Science.gov

Sample records for acked sacked out-of-order

  1. "Sack Time" pencil drawing on north wall of sack room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Sack Time" pencil drawing on north wall of sack room, northeast corner, facing north. - Camp Tulelake, Shop-Storage Building, West Side of Hill Road, 2 miles South of State Highway 161, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  2. School Lunch or Sack Lunch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainville, Alice Jo

    2003-01-01

    Study of elementary school lunches in 10 public schools in Michigan compares the nutritional value of school lunches with sack lunches. Finds that school lunches are lower in fat, more nutritious, and provide more variety than sack lunches. (PKP)

  3. Environmental Story Sacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Eve; Machin, Judith

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a community's attempts to raise the knowledge and awareness of environmental issues of early years pupils through the use of "Environmental Story Sacks". The results of the small scale evaluation, using a pre and post activity oral "cloze" exercise, showed that reception year pupils' response scores to…

  4. Characterization and characteristics of degradable polymer sacks

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Georgina

    2003-10-15

    This paper reviews the categories and characteristics of degradable polymers used to manufacture sacks for the collection and subsequent treatment of organic wastes from householders. The characteristics of polyethylene (PE) and starch-based sacks were examined using a number of different methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical analysis and mechanical strength testing of the sacks during their use. The analyses revealed that the characteristics of the PE and starch-based sacks were very different. Photomicrographs indicated that the surface of the PE sack was much smoother than the surface of the starch-based sacks. Polyethylene sacks exhibited a greater mechanical strength, both in the unused state and over time during householder use. The severe loss of mechanical strength during use of the starch-based sacks indicated that only thicker gauge sacks were suitable for the fortnightly kerbside collection of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW). Chemical analysis of two different PE sacks indicated that transition metals and other elements were commonly incorporated into the PE structure in order to facilitate increased polymer degradation.

  5. [Oliver Sacks and literary neurology].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Elena; Banos, Josep E

    2014-03-16

    Introduccion. La literatura medica de divulgacion intenta poner al alcance del publico general temas medicos en un lenguaje desprovisto, en lo posible, de jerga medica para hacerlo mas inteligible. En el ambito de la neurologia, su complejidad hace dificil que los relatos de esta especialidad sean faciles de comprender para el publico sin formacion medica. Objetivo. El presente articulo revisa la obra de Oliver Sacks en el ambito de la neurologia dirigida al publico general; se presentan las principales caracteristicas y las situaciones clinicas que describe. Desarrollo. Se incluyen unas notas biograficas sobre Oliver Sacks y se analizan los 11 libros publicados a lo largo de los ultimos 40 años. Para cada uno de ellos, se realiza una contextualizacion historica y se comentan los aspectos mas destacados que justifican el interes de su lectura. En la mayoria de los casos, se explica la genesis de la obra, asi como sus caracteristicas mas relevantes. Conclusiones. La obra de Sacks contiene un amplio abanico de situaciones clinicas de gran interes que se explican, generalmente, con un lenguaje accesible para el publico general. A los neurologos les permite, ademas, una vision holistica de diversas situaciones clinicas con una discusion de sus componentes biograficos, historicos y evolutivos.

  6. Oliver Sacks in Mendeleev's Garden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, James L.

    2003-08-01

    After returning to New York, Oliver Sacks sent to us a preprint of Uncle Tungsten, which we had the pleasure of perusing for a whole year before publication. After the events of September 11, 2001, my wife and I anxiously awaited word that he was all right. We were relieved—and honored—when in early December we received an autographed copy of Uncle Tungsten (3). We will always treasure Oliver Sacks’s book, his remarkable story of chemistry, and our friendship with him.

  7. Role of Nonreceptor Protein Kinase Ack 1 in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    cancer in vivo. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, transgenic mice , mouse model 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...1 In order to address task 1, prostates from PbAck1 mice and non-transgenic littermates were collected at multiple time points (12, 16, 24, 36, 48...our PbAck1;TgAPT121 bi-transgenic mice (Appendix Fig. 2). This result 8 validates the PbAck1;TgAPT121 bi-transgenic construct as a mouse model of

  8. Molecular imaging in Libman-Sacks endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Anders; Schaadt, Bente K; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Bruun, Niels E

    2015-04-01

    We present a 54-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), fever, pericardial effusion and a mitral valve vegetation. (18)F-Fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT ((18)F-FDG-PET-CT) showed very high accumulation of the isotope at the mitral valve. The patient underwent cardiothoracic surgery and pathologic examinations showed characteristic morphology of Libman-Sacks vegetations. All microbiological examinations including blood cultures, microscopy, culture and 16s PCR of the valve were negative and the diagnosis of Libman-Sacks endocarditis was convincing. It is difficult to distinguish Libman-Sacks endocarditis from culture-negative infective endocarditis (IE). Molecular imaging techniques are being used increasingly in cases of suspected IE but no studies have previously reported the use in patients with Libman-Sacks endocarditis. In the present case, (18)F-FDG-PET-CT clearly demonstrated the increased glucose uptake caused by infiltrating white blood cells in the ongoing inflammatory process at the mitral valve. In conclusion, (18)F-FDG-PET-CT cannot be used to distinguish between IE and non-infective Libman-Sacks vegetations.

  9. Dysregulation of Ack1 inhibits down-regulation of the EGF receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Grovdal, Lene Melsaether; Johannessen, Lene E.; Rodland, Marianne Skeie; Madshus, Inger Helene; Stang, Espen

    2008-04-01

    The protein tyrosine kinase Ack1 has been linked to cancer when over-expressed. Ack1 has also been suggested to function in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and in down-regulation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR). We have studied the intracellular localization of over-expressed Ack1 and found that Ack1 co-localizes with the EGFR upon EGF-induced endocytosis in cells with moderate over-expression of Ack. This co-localization is mainly observed in early endosomes. Furthermore, we found that over-expression of Ack1 retained the EGFR at the limiting membrane of early endosomes, inhibiting sorting to inner vesicles of multivesicular bodies. Down-regulation of Ack1 in HeLa cells resulted in reduced rate of {sup 125}I-EGF internalization, whereas internalization of {sup 125}I-transferrin was not affected. In cells where Ack1 had been knocked down by siRNA, recycling of internalized {sup 125}I-EGF was increased, while degradation of {sup 125}I-EGF was inhibited. Together, these data suggest that Ack1 is involved in an early step of EGFR desensitization.

  10. Genetics and Physiology of Acetate Metabolism by the Pta-Ack Pathway of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Nam; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    In the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans, phosphotransacetylase (Pta) catalyzes the conversion of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetyl phosphate (AcP), which can be converted to acetate by acetate kinase (Ack), with the concomitant generation of ATP. A ΔackA mutant displayed enhanced accumulation of AcP under aerobic conditions, whereas little or no AcP was observed in the Δpta or Δpta ΔackA mutant. The Δpta and Δpta ΔackA mutants also had diminished ATP pools compared to the size of the ATP pool for the parental or ΔackA strain. Surprisingly, when exposed to oxidative stress, the Δpta ΔackA strain appeared to regain the capacity to produce AcP, with a concurrent increase in the size of the ATP pool compared to that for the parental strain. The ΔackA and Δpta ΔackA mutants exhibited enhanced (p)ppGpp accumulation, whereas the strain lacking Pta produced less (p)ppGpp than the wild-type strain. The ΔackA and Δpta ΔackA mutants displayed global changes in gene expression, as assessed by microarrays. All strains lacking Pta, which had defects in AcP production under aerobic conditions, were impaired in their abilities to form biofilms when glucose was the growth carbohydrate. Collectively, these data demonstrate the complex regulation of the Pta-Ack pathway and critical roles for these enzymes in processes that appear to be essential for the persistence and pathogenesis of S. mutans.

  11. The Berkeley Out-of-Order Machine (BOOM): An Industry-Competitive, Synthesizable, Parameterized RISC-V Processor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-13

    The Berkeley Out-of-Order Machine (BOOM): An Industry- Competitive, Synthesizable, Parameterized RISC-V Processor Christopher Celio David A...Synthesizable, Parameterized RISC-V Processor Christopher Celio, David Patterson, and Krste Asanović University of California, Berkeley, California 94720...Order Machine BOOM is a synthesizable, parameterized, superscalar out- of-order RISC-V core designed to serve as the prototypical baseline processor

  12. Fictional father?: Oliver Sacks and the revalidation of pathography.

    PubMed

    Hull, Andrew John

    2013-12-01

    This paper is a revalidation of Oliver Sacks's role in the development of medicine's narrative turn and, as such, a reinterpretation of the history of narrative in medicine. It suggests that, from the late 1960s, Sacks pioneered in his 'Romantic Science' a new medical mode that reunited the seemingly incommensurable art and science of medicine while also offering a way for medical humanities to shape clinical reasoning more effectively.

  13. ACK1/TNK2 Tyrosine Kinase: Molecular Signaling and Evolving Role in Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Kiran; Mahajan, Nupam P.

    2014-01-01

    Deregulated tyrosine kinase signaling alters cellular homeostasis to drive cancer progression. The emergence of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, ACK1 as an oncogenic kinase, has uncovered novel mechanisms by which tyrosine kinase signaling promotes cancer progression. While early studies focused on ACK1 (also known as activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1 or TNK2) as a cytosolic effecter of activated transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), wherein it shuttles between the cytosol and the nucleus to rapidly transduce extracellular signals from the RTKs to the intracellular effectors, recent data unfold a new aspect of its functionality as an epigenetic regulator. ACK1 interacts with the Estrogen Receptor (ER)/histone demethylase KDM3A (JHDM2a) complex, modifies KDM3A by tyrosine phosphorylation to regulate transcriptional outcome at HOXA1 locus to promote the growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer. It is also well established that ACK1 regulates the activity of Androgen Receptor (AR) by tyrosine phosphorylation to fuel the growth of hormone-refractory prostate cancers. Further, recent explosion in genomic sequencing has revealed recurrent ACK1 gene amplification and somatic mutations in a variety of human malignancies, providing a molecular basis for its role in neoplastic transformation. In this review, we will discuss the various facets of ACK1 signaling, including its newly uncovered epigenetic regulator function, which enables cells to bypass the blockade to major survival pathways to promote resistance to standard cancer treatments. Not surprisingly, cancer cells appear to acquire an `addiction’ to ACK1 mediated survival, particularly under stress conditions, such as growth factor deprivation or genotoxic insults or hormone deprivation. With the accelerated development of potent and selective ACK1 inhibitors, targeted treatment for cancers harboring aberrant ACK1 activity may soon become a clinical reality. PMID:25347744

  14. Oliver Sacks--a neurologist explores the lifeworld.

    PubMed

    Mergenthaler, D

    2000-01-01

    The neurologist Oliver Sacks has become very famous for his writings. His popularity has scattered all mass medias. In his books, he eloquently tells stories about patients suffering from extraordinary neurological diseases. Since the conceptual framework of Sacks' narratives has been widely unconsidered, this article pursues a more general and systematic approach to his work. Sacks terms his idiographic and phenomenological access to the world of science Romantical Science. With its features, he develops a concept of a Neurology of Identity, that is basically concerned with the patient's personality and subjectivity. Sacks' personal approach to medicine implies another understanding of diseases: For him, diseases cannot be reduced to pathological facts, they constitute other worlds. He characteristically uses philosophical, psychological and mythical terms for interpretation and narration. But conversely to its sympathetic appearance, Sacks' approach entails some deficits: His presentation is not always realistic, his interpretations are often one-sided. The theoretical reflections on his method and attitude remain poor. Nevertheless, he puts medicine back into lifeworld, to open it for many discourse universes beyond science in practice and theoretical reflection.

  15. Ack kinase regulates CTP synthase filaments during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Strochlic, Todd I; Stavrides, Kevin P; Thomas, Sam V; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; O'Reilly, Alana M; Peterson, Jeffrey R

    2014-11-01

    The enzyme CTP synthase (CTPS) dynamically assembles into macromolecular filaments in bacteria, yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells, but the role of this morphological reorganization in regulating CTPS activity is controversial. During Drosophila oogenesis, CTPS filaments are transiently apparent in ovarian germline cells during a period of intense genomic endoreplication and stockpiling of ribosomal RNA. Here, we demonstrate that CTPS filaments are catalytically active and that their assembly is regulated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase DAck, the Drosophila homologue of mammalian Ack1 (activated cdc42-associated kinase 1), which we find also localizes to CTPS filaments. Egg chambers from flies deficient in DAck or lacking DAck catalytic activity exhibit disrupted CTPS filament architecture and morphological defects that correlate with reduced fertility. Furthermore, ovaries from these flies exhibit reduced levels of total RNA, suggesting that DAck may regulate CTP synthase activity. These findings highlight an unexpected function for DAck and provide insight into a novel pathway for the developmental control of an essential metabolic pathway governing nucleotide biosynthesis.

  16. Role of the Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase ACK2 in EGF Receptor Degradation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Original contains color plates: All DTIC reproductions will be in black and white...ACK2 through a series of GST pull-down assays [ 13 ]. SH3PX1 (sorting nexin 9, SNX9), a member of the nexin family of vesicle transport proteins...undergoes an EGF- dependent phosphorylation, mediated via the Cdc42-promoted activation of ACK2 [ 13 ]. While the precise role of SH3PX1 phosphorylation

  17. Analyzing the impact of supportinjg out-of-order communication on in-order performance with iWARP.

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, P.; Feng, W.; Bhagvat, S.; Panda, D. K.; Thakur, R.; Gropp, W.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Virginia Tech; Dell Inc.; Ohio State Univ.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the growing need to tolerate network faults and congestion in high-end computing systems, supporting multiple network communication paths is becoming increasingly important. However, multi-path communication comes with the disadvantage of out-of-order arrival of packets (because packets may traverse different paths). While modern networking stacks such as the Internet Wide-Area RDMA Protocol (iWARP) over 10-Gigabit Ethernet (10GE) support multi-path communication, their current implementations do not handle out-of-order packets primarily owing to the overhead on in-order communication that it adds. Specifically, in iWARP, supporting out-of-order packets requires every packet to carry additional information causing significant overhead on packets that arrive in-order. Thus, in this paper, we analyze the trade-offs in designing a feature-complete iWARP stack, i.e., one that provides support for out-of-order arriving packets, and thus, multi-path systems, while focusing on the performance of in-order communication. We propose three feature-complete designs of iWARP and analyze the pros and cons of each of these designs using performance experiments based on several micro-benchmarks as well as an iso-surface visual rendering application. Our analysis reveals that the iWARP design providing the best overall performance depends on the particular characteristics of the upper layers and that different designs are optimal based on the metric of interest.

  18. miR-24 represses metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells by targeting Ack1 via AKT/MMPs pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhendong; Liu, Zhitao; Zhang, Yuanjun; Li, Yan; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Kexiang

    2017-02-08

    The expression levels of the protein tyrosine kinase Ack1 has been reported to be dysregulated in various cancers and involve in oncogenesis and progression. However, the expression and role of Ack1 in osteosarcoma remains unknown. In this study, we found that Ack1 were evidently upregulated in human osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. In addition, the clinical data showed that high expression level of Ack1 is closely associated with clinical stage and positive distant metastasis, and negatively correlated with overall survival. Then, bioinformatics prediction and luciferase reporter assay indicated Ack1 as a direct target of miR-24, and Ack1 could be downregulated by miR-24 at both the mRNA and protein expression levels. Moreover, Ack1 expression levels were inversely correlated with that of miR-24 in osteosarcoma tissues. Furthermore, functional assay showed that miR-24 significantly suppressed osteosarcoma progression partially mediated by inhibiting Ack1 expression. Finally, western bolt assay revealed that miR-24 regulate AKT/MMPs pathway via Ack1 in osteosarcoma cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the suppression of miR-24 on osteosarcoma metastasis by targeting Ack1 via AKT/MMPs pathways, providing a novel strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of osteosarcoma patients.

  19. 76 FR 72161 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Negative Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... individual Red Head Deer Corn sacks, and one Manna Pro Calf-Manna sack.\\7\\ \\7\\ See Memo to the File from... printing with two inks: Red PMS 186 and Blue PMS 072.\\21\\ The corresponding artwork, signed and...

  20. 75 FR 15418 - Laminated Woven Sacks from the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... International Trade Administration Laminated Woven Sacks from the People's Republic of China: Rescission of... review of the countervailing duty order on laminated woven sacks (LWS) from the People's Republic of... request, and the review of Changshu was rescinded on December 4, 2009. See Laminated Woven Sacks From...

  1. ACKS2: Atom-condensed Kohn-Sham DFT approximated to second order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraelen, T.; Ayers, P. W.; Van Speybroeck, V.; Waroquier, M.

    2013-02-01

    A new polarizable force field (PFF), namely atom-condensed Kohn-Sham density functional theory approximated to second order (ACKS2), is proposed for the efficient computation of atomic charges and linear response properties of extended molecular systems. It is derived from Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT), making use of two novel ingredients in the context of PFFs: (i) constrained atomic populations and (ii) the Legendre transform of the Kohn-Sham kinetic energy. ACKS2 is essentially an extension of the Electronegativity Equalization Method (EEM) [W. J. Mortier, S. K. Ghosh, and S. Shankar, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 4315 (1986)], 10.1021/ja00275a013 in which two major EEM shortcomings are fixed: ACKS2 predicts a linear size-dependence of the dipole polarizability in the macroscopic limit and correctly describes the charge distribution when a molecule dissociates. All ACKS2 parameters are defined as atoms-in-molecules expectation values. The implementation of ACKS2 is very similar to that of EEM, with only a small increase in computational cost.

  2. "Hay Sacks Anonymous": Living in the Shadow of the Unidentified. Psychological Aspects of Physical Inactivity from a Phenomenological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Anni; Norlander, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    The present qualitative study emanates from a phenomenological perspective and has the purpose of creating an understanding for what a so-called hay sack is as well as understanding the experiences of a hay sack. In this context a hay sack refers to a person with low physical activity. Eight hay sacks between 36-58 years of age were interviewed…

  3. On Best-Effort Packet Reordering for Mitigating the Effects of Out-of-Order Delivery on Unmodified TCP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, John Russell; Nakao, Akihiro

    Multipath routing and the ability to simultaneously use multiple network paths has long been proposed as a means for meeting the reliability and performance improvement goals of a next generation Internet. However, its use causes out-of-order packet delivery, which is well known to hinder TCP performance. While next-generation transport protocols will no doubt better cope with this phenomenon, a complete switch to these new protocols cannot be made on all devices “overnight” the reality is that we will be forced to continue using TCP on such multipath networks well after deployment of a future Internet is complete.In this paper, we investigate the use of best-effort packet reordering — an optional network layer service for improving the performance of any TCP session in the presence of out-of-order packet delivery. Such a service holds the promise of allowing unmodified TCP to take advantage of the reliability and performance gains offered by a future multipath-enabled Internet without suffering the adverse performance effects commonly associated with out-of-order packet delivery. Our experiments test the performance of two common TCP variants under packet dispersion with differing numbers of paths and amounts of inter-path latency variance. They were conducted using multipath network and packet reorderer implementations implemented within the Emulab testbed. Our results demonstrate that a simple best-effort reordering service can insulate TCP from the type of reordering that might be expected from use of packet dispersion over disjoint paths in a wide-area network, and is capable of providing significant performance benefits with few ill side-effects.

  4. Development of Novel ACK1/TNK2 Inhibitors Using a Fragment-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Harshani R.; Mahajan, Kiran; Luo, Yunting; Zhang, Daniel; Tindall, Nathan; Huseyin, Miles; Gevariya, Harsukh; Kazi, Sakib; Ozcan, Sevil; Mahajan, Nupam P.; Lawrence, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase ACK1, a critical signal transducer regulating survival of hormone-refractory cancers, is an important therapeutic target, for which there are no selective inhibitors in clinical trials to date. This work reports the discovery of novel and potent inhibitors for ACK1 tyrosine kinase (also known as TNK2) using an innovative fragment-based approach. Focused libraries were designed and synthesized by selecting fragments from reported ACK inhibitors to create hybrid structures in a mix and match process. The hybrid library was screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based kinase inhibition and 33P HotSpot assays. Systematic structure–activity relationship studies led to the identification of compound (R)-9b, which shows potent in vitro (IC50 = 56 nM, n = 3, 33P HotSpot assay) and in vivo (IC50 < 2 μM, human cancer cell lines) ACK1 inhibition. Both (R)-9b and (S)-9b were stable in human plasma and displayed a long half-life (t1/2 > 6 h). PMID:25699576

  5. Libman-Sacks Endocarditis and Embolic Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roldan, Carlos A.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Qualls, Clifford R.; Jung, Rex E.; Greene, Ernest R.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Hayek, Reyaad; Charlton, Gerald A.; Crookston, Kendall

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether Libman-Sacks endocarditis is a pathogenic factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Background A cardioembolic pathogenesis of SLE CVD manifested as 1) neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) including stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA), 2) neurocognitive dysfunction, and 3) MRI focal brain lesions has not been established. Methods A 6-year study of 30 patients with acute NPSLE (27 women, age 38±12 years), 46 age-and-sex matched SLE controls without NPSLE (42 women, age 36±12 years), and 26 age-and-sex matched healthy controls (22 women, age 34±11 years) who underwent clinical and laboratory evaluations, TEE, carotid duplex, transcranial Doppler, neurocognitive testing, and brain MRI/MRA. NPSLE patients were re-evaluated after 4.5 months of therapy. All patients were followed clinically for a median of 52 months. Results Libman-Sacks vegetations (87%), cerebromicroembolism (27% with 2.5 times more events per hour), neurocognitive dysfunction (60%), and cerebral infarcts (47%) were more common in NPSLE than in SLE (28%, 20%, 33%, and 0%) and healthy controls (8%, 0%, 4%, and 0%, respectively) (all p≤0.009). Patients with vegetations had 3 times more cerebromicroemboli per hour, lower cerebral blood flow, more stroke/TIA and overall NPSLE events, neurocognitive dysfunction, cerebral infarcts, and brain lesion load than those without (all p≤0.01). Libman-Sacks vegetations were independent risk factors of NPSLE (OR=13.4, p<0.001), neurocognitive dysfunction (OR=8.0, p=0.01), brain lesions (OR=5.6, p=0.004), and all 3 outcomes combined (OR=7.5, p<0.001). Follow-up re-evaluations in 18 (78%) of 23 surviving NPSLE patients demonstrated improvement of vegetations, microembolism, brain perfusion, neurocognitive dysfunction, and lesion load (all p≤0.04). Finally, patients with vegetations had reduced event free survival time to stroke/TIA, cognitive disability, or death (p=0.007). Conclusion The

  6. Preparation of polyethylene sacks for collection of precipitation samples for chemical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, L.J.; Bricker, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Polyethylene sacks are used to collect precipitation samples. Washing polyethylene with acetone, hexane, methanol, or nitric acid can change the adsorptive characteristics of the polyethylene. In this study, simulated precipitation at pH 4.5 was in contact with the polyethylene sacks for 21 days; subsamples were removed for chemical analysis at 7, 14, and 21 days after intitial contact. Sacks washed with acetone adsorbed iron and lithium; sacks washed with hexane adsorbed barium, iron , and lithium; sacks washed with methanol adsorbed calcium and iron; and sacks washed with 0.30 N nitric acid adsorbed iron. Leaching the plastic sacks with 0.15 N nitric acid did not result in 100-percent recovery of any of the adsorbed metals. Washing polyethylene sacks with dilute nitric acid caused the pH of the simulated precipitation to be decreased by 0.2 pH unit after 1 week of contact with the polyethylene. The specific conductance increased by 10 microsiemens per centimeter. Contamination of precipitation samples by lead was determined to be about 0.1 microgram per liter from contact with precleaned polyethylene sacks. No measurable contamination of precipitation samples by zinc occurred. (USGS)

  7. A Novel Phase Rotation Scheme on the Constellations for the E-UTRA Uplink ACK/NACK Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Seigo; Takata, Tomohumi; Imamura, Daichi; Hiramatsu, Katsuhiko

    Hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) is employed for the Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) downlink. The ACK/NACK signals from each user equipment (UE) are multiplexed by code division multiple access (CDMA) and transmitted via a physical uplink control channel (PUCCH). The ACK/NACK signals are code spread by the cyclic shift (CS) sequences made from zero auto-correlation (ZAC) sequences; however, the orthogonality of these sequences is not guaranteed depending on the propagation channels; moreover, the amount of inter-code interference (ICI) depends on the delay spread of the channel and the transmitting timing control error of each UE. In the conventional PUCCH structure, ICI between two ACK signals does not degrade their detection performance, whereas ICI between an ACK signal and a NACK signal degrades the detection performance. This causes a serious gap between the detection performances of ACK and NACK signals, because generally in a PUCCH, there are more ACK signals than NACK signals. In this paper, we propose a novel phase rotation scheme on the constellations of ACK/NACK signals that can resolve this issue, and the simulation evaluation results confirm the benefits of the proposed phase rotation scheme.

