analysis of the statistics of the interevent times (i.e., times between observed mitoses in a field of view) showed that cell division conformed to a nonhomogeneous Poisson process in which the rate of occurrence of mitotic events, λ exponentially increased over time and provided values of the mean inter mitotic time of 21.1 ± 1.2 hours for the A549 cells and 25.0 ± 1.1 h for the BEAS‐2B cells. Comparison of the mitotic event series for the BEAS‐2B cell line to that predicted by random Poisson statistics indicated that temporal synchronisation of the cell division process was occurring within 70% of the population and that this could be increased to 85% through serum starvation of the cell culture. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25572722

  5. Proliferation control in neural stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Homem, Catarina CF; Repic, Marko; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2015-01-01

    Neural circuit function can be drastically affected by variations in the number of cells that are produced during development or by a reduction in adult cell number due to disease. Unlike many other organs, the brain is unable to compensate for such changes by increasing cell numbers or altering the size of the cells. For this reason, unique cell cycle and cell growth control mechanisms operate in the developing and adult brain. In Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian neural stem and progenitor cells these mechanisms are intricately coordinated with the developmental age and the nutritional, metabolic and hormonal state of the animal. Defects in neural stem cell proliferation that result in the generation of incorrect cell numbers or defects in neural stem cell differentiation can cause microcephaly or megalencephaly. PMID:26420377

  6. Estimation of Cell Proliferation Dynamics Using CFSE Data

    PubMed Central

    Banks, H.T.; Sutton, Karyn L.; Thompson, W. Clayton; Bocharov, Gennady; Roose, Dirk; Schenkel, Tim; Meyerhans, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Advances in fluorescent labeling of cells as measured by flow cytometry have allowed for quantitative studies of proliferating populations of cells. The investigations (Luzyanina et al. in J. Math. Biol. 54:57–89, 2007; J. Math. Biol., 2009; Theor. Biol. Med. Model. 4:1–26, 2007) contain a mathematical model with fluorescence intensity as a structure variable to describe the evolution in time of proliferating cells labeled by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). Here, this model and several extensions/modifications are discussed. Suggestions for improvements are presented and analyzed with respect to statistical significance for better agreement between model solutions and experimental data. These investigations suggest that the new decay/label loss and time dependent effective proliferation and death rates do indeed provide improved fits of the model to data. Statistical models for the observed variability/noise in the data are discussed with implications for uncertainty quantification. The resulting new cell dynamics model should prove useful in proliferation assay tracking and modeling, with numerous applications in the biomedical sciences. PMID:20195910

  7. Inhibition of REST Suppresses Proliferation and Migration in Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dianbao; Li, Ying; Wang, Rui; Li, Yunna; Shi, Ping; Kan, Zhoumi; Pang, Xining

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor, with poor prognosis and a lack of effective therapeutic options. The aberrant expression of transcription factor REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) had been reported in different kinds of tumors. However, the function of REST and its mechanisms in GBM remain elusive. Here, REST expression was inhibited by siRNA silencing in U-87 and U-251 GBM cells. Then CCK-8 assay showed significantly decreased cell proliferation, and the inhibition of migration was verified by scratch wound healing assay and transwell assay. Using cell cycle analysis and Annexin V/PI straining assay, G1 phase cell cycle arrest was found to be a reason for the suppression of cell proliferation and migration upon REST silencing, while apoptosis was not affected by REST silencing. Further, the detection of REST-downstream genes involved in cytostasis and migration inhibition demonstrated that CCND1 and CCNE1 were reduced; CDK5R1, BBC3, EGR1, SLC25A4, PDCD7, MAPK11, MAPK12, FADD and DAXX were enhanced, among which BBC3 and DAXX were direct targets of REST, as verified by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) and Western blotting. These data suggested that REST is a master regulator that maintains GBM cells proliferation and migration, partly through regulating cell cycle by repressing downstream genes, which might represent a potential target for GBM therapy. PMID:27153061

  8. Inhibition of REST Suppresses Proliferation and Migration in Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianbao; Li, Ying; Wang, Rui; Li, Yunna; Shi, Ping; Kan, Zhoumi; Pang, Xining

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor, with poor prognosis and a lack of effective therapeutic options. The aberrant expression of transcription factor REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) had been reported in different kinds of tumors. However, the function of REST and its mechanisms in GBM remain elusive. Here, REST expression was inhibited by siRNA silencing in U-87 and U-251 GBM cells. Then CCK-8 assay showed significantly decreased cell proliferation, and the inhibition of migration was verified by scratch wound healing assay and transwell assay. Using cell cycle analysis and Annexin V/PI straining assay, G1 phase cell cycle arrest was found to be a reason for the suppression of cell proliferation and migration upon REST silencing, while apoptosis was not affected by REST silencing. Further, the detection of REST-downstream genes involved in cytostasis and migration inhibition demonstrated that CCND1 and CCNE1 were reduced; CDK5R1, BBC3, EGR1, SLC25A4, PDCD7, MAPK11, MAPK12, FADD and DAXX were enhanced, among which BBC3 and DAXX were direct targets of REST, as verified by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) and Western blotting. These data suggested that REST is a master regulator that maintains GBM cells proliferation and migration, partly through regulating cell cycle by repressing downstream genes, which might represent a potential target for GBM therapy. PMID:27153061

  9. Cell proliferation is reduced in the hippocampus in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Katherine M; Fung, Samantha J; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The molecular and cellular basis of structural and functional abnormalities of the hippocampus found in schizophrenia is currently unclear. Postnatal neurogenesis contributes to hippocampal function in animal models and is correlated with hippocampal volume in primates. Reduced hippocampal cell proliferation has been previously reported in schizophrenia, which may contribute to hippocampal dysfunction. Method: We measured the cell proliferation marker, Ki67, in post-mortem hippocampal tissue from patients with schizophrenia (n = 10) and matched controls (n = 16). Ki67-labelled cells were counted within the dentate gyrus and hilus on sections taken from the anterior hippocampus. Results: We replicated the finding of a significant reduction in Ki67+ cells/mm2 in schizophrenia cases compared to controls (t24 = 2.1, p = 0.023). In our relatively small sample, we did not find a relationship between Ki67+ cells and age overall, or between Ki67 + cells and duration of illness or antipsychotic treatment in people with schizophrenia. Conclusion: Our results confirm that reduced hippocampal cell proliferation may be present in schizophrenia. Restoring hippocampal neurogenesis may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of hippocampal dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:26113745

  10. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 affects endothelial progenitor cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Colleselli, Daniela; Bijuklic, Klaudija; Mosheimer, Birgit A.; Kaehler, Christian M. . E-mail: C.M.Kaehler@uibk.ac.at

    2006-09-10

    Growing evidence indicates that inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders and various types of cancer. Endothelial progenitor cells recruited from the bone marrow have been shown to be involved in the formation of new vessels in malignancies and discussed for being a key point in tumour progression and metastasis. However, until now, nothing is known about an interaction between COX and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Expression of COX-1 and COX-2 was detected by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Proliferation kinetics, cell cycle distribution and rate of apoptosis were analysed by MTT test and FACS analysis. Further analyses revealed an implication of Akt phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation. Both COX-1 and COX-2 expression can be found in bone-marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells in vitro. COX-2 inhibition leads to a significant reduction in proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells by an increase in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. COX-2 inhibition leads further to an increased cleavage of caspase-3 protein and inversely to inhibition of Akt activation. Highly proliferating endothelial progenitor cells can be targeted by selective COX-2 inhibition in vitro. These results indicate that upcoming therapy strategies in cancer patients targeting COX-2 may be effective in inhibiting tumour vasculogenesis as well as angiogenic processes.

  11. Cytokine signaling for proliferation, survival, and death in hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, A; Ito, Y; Kinoshita, T

    1999-04-01

    The survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells are regulated by cytokines. In the absence of cytokines, hematopoietic cells not only stop proliferation, but undergo apoptosis. This strict dependency of hematopoietic cells on cytokines is an important mechanism that maintains the homeostasis of blood cells. Cytokines induce various intracellular signaling pathways by activating the receptor-associated Janus kinases (Jaks), and distinct signals are responsible for cell cycle progression and cell survival. Induction of signals for cell cycle progression without suppressing apoptosis results in apoptotic cell death, indicating the essential role of anti-apoptotic signaling for cell growth. In hematopoietic cells, Ras, a cellular protooncogen product, and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase are involved in the suppression of apoptosis. Cytokine depletion not only turns off anti-apoptotic signaling, but also actively induces cell death by activating caspases, a distinct family of cysteine proteases. Alterations in the mechanisms of cytokine signaling for cell cycle progression and anti-apoptotic function are implicated in hematological disorders. PMID:10222650

  12. Snail1 is required for the maintenance of the pancreatic acinar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Loubat-Casanovas, Jordina; Peña, Raúl; Gonzàlez, Núria; Alba-Castellón, Lorena; Rosell, Santi; Francí, Clara; Navarro, Pilar; de Herreros, Antonio García

    2016-01-01

    The Snail1 transcriptional factor is required for correct embryonic development, yet its expression in adult animals is very limited and its functional roles are not evident. We have now conditionally inactivated Snail1 in adult mice and analyzed the phenotype of these animals. Snail1 ablation rapidly altered pancreas structure: one month after Snail1 depletion, acinar cells were markedly depleted, and pancreas accumulated adipose tissue. Snail1 expression was not detected in the epithelium but was in pancreatic mesenchymal cells (PMCs). Snail1 ablation in cultured PMCs downregulated the expression of several β-catenin/Tcf-4 target genes, modified the secretome of these cells and decreased their ability to maintain acinar markers in cultured pancreas cells. Finally, Snail1 deficiency modified the phenotype of pancreatic tumors generated in transgenic mice expressing c-myc under the control of the elastase promoter. Specifically, Snail1 depletion did not significantly alter the size of the tumors but accelerated acinar-ductal metaplasia. These results demonstrate that Snail1 is expressed in PMCs and plays a pivotal role in maintaining acinar cells within the pancreas in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:26735179

  13. [Identification of proliferating cells in Taenia solium cysts].

    PubMed

    Orrego-Solano, Miguel Ángel; Cangalaya, Carla; Nash, Theodore E; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Neoblasts are totipotent cells, solely responsible for the proliferation and maturation of tissues in free-living flatworms. Similar cells have been isolated from parasitic flatworms such as Echinococcus. Taenia solium causes human taeniasis (intestinal) and cysticercosis in humans and pigs. Brain infection with larvae (cysts) of T. solium results in neurocysticercosis which is hyperendemic in Peru, and its treatment is associated with serious neurological symptoms. The proliferative capacity and development stages of T. solium have not been described and the neoblasts of this parasite have not been characterized We looked for cell proliferation in T. solium cysts collected from an infected pig, which were identified when replicating and incorporating bromodeoxyuridine nucleotide detected with a monoclonal antibody. A stable cell line of neoblasts would be useful for systematic in vitro studies on drug efficacy and the biology of T. solium. PMID:25597721

  14. Epithelial TRPV1 signaling accelerates gingival epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N; Matsuda, Y; Yamada, H; Tabeta, K; Nakajima, T; Murakami, S; Yamazaki, K

    2014-11-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), a member of the calcium-permeable thermosensitive transient receptor potential superfamily, is a sensor of thermal and chemical stimuli. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat (> 43°C), acidic conditions (pH < 6.6), capsaicin, and endovanilloids. This pain receptor was discovered on nociceptive fibers in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 was recently found to be expressed by non-neuronal cells, such as epithelial cells. The oral gingival epithelium is exposed to multiple noxious stimuli, including heat and acids derived from endogenous and exogenous substances; however, whether gingival epithelial cells (GECs) express TRPV1 is unknown. We show that both TRPV1 mRNA and protein are expressed by GECs. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels in the gingival epithelial cell line, epi 4. Moreover, TRPV1 activation in epi 4 cells accelerated proliferation. These responses to capsaicin were inhibited by a specific TRPV1 antagonist, SB-366791. We also observed GEC proliferation in capsaicin-treated mice in vivo. No effects were observed on GEC apoptosis by epithelial TRPV1 signaling. To examine the molecular mechanisms underlying this proliferative effect, we performed complementary (c)DNA microarray analysis of capsaicin-stimulated epi 4 cells. Compared with control conditions, 227 genes were up-regulated and 232 genes were down-regulated following capsaicin stimulation. Several proliferation-related genes were validated by independent experiments. Among them, fibroblast growth factor-17 and neuregulin 2 were significantly up-regulated in capsaicin-treated epi 4 cells. Our results suggest that functional TRPV1 is expressed by GECs and contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:25266715

  15. PTPN2 attenuates T-cell lymphopenia-induced proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiede, Florian; La Gruta, Nicole L.; Tiganis, Tony

    2014-01-01

    When the peripheral T-cell pool is depleted, T cells undergo homoeostatic expansion. This expansion is reliant on the recognition of self-antigens and/or cytokines, in particular interleukin-7. The T cell-intrinsic mechanisms that prevent excessive homoeostatic T-cell responses and consequent overt autoreactivity remain poorly defined. Here we show that protein tyrosine phosphatase N2 (PTPN2) is elevated in naive T cells leaving the thymus to restrict homoeostatic T-cell proliferation and prevent excess responses to self-antigens in the periphery. PTPN2-deficient CD8+ T cells undergo rapid lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP) when transferred into lymphopenic hosts and acquire the characteristics of antigen-experienced effector T cells. The enhanced LIP is attributed to elevated T-cell receptor-dependent, but not interleukin-7-dependent responses, results in a skewed T-cell receptor repertoire and the development of autoimmunity. Our results identify a major mechanism by which homoeostatic T-cell responses are tuned to prevent the development of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.

  16. Effect of interleukins on the proliferation and survival of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mainou-Fowler, T; Copplestone, J A; Prentice, A G

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the effects of interleukin (IL) 1, 2, 4, and 5 on the proliferation and survival of peripheral blood B cells from patients with B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) and compare them with the effects on normal peripheral blood B cells. METHODS--The proliferation and survival of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) activated B cells from B-CLL (n = 12) and normal peripheral blood (n = 5) were studied in vitro in response to IL-1, IL-2 IL-4, and IL-5. Survival of cells in cultures with or without added interleukins was studied by microscopic examination of cells and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. RESULTS--Proliferation was observed in both B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells on culture with IL-2 alone and also in some, but not all, B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells with IL-1 and IL-4. However, there was greater variability in B-CLL cell responses than in normal peripheral blood cells. Il-5 did not affect normal peripheral blood cell proliferation but it increased proliferation in two B-CLL cases. Synergistic effects of these cytokines were not detected. IL-4 inhibited normal peripheral blood and B-CLL cell proliferation after the addition of IL-2. Inhibition of B-CLL cell responses to IL-2 was also observed with IL-5 and Il-1. Survival of B-CLL cells in cultures was enhanced with IL-4 not by an increase in proliferation but by reduced apoptosis. No such effect was seen in normal peripheral blood cells. IL-2 had a less noticeable antiapoptotic effect; IL-5 enhanced apoptosis in B-CLL cells. CONCLUSIONS--B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells proliferated equally well in response to IL-2. IL-4 had a much lower effect on B-CLL cell proliferation, but had noticeable antiapoptotic activity. IL-5 enhanced cell death by apoptosis. Images PMID:7629299

  17. Pancreatic β-Cell Proliferation in Obesity12

    PubMed Central

    Linnemann, Amelia K.; Baan, Mieke; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2014-01-01

    Because obesity rates have increased dramatically over the past 3 decades, type 2 diabetes has become increasingly prevalent as well. Type 2 diabetes is associated with decreased pancreatic β-cell mass and function, resulting in inadequate insulin production. Conversely, in nondiabetic obesity, an expansion in β-cell mass occurs to provide sufficient insulin and to prevent hyperglycemia. This expansion is at least in part due to β-cell proliferation. This review focuses on the mechanisms regulating obesity-induced β-cell proliferation in humans and mice. Many factors have potential roles in the regulation of obesity-driven β-cell proliferation, including nutrients, insulin, incretins, hepatocyte growth factor, and recently identified liver-derived secreted factors. Much is still unknown about the regulation of β-cell replication, especially in humans. The extracellular signals that activate proliferative pathways in obesity, the relative importance of each of these pathways, and the extent of cross-talk between these pathways are important areas of future study. PMID:24829474

  18. Wakayama Symposium: Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jester, James V.; Brown, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently we have shown that mouse and human meibomian glands undergo specific age-related changes, including decreased acinar cell proliferation, acinar atrophy, and altered peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) localization from cytoplasmic-vesicular/nuclear in young mice and humans to nuclear in old mice and humans. Since PPARγ is a lipid-sensitive, nuclear receptor implicated in regulating adipocyte and sebocyte differentiation and lipogenesis, our findings suggest that PPARγ may be involved in modulating meibomian gland differentiation during aging. Based on these findings, we propose that aging of the meibomian gland results in downregulation of PPARγ, leading to decreased meibocyte differentiation and lipid synthesis, gland atrophy, and a hyposecretory meibomian gland dysfunction. PMID:23084144

  19. Tapetal cell fate, lineage and proliferation in the Arabidopsis anther.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Dickinson, Hugh G

    2010-07-01

    The four microsporangia of the flowering plant anther develop from archesporial cells in the L2 of the primordium. Within each microsporangium, developing microsporocytes are surrounded by concentric monolayers of tapetal, middle layer and endothecial cells. How this intricate array of tissues, each containing relatively few cells, is established in an organ possessing no formal meristems is poorly understood. We describe here the pivotal role of the LRR receptor kinase EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES 1 (EMS1) in forming the monolayer of tapetal nurse cells in Arabidopsis. Unusually for plants, tapetal cells are specified very early in development, and are subsequently stimulated to proliferate by a receptor-like kinase (RLK) complex that includes EMS1. Mutations in members of this EMS1 signalling complex and its putative ligand result in male-sterile plants in which tapetal initials fail to proliferate. Surprisingly, these cells continue to develop, isolated at the locular periphery. Mutant and wild-type microsporangia expand at similar rates and the 'tapetal' space at the periphery of mutant locules becomes occupied by microsporocytes. However, induction of late expression of EMS1 in the few tapetal initials in ems1 plants results in their proliferation to generate a functional tapetum, and this proliferation suppresses microsporocyte number. Our experiments also show that integrity of the tapetal monolayer is crucial for the maintenance of the polarity of divisions within it. This unexpected autonomy of the tapetal 'lineage' is discussed in the context of tissue development in complex plant organs, where constancy in size, shape and cell number is crucial. PMID:20570940

  20. The Retinoblastoma pathway regulates stem cell proliferation in freshwater planarians.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu Jun; Pearson, Bret J

    2013-01-15

    Freshwater planarians are flatworms of the Lophotrochozoan superphylum and are well known for their regenerative abilities, which rely on a large population of pluripotent adult stem cells. However, the mechanisms by which planarians maintain a precise population of adult stem cells while balancing proliferation and cell death, remain to be elucidated. Here we have identified, characterized, and functionally tested the core Retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway components in planarian adult stem cell biology. The Rb pathway is an ancient and conserved mechanism of proliferation control from plants to animals and is composed of three core components: an Rb protein, and a transcription factor heterodimer of E2F and DP proteins. Although the planarian genome contains all components of the Rb pathway, we found that they have undergone gene loss from the ancestral state, similar to other species in their phylum. The single Rb homolog (Smed-Rb) was highly expressed in planarian stem cells and was required for stem cell maintenance, similar to the Rb-homologs p107 and p130 in vertebrates. We show that planarians and their phylum have undergone the most severe reduction in E2F genes observed thus far, and the single remaining E2F was predicted to be a repressive-type E2F (Smed-E2F4-1). Knockdown of either Smed-E2F4-1 or its dimerization partner Dp (Smed-Dp) by RNAi resulted in temporary hyper-proliferation. Finally, we showed that known Rb-interacting genes in other systems, histone deacetylase 1 and cyclinD (Smed-HDAC1; Smed-cycD), were similar to Rb in expression and phenotypes when knocked down by RNAi, suggesting that these established interactions with Rb may also be conserved in planarians. Together, these results showed that planarians use the conserved components of the Rb tumor suppressor pathway to control proliferation and cell survival. PMID:23123964

  1. Modulation of insulin degrading enzyme activity and liver cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Pivovarova, Olga; von Loeffelholz, Christian; Ilkavets, Iryna; Sticht, Carsten; Zhuk, Sergei; Murahovschi, Veronica; Lukowski, Sonja; Döcke, Stephanie; Kriebel, Jennifer; de las Heras Gala, Tonia; Malashicheva, Anna; Kostareva, Anna; Lock, Johan F; Stockmann, Martin; Grallert, Harald; Gretz, Norbert; Dooley, Steven; Pfeiffer, Andreas FH; Rudovich, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM), insulin therapy, and hyperinsulinemia are independent risk factors of liver cancer. Recently, the use of a novel inhibitor of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) was proposed as a new therapeutic strategy in T2DM. However, IDE inhibition might stimulate liver cell proliferation via increased intracellular insulin concentration. The aim of this study was to characterize effects of inhibition of IDE activity in HepG2 hepatoma cells and to analyze liver specific expression of IDE in subjects with T2DM. HepG2 cells were treated with 10 nM insulin for 24 h with or without inhibition of IDE activity using IDE RNAi, and cell transcriptome and proliferation rate were analyzed. Human liver samples (n = 22) were used for the gene expression profiling by microarrays. In HepG2 cells, IDE knockdown changed expression of genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. Proliferation rate was lower in IDE knockdown cells than in controls. Microarray analysis revealed the decrease of hepatic IDE expression in subjects with T2DM accompanied by the downregulation of the p53-dependent genes FAS and CCNG2, but not by the upregulation of proliferation markers MKI67, MCM2 and PCNA. Similar results were found in the liver microarray dataset from GEO Profiles database. In conclusion, IDE expression is decreased in liver of subjects with T2DM which is accompanied by the dysregulation of p53 pathway. Prolonged use of IDE inhibitors for T2DM treatment should be carefully tested in animal studies regarding its potential effect on hepatic tumorigenesis. PMID:25945652

  2. Roles of Nrf2 in cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shohei; Motohashi, Hozumi

    2015-11-01

    The Keap1-Nrf2 system plays pivotal roles in defense mechanisms by regulating cellular redox homeostasis. Nrf2 is an inducible transcription factor that activates a battery of genes encoding antioxidant proteins and phase II enzymes in response to oxidative stress and electrophilic xenobiotics. The activity of Nrf2 is regulated by Keap1, which promotes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of Nrf2 under normal conditions and releases the inhibited Nrf2 activity upon exposure to the stresses. Though an impressive contribution of the Keap1-Nrf2 system to the protection from exogenous and endogenous electrophilic insults has been well established, a line of evidence has suggested that the Keap1-Nrf2 system has various novel functions, particularly in cell proliferation and differentiation. Because the proliferation and differentiation of diverse cell types are often influenced and modulated by the cellular redox balance, Nrf2 has been considered to control these cellular processes by regulating the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, analyses of the genome-wide distribution of Nrf2 have identified new sets of Nrf2 target genes whose products are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation but not necessarily in the regulation of oxidative stress. Considering the most characteristic features of Nrf2 as an inducible transcription factor, a newly emerged concept proposes that the Keap1-Nrf2 system translates environmental stresses into regulatory network signals in cell fate determination. In this review, we introduce the contribution of Nrf2 to lineage-specific differentiation, maintenance and differentiation of stem cells, and proliferation of normal and cancer cells, and we discuss how the response to fluctuating environments modulates cell behavior through the Keap1-Nrf2 system. PMID:26119783

  3. Metabolic profiling of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during proliferation and differentiation into red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Daud, Hasbullah; Browne, Susan; Al-Majmaie, Rasoul; Murphy, William; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2016-01-25

    An understanding of the metabolic profile of cell proliferation and differentiation should support the optimization of culture conditions for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation, differentiation, and maturation into red blood cells. We have evaluated the key metabolic parameters during each phase of HSPC culture for red blood cell production in serum-supplemented (SS) and serum-free (SF) conditions. A simultaneous decrease in growth rate, total protein content, cell size, and the percentage of cells in the S/G2 phase of cell cycle, as well as an increase in the percentage of cells with a CD71(-)/GpA(+) surface marker profile, indicates HSPC differentiation into red blood cells. Compared with proliferating HSPCs, differentiating HSPCs showed significantly lower glucose and glutamine consumption rates, lactate and ammonia production rates, and amino acid consumption and production rates in both SS and SF conditions. Furthermore, extracellular acidification was associated with late proliferation phase, suggesting a reduced cellular metabolic rate during the transition from proliferation to differentiation. Under both SS and SF conditions, cells demonstrated a high metabolic rate with a mixed metabolism of both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in early and late proliferation, an increased dependence on OXPHOS activity during differentiation, and a shift to glycolytic metabolism only during maturation phase. These changes indicate that cell metabolism may have an important impact on the ability of HSPCs to proliferate and differentiate into red blood cells. PMID:26013297

  4. Focally regulated endothelial proliferation and cell death in human synovium.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, D. A.; Wade, M.; Mapp, P. I.; Blake, D. R.

    1998-01-01

    Angiogenesis and vascular insufficiency each may support the chronic synovial inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis. We have shown by quantitative immunohistochemistry and terminal uridyl deoxynucleotide nick end labeling that endothelial proliferation and cell death indices were each increased in synovia from patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with osteoarthritic and noninflamed controls, whereas endothelial fractional areas did not differ significantly among disease groups. Markers of proliferation were associated with foci immunoreactive for vascular endothelial growth factor and integrin alpha(v)beta3, whereas cell death was observed in foci in which immunoreactivities for these factors were weak or absent. No association was found with thrombospondin immunoreactivity. The balance between angiogenesis and vascular regression in rheumatoid synovitis may be determined by the focal expression of angiogenic and endothelial survival factors. Increased endothelial cell turnover may contribute to microvascular dysfunction and thereby facilitate persistent synovitis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9502411

  5. Petasites japonicus Stimulates the Proliferation of Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Yong-An; Kim, Yong-Hee; Lee, Dong Gu; Kim, Bang-Jin; Kim, Ki-Jung; Kim, Byung-Gak; Oh, Myeong-Geun; Han, Chan Kyu; Lee, Sanghyun; Ryu, Buom-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Oriental natural plants have been used as medical herbs for the treatment of various diseases for over 2,000 years. In this study, we evaluated the effect of several natural plants on the preservation of male fertility by assessing the ability of plant extracts to stimulate spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) proliferation by using a serum-free culture method. In vitro assays showed that Petasites japonicus extracts, especially the butanol fraction, have a significant effect on germ cells proliferation including SSCs. The activity of SSCs cultured in the presence of the Petasites japonicus butanol fraction was confirmed by normal colony formation and spermatogenesis following germ cell transplantation of the treated SSCs. Our findings could lead to the discovery of novel factors that activate SSCs and could be useful for the development of technologies for the prevention of male infertility. PMID:26207817

  6. Petasites japonicus Stimulates the Proliferation of Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Hee; Lee, Dong Gu; Kim, Bang-Jin; Kim, Ki-Jung; Kim, Byung-Gak; Oh, Myeong-Geun; Han, Chan Kyu; Lee, Sanghyun; Ryu, Buom-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Oriental natural plants have been used as medical herbs for the treatment of various diseases for over 2,000 years. In this study, we evaluated the effect of several natural plants on the preservation of male fertility by assessing the ability of plant extracts to stimulate spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) proliferation by using a serum-free culture method. In vitro assays showed that Petasites japonicus extracts, especially the butanol fraction, have a significant effect on germ cells proliferation including SSCs. The activity of SSCs cultured in the presence of the Petasites japonicus butanol fraction was confirmed by normal colony formation and spermatogenesis following germ cell transplantation of the treated SSCs. Our findings could lead to the discovery of novel factors that activate SSCs and could be useful for the development of technologies for the prevention of male infertility. PMID:26207817

  7. Hydroxyflavanone inhibits gastric carcinoma MGC-803 cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyan; Zhan, Zhuo; Cui, Mingfu; Gao, Yongjian; Wang, Dayu; Feng, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma (GC) is the most common primary malignancy of the digestive tract, with increasing incidence in many countries. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to assess inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation by 2’-hydroxyflavanone. The STAT3 pathway was performed. 2’-hydroxyflavanone reduced inhibitory effects on MGC-803 cell proliferation. 2’-hydroxyflavanone exhibited the highest inhibition rate. Treatment of MGC-803 cells with 400, 200, and 100 μg/ml 2’-hydroxyflavanone resulted in 88.9±0.7%, 81.2±0.5%, 68.4±0.5% decrease in cell viability, respectively, indicating an IC50 of 9.3 μg/ml. The 100 μg/ml 2’-hydroxyflavanone can significantly inhibit the STAT3 pathway activation. 2’-hydroxyflavanone inhibits MGC-803 cell proliferation by inhibiting STAT3 pathway activation. This extract is therefore a potential drug candidate for treatment of liver cancer. PMID:26629250

  8. Ubiquitylation of CD98 limits cell proliferation and clonal expansion.

    PubMed

    Ablack, Jailal N G; Metz, Patrick J; Chang, John T; Cantor, Joseph M; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2015-12-01

    CD98 heavy chain (SLC3A2) facilitates lymphocyte clonal expansion that enables adaptive immunity; however, increased expression of CD98 is also a feature of both lymphomas and leukemias and represents a potential therapeutic target in these diseases. CD98 is transcriptionally regulated and ectopic expression of the membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) E3 ubiquitin ligases MARCH1 or MARCH8 leads to ubiquitylation and lysosomal degradation of CD98. Here, we examined the potential role of ubiquitylation in regulating CD98 expression and cell proliferation. We report that blocking ubiquitylation by use of a catalytically inactive MARCH or by creating a ubiquitylation-resistant CD98 mutant, prevents MARCH-induced CD98 downregulation in HeLa cells. March1-null T cells display increased CD98 expression. Similarly, T cells expressing ubiquitylation-resistant CD98 manifest increased proliferation in vitro and clonal expansion in vivo. Thus, ubiquitylation and the resulting downregulation of CD98 can limit cell proliferation and clonal expansion. PMID:26493331

  9. Proliferation of Schwann cells induced by axolemmal and myelin membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Dinneen, M..

    1985-01-01

    Purified Schwann Cells were cultured from neonatal rat sciatic nerve using a modification of the method of Brockes. Schwann cells and contaminating fibroblasts were unambiguously identified using fluorescent antibodies of 2'3' cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and the thy 1.1 antigen respectively. The Schwann cells were quiescent unless challenged with mitogens. They proliferated rapidly in response to the soluble mitogen, cholera toxin, or to membrane fractions from rat CNS or PNS, prepared by the method of DeVries. Mitogenic activity was present in both axolemmal and myelin enriched fractions and promoted a 10-15 fold increase in the rate of /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake. The axolemmal mitogen was sensitive to heat (80/sup 0/C for 10 minutes), trypsin digestion (0.05% x 30 mins) or to treatment with endoglycosidase D, suggesting that it could be a glycoprotein. Fifty percent of the axolemmal mitogenic activity was solubilized in 1% octyl-glucoside. The solubilized material, however, was very unstable and further purification was not possible. The myelin associated mitogenic activity was markedly different. It was resistant to freeze thaw cycles, trypsin digestion of endoglycosidase treatment and the activity was actually enhanced by heating at 100/sup 0/C for two hours. It is proposed that the axolemmal activity is responsible for Schwann cell proliferation during development and that the myelin associated activity promotes Schwann cell proliferation during Wallerian degeneration.