  8. 78 FR 12716 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Negative Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... extrusion coating of polypropylene and/or polyethylene on one or both sides of the fabric; laminated by any... process (``screening-process sacks''). Petitioners allege that PRC producers of screening-process sacks have adapted the screening process to create graphics that appear to have three or more distinct...

  9. Plastic waste sacks alter the rate of decomposition of dismembered bodies within.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Kassra; Moffatt, Colin

    2017-01-24

    As a result of criminal activity, human bodies are sometimes dismembered and concealed within sealed, plastic waste sacks. Consequently, due to the inhibited ingress of insects and dismemberment, the rate of decomposition of the body parts within may be different to that of whole, exposed bodies. Correspondingly, once found, an estimation of the postmortem interval may be affected and lead to erroneous inferences. This study set out to determine whether insects were excluded and how rate of decomposition was affected inside such plastic sacks. The limbs, torsos and heads of 24 dismembered pigs were sealed using nylon cable ties within plastic garbage sacks, half of which were of a type claimed to repel insects. Using a body scoring scale to quantify decomposition, the body parts in the sacks were compared to those of ten exposed, whole pig carcasses. Insects were found to have entered both types of plastic sack. There was no difference in rate of decomposition in the two types of sack (F 1,65 = 1.78, p = 0.19), but this was considerably slower than those of whole carcasses (F 1,408 = 1453, p < 0.001), with heads showing the largest differences. As well as a slower decomposition, sacks resulted in formation of some adipocere tissue as a result of high humidity within. Based upon existing methods, postmortem intervals for body parts within sealed sacks would be significantly underestimated.

  10. Unusual location of the Libman-Sacks endocarditis in a teenager: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wałdoch, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Joanna; Dorniak, Karolina

    2016-02-01

    Libman-Sacks endocarditis may be the first manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. The risk of its occurrence increases with the co-existence of the anti-phospholipid syndrome. Changes usually involve the mitral valve and the aortic valve. In this report, we present a case of Libman-Sacks endocarditis of the tricuspid valve in a teenage girl.

  11. A NOVEL MULTI-MODAL DRUG REPURPOSING APPROACH FOR IDENTIFICATION OF POTENT ACK1 INHIBITORSǂ

    PubMed Central

    Phatak, Sharangdhar S.; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Exploiting drug polypharmacology to identify novel modes of actions for drug repurposing has gained significant attentions in the current era of weak drug pipelines. From a serendipitous to systematic or rational ways, a variety of unimodal computational approaches have been developed but the complexity of the problem clearly needs multi-modal approaches for better solutions. In this study, we propose an integrative computational framework based on classical structure-based drug design and chemical-genomic similarity methods, combined with molecular graph theories for this task. Briefly, a pharmacophore modeling method was employed to guide the selection of docked poses resulting from our high-throughput virtual screening. We then evaluated if complementary results (hits missed by docking) can be obtained by using a novel chemo-genomic similarity approach based on chemical/sequence information. Finally, we developed a bipartite-graph based on the extensive data curation of DrugBank, PDB, and UniProt. This drug-target bipartite graph was used to assess similarity of different inhibitors based on their connections to other compounds and targets. The approaches were applied to the repurposing of existing drugs against ACK1, a novel cancer target significantly overexpressed in breast and prostate cancers during their progression. Upon screening of ~1,447 marketed drugs, a final set of 10 hits were selected for experimental testing. Among them, four drugs were identified as potent ACK1 inhibitors. Especially the inhibition of ACK1 by Dasatinib was as strong as IC50=1nM. We anticipate that our novel, integrative strategy can be easily extended to other biological targets with a more comprehensive coverage of known bio-chemical space for repurposing studies. PMID:23424109

  12. Expression, synaptic localization, and developmental regulation of Ack1/Pyk1, a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase highly expressed in the developing and adult brain.

    PubMed

    Ureña, Jesús Mariano; La Torre, Anna; Martínez, Albert; Lowenstein, Eve; Franco, Neus; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Fontana, Xavier; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo; Ibáñez-Sabio, Miguel Angel; Pascual, Marta; Del Rio, José Antonio; de Lecea, Luis; Soriano, Eduardo

    2005-09-19

    Cytosolic tyrosine kinases play a critical role both in neural development and in adult brain function and plasticity. Here we isolated a cDNA with high homology to human Ack1 and mouse Tnk2. This cDNA directs the expression of a 125-kD protein that can be autophosphorylated in tyrosines. Initially, this clone was named Pyk1 for proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Lev et al., 1995); however, since it corresponds to the mouse homolog of Ack1, here we called it Ack1/Pyk1. In this study we show that Ack1/Pyk1 mRNA and protein is highly expressed in the developing and adult brain. The highest levels of Ack1/Pyk1 expression were detected in the hippocampus, neocortex, and cerebellum. Electron microscopy studies showed that Ack1/Pyk1 protein is expressed in these regions both at dendritic spines and presynaptic axon terminals, indicating a role in synaptic function. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ack1/Pyk1 mRNA levels are strongly upregulated by increased neural activity, produced by intraperitoneal kainate injections. During development, Ack1/Pyk1 was also expressed in the proliferative ventricular zones and in postmitotic maturing neurons. In neuronal cultures, Ack1/Pyk1 was detected in developing dendrites and axons, including dendritic tips and growth cones. Moreover, Ack1/Pyk1 colocalized with Cdc42 GTPase in neuronal cultures and coimmunoprecipitated with Cdc42 in HEK 293T cells. Altogether, our findings indicate that Ack1/Pyk1 tyrosine kinase may be involved both in adult synaptic function and plasticity and in brain development.

  13. Acetate fluxes in Escherichia coli are determined by the thermodynamic control of the Pta-AckA pathway

    PubMed Central

    Enjalbert, Brice; Millard, Pierre; Dinclaux, Mickael; Portais, Jean-Charles; Létisse, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli excretes acetate upon growth on fermentable sugars, but the regulation of this production remains elusive. Acetate excretion on excess glucose is thought to be an irreversible process. However, dynamic 13C-metabolic flux analysis revealed a strong bidirectional exchange of acetate between E. coli and its environment. The Pta-AckA pathway was found to be central for both flux directions, while alternative routes (Acs or PoxB) play virtually no role in glucose consumption. Kinetic modelling of the Pta-AckA pathway predicted that its flux is thermodynamically controlled by the extracellular acetate concentration in vivo. Experimental validations confirmed that acetate production can be reduced and even reversed depending solely on its extracellular concentration. Consistently, the Pta-AckA pathway can rapidly switch from acetate production to consumption. Contrary to current knowledge, E. coli is thus able to co-consume glucose and acetate under glucose excess. These metabolic capabilities were confirmed on other glycolytic substrates which support the growth of E. coli in the gut. These findings highlight the dual role of the Pta-AckA pathway in acetate production and consumption during growth on glycolytic substrates, uncover a novel regulatory mechanism that controls its flux in vivo, and significantly expand the metabolic capabilities of E. coli. PMID:28186174

  14. Constitutive activated Cdc42-associated kinase (Ack) phosphorylation at arrested endocytic clathrin-coated pits of cells that lack dynamin

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hongying; Ferguson, Shawn M.; Dephoure, Noah; Park, Ryan; Yang, Yan; Volpicelli-Daley, Laura; Gygi, Steven; Schlessinger, Joseph; De Camilli, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a fundamental cellular process conserved from yeast to mammals and is an important endocytic route for the internalization of many specific cargos, including activated growth factor receptors. Here we examined changes in tyrosine phosphorylation, a representative output of growth factor receptor signaling, in cells in which endocytic clathrin-coated pits are frozen at a deeply invaginated state, that is, cells that lack dynamin (fibroblasts from dynamin 1, dynamin 2 double conditional knockout mice). The major change observed in these cells relative to wild-type cells was an increase in the phosphorylation state, and thus activation, of activated Cdc42-associated kinase (Ack), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase. Ack is concentrated at clathrin-coated pits, and binds clathrin heavy chain via two clathrin boxes. RNA interference–based approaches and pharmacological manipulations further demonstrated that the phosphorylation of Ack requires both clathrin assembly into endocytic clathrin-coated pits and active Cdc42. These findings reveal a link between progression of clathrin-coated pits to endocytic vesicles and an activation–deactivation cycle of Ack. PMID:21169560

  15. Microbiological Quality and Variability of Natural Microbiota in Croatian Cheese Maturing in Lambskin Sacks

    PubMed Central

    Vrdoljak, Marija; Filipčić, Mija; Jelić, Marko; Čanak, Iva; Jakopović, Željko; Pleadin, Jelka; Gobin, Ivana; Dragičević, Tibela Landeka; Markov, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    Summary As in the traditional production of cheese in lambskin sacks raw cow’s or sheep’s milk is mostly used, the purpose of this study is to see how the production affects the microbiological quality of the cheese. To do that, we tested 39 samples of raw cow’s and sheep’s milk, curd, ripened cheese (15, 30 and 45 days) and lambskin sacks for native microbial population. Two-thirds of the milk, curd and cheese samples had higher counts of staphylococci and enterobacteria than permitted by regulations. Not a single sample had Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, but we did find Escherichia coli in sheep’s milk and cheese, and yeast and mould in both types of milk and cheese. Staphylococcus xylosus prevailed in lambskin sacks. Despite the high incidence of S. aureus, even in the final product, staphylococcal enterotoxin was detected in only two sheep’s cheese samples. Among the lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei prevailed in cow’s cheese, whereas Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum prevailed in sheep’s cheese. In the lambskin sacks Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum were predominant. Our findings give an important insight into the fermentation and microbial ecology of the cheese in lambskin sacks. PMID:27904402

  16. 78 FR 69369 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... sacks which are bags or sacks consisting of one or more plies of fabric consisting of woven... method either to an exterior ply of plastic film such as biaxially-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) or to an... countervailable subsidy Manufacturers/ exporters/producers (percent) Zibo Aifudi Plastic Packaging Co., Ltd.......

  17. 78 FR 64472 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ....19 Jiangsu Hotson Plastics Co. Ltd 20.19 Cangnan Color Make The Bag 20.19 Zibo Qigao Plastic Cement... woven sacks are bags or sacks consisting of one or more plies of fabric consisting of woven... method either to an exterior ply of plastic film such as biaxially-oriented polypropylene (``BOPP'')...

  18. Harbinger of storm: influence of Oliver Sacks on levodopa therapy in early 1970s.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lobato, Bruno Lopes Dos; Tumas, Vitor

    2016-08-01

    Most known by his literary ability, the words of the neurologist Oliver Sacks (1933-2015) also had an impact on scientific community about the role of levodopa on parkinsonisms. Different from the most authors and based on his experience described on the book "Awakenings", he had a pessimistic opinion about levodopa, which was related on many articles written by himself and colleagues in early 1970s. We reviewed the scientific contribution of Oliver Sacks associated to levodopa therapy on parkinsonisms, and how he advised caution with its complications before the majority of physicians.

  19. Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Libman-Sacks Endocarditis in a Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve.

    PubMed

    Sladek, Eric H; Accola, Kevin D

    2016-02-01

    This report describes one the first cases of antiphospholipid syndrome and Libman-Sacks endocarditis in a bioprosthetic valve. A redo mitral valve replacement was carried out owing to early deterioration of the prior valve. Initially it was considered secondary to rheumatic heart disease; however, pathology analysis and autoimmune workup revealed antiphospholipid syndrome with Libman-Sacks endocarditis. We believe certain populations with mitral valve stenosis may have an underlying antiphospholipid syndrome. As a result, there needs to be a lower threshold for identifying this disease.

  20. 'A Leg to Stand On' by Oliver Sacks: a unique autobiographical account of functional paralysis.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jon; Perthen, Jo; Carson, Alan J

    2012-09-01

    Oliver Sacks, the well known neurologist and writer, published his fourth book, 'A Leg to Stand On', in 1984 following an earlier essay 'The Leg' in 1982. The book described his recovery after a fall in a remote region of Norway in which he injured his leg. Following surgery to reattach his quadriceps muscle, he experienced an emotional period in which his leg no longer felt a part of his body, and he struggled to regain his ability to walk. Sacks attributed the experience to a neurologically determined disorder of body-image and bodyego induced by peripheral injury. In the first edition of his book Sacks explicitly rejected the diagnosis of 'hysterical paralysis' as it was then understood, although he approached this diagnosis more closely in subsequent revisions. In this article we propose that, in the light of better understanding of functional neurological symptoms, Sacks' experiences deserve to be reappraised as a unique insight in to a genuinely experienced functional/psychogenic leg paralysis following injury.

  1. 75 FR 55568 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ...'s material consumption and production process for woven sacks produced from imported woven fabric... directs it to base NV, in most circumstances, on the NME producer's factors of production (``FOPs... various aspects of NMEs renders price comparisons and the calculation of production costs invalid...

  2. How to Help Parents Pack Better Preschool Sack Lunches: Advice from Parents for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweitzer, Sara J.; Briley, Margaret E.; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Staskel, Deanna M.; Almansour, Fawaz D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This exploratory study obtained parent suggestions about messages and activities to guide parents to pack healthful sack lunches for preschool-aged children. Methods: A facilitator conducted group interviews using a modified nominal group technique with a convenience sample of parents who pack daily lunches for their children.…

  3. Androgen Receptor Activation in Castration-Recurrent Prostate Cancer: The Role of Src-Family and Ack1 Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Irwin H.

    2014-01-01

    There is growing appreciation that castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CR-CaP) is driven by the continued expression of androgen receptor (AR). AR activation in CR-CaP through various mechanisms, including AR overexpression, expression of AR splice variants or mutants, increased expression of co-regulator proteins, and by post-translational modification, allows for the induction of AR-regulated genes in response to very low levels of tissue-expressed, so-called intracrine androgens, resulting in pathways that mediate CaP proliferation, anti-apoptosis and oncogenic aggressiveness. The current review focuses on the role played by Src-family (SFK) and Ack1 non-receptor tyrosine kinases in activating AR through direct phosphorylation, respectively, on tyrosines 534 or 267, and how these modifications facilitate progression to CR-CaP. The fact that SFK and Ack1 are central mediators for multiple growth factor receptor signaling pathways that become activated in CR-CaP, especially in the context of metastatic growth in the bone, has contributed to recent therapeutic trials using SFK/Ack1 inhibitors in monotherapy or in combination with antagonists of the AR activation axis. PMID:24948875

  4. Deletion of poxB, pta, and ackA improves 1,3-propanediol production by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Zhang, Yongqiang; Xu, Danfeng; Xiang, Gang; Jia, Zongxiao; Fu, Shuilin; Gong, Heng

    2016-03-01

    To date, few studies have focused on reducing the toxic by-product acetate during 1,3-propanediol production by Klebsiella pneumoniae. In this study, the effects of deleting the poxB, pta, and ackA genes, which are involved in the two main acetate synthesis pathways, on cell growth and 1,3-propanediol production were investigated. Although acetate synthesis via pyruvate oxidase (PoxB, encoded by poxB) generally seems unnecessary and wasteful, PoxB was shown to play an important role in K. pneumoniae. Deletion of poxB severely inhibited cell growth, and the poxB mutant exhibited an anomalously high accumulation of acetate in aerobic cultures and failed to produce an endogenous supply of carbon dioxide (CO2) in anaerobic cultures. It is interesting that both the aerobic and anaerobic growth defects of the poxB mutant were corrected by further deleting pta and ackA, which blocked the other main acetate synthesis pathway. The poxB-pta-ackA mutant excreted less acetate and showed an excellent ability to produce 1,3-propandiol. The final 1,3-propanediol yield and concentration in a 2-L fed-batch fermentation reached 0.66 (mol/mol) and 76.8 g/L, respectively, which were 16 and 15 % greater, respectively, than those of the parent strain.

  5. 76 FR 21333 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Second Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... method either to an exterior ply of plastic film such as biaxially-oriented polypropylene (``BOPP'') or... special closing features; not exceeding one kilogram in weight. Laminated woven sacks are typically...

  6. Libman-Sacks Endocarditis with Unusual Large Size Vegetation Involving the Mitral Valve.

    PubMed

    Bani Hani, Amjad; Abu-Abeeleh, Mahmoud; Al Kharabsheh, Murad M; Qabba'ah, Lubaba

    2016-12-21

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune hypercoagulable disorder characterized by thrombophilia, vascular thrombosis, and recurrent abortions associated with persistent antiphospholipid antibodies. APS may exist in its primary form, or more commonly is found to be associated with variety of rheumatic disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Cardiac involvement is not an uncommon complication in primary antiphospholipid patients. Libman-Sacks lesions are typically small, sessile, and wart-like, varying in size from 1-4 mm. Here we present an unusual case of a 37 year-old pregnant woman who suffered from heart failure associated with primary antiphospholipid syndrome and Libman-Sacks endocarditis, with large vegetations involving the mitral valve. The patient underwent mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis.

  7. Science Sacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Kimberlee

    2012-01-01

    With the emphasis placed on standardized testing, science education has been squeezed out. As a physics teacher, the author knows the importance of building children's interest in science early in their school career and of providing practice in basic science skills and inquiry. In order to make more time for science at her sons' elementary…

  8. Forms of Discourse and the Sciences of the Mind: Luria, Sacks, and the Role of Narrative in Neurological Case Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journet, Debra

    1990-01-01

    Discusses two sets of neurological case histories: A. R. Luria's "The Man with a Shattered World," and Oliver Sack's "Awakenings." Argues that these histories display two paradigmatic explanations for the mind/brain relation, and that the movement from one paradigm to another also necessitates a movement to different forms of…

  9. Lunch is in the bag: increasing fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in sack lunches of preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sweitzer, Sara J; Briley, Margaret E; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Harrist, Ronald B; Staskel, Deanna M; Almansour, Fawaz D

    2010-07-01

    Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are important sources of nutrients for healthy growth and development of young children. Recent evidence suggests that sack lunches packed by parents for children to consume at child-care centers do not regularly meet the goal of one serving of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. Lunch Is In The Bag is a child-care center-based nutrition education program targeted at parents of preschool-aged children to increase the number of servings of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in sack lunches sent from home that was pilot tested in fall 2008. In a quasiexperimental design, six child-care centers were paired by size before being randomly assigned to intervention (n=3) and comparison (n=3) groups. The parents of caregivers with primary responsibility for preparing the sack lunches of the 3- to 5-year-old children attending the centers were enrolled as parent-child dyads. The intervention included parent handouts, classroom activities, education stations, and teacher training. The contents of the lunch sacks for both the intervention group and comparison group were recorded for 3 nonconsecutive days before and immediately after the intervention period to measure the number of servings of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. A total of 132 parent-child dyads completed the study, 81 in the intervention group and 51 in the comparison group. Direct observation of children's lunches from the intervention group showed an increase in predicted mean number of servings of vegetables, from 0.41 to 0.65 (P<0.001) and whole grains, from 0.54 to 1.06 (P<0.001). No significant difference was observed in the mean number of servings of fruit. Lunch Is In The Bag, which is designed to fit in the child-care environment and targets parents of 3- to 5-year-old children, is a feasible intervention for improving the nutritional quality of sack lunches.

  10. Bioethics and the breakdown of the bicameral mind: Sacks and Luria revisited.

    PubMed

    Schiedermayer, David L

    1989-01-01

    Since antiquity, individuals have attempted to relate mental processes to circumscribed areas of the brain. In 1935 the neurologist Wilder Penfield purported to know, "the humming of the mind's machinery, and where words come from," after he electrically stimulated areas of the exposed human cortex. Recent theories have suggested a functional separation of the dominant and the nondominant hemispheres, the right brain/left brain concept of thought and personality. One author has even proposed that human consciousness and modern civilization developed when the bicameral mind broke down, and the left brain achieved mastery over the right nondominant temporal lobe. Compared to these mechanistic approaches to brain function and human personality, the Russian neurologist, A.R. Luria and his American follower, Oliver Sacks, have developed a more intellectually satisfying and clinically useful approach which relies on a fuller understanding of the doctor-patient....

  11. Colleges Call Debate Contests out of Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Competitive debate has traditionally served as a laboratory for the democratic process and an important training ground for future policy makers. In recent years, a growing number of teams have played the game out of traditional bounds. They have turned events into commentaries on debate itself, in performances that bear little resemblance to the…

  12. "My flying machine was out of order".

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Donald A B; Howe, Sally E

    2009-01-01

    Why did the founders of this organization-which was established in 1884 as the American Climatological Association-want to study climatology and respiratory diseases? In particular, where did the idea of treating tuberculosis with pure air and sunlight come from? How effective was this treatment for a disease that in 1880 afflicted a third of the population of Colorado? Why did this Association not acknowledge technological advances such as weather forecasting or large 20(th) century population movements? This paper seeks to answer those questions in order to inform the Association's possible study of the effects of global climate change on human health, an issue that is arguably comparable to what the founders faced. Recent governmental reports suggest that the medical and health care communities have not yet become engaged. If the ACCA does not, then who will?

  13. Are Biology and Chemistry Out of Order?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudin, Felix A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses advantages and disadvantages of standard high school biology and chemistry course sequences. Relates these sequences to Piagetian developmental levels as well as to David Ausubel's cognitive theory. Suggests that the sequences be reexamined in light of issues considered. (JM)

  14. Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A

    2013-03-01

    Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces.

  15. Dietary Quality of Preschoolers’ Sack Lunches as Measured by the Healthy Eating Index

    PubMed Central

    Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J.; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E.; Briley, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating habits are developed during the preschool years and track into adulthood, but few studies have quantified dietary quality of meals packed by parents for preschool children enrolled in early care and education centers. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the dietary quality of preschoolers’ sack lunches using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010 to provide parents of preschool children with guidance to increase the healthfulness of their child’s lunch. Design This study is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline dietary data from the Lunch Is in the Bag trial. Participants A total of 607 parent–child dyads from 30 early care and education centers in Central and South Texas were included. Main outcome measures Total and component scores of the HEI were computed using data obtained from direct observations of packed lunches and of children’s consumption. Statistical analysis Three-level regression models with random intercepts at the early care and education center and child level were used; all models were adjusted for child sex, age, and body mass index (calculated as kg/m2). Results Mean HEI-2010 total scores were 58 for lunches packed and 52 for lunches consumed, out of 100 possible points. Mean HEI component scores for packed and consumed lunches were lowest for greens and beans (6% and 8% of possible points), total vegetables (33% and 28%), seafood and plant proteins (33% and 29%), and whole grains (38% and 34%); and highest for empty calories (85% and 68% of possible points), total fruit (80% and 70%), whole fruit (79% and 64%), and total protein foods (76% and 69%). Conclusions Parents of preschool children pack lunches with low dietary quality that lack vegetables, plant proteins, and whole grains, as measured by the HEI. Education of parents and care providers in early care and education centers is vital to ensure that preschoolers receive high dietary-quality meals that promote their preference for and knowledge of a healthy diet. PMID

  16. Damaging biting behaviors in intensively kept rearing gilts: the effect of jute sacks and relations with production characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ursinus, W W; Wijnen, H J; Bartels, A C; Dijvesteijn, N; van Reenen, C G; Bolhuis, J E

    2014-11-01

    Pigs may display biting behavior directed at pen mates, resulting in body damage such as tail wounds. We assessed the suitability of jute sacks (hung vertically at wall) to reduce biting behaviors and tail wounds in rearing gilts. Additionally, we assessed several characteristics of different types of tail biters. Tail docked rearing gilts originated from 72 litters, which were kept in partly slatted pens with jute sacks (J) or barren control pens (CON; 36 litters per treatment). Tail and ear damage were observed at weaning (4 wk) and during the weaner and rearing phase (17 J and 19 CON pens). Sow (dam) damage was also considered. Biting behaviors (tail, ear, and other) were observed during the weaner and rearing phase. Weight was recorded at birth, weaning, and end of the weaner phase and ADG was calculated from birth till weaning and from weaning till 9 wk. Furthermore, estimated breeding values for litter size, litter birth weight, back fat, and growth between birth and ∼ 105 kg, and ∼ 25 to 105 kg were determined. Jute sacks reduced tail and ear damage at weaning (both P < 0.001) and tended to reduce sow tail damage (P = 0.09). Jute sacks also reduced tail damage post-weaning (P < 0.001 to 0.03), with a 5-fold reduction of (mild) tail wounds at the age of 13 wk. Biting behaviors directed at pen mates were up to 50% lower in J pens (P < 0.001 to 0.04). Higher genotypic litter size, litter birth weight, growth, and lower back fat seemed associated with higher levels of ear or tail-biting behavior (P = 0.002 to 0.09), albeit dependent on treatment and phase. Higher phenotypic litter sizes were associated with higher levels of biting behaviors (P = 0.004-0.08). High-tail-biters and Medium-tail-biters (the latter less pronounced) stemmed from larger litters (P = 0.01 to 0.05), were heavier (P = 0.03 to 0.04), grew faster (P = 0.05 to 0.08), and displayed higher levels of all kinds of biting behavior directed to pen mates and the jute sack (P < 0.001 to 0

  17. Unbundling Outcomes of a Multilevel Intervention to Increase Fruit, Vegetables and Whole Grains Parents Pack for Their Preschool Children in Sack Lunches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Margaret E.; Ranjit, Nalini; Holescher, Deanna M.; Sweitzer, Sara J.; Almansour, Fawaz; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Packing fruit, vegetables and whole grains in preschool children's sack lunches is a powerful way for parents to teach their children eating habits and food preferences to support a lifetime of good health. A multilevel intervention pilot-tested in childcare settings increased servings of vegetables and whole grains, but the lunches…

  18. Law Professors Rule Laptops out of Order in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2008-01-01

    The forbidden-laptop zone is territory into which few professors dare tread. Students have been known to protest when laptops are banned from a classroom, and even claim that they are being denied a proper education. Professors who have taken the bold step, though, sound like they've experienced an epiphany. A professor at the University, Don…

  19. Preparing Minority Teachers: Law and out of Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes-Johnson, Joy M.

    2008-01-01

    The inability of American colleges and universities to produce teachers for America's urban classrooms has reached epidemic proportions. This article seeks to describe the legal effects of policies and laws designed to create conditions for highly qualified teaching professionals. Issues germane to the topic of urban teacher preparation and…

  20. Unbundling outcomes of a multilevel intervention to increase fruit, vegetables, and whole grains parents pack for their preschool children in sack lunches.

    PubMed

    Briley, Margaret E; Ranjit, Nalini; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Sweitzer, Sara J; Almansour, Fawaz; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    2012-05-01

    BACKGROUND: Packing fruit, vegetables, and whole grains in preschool children's sack lunches is a powerful way for parents to teach their children eating habits and food preferences to support a lifetime of good health. A multilevel intervention pilot-tested in childcare settings increased servings of vegetables and whole grains, but the lunches still fell short of the intervention goals. PURPOSE: Secondary analyses were conducted to identify specific behavior changes underlying achieved increases in servings of vegetables and whole grains. METHODS: Food records from direct observation of 769 parent-packed lunches were investigated to unbundle and measure multiple aspects of lunch packing behavior. Changes from baseline to six week follow-up for the intervention (N=81) and comparison (N=51) parent-child dyads were evaluated in multilevel modeling. RESULTS: The increase for whole grains was explained by more parents packing whole grain items whereas increase for vegetables was explained by parents packing vegetables on more days. DISCUSSION: Tailored options were identified for further strategies to increase vegetables and whole grains in parent-packed sack lunches. TRANSLATION TO HEALTH EDUCATION PRACTICE: Linking achieved outcomes to specific behaviors can be an aid in assessing needs and designing interventions to maximize the chances for success.

  1. Unbundling outcomes of a multilevel intervention to increase fruit, vegetables, and whole grains parents pack for their preschool children in sack lunches

    PubMed Central

    Briley, Margaret E.; Ranjit, Nalini; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Sweitzer, Sara J.; Almansour, Fawaz; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Background Packing fruit, vegetables, and whole grains in preschool children’s sack lunches is a powerful way for parents to teach their children eating habits and food preferences to support a lifetime of good health. A multilevel intervention pilot-tested in childcare settings increased servings of vegetables and whole grains, but the lunches still fell short of the intervention goals. Purpose Secondary analyses were conducted to identify specific behavior changes underlying achieved increases in servings of vegetables and whole grains. Methods Food records from direct observation of 769 parent-packed lunches were investigated to unbundle and measure multiple aspects of lunch packing behavior. Changes from baseline to six week follow-up for the intervention (N=81) and comparison (N=51) parent-child dyads were evaluated in multilevel modeling. Results The increase for whole grains was explained by more parents packing whole grain items whereas increase for vegetables was explained by parents packing vegetables on more days. Discussion Tailored options were identified for further strategies to increase vegetables and whole grains in parent-packed sack lunches. Translation to Health Education Practice Linking achieved outcomes to specific behaviors can be an aid in assessing needs and designing interventions to maximize the chances for success. PMID:23243631

  2. Sacked at Saipan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    dozen American causalities.107 The division operations officer, Lieutenant Colonel Frederic Sheldon , began drafting a division order for the next day’s...time. Lieutenant Colonel Sheldon was crafting the division orders based on the draft V Corps orders that his boss received after his meeting with...Colonel Sheldon immediately notified Major General Smith about the change in orders and sent a courier to 2d Battalion, 105th Infantry’s command post

  3. Design and Validation Testing of TruckScan to Assay Large Sacks of Fukushima Radioactive Debris on a Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Atsuo; Bronson, Frazier

    2015-07-01

    As a result of the March 2011 earthquake and resulting tsunami in Japan, there was a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has contaminated soil and vegetation in a wide area around the plant. Decontamination projects over the last 4 years have resulted in large numbers of 1 cubic meter canvas bags of debris, commonly called Super Sacks [SS]. These are currently stored nearby where they were generated, but starting in 2015, they will be moved to various Interim Storage Facilities [ISF]. Trucks will typically carry 8-20 of these SSs. When the trucks arrive at the ISF they need to be rapidly sorted into groups according to radioactivity level, for efficient subsequent processing. Canberra Industries, Inc. [CI] has designed a new truck monitoring system 'TruckScan' for use at these ISFs. The TruckScan system must measure the entire truck loaded with multiple closely packed SSs, and generate a nuclide specific assay report showing the radioactivity in each individual SS. The Canberra-Japan office, along with Obayashi Corporation have performed validation testing to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the proposed technique was sufficiently accurate. These validation tests were conducted at a temporary storage area in Fukushima prefecture. Decontaminated waste of various representative types and of various levels of radioactivity was gathered and mixed to create homogeneous volumes. These volumes were sampled multiple times and assayed with laboratory HPGe detectors to determine the reference concentration of each pile. Multiple SSs were loaded from each pile. Some of the SSs were filled 50% full, others 75% full, and others 100% full, to represent the typical loading configuration of the existing SSs in the field. The content of the SSs are either sand, soil, or vegetation with densities ranging from 0.3 g/cc - 1.6 g/cc. These SSs with known concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 were then loaded onto trucks in a variety

  4. Examining How Adding a Booster to a Behavioral Nutrition Intervention Prompts Parents to Pack More Vegetables and Whole Gains in Their Preschool Children's Sack Lunches

    PubMed Central

    Sweitzer, Sara J.; Ranjit, Nalini; Calloway, Eric E.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Almansor, Fawaz; Briley, Margaret E.; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia R.

    2015-01-01

    Data from a five-week intervention to increase parents' packing of vegetables and whole grains in their preschool children's sack lunches showed that, although changes occurred, habit strength was weak. To determine the effects of adding a one-week booster three months post-intervention, children's (N = 59 intervention and 48 control) lunches were observed at baseline (week 0), post-intervention (week 6), pre-booster (week 20), and post-booster (week 26). Servings of vegetables and whole grains were evaluated in repeated measures models and results inspected relative to patterns projected from different explanatory models of behavior change processes. Observed changes aligned with projections from the simple associative model of behavior change. Attention in future studies should focus on behavioral intervention elements that leverage stimulus-response associations to increase gratification parents receive from providing their children with healthy lunches. PMID:24971674

  5. Metabolic process engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum Δack-adhE2 for enhanced n-butanol production from glucose: effects of methyl viologen on NADH availability, flux distribution, and fermentation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Du, Yinming; Jiang, Wenyan; Yu, Mingrui; Tang, I-Ching; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-04-01

    Butanol biosynthesis through aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE2) is usually limited by NADH availability, resulting in low butanol titer, yield, and productivity. To alleviate this limitation and improve n-butanol production by Clostridium tyrobutyricum Δack-adhE2 overexpressing adhE2, the NADH availability was increased by using methyl viologen (MV) as an artificial electron carrier to divert electrons from ferredoxin normally used for H2 production. In the batch fermentation with the addition of 500 μM MV, H2 , acetate, and butyrate production was reduced by more than 80-90%, while butanol production increased more than 40% to 14.5 g/L. Metabolic flux analysis revealed that butanol production increased in the fermentation with MV because of increased NADH availability as a result of reduced H2 production. Furthermore, continuous butanol production of ∼55 g/L with a high yield of ∼0.33 g/g glucose and extremely low ethanol, acetate, and butyrate production was obtained in fed-batch fermentation with gas stripping for in situ butanol recovery. This study demonstrated a stable and reliable process for high-yield and high-titer n-butanol production by metabolically engineered C. tyrobutyricum by applying MV as an electron carrier to increase butanol biosynthesis.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of thermo/pH-responsive Supramolecular G-Quadruplexes for the Construction of Supramolecular Hacky Sacks for Biorelevant Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negron Rios, Luis M.

    The impact of size, shape, and distribution of lipophilic regions on the surfaces of nanoscopic objects that are amphiphilic or patchy (such as proteins) are yet to be fully understood. One of the reasons for this is the lack of an appropriate model systems in which to probe this question. Our group has previously reported 2'-deoxyguanosine (8ArG) derivatives that self-assemble in aqueous media into discrete supramolecular hexadecamers that show the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phenomenon. The LCST phenomenon is a convenient and rigorous strategy to measure the hydrophobicity of a system. Although these SGQs are potentially attractive for biomedical applications like drug-delivery, the narrow window of physiological temperatures complicates their implementation. This moved us to redesign the constituent 8ArG subunits to incorporate imidazole moieties that would lead to pH-responsive SGQs, working isothermally. Upon reaching a threshold temperature (Lower Critical Solution Temperature, LCST) at pH 7, these dual-responsive SGQs further self-assemble to form nano/micro hydrogel globules that we called them supramolecular hacky sacks (SHS). However, we can isolate kinetically stable versions of these SHS by lowering the ionic strength of the medium (i.e., from the molar to the millimolar range) in a process that we term "fixing the SHS", in which these SHS maintain their integrity (size and shape) and stability without the requirement of crosslinking agents. After structural characterization and in vitro studies of SHS, we performed encapsulation studies of DOX, rhodamine, dsDNA (F26T), thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) and dextran (3 kDa) Texas Red conjugate. Then we performed in vivo studies of cell internalization and drug delivery with neuroblastoma SY-SH5Y. The performed studies will bring new approaches for the development of new biotechnology for fundamental applications and the emerging of novel therapeutic agents for biomedical applications.

  7. An Interview with Oliver Sacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Dale; Palo, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Presents an interview with Oliver Sachs. Discusses his approach to writing, including the physical pen-and-ink approach as opposed to using a word processor; his use of journals; his motivation for writing; his approach to revision; and his view of himself as a writer. (NH)

  8. A (In)Cast of Thousands: Scaling Datacenter TCP to Kiloservers and Gigabits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    supported SACK [22], which was introduced only in 1996. In just three years from 2001—2004, the num- ber of TCP Tahoe -based servers dropped drastically in...inter-packet arrival) shows that these more pre- cise delayed ACKs restore throughput to about 98% of the no-delayed-ACK throughput. 6 Achieving...file system. In Proc. 19th ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles (SOSP), Lake George, NY, October 2003. [17] V. Jacobson. Congestion Avoidance

  9. Scientists condemn space-chief sacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-09-01

    The removal of Italian Space Agency (ASI) president Giovanni Bignami has left astronomers in Italy angry and dismayed. Bignami, himself an astronomer, was dismissed by the recently elected government of Silvio Berlusconi following the mass resignation of the agency's administrative council. He has been replaced by Enrico Saggese of aerospace company Finmeccanica. Critics of the change believe that it will weaken Italy's space-science community and damage its international reputation.

  10. Role of Nonreceptor Protein Kinase Ack1 in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    initiation and progression of prostate cancer in vivo. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, transgenic mice , mouse model 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...These transgenic mice were generated in the laboratory of our collaborator Dr. Terry Van Dyke and are a mouse model of prostate cancer in which T121...reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  11. The characterisation of two different degradable polyethylene (PE) sacks

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G. . E-mail: gudavis@cytanet.com.cy

    2006-12-15

    The compostability of two different polyethylene (PE) products on the UK market under open-windrow composting conditions is explored within this paper. Chemical analysis of the PE bags has established their constituents in order to examine how the PE bags have an increased degradability depending on additives. Weight loss of the two different PE products within open-windrow composting conditions was recorded in order to establish the percentage weight loss as an indication of the degradability of the two products and their relative suitability for open-windrow composting. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the PE products over the composting duration established the degradation processes for the PE products within the compost. These analyses concluded that one of the PE product mixes was more degradable than the other. However, neither product completed degraded within the timeframe of 12-14 weeks generally accepted for open-windrow composting in the UK.

  12. Role of the Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase ACK2 in EGF Receptor Degradation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13 . ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words...SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Tyrosine kinase, EGF receptor; ErbB-2/Neu, signaling, small 13 molecules 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...12 References ...................................................................................... 13 Appendices

  13. L-Tryptophan Production in Escherichia coli Improved by Weakening the Pta-AckA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lina; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Acetate accumulation during the fermentation process of Escherichia coli FB-04, an L-tryptophan production strain, is detrimental to L-tryptophan production. In an initial attempt to reduce acetate formation, the phosphate acetyltransferase gene (pta) from E. coli FB-04 was deleted, forming strain FB-04(Δpta). Unfortunately, FB-04(Δpta) exhibited a growth defect. Therefore, pta was replaced with a pta variant (pta1) from E. coli CCTCC M 2016009, forming strain FB-04(pta1). Pta1 exhibits lower catalytic capacity and substrate affinity than Pta because of a single amino acid substitution (Pro69Leu). FB-04(pta1) lacked the growth defect of FB-04(Δpta) and showed improved fermentation performance. Strain FB-04(pta1) showed a 91% increase in L-tryptophan yield in flask fermentation experiments, while acetate production decreased by 35%, compared with its parent FB-04. Throughout the fed-batch fermentation process, acetate accumulation by FB-04(pta1) was slower than that by FB-04. The final L-tryptophan titer of FB-04(pta1) reached 44.0 g/L, representing a 15% increase over that of FB-04. Metabolomics analysis showed that the pta1 genomic substitution slightly decreased carbon flux through glycolysis and significantly increased carbon fluxes through the pentose phosphate and common aromatic pathways. These results indicate that this strategy enhances L-tryptophan production and decreases acetate accumulation during the L-tryptophan fermentation process. PMID:27348810

  14. Isolation and characterization of ack and pta mutations in Azotobacter vinelandii affecting acetate-glucose diauxie.

    PubMed Central

    McKenney, D; Melton, T

    1986-01-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii mutants defective for acetate utilization that were resistant to fluoroacetate (FA) were isolated. FA-resistant mutant AM6 failed to transport [14C]acetate and lacked enzymatic activity for both acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase. Growth of wild-type A. vinelandii was sensitive to 10 mM glycine; however, all FA-resistant strains were resistant to glycine toxicity. Isolated mutants that were spontaneously resistant to glycine were also resistant to FA and lacked both acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase activity. The glycine-resistant mutant AM3, unlike mutant AM6, was capable of growth on acetate. The mutant strain AM6 was unable to growth under acetate-glucose diauxie conditions. Glucose utilization in this mutant, unlike that in wild-type A. vinelandii, was permanently arrested in the presence of acetate. Revertants of strain AM6 were selected on plates with acetate or acetate-glucose. Two classes of revertants were isolated. Class I revertant mutants AM31 and AM35 were positive for both acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase activities. These revertants were also sensitive to both FA and glycine. Class II revertant strains AM32 and AM34 still lacked acetate kinase and phophotransacetylase activity. Both of these revertants remained resistant to FA and glycine. PMID:3001033

  15. 78 FR 39319 - Laminated Woven Sacks From China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... response to this request for information is required if a currently valid Office of Management and Budget... the information is accurate and complete to the best of the submitter's knowledge. In [[Page 39320... and demand conditions or business cycle for the Domestic Like Product that have occurred in the...

  16. 78 FR 6069 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ..., through July 31, 2012. The review covers one exporter of subject merchandise, Zibo Aifudi Plastic... method either to an exterior ply of plastic film such as biaxially-oriented polypropylene (``BOPP'') or..., 2012: Margin Exporter (percent) PRC-Wide Entity (including Zibo Aifudi Plastic Packaging 91.73 Co.,...

  17. 78 FR 19209 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...; laminated by any method either to an exterior ply of plastic film such as biaxially-oriented polypropylene...; with or without special closing features; not exceeding one kilogram in weight. Laminated woven...

  18. Glucose Transport into Everted Sacks of Intestine of Mice: A Model for the Study of Active Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deyrup-Olsen, Ingrith; Linder, Alison R.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a laboratory procedure which uses the small intestines of mice as models for the transport of glucose and other solutes. Demonstrations are suitable for either introductory or advanced physiology courses. (RE)

  19. Fungal deterioration of melon seeds stored in jute sacks and polyethylene bags in Ago-Iwoye, southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bankole, S A; Ikotun, B; Ekpo, E J

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory studies were carried out in the Department of Biological Sciences, Ogun State University, Ago-Iwoye, southwestern Nigeria, to determine the extent of fungal deterioration of melon seeds stored in two types of storage bags viz; jute and polyethylene bags. Melon seeds of varieties Tc139 and V2 were stored in jute and polyethylene bags under ambient conditions using the 2 x 2 factorial design (variety vs type of bag) for 12 months. The moisture content (mc), incidence of visible mouldiness (ivm) and germinability of the stored seeds were determined monthly. The mc of Tc139 ranged from 6.1 to 6.7% in jute and 6.2 to 6.5% in polyethylene bags. The ivm which was initially 2.1% increased to 10.7% and 5.5% in jute and polyethylene bags respectively, after 12 months in storage. The germination percentage decreased from 96.3% to 28.7% and 45.3% in jute and polyethylene bags, respectively. The mc of V2 stored in jute and polyethylene bags varied from 5.9 to 6.4%, and 5.8 to 6.2%, respectively. The ivm increased from 1.8% before storage to 8.9% and 4.8% in jute and polyethylene bags, respectively, after 12 months. The percentage seed germination declined from 98.0% to 37.3% in jute and 48.7% in polyethylene bags after 12 months. Decreased incidence of field fungi namely: Alternaria,Botryodiplodia theobromae, Cladosporium, Fusarium and Macrophomina phaseolina was accompanied by simultaneous increase in storage fungi viz: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Rhizopus with prolonged storage.

  20. NCAA's Latest Pay-to-Play Scheme Would Sack Concept of Amateur Student Athlete, Raise Antitrust Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Now that members of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) have voted to approve a sweeping, if not radical, proposal giving the five largest athletic conferences "autonomy" to establish new governance rules regarding a compensation pay package for the recruitment of athletes, some important public policy concerns need to be…

  1. 75 FR 81218 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Second...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... review covers imports of subject merchandise from one manufacturer/exporter: Zibo Aifudi Plastic... method either to an exterior ply of plastic film such as biaxially-oriented polypropylene (``BOPP'') or... were previously classifiable under HTSUS subheading 6305.33.0020. If entered with plastic coating...

  2. 76 FR 23791 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... differences in the advertisement and display of both products,\\8\\ and if the merchandise under consideration.... C. Ultimate Use of Merchandise, Channels of Trade, and Advertisement and Display of Product Petitioners maintain that the ultimate uses, channels of trade, and methods of advertisement and display...

  3. 76 FR 14906 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of First Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... adverse facts available (``AFA'') when a respondent fails to cooperate to the best of its ability.\\17\\ \\17\\ See, e.g., Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Taiwan; Preliminary Results and Rescission in Part of...) of the Act, to use AFA as the basis for these final results of review for the PRC-wide entity....

  4. Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2014-01-01

    Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300 species but surprisingly, little work has been done to clarify whether this has any significance. In an attempt to gain further insight we have studied the two ACKs (AckA1, AckA2) encoded by two neighboring genes conserved in Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) by analyzing protein sequences, characterizing transcription structure, determining enzyme characteristics and effect on growth physiology. The results show that the two ACKs are most likely individually transcribed. AckA1 has a much higher turnover number and AckA2 has a much higher affinity for acetate in vitro. Consistently, growth experiments of mutant strains reveal that AckA1 has a higher capacity for acetate production which allows faster growth in an environment with high acetate concentration. Meanwhile, AckA2 is important for fast acetate-dependent growth at low concentration of acetate. The results demonstrate that the two ACKs have complementary physiological roles in L. lactis to maintain a robust acetate metabolism for fast growth at different extracellular acetate concentrations. The existence of ACK isozymes may reflect a common evolutionary strategy in bacteria in an environment with varying concentrations of acetate. PMID:24638105

  5. Alternative Acetate Production Pathways in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during Dark Anoxia and the Dominant Role of Chloroplasts in Fermentative Acetate Production[W

    PubMed Central

    Catalanotti, Claudia; D’Adamo, Sarah; Wittkopp, Tyler M.; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl J.; Mackinder, Luke; Miller, Tarryn E.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Peers, Graham; Smith, Kerry S.; Jonikas, Martin C.; Grossman, Arthur R.; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii insertion mutants disrupted for genes encoding acetate kinases (EC 2.7.2.1) (ACK1 and ACK2) and a phosphate acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.8) (PAT2, but not PAT1) were isolated to characterize fermentative acetate production. ACK1 and PAT2 were localized to chloroplasts, while ACK2 and PAT1 were shown to be in mitochondria. Characterization of the mutants showed that PAT2 and ACK1 activity in chloroplasts plays a dominant role (relative to ACK2 and PAT1 in mitochondria) in producing acetate under dark, anoxic conditions and, surprisingly, also suggested that Chlamydomonas has other pathways that generate acetate in the absence of ACK activity. We identified a number of proteins associated with alternative pathways for acetate production that are encoded on the Chlamydomonas genome. Furthermore, we observed that only modest alterations in the accumulation of fermentative products occurred in the ack1, ack2, and ack1 ack2 mutants, which contrasts with the substantial metabolite alterations described in strains devoid of other key fermentation enzymes. PMID:25381350

  6. Interprocess Communication Protocols for Computer Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    connection, ESN must be set equal to ISN in both directions. To accomplish this, each CCP may try to keep the sarra state information that the other CCP...Pick ISN and send S’N packet ulth ACK of received SYN. OPEN SS Pick ISN and send SYN packst. ACK, elf Ignors sines no pscksts osnding...Quit, Data, Retrane SS SYN SR Accept SYN packet. Seid ACK referencing received SYN. OPEN elf Ignors sines already in progress. Retrane elf

  7. An Approach to Replicated Databases for Robust Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    state would be very different from "reality." 22 Messages can be labeled with the kind of acknowledgment (ack) or negative acknowledgment ( nack ) that...missing a consecutive sequence number. If a sequence number is missing, a request for missing messages would be made (a nack ). If an ack is expected...immediate acks consume limited communication bandwidth (especially during critical times when there are communication failures), nacks are preferred

  8. Improving TCP Performance over Mobile Satellite Channels: The ACKPrime Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Keith; Czetty, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "Improving TCP Performance over Mobile Satellite Channels: The ACKPrime Approach" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) TCP over mobile satellite links; 2) ways of breaking the control loop at the groundstation; 3) ACK implementation; and 4) ACK performance.

  9. Emergency Plan for Pokegama Dam and Reservoir

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    supplies should be concentrated. Upon discovery of a damaged wave wash section or the beginning of wave wash damage, action should be taken to prevent...1 crew leader, 6 to 20 laborers plowing, harrowing, fertilizing , digging sprigs, hauling sprigs, scattering sprigs, disking, seeding and watering...TRENCH I SACK DEEP. LAYING BOTTOM LAYER 2 SACKS WIDE SECTION NOTE: ALTERNATE DIRECTION OF SACKS VITO BOTTOM LAYER PARALLEL TO FLOW. NEXT LAYER

  10. Involvement of Activated Cdc42 Kinase1 in Colitis and Colorectal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Chaolan; Gu, Hongxiang; Zhao, Xinmei; Huang, Liyun; Zhou, Sanxi; Zhi, Fachao

    2016-01-01

    Background Activated Cdc42 kinase1 (ACK1) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase which is critical for cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Genomic amplification of ACK1 has been reported in multiple human cancers. We aimed to investigate ACK1 protein expression in colorectal mucosa with inflammation and neoplasm, and to evaluate its correlation with disease activity and severity. Material/Methods A total of 250 individuals who underwent total colonoscopy were collected randomly from January 2007 to May 2013 in Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, China. Colorectal mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained by endoscopy from 78 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 22 with Crohn’s disease (CD), 20 with infectious colitis, 26 with non-IBD and noninfectious colitis, 16 with sporadic adenomas, 4 with dysplasia-associated lesions or masses, 10 with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), 4 with UC-related CRC, 10 with hyperplastic polyps, and 60 without colonic abnormalities. ACK1 protein levels were determined immunohistochemically. The correlations of ACK1 expression with disease activity and severity were also evaluated. Results Significantly increased ACK1 expression was observed in epithelial cells of colorectal mucosa with inflammation and dysplasia compared to controls (P<0.05). ACK1 expression correlated with clinical activity in IBD (χ2=4.57, P=0.033 for UC; χ2=5.68, P=0.017 for CD), as well as grade of dysplasia in preneoplastic lesions (P<0.05). No significant differences in ACK1 expression were found between UC and CD, or between IBD and non-IBD conditions (P>0.05). Conclusions ACK1 protein is increased extensively in colitis and colorectal dysplasia. ACK1 overexpression may play a role in colorectal inflammation and neoplasms. PMID:27926694

  11. Involvement of Activated Cdc42 Kinase1 in Colitis and Colorectal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chaolan; Zhao, Xinmei; Gu, Hongxiang; Huang, Liyun; Zhou, Sanxi; Zhi, Fachao

    2016-12-07

    BACKGROUND Activated Cdc42 kinase1 (ACK1) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase which is critical for cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Genomic amplification of ACK1 has been reported in multiple human cancers. We aimed to investigate ACK1 protein expression in colorectal mucosa with inflammation and neoplasm, and to evaluate its correlation with disease activity and severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 250 individuals who underwent total colonoscopy were collected randomly from January 2007 to May 2013 in Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, China. Colorectal mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained by endoscopy from 78 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 22 with Crohn's disease (CD), 20 with infectious colitis, 26 with non-IBD and noninfectious colitis, 16 with sporadic adenomas, 4 with dysplasia-associated lesions or masses, 10 with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), 4 with UC-related CRC, 10 with hyperplastic polyps, and 60 without colonic abnormalities. ACK1 protein levels were determined immunohistochemically. The correlations of ACK1 expression with disease activity and severity were also evaluated. RESULTS Significantly increased ACK1 expression was observed in epithelial cells of colorectal mucosa with inflammation and dysplasia compared to controls (P<0.05). ACK1 expression correlated with clinical activity in IBD (χ²=4.57, P=0.033 for UC; χ²=5.68, P=0.017 for CD), as well as grade of dysplasia in preneoplastic lesions (P<0.05). No significant differences in ACK1 expression were found between UC and CD, or between IBD and non-IBD conditions (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS ACK1 protein is increased extensively in colitis and colorectal dysplasia. ACK1 overexpression may play a role in colorectal inflammation and neoplasms.