  10. Extracellular potassium concentration regulates proliferation of immature cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Borodinsky, L N; Fiszman, M L

    1998-04-17

    The present study examines the effect of depolarizing potassium concentrations on the proliferation of immature rat cerebellar neurons. Cells inoculated in serum free medium and 5 mM KCl (5 K) showed a high degree of 3H-thymidine incorporation that decreased 24-48 h after plating as differentiation began. During the first 24 h after inoculation, cells grown in high potassium (25 K), showed a 34 +/- 3% increase (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 12) in 3H-thymidine incorporation as compared with the values observed in 5 K. After 24 h in vitro, cells grown in 25 K showed 23 +/- 3% (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3) less DNA synthesis than those inoculated in 5 K. The increase in DNA synthesis due to 25 K was blocked by MgCl2 and nifedipine, but not by omega-conotoxin GVIA, suggesting that it is mediated by a Ca2+ influx via voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) of the L-subtype. High potassium-induced cell proliferation was blocked by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1) inhibitor (PD98059, 75 microM). The number of neurons counted after 48 h in vitro in 25 K was 35-100% above of the number obtained with 5 K and this increase also was blocked by MgCl2 and nifedipine. These data support the hypothesis that depolarizing activity during neurogenesis plays a role in the modulation of cerebellar granule cells proliferation. PMID:9602050

  11. The interplay between invasion and proliferation in tumor cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2013-03-01

    Tumor cells can employ different cellular and molecular modes of invasion. The two main phenotypic mechanisms are: 1. Amoeboid (or ``path finder'') cells that can squeeze through small gaps in the ECM (extracellular matrix). 2. Mesenchymal (or ``path generator'') cells that are more rigid and can decompose the ECM to pass through. In addition there is interplay between energy directed to more rapid motility vs. energy used for proliferation. Understanding the relative contributions of these distinct mechanisms and the balance between motility and proliferation to the efficiency of metastatic cancer migration is fundamental to the therapeutic targeting of cancer. We present a conceptual and modeling framework for the analysis and assessment of the success rate, time-to-target, and survival probability of amoeboid vs. mesenchymal modes. Similarly, we contrast invasion with and without proliferation. We treat the complex ECM geometry as a maze and employ semi-realistic modeling of cell motility. Our approach includes metabolic and timing degrees of freedom. The theoretical studies were compared with experimental efforts of cell navigation in specially designed microfluidic devices. Center for Theoretical Biological Physics sponsored by the NSF (Grant PHY-0822283) Rice University, The Tauber Family Foundation and the Maguy-Glass Chair in Physics of Complex Systems at Tel Aviv University.

  12. Alpha2 adrenoceptors regulate proliferation of human intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Schaak, S; Cussac, D; Cayla, C; Devedjian, J; Guyot, R; Paris, H; Denis, C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Previous studies on rodents have suggested that catecholamines stimulate proliferation of the intestinal epithelium through activation of α2 adrenoceptors located on crypt cells. The occurrence of this effect awaits demonstration in humans and the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. Here, we examined the effect of α2 agonists on a clone of Caco2 cells expressing the human α2A adrenoceptor.
METHODS—Cells were transfected with a bicistronic plasmid containing the α2C10 and neomycin phosphotransferase genes. G418 resistant clones were assayed for receptor expression using radioligand binding. Receptor functionality was assessed by testing its ability to couple Gi proteins and to inhibit cAMP production. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was followed by western blot, and cell proliferation was estimated by measuring protein and DNA content.
RESULTS—Permanent transfection of Caco2 cells allowed us to obtain a clone (Caco2-3B) expressing α2A adrenoceptors at a density similar to that found in normal human intestinal epithelium. Caco2-3B retained morphological features and brush border enzyme expression characteristic of enterocytic differentiation. The receptor was coupled to Gi2/Gi3 proteins and its stimulation caused marked diminution of forskolin induced cAMP production. Treatment of Caco2-3B with UK14304 (α2 agonist) induced a rapid increase in the phosphorylation state of MAPK, extracellular regulated protein kinase 1 (Erk1), and 2 (Erk2). This event was totally abolished in pertussis toxin treated cells and in the presence of kinase inhibitors (genistein or PD98059). It was unaffected by protein kinase C downregulation but correlated with a transient increase in Shc tyrosine phosphorylation. Finally, sustained exposure of Caco2-3B to UK14304 resulted in modest but significant acceleration of cell proliferation. None of these effects was observed in the parental cell line Caco2.

  13. Role of interleukin in human natural killer cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    London, L.; Perussia, B.; Trinchieri, G.

    1986-03-01

    Human NK cells, defined by the antibody B73.1, can be induced to proliferate in vitro in the presence of an IL-2 containing conditioned medium (CM) and an irradiated lymphoblastoid line, Daudi. Proliferating NK cells maintain phenotypic and functional characteristics of resting NK cells while newly expressing surface activation antigens (HLA-DR, transferrin receptor, and IL-2 receptor recognized by anti-TAC antibody). A goat anti-IL-2 antiserum and the anti-TAC monoclonal antibody completely block /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation in NK cells stimulated with CM alone or with irradiated Daudi cells. Inhibition is also observed when the antibodies are added up to day 4 of culture, indicating that IL-2 is required for both initiation and maintenance of proliferation. Human recombinant IL-2, either alone or with irradiated lymphoblastoid cells, replaces the CM in initiating /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation. In limiting dilution analysis the frequency of B73.1 (+) cells responding to rIL-2 is approximately 1/2000 and it is increased ten to thirty fold with the addition of irradiated Daudi cells to the cultures. Cultures stimulated with rIL-2 in the presence of colchicine, show a significant proportion of B73.1 + cells entering cycle each day during the first 3 days. These data show that a significant proportion of resting NK cells are capable of responding to IL-2 and that this response can occur over a period of several days after initiation of cultures.

  14. Maduramicin Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Myoblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Gu, Ying; Singh, Karnika; Shang, Chaowei; Barzegar, Mansoureh; Jiang, Shanxiang; Huang, Shile

    2014-01-01

    Maduramicin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic derived from the bacterium Actinomadura yumaensis, is currently used as a feed additive against coccidiosis in poultry worldwide. It has been clinically observed that maduramicin can cause skeletal muscle and heart cell damage, resulting in skeletal muscle degeneration, heart failure, and even death in animals and humans, if improperly used. However, the mechanism of its toxic action in myoblasts is not well understood. Using mouse myoblasts (C2C12) and human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD and Rh30) cells as an experimental model for myoblasts, here we found that maduramicin inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Further studies revealed that maduramicin induced accumulation of the cells at G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, and induced apoptosis in the cells. Concurrently, maduramicin downregulated protein expression of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6), and CDC25A, and upregulated expression of the CDK inhibitors (p21Cip1 and p27Kip1), resulting in decreased phosphorylation of Rb. Maduramicin also induced expression of BAK, BAD, DR4, TRADD and TRAIL, leading to activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 as well as cleavage of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Taken together, our results suggest that maduramicin executes its toxicity in myoblasts at least by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptotic cell death. PMID:25531367

  15. Selective cytotoxicity of benzyl isothiocyanate in the proliferating fibroblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Uchida, Koji; Osawa, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa

    2007-02-01

    In the present study, experiments using presynchronization culture cells demonstrated that benzyl ITC (BITC), previously isolated from a tropical papaya fruit extract, induced the cytotoxic effect preferentially in the proliferating human colon CCD-18Co cells to the quiescent ones. Quiescent CCD-18Co cells were virtually unaffected by BITC and marginal cytotoxicity was observed at 15 microM. We observed that BITC dramatically induced the p53 phosphorylation and stabilization only in the quiescent (G(0)/G(1) phase-arrested) cells, but not significantly in the proliferating human colon CCD-18Co cells when compared with quiescent ones. We also observed ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) phosphorylation in the quiescent cells. The BITC-induced p53 phosphorylation was counteracted by caffeine treatment, implying the involvement of an ATM/ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase signaling pathway. Moreover, downregulation of p53 by a siRNA resulted in the enhancement of susceptibility to undergo apoptosis by BITC. We also showed here that depletion of p53 abrogated G(0)/G(1) arrest accompanied by the declined expression of p21(waf1/cip1) and p27(kip1) in CCD-18Co cells. In conclusion, we identified p53 as a potential negative regulator of the apoptosis induction by BITC in the normal colon CCD-18Co cells through the inhibition of cell-cycle progression at the G(0)/G(1) phase. PMID:17096346

  16. Maduramicin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in myoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Gu, Ying; Singh, Karnika; Shang, Chaowei; Barzegar, Mansoureh; Jiang, Shanxiang; Huang, Shile

    2014-01-01

    Maduramicin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic derived from the bacterium Actinomadura yumaensis, is currently used as a feed additive against coccidiosis in poultry worldwide. It has been clinically observed that maduramicin can cause skeletal muscle and heart cell damage, resulting in skeletal muscle degeneration, heart failure, and even death in animals and humans, if improperly used. However, the mechanism of its toxic action in myoblasts is not well understood. Using mouse myoblasts (C2C12) and human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD and Rh30) cells as an experimental model for myoblasts, here we found that maduramicin inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Further studies revealed that maduramicin induced accumulation of the cells at G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, and induced apoptosis in the cells. Concurrently, maduramicin downregulated protein expression of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6), and CDC25A, and upregulated expression of the CDK inhibitors (p21Cip1 and p27Kip1), resulting in decreased phosphorylation of Rb. Maduramicin also induced expression of BAK, BAD, DR4, TRADD and TRAIL, leading to activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 as well as cleavage of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Taken together, our results suggest that maduramicin executes its toxicity in myoblasts at least by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptotic cell death. PMID:25531367

  17. Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Cancer Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vidhya R.; Perez-Neut, Mathew; Kaja, Simon; Gentile, Saverio

    2015-01-01

    Changes of the electrical charges across the surface cell membrane are absolutely necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis in physiological as well as in pathological conditions. The opening of ion channels alter the charge distribution across the surface membrane as they allow the diffusion of ions such as K+, Ca++, Cl−, Na+. Traditionally, voltage-gated ion channels (VGIC) are known to play fundamental roles in controlling rapid bioelectrical signaling including action potential and/or contraction. However, several investigations have revealed that these classes of proteins can also contribute significantly to cell mitotic biochemical signaling, cell cycle progression, as well as cell volume regulation. All these functions are critically important for cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, a variety of distinct VGICs are expressed in different cancer cell types, including metastasis but not in the tissues from which these tumors were generated. Given the increasing evidence suggesting that VGIC play a major role in cancer cell biology, in this review we discuss the role of distinct VGIC in cancer cell proliferation and possible therapeutic potential of VIGC pharmacological manipulation. PMID:26010603

  18. Tracking Immune Cell Proliferation and Cytotoxic Potential Using Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Tario, Joseph D.; Muirhead, Katharine A.; Pan, Dalin; Munson, Mark E.; Wallace, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    In the second edition of this series, we described the use of cell tracking dyes in combination with tetramer reagents and traditional phenotyping protocols to monitor levels of proliferation and cytokine production in antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. In particular, we illustrated how tracking dye fluorescence profiles could be used to ascertain the precursor frequencies of different subsets in the T-cell pool that are able to bind tetramer, synthesize cytokines, undergo antigen-driven proliferation, and/or carry out various combinations of these functional responses. Analysis of antigen-specific proliferative responses represents just one of many functions that can be monitored using cell tracking dyes and flow cytometry. In this third edition, we address issues to be considered when combining two different tracking dyes with other phenotypic and viability probes for the assessment of cytotoxic effector activity and regulatory T-cell functions. We summarize key characteristics of and differences between general protein- and membrane-labeling dyes, discuss determination of optimal staining concentrations, and provide detailed labeling protocols for both dye types. Examples of the advantages of two-color cell tracking are provided in the form of protocols for (a) independent enumeration of viable effector and target cells in a direct cytotoxicity assay and (b) simultaneous monitoring of proliferative responses in effector and regulatory T cells. PMID:21116982

  19. Effects of distal cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors on cell proliferation and cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Carlos; Martín, Miguel; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Lasunción, Miguel A

    2005-05-01

    Cholesterol is a major lipid component of the plasma membrane in animal cells. In addition to its structural requirement, cholesterol is essential in cell proliferation and other cell processes. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the stringency of the requirement for cholesterol as a regulator of proliferation and cell cycle progression, compared with other sterols of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Human promyelocytic HL-60 cells were cultured in cholesterol-free medium and treated with different distal inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis (zaragozic acid, SKF 104976, SR 31747, BM 15766, and AY 9944), which allow the synthesis of isoprenoid derivatives and different sets of sterol intermediates, but not cholesterol. The results showed that only the inhibition of sterol Delta7-reductase was compatible with cell proliferation. Blocking cholesterol biosynthesis upstream of this enzyme resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest selectively in G2/M phase. PMID:15687348

  20. Regulation of nuclear transport in proliferating and quiescent cells.

    PubMed

    Feldherr, C M; Akin, D

    1993-03-01

    Previously, we compared signal-mediated nuclear transport in proliferating and quiescent BALB/c 3T3 cells and found that both the relative rate of nuclear uptake and the functional size of the transport channels were significantly greater in proliferating cells. In this study, the possible causes of these permeability differences were investigated. To determine if the decrease in transport capacity in quiescent cells was due to a reduction in the availability of soluble cytoplasmic factors (i.e., ATP or receptors for nuclear location sequences), or changes in the properties of the pores themselves, proliferating and quiescent cells were fused, and nuclear import of nucleoplasmin-coated gold (NP-gold) particles was assayed in the heterokaryons 50-60 min later. Significant differences in nuclear uptake were maintained following fusion, even though the two nuclei shared a common cytoplasm, consistent with the view that permeability is regulated at the level of the pores. Cell shape also influenced signal-mediated nuclear import. This was demonstrated by studying transport in rounded and flattened cells attached to different-size palladium domains that were deposited on a nonadhesive substrate. Based on analysis of the nuclear uptake rates of large (110-270 A in diameter) and small (50-80 A in diameter) coated gold particles, it was determined that the functional size of the pores was significantly greater in flattened cells. The effect of growth factors on recovery of nuclear transport capacity following serum depletion was also analyzed. Partial recovery was achieved by treating cells with physiological concentrations of EGF, IGF-1, or PDGF; however, complete recovery required both EGF and IGF-1. PMID:8453991

  1. Simulated Hypergravity Alters Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Motility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Shameka; Bettis, Barika; Harris-Hooker, Sandra; Sanford, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    The cellular effects of gravity are poorly understood due to its constancy and nonavailability of altered gravitational models. Such an understanding is crucial for prolonged space flights. In these studies, we assessed the influence of centrifugation at 6G (HGrav) on vascular smooth muscle (SMC) mobility and proliferation. Cells were: (a) plated at low density and subjected to HGrav for 24-72 hr for proliferation studies, or (b) grown to confluency, subjected to HGrav, mechanically denuded and monitored for cell movement into the denuded area. Controls were maintained under normogravity. SMC showed a 50% inhibition of growth under HGrav and 10% serum; HGrav and low serum resulted in greater growth inhibition. The rate of movement of SMC into the denuded area was 2-3-fold higher under HGrav in low serum compared to controls, but similar in 10% serum. These studies show that HGrav has significant effects on SMC growth and mobility, which are dependent on serum levels.

  2. Human Liver Stem Cells Suppress T-Cell Proliferation, NK Activity, and Dendritic Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Stefania; Grange, Cristina; Tapparo, Marta; Pasquino, Chiara; Romagnoli, Renato; Dametto, Ennia; Amoroso, Antonio; Tetta, Ciro; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Human liver stem cells (HLSCs) are a mesenchymal stromal cell-like population resident in the adult liver. Preclinical studies indicate that HLSCs could be a good candidate for cell therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and the immunomodulatory properties of HLSCs on T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NKs), and dendritic cells (DCs) in allogeneic experimental settings. We found that HLSCs inhibited T-cell proliferation by a mechanism independent of cell contact and dependent on the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. When compared with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), HLSCs were more efficient in inhibiting T-cell proliferation. At variance with MSCs, HLSCs did not elicit NK degranulation. Moreover, HLSCs inhibited NK degranulation against K562, a NK-sensitive target, by a mechanism dependent on HLA-G release. When tested on DC generation from monocytes, HLSCs were found to impair DC differentiation and DCs ability to induce T-cell proliferation through PGE2. This study shows that HLSCs have immunomodulatory properties similar to MSCs, but, at variance with MSCs, they do not elicit a NK response. PMID:27127520

  3. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation in human sublingual glands: a microscopic postmortem study

    PubMed Central

    AZEVEDO-ALANIS, Luciana Reis; TOLENTINO, Elen de Souza; de ASSIS, Gerson Francisco; CESTARI, Tânia Mary; LARA, Vanessa Soares; DAMANTE, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Although some morphological investigations on aged human sublingual glands (HSG) found eventual phenomena identified as autolysis and mucous extravasation, the exact meaning of these findings has not been elucidated. Objective The aim of this work is to investigate whether acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation are related to the aging process in human sublingual glands. We also speculate if autolytic changes may assist forensic pathologists in determining time of death. Material and Methods 186 cadavers’ glands were allocated to age groups: I (0–30 years); II (31–60), and III (61–90). Time and mode of death were also recorded. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation were classified as present or absent. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (p<0.05). Results There was correlation between age and acinar autolysis (r=0.38; p=0.0001). However, there was no correlation between autolysis and time of death. No differences were observed between genders. TEM showed mucous and serous cells presenting nuclear and membrane alterations and mucous cells were more susceptible to autolysis. Conclusion Acinar autolysis occurred in all age groups and increased with age while mucous extravasation was rarely found. Both findings are independent. Autolysis degrees in HSG could not be used to determine time of death. PMID:26537715

  4. Endothelial cell proliferation associated with lesions of murine systemic candidiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Ashman, R B; Papadimitriou, J M

    1994-01-01

    Neovascularization is associated with tumor growth and some inflammatory diseases but has not been reported to be induced by infectious agents. In a mouse model of systemic Candida albicans infection, extensive endothelial cell proliferation was seen in the periphery of brain abscesses and in the areas of fungal pyelonephritis in the kidney. This finding is important for an understanding of the pathogenesis of fungal infections and may contribute to an analysis of the mechanisms of angiogenesis. Images PMID:7523305

  5. Co-culture with Sertoli cells promotes proliferation and migration of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fenxi; Hong, Yan; Liang, Wenmei; Ren, Tongming; Jing, Suhua; Lin, Juntang

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-culture of Sertoli cells (SCs) with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs dramatically increased proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs stimulated expression of Mdm2, Akt, CDC2, Cyclin D, CXCR4, MAPKs. -- Abstract: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been recently used in transplant therapy. The proliferation and migration of MSCs are the determinants of the efficiency of MSC transplant therapy. Sertoli cells are a kind of 'nurse' cells that support the development of sperm cells. Recent studies show that Sertoli cells promote proliferation of endothelial cells and neural stem cells in co-culture. We hypothesized that co-culture of UCMSCs with Sertoli cells may also promote proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated UCMSCs from human cords and Sertoli cells from mouse testes, and co-cultured them using a Transwell system. We found that UCMSCs exhibited strong proliferation ability and potential to differentiate to other cell lineages such as osteocytes and adipocytes. The presence of Sertoli cells in co-culture significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration potential of UCMSCs (P < 0.01). Moreover, these phenotypic changes were accompanied with upregulation of multiple genes involved in cell proliferation and migration including phospho-Akt, Mdm2, phospho-CDC2, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3 as well as CXCR4, phospho-p44 MAPK and phospho-p38 MAPK. These findings indicate that Sertoli cells boost UCMSC proliferation and migration potential.

  6. Rnd3 regulates lung cancer cell proliferation through notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongjun; Hu, Chengping; Yang, Huaping; Cao, Liming; Li, Yuanyuan; Deng, Pengbo; Huang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Rnd3/RhoE is a small Rho GTPase involved in the regulation of different cell behaviors. Dysregulation of Rnd3 has been linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Lung cancers are the leading cause of cancer-related death in the West and around the world. The expression of Rnd3 and its ectopic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain to be explored. Here, we reported that Rnd3 was down-regulated in three NSCLC cell lines: H358, H520 and A549. The down-regulation of Rnd3 led to hyper-activation of Rho Kinase and Notch signaling. The reintroduction of Rnd3 or selective inhibition of Notch signaling, but not Rho Kinase signaling, blocked the proliferation of H358 and H520 cells. Mechanistically, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) protein abundance in H358 cells was regulated by Rnd3-mediated NICD proteasome degradation. Rnd3 regulated H358 and H520 cell proliferation through a Notch1/NICD/Hes1 signaling axis independent of Rho Kinase. PMID:25372032

  7. Rnd3 Regulates Lung Cancer Cell Proliferation through Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yongjun; Hu, Chengping; Yang, Huaping; Cao, Liming; Li, Yuanyuan; Deng, Pengbo; Huang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Rnd3/RhoE is a small Rho GTPase involved in the regulation of different cell behaviors. Dysregulation of Rnd3 has been linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Lung cancers are the leading cause of cancer-related death in the West and around the world. The expression of Rnd3 and its ectopic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain to be explored. Here, we reported that Rnd3 was down-regulated in three NSCLC cell lines: H358, H520 and A549. The down-regulation of Rnd3 led to hyper-activation of Rho Kinase and Notch signaling. The reintroduction of Rnd3 or selective inhibition of Notch signaling, but not Rho Kinase signaling, blocked the proliferation of H358 and H520 cells. Mechanistically, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) protein abundance in H358 cells was regulated by Rnd3-mediated NICD proteasome degradation. Rnd3 regulated H358 and H520 cell proliferation through a Notch1/NICD/Hes1 signaling axis independent of Rho Kinase. PMID:25372032

  8. Wnt inhibitory factor-1 regulates glioblastoma cell cycle and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Fang, Jiasheng; Yang, Zhuanyi; Chen, Fenghua; Liu, Jingfang; Wang, Yanjin

    2012-10-01

    Wnt proteins are powerful regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation, and activation of the Wnt signalling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of several types of human tumours. Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) acts as a Wnt antagonist and tumour suppressor. Previous studies have shown that reducing expression of the WIF-1 gene aberrantly activates Wnt signalling and induces the development of certain types of cancers. In the present study, we examined the expression of WIF-1 in human primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumours. Studies using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that WIF-1 expression is lower in human GBM than in normal brain tissue. To clarify the role of WIF-1, we transfected U251 human glioblastoma-derived cells, which do not express WIF-1, with the pcDNA3.1-WIF1 vector to restore WIF-1 expression. The results of cell proliferation, colony formation and apoptosis assays, as well as flow cytometry, indicate that exogenous WIF-1 has no effect on U251 cell apoptosis, but does arrest cells at the G(0)/G(1) phase and inhibit cell growth. Collectively, our data suggest that WIF-1 is a potent inhibitor of GBM growth. PMID:22901505

  9. Cell proliferation in vitro modulates fibroblast collagenase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblad, W.J.; Flood, L.

    1986-05-01

    Collagenase enzyme activity is regulated by numerous control mechanisms which prevent excessive release and activation of this protease. A primary mechanism for regulating enzyme extracellular activity may be linked to cell division, therefore they have examined the release of collagenase by fibroblasts in vitro in response to cellular proliferation. Studies were performed using fibroblasts derived from adult rat dermis maintained in DMEM containing 10% newborn calf serum, 25 mM tricine buffer, and antibiotics. Cells between subculture 10 and 19 were used with enzyme activity determined with a /sup 14/C-labelled soluble Type I collagen substrate with and without trypsin activation. Fibroblasts, trypsinized and plated at low density secreted 8.5 fold more enzyme than those cells at confluence (975 vs. 115 dpm/..mu..g DNA). This diminution occurred gradually as the cells went from logrithmic growth towards confluence. Confluent fibroblast monolayers were scraped in a grid arrangement, stimulating the remaining cells to divide, without exposure to trypsin. Within 24-48 hr postscraping enzyme levels had increased 260-400%, accompanied by enhanced incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 3/H-uridine into cell macromolecules. The burst of enzyme release began to subside 12 hr later. These results support a close relationship between fibroblast proliferation and collagenase secretion.

  10. Serglycin in Quiescent and Proliferating Primary Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reine, Trine M.; Vuong, Tram T.; Rutkovskiy, Arkady; Meen, Astri J.; Vaage, Jarle; Jenssen, Trond G.; Kolset, Svein O.

    2015-01-01

    Proteoglycans are fundamental components of the endothelial barrier, but the functions of the proteoglycan serglycin in endothelium are less described. Our aim was to describe the roles of serglycin in processes relevant for endothelial dysfunction. Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured in vitro and the expression of proteoglycans was investigated. Dense cell cultures representing the quiescent endothelium coating the vasculature was compared to sparse activated cell cultures, relevant for diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease. Secretion of 35S- proteoglycans increased in sparse cultures, and we showed that serglycin is a major component of the cell-density sensitive proteoglycan population. In contrast to the other proteoglycans, serglycin expression and secretion was higher in proliferating compared to quiescent HUVEC. RNAi silencing of serglycin inhibited proliferation and wound healing, and serglycin expression and secretion was augmented by hypoxia, mechanical strain and IL-1β induced inflammation. Notably, the secretion of the angiogenic chemokine CCL2 resulting from IL-1β activation, was increased in serglycin knockdown cells, while angiopoietin was not affected. Both serglycin and CCL2 were secreted predominantly to the apical side of polarized HUVEC, and serglycin and CCL2 co-localized both in perinuclear areas and in vesicles. These results suggest functions for serglycin in endothelial cells trough interactions with partner molecules, in biological processes with relevance for diabetic complications, cardiovascular disease and cancer development. PMID:26694746

  11. TBX2 blocks myogenesis and promotes proliferation in rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bo; Zhang, Meiling; Byrum, Stephanie D.; Tackett, Alan J.; Davie, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are the most frequent soft tissue sarcomas in children that share many features of developing skeletal muscle. We have discovered that a T-box family member, TBX2, is highly up regulated in tumor cells of both major RMS subtypes. TBX2 is a repressor that is often over expressed in cancer cells and is thought to function in bypassing cell growth control, including repression of p14 and p21. The cell cycle regulator p21 is required for the terminal differentiation of skeletal muscle cells and is silenced in RMS cells. We have found that TBX2 interacts with the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and myogenin and inhibits the activity of these factors. TBX2 is expressed in primary myoblasts and C2C12 cells, but is strongly down regulated upon differentiation. TBX2 recruits the histone deacetylase HDAC1 and is a potent inhibitor of the expression of muscle specific genes and the cell cycle regulators, p21 and p14. TBX2 promotes the proliferation of RMS cells and either depletions of TBX2 or dominant negative TBX2 up regulate p21 and muscle specific genes. Significantly, depletion or interference with TBX2 completely inhibits tumor growth in a xenograft assay, highlighting the oncogenic role of TBX2 in RMS cells. Thus, the data demonstrate that elevated expression of TBX2 contributes to the pathology of RMS cells by promoting proliferation and repressing differentiation specific gene expression. These results show that deregulated TBX2 serves as an oncogene in RMS, suggesting that TBX2 may serve as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for RMS tumors. PMID:24470334

  12. Mobile phone radiation alters proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ozgur, Elcin; Guler, Goknur; Kismali, Gorkem; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of intermittent exposure (15 min on, 15 min off for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h, at a specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg) to enhanced data rates for global system for mobile communication evolution-modulated radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at 900- and 1,800-MHz frequencies on the viability of the Hepatocarcinoma cells (Hep G2). Hep G2 cell proliferation was measured by a colorimetric assay based on the cleavage of the tetrazolium salt WST-1 by mitochondrial dehydrogenases in viable cells. Cell injury was evaluated by analyzing the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose released from lysed cells into the culture medium. Morphological observation of the nuclei was carried out by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining using fluorescence microscopy. In addition, TUNEL assay was performed to confirm apoptotic cell death. It was observed that cell viability, correlated with the LDH and glucose levels, changed according to the frequency and duration of RFR exposure. Four-hour exposure produced more pronounced effects than the other exposure durations. 1,800-MHz RFR had a larger impact on cell viability and Hep G2 injury than the RFR at 900 MHz. Morphological observations also supported the biochemical results indicating that most of the cells showed irregular nuclei pattern determined by using the DAPI staining, as well as TUNEL assay which shows DNA damage especially in the cells after 4 h of exposure to 1,800-MHz RFR. Our results indicate that the applications of 900- and 1,800-MHz (2 W/kg) RFR cause to decrease in the proliferation of the Hep G2 cells after 4 h of exposure. Further studies will be conducted on other frequency bands of RFR and longer duration of exposure. PMID:24817642

  13. Transient fluctuations of intracellular zinc ions in cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuan; Maret, Wolfgang

    2009-08-15

    Zinc is essential for cell proliferation, differentiation, and viability. When zinc becomes limited for cultured cells, DNA synthesis ceases and the cell cycle is arrested. The molecular mechanisms of actions of zinc are believed to involve changes in the availability of zinc(II) ions (Zn{sup 2+}). By employing a fluorescent Zn{sup 2+} probe, FluoZin-3 acetoxymethyl ester, intracellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations were measured in undifferentiated and in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Intracellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations are pico- to nanomolar in PC12 cells and are higher in the differentiated than in the undifferentiated cells. When following cellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations for 48 h after the removal of serum, a condition that is known to cause cell cycle arrest, Zn{sup 2+} concentrations decrease after 30 min but, remarkably, increase after 1 h, and then decrease again to about one half of the initial concentration. Cell proliferation, measured by an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, decreases after both serum starvation and zinc chelation. Two peaks of Zn{sup 2+} concentrations occur within one cell cycle: one early in the G1 phase and the other in the late G1/S phase. Thus, fluctuations of intracellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations and established modulation of phosphorylation signaling, via an inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases at commensurately low Zn{sup 2+} concentrations, suggest a role for Zn{sup 2+} in the control of the cell cycle. Interventions targeted at these picomolar Zn{sup 2+} fluctuations may be a way of controlling cell growth in hyperplasia, neoplasia, and diseases associated with aberrant differentiation.

  14. Carbendazim Inhibits Cancer Cell Proliferation by Suppressing Microtubule Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yenjerla, Mythili; Cox, Corey; Wilson, Leslie; Jordan, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Carbendazim (methyl 2-benzimidazolecarbamate) is widely used as a systemic fungicide in human food production and appears to act on fungal tubulin. However, it also inhibits proliferation of human cancer cells, including drug- and multidrug-resistant and p53-deficient cell lines. Because of its promising preclinical anti-tumor activity, it has undergone phase I clinical trials and is under further clinical development. Although it weakly inhibits polymerization of brain microtubules and induces G2/M arrest in tumor cells, its mechanism of action in human cells has not been fully elucidated. We examined its mechanism of action in MCF7 human breast cancer cells and found that it inhibits proliferation (IC50, 10 μM) and half-maximally arrests mitosis at a similar concentration (8 μM), in concert with suppression of microtubule dynamic instability without appreciable microtubule depolymerization. It induces mitotic spindle abnormalities and reduces the metaphase intercentromere distance of sister chromatids, indicating reduction of tension on kinetochores, thus leading to metaphase arrest. With microtubules assembled in vitro from pure tubulin, carbendazim also suppresses dynamic instability, reducing the dynamicity by 50% at 10 μM, with only minimal (21%) reduction of polymer mass. Carbendazim binds to mammalian tubulin (Kd, 42.8 ± 4.0 μM). Unlike some benzimidazoles that bind to the colchicine site in tubulin, carbendazim neither competes with colchicine nor competes with vinblastine for binding to brain tubulin. Thus, carbendazim binds to an as yet unidentified site in tubulin and inhibits tumor cell proliferation by suppressing the growing and shortening phases of microtubule dynamic instability, thus inducing mitotic arrest. PMID:19001156

  15. The proliferation and differentiation of stem cell journals.

    PubMed

    Sanberg, Paul R; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2010-12-01

    As scientists position themselves in translating the therapeutic potential of stem cells from laboratory to clinical applications, publishing companies have taken this rapidly evolving field as a unique opportunity to launch new journals for dissemination of stem cell research. Over the last decade, the significant increase in the number of stem cell-based journals has created a conundrum. At stake is the pressure for these new journals to build their reputation by maintaining publication standards, while at the same time attracting a cadre of stem cell researchers to consider their journals as the publication of choice. We discuss here a prophetic path of survival for these journals which likely will closely mimic the core scientific and translational value of stem cells, namely their capacity to proliferate and differentiate into something meaningful! PMID:20694581

  16. Silencing of CDC42 inhibits neuroblastoma cell proliferation and transformation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sora; Craig, Brian T.; Romain, Carmelle V.; Qiao, Jingbo; Chung, Dai H.

    2014-01-01

    Cell division cycle 42 (CDC42), a small GTPase of the Rho-subfamily, regulates diverse cellular functions including proliferation, cytoskeletal rearrangement and even promotes malignant transformation. Here, we found that increased expression of CDC42 correlated with undifferentiated neuroblastoma as compared to a more benign phenotype. CDC42 inhibition decreased cell growth and soft agar colony formation, and increased cell death in BE(2)-C and BE(2)-M17 cell lines, but not in SK-N-AS. In addition, silencing of CDC42 decreased expression of N-myc in BE(2)-C and BE(2)-M17 cells. Our findings suggest that CDC42 may play a role in the regulation of aggressive neuroblastoma behavior. PMID:25264923

  17. Sesquiterpenoid Lactones in Tanacetum huronense Inhibit Human Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Amila A; Bejcek, Bruce E; Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2016-05-01

    Tanacetum huronense (Lake Huron tansy), which is native to the upper Midwest region of USA and Canada, was examined for the presence of anticancer compounds using an in vitro human tumor cell proliferation inhibition assay, with glioblastoma derived cell line U-87 MG. Bioassay-directed purification of the ethyl acetate extract of the aerial portion of this plant identified six active sesquiterpenoid lactones (1-6). Among these, compounds 5 and 6 are new structural analogs. One of the most abundant isolates, tanacin (4), exhibited the greatest inhibition with an IC50 value of 4.5 μg/mL. PMID:27319121

  18. Mast cells and histamine enhance the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Stoyanov, Evgeniy; Uddin, Mohib; Mankuta, David; Dubinett, Steven M; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common form of lung cancer with an extremely low survival rate. It is characterized by a chronic inflammatory process with intense mast cell infiltrate that is associated with reduced survival. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells have an enhancing effect on NSCLC proliferation. To assess the tumor-promoting potential of mast cells, we used the human alveolar basal adenocarcinoma (A549) and the mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell lines, umbilical cord blood-derived mast cells (CBMC) and the mast cell-deficient mouse Sash model. The proliferation rate of A549/LLC cells was markedly increased by mast cells and histamine. Histamine proliferating activity was mediated via H(1), H(2) and H(4) receptors and caused ERK phosphorylation. LLC induced in Sash mice or in wild-type mice treated with the mast cell stabilizer nedocromil sodium displayed an accelerated growth (number of metastic colonies in the lungs, total lung area and lung/total mice weight ratio). In summary, we have shown a significant effect of mast cells and histamine in enhancing NSCLC/LLCX growth in vitro, while in a mouse LLC model in vivo we have found that mast cells are important negative regulators of cancer development. Therefore our results would indicate a pro-tumorogenic effect of the mast cells in vitro on established lung tumor cell lines, and anti-tumorogenic effect in mice at lung cancer induction. In conclusion, mast cell/anti-histamine targeted therapies should carefully consider this dual effect. PMID:21733595

  19. Myosin VI contributes to malignant proliferation of human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rong; Fang, Xu-hao

    2016-01-01

    Previously characterized as a backward motor, myosin VI (MYO6), which belongs to myosin family, moves toward the minus end of the actin track, a direction opposite to all other known myosin members. Recent researches have illuminated the role of MYO6 in human cancers, particularly in prostate cancer. However, the role of MYO6 in glioma has not yet been determined. In this study, to explore the role of MYO6 in human glioma, lentivirus-delivered short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting MYO6 was designed to stably down-regulate its endogenous expression in glioblastoma cells U251. Knockdown of MYO6 signifi cantly inhibited viability and proliferation of U251 cells in vitro. Moreover, the cell cycle of U251 cells was arrested at G0/G1 phase with the absence of MYO6, which could contribute to the suppression of cell proliferation. In conclusion, we firstly identified the crucial involvement of MYO6 in human glioma. The inhibition of MYO6 by shRNA might be a potential therapeutic method in human glioma. PMID:26937209

  20. Site-specific Proteasome Phosphorylation Controls Cell Proliferation and Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xing; Wang, Xiaorong; Wang, Zhiping; Banerjee, Sourav; Yang, Jing; Huang, Lan; Dixon, Jack E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fundamental importance of proteasomal degradation in cells, little is known about whether and how the 26S proteasome itself is regulated in coordination with various physiological processes. Here we show that the proteasome is dynamically phosphorylated during cell cycle at Thr25 of the 19S subunit Rpt3. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, RNA interference and biochemical studies demonstrate that blocking Rpt3-Thr25 phosphorylation markedly impairs proteasome activity and impedes cell proliferation. Through a kinome-wide screen, we have identified dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase 2 (DYRK2) as the primary kinase that phosphorylates Rpt3-Thr25, leading to enhanced substrate translocation and degradation. Importantly, loss of the single phosphorylation of Rpt3-Thr25 or knockout of DYRK2 significantly inhibits tumor formation by proteasome-addicted human breast cancer cells in mice. These findings define an important mechanism for proteasome regulation and demonstrate the biological significance of proteasome phosphorylation in regulating cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. PMID:26655835

  1. Fibronectin adsorption, cell adhesion, and proliferation on nanostructured tantalum surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Jensen, T; Kraft, David Christian; Foss, Morten; Kingshott, Peter; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Larsen, Arne Nylandsted; Chevallier, Jacques; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2010-05-25

    The interaction between dental pulp derived mesenchymal stem cells (DP-MSCs) and three different tantalum nanotopographies with and without a fibronectin coating is examined: sputter-coated tantalum surfaces with low surface roughness <0.2 nm, hut-nanostructured surfaces with a height of 2.9 +/- 0.6 nm and a width of 35 +/- 8 nm, and dome structures with a height of 13 +/- 2 nm and a width of 52 +/- 14 nm. Using ellipsometry, the adsorption and the availability of fibronectin cell-binding domains on the tantalum surfaces were examined, as well as cellular attachment, proliferation, and vinculin focal adhesion spot assembly on the respective surfaces. The results showed the highest fibronectin mass uptake on the hut structures, with a slightly higher availability of cell-binding domains and the most pronounced formation of vinculin focal adhesion spots as compared to the other surfaces. The proliferation of DP-MSCs was found to be significantly higher on dome and hut surfaces coated with fibronectin compared to the uncoated flat tantalum surfaces. Consequently, the results presented in this study indicate that fibronectin-coated nanotopographies with a vertical dimension of less than 5 nm influence cell adhesion. This rather interesting behavior is argued to originate from the more available fibronectin cell-binding domains observed on the hut structures. PMID:20443575

  2. Smooth Muscle Enriched Long Noncoding RNA (SMILR) Regulates Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ballantyne, Margaret D.; Pinel, Karine; Dakin, Rachel; Vesey, Alex T.; Diver, Louise; Mackenzie, Ruth; Garcia, Raquel; Welsh, Paul; Sattar, Naveed; Hamilton, Graham; Joshi, Nikhil; Dweck, Marc R.; Miano, Joseph M.; McBride, Martin W.; Newby, David E.; McDonald, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Background— Phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells from a contractile to a synthetic state is implicated in diverse vascular pathologies, including atherogenesis, plaque stabilization, and neointimal hyperplasia. However, very little is known about the role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) during this process. Here, we investigated a role for lncRNAs in vascular smooth muscle cell biology and pathology. Methods and Results— Using RNA sequencing, we identified >300 lncRNAs whose expression was altered in human saphenous vein vascular smooth muscle cells following stimulation with interleukin-1α and platelet-derived growth factor. We focused on a novel lncRNA (Ensembl: RP11-94A24.1), which we termed smooth muscle–induced lncRNA enhances replication (SMILR). Following stimulation, SMILR expression was increased in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, and was detected in conditioned media. Furthermore, knockdown of SMILR markedly reduced cell proliferation. Mechanistically, we noted that expression of genes proximal to SMILR was also altered by interleukin-1α/platelet-derived growth factor treatment, and HAS2 expression was reduced by SMILR knockdown. In human samples, we observed increased expression of SMILR in unstable atherosclerotic plaques and detected increased levels in plasma from patients with high plasma C-reactive protein. Conclusions— These results identify SMILR as a driver of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and suggest that modulation of SMILR may be a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce vascular pathologies. PMID:27052414

  3. Biodiesel from soybean promotes cell proliferation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gioda, Adriana; Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I; Amaral, Beatriz Silva; Encarnación-Medina, Jarline; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D

    2016-08-01

    Toxicological responses of exhaust emissions of biodiesel are different due to variation in methods of generation and the tested biological models. A chemical profile was generated using ICP-MS and GC-MS for the biodiesel samples obtained in Brazil. A cytotoxicity assay and cytokine secretion experiments were evaluated in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Cells were exposed to polar (acetone) and nonpolar (hexane) extracts from particles obtained from fuel exhaust: fossil diesel (B5), pure soybean biodiesel (B100), soybean biodiesel with additive (B100A) and ethanol additive (EtOH). Biodiesel and its additives exhibited higher organic and inorganic constituents on particles when compared to B5. The biodiesel extracts did not exert any toxic effect at concentrations 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100μgmL(-1). In fact quite the opposite, a cell proliferation effect induced by the B100 and B100A extracts is reported. A small increase in concentrations of inflammatory mediators (Interleukin-6, IL-6; and Interleukin-8, IL-8) in the medium of biodiesel-treated cells was observed, however, no statistical difference was found. An interesting finding indicates that the presence of metals in the nonpolar (hexane) fraction of biodiesel fuel (B100) represses cytokine release in lung cells. This was revealed by the use of the metal chelator. Results suggest that metals associated with biodiesel's organic constituents might play a significant role in molecular mechanisms associated to cellular proliferation and immune responses. PMID:27179667

  4. Myelin-phagocytosing macrophages modulate autoreactive T cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which macrophages play a central role. Initially, macrophages where thought to be merely detrimental in MS, however, recent evidence suggests that their functional phenotype is altered following myelin phagocytosis. Macrophages that have phagocytosed myelin may be less inflammatory and may exert beneficial effects. The presence of myelin-containing macrophages in CNS-draining lymph nodes and perivascular spaces of MS patients suggests that these cells are ideally positioned to exert an immune regulatory role. Therefore we evaluated in this study the effect of myelin-phagocytosing macrophages on lymphocyte reactivity. Methods Thioglycolate-elicited rat peritoneal macrophages were loaded with myelin and cocultured with myelin-basic protein (MBP) or ovalbumin (OVA) reactive lymphocytes. Lymphocyte proliferation was determined by CFSE-labeling. The role of nitric oxide in regulating lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by addition of an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase to the coculture. In vivo immune regulation was investigated by treating MBP- and OVA-immunized animals subcutaneously with myelin. Cognate antigen specific lymphocyte proliferation and nitric oxide production were determined 9d post-immunization. Results In this study we demonstrate that myelin-phagocytosing macrophages inhibit TCR-triggered lymphocyte proliferation in an antigen-independent manner. The observed immune suppression is mediated by an increase in NO production by myelin-phagocytosing macrophages upon contact with lymphocytes. Additionally, myelin delivery to primarily CD169+ macrophages in popliteal lymph nodes of OVA-immunized animals results in a reduced cognate antigen specific proliferation. In contrast to OVA-immunized animals, lymphocytes from MBP-immunized animals displayed an increased proliferation after stimulation with their cognate antigen

  5. TLR2 Activation Inhibits Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Eitan; Griffioen, Kathleen J.; Gen-Son, Tae; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Roberts, Nicholas J.; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Hutchison, Emmette; Cheng, Aiwu; Arumugam, Thiruma V.; Lathia, Justin D.; van Praag, Henriette; Mattson, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play essential roles in innate immunity, and increasing evidence indicates that these receptors are expressed in neurons, astrocytes and microglia in the brain, where they mediate responses to infection, stress and injury. To address the possibility that TLR2 heterodimer activation could affect progenitor cells in the developing brain, we analyzed the expression of TLR2 throughout the mouse cortical development, and assessed the role of TLR2 heterodimer activation in neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation. TLR2 mRNA and protein was expressed in the cortex in embryonic and early postnatal stages of development, and in cultured cortical NPC. While NPC from TLR2-deficient and wild type embryos had the same proliferative capacity, TLR2 activation by the synthetic bacterial lipopeptides Pam3CSK4 and FSL1, or low molecular weight hyaluronan, an endogenous ligand for TLR2, inhibited neurosphere formation in vitro. Intracerebral in utero administration of TLR2 ligands resulted in ventricular dysgenesis characterized by increased ventricle size, reduced proliferative area around the ventricles, increased cell density, an increase in PH3+ cells and a decrease in BrdU+ cells in the sub-ventricular zone. Our findings indicate that loss of TLR2 does not result in defects in cerebral development. However, TLR2 is expressed and functional in the developing telencephalon from early embryonic stages and infectious agent-related activation of TLR2 inhibits NPC proliferation. TLR2–mediated inhibition of NPC proliferation may therefore be a mechanism by which infection, ischemia and inflammation adversely affect brain development. PMID:20456021

  6. p21(WAF1) (/Cip1) limits senescence and acinar-to-ductal metaplasia formation during pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Grabliauskaite, Kamile; Hehl, Adrian B; Seleznik, Gitta M; Saponara, Enrica; Schlesinger, Kathryn; Zuellig, Richard A; Dittmann, Anja; Bain, Martha; Reding, Theresia; Sonda, Sabrina; Graf, Rolf

    2015-02-01

    Trans-differentiation of pancreatic acinar cells into ductal-like lesions, a process defined as acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), is observed in the course of organ regeneration following pancreatitis. In addition, ADM is found in association with pre-malignant PanIN lesions and correlates with an increased risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Human PDAC samples show down-regulation of p21(WAF1) (/Cip1) , a key regulator of cell cycle and cell differentiation. Here we investigated whether p21 down-regulation is implicated in controlling the early events of acinar cell trans-differentiation and ADM formation. p21-mediated regulation of ADM formation and regression was analysed in vivo during the course of cerulein-induced pancreatitis, using wild-type (WT) and p21-deficient (p21(-/-) ) mice. Biochemical and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate disease progression over 2 weeks of the disease and during a recovery phase. We found that p21 was strongly up-regulated in WT acinar cells during pancreatitis, while it was absent in ADM areas, suggesting that p21 down-regulation is associated with ADM formation. In support of this hypothesis, p21(-/-) mice showed a significant increase in number and size of metaplasia. In addition, p21 over-expression in acinar cells reduced ADM formation in vitro, suggesting that the protein regulates the metaplastic transition in a cell-autonomous manner. p21(-/-) mice displayed increased expression and relocalization of β-catenin both during pancreatitis and in the subsequent recovery phase. Finally, loss of p21 was accompanied by increased DNA damage and development of senescence. Our findings are consistent with a gate-keeper role of p21 in acinar cells to limit senescence activation and ADM formation during pancreatic regeneration. PMID:25212177

  7. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest of Mice H22 Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yiye; Ni, Yanbo; Yang, Jing; Lin, Xutao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Lixia

    2016-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that astaxanthin (ASX), a member of the carotenoid family, has strong biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immune-modulation activities. Previous studies have confirmed that ASX can effectively inhibit hepatoma cells in vitro. Material/Methods MTT was used to assay proliferation of mice H22 cells, and flow cytometry was used to determine apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of H22 cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, anti-tumor activity of ASX was observed in mice. Results ASX inhibited the proliferation of H22 cells, promoted cell necrosis, and induced cell cycle arrest in G2 phase in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions This study indicated that ASX can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in mice H22 hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27333866

  8. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest of Mice H22 Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yiye; Ni, Yanbo; Yang, Jing; Lin, Xutao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Lixia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is widely recognized that astaxanthin (ASX), a member of the carotenoid family, has strong biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immune-modulation activities. Previous studies have confirmed that ASX can effectively inhibit hepatoma cells in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS MTT was used to assay proliferation of mice H22 cells, and flow cytometry was used to determine apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of H22 cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, anti-tumor activity of ASX was observed in mice. RESULTS ASX inhibited the proliferation of H22 cells, promoted cell necrosis, and induced cell cycle arrest in G2 phase in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS This study indicated that ASX can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in mice H22 hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27333866

  9. Exosomes Secreted by Toxoplasma gondii-Infected L6 Cells: Their Effects on Host Cell Proliferation and Cell Cycle Changes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jae; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Song, Hyemi; Pyo, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Min-Kyung; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection induces alteration of the host cell cycle and cell proliferation. These changes are not only seen in directly invaded host cells but also in neighboring cells. We tried to identify whether this alteration can be mediated by exosomes secreted by T. gondii-infected host cells. L6 cells, a rat myoblast cell line, and RH strain of T. gondii were selected for this study. L6 cells were infected with or without T. gondii to isolate exosomes. The cellular growth patterns were identified by cell counting with trypan blue under confocal microscopy, and cell cycle changes were investigated by flow cytometry. L6 cells infected with T. gondii showed decreased proliferation compared to uninfected L6 cells and revealed a tendency to stay at S or G2/M cell phase. The treatment of exosomes isolated from T. gondii-infected cells showed attenuation of cell proliferation and slight enhancement of S phase in L6 cells. The cell cycle alteration was not as obvious as reduction of the cell proliferation by the exosome treatment. These changes were transient and disappeared at 48 hr after the exosome treatment. Microarray analysis and web-based tools indicated that various exosomal miRNAs were crucial for the regulation of target genes related to cell proliferation. Collectively, our study demonstrated that the exosomes originating from T. gondii could change the host cell proliferation and alter the host cell cycle. PMID:27180572

  10. Lysyl oxidase propeptide inhibits smooth muscle cell signaling and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtado, Paola A.; Vora, Siddharth; Sume, Siddika Selva; Yang, Dan; Hilaire, Cynthia St.; Guo Ying; Palamakumbura, Amitha H.; Schreiber, Barbara M.; Ravid, Katya; Trackman, Philip C.

    2008-02-01

    Lysyl oxidase is required for the normal biosynthesis and maturation of collagen and elastin. It is expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells, and its increased expression has been previously found in atherosclerosis and in models of balloon angioplasty. The lysyl oxidase propeptide (LOX-PP) has more recently been found to have biological activity as a tumor suppressor, and it inhibits Erk1/2 Map kinase activation. We reasoned that LOX-PP may have functions in normal non-transformed cells. We, therefore, investigated its effects on smooth muscle cells, focusing on important biological processes mediated by Erk1/2-dependent signaling pathways including proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression. In addition, we investigated whether evidence for accumulation of LOX-PP could be found in vivo in a femoral artery injury model. Recombinant LOX-PP was expressed and purified, and was found to inhibit primary rat aorta smooth muscle cell proliferation and DNA synthesis by more than 50%. TNF-{alpha}-stimulated MMP-9 expression and Erk1/2 activation were both significantly inhibited by LOX-PP. Immunohistochemistry studies carried out with affinity purified anti-LOX-PP antibody showed that LOX-PP epitopes were expressed at elevated levels in vascular lesions of injured arteries. These novel data suggest that LOX-PP may provide a feedback control mechanism that serves to inhibit properties associated with the development of vascular pathology.

  11. A highly selective telomerase inhibitor limiting human cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Damm, Klaus; Hemmann, Ulrike; Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Hauel, Norbert; Kauffmann, Iris; Priepke, Henning; Niestroj, Claudia; Daiber, Christine; Enenkel, Barbara; Guilliard, Bernd; Lauritsch, Ines; Müller, Elfriede; Pascolo, Emanuelle; Sauter, Gabriele; Pantic, Milena; Martens, Uwe M.; Wenz, Christian; Lingner, Joachim; Kraut, Norbert; Rettig, Wolfgang J.; Schnapp, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    Telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein enzyme maintaining the telomeres of eukaryotic chromosomes, is active in most human cancers and in germline cells but, with few exceptions, not in normal human somatic tissues. Telomere maintenance is essential to the replicative potential of malignant cells and the inhibition of telomerase can lead to telomere shortening and cessation of unrestrained proliferation. We describe novel chemical compounds which selectively inhibit telomerase in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of cancer cells with these inhibitors leads to progressive telomere shortening, with no acute cytotoxicity, but a proliferation arrest after a characteristic lag period with hallmarks of senescence, including morphological, mitotic and chromosomal aberrations and altered patterns of gene expression. Telomerase inhibition and telomere shortening also result in a marked reduction of the tumorigenic potential of drug-treated tumour cells in a mouse xenograft model. This model was also used to demonstrate in vivo efficacy with no adverse side effects and uncomplicated oral administration of the inhibitor. These findings indicate that potent and selective, non-nucleosidic telomerase inhibitors can be designed as novel cancer treatment modalities. PMID:11742973

  12. Proliferation of human mammary cancer cells exposed to 27-hydroxycholesterol

    PubMed Central

    CRUZ, PAMELA; TORRES, CRISTIAN; RAMÍREZ, MARÍA EUGENIA; EPUÑÁN, MARÍA JOSÉ; VALLADARES, LUIS EMILIO; SIERRALTA, WALTER DANIEL

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the possible mechanisms by which certain estradiol receptor (ER)-positive mammary tumor cells remain resistant to treatment with anti-estrogens or inhibitors of local estradiol (E2) production. To this end, we compared the proliferative effects on mammary cancer cells of the novel selective ER modulator 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHC) to those of E2, and evaluated their inhibition by ICI 182,780 (ICI). Analysis of the effects on the cell cycle of 27OHC and E2 in the absence or presence of ICI was conducted. In ER-positive mammary tumor cells, we detected the blocking of 27OHC proliferation-stimulatory activity by simvastatin, as well as the inhibition of E2-stimulated proliferation by an α-fetoprotein-derived cyclic nonapeptide. The effects reported herein may be extrapolated to infiltrating mammary cancer, where the activity of local macrophages may stimulate tumor growth. We suggest that increased breast cancer growth in obese patients may be related to increased 27OHC circulatory levels. PMID:22993572

  13. TWEAK induces angiogenesis and proliferation of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lynch, C N; Wang, Y C; Lund, J K; Chen, Y W; Leal, J A; Wiley, S R

    1999-03-26

    TWEAK is a recently described member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) ligand family whose transcripts are present in a wide variety of human tissues (Chicheportiche, Y., Bourdon, P. R., Xu, H., Hsu Y. M., Scott, H., Hession, C., Garcia, I., and Browning, J. L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 32401-32410). TWEAK is a weak inducer of apoptosis in transformed cells when administered with interferon-gamma or cycloheximide (Chicheportiche, Y., Bourdon, P. R., Xu, H., Hsu Y. M., Scott, H., Hession, C., Garcia, I., and Browning, J. L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 32401-32410; Masters, S. A., Sheridan, J. P., Pitti, R. M., Brush, A. G., and Ashkenazi, A. (1998) Curr. Biol. 8, 525-528) and also promotes IL-8 secretion in cultured cells. We report here that picomolar concentrations of recombinant soluble TWEAK induce proliferation in a variety of normal human endothelial cells and in aortic smooth muscle cells and reduce culture requirements for serum and growth factors. Blocking antibodies to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) do not significantly inhibit TWEAK-induced proliferation, indicating that TWEAK does not function indirectly through up-regulation of VEGF. Pellets containing TWEAK induce a strong angiogenic response when implanted in rat corneas, suggesting a role for TWEAK in vasculature formation in vivo. PMID:10085077

  14. Actein Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Migration in Human Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Wu, Jingdong; Guo, Qinghao

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteosarcoma is one of the most common malignant bone cancers worldwide. Although the traditional chemotherapies have made some progression in the past decades, the mortality of osteosarcoma in children and adolescent is very high. Herein, the role of actein in osteosarcoma was explored. Material/Methods Cell viability assay was performed in osteosarcoma cell lines 143B and U2OS. Colony formation analysis was included when cells were treated with different doses of actin. Cell cycle assay was conducted to further examine the role of actein. Cell apoptotic rate and the relative activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were detected in 143B and U2OS osteosarcoma cells. Moreover, transwell assays were used to explore the effects of actein on cell metastasis. Results Actein significantly inhibited osteosarcoma cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Actein also dramatically suppressed the colony formation ability in osteosarcoma143B and U2OS cells. It was revealed that osteosarcoma cells were arrested in G0/G1 phase in the cell cycle progression and induced to apoptosis by administration of actein. The activities of pro-apoptotic factors such as caspase-3 and caspase-9 were significantly increased by actein. Furthermore, administration of actein decreased cell migrated and invasive abilities in both 143B and U2OS cell lines. Conclusions Actein inhibits tumor growth by inducing cell apoptosis in osteosarcoma. The inhibitive roles of actein in cell proliferation, migration and invasion suggest that actein may serve as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:27173526

  15. Conditional IL-2 Gene Deletion: Consequences for T Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Popmihajlov, Zoran; Xu, Dong; Morgan, Heather; Milligan, Zoie; Smith, Kendall A.

    2012-01-01

    To explore the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in T cell proliferation, and to circumvent the IL-2 deficiency autoimmune syndrome of conventional il2 gene deletion, mice were created to allow conditional il2 gene deletion when treated with the estrogen analog, tamoxifen (TAM) as adults. Splenocytes from four different mouse strains, C57Bl/6 wild type (WT), conventional IL-2(−/−), TAM-treated Cre recombinase-negative (Cre−)/IL2fl/fl, and Cre recombinase-positive (Cre+)/IL2fl/fl, were activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, and monitored for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lymphocyte blastogenesis, aerobic glycolysis, BrdU incorporation into newly synthesized DNA, and CFSE dye dilution to monitor cell division. IL-2 production was monitored by quantitative ELISA and multiple additional cytokines were monitored by quantitative protein-bead arrays. Splenocytes from conventional IL-2(−/−) and TAM-treated Cre+ mice resulted in undetectable IL-2 production by ELISA, so that both strains were IL-2-deficient. As monitored by flow cytometry, activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+, and Cre− mice all underwent blastogenesis, whereas far fewer cells from conventional IL-2(−/−) mice did so. By comparison, only cells from IL-2 sufficient WT and Cre− mice switched to aerobic glycolysis as evidenced by a drop in media pH. Blastogenesis was mirrored by BrdU incorporation and CFSE dye dilution by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+, and Cre− mice, which were all equivalent, while proliferation of cells from conventional IL-2(−/−) mice was compromised. Splenocytes from IL-2 deficient conventional IL-2(−/−) mice produced low or undetectable other γc-chain cytokines (IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, and IL-21), whereas production of these γc-chain cytokines from IL-2-deficient conditional IL-2(−/−) Cre+ mice were comparable with WT and Cre− mice. These results indicate that CD4+ and CD8+ T cell blastogenesis cannot be attributable to IL-2 alone, but a switch

  16. The effect of stem cell factor on proliferation of human endometrial CD146+ cells

    PubMed Central

    Fayazi, Mehri; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Ziaei, Saeideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stem cell factor (SCF) is a transcriptional factor which plays crucial roles in normal proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of stem cells. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the proliferation effect of different concentrations of SCF on expansion of human endometrial CD146+ cells. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, total populations of isolated human endometrial suspensions after fourth passage were isolated by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) into CD146+ cells. Human endometrial CD146+ cells were karyotyped and tested for the effect of SCF on proliferation of CD146+ cells, then different concentrations of 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ng/ml was carried out and mitogens-stimulated endometrial CD146+ cells proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. Results: Chromosomal analysis showed a normal metaphase spread and 46XX karyotype. The proliferation rate of endometrial CD146+ cells in the presence of 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ng/ml SCF were 0.945±0.094, 0.962±0.151, 0.988±0.028, 1.679±0.012 and 1.129±0.145 respectively. There was a significant increase in stem/ stromal cell proliferation following in vitro treatment by 50 ng/ml than other concentrations of SCF (p=0.01). Conclusion: The present study suggests that SCF could have effect on the proliferation and cell survival of human endometrial CD146+ cells and it has important implications for medical sciences and cell therapies. PMID:27525327

  17. SIRT1 controls cell proliferation by regulating contact inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Elizabeth H; Dai, Yan

    2016-09-16

    Contact inhibition keeps cell proliferation in check and serves as a built-in protection against cancer development by arresting cell division upon cell-cell contact. Yet the complete mechanism behind this anti-cancer process remains largely unclear. Here we present SIRT1 as a novel regulator of contact inhibition. SIRT1 performs a wide variety of functions in biological processes, but its involvement in contact inhibition has not been explored to date. We used NIH3T3 cells, which are sensitive to contact inhibition, and H460 and DU145 cancer cells, which lack contact inhibition, to investigate the relationship between SIRT1 and contact inhibition. We show that SIRT1 overexpression in NIH3T3 cells overcomes contact inhibition while SIRT1 knockdown in cancer cells restores their lost contact inhibition. Moreover, we demonstrate that p27 protein expression is controlled by SIRT1 in contact inhibition. Overall, our findings underline the critical role of SIRT1 in contact inhibition and suggest SIRT1 inhibition as a potential strategy to suppress cancer cell growth by restoring contact inhibition. PMID:27514448

  18. Evodiamine inhibits the proliferation of leukemia cell line K562 by regulating peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengming; Zhang, Guili; Luan, Shuping; Luan, Caifu; Shao, Huiyuan; Dong, Fei; Liu, Xuena

    2016-08-01

    Evodiamine, a quinolone alkaloid, is one of the major bioactive compounds of Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham (Rutaceae). It exhibits excellent biological activities, especially the anticancer activity. This study aims to investigate the effect of evodiamine on the proliferation of leukemia cell line K562 and to explore the underlying mechanism. The effect of evodiamine on K562 cells proliferation was analyzed by trypan blue dye exclusion assay and MTT assay. The expression levels of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), cyclin D1, and p21 were detected by western blot assay. The results demonstrated that evodiamine inhibited the proliferation and decreased the viability of K562 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. 2-Chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide (GW9662) and/or PPARγ-siRNA pretreatment alleviated the cell growth suppression triggered by evodiamine. Meanwhile, evodiamine intervention elevated the expression of PPARγ in K562 cells, while pretreatment with GW9662 attenuated the enhanced upregulation of PPARγ expression induced by evodiamine. In addition, GW9662 and PPARγ-siRNA pretreatment also significantly attenuated the downregulation of the cell cycle control protein cyclin D1 and the upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 induced by evodiamine. In conclusion, PPARγ signaling pathway may involve in the proliferation inhibition of evodiamine on K562 cells via inhibiting cylcin D1 and stimulating of p21. PMID:26671528

  19. Proliferating cells in psoriatic dermis are comprised primarily of T cells, endothelial cells, and factor XIIIa+ perivascular dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morganroth, G.S.; Chan, L.S.; Weinstein, G.D.; Voorhees, J.J.; Cooper, K.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Determination of the cell types proliferating in the dermis of patients with psoriasis should identify those cells experiencing activation or responding to growth factors in the psoriatic dermal milieu. Toward that end, sections of formalin-fixed biopsies obtained from 3H-deoxyuridine (3H-dU)-injected skin of eight psoriatic patients were immunostained, followed by autoradiography. Proliferating dermal cells exhibit silver grains from tritium emissions. The identity of the proliferating cells could then be determined by simultaneous visualization with antibodies specific for various cell types. UCHL1+ (CD45RO+) T cells (recall antigen-reactive helper T-cell subset) constituted 36.6 +/- 3.1% (mean +/- SEM, n = 6) of the proliferating dermal cells in involved skin, whereas Leu 18+ (CD45RA+) T cells (recall antigen naive T-cell subsets) comprised only 8.7 +/- 1.5% (n = 6). The Factor XIIIa+ dermal perivascular dendritic cell subset (24.9 +/- 1.5% of proliferating dermal cells, n = 6) and Factor VIII+ endothelial cells represented the two other major proliferating populations in lesional psoriatic dermis. Differentiated tissue macrophages, identified by phase microscopy as melanophages or by immunostaining with antibodies to Leu M1 (CD15) or myeloid histiocyte antigen, comprised less than 5% of the proliferating population in either skin type. In addition to calculating the relative proportions of these cells to each other as percent, we also determined the density of cells, in cells/mm2 of tissue. The density of proliferating cells within these populations was increased in involved versus uninvolved skin: UCHL1+, 9.0 +/- 1.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.8 +/- 0.6 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor XIIIa+, 6.0 +/- 0.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.5 +/- 0.5 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor VIII+, 5.5 +/- 1.4 cells/mm2 versus 0.0 cells/mm2, p less than 0.05.