  12. War No Longer Exists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    population centers is also not a new phenomenon. Constantinople was first sacked by Christians in 1204, then by the Ottomans in 1453. Oliver Cromwell...this-day-in-history/ sack -of-lawrence-kansas (accessed February 7, 2012). 48 82 Lowell Thomas’ multimedia show in 1919-1924 was seen by more

  13. Effects of Sleep on Training Effectiveness in Soldiers at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    the duration and timing of sleep episodes can have marked impacts on mood (Birchler-Pedross, Schröder, Münch, Knoblauch, Blatter, Schnitzler- Sack ...Blatter, K., Schnitzler- Sack , C., Wirz-Justice, A., & Cajochen, C. (2009). Subjective well- being is modulated by circadian phase, sleep pressure

  14. 78 FR 39256 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ......... China Laminated Woven Sacks Jennifer Moats (1st Review). (202) 482-5047 C-570-917 701-TA-450....... China Laminated Woven Sacks Dana Mermelstein (1st Review). (202) 482-1391 A-570-875 731-TA-990....... China Non-Malleable Cast Jennifer Moats Iron Pipe Fittings (202) 482-5047 (2nd Review). A-570-925...

  15. 78 FR 33060 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Sunset Review (``Sunset Review''). Department contact Antidumping Duty Proceedings Laminated Woven Sacks from China (A-570-916) Jennifer Moats, (202) 482-5047. (1st Review). Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe..., (202) 482-4136. Review). Countervailing Duty Proceedings Laminated Woven Sacks from China...

  16. Criticality emergency planning at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.H.; Cain, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    A plan to protect personnel and control the spread of contamination in the event of a radiation accident at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is outlined. Procedures and personnel are presented. (ACK)

  17. Atrial Septal Defect (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... septal defect (pronounced: AY-tree-ul SEP-tul DEE-fekt), or ASD for short, is sometimes referred ... can be treated with cardiac catheterization (pronounced: CAR-dee-ack cath-uh-turr-ih-ZAY-shun), in ...

  18. Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... study found more lymphomas and leukemias in rats fed very high doses of aspartame (equivalent to drinking ... permitted for use in food in the United States: Acesulfame potassium (also known as ACK, Sweet One®, ...

  19. Fixing Two BSD TCP Bugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark

    1997-01-01

    This note outlines two bugs found in the BSD 4.4 Lite TCP implementation, as well as the implications of these bugs and possible ways to correct them. The first problem encountered in this particular TCP implementation is the use of a 2 segment initial congestion window, rather than the standard 1 segment initial window. The second problem is that the receiver delays ACKs in violation of the delayed ACK rules,

  20. SOD1 Lysine 123 Acetylation in the Adult Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Kaliszewski, Michael; Kennedy, Austin K; Blaes, Shelby L; Shaffer, Robert S; Knott, Andrew B; Song, Wenjun; Hauser, Henry A; Bossy, Blaise; Huang, Ting-Ting; Bossy-Wetzel, Ella

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) knockout (Sod1(-/-)) mice exhibit an accelerated aging phenotype. In humans, SOD1 mutations are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and post-translational modification (PTM) of wild-type SOD1 has been associated with sporadic ALS. Reversible acetylation regulates many enzymes and proteomic studies have identified SOD1 acetylation at lysine 123 (K123). The function and distribution of K123-acetylated SOD1 (Ac-K123 SOD1) in the nervous system is unknown. Here, we generated polyclonal rabbit antibodies against Ac-K123 SOD1. Sod1 deletion in Sod1(-/-) mice, K123 mutation or preabsorption with Ac-K123 peptide all abolished antibody binding. Using immunohistochemistry, we assessed Ac-K123 SOD1 distribution in the normal adult mouse nervous system. In the cerebellum, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was prominent in cell bodies of the granular cell layer (GCL) and Purkinje cell dendrites and interneurons of the molecular cell layer. In the hippocampus, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was strong in the fimbria, subiculum, pyramidal cells and Schaffer collateral fibers of the cornus ammonis field 1 (CA1) region and granule and neuronal progenitor cells of the dentate gyrus. In addition, labeling was observed in the choroid plexus (CP) and the ependyma of the brain ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. In the olfactory bulb, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was prominent in axons of sensory neurons, in cell bodies of interneurons and neurites of the mitral and tufted cells. In the retina, labeling was strong in the retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) and axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the inner nuclear layer (INL) and cone photoreceptors of the outer nuclear layer (ONL). In summary, our findings describe Ac-K123 SOD1 distribution to distinct regions and cell types of the normal nervous system.

  1. SOD1 Lysine 123 Acetylation in the Adult Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kaliszewski, Michael; Kennedy, Austin K.; Blaes, Shelby L.; Shaffer, Robert S.; Knott, Andrew B.; Song, Wenjun; Hauser, Henry A.; Bossy, Blaise; Huang, Ting-Ting; Bossy-Wetzel, Ella

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) knockout (Sod1−/−) mice exhibit an accelerated aging phenotype. In humans, SOD1 mutations are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and post-translational modification (PTM) of wild-type SOD1 has been associated with sporadic ALS. Reversible acetylation regulates many enzymes and proteomic studies have identified SOD1 acetylation at lysine 123 (K123). The function and distribution of K123-acetylated SOD1 (Ac-K123 SOD1) in the nervous system is unknown. Here, we generated polyclonal rabbit antibodies against Ac-K123 SOD1. Sod1 deletion in Sod1−/− mice, K123 mutation or preabsorption with Ac-K123 peptide all abolished antibody binding. Using immunohistochemistry, we assessed Ac-K123 SOD1 distribution in the normal adult mouse nervous system. In the cerebellum, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was prominent in cell bodies of the granular cell layer (GCL) and Purkinje cell dendrites and interneurons of the molecular cell layer. In the hippocampus, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was strong in the fimbria, subiculum, pyramidal cells and Schaffer collateral fibers of the cornus ammonis field 1 (CA1) region and granule and neuronal progenitor cells of the dentate gyrus. In addition, labeling was observed in the choroid plexus (CP) and the ependyma of the brain ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. In the olfactory bulb, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was prominent in axons of sensory neurons, in cell bodies of interneurons and neurites of the mitral and tufted cells. In the retina, labeling was strong in the retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) and axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the inner nuclear layer (INL) and cone photoreceptors of the outer nuclear layer (ONL). In summary, our findings describe Ac-K123 SOD1 distribution to distinct regions and cell types of the normal nervous system. PMID:28066183

  2. Evaluation of metal ion absorptive characteristics of three types of plastic sample bags used for pecipitation sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Good, A.B.; Schroder, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Simulated precipitation samples containing 16 metal ions were prepared at 4 pH values. Absorptive characteristics of polypropylene, polyethylene, and polyester/polyolefin sacks were evaluated at pH 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. Simulated precipitation was in contact with the sacks for 17 days, and subsamples were removed for chemical analysis at 3, 7, 10, 14, and 17 days after initial contact. All three types of plastic sacks absorbed Fe throughout the entire pH range. Polypropylene and polyethylene absorbed Pb throughout the entire pH range; polyester/polyolefin sacks absorbed Pb at pH 4.0 or greater. All plastic sacks also absorbed Cu, Mo, and V at pH 4.5 and 5.0. Leaching the plastic sacks with 0.7 percent HNO3 did not result in 100 percent of Cu, Fe, Pb, and V. These sacks would be suitable collection vessels for Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Li, Mg, Mn, Na Sr and Zn in precipitation through the pH range of 3.5 to 5.0.

  3. 41. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF LOADING SACKS OF FLEECES ONTO TRUCK AT JUNCTION OF SEVEN SPRINGS ROAD AND TANGLE CREEK ROAD. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. Sudden infant death syndrome prevention: a model program for NICUs.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Sherri L; Lipke, Bethann; LeMura, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Health care providers' opinions can influence how parents place their infant to sleep. Neonatal nurses can improve how they teach and model safe infant sleep practices to parents. To increase neonatal nurses' knowledge, a sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention program was implemented. Program components included a computerized teaching tool, a crib card, sleep sacks, and discharge instructions. Initial program evaluation showed that 98 percent of infants slept supine and 93 percent slept in sleep sacks in open cribs. However, nurses continued to swaddle some infants with blankets to improve thermoregulation. To increase nursing compliance in modeling safe infant sleep practices, Halo SleepSack Swaddles were provided for nurses to use in place of a blanket to regulate infant temperature. Recent data show that 100 percent of infants in open cribs are now sleeping supine wearing a Halo Swaddle or a traditional Halo SleepSack. This model program can easily be replicated to enhance neonatal nurses' knowledge about SIDS prevention.

  5. 33 CFR 207.470 - Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... long blast of the steam whistle, which signal shall be answered by a similar blast by the pilot of any... engines is strictly forbidden. (e)-(g) (h) Rafts. (1) The passage of bag or sack rafts, or of loose...

  6. 33 CFR 207.470 - Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... long blast of the steam whistle, which signal shall be answered by a similar blast by the pilot of any... engines is strictly forbidden. (e)-(g) (h) Rafts. (1) The passage of bag or sack rafts, or of loose...

  7. 33 CFR 207.470 - Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... long blast of the steam whistle, which signal shall be answered by a similar blast by the pilot of any... engines is strictly forbidden. (e)-(g) (h) Rafts. (1) The passage of bag or sack rafts, or of loose...

  8. 52. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT ROOF TRUSS DETAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT ROOF TRUSS DETAILS, SACKING SHED-FLOTATION UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  9. 51. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT ROOF TRUSS DETAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT ROOF TRUSS DETAILS, SACKING SHED-FLOTATION UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  10. Looking at Your Newborn: What's Normal

    MedlinePlus

    ... to disappear. Although it's much more common in boys, swelling in the groin of an infant girl ... an inguinal (groin) hernia . previous continue Hydrocele In boys, the scrotum (the sack containing the testicles) often ...

  11. Music for Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain-altering chemicals called endorphins that revive lost memories and emotions. Dr. Sacks states that Parkinson’s and stroke patients respond to music therapy because the human brain is uniquely programmed to respond to rhythmic ...

  12. Balancing Operations Security and Openness: Understanding the Military/Media Relationship in the Modern Media Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-07

    was never judged based on its merits, but the district court judge, Oliver Gasch, said that he doubted whether the temporary ban on press 17 Aukofer...Craig Pyes of the “Crimes of War Project” and Kevin Sack of the Los Angeles Times on a Special Forces Operational Detachment Alpha (ODA) operating...out of Gardez, Afghanistan in 2003. Pyes and Sack reported on two separate alleged murders of Afghan citizens detained by members of ODA 2021

  13. Improved Efficient, Nearly Orthogonal, Nearly Balanced Mixed Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    been widely used for computational experiments ( Sacks et al. 1989). They tend to have good space-filling and orthogonality behavior if n p, but when n...Fisher, R. A. 2000. Statistical methods for research workers. Edinburgh, Scotland: Oliver and Boyd. Hedayat, A. S., N. J. Sloane, and J. Stufken. 1999...methods. 2nd ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. Sacks , J., W. J. Welch, T. J. Mitchell, and H. P. Wynn. 1989. Design and analysis of computer experiments

  14. How Effective was Field Marshal William Slim as an Operational Artist?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    command after being sacked by Irwin who held him responsible for yet another defeat. However, Auchinleck, realizing that it was Irwin, rather than Slim...by nature, a meddler. Slim received a terse message from Irwin with an element of dark humor. It simply stated “You’re not sacked . I am.” Michael... Oliver Leese replaced Giffard in November 1944. Leese assumed command of the newly created post of Commander Allied Land Forces South East Asia

  15. The First Test: Madison’s Strategy, The Constitution, and the War of 1812

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    would become synonymous with the War of 1812. In August 1814, the English sacked and burned Washington DC. Disagreement between the President and...called the “Bladensburg Races.” The sack of Washington was inarguably the low point of the war. A staunch defense of Baltimore prevented the British...and the Military, 4. 3 Mahon, History of the Militia and the National Guard, 7-9. 13 inhabitants. Formal written protests against Oliver

  16. No Quarter Given: The Change in Strategic Bombing Application in the Pacific Theater During World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    HE High Explosive RAF Royal Air Force USSBS United States Strategic Bombing Survey USAAF United States Army Air Force USSTAF United...concepts and British applications. By the end of 1941 the Royal Air Force (RAF) was the only means available for the British to strike back at...50 five seconds after the bomb would hit, an explosive charge ejected and ignited a sackful of jellied gasoline (napalm).52 The sack held the napalm

  17. Development of Rolling Schedules for Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE)-Processed AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Photograph of the rolling mill (Hugo Sack GmbH)...............................7 Fig. 5 Convection air furnace...Sack GmbH) The preheating (15–20 min) and annealing between the rolling steps was performed in a convection air furnace (Fig. 5). Unlike that in the... Convection air furnace Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 8 Starting from our prior results, the first rolling passes started with a

  18. JPRS Report Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    BANGLADESH Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Sacked [Delhi Domestic Service 9 Nov] 5 EGYPT West Germans Build Small Nuclear Power Stations...Brazil has geologial uranium reserves calculated at 301,400 metric tons, and the world market allows annual business involving up to $65 million, "a...country. JPRS-TND-88-020 28 November 1988 NEAR EAST & SOUTH ASIA BANGLADESH Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Sacked BK0911075888 Delhi Domestic

  19. 9. VIEW SHOWING PEARL WHITFORD (LEFT) AND ARTHUR RAINING BIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING PEARL WHITFORD (LEFT) AND ARTHUR RAINING BIRD (RIGHT) HOLDING A FRAMED FLOUR SACK USED BY THE ROCKY BOY'S AGENCY FLOUR MILL. THE SACK SHOWS AN IMAGE OF ROCK BOY, LEADER OF THE CHIPPEWA AND CREE INDIANS IN MONTANA AT THE TIME ROCK BOY'S RESERVATION WAS CREATED BY CONGRESS (PHOTO WAS TAKEN BEHIND THE AGENCY'S SCHOOL). - Rocky Boy's Agency Flour Mill, Rocky Boy, Hill County, MT

  20. Correspondence on: A Hyaluronic Acid-Rich Node and Duct System in Which Pluripotent Adult Stem Cells Circulate.

    PubMed

    Anastassova Kristeva, Marlene

    2016-09-01

    The origin of the wide spread node and duct system described by Rai et al. remains a mystery. The explanation came when another study on yolk sack hemopoiesis was compared with the "primo vascular system". It came out that the yolk sack hematogenic tissue, introduced to the embryo by the vitelline veins, does not disappear in adults, but continues to exist in form of nods and ducts along blood vessels and different organs.

  1. A toxicological and dermatological assessment of alkyl cyclic ketones when used as fragrance ingredients. RIFM Expert Panel.

    PubMed

    Belsito, D; Bickers, D; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Fryer, A D; Greim, H; Miyachi, Y; Saurat, J H; Sipes, I G

    2013-12-01

    The alkyl cyclic ketone (ACK) fragrance ingredients are a diverse group of structures with similar metabolic and toxicity profiles. ACK fragrance materials demonstrate low acute toxicity. Upon repeat dose testing, some adverse effects in biochemical and hematological parameters, and slightly increased liver and kidney weights were reported, primarily at high doses, resulting from adaptive effects. Developmental effects occurred only in the presence of maternal toxicity. Assays in bacteria and mammalian cell systems and the mouse micronucleus assay did not demonstrate genotoxicity. ACK fragrance ingredients are considered non-irritating to the skin of humans; results showed few reactions, most of which were equivocal or involved doses greater than those in consumer products. Mild to moderate eye irritation in animal tests was observed with most compounds; however, full recovery was usually observed. Human sensitization studies indicate that ACK fragrance ingredients have a low sensitization potential. Diagnostic patch-tests indicated low sensitizing potential in humans; except for fragrance materials which caused reactions at 1% or 5%. Phototoxicity and photosensitization were not demonstrated in humans, and, with the possible exception of acetyl cedrene, would not be expected. It is concluded that ACK materials do not present a safety concern at current levels of use as fragrance ingredients.

  2. Long-term artificial sweetener acesulfame potassium treatment alters neurometabolic functions in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Turkin, Rebecca; Wood, William H; Becker, Kevin G; Moaddel, Ruin; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2013-01-01

    With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK). We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks) in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests) were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion) and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway) in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice.

  3. PHACK: An Efficient Scheme for Selective Forwarding Attack Detection in WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Anfeng; Dong, Mianxiong; Ota, Kaoru; Long, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Per-Hop Acknowledgement (PHACK)-based scheme is proposed for each packet transmission to detect selective forwarding attacks. In our scheme, the sink and each node along the forwarding path generate an acknowledgement (ACK) message for each received packet to confirm the normal packet transmission. The scheme, in which each ACK is returned to the source node along a different routing path, can significantly increase the resilience against attacks because it prevents an attacker from compromising nodes in the return routing path, which can otherwise interrupt the return of nodes’ ACK packets. For this case, the PHACK scheme also has better potential to detect abnormal packet loss and identify suspect nodes as well as better resilience against attacks. Another pivotal issue is the network lifetime of the PHACK scheme, as it generates more acknowledgements than previous ACK-based schemes. We demonstrate that the network lifetime of the PHACK scheme is not lower than that of other ACK-based schemes because the scheme just increases the energy consumption in non-hotspot areas and does not increase the energy consumption in hotspot areas. Moreover, the PHACK scheme greatly simplifies the protocol and is easy to implement. Both theoretical and simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in terms of high detection probability and the ability to identify suspect nodes. PMID:26690178

  4. Long-Term Artificial Sweetener Acesulfame Potassium Treatment Alters Neurometabolic Functions in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Turkin, Rebecca; Wood, William H.; Becker, Kevin G.; Moaddel, Ruin

    2013-01-01

    With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK). We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks) in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests) were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion) and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway) in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice. PMID:23950916

  5. Compilation of Local Fallout Data from Test Detonations 1945-1962 Extracted from DASA 1251. Volume I. Continental U.S. Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    pt . ! 381 "’.~--- 58 PROJECT - Uranus Safety Experiment PST CMT Sponsor: UCRL DTE: 14 Mar 195 14 Mar 1958 TIME: 1400 2200 SITE: NTS - Area 12d 37r 11...Hodograph for H1ARfACK II - Blanca. I 1J 494• I i OPERATION 5ARIDACK II - Titania Safety Experiment PST GH4T Sponsor: UCRL ,T E: 30 Oct 1956 30 Oct 1958...HADTMACK II - Titania . On-site dose rate contours in r/hr at H+l hour. 496 { !Ak 103 NNVDAI WIND oTA IPOR GP&TON RM ACK II- T - ltitude H-hour - hour

  6. A Survey of Concurrency Control Mechanisms for Centralized and Distributed Databases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    request is an update. Secondly, if some sites fail (due to, e.g., either hardware or soft- ware malfunction) or if some communication links fail (making...cooperate #1 backup #2a host reusqusqu t sre coprt svrserver server hot#2b hos akphs akp host 0 by ack #2c by ack #3c b Figure 4. Message Flow in a... communication between any two nodes in different sets is not possible. Furthermore, at every site, except the one where LC resides, there is a local

  7. Full-Duplex Underwater Networking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    sec (1.5 meters/sec). The range of temperatures throughout the ocean can be as low as 28 degrees Fahrenheit near the poles to Equator water...onTimeTransmissiT 4*PACK)DATACTS(RTSime Ppogation tnstant proAssume co zerond goes togligible aACK) is neCTS(RTSt TAssume tha 4*P(DATA)T ACK)DATACTS( RTSP ...basic simulation design program was chosen to model the network and the protocol. C. SIMULATION TOOL Instead of writing a low level simulation

  8. Evaluation and Development of Multimedia Networks in Dynamic Stress (EDMUNDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    for sending acks. That is, acks for packets received from node i by nodej are sent over a direct link fromj to i. This procedure is different from...nodes, and if there is a link from node i to nodej , then there must also be a link from node j to node i. *Ogier, R.G., and D.S. Lee. 1993. Secure...links that should go down or come up. To specify a link, enter ij for the link from node i to nodej . To take the link down, enter the letter d; to

  9. In utero depletion of fetal hematopoietic stem cells improves engraftment after neonatal transplantation in mice.

    PubMed

    Derderian, S Christopher; Togarrati, P Priya; King, Charmin; Moradi, Patriss W; Reynaud, Damien; Czechowicz, Agnieszka; Weissman, Irving L; MacKenzie, Tippi C

    2014-08-07

    Although in utero hematopoietic cell transplantation is a promising strategy to treat congenital hematopoietic disorders, levels of engraftment have not been therapeutic for diseases in which donor cells have no survival advantage. We used an antibody against the murine c-Kit receptor (ACK2) to deplete fetal host hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and increase space within the hematopoietic niche for donor cell engraftment. Fetal mice were injected with ACK2 on embryonic days 13.5 to 14.5 and surviving pups were transplanted with congenic hematopoietic cells on day of life 1. Low-dose ACK2 treatment effectively depleted HSCs within the bone marrow with minimal toxicity and the antibody was cleared from the serum before the neonatal transplantation. Chimerism levels were significantly higher in treated pups than in controls; both myeloid and lymphoid cell chimerism increased because of higher engraftment of HSCs in the bone marrow. To test the strategy of repeated HSC depletion and transplantation, some mice were treated with ACK2 postnatally, but the increase in engraftment was lower than that seen with prenatal treatment. We demonstrate a successful fetal conditioning strategy associated with minimal toxicity. Such strategies could be used to achieve clinically relevant levels of engraftment to treat congenital stem cell disorders.