  20. Hyaluronan in aged collagen matrix increases prostate epithelial cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Damodarasamy, Mamatha; Vernon, Robert B.; Chan, Christina K.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Wight, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the prostate, which is comprised primarily of collagen, becomes increasingly disorganized with age, a property that may influence the development of hyperplasia and cancer. Collageous ECM extracted from the tails of aged mice exhibits many characteristics of collagen in aged tissues, including the prostate. When polymerized into a 3-dimensional (3D) gel, these collagen extracts can serve as models for the study of specific cell-ECM interactions. In the present study, we examined the behaviors of human prostatic epithelial cell lines representing normal prostate epithelial cells (PEC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-1), and adenocarcinoma (LNCaP) cultured in contact with 3D gels made from collagen extracts of young and aged mice. We found that proliferation of PEC, BPH-1, and LNCaP cells were all increased by culture on aged collagen gels relative to young collagen gels. In examining age-associated differences in the composition of the collagen extracts, we found that aged and young collagen had a similar amount of several collagen-associated ECM components, but aged collagen had a much greater content of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) than young collagen. The addition of HA (of similar size and concentration to that found in aged collagen extracts) to cells placed in young collagen elicited significantly increased proliferation in BPH-1 cells, but not in PEC or LNCaP cells, relative to controls not exposed to HA. Of note, histochemical analyses of human prostatic tissues showed significantly higher expression of HA in BPH and prostate cancer stroma relative to stroma of normal prostate. Collectively, these results suggest that changes in ECM involving increased levels of HA contribute to the growth of prostatic epithelium with aging. PMID:25124870

  1. Transferrin synthesis by small cell lung cancer cells acts as an autocrine regulator of cellular proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Vostrejs, M; Moran, P L; Seligman, P A

    1988-01-01

    Since transferrin is required for cellular proliferation, we investigated transferrin synthesis by a small cell lung cancer line (NCI-H510) that survives in serum-free media without added transferrin. Immunoassays for human transferrin demonstrated that these cells contained immunoreactive human transferrin. Immunofluorescence studies showed that the protein is expressed on the surface of cells, presumably bound to transferrin receptor. Media conditioned by NCI-H510 cells support proliferation of human leukemic cells that would not survive in media lacking transferrin. [35S]Methionine incorporation documented transferrin synthesis by NCI-H510 cells as well as three other small cell lines. Transferrin synthesis by NCI-H510 cells increased more than 10-fold when cells entered active phases of the cell cycle, and this increase was seen before large increases in transferrin-receptor expression. Further experiments examining the effects of agents that affect iron metabolism show that the addition of transferrin-iron or hemin to the media is associated with a more rapid initial rate of proliferation and lower rates of transferrin synthesis than control cells. Gallium salts, which inhibit iron uptake, inhibited proliferation of these cells. If the cells recovered from this effect, transferrin synthesis remained greatly increased compared to control. We conclude that transferrin synthesis by these malignant cells is ultimately related to an iron requirement for cellular proliferation. It appears that this synthesized transferrin acts as part of an important autocrine mechanism permitting proliferation of these cells, and perhaps permitting tumor cell growth in vivo in areas not well vascularized. Images PMID:2839550

  2. Epithelial Cell Proliferation Contributes to Airway Remodeling in Severe Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lance; E, Xueping; Tarsi, Jaime; Ramkumar, Thiruvamoor; Horiuchi, Todd K.; Cochran, Rebecca; DeMartino, Steve; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Hussain, Iftikhar; Holtzman, Michael J.; Castro, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Despite long-term therapy with corticosteroids, patients with severe asthma develop irreversible airway obstruction. Objectives: To evaluate if there are structural and functional differences in the airway epithelium in severe asthma associated with airway remodeling. Methods: In bronchial biopsies from 21 normal subjects, 11 subjects with chronic bronchitis, 9 subjects with mild asthma, and 31 subjects with severe asthma, we evaluated epithelial cell morphology: epithelial thickness, lamina reticularis (LR) thickness, and epithelial desquamation. Levels of retinoblastoma protein (Rb), Ki67, and Bcl-2 were measured, reflecting cellular proliferation and death. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to study cellular apoptosis. Measurements and Main Results: Airway epithelial and LR thickness was greater in subjects with severe asthma compared with those with mild asthma, normal subjects, and diseased control subjects (p = 0.009 and 0.033, respectively). There was no significant difference in epithelial desquamation between groups. Active, hypophosphorylated Rb expression was decreased (p = 0.002) and Ki67 was increased (p < 0.01) in the epithelium of subjects with severe asthma as compared with normal subjects, indicating increased cellular proliferation. Bcl-2 expression was decreased (p < 0.001), indicating decreased cell death suppression. There was a greater level of apoptotic activity in the airway biopsy in subjects with severe asthma as compared with the normal subjects using the TUNEL assay (p = 0.002), suggesting increased cell death. Conclusions: In subjects with severe asthma, as compared with subjects with mild asthma, normal subjects, and diseased control subjects, we found novel evidence of increased cellular proliferation in the airway contributing to a thickened epithelium and LR. These changes may contribute to the progressive decline in lung function and airway remodeling in patients with severe

  3. Ustilago maydis reprograms cell proliferation in maize anthers

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li; Kelliher, Timothy; Nguyen, Linda; Walbot, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis is a ubiquitous pathogen of maize (Zea mays), one of the world’s most important cereal crops. Infection by this smut fungus triggers tumor formation in aerial plant parts within which the fungus sporulates. Using confocal microscopy to track U. maydis infection on corn anthers through 7 dpi (days post-injection), we found that U. maydis is located on the epidermis on the first two days and by 3 dpi has reached all anther lobe cell types. Fungal infection can alter cell fate specification events, cell division patterns, host cell expansion, and host cell senescence depending on the developmental stage and cell type. Fungal impacts on tassel and plant growth were also quantified. Transcriptome profiling using a dual organism microarray identified thousands of anther genes affected by fungal infection 3 dpi during the cell fate specification and rapid cell proliferation phases of anther development. 4147 (17%) of anther-expressed genes were altered by infection, 2018 fungal genes were expressed in anthers, and 206 fungal secretome genes may be anther-specific. The results confirm that U. maydis deploys distinctive genes to cause disease in specific maize organs and begins to chart the mechanisms by which the host plant is manipulated to generate a tumor. PMID:23795972

  4. RNA interference targeting raptor inhibits proliferation of gastric cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, William Ka Kei; Lee, Chung Wa; Cho, Chi Hin; Chan, Francis Ka Leung; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu

    2011-06-10

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is dysregulated in gastric cancer. The biologic function of mTORC1 in gastric carcinogenesis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that disruption of mTORC1 function by RNA interference-mediated downregulation of raptor substantially inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation through induction of G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-phase cell cycle arrest. The anti-proliferative effect was accompanied by concomitant downregulation of activator protein-1 and upregulation of Smad2/3 transcriptional activities. In addition, the expression of cyclin D{sub 3} and p21{sup Waf1}, which stabilizes cyclin D/cdk4 complex for G{sub 1}-S transition, was reduced by raptor knockdown. In conclusion, disruption of mTORC1 inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation through multiple pathways. This discovery may have an implication in the application of mTORC1-directed therapy for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  5. Regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis by bioactive lipid mediators.

    PubMed

    Clària, Joan

    2006-11-01

    Bioactive lipid mediators are increasingly being recognized as important endogenous regulators of cell activation, signaling, apoptosis and proliferation. Most of these lipid mediators are originated from cleavage of constituents of cellular membranes under the activity of phospholipases and sphingomyelinases. One of the major cascades of bioactive lipid mediator production involves the release of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids followed by the formation of eicosanoids (i.e. prostaglandins, leukotrienes and lipoxins). These biologically active metabolites of arachidonic acid are emerging as key regulators of cell proliferation and neo-angiogenesis and agents that specifically target these lipid mediators are being investigated as potential anticancer drugs. On the other hand, the lysophospholipid family, which includes members of the sphingomyelin-ceramide-sphingosine-1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid subfamilies, has evolved as an important group of lipid signaling molecules implicated in cellular differentiation, cell growth and apoptosis. This article reviews the most recent patents in this field of research, covering the following strategies based on the modulation of bioactive lipid mediators: (1) prostaglandin H synthase-2 inhibitors, (2) lipoxin analogs and aspirin-triggered lipid mediators, and (3) lysophosphatidic acid and other lysophospholipids. PMID:18221047

  6. Sertoli cells promote proliferation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in co-culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fenxi; Lu, Ming; Liu, Hengxing; Ren, Tongming; Miao, Yingying; Wang, Jingjing

    2016-05-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a major source for cell transplantation. The proliferative ability of BMSCs is an important determinant of the efficiency of transplant therapy. Sertoli cells are "nurse" cells for development of sperm cells. Our recent study showed that Sertoli cells promoted proliferation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) in co-culture. Studies by other groups also showed that Sertoli cells promoted growth of endothelial cells and neural stem cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of Sertoli cells on proliferation of BMSCs. Our results showed that Sertoli cells in co-culture significantly enhanced proliferation of BMSCs (P < 0.01). Moreover, co-culture with Sertoli cells also markedly increased mRNA and/or protein expressions of Mdm2, p-Akt and Cyclin D1, and decreased p53 expression in BMSCs (P < 0.01 or < 0.05). These findings indicate that Sertoli cells have the potential to enhance proliferation of BMSCs. PMID:27319049

  7. Ultrasound fails to induce proliferation of human brain and mouse endothelial cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodemer, Claus; Jenne, Jürgen; Fatar, Marc; Hennerici, Michael G.; Meairs, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that ultrasound (US) is capable of inducing angiogenesis. There is no information, however, on whether ultrasound can induce proliferation of brain endothelial cells. We therefore explored the angiogenic potential of ultrasound on a novel immortalised human brain endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) and on mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEND3). Ultrasound failed to enhance cell proliferation in both cell lines at all acoustic pressures studied. Endothelial cell damage occurred at 0.24 MPa with significantly slower proliferation. Cells growing in Opticell{trade mark, serif} dishes did not show damage or reduced proliferation at these pressures.

  8. Alveolar mechanics using realistic acinar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Haribalan; Lin, Ching-Long; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2009-11-01

    Accurate modeling of the mechanics in terminal airspaces of the lung is desirable for study of particle transport and pathology. The flow in the acinar region is traditionally studied by employing prescribed boundary conditions to represent rhythmic breathing and volumetric expansion. Conventional models utilize simplified spherical or polygonal units to represent the alveolar duct and sac. Accurate prediction of flow and transport characteristics may require geometries reconstructed from CT-based images and serve to understand the importance of physiologically realistic representation of the acinus. In this effort, we present a stabilized finite element framework, supplemented with appropriate boundary conditions at the alveolar mouth and septal borders for simulation of the alveolar mechanics and the resulting airflow. Results of material advection based on Lagrangian tracking are presented to complete the study of transport and compare the results with simplified acinar models. The current formulation provides improved understanding and realization of a dynamic framework for parenchymal mechanics with incorporation of alveolar pressure and traction stresses.

  9. Increased secretion of insulin and proliferation of islet {beta}-cells in rats with mesenteric lymph duct ligation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagino, Ko; Yokozawa, Junji; Sasaki, Yu; Matsuda, Akiko; Takeda, Hiroaki; Kawata, Sumio

    2012-08-24

    min (more than 1.4-fold; p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that the ratios of {beta}-cell area/acinar cell area and {beta}-cell area/islet area, and also {beta}-cell proliferation, were significantly higher in the ligation group than in the sham group (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). The insulin content per unit wet weight of pancreas was also significantly increased in the ligation group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In rats with ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct, insulin secretion during the OGTT or IVGTT was higher, and the insulin content and {beta}-cell proliferation in the pancreas were also increased. Our data show that mesenteric lymph duct flow has a role in glucose metabolism.

  10. CCL5 activation of CCR5 regulates cell metabolism to enhance proliferation of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Darrin; Rahbar, Ramtin; Fish, Eleanor N.

    2016-01-01

    In earlier studies, we showed that CCL5 enhances proliferation and survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in an mTOR-dependent manner and we provided evidence that, for T cells, CCL5 activation of CCR5 results in increased glycolysis and enhanced ATP production. Increases in metabolic activity of cancer cells, specifically increased glycolytic activity and increased expression of glucose transporters, are associated with tumour progression. In this report, we provide evidence that CCL5 enhances the proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7) and mouse mammary tumour cells (MMTV-PyMT), mediated by CCR5 activation. Concomitant with enhanced proliferation we show that CCL5 increases cell surface expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1, and increases glucose uptake and ATP production by these cells. Blocking CCL5-inducible glucose uptake abrogates the enhanced proliferation induced by CCL5. We provide evidence that increased glucose uptake is associated with enhanced glycolysis, as measured by extracellular acidification. Moreover, CCL5 enhances the invasive capacity of these breast cancer cells. Using metabolomics, we demonstrate that the metabolic signature of CCL5-treated primary mouse mammary tumour cells reflects increased anabolic metabolism. The implications are that CCL5–CCR5 interactions in the tumour microenvironment regulate metabolic events, specifically glycolysis, to promote tumour proliferation and invasion. PMID:27335323

  11. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen in Premalignancy and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poosarla, Chandrashekar; Ramesh, K.; Gudiseva, Swetha; Bala, Sekar; Sundar, Murali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cancer has multifactorial aetiology and is a multistep process involving initiation, promotion and tumour progression. Cellular proliferation is one of the important indicators for the biologic aggressiveness of a malignant lesion. The dysregulated proliferation may be a significant change to determine the potential prognosis of various malignant tumours. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as an indicator for clinical aggressiveness in oral premalignancy and squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods A total of 50 blocks were taken from the Department of Oral Pathology which was diagnosed previously histopathologically. It comprised of normal oral mucosa (10), dysplasia (10) and grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (30) of patients between the age group of 40–60 years. From each block, sections of 4 micro metre thicknesses were prepared and placed on poly- L lysine coated slides. These sections were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal proliferating cell antibody (PC10). The stained slides were evaluated by a single examiner for cell count. Results A comparison between study groups and controls showed a probability value (p-value) < 0.05. Significant increase in the proliferative index from the normal to oral squamous cell carcinoma was noticed. Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma showed maximum proliferative index followed by moderately differentiated, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, dysplasia and normal mucosa. Conclusion Present study concluded that PCNA index can be used to assess the proliferation and aggressiveness in dysplasia and different grades oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26266215

  12. CCL5 activation of CCR5 regulates cell metabolism to enhance proliferation of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Darrin; Rahbar, Ramtin; Fish, Eleanor N

    2016-06-01

    In earlier studies, we showed that CCL5 enhances proliferation and survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in an mTOR-dependent manner and we provided evidence that, for T cells, CCL5 activation of CCR5 results in increased glycolysis and enhanced ATP production. Increases in metabolic activity of cancer cells, specifically increased glycolytic activity and increased expression of glucose transporters, are associated with tumour progression. In this report, we provide evidence that CCL5 enhances the proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7) and mouse mammary tumour cells (MMTV-PyMT), mediated by CCR5 activation. Concomitant with enhanced proliferation we show that CCL5 increases cell surface expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1, and increases glucose uptake and ATP production by these cells. Blocking CCL5-inducible glucose uptake abrogates the enhanced proliferation induced by CCL5. We provide evidence that increased glucose uptake is associated with enhanced glycolysis, as measured by extracellular acidification. Moreover, CCL5 enhances the invasive capacity of these breast cancer cells. Using metabolomics, we demonstrate that the metabolic signature of CCL5-treated primary mouse mammary tumour cells reflects increased anabolic metabolism. The implications are that CCL5-CCR5 interactions in the tumour microenvironment regulate metabolic events, specifically glycolysis, to promote tumour proliferation and invasion. PMID:27335323

  13. IRF5 promotes the proliferation of human thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in the response to viral infection and in the stimulation of the immune system. Moreover, multiple studies have demonstrated that it negatively regulates cell growth and oncogenesis, favoring cell differentiation and apoptosis. Thyroid carcinoma represents 98% of all thyroid malignancies and has shown a steady increase in incidence in both the USA and western European countries. Findings We investigated the expression, localization and function of IRF5 in thyroid cancer cells and found that it is highly expressed in both primary and immortalized thyroid carcinomas but not in normal thyrocytes. IRF5 levels were variably modulated by Interferon alpha but IRF5 only localized in the cytoplasmic compartment, thus failing to induce p21 expression as previously reported in different cell models. Furthermore, ectopic IRF5 increased both the proliferation rate and the clonogenic potential of malignant thyroid cells, protecting them from the cytotoxic effects of DNA-damaging agents. These results were directly attributable to IRF5, as demonstrated by the reduction in colony-forming ability of thyroid cancer cells after IRF5 silencing. An IRF5-dependent induction of endogenous B-Raf observed in all thyroid cancer cells might contribute to these unexpected effects. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in thyroid malignancies, IRF5 displays tumor-promoting rather than tumor-suppressor activities. PMID:22507190

  14. Supporting aspartate biosynthesis is an essential function of respiration in proliferating cells

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Lucas B.; Gui, Dan Y.; Hosios, Aaron M.; Bush, Lauren N.; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial respiration is important for cell proliferation, however the specific metabolic requirements fulfilled by respiration to support proliferation have not been defined. Here we show that a major role of respiration in proliferating cells is to provide electron acceptors for aspartate synthesis. This finding is consistent with the observation that cells lacking a functional respiratory chain are auxotrophic for pyruvate, which serves as an exogenous electron acceptor. Further, the pyruvate requirement can be fulfilled with an alternative electron acceptor, alpha-ketobutyrate, which provides cells neither carbon nor ATP. Alpha-ketobutyrate restores proliferation when respiration is inhibited, suggesting that an alternative electron acceptor can substitute for respiration to support proliferation. We find that electron acceptors are limiting for producing aspartate, and supplying aspartate enables proliferation of respiration deficient cells in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors. Together, these data argue a major function of respiration in proliferating cells is to support aspartate synthesis. PMID:26232225

  15. Supporting Aspartate Biosynthesis Is an Essential Function of Respiration in Proliferating Cells.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Lucas B; Gui, Dan Y; Hosios, Aaron M; Bush, Lauren N; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Vander Heiden, Matthew G

    2015-07-30

    Mitochondrial respiration is important for cell proliferation; however, the specific metabolic requirements fulfilled by respiration to support proliferation have not been defined. Here, we show that a major role of respiration in proliferating cells is to provide electron acceptors for aspartate synthesis. This finding is consistent with the observation that cells lacking a functional respiratory chain are auxotrophic for pyruvate, which serves as an exogenous electron acceptor. Further, the pyruvate requirement can be fulfilled with an alternative electron acceptor, alpha-ketobutyrate, which provides cells neither carbon nor ATP. Alpha-ketobutyrate restores proliferation when respiration is inhibited, suggesting that an alternative electron acceptor can substitute for respiration to support proliferation. We find that electron acceptors are limiting for producing aspartate, and supplying aspartate enables proliferation of respiration deficient cells in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors. Together, these data argue a major function of respiration in proliferating cells is to support aspartate synthesis. PMID:26232225

  16. CD133-positive cells might be responsible for efficient proliferation of human meningioma cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hailiang; Gong, Ye; Mao, Ying; Xie, Qing; Zheng, Mingzhe; Wang, Daijun; Zhu, Hongda; Wang, Xuanchun; Chen, Hong; Chen, Xiancheng; Zhou, Liangfu

    2012-01-01

    Owing to lack of appropriate model systems, investigations of meningioma biology have come to a stop. In this study, we developed a comprehensive digestion method and defined a culture system. Using this method and system, primary meningioma cells in conditioned suspension medium and a hypoxic environment could be amplified in spheres and were passaged for more than ten generations. Meningioma sphere cells were positive for meningioma cell markers and negative for markers of neural cell types. Importantly, we found the cells expressed the stem cell marker, CD133, but not nestin. All of the tumor sphere cell populations showed a slower degree of cell proliferation than that of human glioma cells and fetal neural stem cells (NSCs). Further studies showed that the proliferative rate was positively correlated with CD133 expression. The higher the CD133 expression, the faster the cell proliferation. With the increase in cell generations, the cell proliferation rate gradually slowed down, and CD133 expression also decreased. Single CD133(+) cells rather than CD133(-) cells could form spheres. Thus, the results above indicated that those cells expressing CD133 in spheres might be stem-like cells, which may be responsible for efficient amplification of human meningioma cells. Decreased expression of CD133 may lead to the failure of long-term passaging. PMID:22754374

  17. Signaling pathways implicated in hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bugarski, Diana; Krstic, Aleksandra; Mojsilovic, Slavko; Vlaski, Marija; Petakov, Marijana; Jovcic, Gordana; Stojanovic, Nevenka; Milenkovic, Pavle

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the signal transduction pathways associated with the clonal development of myeloid and erythroid progenitor cells. The contribution of particular signaling molecules of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and PI-3 kinase signaling to the growth of murine bone marrow colony forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and erythroid (burst forming unit-erythroid [BFU-E] and colony forming unit-erythroid [CFU-E]) progenitors was examined in studies performed in the presence or absence of specific signal transduction inhibitors. The results clearly pointed to different signal transducing intermediates that are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation depending on the cell lineage, as well as on the progenitors' maturity. Lineage-specific differences were obtained when chemical inhibitors specific for receptor- or nonreceptor-PTKs, as well as for the main groups of distinctly regulated MAPK cascades, were used because all of these compounds suppressed the growth of erythroid progenitors, with no major effects on myeloid progenitors. At the same time, differential involvement of MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK transduction pathway was observed in the proliferation and/or differentiation of early, BFU-E, and late, CFU-E, erythroid progenitor cells. The results also demonstrated that phosphatydylinositol (PI)-3 kinase and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcriptional factor were required for maintenance of both myeloid and erythroid progenitor cell function. Overall, the data obtained indicated that committed hematopoietic progenitors express a certain level of constitutive signaling activity that participates in the regulation of normal steady-state hematopoiesis and point to the importance of evaluating the impact of signal transduction inhibitors on normal bone marrow when used as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:17202596

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Eucker, Jan; Sterz, Jan; Krebbel, Holger; Zavrski, Ivana; Kaiser, Martin; Zang, Chuanbing; Heider, Ulrike; Jakob, Christian; Elstner, Elena; Sezer, Orhan

    2006-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, a nuclear receptor and transcription factor, and its natural and synthetic ligands have become a focus of novel approaches to induction of apoptosis in solid tumors and hematologic malignancies, including malignant B-lineage cells. The effect on mantle cell lymphoma, a subtype with dismal prognosis, has not yet been analyzed. We investigated the effect of 15-deoxy-delta-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), pioglitazone (PGZ) or rosiglitazone (RGZ) on human mantle cell lymphoma cell lines (GRANTA-519, Hbl-2 and JeKo-1). Mantle cell lymphoma cell lines exhibited a high expression of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma protein in Western blot analysis. MTT assays revealed anti-proliferative effects induced by both 15d-PGJ2, the natural activator of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, and PGZ and RGZ, synthetic Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands, in a dose-dependent manner. At a dose of 50 micromol/l, 15d-PGJ2 induced growth inhibition in all cell lines. The anti-proliferative effect of PGZ and RGZ was slightly lower. Induction of apoptosis was indicated by annexin V staining. At a dose of 50 micromol/l, 15d-PGJ2 led to apoptosis in all cell lines (87-99%) after 48 h of incubation. Again, the apoptotic effect with thiazolidinediones was slightly lower at the same dose level. This is the first study evaluating Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression and its therapeutic implications in human mantle cell lymphoma cells. Thiazolidinediones comprise anti-lymphoma activity in vitro and should be further explored for the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma. PMID:16926626

  19. Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Enhances Cell Proliferation of Human Gastric Cancer AGS Cells.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Sekimoto, Teruki; Ogura, Ayaka; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gasotransmitter, is endogenously generated by certain H2S synthesizing enzymes, including cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) from L-cysteine in the mammalian body. Several studies have shown that endogenous and exogenous H2S affects the proliferation of cancer cells, although the effects of H2S appear to vary with cell type, being either promotive or suppressive. In the present study, we determined whether endogenously formed H2S regulates proliferation in human gastric cancer AGS cells. CSE, but not CBS, was expressed in AGS cells. CSE inhibitors, DL-propargylglycine (PPG) and β-cyano-L-alanine (BCA), significantly suppressed the proliferation of AGS cells in a concentration-dependent manner. CSE inhibitors did not increase lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the same concentration range. The inhibitory effects of PPG and BCA on cell proliferation were reversed by repetitive application of NaHS, a donor of H2S. Interestingly, nuclear condensation and fragmentation were detected in AGS cells treated with PPG or BCA. These results suggest that endogenous H2S produced by CSE may contribute to the proliferation of gastric cancer AGS cells, most probably through anti-apoptotic actions. PMID:27150157

  20. Amlodipine inhibits cell proliferation via PKD1-related pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ohba, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Manabu; Radovanovic, Milena; Iino, Kenji; Ishida, Masaru; Tosa, Shinya; Ono, Kyoichi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2008-05-02

    Human coronary artery smooth muscle cell (hCASMC) proliferation is involved in the progression of coronary artery disease. Amlodipine, a widely used antihypertensive drug, exerts antiproliferative effects by increasing the expression of p21{sup (Waf1/Cip1)}. Polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) is also involved in cell cycle inhibition via p21{sup (Waf1/Cip1)} up-regulation. We clarified the involvement of PKD1-related signaling on hCASMCs. Cultured hCASMCs, which constitutively express PKD1, were stimulated with 5% serum. Amlodipine increased p21{sup (Waf1/Cip1)} expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner, resulting in reduced hCASMC proliferation. The inhibitory effect of amlodipine was mimicked by overexpression of PKD1 and was reversed by a dominant-negative version of PKD1 (R4227X). Immunoblot analysis showed that phosphorylated JAK2 was increased by amlodipine treatment or PKD1 overexpression. A luciferase assay revealed that the overexpression of PKD1 induced STAT1 enhancer activity. These data suggest that PKD1 contributes to the antiproliferative effect of amlodipine on hCASMCs via JAK/STAT signaling and p21{sup (Waf1/Cip1)} up-regulation.

  1. Cell adhesion and proliferation on polyethylene grafted with Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasálková, N. Slepičková; Slepička, P.; Kolská, Z.; Sajdl, P.; Bačáková, L.; Rimpelová, S.; Švorčík, V.

    2012-02-01

    Plasma treatment and subsequent Au nano-particles grafting of polyethylene (PE) lead to changes in surface morphology, roughness and wettability, significantly increasing the attractiveness of the material for cells. The PE samples were exposed to argon plasma. Plasma modified PE was chemically grafted by immersion to biphenyldithiol and consequently into solution of Au nano-particles. Changes in chemical structure of the modified PE were studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and electrokinetic analysis ( ζ-potential). The surface wettability of the modified PE samples was examined by measurement of the contact angle by standard goniometry. The surface morphology of the plasma modified PE and that grafted with Au nano-particles was studied by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The modified PE samples were seeded with rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and their adhesion and proliferation were studied. Chemically bounded biphenyldithiol increases the number of the incorporated gold nano-particles and changes sample surface properties. The presence of the biphenyldithiol and the gold nano-particles on the PE surface influences dramatically adhesion and proliferation of VSMCs.

  2. Effects of spaceflight on the proliferation of jejunal mucosal cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.; Moeller, C. L.; Sawyer, Heywood R.; Smirnov, K. L.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to test the hypothesis that the generalized, whole body decrease in synthetic activity due to microgravity conditions encountered during spaceflight would be demonstrable in cells and tissues characterized by a rapid rate of turnover. Jejunal mucosal cells were chosen as a model since these cells are among the most rapidly proliferating in the body. Accordingly, the percentage of mitotic cells present in the crypts of Lieberkuhn in each of 5 rats flown on the COSMOS 2044 mission were compared to the percentage of mitotic cells present in the crypts in rats included in each of 3 ground control groups (i.e., vivarium, synchronous and caudal-elevated). No significant difference (p greater than .05) was detected in mitotic indices between the flight and vivarium group. Although the ability of jejunal mucosal cells to divide by mitosis was not impaired in flight group, there was, however, a reduction in the length of villi and depth of crypts. The concommitant reduction in villus length and crypth depth in the flight group probably reflects changes in connective tissue components within the core of villi.

  3. Promoting Cell Proliferation Using Water Dispersible Germanium Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Bezuidenhout, Michael; Liu, Pai; Singh, Shalini; Kiely, Maeve

    2014-01-01

    Group IV Nanowires have strong potential for several biomedical applications. However, to date their use remains limited because many are synthesised using heavy metal seeds and functionalised using organic ligands to make the materials water dispersible. This can result in unpredicted toxic side effects for mammalian cells cultured on the wires. Here, we describe an approach to make seedless and ligand free Germanium nanowires water dispersible using glutamic acid, a natural occurring amino acid that alleviates the environmental and health hazards associated with traditional functionalisation materials. We analysed the treated material extensively using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), High resolution-TEM, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Using a series of state of the art biochemical and morphological assays, together with a series of complimentary and synergistic cellular and molecular approaches, we show that the water dispersible germanium nanowires are non-toxic and are biocompatible. We monitored the behaviour of the cells growing on the treated germanium nanowires using a real time impedance based platform (xCELLigence) which revealed that the treated germanium nanowires promote cell adhesion and cell proliferation which we believe is as a result of the presence of an etched surface giving rise to a collagen like structure and an oxide layer. Furthermore this study is the first to evaluate the associated effect of Germanium nanowires on mammalian cells. Our studies highlight the potential use of water dispersible Germanium Nanowires in biological platforms that encourage anchorage-dependent cell growth. PMID:25237816

  4. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) : ringmaster of the genome.

    SciTech Connect

    Paunesku, T.; Mittal, S.; Protic, M.; Oryhon, J.; Korolev, S. V.; Joachimiak, A.; Woloschak, G. E.; Biosciences Division

    2001-10-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein is one of the central molecules responsible for decisions of life and death of the cell. The PCNA gene is induced by p53, while PCNA protein interacts with p53-controlled proteins Gadd45, MyD118, CR6 and, most importantly, p21, in the process of deciding cell fate. If PCNA protein is present in abundance in the cell in the absence of p53, DNA replication occurs. On the other hand, if PCNA protein levels are high in the cell in the presence of p53, DNA repair takes place. If PCNA is rendered non-functional or is absent or present in low quantities in the cell, apoptosis occurs. The evolution from prokaryotes to eukaryotes involved a change of function of PCNA from a 'simple' sliding clamp protein of the DNA polymerase complex to an executive molecule controlling critical cellular decision pathways. The evolution of multicellular organisms led to the development of multicellular processes such as differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. PCNA, already an essential molecule in the life of single cellular organisms, then became a protein critical for the survival of multicellular organisms.

  5. NSA2, a novel nucleolus protein regulates cell proliferation and cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Heyu; Ma, Xi; Shi, Taiping; Song, Quansheng; Zhao, Hongshan; Ma, Dalong

    2010-01-01

    NSA2 (Nop seven-associated 2) was previously identified in a high throughput screen of novel human genes associated with cell proliferation, and the NSA2 protein is evolutionarily conserved across different species. In this study, we revealed that NSA2 is broadly expressed in human tissues and cultured cell lines, and located in the nucleolus of the cell. Both of the putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs) of NSA2, also overlapped with nucleolar localization signals (NoLSs), are capable of directing nucleolar accumulation. Moreover, over-expression of the NSA2 protein promoted cell growth in different cell lines and regulated the G1/S transition in the cell cycle. SiRNA silencing of the NSA2 transcript attenuated the cell growth and dramatically blocked the cell cycle in G1/S transition. Our results demonstrated that NSA2 is a nucleolar protein involved in cell proliferation and cell cycle regulation.

  6. XB130 promotes bronchioalveolar stem cell and Club cell proliferation in airway epithelial repair and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Toba, Hiroaki; Wang, Yingchun; Bai, Xiaohui; Zamel, Ricardo; Cho, Hae-Ra; Liu, Hongmei; Lira, Alonso; Keshavjee, Shaf; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Proliferation of bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) is essential for epithelial repair. XB130 is a novel adaptor protein involved in the regulation of epithelial cell survival, proliferation and migration through the PI3K/Akt pathway. To determine the role of XB130 in airway epithelial injury repair and regeneration, a naphthalene-induced airway epithelial injury model was used with XB130 knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates. In XB130 KO mice, at days 7 and 14, small airway epithelium repair was significantly delayed with fewer number of Club cells (previously called Clara cells). CCSP (Club cell secreted protein) mRNA expression was also significantly lower in KO mice at day 7. At day 5, there were significantly fewer proliferative epithelial cells in the KO group, and the number of BASCs significantly increased in WT mice but not in KO mice. At day 7, phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, and the p85α subunit of PI3K was observed in airway epithelial cells in WT mice, but to a much lesser extent in KO mice. Microarray data also suggest that PI3K/Akt-related signals were regulated differently in KO and WT mice. An inhibitory mechanism for cell proliferation and cell cycle progression was suggested in KO mice. XB130 is involved in bronchioalveolar stem cell and Club cell proliferation, likely through the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway. PMID:26360608

  7. Effects of LG268 on Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis of NB4 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ting; Zhong, Liang; Gan, Liu-Gen; Xiao, Chun-Lan; Shan, Zhi-Ling; Yang, Rong; Song, Hao; Li, Liu; Liu, Bei-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effect of LG100268 (LG268) on cell proliferation and apoptosis in NB4 cells. Methods: NB4 cells were treated with LG268 for 24 h or 48 h. The effect of LG268 on cell proliferation was assessed by the CCK-8 assay and colony-forming assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated by flow cytometry. The protein expression levels of Survivin, PARP, c-Myc, cyclin D1, ERK, p-ERK, p38 MAPK, and p- p38 MAPK were detected by western blot. Results: We found that LG268 inhibited the proliferation of NB4 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis showed that LG268 accelerated apoptosis in NB4 cells in a time- dependent manner and that LG268 treatment led to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Moreover, LG268 significantly decreased the protein levels of Survivin, c-Myc, and cyclinD1. Cleaved PARP was observed in the LG268 treatment group but not in the control group. In addition, LG268 increased the phosphorylation level of p38 MAPK and decreased the phosphorylation level of ERK. Conclusions: LG268 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in NB4 cells. PMID:27429588

  8. Predators inhibit brain cell proliferation in natural populations of electric fish, Brachyhypopomus occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Kent D; Tran, Alex; Ragazzi, Michael A; Krahe, Rüdiger; Salazar, Vielka L

    2016-02-10

    Compared with laboratory environments, complex natural environments promote brain cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Predators are one important feature of many natural environments, but, in the laboratory, predatory stimuli tend to inhibit brain cell proliferation. Often, laboratory predatory stimuli also elevate plasma glucocorticoids, which can then reduce brain cell proliferation. However, it is unknown how natural predators affect cell proliferation or whether glucocorticoids mediate the neurogenic response to natural predators. We examined brain cell proliferation in six populations of the electric fish, Brachyhypopomus occidentalis, exposed to three forms of predator stimuli: (i) natural variation in the density of predatory catfish; (ii) tail injury, presumably from predation attempts; and (iii) the acute stress of capture. Populations with higher predation pressure had lower density of proliferating (PCNA+) cells, and fish with injured tails had lower proliferating cell density than those with intact tails. However, plasma cortisol did not vary at the population level according to predation pressure or at the individual level according to tail injury. Capture stress significantly increased cortisol, but only marginally decreased cell proliferation. Thus, it appears that the presence of natural predators inhibits brain cell proliferation, but not via mechanisms that depend on changes in basal cortisol levels. This study is the first demonstration of predator-induced alteration of brain cell proliferation in a free-living vertebrate. PMID:26842566

  9. Crocin inhibits cell proliferation and enhances cisplatin and pemetrexed chemosensitivity in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuangshuang; Zhao, Shuang; Wang, Xinxing; Zhang, Luo; Jiang, Enze; Gu, Yuan; Shangguan, Anna Junjie; Zhao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Crocin is the major constituent of saffron, a naturally derived Chinese medicine obtained from the dried stigma of the Crocus sativus flower. It has a variety of pharmacological effects, including anti-oxidative, immunity enhancement, and anti-tumorigenic properties; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. Methods To investigate the effects of crocin on proliferation and apoptosis of lung adenocarcinoma cells, lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 and SPC-A1, were treated with crocin at different dosages. Cell morphological changes were observed by light microscopy. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to detect the inhibitory effect of crocin on cell proliferation and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs. Flow cytometry was used to characterize cell apoptosis and cell cycle profiles. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect mRNA levels of apoptosis-related genes. Results Crocin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 and SPC-A1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, accompanied with an increase of G0/G1 arrest. Crocin significantly increased the mRNA levels of both p53 and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (Bax), while decreasing B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) mRNA expressions. In addition, crocin combined with either cisplatin or pemetrexed showed additive effects on cell proliferation in two lung cancer cell lines. Conclusions Crocin significantly suppressed the proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma cells and enhanced the chemo sensitivity of these cells to both cisplatin and pemetrexed. The actions of molecular mechanism could be through the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by p53 and Bax up-regulation but Bcl-2 down-regulation. PMID:26798587

  10. A Microfluidic Model of Biomimetically Breathing Pulmonary Acinar Airways.

    PubMed

    Fishler, Rami; Sznitman, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying respiratory flow characteristics in the pulmonary acinar depths and how they influence inhaled aerosol transport is critical towards optimizing drug inhalation techniques as well as predicting deposition patterns of potentially toxic airborne particles in the pulmonary alveoli. Here, soft-lithography techniques are used to fabricate complex acinar-like airway structures at the truthful anatomical length-scales that reproduce physiological acinar flow phenomena in an optically accessible system. The microfluidic device features 5 generations of bifurcating alveolated ducts with periodically expanding and contracting walls. Wall actuation is achieved by altering the pressure inside water-filled chambers surrounding the thin PDMS acinar channel walls both from the sides and the top of the device. In contrast to common multilayer microfluidic devices, where the stacking of several PDMS molds is required, a simple method is presented to fabricate the top chamber by embedding the barrel section of a syringe into the PDMS mold. This novel microfluidic setup delivers physiological breathing motions which in turn give rise to characteristic acinar air-flows. In the current study, micro particle image velocimetry (µPIV) with liquid suspended particles was used to quantify such air flows based on hydrodynamic similarity matching. The good agreement between µPIV results and expected acinar flow phenomena suggest that the microfluidic platform may serve in the near future as an attractive in vitro tool to investigate directly airborne representative particle transport and deposition in the acinar regions of the lungs. PMID:27214269

  11. SRCIN1 Suppressed Osteosarcoma Cell Proliferation and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Hu; Li, Xiaotao; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Chengbin; Zhu, Daling

    2016-01-01

    SRCIN1 (SRC kinase signalling inhibitor 1) is a new tumor suppressor gene. Previous studies showed that SRCIN1 played a tumor suppressor role in the development of lung cancer and breast cancer. However, the role of SRCIN1 in osteosarcoma is still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that SRCIN1 was downregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines compared with osteoblastic cell line. Moreover, SRCIN1 was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues compared with the adjacent tissues. Further investigation revealed that overexpression of SRCIN1 inhibited the osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 proliferation. This effect was confirmed by measuring the ki-67 and PCNA expression. SRCIN1 overexpression promoted E-cadherin expression and suppressed N-cadherin, Vimentin and Snail expression, suggesting that SRCIN1 overexpression inhibited EMT of the osteosarcoma cell. In addition, ectopic expression of SRCIN1 inhibited the MG-63 cell colony formation and invasion. These data suggested that SRCIN1 acted as a tumor suppressor gene in the development of osteosarcoma. PMID:27513473

  12. SRCIN1 Suppressed Osteosarcoma Cell Proliferation and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Hu; Li, Xiaotao; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Chengbin; Zhu, Daling

    2016-01-01

    SRCIN1 (SRC kinase signalling inhibitor 1) is a new tumor suppressor gene. Previous studies showed that SRCIN1 played a tumor suppressor role in the development of lung cancer and breast cancer. However, the role of SRCIN1 in osteosarcoma is still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that SRCIN1 was downregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines compared with osteoblastic cell line. Moreover, SRCIN1 was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues compared with the adjacent tissues. Further investigation revealed that overexpression of SRCIN1 inhibited the osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 proliferation. This effect was confirmed by measuring the ki-67 and PCNA expression. SRCIN1 overexpression promoted E-cadherin expression and suppressed N-cadherin, Vimentin and Snail expression, suggesting that SRCIN1 overexpression inhibited EMT of the osteosarcoma cell. In addition, ectopic expression of SRCIN1 inhibited the MG-63 cell colony formation and invasion. These data suggested that SRCIN1 acted as a tumor suppressor gene in the development of osteosarcoma. PMID:27513473

  13. Paclitaxel Impairs Adipose Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Choron, Rachel L.; Chang, Shaohua; Khan, Sophia; Villalobos, Miguel A.; Zhang, Ping; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.; Tulenko, Thomas N.; Liu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression have poor surgical site wound healing. Prior literature supports the use of human adipose-derived stem cell (hASC) lipoinjection to improve wound healing. It has been established multipotent hASCs facilitate neovascularization, accelerated epithelialization, and wound closure in animal models. While hASC wound therapy may benefit surgical cancer patients, the chemotherapeutic effects on hASCs are unknown. We hypothesized Paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, impairs hASC growth, multipotency, and induces apoptosis. METHODS hASCs were isolated and harvested from consented, chemotherapy and radiation naïve patients. Growth curves, MTT, and EdU assays measured cytotoxicity and proliferation. Oil-Red-O stain, Alazarin-Red stain, Matrigel tube-formation assay, and qPCR analyzed hASC differentiation. Annexin V assay measured apoptosis. Immunostaining and Western blot determined TNF-α expression. RESULTS hASCs were selectively more sensitive to Paclitaxel (0.01μM–30μM) than fibroblasts (p<0.05). After 12 days, Paclitaxel caused hASC growth arrest whereas control hASCs proliferated (p=0.006). Paclitaxel caused an 80.6% reduction in new DNA synthesis (p<0.001). Paclitaxel severely inhibited endothelial differentiation and capillary-like tube formation. Differentiation markers LPL (adipogenic), alkaline phosphatase (osteogenic), CD31 and vWF (endothelial) were significantly decreased (all: p<0.05) confirming Paclitaxel impaired differentiation. Paclitaxel was also found to induce apoptosis and TNF-α was up-regulated in Paclitaxel-treated hASCs (p<0.001). CONCLUSION Paclitaxel is more cytotoxic to hASCs than fibroblasts. Paclitaxel inhibits hASC proliferation, differentiation, and induces apoptosis, possibly through the TNF-α pathway. Paclitaxel’s severe inhibition of endothelial differentiation indicates neovascularization disruption, possibly causing poor wound healing in cancer patients

  14. Butyl benzyl phthalate suppresses the ATP-induced cell proliferation in human osteosarcoma HOS cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P.-S.; Chen, C.-Y.

    2010-05-01

    Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), an endocrine disruptor present in the environment, exerts its genomic effects via intracellular steroid receptors and elicits non-genomic effects by interfering with membrane ion-channel receptors. We previously found that BBP blocks the calcium signaling coupled with P2X receptors in PC12 cells (Liu and Chen, 2006). Osteoblast P2X receptors were recently reported to play a role in cell proliferation and bone remodeling. In this present study, the effects of BBP on ATP-induced responses were investigated in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. These receptors mRNA had been detected, named P2X4, P2X7, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y5, P2Y9, and P2Y11, in human osteosarcoma HOS cells by RT-PCR. The enhancement of cell proliferation and the decrease of cytoviability had both been shown to be coupled to stimulation via different concentrations of ATP. BBP suppressed the ATP-induced calcium influx (mainly coupled with P2X) and cell proliferation but not the ATP-induced intracellular calcium release (mainly coupled with P2Y) and cytotoxicity in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. Suramin, a common P2 receptor's antagonist, blocked the ATP-induced calcium signaling, cell proliferation, and cytotoxicity. We suggest that P2X is mainly responsible for cell proliferation, and P2Y might be partially responsible for the observed cytotoxicity. BBP suppressed the calcium signaling coupled with P2X, suppressing cell proliferation. Since the importance of P2X receptors during bone metastasis has recently become apparent, the possible toxic risk of environmental BBP during bone remodeling is a public problem of concern.

  15. GRP78 is required for cell proliferation and protection from apoptosis in chicken embryo fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, M; Choi, H; Lee, S I; Kim, J S; Park, M; Kim, K; Lee, S; Byun, S J

    2016-05-01

    Chicken serum has been suggested as a supplement to promote chicken cell proliferation and development. However, the molecular mechanisms by which chicken serum stimulates chicken cell proliferation remain unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of chicken serum supplementation on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) and DF-1 cell proliferation. We also sought to elucidate the molecular pathways involved in mediating the effects of chicken serum on fibroblasts and DF-1 cells by overexpression of chicken 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (chGRP78), which is important for cell growth and the prevention of apoptosis. Our data demonstrated that the addition of 5% chicken serum significantly enhanced fibroblast proliferation. Moreover, knockdown of chGRP78 using siRNA decreased fibroblast proliferation and increased apoptosis. Based on these results, we suggest that the chGRP78-mediated signaling pathway plays a critical role in chicken serum-stimulated fibroblast survival and anti-apoptosis. Therefore, our findings have important implications for the maintenance of chicken fibroblast cells through the inhibition of apoptosis and may lead to the development of new treatments for avian disease. PMID:26944959

  16. Chicken stem cell factor enhances primordial germ cell proliferation cooperatively with fibroblast growth factor 2

    PubMed Central

    MIYAHARA, Daichi; OISHI, Isao; MAKINO, Ryuichi; KURUMISAWA, Nozomi; NAKAYA, Ryuma; ONO, Tamao; KAGAMI, Hiroshi; TAGAMI, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    An in vitro culture system of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has been recently developed, but the growth factor involved in the proliferation of PGCs is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the growth effects of chicken stem cell factor (chSCF) on the in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. We established two feeder cell lines (buffalo rat liver cells; BRL cells) that stably express the putative secreted form of chSCF (chSCF1-BRL) and membrane bound form of chSCF (chSCF2-BRL). Cultured PGC lines were incubated on chSCF1 or chSCF2-BRL feeder cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and growth effects of each chSCF isoform were investigated. The in vitro proliferation rate of the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL at 20 days of culture was more than threefold higher than those cultured on chSCF1-BRL cells and more than fivefold higher than those cultured on normal BRL cells. Thus, use of chSCF2-BRL feeder layer was effective for in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. However, the acceleration of PGC proliferation on chSCF2-BRL was not observed without FGF2, suggesting that chSCF2 would act as a proliferation co-factor of FGF2. We transferred the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL cells to recipient embryos, generated germline chimeric chickens and assessed the germline competency of cultured PGCs by progeny test. Donor-derived progenies were obtained, and the frequency of germline transmission was 3.39%. The results of this study demonstrate that chSCF2 induces hyperproliferation of chicken PGCs retaining germline competency in vitro in cooperation with FGF2. PMID:26727404

  17. Extracellular Calcium Has Multiple Targets to Control Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Capiod, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Calcium channels and the two G-protein coupled receptors sensing extracellular calcium, calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and GPRC6a, are the two main means by which extracellular calcium can signal to cells and regulate many cellular processes including cell proliferation, migration and invasion of tumoral cells. Many intracellular signaling pathways are sensitive to cytosolic calcium rises and conversely intracellular signaling pathways can modulate calcium channel expression and activity. Calcium channels are undoubtedly involved in the former while the CaSR and GPRC6a are most likely to interfere with the latter. As for neurotransmitters, calcium ions use plasma membrane channels and GPCR to trigger cytosolic free calcium concentration rises and intracellular signaling and regulatory pathways activation. Calcium sensing GPCR, CaSR and GPRC6a, allow a supplemental degree of control and as for metabotropic receptors, they not only modulate calcium channel expression but they may also control calcium-dependent K+ channels. The multiplicity of intracellular signaling pathways involved, their sensitivity to local and global intracellular calcium increase and to CaSR and GPRC6a stimulation, the presence of membrane signalplex, all this confers the cells the plasticity they need to convert the effects of extracellular calcium into complex physiological responses and therefore determine their fate. PMID:27161228

  18. The nucleolus: a paradigm for cell proliferation and aging.

    PubMed

    Comai, L

    1999-12-01

    The nucleolus is the cellular site of ribosome biosynthesis. At this site, active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes are rapidly transcribed by RNA polymerase I (pol I) molecules. Recent advances in our understanding of the pol I transcription system have indicated that regulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis is a critical factor in cell growth. Importantly, the same signaling networks that control cell growth and proliferation and are deregulated in cancer appear to control pol I transcription. Therefore, the study of the biochemical basis for growth regulation of pol I transcription can provide basic information about the nuclear signaling network. Hopefully, this information may facilitate the search for drugs that can inhibit the growth of tumor cells by blocking pol I activation. In addition to its function in ribosome biogenesis, recent studies have revealed the prominent role of the nucleolus in cell senescence. These findings have stimulated a new wave of research on the functional relationship between the nucleolus and aging. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of some current topics in the area of nucleolus biology, and it has been written for a general readership. PMID:10585627

  19. YM155 suppresses cell proliferation and induces cell death in human adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryousei; Ito, Shigeki; Asahi, Maki; Ishida, Yoji

    2015-12-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy of peripheral T cells infected with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The prognosis of patients with aggressive ATL remains poor because ATL cells acquire resistance to conventional cytotoxic agents. Therefore, development of novel agents is urgently needed. We examined the effects of YM155, sepantronium bromide, on cell proliferation and survival of ATL or HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, S1T, MT-1, and MT-2. We found that YM155 suppressed cell proliferation in these cells and induced cell death in S1T and MT-1 cells. Both real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses showed suppression of survivin expression in S1T, MT-1, and MT-2 cells. In addition, we observed the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in YM155-treated S1T and MT-1 cells, indicating that YM155 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in these cells. To clarify the mechanism of drug tolerance of MT-2 cells in terms of YM155-induced cell death, we examined intracellular signaling status in these cells. We found that STAT3, STAT5, and AKT were constitutively phosphorylated in MT-2 cells but not in S1T and MT-1 cells. Treatment with YM155 combined with the STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 significantly suppressed cell proliferation compared to that with either YM155 or S3I-201 in MT-2 cells, indicating that STAT3 may play a role in tolerance of MT-2 cells to YM155 and that STAT3 may therefore be a therapeutic target for YM155-resistant ATL cells. These results suggest that YM155 presents potent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects via suppression of survivin in ATL cells in which STAT3 is not constitutively phosphorylated. YM155 merits further investigation as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for ATL. PMID:26547260

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells induce epithelial proliferation within the inflamed stomach.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Jessica M; Engevik, Amy; Feng, Rui; Xiao, Chang; Boivin, Gregory P; Li, Jing; Houghton, JeanMarie; Zavros, Yana

    2014-06-15

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sustain cancer cells by creating a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth. In particular, MSCs have been implicated in gastric cancer development. There is extensive evidence suggesting that Hedgehog signaling regulates tumor growth. However, very little is known regarding the precise roles of Hedgehog signaling and MSCs in tumor development within the stomach. The current study tests that hypothesis that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), secreted from MSCs, provides a proliferative stimulus for the gastric epithelium in the presence of inflammation. Red fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs transformed in vitro (stMSCs) were transduced with lentiviral constructs containing a vector control (stMSC(vect)) or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting the Shh gene (stMSC(ShhKO)). Gastric submucosal transplantation of wild-type MSCs (wtMSCs), wild-type MSCs overexpressing Shh (wtMSC(Shh)), stMSC(vect), or stMSC(ShhKO) cells in C57BL/6 control (BL/6) or gastrin-deficient (GKO) mice was performed and mice analyzed 30 and 60 days posttransplantation. Compared with BL/6 mice transplanted with wtMSC(Shh) and stMSC(vect) cells, inflamed GKO mice developed aggressive gastric tumors. Tumor development was not observed in mouse stomachs transplanted with wtMSC or stMSC(ShhKO) cells. Compared with stMSC(ShhKO)-transplanted mice, within the inflamed GKO mouse stomach, Shh-expressing stMSC(vect)- and wtMSC(Shh)-induced proliferation of CD44-positive cells. CD44-positive cells clustered in gland-like structures within the tumor stroma and were positive for Patched (Ptch) expression. We conclude that Shh, secreted from MSCs, provides a proliferative stimulus for the gastric epithelium that is associated with tumor development, a response that is sustained by chronic inflammation. PMID:24789207

  1. Targeting Homeostatic T Cell Proliferation to Control Beta-Cell Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Vignali, Debora; Monti, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    Immunomodulation of the autoreactive T cell response is considered a major strategy to control beta-cell autoimmunity, both in the natural history of type 1 diabetes and in islet transplantation, which can be affected by autoimmunity recurrence. So far, these strategies have had modest results, prompting efforts to define novel cellular and molecular targets to control autoreactive T cell expansion and activation. Novel findings highlighted the important role of the homeostatic cytokine interleukin-7 in inducing proliferation and differentiation of autoreactive T cell clones that causes beta-cell autoimmunity. In this review, we discuss recent evidences and novel findings on the role of IL-7 mediated homeostatic T cell proliferation in the process of beta-cell destruction and evidences of how targeting IL-7 and its receptor could be an innovative and effective strategy to control beta-cell autoimmunity. PMID:26983628

  2. Survivin expression is associated with lens epithelial cell proliferation and fiber cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mansergh, Fiona C.; Boulton, Michael E.; Gunhaga, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Survivin (Birc5) is the smallest member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family, which regulates the cell cycle/apoptosis balance. The purpose of this study was to examine Survivin expression in the embryonic chick lens, in chick lens epithelial cell cultures, and in the postnatal mouse lens. Methods Survivin expression was examined using a combination of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunocytochemistry. To correlate Survivin expression with the timing of proliferation, we determined the profile of cell proliferation in the developing lens using the cell cycle marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in quantitative western blotting and immunocytochemistry studies. We also examined the expression of PCNA and the extent of denucleation using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) of lentoids (lens fiber-like cells) during chick lens epithelial cell differentiation in vitro. Results At embryonic day (ED) 4, Survivin immunostaining was present in two pools in lens epithelial cells and fiber cells: cytoplasmic and nuclear. The nuclear staining became more pronounced as the lens epithelial cells differentiated into lens fiber cells. At ED12, Survivin staining was observed in lens fiber cell nuclei containing marginalized chromatin, indicative of early denucleation events. Using western blotting, Survivin expression peaked at ED6, diminishing thereafter. This profile of expression correlated with the events in chick lens epithelial cell cultures: i) increased Survivin expression was associated with an increase in PCNA staining up to day 6 of culture and ii) downregulation of Survivin expression at day 8 of culture was coincident with a dramatic decrease in PCNA staining and an increase in TdT-mediated biotin-dUTP nick-end labeling in lentoids. In early postnatal mouse lenses, Survivin and PCNA were highly expressed and decreased thereafter during

  3. Transient Inhibition of Cell Proliferation does not Compromise Self-Renewal of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruoxing; Guo, Yan-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have unlimited capacity for self-renewal and can differentiate into various cell types when induced. They also have an unusual cell cycle control mechanism driven by constitutively active cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks). In mouse ESCs (mESCs). It is proposed that the rapid cell proliferation could be a necessary part of mechanisms that maintain mESC self-renewal and pluripotency, but this hypothesis is not in line with the finding in human ESCs (hESCs) that the length of the cell cycle is similar to differentiated cells. Therefore, whether rapid cell proliferation is essential for the maintenance of mESC state remains unclear. We provide insight into this uncertainty through chemical intervention of mESC cell cycle. We report here that inhibition of Cdks with olomoucine II can dramatically slow down cell proliferation of mESCs with concurrent down-regulation of cyclin A, B and E, and the activation of the Rb pathway. However, mESCs display can recover upon the removal of olomoucine II and are able to resume normal cell proliferation without losing self-renewal and pluripotency, as demonstrated by the expression of ESC markers, colony formation, embryoid body formation, and induced differentiation. We provide a mechanistic explanation for these observations by demonstrating that Oct4 and Nanog, two major transcription factors that play critical roles in the maintenance of ESC properties, are up-regulated via de novo protein synthesis when the cells are exposed to olomoucine II. Together, our data suggest that short-term inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise the basic properties of mESCs. PMID:22705123

  4. Cells, cancer, and rare events: Homeostatic metastability in stochastic nonlinear dynamical models of skin cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Patrick B.

    2009-09-01

    A recently proposed model for skin cell proliferation [E. Clayton , Nature (London) 446, 185 (2007)] is extended to incorporate mitotic autoregulation, and hence homeostasis as a fixed point of the dynamics. Unlimited cell proliferation in such a model can be viewed as a model for carcinogenesis. One way in which this can arise is homeostatic metastability, in which the cell populations escape from the homeostatic basin of attraction by a large but rare stochastic fluctuation. Such an event can be viewed as the final step in a multistage model of carcinogenesis. Homeostatic metastability offers a possible explanation for the peculiar epidemiology of lung cancer in ex-smokers.

  5. Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 in Odontoblastic Cells Derived from Ips Cells: Unique Proliferation Response as Odontoblastic Cells Derived from ES Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hiyama, Taiki; Ozeki, Nobuaki; Mogi, Makio; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Kawai, Rie; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Ayami; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 accelerates wound healing following dental pulp injury. In addition, we reported that a proinflammatory cytokine mixture (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon-γ) induced MMP-3 activity in odontoblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, suggesting that MMP-3 plays a potential unique physiological role in wound healing and regeneration of dental pulp in odontoblast-like cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that upregulation of MMP-3 activity by IL-1β promotes proliferation and apoptosis of purified odontoblast-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) and ES cells. Each odontoblast-like cell was isolated and incubated with different concentrations of IL-1β. MMP-3 mRNA and protein expression were assessed using RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. MMP-3 activity was measured using immunoprecipitation and a fluorescence substrate. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using ELISA for BrdU and DNA fragmentation, respectively. siRNA was used to reduce MMP-3 transcripts in these cells. Treatment with IL-1β increased MMP-3 mRNA and protein levels, and MMP-3 activity in odontoblast-like cells. Cell proliferation was found to markedly increase with no changes in apoptosis. Endogenous tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 were constitutively expressed during all experiments. The exocytosis inhibitor, Exo1, potently suppressed the appearance of MMP-3 in the conditioned medium. Treatment with siRNA against MMP-3 suppressed an IL-1β-induced increase in MMP-3 expression and activity, and also suppressed cell proliferation, but unexpectedly increased apoptosis in these cells (P<0.05). Exogenous MMP-3 was found to induce cell proliferation in odontoblast-like cells derived from iPS cells and ES cells. This siRNA-mediated increase in apoptosis could be reversed with exogenous MMP-3 stimulation (P<0.05). Taken

  6. Folic Acid Supplementation Stimulates Notch Signaling and Cell Proliferation in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Huang, Guo-wei; Zhang, Xu-mei; Ren, Da-lin; X. Wilson, John

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of folic acid supplementation on the Notch signaling pathway and cell proliferation in rat embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs). The NSCs were isolated from E14–16 rat brain and grown as neurospheres in serum-free suspension culture. Individual cultures were assigned to one of 3 treatment groups that differed according to the concentration of folic acid in the medium: Control (baseline folic acid concentration of 4 mg/l), low folic acid supplementation (4 mg/l above baseline, Folate-L) and high folic acid supplementation (40 mg/l above baseline, Folate-H). NSCs were identified by their expression of immunoreactive nestin and proliferating cells by incorporation of 5'bromo-2'deoxyuridine. Cell proliferation was also assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Notch signaling was analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot analyses of the expression of Notch1 and hairy and enhancer of split 5 (Hes5). Supplementation of NSCs with folic acid increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of Notch1 and Hes5. Folic acid supplementation also stimulated NSC proliferation dose-dependently. Embryonic NSCs respond to folic acid supplementation with increased Notch signaling and cell proliferation. This mechanism may mediate the effects of folic acid supplementation on neurogenesis in the embryonic nervous system. PMID:20838574

  7. HaCaT cell proliferation influenced by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Hipler, U-C; Fischer, T W; Elsner, P

    2003-01-01

    The hormone melatonin is characterized by numerous pharmacological effects. The influence of melatonin on the growth of the human hair follicle was shown in previous investigations. In the present study, the effects of melatonin were investigated by means of proliferation tests of HaCaT keratinocytes using the [3H]thymidine incorporation, a fluorescence assay with Hoechst dye 33342 and the ATP bioluminescence assay. The aim of the study was to find melatonin concentrations suitable for treatments of the skin and whether there is a cytotoxic effect on HaCaT cells. The different proliferative activity of melatonin depending on its concentration and the time of incubation could be shown in all investigations. PMID:14528062

  8. Clonal proliferation of multipotent stem/progenitor cells in the neonatal and adult salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Kishi, Teruki; Takao, Tukasa; Fujita, Kiyohide; Taniguchi, Hideki . E-mail: rtanigu@med.yokohama-cu.ac.jp

    2006-02-10

    Salivary gland stem/progenitor cells are thought to be present in intercalated ductal cells, but the fact is unclear. In this study, we sought to clarify if stem/progenitor cells are present in submandibular glands using colony assay, which is one of the stem cell assay methods. Using a low-density culture of submandibular gland cells of neonatal rats, we developed a novel culture system that promotes single cell colony formation. Average doubling time for the colony-forming cells was 24.7 (SD = {+-}7.02) h, indicating high proliferative potency. When epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were added to the medium, the number of clonal colonies increased greater than those cultured without growth factors (13.2 {+-} 4.18 vs. 4.5 {+-} 1.73). The RT-PCR and immunostaining demonstrated expressing acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cell lineage markers. This study demonstrated the presence of the salivary gland stem/progenitor cells that are highly proliferative and multipotent in salivary glands.

  9. Epiplakin Deficiency Aggravates Murine Caerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis and Favors the Formation of Acinar Keratin Granules

    PubMed Central

    Wögenstein, Karl L.; Szabo, Sandra; Lunova, Mariia; Wiche, Gerhard; Haybaeck, Johannes; Strnad, Pavel; Boor, Peter; Wagner, Martin; Fuchs, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Epiplakin, a member of the plakin protein family, is exclusively expressed in epithelial tissues and was shown to bind to keratins. Epiplakin-deficient (EPPK−/−) mice showed no obvious spontaneous phenotype, however, EPPK−/− keratinocytes displayed faster keratin network breakdown in response to stress. The role of epiplakin in pancreas, a tissue with abundant keratin expression, was not yet known. We analyzed epiplakin’s expression in healthy and inflamed pancreatic tissue and compared wild-type and EPPK−/− mice during caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. We found that epiplakin was expressed primarily in ductal cells of the pancreas and colocalized with apicolateral keratin bundles in murine pancreatic acinar cells. Epiplakin’s diffuse subcellular localization in keratin filament-free acini of K8-deficient mice indicated that its filament-associated localization in acinar cells completely depends on its binding partner keratin. During acute pancreatitis, epiplakin was upregulated in acinar cells and its redistribution closely paralleled keratin reorganization. EPPK−/− mice suffered from aggravated pancreatitis but showed no obvious regeneration phenotype. At the most severe stage of the disease, EPPK−/− acinar cells displayed more keratin aggregates than those of wild-type mice. Our data propose epiplakin to be a protective protein during acute pancreatitis, and that its loss causes impaired disease-associated keratin reorganization. PMID:25232867

  10. LOXL2 induces aberrant acinar morphogenesis via ErbB2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is a matrix-remodeling enzyme that has been shown to play a key role in invasion and metastasis of breast carcinoma cells. However, very little is known about its role in normal tissue homeostasis. Here, we investigated the effects of LOXL2 expression in normal mammary epithelial cells to gain insight into how LOXL2 mediates cancer progression. Methods LOXL2 was expressed in MCF10A normal human mammary epithelial cells. The 3D acinar morphogenesis of these cells was assessed, as well as the ability of the cells to form branching structures on extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated surfaces. Transwell-invasion assays were used to assess the invasive properties of the cells. Clinically relevant inhibitors of ErbB2, lapatinib and Herceptin (traztuzumab), were used to investigate the role of ErbB2 signaling in this model. A retrospective study on a previously published breast cancer patient dataset was carried out by using Disease Specific Genomic Analysis (DSGA) to investigate the correlation of LOXL2 mRNA expression level with metastasis and survival of ErbB2-positive breast cancer patients. Results Fluorescence staining of the acini revealed increased proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and disrupted polarity, leading to abnormal lumen formation in response to LOXL2 expression in MCF10A cells. When plated onto ECM, the LOXL2-expressing cells formed branching structures and displayed increased invasion. We noted that LOXL2 induced ErbB2 activation through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and ErbB2 inhibition by using Herceptin or lapatinib abrogated the effects of LOXL2 on MCF10A cells. Finally, we found LOXL2 expression to be correlated with decreased overall survival and metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients with ErbB2-positive tumors. Conclusions These findings suggest that LOXL2 expression in normal epithelial cells can induce abnormal changes that resemble oncogenic transformation and cancer progression

  11. Acinar inflammatory response to lipid derivatives generated in necrotic fat during acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mateu, A; Ramudo, L; Manso, M A; Closa, D; De Dios, I

    2014-09-01

    Lipids play a role in acute pancreatitis (AP) progression. We investigate the ability of pancreatic acinar cells to trigger inflammatory response in the presence of lipid compounds generated in necrotic areas of peripancreatic adipose tissue (AT) during AP induced in rats by 5% sodium taurocholate. Lipid composition of AT was analyzed by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Acinar inflammatory response to total lipids as well as to either the free fatty acid (FFA) fraction or their chlorinated products (Cl-FFAs) was evaluated. For this, mRNA expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and P-selectin as well as the activation of MAPKs, NF-κB and STAT-3 were analyzed in pancreatic acini. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as an inducer of Cl-FFA generation, was also analyzed in AT. MPO activity significantly increased in necrotic (AT-N) induced changes in lipid composition of necrotic fat, such as increase in FFA and phospholipid (PL) content, generation of Cl-FFAs and increases in saturated FFAs and in the poly-:mono-unsaturated FFA ratio. Total lipids from AT-N induced overexpression of CCL2 and P-selectin in pancreatic acini as well as MAPKs phosphorylation and activation of NF-κB and STAT3. FFAs, but not Cl-FFAs, up-regulated CCL2 and P-selectin in acinar cells. We conclude that FFAs are capable of up-regulating inflammatory mediators in pancreatic acini and given that they are highly produced during AP, mainly may contribute to the inflammatory response triggered in acinar cells by fat necrosis. No role is played by Cl-FFAs generated as a result of neutrophil infiltration. PMID:24959971

  12. Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cell secreted PAI-1 on colon cancer cell migration and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Niamh M.; Joyce, Myles R.; Murphy, J. Mary; Barry, Frank P.; O’Brien, Timothy; Kerin, Michael J.; Dwyer, Roisin M.