  10. Evolution of Acetoclastic Methanogenesis in Methanosarcina via Horizontal Gene Transfer from Cellulolytic Clostridia▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Gregory P.; Gogarten, J. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that two genes required for acetoclastic methanogenesis, ackA and pta, were horizontally transferred to the ancestor of Methanosarcina from a derived cellulolytic organism in the class Clostridia. This event likely occurred within the last 475 million years, causing profound changes in planetary methane biogeochemistry. PMID:18055595

  11. Potential Role of Acetyl-CoA Synthetase (acs) and Malate Dehydrogenase (mae) in the Evolution of the Acetate Switch in Bacteria and Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, Elliott P.; McClure, Marcella A.; Johnson, Kiki; Cleveland, Sean; Hunt, Kristopher A.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Although many Archaea have AMP-Acs (acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase) and ADP-Acs, the extant methanogenic genus Methanosarcina is the only identified Archaeal genus that can utilize acetate via acetate kinase (Ack) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta). Despite the importance of ack as the potential urkinase in the ASKHA phosphotransferase superfamily, an origin hypothesis does not exist for the acetate kinase in Bacteria, Archaea, or Eukarya. Here we demonstrate that Archaeal AMP-Acs and ADP-Acs contain paralogous ATPase motifs previously identified in Ack, which demonstrate a novel relation between these proteins in Archaea. The identification of ATPase motif conservation and resulting structural features in AMP- and ADP-acetyl-CoA synthetase proteins in this study expand the ASKHA superfamily to include acetyl-CoA synthetase. Additional phylogenetic analysis showed that Pta and MaeB sequences had a common ancestor, and that the Pta lineage within the halophilc archaea was an ancestral lineage. These results suggested that divergence of a duplicated maeB within an ancient halophilic, archaeal lineage formed a putative pta ancestor. These results provide a potential scenario for the establishment of the Ack/Pta pathway and provide novel insight into the evolution of acetate metabolism for all three domains of life. PMID:26235787

  12. Biological Synthesis of a Protein Analogue of Acetylcholinesterase: Monoclonal Anti-Idiotype Antibody Analogue of the Esteratic Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-10

    ratio of 3 mg of protein/mI of packed beads, ae previously described (15,16). The protein content of the filtrates indicated that 96 percent of the...screend At two S after fusion by solid hs adib -ia mmndassay techniques. Anti-ACK antibodies are assayed in the following mwwter. Culture supernatant, So

  13. PCAF-mediated acetylation of transcriptional factor HOXB9 suppresses lung adenocarcinoma progression by targeting oncogenic protein JMJD6

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Junhu; Xu, Weizhi; Zhan, Jun; Ma, Ji; Li, Xueying; Xie, Yuping; Wang, Jiadong; Zhu, Wei-guo; Luo, Jianyuan; Zhang, Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    HOXB9 is a homeobox domain-containing transcription factor, playing an important role in embryonic development and cancer progression. However, the precise post-translational modifications (PTMs) of HOXB9 and the corresponding roles are unclear. Here, we report that acetyltransferase p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) interacts with and acetylates HOXB9 both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, the acetylation of HOXB9 can be reversed by deacetylase SIRT1. Furthermore, we found that HOXB9 is acetylated at lysine 27 (AcK27). Functionally, in contrast to the wild type HOXB9, AcK27-HOXB9 decreased its capacity in promoting lung cancer cell migration and tumor growth in mice. Mechanistically, AcK27-HOXB9 suppresses the transcription of its target gene Jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) by direct occupying the promoter of JMJD6 gene. For clinical relevance, elevated HOXB9 acetylation at K27 predicts a better prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Taken together, we identified the first PTM of HOXB9 by demonstrating that HOXB9 can be acetylated and AcK27-HOXB9 counteracts the role of the wild-type HOXB9 in regulating lung adenocarcinoma progression. PMID:27613418

  14. The Acetyl Group Buffering Action of Carnitine Acetyltransferase Offsets Macronutrient-induced Lysine Acetylation of Mitochondrial Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael N.; Kjalarsdottir, Lilja; Thompson, J. Will; Dubois, Laura G.; Stevens, Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Brosnan, M. Julia; Rolph, Timothy P.; Grimsrud, Paul A.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation (AcK), a posttranslational modification wherein a two-carbon acetyl group binds covalently to a lysine residue, occurs prominently on mitochondrial proteins and has been linked to metabolic dysfunction. An emergent theory suggests mitochondrial AcK occurs via mass action rather than targeted catalysis. To test this hypothesis we performed mass spectrometry-based acetylproteomic analyses of quadriceps muscles from mice with skeletal muscle-specific deficiency of carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT), an enzyme that buffers the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA pool by converting short-chain acyl-CoAs to their membrane permeant acylcarnitine counterparts. CrAT deficiency increased tissue acetyl-CoA levels and susceptibility to diet-induced AcK of broad-ranging mitochondrial proteins, coincident with diminished whole body glucose control. Sub-compartment acetylproteome analyses of muscles from obese mice and humans showed remarkable overrepresentation of mitochondrial matrix proteins. These findings reveal roles for CrAT and L-carnitine in modulating the muscle acetylproteome and provide strong experimental evidence favoring the nonenzymatic carbon pressure model of mitochondrial AcK. PMID:26748706

  15. Potential Role of Acetyl-CoA Synthetase (acs) and Malate Dehydrogenase (mae) in the Evolution of the Acetate Switch in Bacteria and Archaea

    DOE PAGES

    Barnhart, Elliott P.; McClure, Marcella A.; Johnson, Kiki; ...

    2015-08-03

    Although many Archaea have AMP-Acs (acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase) and ADP-Acs, the extant methanogenic genus Methanosarcina is the only identified Archaeal genus that can utilize acetate via acetate kinase (Ack) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta). Despite the importance of ack as the potential urkinase in the ASKHA phosphotransferase superfamily, an origin hypothesis does not exist for the acetate kinase in Bacteria, Archaea, or Eukarya. Here we demonstrate that Archaeal AMP-Acs and ADP-Acs contain paralogous ATPase motifs previously identified in Ack, which demonstrate a novel relation between these proteins in Archaea. The identification of ATPase motif conservation and resulting structural features in AMP- andmore » ADP-acetyl-CoA synthetase proteins in this study expand the ASKHA superfamily to include acetyl-CoA synthetase. Additional phylogenetic analysis showed that Pta and MaeB sequences had a common ancestor, and that the Pta lineage within the halophilc archaea was an ancestral lineage. Lastly, these results suggested that divergence of a duplicated maeB within an ancient halophilic, archaeal lineage formed a putative pta ancestor. These results provide a potential scenario for the establishment of the Ack/Pta pathway and provide novel insight into the evolution of acetate metabolism for all three domains of life.« less

  16. Potential Role of Acetyl-CoA Synthetase (acs) and Malate Dehydrogenase (mae) in the Evolution of the Acetate Switch in Bacteria and Archaea

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhart, Elliott P.; McClure, Marcella A.; Johnson, Kiki; Cleveland, Sean; Hunt, Kristopher A.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2015-08-03

    Although many Archaea have AMP-Acs (acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase) and ADP-Acs, the extant methanogenic genus Methanosarcina is the only identified Archaeal genus that can utilize acetate via acetate kinase (Ack) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta). Despite the importance of ack as the potential urkinase in the ASKHA phosphotransferase superfamily, an origin hypothesis does not exist for the acetate kinase in Bacteria, Archaea, or Eukarya. Here we demonstrate that Archaeal AMP-Acs and ADP-Acs contain paralogous ATPase motifs previously identified in Ack, which demonstrate a novel relation between these proteins in Archaea. The identification of ATPase motif conservation and resulting structural features in AMP- and ADP-acetyl-CoA synthetase proteins in this study expand the ASKHA superfamily to include acetyl-CoA synthetase. Additional phylogenetic analysis showed that Pta and MaeB sequences had a common ancestor, and that the Pta lineage within the halophilc archaea was an ancestral lineage. Lastly, these results suggested that divergence of a duplicated maeB within an ancient halophilic, archaeal lineage formed a putative pta ancestor. These results provide a potential scenario for the establishment of the Ack/Pta pathway and provide novel insight into the evolution of acetate metabolism for all three domains of life.

  17. Subterranean drilling and in situ treatment of wastes using a contamination control system and methods relating thereto

    DOEpatents

    Jessmore, James J.; Loomis, Guy G.; Pettet, Mark C.; Flyckt, Melissa C.

    2004-09-28

    Systems and methods relating to subterranean drilling while maintaining containment of any contaminants released during the drilling. A thrust block installed over a zone of interest provides an overflow space for retaining any contaminants and excess sealant returns. Negative air pressure may be maintained in the overflow space by a ventilation system. Access ports in the thrust block seal the overflow space from the surrounding environment with a membrane seal. A flexible sack seal in the access port may be connected to a drill shroud prior to drilling, providing containment during drilling after the drill bit penetrates the membrane seal. The drill shroud may be adapted to any industry standard drilling rig and includes a connection conduit for connecting to the flexible sack seal and a flexible enclosure surrounding the drill shaft and of a length to accommodate full extension thereof. Upon withdrawal, the sack seal may be closed off and separated, maintaining containment of the overflow space and the drill shroud.

  18. Method to reduce damage to backing plate

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

  19. Caring in a forgotten land.

    PubMed

    Salvage, Jane

    Since Saparmurat Niyazov became president of Turkmenistan, its healthcare system has spiralled downwards, with the closure of hospitals and the sacking of thousands of nurses. Turkmenistan became independent from the Soviet Union in 1991. Patients have to pay for their health care, but few can afford it. There is no distinct nursing role and no nursing leadership structure.

  20. 77 FR 56809 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ...-shave preparations, deodorants/anti-perspirants, bath salts, body wash/soaps, toners, cleaners, plastic travel containers, polymer bags, plastic packing, security tags, plastic lids/caps, bags and cases of... document), other bags/sacks, loofahs, tissue paper, paperboard/ corrugated wrappers and pads,...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or devices which may be used with or as a part of assembled material handling units for purposes such..., including cases, cartons, crates and sacks, but excluding large units such as intermodal containers, vans or... spaces are trailers, railcars, and storage rooms. Examination, as applied to material handling...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or devices which may be used with or as a part of assembled material handling units for purposes such..., including cases, cartons, crates and sacks, but excluding large units such as intermodal containers, vans or... spaces are trailers, railcars, and storage rooms. Examination, as applied to material handling...

  3. CA for SLA: Arguments from the Chinese Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Agnes Weiyun

    2004-01-01

    When the seminal article on the organization of turn-taking by Sacks, Schegloff, and Jefferson (1974) was published 30 years ago, I started learning English as a foreign language. In addition to being a learner of the English language for many years, I was also trained in the traditions of Conversation Analysis (CA) and linguistic anthropology…

  4. Military Innovation in the Rise and Fall of Great Powers: Lessons for America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Gauls from the north sacked the city of Rome and forever influenced the psyche of Romans. For the next century, the Romans would transform their...Francis Bacon brought the concept of sea power to England with his 1625 article, ―Of the true greatness of Kingdoms and Estates,‖143 but Oliver Cromwell

  5. Governance in Afghanistan: Context and Possibilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Shah invaded India, and sacked Delhi. During the next 8 http://blogs.rnw.nl/vredeenveiligheid/files/2010/01/tribal-structure-isaf-rc-south1.jpg... Oliver , Edward E. Across the Border (or Pathan and Biloch). London: Chapman and Hall, 1890. Rodenbough, Theophilus Francis. Afghanistan and the Anglo

  6. Effective Network Management via System-Wide Coordination and Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Gilbert, Ramana Kompella, Balachander Krishnamurthy, Dave Maltz, Kobus van der Merwe, Anees Shaikh, Oliver Spatscheck, and Yinglian Xie. Their advice and...Proceedings of ACM CoNEXT, 2008. [161] M. Sviridenko. A note on maximizing a submodular set function subject to knap- sack constraint. Operations

  7. Camouflage, Concealment, and Decoys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-26

    of smoke, suppressive fires, speed, and natural limited-visibility conditions minimize exposure and avoid enemy fire sacks . However, offensive...MS75047-1 For SG 18-02 w/o gen Mounting kit, smoke gen, M284 1040-01-249-0272 PN31-14-2680 For M157 gen Net, multipurpose, olive -green mesh 8465-00-889

  8. Rising India: The Political and Economic Effects on the Future of Nepal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    South Asian affairs. Referring India’s growing concerns, Oliver Housden comments, “China’s growing influence in Nepal has become an important...example, India strongly opposed the Maoist’s unilateral move to sack the Nepalese Chief of the Army Staff General Rukmangad Katawal in May 2009...

  9. DoD Green Remediation Policy Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-11

    NOx, and 1,672 pounds of SOx Bullets were collected in reused one-ton capacity sugar sacks. The treatment system processed around 300 tons of soil...pond – Soil treated in 300 yard increments with caustic soda – More than 112,000 cubic yards of soil treated using alkaline hydrolysis – Total TNT

  10. 7 CFR 319.73-2 - Products prohibited importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-2 Products prohibited importation. (a) To prevent the spread of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) and... of this subpart: (1) Unroasted coffee; (2) Coffee plants and leaves; and (3) Empty sacks...

  11. 7 CFR 319.73-2 - Products prohibited importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-2 Products prohibited importation. (a) To prevent the spread of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) and... of this subpart: (1) Unroasted coffee; (2) Coffee plants and leaves; and (3) Empty sacks...

  12. 7 CFR 319.73-2 - Products prohibited importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-2 Products prohibited importation. (a) To prevent the spread of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) and... of this subpart: (1) Unroasted coffee; (2) Coffee plants and leaves; and (3) Empty sacks...

  13. Selection and Effects of Channels in Distributed Communication and Decision-Making Tasks: A Theoretical Review and a Proposed Research Paradigm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    sociolinguistic and conversational analysis and (2) studies of code selection and mdality constraints. Sociolinguists and conversational analysts have...involve what is accomplished by what is said or assert speaker intent). Workinq with texts of naturally occurinq communications, sociolinguists have...personal confidence. Conversational analysts have also developed powerful predictive models for sociolinguistic variables in discourse structure. Sacks

  14. [Separation of pygopagous Siamese twins].

    PubMed

    Gille, P; Aubert, D; Mourot, M; François, J Y; Nachin, P; Delafin, J; Bonneville, J F; Cordier, A; Rousseaux, D; Monnier, G

    1983-01-01

    The successful separation of pygopagous twins is described. The sacrum formed a common canal since S 1 to coccyx with two medullary cords side to side and diastematomyelia with, at this level, two dural sacks. In each baby there was small atrophy in one lower limb. There were two opposite vulvovaginal ducts and two recto-perineal fistules.

  15. The Problem-Solving Power of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    Risk takers of all kinds have joined the effort to find new and better ways to structure nearly every aspect of teaching and learning. But as teacher leader and blogger Ariel Sacks notes, "Sadly, most of the experiments in education reform come from the imaginations of people who don't actually teach children." Top-down experiments…

  16. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of padding the MCA’s membership lists with " phantoms " to improve their re-election chances. Mr Neo responded by sacking Mr Tan and 13 of his...cent. As I spoke to them, for a second I saw the tall figure of the late George Chinn DCM , even his silvering crew cut, RSM of the old Six

  17. Generation X Teaches College: Generation Construction as Pedagogical Tool in the Writing Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassel, Holly; Epp, Dawn Vernooy

    In the 1996 book "Generation X Goes to College: An Eye-Opening Account of Teaching in Post-Modern America," Peter Sacks probes the "decay" of higher education in the United States; a decay he attributes to listless, entitled students. This paper interrogates the paradigm of Boomers and Generation Xers poised in opposition to…

  18. 7 CFR 948.14 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 948.14 Section 948.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.14 Container. Container means a sack, bag, crate,...

  19. 7 CFR 946.18 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 946.18 Section 946.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.18 Container. Container means a sack, box, bag,...

  20. 7 CFR 958.17 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 958.17 Section 958.17 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.17 Container. Container means a sack, box, bag, crate, hamper, basket, carton, package, or any other type of...

  1. 7 CFR 945.16 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 945.16 Section 945.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Container. Container means a sack, box, bag, crate, hamper, basket, carton, package, barrel, or any...

  2. 7 CFR 868.1 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... by a cooperator. (9) Carrier. A truck, trailer, truck/trailer(s) combination, railroad car, barge, ship, or other container used to transport bulk, sacked, or packaged commodity. (10) Commodity... in the preparation, processing, handling, transporting, and storage of commodities. (38)...

  3. 7 CFR 868.1 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by a cooperator. (9) Carrier. A truck, trailer, truck/trailer(s) combination, railroad car, barge, ship, or other container used to transport bulk, sacked, or packaged commodity. (10) Commodity... in the preparation, processing, handling, transporting, and storage of commodities. (38)...

  4. Exoskeletons: Generating Content for Popular Music in 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Casey Ann

    2016-01-01

    People all over the world are engaging with popular music, particularly through social media platforms, where views are often in the billions and climbing. Sacks (2007), a world-renowned neurologist, coined the term "earworms" to refer to songs that play repetitively in one's head for no apparent reason, sometimes for days, even years,…

  5. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Decon-13 Subject Matter Expert Meeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-14

    perience with Hazardous Debris (cont) • Denver Radium Sites Removal of radium tailings from Denver streets • Road base excavated and t1·ansported to...ROD Debris Response • Radium Streets Legacy • Local (Denver) resources 12 B-25 boxes available for transportation of debris 200 Super Sacks

  6. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 243 - Recommended Bibliography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... refuse collection equipment. New York. The American National Standards Institute. 2. Decision-Makers..., as PB 213 511). 5. National Sanitation Foundation standard no. 31 for polyethylene refuse bags. Ann... no. 32 for paper refuse sacks. Ann Arbor, The National Sanitation Foundation, Nov. 13, 1970. 6 p....

  7. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 243 - Recommended Bibliography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... refuse collection equipment. New York. The American National Standards Institute. 2. Decision-Makers..., as PB 213 511). 5. National Sanitation Foundation standard no. 31 for polyethylene refuse bags. Ann... no. 32 for paper refuse sacks. Ann Arbor, The National Sanitation Foundation, Nov. 13, 1970. 6 p....

  8. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 243 - Recommended Bibliography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... refuse collection equipment. New York. The American National Standards Institute. 2. Decision-Makers..., as PB 213 511). 5. National Sanitation Foundation standard no. 31 for polyethylene refuse bags. Ann... no. 32 for paper refuse sacks. Ann Arbor, The National Sanitation Foundation, Nov. 13, 1970. 6 p....

  9. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 243 - Recommended Bibliography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... refuse collection equipment. New York. The American National Standards Institute. 2. Decision-Makers..., as PB 213 511). 5. National Sanitation Foundation standard no. 31 for polyethylene refuse bags. Ann... no. 32 for paper refuse sacks. Ann Arbor, The National Sanitation Foundation, Nov. 13, 1970. 6 p....

  10. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 243 - Recommended Bibliography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... refuse collection equipment. New York. The American National Standards Institute. 2. Decision-Makers..., as PB 213 511). 5. National Sanitation Foundation standard no. 31 for polyethylene refuse bags. Ann... no. 32 for paper refuse sacks. Ann Arbor, The National Sanitation Foundation, Nov. 13, 1970. 6 p....

  11. Successful ELF Communications and Implications for ELT: Sequential Analysis of ELF Pronunciation Negotiation Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Yumi

    2011-01-01

    This is a qualitative study of nonnative English speakers who speak English as a lingua franca (ELF) in their graduate student dormitory in the United States, a community of practice (Wegner, 2004) comprised almost entirely of second language users. Using a sequential analysis (Koshik, 2002; Markee, 2000; Sacks, Schegloff, & Jefferson, 1974;…

  12. The Corpus Status of Literature in Teaching Sociology: Novels as "Sociological Reconstruction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Using fiction in teaching sociology involves what Harvey Sacks calls "sociological reconstruction". Numerous comments on teaching sociology provide advice and suggestions on the use of literature and "what counts" as "sociological" literature, including specific titles. This paper goes further: while the use of literature is a routine feature of…

  13. The Chicano and the Black Legend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Porfirio

    An historical overview traces the Black Legend about persons of Spanish descent and seeks to demonstrate the influence of the Black Legend on Anglo attitudes towards Mexican Americans. The beginnings of the Black Legend are found in the sixteenth century when European countries in conflict with Spain used Spanish actions during the Sack of Rome,…

  14. Mechanisms Underlying Accent Accommodation in Early Word Learning: Evidence for General Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmale, Rachel; Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

    2015-01-01

    Previous work reveals that toddlers can accommodate a novel accent after hearing it for only a brief period of time. A common assumption is that children, like adults, cope with nonstandard pronunciations by relying on words they know (e.g. "this person pronounces sock as 'sack', therefore by 'black' she meant 'block'"). In this paper,…

  15. 7 CFR 800.83 - Sampling provisions by kind of movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... basis in an emergency, each inspection for official grade, official factor, or official criteria on an... grade, official factor, or official criteria on an export cargo shipment of sacked grain shall be... factor, or official criteria on a domestic cargo movement (“In,” “Out,” or en route barge movement),...

  16. De Garengeot hernia: an uncommon presentation of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Vos, Cornelis G; Mollema, Robbert; Richir, Milan C

    2017-02-01

    We present a case of a 78-year-old female patient with an uncommon presentation of acute appendicitis. She was found to have a perforated appendicitis which developed in a femoral hernia sack. An appendix present in a femoral hernia is called a De Garengeot Hernia, which is a rare form of femoral hernia. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and management are discussed.

  17. Survey Review of Materials for Teaching Advanced Listening and Note-Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamp-Lyons, Elizabeth

    Eight commercially-available listening and note-taking courses are reviewed and a matrix for comparing their characteristics is presented. "Listening and Note-Taking" (Virginia Yates) was written for college-bound high school students and college students who need to improve listening and note-taking skills, while the "Sack-Yourman Study Skills…

  18. Religiously Dedicated, an Uncommon Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Margaret; Eppler, Kevin; O'Brien, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Almost countercultural today, focusing on the humanities--examining what it means to be human, understanding our cultures, and learning to embrace what Jonathan Sacks calls the "Dignity of Difference"--provides students with the tools to reclaim our public spaces, our public dialogue, and our businesses and corporations from the venal,…

  19. Gas in Attack and Gas in Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1919-07-01

    celluloid eye pieces and, at a somewhat later date, with an expira - tory valve c In a ga~i attack the sack was pulled over the head and tucked...the field. PROTECTION IN WAR IS RELATIVE ONLY. ‘%. Napoleon is credited with saying/In order to make an omelet, it is necessary, to break some eggs

  20. The Curriculum Design in Universities from the Perspective of Providers in Accounting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kai-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Under the influence of globalization and the ongoing expansion of technology, many scholars believe that there is an obvious discrepancy of expectation between the providers of accounting education (i.e. teachers and students) and the demanders of that education (i.e. accounting firms and business enterprises) (Albrecht & Sack, 2000; Li, 1999; Ma,…

  1. The Blame Game: Accounting Education Is Not Alone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosch, Robert J.; Wambsganss; Jacob R.

    2006-01-01

    W. S. Albrecht and R. J. Sack (2000) noted that accounting education was on the path to destruction if major changes were not made. Moreover, K. Russell and C. Smith (2003) went so far as to state, "If we are looking for a primary contributing cause of corporate malfeasance ... we need look no further than the classrooms of college and university…

  2. 75 FR 72686 - Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Mail Open and Distribute sacks. DATES: Effective Date: January 2, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... and Special Postage Payment Systems * * * * * 16.0 Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail... 111 Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute AGENCY: Postal...

  3. 7 CFR 58.221 - Collectors and conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General... material and should be constructed to facilitate cleaning and inspection. Filter sack collectors, if...

  4. 7 CFR 58.221 - Collectors and conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General... material and should be constructed to facilitate cleaning and inspection. Filter sack collectors, if...

  5. 7 CFR 58.221 - Collectors and conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General... material and should be constructed to facilitate cleaning and inspection. Filter sack collectors, if...

  6. 77 FR 52683 - Implementation of Determinations Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act: Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Tires, and Sacks from the PRC. Given the number and complexity of the issues involved, the Department... respect to each of the issues addressed in WTO DS 379. Specifically, the Department issued the preliminary... 1930,'' upon a written request from the USTR, the Department shall issue a determination that...

  7. U. S. Naval Forces, Vietnam Monthly Historical Summary for February 1970

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-04-09

    side of the boat and doubt- lessly contributed to the fire and shrapnel damare . Another B-40 round exploded on the forward compartment hatch which...for inspection. The following items were discovered: 160 pair green sacks, 72 packs of gum , 40 safety razors, 120 packs of candy, cough pills, ballpoint

  8. Development and Implementation of a Curriculum to Develop Social Competence for Students with Visual Impairments in Germany. Practice Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Elke

    2004-01-01

    Research has shown, and educators in the field have acknowledged, that students with visual impairments (those who are blind or have low vision) who are in general education, as well as in special education, settings, can lack social competence (Bauman, 1973; Davidow, 1974; Doll, 1953; Hatlen, 2000, 2003; Huebner, 1986; Sacks, Kekelis, &…

  9. Goodbye Michael Gove

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Michael Gove was Secretary of State for Education from May 2010 to July 2014 when the Prime Minister sacked him. With strong opinions arising from his own life experiences and outstanding energy for reform, but severely limited understanding of education and a refusal to consult teachers and other professionals, he imposed half-baked ideas on the…

  10. Influence Learning Tour on Salted Fish Processing Behavior in Product Development in Karangantu Nusantara Fishing Port (NFP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudaya, Yaya

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase revenue, salted fish processors in Karangantu NFP should be able to change the behavior of production from quantity to quality orientation. The increase in revenue will be difficult to achieve if the salted fish products produced still monotonous and traditional and only sold in sacks or cardboard. Development of a quality…

  11. 7 CFR 319.73-2 - Products prohibited importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of this subpart: (1) Unroasted coffee; (2) Coffee plants and leaves; and (3) Empty sacks previously..., seeds of all kinds when in pulp, including coffee berries or fruits, are prohibited importation into all parts of the United States by § 319.37-2(a) of this part, except as provided in § 319.37-2(c)....

  12. 7 CFR 319.73-2 - Products prohibited importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of this subpart: (1) Unroasted coffee; (2) Coffee plants and leaves; and (3) Empty sacks previously..., seeds of all kinds when in pulp, including coffee berries or fruits, are prohibited importation into all parts of the United States by § 319.37-2(a) of this part, except as provided in § 319.37-2(c)....