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •MSCs were directly co-cultured with colorectal cancer (CRC) cells on 3D scaffolds. •MSCs influence CRC protein/gene expression, proliferation and migration. •We report a significant functional role of MSC-secreted PAI-1 in colon cancer. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal Stem Cells are known to engraft and integrate into the architecture of colorectal tumours, with little known regarding their fate following engraftment. This study aimed to investigate mediators of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) and colon cancer cell (CCC) interactions. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and colon cancer cells (HT29 and HCT-116) were cultured individually or in co-culture on 3-dimensional scaffolds. Conditioned media containing all secreted factors was harvested at day 1, 3 and 7. Chemokine secretion and expression were analyzed by Chemi-array, ELISA (Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)) and RQ-PCR. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation in response to recombinant PAI-1, MSCs and MSCs + antibody to PAI-1 was analyzed using Transwell inserts and an MTS proliferation assay respectively. Chemi-array revealed secretion of a wide range of factors by each cell population, including PAI-1and MIF. ELISA analysis revealed Mesenchymal Stem Cells to secrete the highest levels of PAI-1 (MSC mean 10.6 ng/mL, CCC mean 1.01 ng/mL), while colon cancer cells were the principal source of MIF. MSC-secreted PAI-1 stimulated significant migration of both CCC lines, with an antibody to the chemokine shown to block this effect (67–88% blocking,). A cell-line dependant effect on CCC proliferation was shown for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-secreted PAI-1 with HCT-116 cells showing decreased proliferation at all concentrations, and HT29 cells showing increased proliferation in the presence of higher PAI-1 levels. This is the first study to identify PAI-1 as an important mediator of Mesenchymal Stem Cell/colon cancer cell interactions and highlights the

  13. Low power laser irradiation stimulates cell proliferation via proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 expression during tissue repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Vijendra; Rao, Bola Sadashiva Satish; Mahato, Krishna Kishore

    2015-03-01

    Low power laser irradiation (LPLI) is becoming an increasingly popular and fast growing therapeutic modality in dermatology to treat various ailments without any reported side effects. In the present study an attempt was made to investigate the proliferative potential of red laser light during tissue repair in Swiss albino mice. To this end, full thickness excisional wounds of diameter 15 mm created on mice were exposed to single dose of Helium-Neon laser (632.8 nm; 7 mW; 4.02 mWcm-2; Linear polarization) at 2 Jcm-2 and 10 Jcm-2 along with un-illuminated controls. The granulation tissues from all the respective experimental groups were harvested on day 10 post-wounding following euthanization. Subsequently, tissue regeneration potential of these laser doses under study were evaluated by monitoring proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 following the laser treatment and comparing it with the un-illuminated controls. The percentages of Ki-67 or PCNA positive cells were determined by counting positive nuclei (Ki-67/PCNA) and total nuclei in five random fields per tissue sections. Animal wounds treated with single exposure of the 2 Jcm-2 indicated significant elevation in PCNA (P<0.01) and Ki-67 (P<0.05 compared to un-illuminated control and P<0.01 compared to 10 Jcm-2) expression as compared to other tested experimental groups as evidenced by the microscopy results in the study. In summary, the findings of the present study have clearly demonstrated the regulation of cell proliferation by LPLI via PCNA and Ki-67 expression during tissue regeneration.

  14. Mechanisms of Regulating Cell Topology in Proliferating Epithelia: Impact of Division Plane, Mechanical Forces, and Cell Memory

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingzi; Naveed, Hammad; Kachalo, Sema; Xu, Lisa X.; Liang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of cell growth and cell division has a fundamental role in tissue formation, organ development, and cancer progression. Remarkable similarities in the topological distributions were found in a variety of proliferating epithelia in both animals and plants. At the same time, there are species with significantly varied frequency of hexagonal cells. Moreover, local topology has been shown to be disturbed on the boundary between proliferating and quiescent cells, where cells have fewer sides than natural proliferating epithelia. The mechanisms of regulating these topological changes remain poorly understood. In this study, we use a mechanical model to examine the effects of orientation of division plane, differential proliferation, and mechanical forces on animal epithelial cells. We find that regardless of orientation of division plane, our model can reproduce the commonly observed topological distributions of cells in natural proliferating animal epithelia with the consideration of cell rearrangements. In addition, with different schemes of division plane, we are able to generate different frequency of hexagonal cells, which is consistent with experimental observations. In proliferating cells interfacing quiescent cells, our results show that differential proliferation alone is insufficient to reproduce the local changes in cell topology. Rather, increased tension on the boundary, in conjunction with differential proliferation, can reproduce the observed topological changes. We conclude that both division plane orientation and mechanical forces play important roles in cell topology in animal proliferating epithelia. Moreover, cell memory is also essential for generating specific topological distributions. PMID:22912800

  15. Fractional Proliferation: A method to deconvolve cell population dynamics from single-cell data

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, Darren R.; Garbett, Shawn P.; Frick, Peter L.; Quaranta, Vito

    2012-01-01

    We present an integrated method that exploits extended time-lapse automated imaging to quantify dynamics of cell proliferation. Cell counts are fit with a Quiescence-Growth model that estimates rates of cell division, entry into quiescence and death. The model is constrained with rates extracted experimentally from the behavior of tracked single cells over time. We visualize the output of the analysis in Fractional Proliferation graphs, which deconvolve dynamic proliferative responses to perturbations into the relative contributions of dividing, quiescent (non-dividing) and dead cells. The method reveals that the response of “oncogene-addicted” human cancer cells to tyrosine kinase inhibitors is a composite of altered rates of division, death and entry into quiescence, challenging the notion that such cells simply ‘die’ in response to oncogene-targeted therapy. PMID:22886092

  16. Silencing of carboxypeptidase E inhibits cell proliferation, tumorigenicity, and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shuli; Li, Xu; Li, Leiming; Wang, Liguo; Du, Zhangzhen; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Jiansong; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase E (CPE), a prohormone processing enzyme, has been implicated in the progression of multiple malignancies. However, the biological role and molecular mechanisms of CPE in osteosarcoma remain elusive. In this study, we assessed the effects of CPE on cell proliferation, tumorigenicity, migration, and invasion in osteosarcoma. Our results showed that silencing of CPE significantly inhibited cell proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, decreased the expression levels of cell cycle protein, cyclin D1, and inhibited tumorigenicity in vivo. Additionally, CPE downregulation repressed the migratory and invasive capacities of osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of CPE-ΔN (a splice variant of CPE) enhanced the cell growth, migration, and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. It is possible that both CPE forms are involved in the tumorigenesis and development of osteosarcoma, and therefore CPE may provide a promising biological target for osteosarcoma therapy. PMID:27274275

  17. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 strongly potentiates growth factor-induced proliferation of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montesano, Roberto Sarkoezi, Rita; Schramek, Herbert

    2008-09-12

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional cytokines that elicit pleiotropic effects on biological processes such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. With respect to cell proliferation, BMPs can exert either mitogenic or anti-mitogenic activities, depending on the target cells and their context. Here, we report that in low-density cultures of immortalized mammary epithelial cells, BMP-4 did not stimulate cell proliferation by itself. However, when added in combination with suboptimal concentrations of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FGF-7, FGF-10, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), BMP-4 potently enhanced growth factor-induced cell proliferation. These results reveal a hitherto unsuspected interplay between BMP-4 and growth factors in the regulation of mammary epithelial cell proliferation. We suggest that the ability of BMP-4 to potentiate the mitogenic activity of multiple growth factors may contribute to mammary gland ductal morphogenesis as well as to breast cancer progression.

  18. miRNA-1297 induces cell proliferation by targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog in testicular germ cell tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nian-Qin; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Qun-Ye; Guo, Jian-Ming; Wang, Guo-Min

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of miR-1297 and the tumor suppressor gene PTEN in cell proliferation of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). MTT assays were used to test the effect of miR-1297 on proliferation of the NCCIT testicular germ cell tumor cell line. In NCCIT cells, the expression of PTEN was assessed by Western blotting further. In order to confirm target association between miR-1297 and 3'-UTR of PTEN, a luciferase reporter activity assay was employed. Moreover, roles of PTEN in proliferation of NCCIT cells were evaluated by transfection of PTEN siRNA. Proliferation of NCCIT cells was promoted by miR-1297 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, miR-1297 could bind to the 3'-UTR of PTEN based on luciferase reporter activity assay, and reduced expression of PTEN at protein level was found. Proliferation of NCCIT cells was significantly enhanced after knockdown of PTEN by siRNA. miR-1297 as a potential oncogene could induce cell proliferation by targeting PTEN in NCCIT cells. PMID:25124605

  19. Cell proliferation by silk gut incorporating FGF-2 protein microcrystals

    PubMed Central

    Kotani, Eiji; Yamamoto, Naoto; Kobayashi, Isao; Uchino, Keiro; Muto, Sayaka; Ijiri, Hiroshi; Shimabukuro, Junji; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Mori, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Silk gut processed from the silk glands of the silkworm could be an ideal biodegradable carrier for cell growth factors. We previously demonstrated that polyhedra, microcrystals of Cypovirus 1 polyhedrin, can serve as versatile carrier proteins. Here, we report the generation of a transgenic silkworm that expresses polyhedrin together with human basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) in its posterior silk glands to utilize silk gut as a proteinaceous carrier to protect and slowly release active cell growth factors. In the posterior silk glands, polyhedrin formed polyhedral microcrystals, and FGF-2 became encapsulated within the polyhedra due to a polyhedron-immobilization signal. Silk gut powder prepared from posterior silk glands containing polyhedron-encapsulated FGF-2 stimulated the phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase and induced the proliferation of serum-starved NIH3T3 cells by releasing bioactive FGF-2. Even after a one-week incubation at 25 °C, significantly higher biological activity of FGF-2 was observed for silk gut powder incorporating polyhedron-encapsulated FGF-2 relative to silk gut powder with non-encapsulated FGF-2. Our results demonstrate that posterior silk glands incorporating polyhedron-encapsulated FGF-2 are applicable to the preparation of biodegradable silk gut, which can protect and release FGF-2 that is produced in a virus- and serum-free expression system with significant application potential. PMID:26053044

  20. Inhibition of Cell Proliferation by an Anti-EGFR Aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Nguyen, Hong Hanh; Byrom, Michelle; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Aptamers continue to receive interest as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of diseases, including cancer. In order to determine whether aptamers might eventually prove to be as useful as other clinical biopolymers, such as antibodies, we selected aptamers against an important clinical target, human epidermal growth factor receptor (hEGFR). The initial selection yielded only a single clone that could bind to hEGFR, but further mutation and optimization yielded a family of tight-binding aptamers. One of the selected aptamers, E07, bound tightly to the wild-type receptor (Kd = 2.4 nM). This aptamer can compete with EGF for binding, binds to a novel epitope on EGFR, and also binds a deletion mutant, EGFRvIII, that is commonly found in breast and lung cancers, and especially in grade IV glioblastoma multiforme, a cancer which has for the most part proved unresponsive to current therapies. The aptamer binds to cells expressing EGFR, blocks receptor autophosphorylation, and prevents proliferation of tumor cells in three-dimensional matrices. In short, the aptamer is a promising candidate for further development as an anti-tumor therapeutic. In addition, Aptamer E07 is readily internalized into EGFR-expressing cells, raising the possibility that it might be used to escort other anti-tumor or contrast agents. PMID:21687663

  1. Cell proliferation by silk gut incorporating FGF-2 protein microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Eiji; Yamamoto, Naoto; Kobayashi, Isao; Uchino, Keiro; Muto, Sayaka; Ijiri, Hiroshi; Shimabukuro, Junji; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Mori, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Silk gut processed from the silk glands of the silkworm could be an ideal biodegradable carrier for cell growth factors. We previously demonstrated that polyhedra, microcrystals of Cypovirus 1 polyhedrin, can serve as versatile carrier proteins. Here, we report the generation of a transgenic silkworm that expresses polyhedrin together with human basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) in its posterior silk glands to utilize silk gut as a proteinaceous carrier to protect and slowly release active cell growth factors. In the posterior silk glands, polyhedrin formed polyhedral microcrystals, and FGF-2 became encapsulated within the polyhedra due to a polyhedron-immobilization signal. Silk gut powder prepared from posterior silk glands containing polyhedron-encapsulated FGF-2 stimulated the phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase and induced the proliferation of serum-starved NIH3T3 cells by releasing bioactive FGF-2. Even after a one-week incubation at 25 °C, significantly higher biological activity of FGF-2 was observed for silk gut powder incorporating polyhedron-encapsulated FGF-2 relative to silk gut powder with non-encapsulated FGF-2. Our results demonstrate that posterior silk glands incorporating polyhedron-encapsulated FGF-2 are applicable to the preparation of biodegradable silk gut, which can protect and release FGF-2 that is produced in a virus- and serum-free expression system with significant application potential. PMID:26053044

  2. [Envelope protein of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovious expressed in NIH3T3 cells promotes cell proliferation].

    PubMed

    DU, Fangyuan; Chen, Dayong; Zhang, Yufei; Sun, Xiaolin; Guo, Wenqing; Liu, Shuying

    2016-09-01

    Objective To explore the influence of the exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovious (exJSRV) envelope protein (Env) on NIH3T3 cell proliferation. Methods A recombinant plasmid pcDNA4/myc-His/exJSRV- env carrying exJSRV- env gene was constructed, and then the correctness of the recombinant plasmid was identified by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA4/myc-His/exJSRV- env was transiently transfected into NIH3T3 cells by Lipofectamine(TM) LTX. After the transfection of the recombinant plasmid, the expression of exJSRV- env was detected by reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting. The effect of Env on cell proliferation was investigated by CCK-8 assay and plate colony formation assay. Results The recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid containing exJSRV- env was successfully constructed as identified by PCR, restriction enzyme identification and sequencing. After the recombinant plasmid was transiently transfected into NIH3T3 cells, reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting showed the expression of exJSRV- env , and Env promoted NIH3T3 cell proliferation significantly. Conclusion JSRV Env was expressed successfully in the NIH3T3 cells and promoted the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells. PMID:27609573

  3. Cell proliferation and hair cell addition in the ear of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanford, P. J.; Presson, J. C.; Popper, A. N.

    1996-01-01

    Cell proliferation and hair cell addition have not been studied in the ears of otophysan fish, a group of species who have specialized hearing capabilities. In this study we used the mitotic S-phase marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to identify proliferating cells in the ear of one otophysan species, Carassius auratus (the goldfish). Animals were sacrificed at 3 h or 5 days postinjection with BrdU and processed for immunocytochemistry. The results of the study show that cell proliferation occurs in all of the otic endorgans and results in the addition of new hair cells. BrdU-labeled cells were distributed throughout all epithelia, including the primary auditory endorgan (saccule), where hair cell phenotypes vary considerably along the rostrocaudal axis. This study lays the groundwork for our transmission electron microscopy study of proliferative cells in the goldfish ear (Presson et al., Hearing Research 100 (1996) 10-20) as well as future studies of hair cell development in this species. The ability to predict, based on epithelial location, the future phenotype of developing hair cells in the saccule of the goldfish make that endorgan a particularly powerful model system for the investigation of early hair cell differentiation.

  4. Dendritic Cell-Nerve Clusters Are Sites of T Cell Proliferation in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Veres, Tibor Z.; Shevchenko, Marina; Krasteva, Gabriela; Spies, Emma; Prenzler, Frauke; Rochlitzer, Sabine; Tschernig, Thomas; Krug, Norbert; Kummer, Wolfgang; Braun, Armin

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between T cells and dendritic cells in the airway mucosa precede secondary immune responses to inhaled antigen. The purpose of this study was to identify the anatomical locations where dendritic cell–T cell interactions occur, resulting in T cells activation by dendritic cells. In a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation, we applied whole-mount immunohistology and confocal microscopy to visualize dendritic cells and T cells together with nerves, epithelium, and smooth muscle in three dimensions. Proliferating T cells were identified by the detection of the incorporation of the nucleotide analogue 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine into the DNA. We developed a novel quantification method that enabled the accurate determination of cell–cell contacts in a semi-automated fashion. Dendritic cell–T cell interactions occurred beneath the smooth muscle layer, but not in the epithelium. Approximately 10% of the dendritic cells were contacted by nerves, and up to 4% of T cells formed clusters with these dendritic cells. T cells that were clustered with nerve-contacting dendritic cells proliferated only in the airways of mice with allergic inflammation but not in the airways of negative controls. Taken together, these results suggest that during the secondary immune response, sensory nerves influence dendritic cell-driven T cell activation in the airway mucosa. PMID:19179611

  5. Aquaporin-1 plays important role in proliferation by affecting cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Galán-Cobo, Ana; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Toledo-Aral, Juan José; Echevarría, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) has been associated with tumor development. Here, we investigated how AQP1 may affect cell proliferation. The proliferative rate of adult carotid body (CB) cells, known to proliferate under chronic hypoxia, was analyzed in wild-type (AQP1(+/+) ) and knock out (AQP1(-/-) ) mice, maintained in normoxia or exposed to hypoxia while BrdU was administered. Fewer numbers of total BrdU(+) and TH-BrdU(+) cells were observed in AQP1(-/-) mice, indicating a role for AQP1 in CB proliferation. Then, by flow cytometry, cell cycle state and proliferation of cells overexpressing AQP1 were compared to those of wild-type cells. In the AQP1-overexpressing cells, we observed higher cell proliferation and percentages of cells in phases S and G2/M and fewer apoptotic cells after nocodazole treatment were detected by annexin V staining. Also in these cells, proteomic assays showed higher expression of cyclin D1 and E1 and microarray analysis revealed changes in many cell proliferation-related molecules, including, Zeb 2, Jun, NF-kβ, Cxcl9, Cxcl10, TNF, and the TNF receptor. Overall, our results indicate that the presence of AQP1 modifies the expression of key cell cycle proteins apparently related to increases in cell proliferation. This contributes to explaining the presence of AQP1 in many different tumors. PMID:26081645

  6. Transient inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruoxing; Guo, Yan-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have unlimited capacity for self-renewal and can differentiate into various cell types when induced. They also have an unusual cell cycle control mechanism driven by constitutively active cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks). In mouse ESCs (mESCs). It is proposed that the rapid cell proliferation could be a necessary part of mechanisms that maintain mESC self-renewal and pluripotency, but this hypothesis is not in line with the finding in human ESCs (hESCs) that the length of the cell cycle is similar to differentiated cells. Therefore, whether rapid cell proliferation is essential for the maintenance of mESC state remains unclear. We provide insight into this uncertainty through chemical intervention of mESC cell cycle. We report here that inhibition of Cdks with olomoucine II can dramatically slow down cell proliferation of mESCs with concurrent down-regulation of cyclin A, B and E, and the activation of the Rb pathway. However, mESCs display can recover upon the removal of olomoucine II and are able to resume normal cell proliferation without losing self-renewal and pluripotency, as demonstrated by the expression of ESC markers, colony formation, embryoid body formation, and induced differentiation. We provide a mechanistic explanation for these observations by demonstrating that Oct4 and Nanog, two major transcription factors that play critical roles in the maintenance of ESC properties, are up-regulated via de novo protein synthesis when the cells are exposed to olomoucine II. Together, our data suggest that short-term inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise the basic properties of mESCs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Cdks slows down mESCs proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mESCs display remarkable recovery capacity from short-term cell cycle interruption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Short-term cell cycle interruption does not compromise mESC self-renewal. Black

  7. Hippo signaling regulates Drosophila intestine stem cell proliferation through multiple pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Fangfang; Wang, Bing; Yue, Tao; Yun, Eun-Young; Ip, Y. Tony; Jiang, Jin

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the Drosophila adult midgut are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis and replenishing lost cells in response to tissue damage. Here we demonstrate that the Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved pathway implicated in organ size control and tumorigenesis, plays an essential role in regulating ISC proliferation. Loss of Hpo signaling in either midgut precursor cells or epithelial cells stimulates ISC proliferation. We provide evidence that loss of Hpo signaling in epithelial cells increases the production of cytokines of the Upd family and multiple EGFR ligands that activate JAK-STAT and EGFR signaling pathways in ISCs to stimulate their proliferation, thus revealing a unique non–cell-autonomous role of Hpo signaling in blocking ISC proliferation. Finally, we show that the Hpo pathway mediator Yorkie (Yki) is also required in precursor cells for injury-induced ISC proliferation in response to tissue-damaging reagent DSS. PMID:21078993

  8. Pancreas-Specific Delivery of β-Cell Proliferating Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xueshi; Jin, Qihui; Va, Porino; Li, Chun; Shen, Weijun; Laffitte, Bryan; Wu, Tom Y-H

    2016-06-01

    Our research groups recently described a series of small-molecule inducers of β-cell proliferation that could be used to increase β-cell mass. To mitigate the risk of nonspecific proliferation of other cell types, we devised a delivery strategy built on the tissue specificity observed in the experimental β-cell imaging agent (+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ). The β-cell proliferator agent aminopyrazine (AP) was covalently linked with (+)-DTBZ to afford conjugates that retain both the proliferation activity and binding affinity for vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2). In vivo mouse tissue distribution studies of a prototypical AP-DTBZ conjugate showed 15-fold pancreas exposure over plasma. Tissue-to-plasma ratios in liver and kidneys were two- and five-fold, respectively. This work is the first demonstration of enhanced delivery of β-cell-proliferating molecules to the pancreas by leveraging the intrinsic tissue specificity of a β-cell imaging agent. PMID:27095073

  9. Overexpression of Dishevelled-2 contributes to proliferation and migration of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoren; Ye, Jinjun; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Zhi; Feng, Jifeng

    2016-06-01

    Dishevelled-2 (Dvl2) was associated with tumor cell proliferation and migration. We aimed to examine the mechanism of Dvl2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Dvl2 was overexpressed in human ESCC tissues and cell lines ECA109 and TE1 cells. CCK-8 and colony formation assay was performed to evaluate the proliferation in ECA109 cells transfected with Dvl2-shRNA. Wound-healing assay and transwell assay were used to examine the activities of migration and invasion in Dvl2-silenced ESCC cells. Knockdown of Dvl2 significantly reduced ECA109 cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, we demonstrated that the proliferation and migration ability of Dvl2 might through the activation of Wnt pathway by targeting the Cyclin D1 and MMP-9. We came to the conclusion that the proliferation and migration effects of Dvl2 might contribute to malignant development of human ESCC. PMID:27083564

  10. Citral inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Chaouki, Wahid; Leger, David Y; Liagre, Bertrand; Beneytout, Jean-Louis; Hmamouchi, Mohamed

    2009-10-01

    Many natural components of plants extract are studied for their beneficial effects on health and particularly on carcinogenesis chemoprevention. In this study, we investigated the effect of citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), a key component of essential oils extracted from several herbal plants, on the proliferation rate, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The effects of this compound were also tested on cyclo-oxygenase activity. Citral treatment caused inhibition of MCF-7 cell growth (IC(50)-48 h: 18 x 10(-5)m), with a cycle arrest in G(2)/M phase and apoptosis induction. Moreover, we observed a decrease in prostaglandin E(2) synthesis 48 h after citral treatment. These findings suggest that citral has a potential chemopreventive effect. PMID:19656204

  11. Adipose-derived stromal cells inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation inducing apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Takahara, Kiyoshi; Ii, Masaaki; Inamoto, Teruo; Komura, Kazumasa; Ibuki, Naokazu; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kiyama, Satoshi; Asahi, Michio; Azuma, Haruhito

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • AdSC transplantation exhibits inhibitory effect on tumor progressions of PCa cells. • AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway. • High expression of the TGF-β1 gene in AdSCs. - Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in the field of regenerative medicine. Adipose-derived stromal cells (AdSCs) are known to exhibit extensive proliferation potential and can undergo multilineage differentiation, sharing similar characteristics to bone marrow-derived MSCs. However, as the effect of AdSCs on tumor growth has not been studied sufficiently, we assessed the degree to which AdSCs affect the proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa) cell. Human AdSCs exerted an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and androgen-nonresponsive (PC3) human PCa cells, while normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) did not, and in fact promoted PCa cell proliferation to a degree. Moreover, AdSCs induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells and PC3 cells, activating the caspase3/7 signaling pathway. cDNA microarray analysis suggested that AdSC-induced apoptosis in both LNCaP and PC3 cells was related to the TGF-β signaling pathway. Consistent with our in vitro observations, local transplantation of AdSCs delayed the growth of tumors derived from both LNCaP- and PC3-xenografts in immunodeficient mice. This is the first preclinical study to have directly demonstrated that AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway, irrespective of androgen-responsiveness. Since autologous AdSCs can be easily isolated from adipose tissue without any ethical concerns, we suggest that therapy with these cells could be a novel approach for patients with PCa.

  12. Development of ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine chemical probes for cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Lovitt, Carrie J; Hilko, David H; Avery, Vicky M; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2016-09-15

    A common method of evaluating cellular proliferation is to label DNA with chemical probes. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) is a widely utilized chemical probe for labeling DNA, and upon incorporation, EdU treatment of cells is followed by a reaction with a small molecule fluorescent azide to allow detection. The limitations when using EdU include cytotoxicity and a reliance on nucleoside active transport mechanisms for entry into cells. Here we have developed six novel EdU pro-labels that consist of EdU modified with variable lipophilic acyl ester moieties. This pro-label:chemical probe relationship parallels the prodrug:drug relationship that is employed widely in medicinal chemistry. EdU and EdU pro-labels were evaluated for their labeling efficacy and cytotoxicity. Several EdU pro-label analogues incorporate into DNA at a similar level to EdU, suggesting that nucleoside transporters can be bypassed by the pro-labels. These EdU pro-labels also had reduced toxicity compared to EdU. PMID:27460697

  13. Shikonin Suppresses Skin Carcinogenesis via Inhibiting Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Chunjing; Ren, Amy; Li, Teena; Jin, Rong; Li, Guohong; Gu, Xin; Shi, Runhua; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been shown to be up-regulated in human skin cancers. To test whether PKM2 may be a target for chemoprevention, shikonin, a natural product from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and a specific inhibitor of PKM2, was used in a chemically-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis study. The results revealed that shikonin treatment suppressed skin tumor formation. Morphological examinations and immunohistochemical staining of the skin epidermal tissues suggested that shikonin inhibited cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis. Although shikonin alone suppressed PKM2 activity, it did not suppress tumor promoter-induced PKM2 activation in the skin epidermal tissues at the end of the skin carcinogenesis study. To reveal the potential chemopreventive mechanism of shikonin, an antibody microarray analysis was performed, and the results showed that the transcription factor ATF2 and its downstream target Cdk4 were up-regulated by chemical carcinogen treatment; whereas these up-regulations were suppressed by shikonin. In a promotable skin cell model, the nuclear levels of ATF2 were increased during tumor promotion, whereas this increase was inhibited by shikonin. Furthermore, knockdown of ATF2 decreased the expression levels of Cdk4 and Fra-1 (a key subunit of the activator protein 1. In summary, these results suggest that shikonin, rather than inhibiting PKM2 in vivo, suppresses the ATF2 pathway in skin carcinogenesis. PMID:25961580

  14. Human NK cells proliferate and die in vivo more rapidly than T cells in healthy young and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Charles T; Karapetyan, Anush; Al-Attar, Ahmad; Shelton, Brent J; Holt, Kimberly J; Tucker, Jason H; Presnell, Steven R

    2011-04-15

    NK cells are essential for health, yet little is known about human NK turnover in vivo. In both young and elderly women, all NK subsets proliferated and died more rapidly than T cells. CD56(bright) NK cells proliferated rapidly but died relatively slowly, suggesting that proliferating CD56(bright) cells differentiate into CD56(dim) NK cells in vivo. The relationship between CD56(dim) and CD56(bright) proliferating cells indicates that proliferating CD56(dim) cells both self-renew and are derived from proliferating CD56(bright) NK cells. Our data suggest that some dying CD56(dim) cells become CD16(+)CD56(-) NK cells and that CD16(-)CD56(low) NK cells respond rapidly to cellular and cytokine stimulation. We propose a model in which all NK cell subsets are in dynamic flux. About half of CD56(dim) NK cells expressed CD57, which was weakly associated with low proliferation. Surprisingly, CD57 expression was associated with higher proliferation rates in both CD8(+) and CD8(-) T cells. Therefore, CD57 is not a reliable marker of senescent, nonproliferative T cells in vivo. NKG2A expression declined with age on both NK cells and T cells. Killer cell Ig-like receptor expression increased with age on T cells but not on NK cells. Although the percentage of CD56(bright) NK cells declined with age and the percentage of CD56(dim) NK cells increased with age, there were no significant age-related proliferation or apoptosis differences for these two populations or for total NK cells. In vivo human NK cell turnover is rapid in both young and elderly adults. PMID:21402893

  15. Cocaine- and Amphetamine-regulated Transcript (CART) Protects Beta Cells against Glucotoxicity and Increases Cell Proliferation*

    PubMed Central

    Sathanoori, Ramasri; Olde, Björn; Erlinge, David; Göransson, Olga; Wierup, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an islet peptide that promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta cells via cAMP/PKA-dependent pathways. In addition, CART is a regulator of neuronal survival. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenous CART 55–102 on beta cell viability and dissected its signaling mechanisms. Evaluation of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation revealed that CART 55–102 reduced glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis in both INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets. Glucotoxicity in INS-1 (832/13) cells also caused a 50% reduction of endogenous CART protein. We show that CART increased proliferation in INS-1 (832/13) cells, an effect that was blocked by PKA, PKB, and MEK1 inhibitors. In addition, CART induced phosphorylation of CREB, IRS, PKB, FoxO1, p44/42 MAPK, and p90RSK in INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets, all key mediators of cell survival and proliferation. Thus, we demonstrate that CART 55-102 protects beta cells against glucotoxicity and promotes proliferation. Taken together our data point to the potential use of CART in therapeutic interventions targeted at enhancing functional beta cell mass and long-term insulin secretion in T2D. PMID:23250745

  16. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) protects beta cells against glucotoxicity and increases cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sathanoori, Ramasri; Olde, Björn; Erlinge, David; Göransson, Olga; Wierup, Nils

    2013-02-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an islet peptide that promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta cells via cAMP/PKA-dependent pathways. In addition, CART is a regulator of neuronal survival. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenous CART 55-102 on beta cell viability and dissected its signaling mechanisms. Evaluation of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation revealed that CART 55-102 reduced glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis in both INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets. Glucotoxicity in INS-1 (832/13) cells also caused a 50% reduction of endogenous CART protein. We show that CART increased proliferation in INS-1 (832/13) cells, an effect that was blocked by PKA, PKB, and MEK1 inhibitors. In addition, CART induced phosphorylation of CREB, IRS, PKB, FoxO1, p44/42 MAPK, and p90RSK in INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets, all key mediators of cell survival and proliferation. Thus, we demonstrate that CART 55-102 protects beta cells against glucotoxicity and promotes proliferation. Taken together our data point to the potential use of CART in therapeutic interventions targeted at enhancing functional beta cell mass and long-term insulin secretion in T2D. PMID:23250745

  17. Suppression of PAX6 promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in human retinoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Bo; Wang, Yisong; Li, Bin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the transcription factor, PAX6, in the development of retinoblastoma. The expression of endogenous PAX6 was knocked down using PAX6-specific lentivirus in two human retinoblastoma cell lines, SO-Rb50 and Y79. Cell proliferation functional assays and apoptotic assays were performed on the cells in which PAX6 was knocked down. The results revealed that PAX6 knockdown efficiency was significant (P<0.01, n=3) in the SO-Rb50 and Y79 cells. The inhibition of PAX6 reduced tumor cell apoptosis (P<0.05, n=3), but induced cell cycle S phase arrest (SO-Rb50; P<0.05, n=3) and G2/M phase arrest (Y79; P<0.05, n=3). Western blot analysis indicated that the inhibition of PAX6 increased the levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and CDK1, but reduced the levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins, BAX and p21. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the suppression of PAX6 increases proliferation and decreases apoptosis in human retinoblastoma cells by regulating several cell cycle and apoptosis biomarkers. PMID:24939714

  18. Suppression of PAX6 promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in human retinoblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    MENG, BO; WANG, YISONG; LI, BIN