  13. Impact of grain storage into silo bags on soil penetration resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Juan Pablo; Alé, Daniel; Sabattini, Rafael; Díaz, Eduardo; Lado, Marcos; González, Antonio Paz

    2015-04-01

    Big silo sacks or bags ("silo bolsas", in Spanish) are nowadays widely used in Argentina as an innovative technology for grain storage and conservation on the farm. Following the last harvest campaigns, 40.000.000 Toms of grains were stored in silo sacks. A standard silo sack, or silo bag, has a length of about 75 m and is 2.7 m in diameter; when laden with cereal grains, a pressure of 9.8 MPa is applied on the soil surface. Silo sacks are currently installed within agricultural fields, and, after the storage period has finished, the plot they occupied most commonly again is cultivated. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of silo sacks on soil penetration resistance (PR). Two field experiments were performed in sites located at the departments of Paraná and Nogoyá, Entre Ríos province, Argentina. The soils in both sites were classified as Vertisols and contained expansible smectite minerals, mainly montmorillonite. Soil PR was continuously recorded until 80 cm depth. The first experiment, conducted in Paraná department, involved three different treatments with five RP replicated measurements per treatment: a) a plot under a silo bag with regular machinery transit for grain uploading and downloading, and previously used as pasture for livestock, b) a plot under grassland used for mowing and without livestock transit, and c) a plot under woody native vegetation, locally called "Espinal". The second experiment, conducted at Nogoyá department consisted of two treatments, each with for PR replications: a) a plot under silo sack with machinery transit, and b) a control plot located in the neighbouring field. n the first site a significant increase in soil PR (P<0,05) under silo bag was recorded at the 0-20cm depth. In the second site soil PR was not significantly different between treatments at the 0-5 cm depth, while significant differences in PR were recorded at the 5-10 cm depth (P<0.05). We concluded that soil PR measurements under silo bag provide

  14. Genetic manipulation of a metabolic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator increasing succinate excretion from unicellular cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Osanai, Takashi; Shirai, Tomokazu; Iijima, Hiroko; Nakaya, Yuka; Okamoto, Mami; Kondo, Akihiko; Hirai, Masami Y

    2015-01-01

    Succinate is a building block compound that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has declared as important in biorefineries, and it is widely used as a commodity chemical. Here, we identified the two genes increasing succinate production of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Succinate was excreted under dark, anaerobic conditions, and its production level increased by knocking out ackA, which encodes an acetate kinase, and by overexpressing sigE, which encodes an RNA polymerase sigma factor. Glycogen catabolism and organic acid biosynthesis were enhanced in the mutant lacking ackA and overexpressing sigE, leading to an increase in succinate production reaching five times of the wild-type levels. Our genetic and metabolomic analyses thus demonstrated the effect of genetic manipulation of a metabolic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator on succinate excretion from this cyanobacterium with the data based on metabolomic technique.

  15. Genetic manipulation of a metabolic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator increasing succinate excretion from unicellular cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Osanai, Takashi; Shirai, Tomokazu; Iijima, Hiroko; Nakaya, Yuka; Okamoto, Mami; Kondo, Akihiko; Hirai, Masami Y.

    2015-01-01

    Succinate is a building block compound that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has declared as important in biorefineries, and it is widely used as a commodity chemical. Here, we identified the two genes increasing succinate production of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Succinate was excreted under dark, anaerobic conditions, and its production level increased by knocking out ackA, which encodes an acetate kinase, and by overexpressing sigE, which encodes an RNA polymerase sigma factor. Glycogen catabolism and organic acid biosynthesis were enhanced in the mutant lacking ackA and overexpressing sigE, leading to an increase in succinate production reaching five times of the wild-type levels. Our genetic and metabolomic analyses thus demonstrated the effect of genetic manipulation of a metabolic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator on succinate excretion from this cyanobacterium with the data based on metabolomic technique. PMID:26500619

  16. Direct computation of parameters for accurate polarizable force fields

    SciTech Connect

    Verstraelen, Toon Vandenbrande, Steven; Ayers, Paul W.

    2014-11-21

    We present an improved electronic linear response model to incorporate polarization and charge-transfer effects in polarizable force fields. This model is a generalization of the Atom-Condensed Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory (DFT), approximated to second order (ACKS2): it can now be defined with any underlying variational theory (next to KS-DFT) and it can include atomic multipoles and off-center basis functions. Parameters in this model are computed efficiently as expectation values of an electronic wavefunction, obviating the need for their calibration, regularization, and manual tuning. In the limit of a complete density and potential basis set in the ACKS2 model, the linear response properties of the underlying theory for a given molecular geometry are reproduced exactly. A numerical validation with a test set of 110 molecules shows that very accurate models can already be obtained with fluctuating charges and dipoles. These features greatly facilitate the development of polarizable force fields.

  17. System Architecture for Fault-Tolerant Processes in Distributed Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    received an Election Call signal from some other higher priority copy acting as an election manager. Otherwise it sends back a nack . When a...participant sends an ack 1, it sets its EM variable to the id of the copy which sent this Election_Call signal. If in the first phase any nack is received by... nack The Election Manager Pro- tocol terminates with successful set to false if any nack is received during this phase. Page 18 Procedure

  18. The Hospital Organizational Structure and the Department of Nursing in the United States Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    ACK NOWL EDGMENTS As with patient care, one does not work alone. This project is not an exception. First , to Brigadier General Schimmenti, the... first FI, have never once made me "figiht for feedback". They have both been there when I needed thew, with red pen in hand. You both kept me on the...product. V. Recommendations: Ammend AFR 168-4, to show the Department of Nursing as an equal membei within the executive management team. This would

  19. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 Is Adapted to Acetatogenic Growth but Does Not Require Acetate during Murine Urinary Tract Infection▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Anfora, Andrew T.; Halladin, David K.; Haugen, Brian J.; Welch, Rodney A.

    2008-01-01

    In vivo accumulation of d-serine by Escherichia coli CFT073 leads to elevated expression of PAP fimbriae and hemolysin by an unknown mechanism. Loss of d-serine catabolism by CFT073 leads to a competitive advantage during murine urinary tract infection (UTI), but loss of both d- and l-serine catabolism results in attenuation. Serine is the first amino acid to be consumed in closed tryptone broth cultures and precedes the production of acetyl phosphate, a high-energy molecule involved in intracellular signaling, and the eventual secretion of acetate. We propose that the colonization defect associated with the loss of serine catabolism is due to perturbations of acetate metabolism. CFT073 grows more rapidly on acetogenic substrates than does E. coli K-12 isolate MG1655. As shown by transcription microarray results, d-serine is catabolized into acetate via the phosphotransacetylase (pta) and acetate kinase (ackA) genes while downregulating expression of acetyl coenzyme A synthase (acs). CFT073 acs, which is unable to reclaim secreted acetate, colonized mouse bladders and kidneys in the murine model of UTI indistinguishably from the wild type. Both pta and ackA are involved in the maintenance of intracellular acetyl phosphate. CFT073 pta and ackA mutants were screened to investigate the role of acetyl phosphate in UTI pathogenesis. Both single mutants are at a competitive disadvantage relative to the wild type in the kidneys but normally colonize the bladder. CFT073 ackA pta was attenuated in both the bladder and the kidneys. Thus, we demonstrate that CFT073 is adapted to acetate metabolism as a result of requiring a proper cycling of the acetyl phosphate pathway for colonization of the upper urinary tract. PMID:18838520

  20. Field Trial of Attentuated Salmonella Typhi Live Oral Vaccine Ty21a in Liquid and Enteric-Coated Formulations and Epidemiological Survey for Incidence of Diarrhea due to Shigella Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-18

    FIELD GROUP WE46ROUP NRA I 19. ABSTRACT (Corfwine an uwwvw if netvaay and kA*fyi by blAck number) -_In October, 1986, a randomized, controlled field... controlled field trial was initiated in Area Sur Oriente and Area Norte, Santiago, Chile to compare the relative and absolute efficacy of three doses...Oriente and 34,977 in Area Norte, received Ty2la vaccine or lactobacilli control preparation in either enteric-coated or liquid formulation. Intensive

  1. Examination of Various Methods Used in Support of Concurrent Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    finan- cial, and management functions. This company adopted a planning process called Hoshin Kanri , and they practice it extensively. Other companies...significant market advan- tage. Hoshin Kanri A technique for focusing energy on areas where breakthroughs are needed. 32 0 3. EVALUATION OF METHODS...Experiment 25 Competitive Benchmarks 27 Other Improvements Breakthroughs 27 Hoshin Kanri 27 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY Acke87 Ackerman, Roger B. et al. 1987

  2. Analysis of Management Control Techniques for the Data Processing Department at the Navy Finance Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    overview of current and future technologies; and propoved iplementation plans involving equipment and software requirements and economics . The report...measurements made in the most economical .annz’. possible? (12) Are performance standards keyed to operating policies? (13) Is a periodic audit performed to...status informlation and print ack/reacks only when The controlling item changes or products are added/deleted. c) Provide arrival infornation, rather

  3. Genetic response to metabolic fluctuations: correlation between central carbon metabolism and DNA replication in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Until now, the direct link between central carbon metabolism and DNA replication has been demonstrated only in Bacillus. subtilis. Therefore, we asked if this is a specific phenomenon, characteristic for this bacterium and perhaps for its close relatives, or a more general biological rule. Results We found that temperature-sensitivity of mutants in particular genes coding for replication proteins could be suppressed by deletions of certain genes coding for enzymes of the central carbon metabolism. Namely, the effects of dnaA46(ts) mutation could be suppressed by dysfunction of pta or ackA, effects of dnaB(ts) by dysfunction of pgi or pta, effects of dnaE486(ts) by dysfunction of tktB, effects of dnaG(ts) by dysfunction of gpmA, pta or ackA, and effects of dnaN159(ts) by dysfunction of pta or ackA. The observed suppression effects were not caused by a decrease in bacterial growth rate. Conclusions The genetic correlation exists between central carbon metabolism and DNA replication in the model Gram-negative bacterium, E. coli. This link exists at the steps of initiation and elongation of DNA replication, indicating the important global correlation between metabolic status of the cell and the events leading to cell reproduction. PMID:21453533

  4. Biolistic transformation of a fluorescent tagged gene into the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tonya; Bose, Indrani; Luckie, Taylor; Smith, Kerry

    2015-03-19

    The basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans, an invasive opportunistic pathogen of the central nervous system, is the most frequent cause of fungal meningitis worldwide resulting in more than 625,000 deaths per year worldwide. Although electroporation has been developed for the transformation of plasmids in Cryptococcus, only biolistic delivery provides an effective means to transform linear DNA that can be integrated into the genome by homologous recombination.  Acetate has been shown to be a major fermentation product during cryptococcal infection, but the significance of this is not yet known. A bacterial pathway composed of the enzymes xylulose-5-phosphate/fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp) and acetate kinase (Ack) is one of three potential pathways for acetate production in C. neoformans. Here, we demonstrate the biolistic transformation of a construct, which has the gene encoding Ack fused to the fluorescent tag mCherry, into C. neoformans. We then confirm integration of the ACK-mCherry fusion into the ACK locus.

  5. Gene replacement and elimination using λRed- and FLP-based tool to re-direct carbon flux in acetogen biocatalyst during continuous CO₂/H₂ blend fermentation.

    PubMed

    Tyurin, Michael

    2013-07-01

    A time- and cost-efficient two-step gene elimination procedure was used for acetogen Clostridium sp. MT1834 capable of fermenting CO₂/H₂ blend to 245 mM acetate (p < 0.005). The first step rendered the targeted gene replacement without affecting the total genome size. We replaced the acetate pta-ack cluster with synthetic bi-functional acetaldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase (al-adh). Replacement of pta-ack with al-adh rendered initiation of 243 mM ethanol accumulation at the expense of acetate production during CO₂/H₂ blend continuous fermentation (p < 0.005). At the second step, al-adh was eliminated to reduce the genome size. Resulting recombinants accumulated 25 mM mevalonate in fermentation broth (p < 0.005). Cell duplication time for recombinants with reduced genome size decreased by 9.5 % compared to Clostridium sp. MT1834 strain under the same fermentation conditions suggesting better cell energy pool management in the absence of the ack-pta gene cluster in the engineered biocatalyst. If the first gene elimination step was used alone for spo0A gene replacement with two copies of synthetic formate dehydrogenase in recombinants with a shortened genome, mevalonate production was replaced with 76.5 mM formate production in a single step continuous CO₂/H₂ blend fermentation (p < 0.005) with cell duplication time almost nearing that of the wild strain.

  6. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors

    PubMed Central

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23–0.99 U mg−1 protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg−1 protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24–7.64 U mg−1 protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH3 and NH4+-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH3 and NH4+-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. PMID:26086956

  7. An effective implementation scheme of just-in-time protocol for optical burst switching networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guiling; Li, Xinwan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Wang, Hui

    2005-02-01

    Optical burst switching (OBS) has been emerging as a promising technology that can effectively support the next generation IP-oriented transportation networks. JIT signaling protocol for OBS is relatively simple and easy to be implemented by hardware. This paper presented an effective scheme to implement the JIT protocol, which not only can effectively implement reservation and release of optical channels based on JIT, but also can process the failure of channel reservation and release due to loss of burst control packets. The scheme includes: (1) a BHP (burst head packet) path table is designed and built at each OBS node. It is used to guarantee the corresponding burst control packet, i.e. BHP, BEP (burst end packet) and BEP_ACK (BEP acknowledgement), to be transmitted in the same path. (2) The timed retransmission of BEP and the reversed deletion of the item in BHP path tables triggered by the corresponding BEP_ACK are combined to solve the problems caused by the loss of the signaling messages in channel reservation and release process. (3) Burst head packets and BEP_ACK are transmitted using "best-effort" method. Related signaling messages and their formats for the proposed scheme are also given.

  8. Effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A on epigenetic changes and transcriptional activation of Bdnf promoter 1 by rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng; Marini, Ann M; Lipsky, Robert H

    2010-06-01

    Histone acetylation/deacetylation is a central mechanism for regulating transcription through chromatin remodeling. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (Bdnf) is regulated in part through chromatin remodeling. An inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, Trichostatin A (TSA), has differential effects on two activation dependent regions of the Bdnf gene physically linked to transcription sites for exons 1 and 4. We determined that TSA treatment of cultures of hippocampal neurons produced a stronger response at promoter 1. Transcriptional activation of promoter 1 correlated with increased occupancy of the promoter by acetylated histones (H3AcK9/K14). TSA treatment also produced a time-dependent increase in the level of H3AcK9 and H3AcK14 protein and Hdac1 mRNA levels and HDAC1 protein levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that inhibition of HDAC activity by TSA activates Bdnf transcription and a compensatory change in HDAC1 expression in neurons. This response may reflect a genome-wide change in gene expression.

  9. Mechanism for stabilizing mRNAs involved in methanol-dependent methanogenesis of cold-adaptive Methanosarcina mazei zm-15.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Li, Jie; Jiang, Na; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2014-02-01

    Methylotrophic methanogenesis predominates at low temperatures in the cold Zoige wetland in Tibet. To elucidate the basis of cold-adapted methanogenesis in these habitats, Methanosarcina mazei zm-15 was isolated, and the molecular basis of its cold activity was studied. For this strain, aceticlastic methanogenesis was reduced 7.7-fold during growth at 15°C versus 30°C. Methanol-derived methanogenesis decreased only 3-fold under the same conditions, suggesting that it is more cold adaptive. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) detected <2-fold difference in the transcript abundances of mtaA1, mtaB1, and mtaC1, the methanol methyltransferase (Mta) genes, in 30°C versus 15°C culture, while ackA and pta mRNAs, encoding acetate kinase (Ack) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta) in aceticlastic methanogenesis, were 4.5- and 6.8-fold higher in 30°C culture than in 15°C culture. The in vivo half-lives of mtaA1 and mtaC1B1 mRNAs were similar in 30°C and 15°C cultures. However, the pta-ackA mRNA half-life was significantly reduced in 15°C culture compared to 30°C culture. Using circularized RNA RT-PCR, large 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) (270 nucleotides [nt] and 238 nt) were identified for mtaA1 and mtaC1B1 mRNAs, while only a 27-nt 5' UTR was present in the pta-ackA transcript. Removal of the 5' UTRs significantly reduced the in vitro half-lives of mtaA1 and mtaC1B1 mRNAs. Remarkably, fusion of the mtaA1 or mtaC1B1 5' UTRs to pta-ackA mRNA increased its in vitro half-life at both 30°C and 15°C. These results demonstrate that the large 5' UTRs significantly enhance the stability of the mRNAs involved in methanol-derived methanogenesis in the cold-adaptive M. mazei zm-15.

  10. Mechanism for Stabilizing mRNAs Involved in Methanol-Dependent Methanogenesis of Cold-Adaptive Methanosarcina mazei zm-15

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yi; Li, Jie; Jiang, Na

    2014-01-01

    Methylotrophic methanogenesis predominates at low temperatures in the cold Zoige wetland in Tibet. To elucidate the basis of cold-adapted methanogenesis in these habitats, Methanosarcina mazei zm-15 was isolated, and the molecular basis of its cold activity was studied. For this strain, aceticlastic methanogenesis was reduced 7.7-fold during growth at 15°C versus 30°C. Methanol-derived methanogenesis decreased only 3-fold under the same conditions, suggesting that it is more cold adaptive. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) detected <2-fold difference in the transcript abundances of mtaA1, mtaB1, and mtaC1, the methanol methyltransferase (Mta) genes, in 30°C versus 15°C culture, while ackA and pta mRNAs, encoding acetate kinase (Ack) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta) in aceticlastic methanogenesis, were 4.5- and 6.8-fold higher in 30°C culture than in 15°C culture. The in vivo half-lives of mtaA1 and mtaC1B1 mRNAs were similar in 30°C and 15°C cultures. However, the pta-ackA mRNA half-life was significantly reduced in 15°C culture compared to 30°C culture. Using circularized RNA RT-PCR, large 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) (270 nucleotides [nt] and 238 nt) were identified for mtaA1 and mtaC1B1 mRNAs, while only a 27-nt 5′ UTR was present in the pta-ackA transcript. Removal of the 5′ UTRs significantly reduced the in vitro half-lives of mtaA1 and mtaC1B1 mRNAs. Remarkably, fusion of the mtaA1 or mtaC1B1 5′ UTRs to pta-ackA mRNA increased its in vitro half-life at both 30°C and 15°C. These results demonstrate that the large 5′ UTRs significantly enhance the stability of the mRNAs involved in methanol-derived methanogenesis in the cold-adaptive M. mazei zm-15. PMID:24317083

  11. [Preservation of kidneys with ischemic injury using hypothermic storage and mechanical prolonged perfusion].

    PubMed

    Wienand, P; Grundmann, R; Bischoff, A; Pichlmaier, H

    1978-01-01

    Dog kidneys were flushed and stored in Collins (n = 30) and Sacks (n = 32) solution under hypothermia. These results were compared with those gained by mechanical perfusion (n = 21). Before preservation, the kidneys were subjected to 15 - 60 min of warm ischemia then stored for 12 - 24 h. It was concluded that 12-h preservation time after 15-min ischemic injury was the limit of hypothermic storage preservation. Sacks' solution gave better results than Collins' solution as regards the immediate function after transplantation. In contrast, mechanical perfusion was well tolerated for 24-h preservation time after a warm ischemia of 30 min. In case of warm ischemic damage, mechanical perfusion should be preferred to hypothermic storage.

  12. [Diphyllobothrium lobodoni sp. n. (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae)--a parasite of the crabeater seal].

    PubMed

    Iurkhano, M V; Mal'tsev, V N

    1994-01-01

    The new cestode species is described from the intestine of the crab eater seal Lobodon carcinophagus living in Pacific region of Antarctic. It differs from other diphyllobothriids by clear wavy lateral margins of the body. It is close to D. scoticum by the presence of uterine sack, but it has larger size of the body, lesser craspedotity of segments, lesser size of scolex, longer neck, thinner tegument, 3 times thicker layers of longitudinal and transversal muscles, 2 times greater number of testicles (per transversal section of the segments), another form and position of the bursa of cirrus and of the testicular vesicle, larger uterine sack consisting about one third of the total uterine volume.

  13. Johnny Appleseed Comes to Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Margaret; Peggy, Liggit

    2005-01-01

    Just imagine the excitement in the classroom when Johnny Appleseed strides in. Barefoot and dressed in a burlap sack, he-well, actually, it's you dressed up as Johnny-wears a tin pan for a hat and smiles as he relates the reason for his visit. Fall is apple season, and he's here to explain how all the beautiful fall apples were produced. The story…

  14. Medical science, nursing, and the future.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, J

    1998-09-01

    Drawing on the work of Evelyn Fox Keller, this paper examines the notion of 'objectivism' and suggests that medicine as a science is premised upon the denial of common mortality. Alternative models for medicine are then examined, including the 'romantic science' of Oliver Sacks, and the paper concludes with a brief discussion of nursing as a key concept in the articulation of a more comprehensive medicine of the future.

  15. 39. REDUCTION PLANT THIRD FLOOR The dried fish meal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. REDUCTION PLANT - THIRD FLOOR The dried fish meal was blown into the left side of the room (behind the cloth barrier). When the meal settled to the floor level, it was picked up by an Archimedes screw-shaft which carried it to the far end of the room, where it was blown through pipes (supported by a truss) across Cannery Row to the sacking and storage building. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  16. Transitions and Roman Gates Unbarred: The Joint Integration of Air and Ground Power in Past, Present, and Future Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    daughter of a Roman city guardsman betrayed her fellow citizens by opening a gate into Rome and then leading the invading Sabines to that gate. Before the...invaders could enter and commence their attack, Janus commanded a hot spring to erupt and this stopped the Sabines from entering and sacking the city...AirLand Battle,(Fort Monroe, VA.: U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, 1984), pg. 62. 34 Colonel Bruce L. Brown, USAF, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas A

  17. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    kilogram; that flour disappears from the government cooperatives; that the price for one kilogram of oil is almost three pounds; and that the...takes no action. In those statements, the minister of supply says that flour and meat are available. Citizens who read these state- ments think that...their time looking for a sack of flour ? How can production be increased when they must stand in line for over two hours to buy a loaf of bread or to

  18. Mechanistic Basis Of Calmodulin Mediated Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activation and Antiestrogen Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Nathan Olive (technical assistance), Jane Ullah (technical assistance), Madeline Elliott (technical assistance), Alicia Dery (technical assistance...Technical Training. A number of individuals have worked on this project in a technical capacity (Leah Cho, Nathan Olive , Jane Ullah, Alicia Dery) for...species is the CaM-ERa complex (Li, L., Li, Z., and Sacks , D. B. (2005) J Biol Chem 280, 13097-104.). CaM also binds tightly to antiestrogens

  19. Preclinical Models in Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-28

    51–5. 10. Ibrahim Z, Cooney DS, Shores JT, Sacks JM, Wimmers EG, Bonawitz SC, et al. A modified heterotopic swine hind limb trans- plant model for...most graft losses have been associated with non-compliance with immunosup- pressive regimens [2]. This being said, successful hand trans- plants have...are easier to handle, and in the case of mice, they can be very tightly genetically con- trolled. However, performing microvascular surgery is very

  20. Army Green and Sustainable Remediation: Policy and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-15

    Headquarters GSR Overview  Headquarters Field Survey  Case Studies • Camp Crowder • Camp Edwards (MMR) • Camp Withycombe • Seneca Army Depot...Bioremediation (3 sites) June 2010Army Green and Sustainable Remediation Case Studies  Camp Crowder  Camp Edwards (MMR)  Camp Withycombe  Seneca Army...sacks. The treatment system processed around 300 tons of soil daily. June 2010Army Green and Sustainable Remediation 12 Seneca Army Depot

  1. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-06

    the training. He added that if the information was true then it was lamentable, but a solution would be found through contacts with the Moroccan ...Virginia 22201. JPRS-SSA-87-018 6 MARCH 1987 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA REPORT CONTENTS ANGOLA Minister on Moroccan Aid to UNITA, U.S. Talks (Luanda...Sacked 1 30 LIBERIA Briefs Moroccan Cooperation Memorandum Signed 31 Matthews Advises on Reconciliation 31 Hongkong Steel Mill Construction 32

  2. Mechanisms for Regulation of the Activity of Key Enzymes in Developing Dormant and Germinated Bacterial Spores.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-28

    Bacillus megaterium spores and characterized; it is a new member of the class of pyridine nucleotide dependent disulfide reductases.. The enzyme is...as noted, all of the studies utilized Bacillus megaterium . 1) Absence of cAMP from Clostridium perfringens. In collaboration with Dr. L.E. Sacks we...Disulfide Reductase from Bacillus megaterium Specific for Disulfides Containing Pantethine 4’,4". Diphosphate". J. Bacteriol. 153:475-481. 3. Swerdlow

  3. Annual Review of Research under the Joint Services Electronics Program. Volume 2. Publications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    I4NLINEAR FAULT ANALYSIS;’R. Sacks Data base for Symbolic Network Analysis........................... 183 Diagnosability of Nonlinear Circuits and...M.S. Theis, Tinas Tech Univ., 1980. 8. Desoer , C.A., li., R.-w., Murray, J.. and R. Saeks, "Fedback System Design: the fractional represenuamon...4,8]. This was first used in the distributed system theory of Calier and Desoer [4), then extended to an operator theoretic framework [ 19], and

  4. Regional Seismic Arrays and Nuclear Test Ban Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    part of the Baltic Shield based on joint interpretation of seismic, gravity, magnetic and heat flow data, Tectonophysics 162, 151-164. Gravity Anomaly...130. Milanovsky, S. Yu. (1984). Deep Geothermal Structure and Mantle heat Flow Along the Barents Sea- East Alps Geotraverse, Tectonophysics 103, 175...and I. S. Sacks (1989). Anelasticity and thermal structure of the oceanic upper mantle: Temperature calibration with heat flow data, J. Geophys. Res

  5. Iraqi Perspectives Project. A View of Operation Iraqi Freedom from Saddam’s Senior Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    away from the Christian West and towards Baghdad, which they had then sacked, leaving a vast pyramid of skulls in their wake. As Saddam explained...Project over the remains of the ancient ruins, resulting in irrecoverable damage to one of the world’s greatest archeological treasures. Almost from...military career fi eld because of the measures taken by the political leadership by which they alienated the people (the regime was a constant threat to

  6. The Attack on Panama City by Henry Morgan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-05

    discovered what he thought were the West Indies. When Christopher Columbus landed on a small island near Cuba in 1492, the natives of the island swam out...south. Columbus explored Cuba and the Island of Haiti and found gold but not the endless source the natives talked about. Columbus decided to attempt...world sacking unprotected cities in Chile, Peru, and the coast of Mexico . Drake sailed as far north as California before returning to England

  7. Latin America Report, No. 2756

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the most acreage next year (23 percent), reaching 130,000 hectares. Parana should produce 5.5 million sacks of coffee , which is considered very good...particularly given the weather problems and the advanced age of the state’s coffee plantations, which urgently need renovation. The state...government itself is proposing a renovation plan, which will be carried out with the assistance of the municipal governments in the coffee region. Rio

  8. Innovative Processing of Composites for Ultra-High Temperature Applications. Book 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    order to created MoSi 2/SiC composites. (Molybdenum disilicide has much better mechanical properties at high temperatures than silicon.) Investigations...technology necessary to fabricate ceramic-matrix, internetallic-matrix, and metal-matrix composites with superior mechanical properties in high temperature...Book I Section 1 Processing and Properties of Silicon Carbide Fibers Principal Investigators: C.D. Batich M.D. Sacks Section 2 Processing of Mullite

  9. Program and Abstracts of the Society for Research on Biological Rhythms (2nd) Held in Jacksonville, Florida on 9-13 May 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-15

    THE PERIOD AND PHASE OF EVIDENCE FOR A PHASE RESPONSE CURVE . CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS RESTORED BY ANA- Robert L. Sack, Alfred J. Lewy, Jeanne Latham, Mary...therapeutic action is to delay the overtly fast circadian rhythms . A Phase Response Curve (PRC) was constructed by giving two hour tonic pulses of...and delays in the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) maintained in constant light. The phase response curve to

  10. [Ocular refraction in Marfan's syndrome and its surgical problems].