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the transcription factor, PAX6, in the development of retinoblastoma. The expression of endogenous PAX6 was knocked down using PAX6-specific lentivirus in two human retinoblastoma cell lines, SO-Rb50 and Y79. Cell proliferation functional assays and apoptotic assays were performed on the cells in which PAX6 was knocked down. The results revealed that PAX6 knockdown efficiency was significant (P<0.01, n=3) in the SO-Rb50 and Y79 cells. The inhibition of PAX6 reduced tumor cell apoptosis (P<0.05, n=3), but induced cell cycle S phase arrest (SO-Rb50; P<0.05, n=3) and G2/M phase arrest (Y79; P<0.05, n=3). Western blot analysis indicated that the inhibition of PAX6 increased the levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and CDK1, but reduced the levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins, BAX and p21. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the suppression of PAX6 increases proliferation and decreases apoptosis in human retinoblastoma cells by regulating several cell cycle and apoptosis biomarkers. PMID:24939714

  19. YAP Regulates Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Steroidogenesis in Adult Granulosa Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Fu, David; Lv, Xiangmin; Hua, Guohua; He, Chunbo; Dong, Jixin; Lele, Subodh M.; Li, David Wan-Cheng; Zhai, Qiongli; Davis, John S.; Wang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway has been implicated as a conserved regulator of organ size in both Drosophila and mammals. Yes associated protein (YAP), the central component of the Hippo signaling cascade, functions as an oncogene in several malignancies. Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are characterized by enlargement of ovary, excess production of estrogen, high frequency of recurrence and potential of malignancy and metastasis. Whether the Hippo pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of GCT is unknown. This study was conducted to examine the expression of YAP in human adult GCTs and to determine the role of YAP in the proliferation and steroidogenesis of GCT cells. Compared with age-matched normal human ovaries, GCT tissues exhibited higher levels of YAP expression. YAP protein was predominantly expressed in the nucleus of tumor cells, whereas the non-tumor ovarian stromal cells expressed very low levels of YAP. YAP was also expressed in cultured primary human granulosa cells and in KGN and COV434 GCT cell lines. siRNA-mediated knockdown of YAP in KGN cells resulted in a significant reduction in cell proliferation (P<0.001). Conversely, overexpression of wild-type YAP or a constitutively active YAP mutant resulted in a significant increase in KGN cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, YAP knockdown reduced FSH-induced aromatase (CYP19A1) protein expression and estrogen production in KGN cells. These results demonstrate that YAP plays an important role in regulating GCT cell proliferation, migration and steroidogenesis. Targeting the Hippo/YAP pathway may provide a novel therapeutic approach for GCT. PMID:24389730

  20. Nitric oxide stimulates the proliferation of neural stem cells bypassing the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Bruno Pereira; Morte, Maria Inês; Inácio, Angela; Costa, Gabriel; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Agasse, Fabienne; Carmo, Anália; Couceiro, Patrícia; Brundin, Patrik; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Carvalho, Caetana Monteiro; Araújo, Inês Maria

    2010-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) was described to inhibit the proliferation of neural stem cells. Some evidence suggests that NO, under certain conditions, can also promote cell proliferation, although the mechanisms responsible for a potential proliferative effect of NO in neural stem cells have remained unaddressed. In this work, we investigated and characterized the proliferative effect of NO in cell cultures obtained from the mouse subventricular zone. We found that the NO donor NOC-18 (10 microM) increased cell proliferation, whereas higher concentrations (100 microM) inhibited cell proliferation. Increased cell proliferation was detected rapidly following exposure to NO and was prevented by blocking the mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) pathway, independently of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Downstream of the EGF receptor, NO activated p21Ras and the MAPK pathway, resulting in a decrease in the nuclear presence of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1, p27(KIP1), allowing for cell cycle progression. Furthermore, in a mouse model that shows increased proliferation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus following seizure injury, we observed that the absence of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS(-/-) mice) prevented the increase in cell proliferation observed following seizures in wild-type mice, showing that NO from iNOS origin is important for increased cell proliferation following a brain insult. Overall, we show that NO is able to stimulate the proliferation of neural stem cells bypassing the EGF receptor and promoting cell division. Moreover, under pathophysiological conditions in vivo, NO from iNOS origin also promotes proliferation in the hippocampus. PMID:20506358

  1. Homeobox A7 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation by up-regulating estrogen receptor-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •HOXA7 regulates MCF7 cell proliferation. •HOXA7 up-regulates ERα expression. •HOXA7 mediates estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common hormone-dependent malignancy in women. Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been reported to be associated with human reproductive cancers. Estradiol (E2) and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta, are known to play critical roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. However, an understanding of the potential relationship between HOXA7 and ER in breast cancer cells is limited. In this study, our results demonstrate that knockdown of HOXA7 in MCF7 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and ERα expression. In addition, HOXA7 knockdown attenuated E2-induced cell proliferation as well as progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The stimulatory effects of E2 on cell proliferation and PR expression were abolished by co-treatment with ICI 182780, a selective ERα antagonist. In contrast, overexpression of HOXA7 significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ERα expression. Moreover, E2-induced cell proliferation, as well as PR expression, was enhanced by the overexpression of HOXA7. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of HOXA7 affected the ER-beta levels. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating breast cancer cell proliferation via regulation of ERα expression. This finding contributes to our understanding of the role HOXA7 plays in regulating the proliferation of ER-positive cancer cells.

  2. The effects of physiological adaptations to calorie restriction on global cell proliferation rates.

    PubMed

    Bruss, Matthew D; Thompson, Airlia C S; Aggarwal, Ishita; Khambatta, Cyrus F; Hellerstein, Marc K

    2011-04-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces the rate of cell proliferation in mitotic tissues. It has been suggested that this reduction in cell proliferation may mediate CR-induced increases in longevity. However, the mechanisms that lead to CR-induced reductions in cell proliferation rates remain unclear. To evaluate the CR-induced physiological adaptations that may mediate reductions in cell proliferation rates, we altered housing temperature and access to voluntary running wheels to determine the effects of food intake, energy expenditure, percent body fat, and body weight on proliferation rates of keratinocytes, liver cells, mammary epithelial cells, and splenic T-cells in C57BL/6 mice. We found that ∼20% CR led to a reduction in cell proliferation rates in all cell types. However, lower cell proliferation rates were not observed with reductions in 1) food intake and energy expenditure in female mice housed at 27°C, 2) percent body fat in female mice provided running wheels, or 3) body weight in male mice provided running wheels compared with ad libitum-fed controls. In contrast, reductions in insulin-like growth factor I were associated with decreased cell proliferation rates. Taken together, these data suggest that CR-induced reductions in food intake, energy expenditure, percent body fat, and body weight do not account for the reductions in global cell proliferation rates observed in CR. In addition, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that reduced cell proliferation rates could be useful as a biomarker of interventions that increase longevity. PMID:21285400

  3. The marine-derived fungal metabolite, terrein, inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Fei; Wang, Shu-Ying; Shen, Hong; Yao, Xiao-Fen; Zhang, Feng-Li; Lai, Dongmei

    2014-12-01

    The difficulties faced in the effective treatment of ovarian cancer are multifactorial, but are mainly associated with relapse and drug resistance. Cancer stem-like cells have been reported to be an important contributor to these hindering factors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anticancer activities of a bioactive fungal metabolite, namely terrein, against the human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3, primary human ovarian cancer cells and ovarian cancer stem-like cells. Terrein was separated and purified from the fermentation metabolites of the marine sponge-derived fungus, Aspergillus terreus strain PF26. Its anticancer activities against ovarian cancer cells were investigated by cell proliferation assay, cell migration assay, cell apoptosis and cell cycle assays. The ovarian cancer stem-like cells were enriched and cultured in a serum-free in vitro suspension system. Terrein inhibited the proliferation of the ovarian cancer cells by inducing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. The underlying mechanisms involved the suppression of the expression of LIN28, an important marker gene of stemness in ovarian cancer stem cells. Of note, our study also demonstrated the ability of terrein to inhibit the proliferation of ovarian cancer stem-like cells, in which the expression of LIN28 was also downregulated. Our findings reveal that terrein (produced by fermention) may prove to be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer by inhibiting the proliferation of cancer stem-like cells. PMID:25318762

  4. RMP Plays Distinct Roles in the Proliferation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells and Normal Hepatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sijun; Wang, Hongmin; Guo, Yunlan; Chen, Shaomu; Zhang, Mei-Yin; Shen, Jian; Yu, Huijun; Miao, Jingcheng; Wang, Hui-Yun; Wei, Wenxiang

    2013-01-01

    RMP has been shown to function in the transcription regulation through association with RNA polymerase (RNAP) II subunit RPB5. It also has been shown to be required for the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells with an antiapoptotic property. In this article, we further demonstrate that RMP displays distinct features in HCC cells compared with normal hepatic cells. RMP expression is remarkably increased in various cancer cell lines including HCC cells when compared with normal cells. Depletion of RMP could inhibit the proliferation of HCC cells, but not the normal hepatic cells. RMP significantly prevented apoptosis of HCC cells in SMMC-7721 and HepG2, but had little effect on apoptosis in the normal hepatic cells. The mechanisms of RMP's distinct features rely on different responsive expressions of apoptosis factors induced by RMP in HCC and hepatic cells. Either overexpression or depletion of RMP significantly affected the expression of apoptosis factors in HCC cells. However, normal hepatic cells showed a tendency to resist RMP for the regulation of apoptosis. In the clinical samples, the increased expression of RMP in HCCs was also observed when compared with the matched non-tumor tissues from 30 HCC patients. The different expression levels of and distinct responses to RMP between HCC and hepatic cells suggest that RMP might serve as not only a biomarker for the diagnosis of HCC, but also a potential target for the HCC therapy. PMID:23847445

  5. A naringenin–tamoxifen combination impairs cell proliferation and survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hatkevich, Talia; Ramos, Joseph; Santos-Sanchez, Idalys; Patel, Yashomati M.

    2014-10-01

    Since over 60% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor positive (ER+), many therapies have targeted the ER. The ER is activated by both estrogen binding and phosphorylation. While anti-estrogen therapies, such as tamoxifen (Tam) have been successful they do not target the growth factor promoting phosphorylation of the ER. Other proliferation pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, (PI3K) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are activated in breast cancer cells and are associated with poor prognosis. Thus targeting multiple cellular proliferation and survival pathways at the onset of treatment is critical for the development of more effective therapies. The grapefruit flavanone naringenin (Nar) is an inhibitor of both the PI3K and MAPK pathways. Previous studies examining either Nar or Tam used charcoal-stripped serum which removed estrogen as well as other factors. We wanted to use serum containing medium in order to retain all the potential inducers of cell proliferation so as not to exclude any targets of Nar. Here we show that a Nar–Tam combination is more effective than either Tam alone or Nar alone in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that a Nar–Tam combination impaired cellular proliferation and viability to a greater extent than either component alone in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the use of a Nar–Tam combination requires lower concentrations of both compounds to achieve the same effects on proliferation and viability. Nar may function by inhibiting both PI3K and MAPK pathways as well as localizing ERα to the cytoplasm in MCF-7 cells. Our results demonstrate that a Nar–Tam combination induces apoptosis and impairs proliferation signaling to a greater extent than either compound alone. These studies provide critical information for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Nar–Tam impairs cell viability more effectively than

  6. MYC-repressed long noncoding RNAs antagonize MYC-induced cell proliferation and cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Young-Jun; Fadda, Paolo; Alder, Hansjuerg; Croce, Carlo M.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor MYC is a proto-oncogene regulating cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and metabolism. The recent identification of MYC-regulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) expands our knowledge of the role of lncRNAs in MYC functions. Here, we identify MYC-repressed lncRNAs named MYCLo-4, -5 and -6 by comparing 3 categories of lncRNAs (downregulated in highly MYC-expressing colorectal cancer, up-regulated by MYC knockdown in HCT116, upregulated by MYC knockdown in RKO). The MYC-repressed MYCLos are implicated in MYC-modulated cell proliferation through cell cycle regulation. By screening cell cycle-related genes regulated by MYC and the MYC-repressed MYCLos, we identified the MYC-repressed gene GADD45A as a target gene of the MYC-repressed MYCLos such as MYCLo-4 and MYCLo-6. PMID:26003165

  7. Cell proliferation is a key determinant of the outcome of FOXO3a activation

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Raewyn C. Carr, Andrew J.; Hulley, Philippa A.

    2015-06-19

    The FOXO family of forkhead transcription factors have a pivotal role in determining cell fate in response to oxidative stress. FOXO activity can either promote cell survival or induce cell death. Increased FOXO-mediated cell death has been implicated in the pathogenesis of degenerative diseases affecting musculoskeletal tissues. The aim of this study was to determine the conditions under which one member of the FOXO family, FOXO3a, promotes cell survival as opposed to cell death. Treatment of primary human tenocytes with 1 pM hydrogen peroxide for 18 h resulted in increased protein levels of FOXO3a. In peroxide-treated cells cultured in low serum media, FOXO3a inhibited cell proliferation and protected against apoptosis. However in peroxide treated cells cultured in high serum media, cell proliferation was unchanged but level of apoptosis significantly increased. Similarly, in tenocytes transduced to over-express FOXO3a, cell proliferation was inhibited and level of apoptosis unchanged in cells cultured in low serum. However there was a robust increase in cell death in FOXO3a-expressing cells cultured in high serum. Inhibition of cell proliferation in either peroxide-treated or FOXO3a-expressing cells cultured in high serum protected against apoptosis induction. Conversely, addition of a Chk2 inhibitor to peroxide-treated or FOXO3a-expressing cells overrode the inhibitory effect of FOXO3a on cell proliferation and led to increased apoptosis in cells cultured in low serum. This study demonstrates that proliferating cells may be particularly susceptible to the apoptosis-inducing actions of FOXO3a. Inhibition of cell proliferation by FOXO3a may be a critical event in allowing the pro-survival rather than the pro-apoptotic activity of FOXO3a to prevail. - Highlights: • FOXO3a activity can result in either promotion of cell survival or apoptosis. • The outcome of FOXO3a activation differs in proliferating compared to non-proliferating cells. • Proliferating

  8. Spirulina Promotes Stem Cell Genesis and Protects against LPS Induced Declines in Neural Stem Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bachstetter, Adam D.; Jernberg, Jennifer; Schlunk, Andrea; Vila, Jennifer L.; Hudson, Charles; Cole, Michael J.; Shytle, R. Douglas; Tan, Jun; Sanberg, Paul R.; Sanberg, Cyndy D.; Borlongan, Cesario; Kaneko, Yuji; Tajiri, Naoki; Gemma, Carmelina; Bickford, Paula C.

    2010-01-01

    Adult stem cells are present in many tissues including, skin, muscle, adipose, bone marrow, and in the brain. Neuroinflammation has been shown to be a potent negative regulator of stem cell and progenitor cell proliferation in the neurogenic regions of the brain. Recently we demonstrated that decreasing a key neuroinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in the hippocampus of aged rats reversed the age-related cognitive decline and increased neurogenesis in the age rats. We also have found that nutraceuticals have the potential to reduce neuroinflammation, and decrease oxidative stress. The objectives of this study were to determine if spirulina could protect the proliferative potential of hippocampal neural progenitor cells from an acute systemic inflammatory insult of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To this end, young rats were fed for 30 days a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.1% spirulina. On day 28 the rats were given a single i.p. injection of LPS (1 mg/kg). The following day the rats were injected with BrdU (50 mg/kg b.i.d. i.p.) and were sacrificed 24 hours after the first injection of BrdU. Quantification of the BrdU positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus demonstrated a decrease in proliferation of the stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus as a result of the LPS insult. Furthermore, the diet supplemented with spirulina was able to negate the LPS induced decrease in stem/progenitor cell proliferation. In a second set of studies we examined the effects of spirulina either alone or in combination with a proprietary formulation (NT-020) of blueberry, green tea, vitamin D3 and carnosine on the function of bone marrow and CD34+ cells in vitro. Spirulina had small effects on its own and more than additive effects in combination with NT-020 to promote mitochondrial respiration and/or proliferation of these cells in culture. When examined on neural stem cells in culture spirulina increased proliferation at baseline and protected against the negative

  9. NGF induces adult stem Leydig cells to proliferate and differentiate during Leydig cell regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Huaxi; Yang, Yan; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Qihao; Xiang, Qi; Ge, Renshan; Su, Zhijian; Huang, Yadong

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Nerve growth factor has shown significant changes on mRNA levels during Adult Leydig cells regeneration. •We established the organ culture model of rat seminiferous tubules with ethane dimethyl sulphonate (EDS) treatment. •Nerve growth factor has shown proliferation and differentiation-promoting effects on Adult stem Leydig cells. •Nerve growth factor induces progenitor Leydig cells to proliferate and differentiate and immature Leydig cells to proliferate. -- Abstract: Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been reported to be involved in male reproductive physiology. However, few reports have described the activity of NGF during Leydig cell development. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of NGF during stem-Leydig-cell (SLC) regeneration. We investigated the effects of NGF on Leydig-cell (LC) regeneration by measuring mRNA levels in the adult rat testis after ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) treatment. Furthermore, we used the established organ culture model of rat seminiferous tubules to examine the regulation of NGF during SLC proliferation and differentiation using EdU staining, real-time PCR and western blotting. Progenitor Leydig cells (PLCs) and immature Leydig cells (ILCs) were also used to investigate the effects of NGF on LCs at different developmental stages. NGF mRNA levels changed significantly during Leydig-cell regeneration in vivo. In vitro, NGF significantly promoted the proliferation of stem Leydig cells and also induced steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and 3β-HSD protein expression. The data from PLCs and ILCs showed that NGF could increase Cyclin D1 and Hsd 17b3 mRNA levels in PLCs and Cyclin D1 mRNA levels in ILCs. These results indicate that NGF may play an important role during LC regeneration by regulating the proliferation and differentiation of LCs at different developmental stages, from SLCs to PLCs and from PLCs to ILCs. The discovery of this effect of NGF on Leydig cells will provide useful

  10. WS6 induces both alpha and beta cell proliferation without affecting differentiation or viability

    PubMed Central

    Boerner, Brian P.; George, Nicholas M.; Mir, Shakeel U.R.; Sarvetnick, Nora E.

    2016-01-01

    Agents that stimulate human pancreatic beta cell proliferation are needed to improve diabetes mellitus treatment. Recently, a small molecule, WS6, was observed to stimulate human beta cell proliferation. However, little is known about its other effects on human islets. To better understand the role of WS6 as a possible beta cell regenerative therapy, we carried out in-depth phenotypic analysis of WS6-treated human islets, exploring its effects on non-beta cell proliferation, beta cell differentiation, and islet cell viability. WS6 not only stimulated beta cell proliferation in cultured human islets (in agreement with previous reports), but also human alpha cell proliferation, indicating that WS6 is not a beta cell-specific mitogen. WS6 did not change the proportion of insulin-positive beta cells or the expression of beta cell-specific transcription factors, suggesting that WS6 does not alter beta cell differentiation, and WS6 had no effect on human islet cell apoptosis or viability. In conclusion, WS6 stimulates proliferation of both human beta and alpha cells while maintaining cellular viability and the beta cell differentiated phenotype. These findings expand the literature on WS6 and support the suggestion that WS6 may help increase human islet mass needed for successful treatment of diabetes. PMID:25739404

  11. Armet, a UPR-upregulated protein, inhibits cell proliferation and ER stress-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolou, Andria; Shen Yuxian; Liang Yan; Luo Jun; Fang Shengyun

    2008-08-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress that initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR activates both adaptive and apoptotic pathways, which contribute differently to disease pathogenesis. To further understand the functional mechanisms of UPR, we identified 12 commonly UPR-upregulated genes by expression microarray analysis. Here, we describe characterization of Armet/MANF, one of the 12 genes whose function was not clear. We demonstrated that the Armet/MANF protein was upregulated by various forms of ER stress in several cell lines as well as by cerebral ischemia of rat. Armet/MANF was localized in the ER and Golgi and was also a secreted protein. Silencing Armet/MANF by siRNA oligos in HeLa cells rendered cells more susceptible to ER stress-induced death, but surprisingly increased cell proliferation and reduced cell size. Overexpression of Armet/MANF inhibited cell proliferation and improved cell viability under glucose-free conditions and tunicamycin treatment. Based on its inhibitory properties for both proliferation and cell death we have demonstrated, Armet is, thus, a novel secreted mediator of the adaptive pathway of UPR.

  12. Cell-laden microengineered pullulan methacrylate hydrogels promote cell proliferation and 3D cluster formation.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hojae; Ahari, Amir F; Shin, Hyeongho; Nichol, Jason W; Hutson, Che B; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Kim, Su-Hwan; Aubin, Hug; Yamanlar, Seda; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The ability to encapsulate cells in three-dimensional (3D) environments is potentially of benefit for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this paper, we introduce pullulan methacrylate (PulMA) as a promising hydrogel platform for creating cell-laden microscale tissues. The hydration and mechanical properties of PulMA were demonstrated to be tunable through modulation of the degree of methacrylation and gel concentration. Cells encapsulated in PulMA exhibited excellent viability. Interestingly, while cells did not elongate in PulMA hydrogels, cells proliferated and organized into clusters, the size of which could be controlled by the hydrogel composition. By mixing with gelatin methacrylate (GelMA), the biological properties of PulMA could be enhanced as demonstrated by cells readily attaching to, proliferating, and elongating within the PulMA/GelMA composite hydrogels. These data suggest that PulMA hydrogels could be useful for creating complex, cell-responsive microtissues, especially for applications that require controlled cell clustering and proliferation. PMID:21415929

  13. Acetylcholinesterase is associated with a decrease in cell proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Aguilar, Benjamín; Vidal, Cecilio J; Palomec, Guillermina; García-Dolores, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Olivares, José Luis; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique

    2015-07-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that rapidly splits acetylcholine into acetate and choline, presents non-cholinergic functions through which may participate in the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis. These two features are relevant in cancer, particularly in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a very aggressive liver tumor with high incidence and poor prognosis in advanced stages. Here we explored the relation between acetylcholinesterase and HCC growth by testing the influence of AChE on proliferation of Huh-7 and HepG2 cell lines, addressed in monolayer cultures, spheroid formation and human liver tumor samples. Results showed a clear relation in AChE expression and cell cycle progression, an effect which depended on cell confluence. Inhibition of AChE activity led to an increase in cell proliferation, which was associated with downregulation of p27 and cyclins. The fact that Huh-7 and HepG2 cell lines provided similar results lent weight to the relationship of AChE expression with cell cycle progression in hepatoma cell lines at least. Human liver tumor samples exhibited a decrease in AChE activity as compared with normal tissue. The evidence presented herein provides additional support for the proposed tumor suppressor role of AChE, which makes it a potential therapeutic target in therapies against hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25869328

  14. Fatostatin Inhibits Cancer Cell Proliferation by Affecting Mitotic Microtubule Spindle Assembly and Cell Division.

    PubMed

    Gholkar, Ankur A; Cheung, Keith; Williams, Kevin J; Lo, Yu-Chen; Hamideh, Shadia A; Nnebe, Chelsea; Khuu, Cindy; Bensinger, Steven J; Torres, Jorge Z

    2016-08-12

    The sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors have become attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition in the treatment of metabolic diseases and cancer. SREBPs are critical for the production and metabolism of lipids and cholesterol, which are essential for cellular homeostasis and cell proliferation. Fatostatin was recently discovered as a specific inhibitor of SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), which is required for SREBP activation. Fatostatin possesses antitumor properties including the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, and it arrests cancer cells in G2/M phase. Although Fatostatin has been viewed as an antitumor agent due to its inhibition of SREBP and its effect on lipid metabolism, we show that Fatostatin's anticancer properties can also be attributed to its inhibition of cell division. We analyzed the effect of SREBP activity inhibitors including Fatostatin, PF-429242, and Betulin on the cell cycle and determined that only Fatostatin possessed antimitotic properties. Fatostatin inhibited tubulin polymerization, arrested cells in mitosis, activated the spindle assembly checkpoint, and triggered mitotic catastrophe and reduced cell viability. Thus Fatostatin's ability to inhibit SREBP activity and cell division could prove beneficial in treating aggressive types of cancers such as glioblastomas that have elevated lipid metabolism and fast proliferation rates and often develop resistance to current anticancer therapies. PMID:27378817

  15. Cell-laden microengineered pullulan methacrylate hydrogels promote cell proliferation and 3D cluster formation

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hojae; Ahari, Amir F.; Shin, Hyeongho; Nichol, Jason W.; Hutson, Che B.; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Kim, Su-Hwan; Aubin, Hug; Yamanlar, Seda; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The ability to encapsulate cells in three-dimensional (3D) environments is potentially of benefit for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this paper, we introduce pullulan methacrylate (PulMA) as a promising hydrogel platform for creating cell-laden microscale tissues. The hydration and mechanical properties of PulMA were demonstrated to be tunable through modulation of the degree of methacrylation and gel concentration. Cells encapsulated in PulMA exhibited excellent viability. Interestingly, while cells did not elongate in PulMA hydrogels, cells proliferated and organized into clusters, the size of which could be controlled by the hydrogel composition. By mixing with gelatin methacrylate (GelMA), the biological properties of PulMA could be enhanced as demonstrated by cells readily attaching to, proliferating, and elongating within the PulMA/GelMA composite hydrogels. These data suggest that PulMA hydrogels could be useful for creating complex, cell-responsive microtissues, especially for applications that require controlled cell clustering and proliferation. PMID:21415929

  16. EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells by potentiating IGF-1 secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Er-Wen; Xue, Sheng-Jiang; Li, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Suo-Wen; Cheng, Jian-Ding; Zheng, Jin-Xiang; Shi, He; Lv, Guo-Li; Li, Zhi-Gang; Li, Yue; Liu, Chang-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Hong; Li, Jie; Liu, Chao

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Levels of EEN expression paralleled with the rate of cell proliferation. • EEN was involved in the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. • EEN regulated the activity of IGF-1-Akt/mTOR pathway. • EEN regulated proliferation and survival of MM cells by enhancing IGF-1 secretion. - Abstract: The molecular mechanisms of multiple myeloma are not well defined. EEN is an endocytosis-regulating molecule. Here we report that EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells, by regulating IGF-1 secretion. In the present study, we observed that EEN expression paralleled with cell proliferation, EEN accelerated cell proliferation, facilitated cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase by regulating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) pathway, and delayed cell apoptosis via Bcl2/Bax-mitochondrial pathway. Mechanistically, we found that EEN was indispensable for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion and the activation of protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt-mTOR) pathway. Exogenous IGF-1 overcame the phenotype of EEN depletion, while IGF-1 neutralization overcame that of EEN over-expression. Collectively, these data suggest that EEN may play a pivotal role in excessive cell proliferation and insufficient cell apoptosis of bone marrow plasma cells in multiple myeloma. Therefore, EEN may represent a potential diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for multiple myeloma.

  17. DOCK2 regulates cell proliferation through Rac and ERK activation in B cell lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Kimura, Taichi; Kato, Yasutaka; Tanino, Mishie; Nishio, Mitsufumi; Obara, Masato; Endo, Tomoyuki; Koike, Takao; Tanaka, Shinya

    2010-04-23

    DOCK2; a member of the CDM protein family, regulates cell motility and cytokine production through the activation of Rac in mammalian hematopoietic cells and plays a pivotal role in the modulation of the immune system. Here we demonstrated the alternative function of DOCK2 in hematopoietic tumor cells, especially in terms of its association with the tumor progression. Immunostaining for DOCK2 in 20 cases of human B cell lymphoma tissue specimens including diffuse large B cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma revealed the prominent expression of DOCK2 in all of the lymphoma cells. DOCK2-knockdown (KD) of the B cell lymphoma cell lines, Ramos and Raji, using the lentiviral shRNA system presented decreased cell proliferation compared to the control cells. Furthermore, the tumor formation of DOCK2-KD Ramos cell in nude mice was significantly abrogated. Western blotting analysis and pull-down assay using GST-PAK-RBD kimeric protein suggested the presence of DOCK2-Rac-ERK pathway regulating the cell proliferation of these lymphoma cells. This is the first report to clarify the prominent role of DOCK2 in hematopoietic malignancy.

  18. A comparative study of colorimetric cell proliferation assays in immune cells.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Madoka; Kawakabe, So; Arimura, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Cell proliferation assays are basic and essential techniques for assessing cellular function. Various colorimetric assays, such as MTT-, WST-1-, and resazurin-based assays, are available; however, studies directly comparing the suitability of each method for immune cell proliferation are scarce. Thus, we aimed to determine the best reagent and its optimal conditions based on variables such as cell number range, stimulation dose, kinetics, and compatibility with the cell division assay using CFSE fluorescence dye which is able to directly monitor divided cells by flow cytometry. In the absence of stimulation, MTT solubilized with SDS (MTT-SDS) and resazurin appeared to accurately reflect the cell numbers in a linear fashion. On the other hand, WST-1 exhibited a higher stimulation index following strong stimulation, whereas MTT-SDS and resazurin exhibited a better sensitivity to weak stimulation. A longer duration for stimulation did not necessarily increase sensitivity. CFSE staining revealed incremental cell division in response to anti-CD3 antibody stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. The cell numbers indirectly estimated from cell division profiles were consistent with the dose-response curve in the absorbance of MTT-SDS and resazurin. The absorbance does not increase before cell division, irrespective of T cell activation status, suggesting that these reagents reflect the cell number but not the cellular volume. Collectively, resazurin and MTT-SDS seem to be more reliable than others, and thus appear applicable in various conditions for the immune cell experiments. PMID:26280992

  19. Expression of Nanog gene promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jingyu; Wang Xia; Chen Bing; Suo Guangli; Zhao Yanhong; Duan Ziyuan; Dai Jianwu . E-mail: jwdai@genetics.ac.cn

    2005-12-16

    Cells are the functional elements in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A large number of cells are usually needed for these purposes. However, there are numbers of limitations for in vitro cell proliferation. Nanog is an important self-renewal determinant in embryonic stem cells. However, it remains unknown whether Nanog will influence the cell cycle and cell proliferation of mature cells. In this study, we expressed Nanog in NIH3T3 cells and showed that expression of Nanog in NIH3T3 promoted cells to enter into S phase and enhanced cell proliferation. This suggests that Nanog gene might function in a similar fashion in mature cells as in ES cells. In addition, it may provide an approach for in vitro cell expansion.

  20. ETOH inhibits embryonic neural stem/precursor cell proliferation via PLD signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Yuko; Hiroyama, Masami; Sanbe, Atsushi Yamauchi, Junji; Murase, Shoko; Tanoue, Akito

    2008-05-23

    While a mother's excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy is known to have adverse effects on fetal neural development, little is known about the underlying mechanism of these effects. In order to investigate these mechanisms, we investigated the toxic effect of ethanol (ETOH) on neural stem/precursor cell (NSC) proliferation. In cultures of NSCs, phospholipase D (PLD) is activated following stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). Exposure of NSCs to ETOH suppresses cell proliferation, while it has no effect on cell death. Phosphatidic acid (PA), which is a signaling messenger produced by PLD, reverses ETOH inhibition of NSC proliferation. Blocking the PLD signal by 1-butanol suppresses the proliferation. ETOH-induced suppression of NSC proliferation and the protective effect of PA for ETOH-induced suppression are mediated through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. These results indicate that exposure to ETOH impairs NSC proliferation by altering the PLD signaling pathway.