    PubMed

    Radian, A B; Alupei, L

    1996-01-01

    The superior-temporal subluxation of the crystalline lens at the patients with Marfan syndrome makes optic problems who need a surgical solution. It describes one aspiration technique with concomitant support of crystalline lens, underlining the specifics features what are meet here: exessive hardness of crystalloid and the content of crystalline's sack. At eight operated eyes, the postoperatorial visual acuity restored at values over 5/10.

  11. Maintenance of Photovoltaic Power Systems. Revision 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    superstrate (usually tempered glass), an encapsulant, photovoltaic cells, and a substrate laminated together under pressure and temperature. The lamination...STRUCTURAL SURSTRATE METAL SEALING GASKET INTrRCONNECTS CELL FRAME TAPE T A P ET R A N P A R E N T S T R U C T U R A L SUPERSTRATE _,, TRANSPARENT...ENCAPSULANT SUPERSTRATE X - MODULE - OPAQUE ENCAPSULANT 1 17- B SACK COVER FIGURE 2-7. Typical Photovoltaic Module Construction. 2.4.3 Electrical

  12. Numerical Solution of Ill Posed Problems in Partial Differential Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    periodic solutions of semilinear wave equations in exterior domains (breathers). Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such...Crandall, M.G., and Sacks, P.E., Some L1 existence and depandence results for semilinear elliptic equations under nonlinear boundary conditions , to...the former case, a convective diffusion equation with a semilinear source in the boundary condition was analyzed. A fairly complete picture of the

  13. A Study of Central Sterilization Room (CSR) Control and Organization at the Naval Regional Medical Center, Oakland, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    simple issue of a sack of supplies to an automated cart system , computerized charges, multihospital systems , co-ops, and an and on. It Is perhaps beyond...was somewhat slower than other health care systems due to the increasingly high costs of disposable supplies which, unlike civilian hospitals, could not...management and a significant amount of professional supervision. The aim is to evaluate critically the current system and to develop alternatives

  14. Impedance Measurements as a Tool for the Detection of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    endocrine disruptors on human health has created a need for screening systems to detect xenoestrogens, a diverse group of chemicals that mimic...Impedance Measurements as a Tool for the Detection of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals V. Sacks, J. Rishpon* Department of Molecular...sensitive and amenable to use on-site, providing an efficient and economic tool for measuring minuscule amounts of endocrine disrupting chemicals

  15. Once in a Blue Moon: Airmen in Theater Command. Lauris Norstad, Albrecht Kesselring, and their Relevance to the Twenty-First Century Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    Macksey, 107. 104 Lt Gen (General der Flieger) Hellmuth Felmy , “The German Air Force in the Mediterranean Theater of War” (Air Historical Division, 1955...rely on each other.116 After the victory in Poland, Kesselring took over Luftflotte II from Lieutenant General Hellmuth Felmy , who was sacked after a...Kesselring warned he could supply neither logistical nor air support: 119 Felmy , 208. General Felmy cites

  16. Effect of activator on the structure and desulphurization efficiency of sludge-activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Li, Fen; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Yanping; Zhang, Linhuan; Lei, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Sludge-activated carbons (SACs) prepared with excess of activated sludge are used to solve the problems of sludge disposal and odour pollution in a sewage treatment plant. For the preparation, ZnCl2, KOH and H2SO4 are used as activators, respectively. The structure of the SACs are characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, specific surface area and pore structure technologies, and the adsorption performance of H2S is investigated. Results indicate that the desulphurization activity of SACs, whose activators are ZnCl2 and KOH (SACZ and SACK), is better than that of carbon with H2SO4 as the activator (SACH). The breakthrough time of SACZ and SACK is up to 86 min, the sulphur capacity is 7.7 mg/cm3, and the maximal iodine value is 409.95 mg/g. While the breakthrough time of SACH is only 26 min with the sulphur capacity of 2.3 mg/cm3. A large percentage of pore volume with a diameter of 2-5 nm in the total pore volume is conductive to the desulphurization reaction. The large amount of surface acid functional groups is also helpful to the adsorption of H2S. The desulphurization activity of SACZ and SACK is superior over that of commercial-activated carbon.

  17. The genomic landscape of histone modifications in human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Tae-Young; Cuddapah, Suresh; Cui, Kairong; Zhao, Keji

    2006-01-01

    To understand the molecular basis that supports the dynamic gene expression programs unique to T cells, we investigated the genomic landscape of activating histone modifications, including histone H3 K9/K14 diacetylation (H3K9acK14ac), H3 K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), and the repressive histone modification H3 K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) in primary human T cells. We show that H3K9acK14ac and H3K4me3 are associated with active genes required for T cell function and development, whereas H3K27me3 is associated with silent genes that are involved in development in other cell types. Unexpectedly, we find that 3,330 gene promoters are associated with all of these histone modifications. The gene expression levels are correlated with both the absolute and relative levels of the activating H3K4me3 and the repressive H3K27me3 modifications. Our data reveal that rapidly inducible genes are associated with the H3 acetylation and H3K4me3 modifications, suggesting they assume a chromatin structure poised for activation. In addition, we identified a subpopulation of chromatin regions that are associated with high levels of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 but low levels of H3K9acK14ac. Therefore, these regions have a distinctive chromatin modification pattern and thus may represent a distinct class of chromatin domains. PMID:17043231

  18. Detection of neural activity in the brains of Japanese honeybee workers during the formation of a "hot defensive bee ball".

    PubMed

    Ugajin, Atsushi; Kiya, Taketoshi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Ono, Masato; Yoshida, Tadaharu; Kubo, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Anti-predator behaviors are essential to survival for most animals. The neural bases of such behaviors, however, remain largely unknown. Although honeybees commonly use their stingers to counterattack predators, the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) uses a different strategy to fight against the giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia japonica). Instead of stinging the hornet, Japanese honeybees form a "hot defensive bee ball" by surrounding the hornet en masse, killing it with heat. The European honeybee (A. mellifera ligustica), on the other hand, does not exhibit this behavior, and their colonies are often destroyed by a hornet attack. In the present study, we attempted to analyze the neural basis of this behavior by mapping the active brain regions of Japanese honeybee workers during the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. First, we identified an A. cerana homolog (Acks = Apis cerana kakusei) of kakusei, an immediate early gene that we previously identified from A. mellifera, and showed that Acks has characteristics similar to kakusei and can be used to visualize active brain regions in A. cerana. Using Acks as a neural activity marker, we demonstrated that neural activity in the mushroom bodies, especially in Class II Kenyon cells, one subtype of mushroom body intrinsic neurons, and a restricted area between the dorsal lobes and the optic lobes was increased in the brains of Japanese honeybee workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. In addition, workers exposed to 46°C heat also exhibited Acks expression patterns similar to those observed in the brains of workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball, suggesting that the neural activity observed in the brains of workers involved in the hot defensive bee ball mainly reflects thermal stimuli processing.

  19. Involvement of histone methylation and phosphorylation in regulation of transcription by thyroid hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiwen; Lin, Qiushi; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Huang, Zhi-Qing; Strahl, Brian D; Allis, C David; Wong, Jiemin

    2002-08-01

    Previous studies have established an important role of histone acetylation in transcriptional control by nuclear hormone receptors. With chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we have now investigated whether histone methylation and phosphorylation are also involved in transcriptional regulation by thyroid hormone receptor (TR). We found that repression by unliganded TR is associated with a substantial increase in methylation of H3 lysine 9 (H3-K9) and a decrease in methylation of H3 lysine 4 (H3-K4), methylation of H3 arginine 17 (H3-R17), and a dual modification of phosphorylation of H3 serine 10 and acetylation of lysine 14 (pS10/acK14). On the other hand, transcriptional activation by liganded TR is coupled with a substantial decrease in both H3-K4 and H3-K9 methylation and a robust increase in H3-R17 methylation and the dual modification of pS10/acK14. Trichostatin A treatment results in not only histone hyperacetylation but also an increase in methylation of H3-K4, increase in dual modification of pS10/acK14, and reduction in methylation of H3-K9, revealing an extensive interplay between histone acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. In an effort to understand the underlying mechanism for an increase in H3-K9 methylation during repression by unliganded TR, we demonstrated that TR interacts in vitro with an H3-K9-specific histone methyltransferase (HMT), SUV39H1. Functional analysis indicates that SUV39H1 can facilitate repression by unliganded TR and in so doing requires its HMT activity. Together, our data uncover a novel role of H3-K9 methylation in repression by unliganded TR and provide strong evidence for the involvement of multiple distinct histone covalent modifications (acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation) in transcriptional control by nuclear hormone receptors.

  20. Post-translational modifications of linker histone H1 variants in mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkova, T. Yu; Polyanichko, A. M.; Artamonova, T. O.; Khodorkovskii, M. A.; Kostyleva, E. I.; Chikhirzhina, E. V.; Tomilin, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    The covalent modifications of the linker histone H1 and the core histones are thought to play an important role in the control of chromatin functioning. Histone H1 variants from K562 cell line (hH1), mouse (mH1) and calf (cH1) thymi were studied by matrix-activated laser desorption/ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass-spectroscopy (MALDI-FT-ICR-MS). The proteomics analysis revealed novel post-translational modifications of the histone H1, such as meK34-mH1.4, meK35-cH1.1, meK35-mH1.1, meK75-hH1.2, meK75-hH1.3, acK26-hH1.4, acK26-hH1.3 and acK17-hH1.1. The comparison of the hH1, mH1 and cH1 proteins has demonstrated that the types and positions of the post-translational modifications of the globular domains of the H1.2–H1.4 variants are very conservative. However, the post-translational modifications of the N- and C-terminal tails of H1.2, H1.3 and H1.4 are different. The differences of post-translational modifications in the N- and C-terminal tails of H1.2, H1.3 and H1.4 likely lead to the differences in DNA-H1 and H1-protein interactions.

  1. Modulation of Morphogenesis by Egfr during Dorsal Closure in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Olga; Cheng, David Chung-Pei; Reed, Bruce; Harden, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    During Drosophila embryogenesis the process of dorsal closure (DC) results in continuity of the embryonic epidermis, and DC is well recognized as a model system for the analysis of epithelial morphogenesis as well as wound healing. During DC the flanking lateral epidermal sheets stretch, align, and fuse along the dorsal midline, thereby sealing a hole in the epidermis occupied by an extra-embryonic tissue known as the amnioserosa (AS). Successful DC requires the regulation of cell shape change via actomyosin contractility in both the epidermis and the AS, and this involves bidirectional communication between these two tissues. We previously demonstrated that transcriptional regulation of myosin from the zipper (zip) locus in both the epidermis and the AS involves the expression of Ack family tyrosine kinases in the AS in conjunction with Dpp secreted from the epidermis. A major function of Ack in other species, however, involves the negative regulation of Egfr. We have, therefore, asked what role Egfr might play in the regulation of DC. Our studies demonstrate that Egfr is required to negatively regulate epidermal expression of dpp during DC. Interestingly, we also find that Egfr signaling in the AS is required to repress zip expression in both the AS and the epidermis, and this may be generally restrictive to the progression of morphogenesis in these tissues. Consistent with this theme of restricting morphogenesis, it has previously been shown that programmed cell death of the AS is essential for proper DC, and we show that Egfr signaling also functions to inhibit or delay AS programmed cell death. Finally, we present evidence that Ack regulates zip expression by promoting the endocytosis of Egfr in the AS. We propose that the general role of Egfr signaling during DC is that of a braking mechanism on the overall progression of DC. PMID:23579691

  2. The Ancestral Carnivore Karyotype As Substantiated by Comparative Chromosome Painting of Three Pinnipeds, the Walrus, the Steller Sea Lion and the Baikal Seal (Pinnipedia, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Perelman, Polina L; Lemskaya, Natalya A; Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A; Burkanov, Vladimir N; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Karyotype evolution in Carnivora is thoroughly studied by classical and molecular cytogenetics and supplemented by reconstructions of Ancestral Carnivora Karyotype (ACK). However chromosome painting information from two pinniped families (Odobenidae and Otariidae) is noticeably missing. We report on the construction of the comparative chromosome map for species from each of the three pinniped families: the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus, Odobenidae-monotypic family), near threatened Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus, Otariidae) and the endemic Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica, Phocidae) using combination of human, domestic dog and stone marten whole-chromosome painting probes. The earliest karyological studies of Pinnipedia showed that pinnipeds were characterized by a pronounced karyological conservatism that is confirmed here with species from Phocidae, Otariidae and Odobenidae sharing same low number of conserved human autosomal segments (32). Chromosome painting in Pinnipedia and comparison with non-pinniped carnivore karyotypes provide strong support for refined structure of ACK with 2n = 38. Constructed comparative chromosome maps show that pinniped karyotype evolution was characterized by few tandem fusions, seemingly absent inversions and slow rate of genome rearrangements (less then one rearrangement per 10 million years). Integrative comparative analyses with published chromosome painting of Phoca vitulina revealed common cytogenetic signature for Phoca/Pusa branch and supports Phocidae and Otaroidea (Otariidae/Odobenidae) as sister groups. We revealed rearrangements specific for walrus karyotype and found the chromosomal signature linking together families Otariidae and Odobenidae. The Steller sea lion karyotype is the most conserved among three studied species and differs from the ACK by single fusion. The study underlined the strikingly slow karyotype evolution of the Pinnipedia in general and the Otariidae in particular.

  3. The Ancestral Carnivore Karyotype As Substantiated by Comparative Chromosome Painting of Three Pinnipeds, the Walrus, the Steller Sea Lion and the Baikal Seal (Pinnipedia, Carnivora)

    PubMed Central

    Beklemisheva, Violetta R.; Perelman, Polina L.; Lemskaya, Natalya A.; Kulemzina, Anastasia I.; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Karyotype evolution in Carnivora is thoroughly studied by classical and molecular cytogenetics and supplemented by reconstructions of Ancestral Carnivora Karyotype (ACK). However chromosome painting information from two pinniped families (Odobenidae and Otariidae) is noticeably missing. We report on the construction of the comparative chromosome map for species from each of the three pinniped families: the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus, Odobenidae–monotypic family), near threatened Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus, Otariidae) and the endemic Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica, Phocidae) using combination of human, domestic dog and stone marten whole-chromosome painting probes. The earliest karyological studies of Pinnipedia showed that pinnipeds were characterized by a pronounced karyological conservatism that is confirmed here with species from Phocidae, Otariidae and Odobenidae sharing same low number of conserved human autosomal segments (32). Chromosome painting in Pinnipedia and comparison with non-pinniped carnivore karyotypes provide strong support for refined structure of ACK with 2n = 38. Constructed comparative chromosome maps show that pinniped karyotype evolution was characterized by few tandem fusions, seemingly absent inversions and slow rate of genome rearrangements (less then one rearrangement per 10 million years). Integrative comparative analyses with published chromosome painting of Phoca vitulina revealed common cytogenetic signature for Phoca/Pusa branch and supports Phocidae and Otaroidea (Otariidae/Odobenidae) as sister groups. We revealed rearrangements specific for walrus karyotype and found the chromosomal signature linking together families Otariidae and Odobenidae. The Steller sea lion karyotype is the most conserved among three studied species and differs from the ACK by single fusion. The study underlined the strikingly slow karyotype evolution of the Pinnipedia in general and the Otariidae in particular. PMID:26821159

  4. Substrate-level phosphorylation is the primary source of energy conservation during anaerobic respiration of Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kristopher A; Flynn, Jeffrey M; Naranjo, Belén; Shikhare, Indraneel D; Gralnick, Jeffrey A

    2010-07-01

    It is well established that respiratory organisms use proton motive force to produce ATP via F-type ATP synthase aerobically and that this process may reverse during anaerobiosis to produce proton motive force. Here, we show that Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, a nonfermentative, facultative anaerobe known to respire exogenous electron acceptors, generates ATP primarily from substrate-level phosphorylation under anaerobic conditions. Mutant strains lacking ackA (SO2915) and pta (SO2916), genes required for acetate production and a significant portion of substrate-level ATP produced anaerobically, were tested for growth. These mutant strains were unable to grow anaerobically with lactate and fumarate as the electron acceptor, consistent with substrate-level phosphorylation yielding a significant amount of ATP. Mutant strains lacking ackA and pta were also shown to grow slowly using N-acetylglucosamine as the carbon source and fumarate as the electron acceptor, consistent with some ATP generation deriving from the Entner-Doudoroff pathway with this substrate. A deletion strain lacking the sole F-type ATP synthase (SO4746 to SO4754) demonstrated enhanced growth on N-acetylglucosamine and a minor defect with lactate under anaerobic conditions. ATP synthase mutants grown anaerobically on lactate while expressing proteorhodopsin, a light-dependent proton pump, exhibited restored growth when exposed to light, consistent with a proton-pumping role for ATP synthase under anaerobic conditions. Although S. oneidensis requires external electron acceptors to balance redox reactions and is not fermentative, we find that substrate-level phosphorylation is its primary anaerobic energy conservation strategy. Phenotypic characterization of an ackA deletion in Shewanella sp. strain MR-4 and genomic analysis of other sequenced strains suggest that this strategy is a common feature of Shewanella.

  5. Post-translational modifications of linker histone H1 variants in mammals.

    PubMed

    Starkova, T Yu; Polyanichko, A M; Artamonova, T O; Khodorkovskii, M A; Kostyleva, E I; Chikhirzhina, E V; Tomilin, A N

    2017-02-16

    The covalent modifications of the linker histone H1 and the core histones are thought to play an important role in the control of chromatin functioning. Histone H1 variants from K562 cell line (hH1), mouse (mH1) and calf (cH1) thymi were studied by matrix-activated laser desorption/ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass-spectroscopy (MALDI-FT-ICR-MS). The proteomics analysis revealed novel post-translational modifications of the histone H1, such as meK34-mH1.4, meK35-cH1.1, meK35-mH1.1, meK75-hH1.2, meK75-hH1.3, acK26-hH1.4, acK26-hH1.3 and acK17-hH1.1. The comparison of the hH1, mH1 and cH1 proteins has demonstrated that the types and positions of the post-translational modifications of the globular domains of the H1.2-H1.4 variants are very conservative. However, the post-translational modifications of the N- and C-terminal tails of H1.2, H1.3 and H1.4 are different. The differences of post-translational modifications in the N- and C-terminal tails of H1.2, H1.3 and H1.4 likely lead to the differences in DNA-H1 and H1-protein interactions.

  6. Accurate quantification of site-specific acetylation stoichiometry reveals the impact of sirtuin deacetylase CobB on the E. coli acetylome.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Brian Tate; Satpathy, Shankha; Hansen, Bogi Karbech; Lyon, David; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2017-03-02

    Lysine acetylation is a protein posttranslational modification (PTM) that occurs on thousands of lysine residues in diverse organisms from bacteria to humans. Accurate measurement of acetylation stoichiometry on a proteome-wide scale remains challenging. Most methods employ a comparison of chemically acetylated peptides to native acetylated peptides, however, the potentially large differences in abundance between these peptides presents a challenge for accurate quantification. Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the most widely used quantitative proteomic methods. Here we show that serial dilution of SILAC-labeled peptides (SD-SILAC) can be used to identify accurately quantified peptides and to estimate the quantification error rate. We applied SD-SILAC to determine absolute acetylation stoichiometry in exponentially-growing and stationary-phase wild type and Sirtuin deacetylase CobB-deficient cells. To further analyze CobB-regulated sites under conditions of globally increased or decreased acetylation, we measured stoichiometry in phophotransacetylase (ptaΔ) and acetate kinase (ackAΔ) mutant strains in the presence and absence of the Sirtuin inhibitor nicotinamide. We measured acetylation stoichiometry at 3,669 unique sites and found that the vast majority of acetylation occurred at a low stoichiometry. Manipulations that cause increased nonenzymatic acetylation by acetyl-phosphate (AcP), such as stationary-phase arrest and deletion of ackA, resulted in globally increased acetylation stoichiometry. Comparison to relative quantification under the same conditions validated our stoichiometry estimates at hundreds of sites, demonstrating the accuracy of our method. Similar to Sirtuin deacetylase 3 (SIRT3) in mitochondria, CobB suppressed acetylation to lower than median stoichiometry in WT, ptaΔ, and ackAΔ cells. Together, our results provide a detailed view of acetylation stoichiometry in E. coli

  7. Acetone production with metabolically engineered strains of Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeister, Sabrina; Gerdom, Marzena; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Linder, Sonja; Flüchter, Sebastian; Öztürk, Hatice; Blümke, Wilfried; May, Antje; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Bahl, Hubert; Dürre, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Expected depletion of oil and fossil resources urges the development of new alternative routes for the production of bulk chemicals and fuels beyond petroleum resources. In this study, the clostridial acetone pathway was used for the formation of acetone in the acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The acetone production operon (APO) containing the genes thlA (encoding thiolase A), ctfA/ctfB (encoding CoA transferase), and adc (encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase) from Clostridium acetobutylicum were cloned under the control of the thlA promoter into four vectors having different replicons for Gram-positives (pIP404, pBP1, pCB102, and pCD6). Stable replication was observed for all constructs. A. woodii [pJIR_actthlA] achieved the maximal acetone concentration under autotrophic conditions (15.2±3.4mM). Promoter sequences of the genes ackA from A. woodii and pta-ack from C. ljungdahlii were determined by primer extension (PEX) and cloned upstream of the APO. The highest acetone production in recombinant A. woodii cells was achieved using the promoters PthlA and Ppta-ack. Batch fermentations using A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] in a bioreactor revealed that acetate concentration had an effect on the acetone production, due to the high Km value of the CoA transferase. In order to establish consistent acetate concentration within the bioreactor and to increase biomass, a continuous fermentation process for A. woodii was developed. Thus, acetone productivity of the strain A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] was increased from 1.2mgL(-1)h(-1) in bottle fermentation to 26.4mgL(-1)h(-1) in continuous gas fermentation.