  1. Aquaporin 2-increased renal cell proliferation is associated with cell volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Di Giusto, Gisela; Flamenco, Pilar; Rivarola, Valeria; Fernández, Juan; Melamud, Luciana; Ford, Paula; Capurro, Claudia

    2012-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that in renal cortical collecting duct cells (RCCD(1)) the expression of the water channel Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) raises the rate of cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in this process, focusing on the putative link between AQP2 expression, cell volume changes, and regulatory volume decrease activity (RVD). Two renal cell lines were used: WT-RCCD(1) (not expressing aquaporins) and AQP2-RCCD(1) (transfected with AQP2). Our results showed that when most RCCD(1) cells are in the G(1)-phase (unsynchronized), the blockage of barium-sensitive K(+) channels implicated in rapid RVD inhibits cell proliferation only in AQP2-RCCD(1) cells. Though cells in the S-phase (synchronized) had a remarkable increase in size, this enhancement was higher and was accompanied by a significant down-regulation in the rapid RVD response only in AQP2-RCCD(1) cells. This decrease in the RVD activity did not correlate with changes in AQP2 function or expression, demonstrating that AQP2-besides increasing water permeability-would play some other role. These observations together with evidence implying a cell-sizing mechanism that shortens the cell cycle of large cells, let us to propose that during nutrient uptake, in early G(1), volume tends to increase but it may be efficiently regulated by an AQP2-dependent mechanism, inducing the rapid activation of RVD channels. This mechanism would be down-regulated when volume needs to be increased in order to proceed into the S-phase. Therefore, during cell cycle, a coordinated modulation of the RVD activity may contribute to accelerate proliferation of cells expressing AQP2. PMID:22786728

  2. Knockdown of DDX46 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Li, Yu-Min; He, Wen-Ting; Chen, Hao; Zhu, Hong-Wen; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Song, Tie-Niu; Zhou, Ya-Li

    2016-07-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common type of esophageal carcinoma and remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. DEAD-box RNA helicases play critical roles in cellular metabolism and in many cases have been implicated in cellular proliferation and neoplastic transformation. DDX46 belongs to DEAD-box helicase family, the expression pattern of DDX46 in ESCC tissues and the biologic role in ESCC progression have not been implicated previously. In this study, DDX46 expression in human ESCC and adjacent normal tissues were explored using immunohistochemistry, and ESCC cell lines compared with normal esophageal epithelium cell were quantified using real‑time PCR. Next, lentivirus-mediated RNA interference was applied to silence DDX46 in TE-1 and Eca-109 cells. Cell growth was monitored using high content screening. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Cell colony-forming capacity was measured by colony formation assay. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. Further, the stress and apoptosis signaling antibody array kit was used to detect the changes of signaling molecules in TE-1 cells after DDX46 knockdown. We found that DDX46 was significantly upregulated in ESCC tissues and cells compared with normal tissues and cells. DDX46 knockdown led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in TE-1 and Eca-109 cells. Moreover, DDX46 silencing resulted in apoptotic induction via decreased phosphorylation of Akt and IκBα, as well as negative regulation of NF-κB signaling. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that DDX46 knockdown inhibited cell growth, and induced apoptosis, suggest that DDX46 is critical for ESCC cells proliferation. In addition, this study provides a foundation for further study into the clinical potential diagnosis and novel therapeutic target for ESCC. PMID:27176873

  3. Piperlongumine Suppresses Proliferation of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Senescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, San-Yuan; Liu, Geng-Hung; Chao, Wen-Ying; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yen; Lim, Yun-Ping; Lu, Chieh-Hsiang; Lai, Peng-Yeh; Chen, Hau-Ren; Lee, Ying-Ray

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), an aggressive cancer originating in the oral cavity, is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in males worldwide. This study investigated the antitumor activity and mechanisms of piperlongumine (PL), a natural compound isolated from Piper longum L., in human OSCC cells. The effects of PL on cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in human OSCC cells were investigated. PL effectively inhibited cell growth, caused cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis and senescence in OSCC cells. Moreover, PL-mediated anti-human OSCC behavior was inhibited by an ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment, suggesting that regulation of ROS was involved in the mechanism of the anticancer activity of PL. These findings suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth by regulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis and senescence and is a potential chemotherapy agent for human OSCC cells. PMID:27120594

  4. Piperlongumine Suppresses Proliferation of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, San-Yuan; Liu, Geng-Hung; Chao, Wen-Ying; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yen; Lim, Yun-Ping; Lu, Chieh-Hsiang; Lai, Peng-Yeh; Chen, Hau-Ren; Lee, Ying-Ray

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), an aggressive cancer originating in the oral cavity, is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in males worldwide. This study investigated the antitumor activity and mechanisms of piperlongumine (PL), a natural compound isolated from Piper longum L., in human OSCC cells. The effects of PL on cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in human OSCC cells were investigated. PL effectively inhibited cell growth, caused cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis and senescence in OSCC cells. Moreover, PL-mediated anti-human OSCC behavior was inhibited by an ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment, suggesting that regulation of ROS was involved in the mechanism of the anticancer activity of PL. These findings suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth by regulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis and senescence and is a potential chemotherapy agent for human OSCC cells. PMID:27120594

  5. GABA's Control of Stem and Cancer Cell Proliferation in Adult Neural and Peripheral Niches

    PubMed Central

    Young, Stephanie Z.; Bordey, Angélique

    2010-01-01

    Aside from traditional neurotransmission and regulation of secretion, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) through GABAA receptors negatively regulates proliferation of pluripotent and neural stem cells in embryonic and adult tissue. There has also been evidence that GABAergic signaling and its control over proliferation is not only limited to the nervous system, but is widespread through peripheral organs containing adult stem cells. GABA has emerged as a tumor signaling molecule in the periphery that controls the proliferation of tumor cells and perhaps tumor stem cells. Here, we will discuss GABA's presence as a near-universal signal that may be altered in tumor cells resulting in modified mitotic activity. PMID:19509127

  6. Inhibitory effect of succinic acid on epithelial cell proliferation of colonic mucosa in rats.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Akiko; Ichikawa, Hirofumi; Sakata, Takashi

    2007-08-01

    Microbial breakdown of carbohydrates in the large intestine mainly produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA stimulate epithelial cell proliferation of the digestive tract in vivo. Succinic acid sometimes accumulates in the colonic lumen. However, the effect of succinic acid on colonic epithelial cell proliferation is unknown. Thus, we planned to clarify the influence of succinic acid on colonic epithelial cell proliferation in vivo. We continuously administered infusate with or without succinic acid (100 mM) into the distal colon of rats for 6 d and measured accumulated mitosis per crypt of distal colon of these rats. Succinic acid infused into rat colons significantly inhibited colonic cell proliferation and reduced crypt size. These results clearly indicated the inhibitory effects of succinic acid on colonic epithelial cell proliferation in vivo. PMID:17934246

  7. MicroRNA-196b promotes cell proliferation and suppress cell differentiation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Donglin Hu, Liangshan; Lei, Da; Fang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Zhihong; Wang, Ting; Lin, Maorui; Huang, Jiwei; Yang, Huawen; Zhou, Xuan; Zhong, Limei

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • miRNA-196b increases proliferation and blocks differentiation of progenitor cell. • miRNA-196b inhibits apoptosis and increases viability of cells lines. • Forced expression of miR-196b blocks the differentiation of THP1 induced by PMA. - Abstract: MicroRNA-196b (miR-196b) is frequently amplified and aberrantly overexpressed in acute leukemias. To investigate the role of miR-196b in acute leukemias, it has been observed that forced expression of this miRNA increases proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in human cell lines. More importantly, we show that this miRNA can significantly increase the colony-forming capacity of mouse normal bone marrow progenitor cells alone, as well as partially blocking the cells from differentiation. Taken together, our studies suggest that miRNA-196b may play an essential role in the development of MLL-associated leukemias through inhibiting cell differentiation and apoptosis, while promoting cell proliferation.

  8. DNA Replication Licensing Affects Cell Proliferation or Endoreplication in a Cell Type–Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    del Mar Castellano, María; Boniotti, María Beatrice; Caro, Elena; Schnittger, Arp; Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2004-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the function of DNA replication licensing components (Cdc6 and Cdt1, among others) is crucial for cell proliferation and genome stability. However, little is known about their role in whole organisms and whether licensing control interfaces with differentiation and developmental programs. Here, we study Arabidopsis thaliana CDT1, its regulation, and the consequences of overriding licensing control. The availability of AtCDT1 is strictly regulated at two levels: (1) at the transcription level, by E2F and growth-arresting signals, and (2) posttranscriptionally, by CDK phosphorylation, a step that is required for its proteasome-mediated degradation. We also show that CDC6 and CDT1 are key targets for the coordination of cell proliferation, differentiation, and development. Indeed, altered CDT1 or CDC6 levels have cell type–specific effects in developing Arabidopsis plants: in leaf cells competent to divide, cell proliferation is stimulated, whereas in cells programmed to undergo differentiation-associated endoreplication rounds, extra endocycles are triggered. Thus, we propose that DNA replication licensing control is critical for the proper maintenance of proliferative potential, developmental programs, and morphogenetic patterns. PMID:15316110

  9. Structural and Functional Insight into Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen.

    PubMed

    Park, So Young; Jeong, Mi Suk; Han, Chang Woo; Yu, Hak Sun; Jang, Se Bok

    2016-04-28

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a critical eukaryotic replication accessory factor that supports DNA binding in DNA processing, such as DNA replication, repair, and recombination. PCNA consists of three toroidal-shaped monomers that encircle doublestranded DNA. The diverse functions of PCNA may be regulated by its interactions with partner proteins. Many of the PCNA partner proteins generally have a conserved PCNAinteracting peptide (PIP) motif, located at the N- or C- terminal region. The PIP motif forms a 310 helix that enters into the hydrophobic groove produced by an interdomain-connecting loop, a central loop, and a C-terminal tail in the PCNA. Post-translational modification of PCNA also plays a critical role in regulation of its function and binding partner proteins. Structural and biochemical studies of PCNA-protein will be useful in designing therapeutic agents, as well as estimating the outcome of anticancer drug development. This review summarizes the characterization of eukaryotic PCNA in relation to the protein structures, functions, and modifications, and interaction with proteins. PMID:26699741

  10. Simulation of proliferation and differentiation of cells in a stem-cell niche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2008-10-01

    Stem-cell niches represent microscopic compartments formed of environmental cells that nurture stem cells and enable them to maintain tissue homeostasis. The spatio-temporal kinetics of proliferation and differentiation of cells in such niches depend on the specifics of the niche structure and on adhesion and communication between cells and may also be influenced by spatial constraints on cell division. We propose a generic lattice model, taking all these factors into account, and systematically illustrate their role. The model is motivated by the experimental data available for the niches located in the subventricular zone of adult mammalian brain. The general conclusions drawn from our Monte Carlo simulations are applicable to other niches as well. One of our main findings is that the kinetics under consideration are highly stochastic due to a relatively small number of cells proliferating and differentiating in a niche and the autocatalytic character of the symmetric cell division. In particular, the kinetics exhibit huge stochastic bursts especially if the adhesion between cells is taken into account. In addition, the results obtained show that despite the small number of cells present in stem-cell niches, their arrangement can be predetermined to appreciable extent provided that the adhesion of different cells is different so that they tend to segregate.

  11. Stimulation of TM3 Leydig cell proliferation via GABAA receptors: A new role for testicular GABA

    PubMed Central

    Geigerseder, Christof; Doepner, Richard FG; Thalhammer, Andrea; Krieger, Annette; Mayerhofer, Artur

    2004-01-01

    The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and subtypes of GABA receptors were recently identified in adult testes. Since adult Leydig cells possess both the GABA biosynthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), as well as GABAA and GABAB receptors, it is possible that GABA may act as auto-/paracrine molecule to regulate Leydig cell function. The present study was aimed to examine effects of GABA, which may include trophic action. This assumption is based on reports pinpointing GABA as regulator of proliferation and differentiation of developing neurons via GABAA receptors. Assuming such a role for the developing testis, we studied whether GABA synthesis and GABA receptors are already present in the postnatal testis, where fetal Leydig cells and, to a much greater extend, cells of the adult Leydig cell lineage proliferate. Immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, Western blotting and a radioactive enzymatic GAD assay evidenced that fetal Leydig cells of five-six days old rats possess active GAD protein, and that both fetal Leydig cells and cells of the adult Leydig cell lineage possess GABAA receptor subunits. TM3 cells, a proliferating mouse Leydig cell line, which we showed to possess GABAA receptor subunits by RT-PCR, served to study effects of GABA on proliferation. Using a colorimetric proliferation assay and Western Blotting for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) we demonstrated that GABA or the GABAA agonist isoguvacine significantly increased TM3 cell number and PCNA content in TM3 cells. These effects were blocked by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline, implying a role for GABAA receptors. In conclusion, GABA increases proliferation of TM3 Leydig cells via GABAA receptor activation and proliferating Leydig cells in the postnatal rodent testis bear a GABAergic system. Thus testicular GABA may play an as yet unrecognized role in the development of Leydig cells during the differentiation of the testicular interstitial compartment. PMID:15040802

  12. Baicalin inhibits PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of airway smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Li, Jian-Qiang; Bo, Jian-Ping; Wang, Bei; Tian, Xin-Rui; Liu, Tan-Zhen; Liu, Zhuo-La

    2015-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell proliferation and migration play important roles in airway remodeling in asthma. In vitro platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) induced ASM cell proliferation and migration. Baicalin is one of flavonoid extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis, which has an anti-asthma effect. However, little is known about its role in PDGF-induced proliferation and migration in rat ASM (RASM) cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of baicalin on PDGF-induced RASM cell proliferation and migration. We also identified the signaling pathway by which baicalin influences RASM cell proliferation and migration. In the current study, we demonstrated that baicalin suppressed PDGF-induced RASM cell proliferation, arrested PDGF-induced cell-cycle progression. It also suppressed PDGF-induced RASM cell migration. Furthermore, baicalin suppressed PDGF-induced expression of phosphorylated p38, ERK1/2 and JNK in RASM cells. In summary, our study is the first to show that baicalin pretreatment can significantly inhibit PDGF-induced RASM cell proliferation and migration by suppressing the MAPK signaling pathway, and baicalin may be a useful chemotherapeutic agent for asthma. PMID:26884970

  13. Oxidized Lipoprotein as a Major Vessel Cell Proliferator in Oxidized Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is correlated with the incidence of several diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer, and oxidized biomolecules have been determined as biomarkers of oxidative stress; however, the detailed molecular relationship between generated oxidation products and the promotion of diseases has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, to clarify the role of serum oxidation products in vessel cell proliferation, which is related to the incidence of atherosclerosis and cancer, the major vessel cell proliferator in oxidized human serum was investigated. Oxidized human serum was prepared by free radical exposure, separated using gel chromatography, and then each fraction was added to several kinds of vessel cells including endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. It was found that a high molecular weight fraction in oxidized human serum specifically induced vessel cell proliferation. Oxidized lipids were contained in this high molecular weight fraction, while cell proliferation activity was not observed in oxidized lipoprotein-deficient serum. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins induced vessel cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicate that oxidized lipoproteins containing lipid oxidation products function as a major vessel cell proliferator in oxidized human serum. These findings strongly indicate the relevance of determination of oxidized lipoproteins and lipid oxidation products in the diagnosis of vessel cell proliferation-related diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer. PMID:27483438

  14. Effect of mitoxantrone on proliferation dynamics and cell-cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahper N; Lal, Sunil K; Kumar, Purnima; Khan, Asad U

    2010-12-01

    MTX (mitoxantrone), an anti-tumour antibiotic, is known to cause cell death by intercalating the DNA bases. But how it interferes with the cellular proliferation is not well known. Hence, in the present study, we have tried to evaluate the interaction of this drug using proliferation dynamics to gain a better understanding of MTX's antineoplastic action. Inhibition of proliferation by these drugs was detected by evaluating its effect on cell proliferation and growth curve of the cells. MTX was also found to affect the cell viability and, thereby, cell physiology. Typical apoptotic morphologies such as condensation of nuclei and membrane permeabilization were observed through CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscopy) and fluorescence spectroscopy, which implicates commitment to cell death. Cell-cycle distribution was measured by flow cytometric measurements. The analysis demonstrated significant cell-cycle arrest on MTX treatment. Inhibition of lacZ gene expression was also observed on drug treatment, which implicates its interaction with gene expression. PMID:19951261

  15. Serum Glutamate Levels Correlate with Gleason Score and Glutamate Blockade Decreases Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion and Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Koochekpour, Shahriar; Majumdar, Sunipa; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Attwood, Kristopher; Scioneaux, Ray; Subramani, Dhatchayini; Manhardt, Charles; Lorusso, Giovanni D.; Willard, Stacey S.; Thompson, Hillary; Shourideh, Mojgan; Rezaei, Katayoon; Sartor, Oliver; Mohler, James L.; Vessella, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose During glutaminolysis, glutamine is catabolized to glutamate and incorporated into citric acid cycle and lipogenesis. Serum glutamate levels were measured in patients with primary prostate cancer (PCa) or metastatic castrate-resistant PCa (mCRPCa) to establish clinical relevance. The effect of glutamate-deprivation or blockade by metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1)-antagonists was investigated on PCa cells’ growth, migration, and invasion to establish biological relevance. Experimental Design Serum glutamate levels were measured in normal men (n = 60) and patients with primary PCa (n = 197) or mCRPCa (n = 109). GRM1 expression in prostatic tissues was examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cell growth, migration, and invasion were determined using cell cytotoxicity and modified Boyden chamber assays, respectively. Apoptosis was detected using immunoblotting against cleaved caspases, PARP and γ-H2AX. Results Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated significantly higher serum glutamate levels in Gleason score ≥ 8 than in the Gleason sscore ≤ 7 and in African Americans than in the Caucasian Americans. African Americans with mCRPCa significantly higher serum glutamate levels than those with primary PCa or benign prostate. However, in Caucasian Americans, serum glutamate levels were similar in normal research subjects and patients with mCRPC. IHC demonstrated weak or no expression of GRM1 in luminal acinar epithelial cells of normal or hyperplastic glands, but high expression in primary or metastatic PCa tissues. Glutamate deprivation or blockade decreased PCa cells’ proliferation, migration, and invasion and led to apoptotic cell death. Conclusions Glutamate expression is mechanistically associated with and may provide a biomarker of PCa aggressiveness. PMID:23072969

  16. Angiomotin promotes renal epithelial and carcinoma cell proliferation by retaining the nuclear YAP

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Meng; Li, Shuting; Luo, Changqin; Zhang, Xiaoman; Shen, Yanwei; Sui, YanXia; Wang, Fan; Wang, Xin; Yang, Jiao; Liu, Peijun; Yang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the common tumors in the urinary system without effective therapies. Angiomotin (Amot) can interact with Yes-associated protein (YAP) to either stimulate or inhibit YAP activity, playing a potential role in cell proliferation. However, the role of Amot in regulating the proliferation of renal epithelial and RCC cells is unknown. Here, we show that Amot is expressed predominantly in the nucleus of RCC cells and tissues, and in the cytoplasm and nucleus of renal epithelial cells and paracancerous tissues. Furthermore, Amot silencing inhibited proliferation of HK-2 and 786-O cells while Amot upregulation promoted proliferation of ACHN cells. Interestingly, the location of Amot and YAP in RCC clinical samples and cells was similar. Amot interacted with YAP in HK-2 and 786-O cells, particularly in the nucleus. Moreover, Amot silencing mitigated the levels of nuclear YAP in HK-2 and 786-O cells and reduced YAP-related CTGF and Cyr61 expression in 786-O cells. Amot upregulation slightly increased the nuclear YAP and YAP-related gene expression in ACHN cells. Finally, enhanced YAP expression restored proliferation of Amot-silencing 786-O cells. Together, these data indicate that Amot is crucial for the maintenance of nuclear YAP to promote renal epithelial and RCC proliferation. PMID:26848622

  17. Inhibitory effect of MyoD on the proliferation of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    CAI, CHANGJING; QIN, XIAOQUN; WU, ZIYI; SHEN, QIXIA; YANG, WENQIAN; ZHANG, SHUJUN; DUAN, JINLING; LIANG, FENGLAN; LIU, CHI

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is rich in lymphatic vessels, with an abundant blood supply, and it is an infrequent site of cancer metastasis. Previous studies have demonstrated that enhanced secretion of MyoD may occur when skeletal muscle is injured or becomes cancerous. It was hypothesized that MyoD may act as an endogenous cytokine to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. To verify the possible effect of this protein on tumor cell proliferation, C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells and 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells were co-cultured using embedded Transwell plates. Following co-culture, cell cycle analysis revealed that C2C12 muscle cells were able to inhibit the proliferation of the breast cancer cells. Subsequently, MyoD was silenced in C2C12 cells to assess its effect on 4T1 cell proliferation. Following co-culture with MyoD-silenced cells, a 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine assay indicated that MyoD silencing prevented the reduction in proliferation of 4T1 cells induced by untransfected C2C12 cells. In summary, the results indicated that MyoD inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells and may be a tumor suppressor factor. PMID:27284360

  18. Thymic B cells promote thymus-derived regulatory T cell development and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fang-Ting; Yang, Wei; Wang, Yin-Hu; Ma, Hong-Di; Tang, Wei; Yang, Jing-Bo; Li, Liang; Ansari, Aftab A; Lian, Zhe-Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Thymic CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are critical for the development of immunological tolerance and immune homeostasis and requires contributions of both thymic dendritic and epithelial cells. Although B cells have been reported to be present within the thymus, there has not hitherto been a definition of their role in immune cell development and, in particular, whether or how they contribute to the Treg cellular thymic compartment. Herein, using both phenotypic and functional approaches, we demonstrate that thymic B cells contribute to the maintenance of thymic Treg cells and, using an in vitro culture system, demonstrate that thymic B cells contribute to the size of the thymic Treg compartment via cell-cell MHC II contact and the involvement of two independent co-stimulatory pathways that include interactions between the CD40/CD80/CD86 co-stimulatory molecules. Our data also suggest that thymic B cells promote the generation of thymic Treg cell precursors (pre-Treg cells), but not the conversion of FoxP3(+) Treg cells from pre-Treg cells. In addition, thymic B cells directly promote the proliferation of thymic Treg cells that is MHC II contact dependent with a minimal if any role for co-stimulatory molecules including CD40/CD80/CD86. Both pathways are independent of TGFβ. In conclusion, we rigorously define the critical role of thymic B cells in the development of thymic Treg cells from non-Treg to precursor stage and in the proliferation of mature thymic Treg cells. PMID:26071985

  19. MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN THE ENHANCED SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SENESCENT RATS TO THE HEPATOCARCINOGENIC EFFECT OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATORS: ROLE OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA (PPARA), CELL PROLIFERATION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanisms involved in the ENHANCED SUSCEPTIBILITY of SENESCENT Rats TO THE HEPATOCARCINOGENIC EFFECT OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATORS: Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa), cell proliferation and oxidative stress

    Jihan A. Youssef1, Pierre Ammann2, B...

  20. Dynamic assessment of cell viability, proliferation and migration using real time cell analyzer system (RTCA).

    PubMed

    Roshan Moniri, Mani; Young, Ada; Reinheimer, Kelsey; Rayat, Jarrett; Dai, Long-Jun; Warnock, Garth L

    2015-03-01

    Cell viability and cell migration capacities are critical parameters for cell culture-related studies. It is essential to monitor the dynamic changes of cell properties under various co-culture conditions to our better understanding of their behaviours and characteristics. The real time cell analyzer (RTCA, xCELLigence, Roche) is an impedance-based technology that can be used for label-free and real-time monitoring of cell properties, such as cell adherence, proliferation, migration and cytotoxicity. The practicality of this system has been proven in our recent cancer studies. In the present method, we intend to use co-cultures of pancreatic cancer cells (HP62) and mesenchymal stem cells to describe in detail, the procedures and benefits of RTCA. PMID:24443077

  1. Neisseria lactamica selectively induces mitogenic proliferation of the naive B cell pool via cell surface Ig.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Andrew T; Brackenbury, Louise S; Massari, Paola; Davenport, Victoria; Gorringe, Andrew; Heyderman, Robert S; Williams, Neil A

    2010-09-15

    Neisseria lactamica is a commensal bacteria that colonizes the human upper respiratory tract mucosa during early childhood. In contrast to the closely related opportunistic pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, there is an absence of adaptive cell-mediated immunity to N. lactamica during the peak age of carriage. Instead, outer membrane vesicles derived from N. lactamica mediate a B cell-dependent proliferative response in mucosal mononuclear cells that is associated with the production of polyclonal IgM. We demonstrate in this study that this is a mitogenic human B cell response that occurs independently of T cell help and any other accessory cell population. The ability to drive B cell proliferation is a highly conserved property and is present in N. lactamica strains derived from diverse clonal complexes. CFSE staining of purified human tonsillar B cells demonstrated that naive IgD(+) and CD27(-) B cells are selectively induced to proliferate by outer membrane vesicles, including the innate CD5(+) subset. Neither purified lipooligosaccharide nor PorB from N. lactamica is likely to be responsible for this activity. Prior treatment of B cells with pronase to remove cell-surface Ig or treatment with BCR-specific Abs abrogated the proliferative response to N. lactamica outer membrane vesicles, suggesting that this mitogenic response is dependent upon the BCR. PMID:20709949

  2. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation of Human Gastric Cancer Cell Lines by Interrupting Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Ha; Park, Jong-Jae; Lee, Beom Jae; Joo, Moon Kyung; Chun, Hoon Jai; Lee, Sang Woo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that has antioxidant, antitumoral, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this in vitro study, we investigated the mechanism of anticancer effects of astaxanthin in gastric carcinoma cell lines. Methods The human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines AGS, KATO-III, MKN-45, and SNU-1 were treated with various concentrations of astaxanthin. A cell viability test, cell cycle analysis, and immunoblotting were performed. Results The viability of each cancer cell line was suppressed by astaxanthin in a dose-dependent manner with significantly decreased proliferation in KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase but reduced the proportion of S phase KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was decreased in an inverse dose-dependent correlation with astaxanthin concentration, and the expression of p27kip-1 increased the KATO-III and SNU-1 cell lines in an astaxanthin dose-dependent manner. Conclusions Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation by interrupting cell cycle progression in KATO-III and SNU-1 gastric cancer cells. This may be caused by the inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK and the enhanced expression of p27kip-1. PMID:26470770

  3. Pyruvate kinase isoform expression alters nucleotide synthesis to impact cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Lunt, Sophia Y.; Muralidhar, Vinayak; Hosios, Aaron M.; Israelsen, William J.; Gui, Dan Y.; Newhouse, Lauren; Ogrodzinski, Martin; Hecht, Vivian; Xu, Kali; Acevedo, Paula N. Marín; Hollern, Daniel P.; Bellinger, Gary; Dayton, Talya L.; Christen, Stefan; Elia, Ilaria; Dinh, Anh T.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Manalis, Scott R.; Yaffe, Michael B.; Andrechek, Eran R.; Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Heiden, Matthew G. Vander

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Metabolic regulation influences cell proliferation. The influence of pyruvate kinase isoforms on tumor cells has been extensively studied, but whether PKM2 is required for normal cell proliferation is unknown. We examine how PKM2-deletion affects proliferation and metabolism in non-transformed, non-immortalized PKM2-expressing primary cells. We find that deletion of PKM2 in primary cells results in PKM1 expression and proliferation arrest. PKM1 expression, rather than PKM2 loss, is responsible for this effect, and proliferation arrest cannot be explained by cell differentiation, senescence, death, changes in gene expression, or prevention of cell growth. Instead, PKM1 expression impairs nucleotide production and the ability to synthesize DNA and progress through the cell cycle. Nucleotide biosynthesis is limiting, as proliferation arrest is characterized by severe thymidine depletion, and supplying exogenous thymine rescues both nucleotide levels and cell proliferation. Thus, PKM1 expression promotes a metabolic state that is unable to support DNA synthesis. PMID:25482511

  4. Role of clot-associated (-derived) thrombin in cell proliferation induced by fibrin clots in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gandossi, E; Lunven, C; Berry, C N

    2000-01-01

    Thrombin is a potent mitogenic agent. Clot-associated thrombin retains its amidolytic and pro-aggregant activity. We therefore studied the ability of fibrin clots to induce proliferation in CCL39 cells (Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts), in the absence and presence of the thrombin inhibitors PPACK, recombinant hirudin (rHV2 Lys47) and heparin:antithrombin III. Fibrin clots incubated for 48 h with CCL39 cells led to significant cell proliferation, which was dependent on the concentration of thrombin used to prepare the clots. Thus, clots prepared with 91 nmol l−1 thrombin produced a similar proliferation (231±21%) to that obtained with 50 nmol l−1 thrombin in solution (213±29%). Rabbit plasma clots led to a 499±41% increase in cell number under identical conditions. Fibrin clot-induced cell proliferation was inhibited by all three thrombin inhibitors with no difference in IC50 values compared to those obtained against thrombin in solution, suggesting that cell proliferation be due to thrombin leaching from the clots. We found a time-dependent increase in thrombin release from the clots attaining a plateau at 24 h (∼61% of the total thrombin used in clot formation). Clots separated from the cells using porous cell culture chamber inserts led to similar proliferation to that of clots in contact with the cells. Thus fibrin-clot induced CCL39 proliferation is due to thrombin released from the clots. PMID:10696104

  5. Cdk4 functions in multiple cell types to control Drosophila intestinal stem cell proliferation and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Adlesic, Mojca; Frei, Christian; Frew, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and differentiation of enteroblasts to form mature enteroendocrine cells and enterocytes in the Drosophila intestinal epithelium must be tightly regulated to maintain homeostasis. We show that genetic modulation of CyclinD/Cdk4 activity or mTOR-dependent signalling cell-autonomously regulates enterocyte growth, which influences ISC proliferation and enteroblast differentiation. Increased enterocyte growth results in higher numbers of ISCs and defective enterocyte growth reduces ISC abundance and proliferation in the midgut. Adult midguts deficient for Cdk4 show severe disruption of intestinal homeostasis characterised by decreased ISC self-renewal, enteroblast differentiation defects and low enteroendocrine cell and enterocyte numbers. The ISC/enteroblast phenotypes result from a combination of cell autonomous and non-autonomous requirements for Cdk4 function. One non-autonomous consequence of Cdk4-dependent deficient enterocyte growth is high expression of Delta in ISCs and Delta retention in enteroblasts. We postulate that aberrant activation of the Delta–Notch pathway is a possible partial cause of lost ISC stemness. These results support the idea that enterocytes contribute to a putative stem cell niche that maintains intestinal homeostasis in the Drosophila anterior midgut. PMID:26879465

  6. Cdk4 functions in multiple cell types to control Drosophila intestinal stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Adlesic, Mojca; Frei, Christian; Frew, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and differentiation of enteroblasts to form mature enteroendocrine cells and enterocytes in the Drosophila intestinal epithelium must be tightly regulated to maintain homeostasis. We show that genetic modulation of CyclinD/Cdk4 activity or mTOR-dependent signalling cell-autonomously regulates enterocyte growth, which influences ISC proliferation and enteroblast differentiation. Increased enterocyte growth results in higher numbers of ISCs and defective enterocyte growth reduces ISC abundance and proliferation in the midgut. Adult midguts deficient for Cdk4 show severe disruption of intestinal homeostasis characterised by decreased ISC self-renewal, enteroblast differentiation defects and low enteroendocrine cell and enterocyte numbers. The ISC/enteroblast phenotypes result from a combination of cell autonomous and non-autonomous requirements for Cdk4 function. One non-autonomous consequence of Cdk4-dependent deficient enterocyte growth is high expression of Delta in ISCs and Delta retention in enteroblasts. We postulate that aberrant activation of the Delta-Notch pathway is a possible partial cause of lost ISC stemness. These results support the idea that enterocytes contribute to a putative stem cell niche that maintains intestinal homeostasis in the Drosophila anterior midgut. PMID:26879465

  7. Upregulation of KPNβ1 in gastric cancer cell promotes tumor cell proliferation and predicts poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia; Wang, Yingying; Huang, Hua; Yang, Qichang; Cai, Jing; Wang, Qiuhong; Gu, Xiaoling; Xu, Pan; Zhang, Shusen; Li, Manhua; Ding, Haifang; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    KPNβ1, also known as importin β, P97, is reported as one of soluble transport factors that mediates transportion of proteins and RNAs between the nucleus and cytoplasm in cellular process. Recent studies show that KPNβ1 is a tumor gene which is highly expressed in several malignant tumors such as ovarian cancer, cervical tumor, neck cancer, and lung cancer via promoting cell proliferation or inhibiting cell apoptotic pathways. However, the the role of KPNβ1 in gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, Western blot and immunohistochemistrical analyses showed that KPNβ1 was significantly upregulated in clinical gastric cancer specimens compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. KPNβ1 was positively correlated with tumor grade, Ki-67, and predicted poor prognosis of gastric cancer. More importantly, through starvation-refeeding model, CCK8 assay, flow cytometry, colony formation assays, the vitro studies demonstrated that KPNβ1 promoted proliferation of gastric cancer cells, while KPNβ1 knockdown led to decreased cell proliferation and arrested cell cycle at G1 phase. Furthermore, our results also indicated that KPNβ1 expression could result in docetaxel resistance. And, KPNβ1 could interact with Stat1, contributed to its nucleus import in gastric cancer cells. These findings provided a novel promising therapeutic targets for clinical treatment against human gastric cancer. PMID:26242264

  8. Molecular analysis of the effect of short-chain fatty acids on intestinal cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Blottière, Hervé M; Buecher, Bruno; Galmiche, Jean-Paul; Cherbut, Christine

    2003-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), particularly butyrate, were shown to regulate cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, butyrate is the major fuel for colonic epithelial cells, and it can influence cell proliferation through the release of growth factors or gastrointestinal peptides such as gastrin, or through modulation of mucosal blood flow. Lastly, SCFA can act directly on genes regulating cell proliferation, and butyrate is the main SCFA to display such an effect. Butyrate