  8. Impact of reference distance for motion compensation prediction on video quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yubing; Claypool, Mark; Kinicki, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Transmitting high-quality, real-time interactive video over lossy networks is challenging because data loss due to the network can severely degrade video quality. A promising feedback technique for low-latency video repair is Reference Picture Selection (RPS), whereby the encoder selects one of several previous frames as a reference frame for predictive encoding of subsequent frames. RPS can operate in two different modes: an optimistic policy that uses negative acknowledgements (NACKs) and a more conservative policy that relies upon positive acknowledgements (ACKs). The choice between RPS ACK mode and NACK mode to some extent depends upon the effects of reference distance on the encoded video quality. This paper provides a systematic study of the effects of reference distance on video quality for a range of video coding conditions. High-quality videos with a wide variety of scene complexity and motion characteristics are selected and encoded using H.264 with a bandwidth constraint and a range of reference distances. Two objective measures of video quality, PSNR and VQM, are analyzed to show that scene complexity and motion characteristics of the video determine the amount of degradation in quality as reference distance increases. In particular, videos with low motion degrade in quality more with an increase in reference distance since they cannot take advantage of the strong similarity between adjacent frames. Videos with high motion do not suffer as much with higher reference distance since the similarity between adjacent frames is already low. The motion characteristics also determine the initial quality under the bandwidth constraint. The data presented should be useful for selecting ACK or NACK mode or for modeling video repair techniques.

  9. Investigation of a Neural Network Implementation of a TCP Packet Anomaly Detection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    as the range 1024–65535. Some types of port scans may be detected through this attribute, as well as trojans and distributed denial of service (DDoS...Summary of DARPA 1999 week 5 detects. Date Attack Classifier Details 04/05/99 Portsweep Flags Lone FIN packets Sequence # SEQ=ACK=0 04/05/99 Neptune DoS IP...port (final stage of attack) 04/06/99 Neptune DoS IP Private IP address 10.20.30.40 Flags SYN packets with low source ports Ports Low ports to low

  10. Scheduler-Conscious Synchronization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    successor is not preempted, we must make it unpreemptable 14 type multi-flag = (not-yet, can-go, got-it, lostjit, ack, nack ) type qnode = record next, prey...finish using my qnode return while val != nack val := I->status // wait until qnode no longer needed procedure release_lock (L : -lock, I: -qnode) if...succ = nil if compare-andtstore (L, I->next, nil) I->next->status nack ; goto rtn repeat while (succ I->next->next) = nil // spin; non-local I->next

  11. A Designers’ Guide to Reliable Distributed Systems: An Example Design. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Receive Acks ... ............... . 3-33 3.3.25 Procedure Get Parent Child Info .......... 3-33 3.3.26 GetAll Descedent........... ............ 3-34 3.3.27...of the process record and transaction record. The activeprocessLIST is then declared as the LIST of Active_processrecords. 2. LIST of Parent Child Info...processes or transactions. Associated with each child is the list of the all descendent processes of that child and the UIDs of the objects modified by

  12. Integrated Information Support System (IISS). Volume 6. Network Transaction Manager Subsystem. Part 2. NTM Programmer’s Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    order to obtain the destination AP’s instance number. This restriction applies only when dealing with AP’s requiring child chaining support. S...supports the chaining by dynamically building a chain or child table as the chain is built. In this table, the child AP is assigned the channel IS...an ACK from a destination AP using the "MSGACK" service. 5-35 %? PRM120 142000 1 November 1985 XCV (Coat I sued) Value &Ifa Value Definition RCV- NACK

  13. Documentation and User’s Manual for the Visual Detection Simulator (VDS) .

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    3?7A CLA 4.35 .JMP DODC6 TAD TEMP I DBC 05 DC GOP*C LA RETRN DCLR DODC6, PTAD TEMPI DBC0 6 JMP .DCGO /PAGE 6 PA GE /YuTCH13(DUmm1Y) /P.7ETURNJ THE...CHK 77A CLA "V-’ GJ3ACK /07A : 50 ST0O’ A:A :17FLO ’-43 _ _ _ _ __, I TAD SPPT DCAl PTPTR PG £ 414? GOBACKO MCHX, PTAD KKI14 S14A JHbCOI(/CMARACTER

  14. Leveraging Executable Architectures in a Joint Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    ACCA ) to...MIDS MIDS MIDS X = Existing capability P1 = Partial - requires voice ack P2 = Partial - only some F/A-18s None P3 = remarks only TARGET LOCATION...DESCRIPTION TGT LOC: lat/long or UTM X X X X X X X X X X X P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 Number of Targets (elements)/TGT Strength X X X X X X X X X P1 P1 P1 P1 P1

  15. A Real-Time Executive for Multiple-Computer Clusters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    Byte 1 Byt P 2yte 5 3 yte 4 ------------------------------------- ----------------------------I I Packet Type Value Type Name F(VC) ( EVC ID) * - Packet...cut i d, awaited _val ie ’V create evc ENTFY (BIT (8)), /* create evc (event _count-il) ~ create prroc ENTR~Y (BIT (8), BIT (W, VIT (1f;), BIT~ (16...1*arf2titlC a lFbtt tt, another 16bit 4t) / 2 /* IFETPNS ai _6bit -# + an ether l6bit _# 1 reolace ** EVC $IT)S 𔃻) USFR * T-ACK IN by ൓b4, TRACK _OUT

  16. Loop-Closure of the Visual-Cortical Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    of one on each line. The subjects could process a task by depressing the appropriate push-button. Once a button had been pushed, the computer...remained dedicated to that task until task completion or the task ran off the screen. By processing a task successfully, the subject was credited with the...with true feedback, standard deviation bars included. 27 1. VJ 11 ~-:13.25 Hz SUBJECT 77 s0 V- V 7.73 Hz 50 FALSE MD1ACK TRUE FRACK . 40 30 200 ~ 10 %’ i

  17. Evaluation of Swift Start TCP in Long-Delay Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawas-Grodek, Frances J.; Tran, Diepchi T.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the test results of the Swift Start algorithm in single-flow and multiple-flow testbeds under the effects of high propagation delays, various slow bottlenecks, and small queue sizes. Although this algorithm estimates capacity and implements packet pacing, the findings were that in a heavily congested link, the Swift Start algorithm will not be applicable. The reason is that the bottleneck estimation is falsely influenced by timeouts induced by retransmissions and the expiration of delayed acknowledgment (ACK) timers, thus causing the modified Swift Start code to fall back to regular transmission control protocol (TCP).

  18. Unmasking Stem/Progenitor Cell Properties in Differentiated Epithelial Cells Using Short-term Transplantation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Ketterer, K., Berberat, P. O ., Giese, N., Esposito, I., Giese, T., Buchler, M. W. et al. (2004). Indian hedgehog signaling pathway: expression and...expression is required for embryonic hair follicle but not mammary gland development. Dev Biol 264, 153- 65. Mukherjee, S., Frolova , N., Sadlonova, A...CK6+ER+ = 14.2% SMO+ CK6+ = 0% Figure 4 D B A Genotype SMO WT L o g ( E f f i c i e n c y ) -3 -2 -1 0 1 Animal Group 1 2 3 4 5 Primary Mammosphere

  19. Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator (MACS) Basic Rifle Marksmanship (BRM) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    AAWM0~ CLC ETA DOLOR IUD DISTANCE IFOKB ETOP 111TH ?aW SAATIKEO 000 jilt CIESPCL LOA also I IN IFtACK 4N-STA*T-103231 asE CTA460 ETA COO&I a 95011 COD...14277 51.140 315 4153).? 311. 51/5030 IDA 830 DINC *5.3 ZA Its1 $?A 1437) LOX 550 XVS030 iTA WNS LOA5 8216 erg 441612 LOA5 1401.02 STA 14276 $CC

  20. Current Status of Cemented Carbide Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1958-06-01

    1100-1300 201 Q-2370 T i o2 - lampb I ack 1700-1900 309o-3q5o Zro2 - lampblack 1800-2000 3270-3630 v2o3 or v2o5 - lampblack II 00-1200 201Q-2190...is added to the powder as a solute in a solvent such as benzene or carbon-tetrachlor ide, and intensive aixing produces surface films around the...King. F. E., THIN , DUCTILE CARBIDE COATING POSSIBLE WITH NEW METHOD. Matorials and Mtthods. 40_. 112-4 (1952). Kingston. W. E.. od

  1. Acetate Dissimilation and Assimilation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Depend on Carbon Availability

    PubMed Central

    Rücker, Nadine; Billig, Sandra; Bücker, René; Jahn, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis persists inside granulomas in the human lung. Analysis of the metabolic composition of granulomas from guinea pigs revealed that one of the organic acids accumulating in the course of infection is acetate (B. S. Somashekar, A. G. Amin, C. D. Rithner, J. Troudt, R. Basaraba, A. Izzo, D. C. Crick, and D. Chatterjee, J Proteome Res 10:4186–4195, 2011, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr2003352), which might result either from metabolism of the pathogen or might be provided by the host itself. Our studies characterize a metabolic pathway by which M. tuberculosis generates acetate in the cause of fatty acid catabolism. The acetate formation depends on the enzymatic activities of Pta and AckA. Using actyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) as a substrate, acetyl-phosphate is generated and finally dephosphorylated to acetate, which is secreted into the medium. Knockout mutants lacking either the pta or ackA gene showed significantly reduced acetate production when grown on fatty acids. This effect is even more pronounced when the glyoxylate shunt is blocked, resulting in higher acetate levels released to the medium. The secretion of acetate was followed by an assimilation of the metabolite when other carbon substrates became limiting. Our data indicate that during acetate assimilation, the Pta-AckA pathway acts in concert with another enzymatic reaction, namely, the acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) reaction. Thus, acetate metabolism might possess a dual function, mediating an overflow reaction to release excess carbon units and resumption of acetate as a carbon substrate. IMPORTANCE During infection, host-derived lipid components present the major carbon source at the infection site. β-Oxidation of fatty acids results in the formation of acetyl-CoA. In this study, we demonstrate that consumption of fatty acids by Mycobacterium tuberculosis activates an overflow mechanism, causing the pathogen to release excess carbon intermediates as acetate. The Pta-Ack

  2. Targeting CD81 to Prevent Metastases in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    unaffected by sample processing. Figure 1. Cytokeratin positive 4T1 tumor cells ( pink ) in (A) untreated sample, and (B) sample subjected to ACK lysis... pink CD45 Green DAPI Blue A B A C B 7 the background large numbers of CD45 + (green color) immune cells are seen. The blue color seen in the...stained Color Cytokeratin -CK Reddish pink CD45 Green DAPI Blue A B Inject 4T1 WT cells (0.5X10 6 ) into 10 BALB/c mice Randomize and sort the

  3. Great III - Ecological and Habitat Characterization. Primary Document.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    summer and winter. Major tributaries (in terms of potential influence on the Mississippi River) to the GREAT III reach include the Salt River, Cuivre ... Cuivre River 235 Illinois River 218 Missouri River 195 Mermec River 160.5 Kaskaskia River 117.5 Marys River 106.5 Big Muddy River 75.5 Ohio River 0.0...t~w ~e bun#ant whoere it *ccaare. The, p;* ferred habitats of, #i44ack b4uU aere, qu**A,,;)W tra qdo. wVh s*Pftbtou a bljI tuz~bid~y., .. 0u~a4C ,W

  4. Early Life Processes, Endocrine Mediators and Number of Susceptible Cells in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    of the placenta and maternal organs (e.g., uterus, breasts, skin, and kidneys ), with an average increase of f45% (1-5). There are vast differences...Wong ACK, Wang X, Birmingham CL, Lewicka S, Chanoine J-P. Different relationship between anthropometric mar- kers and umbilical cord plasma leptin in...Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12:1268–70. 35. Atamer Y, Erden AC, Demir B, Koçyigit Y, Atamer A. The relationship between plasma levels of leptin and

  5. Standard Engineering Installation Package, Technical Control Facility, Technical Control Improvement Program (TCIP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    directly to Commander, Head - quarters, US Army Communications-Electronics Engineering Instal- lation Agency, ATTN: CCC-CED-SEP, Fort Huachuca, Arizona...UtATL CRT- |T -I.;- L-Q=J• AAUAH VA! TNY ITEM OIESCR IPT I O LiSli OF MATERIALS _-- _ " - Y USACEEIA-CED DESIGN BY RA - _M• __A__ L A KAUFMAN EQ U IPM ...BLOCK RACK SHIELD AT TOP OF 9ACK 7-12 7-A -TOALARMDISPLAY PNL -j-TO DC GROAND ILE A IN OUT IN 01 LICE UNIVERSAL RACK WIRING & INSTALLERS CONNECTORS. 4, 4

  6. SBMAC: smart blocking MAC mechanism for variable UW-ASN (Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network) environment.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soo-Young; Namgung, Jung-Il; Park, Soo-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, several MAC scheduling methods applicable to an underwater environment are proposed. Besides, a new marine communication system model was proposed to improve the reliability of the proposed SBMAC method. The scheme minimizes transmission of control frames except for data transmission and various transmission methods and ACK methods can be used together. Simulation models are set indices and analysis of the underwater environment is established to conduct reliable simulations. Consequently, the performance improvement of the proposed method is verified with respect to delay time, data transmission rate, memory utilization, energy efficiency, etc.

  7. Polyspecific pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetases from directed evolution

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li-Tao; Wang, Yane-Shih; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Eiler, Daniel; Kavran, Jennifer M.; Wong, Margaret; Kiessling, Laura L.; Steitz, Thomas A.; O’Donoghue, Patrick; Söll, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and its cognate tRNAPyl have emerged as ideal translation components for genetic code innovation. Variants of the enzyme facilitate the incorporation >100 noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins. PylRS variants were previously selected to acylate Nε-acetyl-Lys (AcK) onto tRNAPyl. Here, we examine an Nε-acetyl-lysyl-tRNA synthetase (AcKRS), which is polyspecific (i.e., active with a broad range of ncAAs) and 30-fold more efficient with Phe derivatives than it is with AcK. Structural and biochemical data reveal the molecular basis of polyspecificity in AcKRS and in a PylRS variant [iodo-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (IFRS)] that displays both enhanced activity and substrate promiscuity over a chemical library of 313 ncAAs. IFRS, a product of directed evolution, has distinct binding modes for different ncAAs. These data indicate that in vivo selections do not produce optimally specific tRNA synthetases and suggest that translation fidelity will become an increasingly dominant factor in expanding the genetic code far beyond 20 amino acids. PMID:25385624

  8. Polyspecific pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetases from directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li-Tao; Wang, Yane-Shih; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Eiler, Daniel; Kavran, Jennifer M; Wong, Margaret; Kiessling, Laura L; Steitz, Thomas A; O'Donoghue, Patrick; Söll, Dieter

    2014-11-25

    Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and its cognate tRNA(Pyl) have emerged as ideal translation components for genetic code innovation. Variants of the enzyme facilitate the incorporation >100 noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins. PylRS variants were previously selected to acylate N(ε)-acetyl-Lys (AcK) onto tRNA(Pyl). Here, we examine an N(ε)-acetyl-lysyl-tRNA synthetase (AcKRS), which is polyspecific (i.e., active with a broad range of ncAAs) and 30-fold more efficient with Phe derivatives than it is with AcK. Structural and biochemical data reveal the molecular basis of polyspecificity in AcKRS and in a PylRS variant [iodo-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (IFRS)] that displays both enhanced activity and substrate promiscuity over a chemical library of 313 ncAAs. IFRS, a product of directed evolution, has distinct binding modes for different ncAAs. These data indicate that in vivo selections do not produce optimally specific tRNA synthetases and suggest that translation fidelity will become an increasingly dominant factor in expanding the genetic code far beyond 20 amino acids.

  9. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli W3110 to produce L-malate.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoxiang; Chen, Xiulai; Qian, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yuancai; Wang, Li; Qiao, Weihua; Liu, Liming

    2017-03-01

    A four-carbon dicarboxylic acid L-malate has recently attracted attention due to its potential applications in the fields of medicine and agriculture. In this study, Escherichia coli W3110 was engineered and optimized for L-malate production via one-step L-malate synthesis pathway. First, deletion of the genes encoding lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA), pyruvate oxidase (poxB), pyruvate formate lyase (pflB), phosphotransacetylase (pta), and acetate kinase A (ackA) in pta-ackA pathway led to accumulate 20.9 g/L pyruvate. Then, overexpression of NADP(+) -dependent malic enzyme C490S mutant in this multi-deletion mutant resulted in the direct conversion of pyruvate into L-malate (3.62 g/L). Next, deletion of the genes responsible for succinate biosynthesis further enhanced L-malate production up to 7.78 g/L. Finally, L-malate production was elevated to 21.65 g/L with the L-malate yield to 0.36 g/g in a 5 L bioreactor by overexpressing the pos5 gene encoding NADH kinase in the engineered E. coli F0931 strain. This study demonstrates the potential utility of one-step pathway for efficient L-malate production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 656-664. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Extended Darknet: Multi-Dimensional Internet Threat Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Akihiro; Mori, Tatsuya; Goto, Shigeki

    Internet threats caused by botnets/worms are one of the most important security issues to be addressed. Darknet, also called a dark IP address space, is one of the best solutions for monitoring anomalous packets sent by malicious software. However, since darknet is deployed only on an inactive IP address space, it is an inefficient way for monitoring a working network that has a considerable number of active IP addresses. The present paper addresses this problem. We propose a scalable, light-weight malicious packet monitoring system based on a multi-dimensional IP/port analysis. Our system significantly extends the monitoring scope of darknet. In order to extend the capacity of darknet, our approach leverages the active IP address space without affecting legitimate traffic. Multi-dimensional monitoring enables the monitoring of TCP ports with firewalls enabled on each of the IP addresses. We focus on delays of TCP syn/ack responses in the traffic. We locate syn/ack delayed packets and forward them to sensors or honeypots for further analysis. We also propose a policy-based flow classification and forwarding mechanism and develop a prototype of a monitoring system that implements our proposed architecture. We deploy our system on a campus network and perform several experiments for the evaluation of our system. We verify that our system can cover 89% of the IP addresses while darknet-based monitoring only covers 46%. On our campus network, our system monitors twice as many IP addresses as darknet.

  11. On the Generation and Use of TCP Acknowledgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation study of various TCP acknowledgment generation and utilization techniques. We investigate the standard version of TCP and the two standard acknowledgment strategies employed by receivers: those that acknowledge each incoming segment and those that implement delayed acknowledgments. We show the delayed acknowledgment mechanism hurts TCP performance, especially during slow start. Next we examine three alternate mechanisms for generating and using acknowledgments designed to mitigate the negative impact of delayed acknowledgments. The first method is to generate delayed ACKs only when the sender is not using the slow start algorithm. The second mechanism, called byte counting, allows TCP senders to increase the amount of data being injected into the network based on the amount of data acknowledged rather than on the number of acknowledgments received. The last mechanism is a limited form of byte counting. Each of these mechanisms is evaluated in a simulated network with no competing traffic, as well as a dynamic environment with a varying amount of competing traffic. We study the costs and benefits of the alternate mechanisms when compared to the standard algorithm with delayed ACKs.

  12. Therapeutic Effect of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Sodium Butyrate, on Allergic Rhinitis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Wen, Liting; Wang, Ye; Chen, Fuquan

    2016-04-01

    Despite the well-documented therapeutic effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) on various diseases, including arthritis and asthma, the therapeutic effect of HDACi on allergic rhinitis remains unmentioned in the literature. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of sodium butyrate (SoB), a form of HDACi, on mice with allergic rhinitis. The results showed that the expression levels of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) were significantly upregulated in mice with allergic rhinitis, whereas H3 acetylation at lysine 9 (H3AcK9) was decreased. The intranasal application of SoB inhibited the expression levels of TSLP levels and upregulated the expression of H3AcK9 in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Furthermore, SoB treatment significantly decreased the increased levels of ovalbumin-specific IgE and improved clinical symptoms and nasal mucosa epithelial morphology in the mouse model of allergic rhinitis. In addition, we further demonstrated that SoB treatment significantly increased the serum levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ and decreased the serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10, correcting the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Taken together, our study suggests that SoB has the potential to treat allergic rhinitis.

  13. Efficient reduction of the formation of by-products and improvement of production yield of 2,3-butanediol by a combined deletion of alcohol dehydrogenase, acetate kinase-phosphotransacetylase, and lactate dehydrogenase genes in metabolically engineered Klebsiella oxytoca in mineral salts medium.

    PubMed

    Jantama, Kaemwich; Polyiam, Pattharasedthi; Khunnonkwao, Panwana; Chan, Sitha; Sangproo, Maytawadee; Khor, Kirin; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn

    2015-07-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca KMS005 (∆adhE∆ackA-pta∆ldhA) was metabolically engineered to improve 2,3-butanediol (BDO) yield. Elimination of alcohol dehydrogenase E (adhE), acetate kinase A-phosphotransacetylase (ackA-pta), and lactate dehydrogenase A (ldhA) enzymes allowed BDO production as a primary pathway for NADH re-oxidation, and significantly reduced by-products. KMS005 was screened for the efficient glucose utilization by metabolic evolution. KMS005-73T improved BDO production at a concentration of 23.5±0.5 g/L with yield of 0.46±0.02 g/g in mineral salts medium containing 50 g/L glucose in a shake flask. KMS005-73T also exhibited BDO yields of about 0.40-0.42 g/g from sugarcane molasses, cassava starch, and maltodextrin. During fed-batch fermentation, KMS005-73T produced BDO at a concentration, yield, and overall and specific productivities of 117.4±4.5 g/L, 0.49±0.02 g/g, 1.20±0.05 g/Lh, and 27.2±1.1 g/gCDW, respectively. No acetoin, lactate, and formate were detected, and only trace amounts of acetate and ethanol were formed. The strain also produced the least by-products and the highest BDO yield among other Klebsiella strains previously developed.

  14. Metabolic engineering of Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1 to produce optically pure D-lactate in mineral salts medium.

    PubMed

    Sangproo, Maytawadee; Polyiam, Pattharasedthi; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn; Jantama, Kaemwich

    2012-09-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca strains were constructed to produce optical pure d-lactate by pH-controlled batch fermentation in mineral salts medium. The alcohol dehydrogenase gene, adhE, and the phospho-transacetylase/acetate kinase A genes, pta-ackA, were deleted from the wild type. KMS002 (ΔadhE) and KMS004 (ΔadhE Δpta-ackA) exhibited d-lactate production as a primary pathway for the regeneration of NAD(+). Both strains produced 11-13 g/L of d-lactate in medium containing 2% (w/v) glucose with yields of 0.64-0.71 g/g glucose used. In sugarcane molasses, KMS002 and KMS004 produced 22-24 g/L of d-lactate with yields of 0.80-0.87 g/g total sugars utilized. Both strains also utilized maltodextrin derived from cassava starch and produced d-lactate at a concentration of 33-34 g/L with yields of 0.91-0.92 g/g maltodextrin utilized. These d-lactate yields are higher than those reported for engineered E. coli strains.

  15. The contribution of aerobic and anaerobic respiration to intestinal colonization and virulence for Salmonella typhimurium in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul Andrew; Berchieri, Angelo; Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano de; Lovell, Margaret

    2015-10-01

    The basic mechanism whereby Salmonella serovars colonize the chicken intestine remains poorly understood. Previous studies have indicated that proton-translocating proteins utilizing oxygen as terminal electron acceptor do not appear to be of major importance in the gut of the newly hatched chicken and consequently they would be even less significant during intestinal colonization of more mature chickens where the complex gut microflora would trap most of the oxygen in the lumen. Consequently, alternative electron acceptors may be more significant or, in their absence, substrate-level phosphorylation may also be important to Salmonella serovars in this environment. To investigate this we constructed mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium defective in various aspects of oxidative or substrate-level phosphorylation to assess their role in colonization of the chicken intestine, assessed through faecal shedding, and virulence. Mutations affecting use of oxygen or alternative electron acceptors did not eliminate faecal shedding. By contrast mutations in either pta (phosphotransacetylase) or ackA (acetate kinase) abolished shedding. The pta but not the ackA mutation also abolished systemic virulence for chickens. An additional ldhA (lactate dehydrogenase) mutant also showed poor colonizing ability. We hypothesise that substrate-level phosphorylation may be more important than respiration using oxygen or alternative electron acceptors for colonization of the chicken caeca.

  16. Inherited resistance to Corynebacterium kutscheri in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, R G; Wallace, M E

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the factors responsible for inherited resistance to Corynebacterium kutscheri was undertaken. Various inbred mouse strains were examined; these included the Swiss Lynch and C57Bl/l mice, their F1 and F2 progeny, and the progeny of the F1 backcrossed to each parent strain. Two modes of inherited resistance are described. An examination suggested that resistance as measured by the mean lethal dose of C. kutscheri was under polygenic control and was inherited continuously. However, the efficiency with which C. kutscheri was eliminated by the mononuclear phagocyte cells of the liver over 3 days differed markedly among strains. A genetic analysis of this mononuclear phagocyte microbicidal efficiency (MPME) in Swiss Lynch and C57Bl/6 mice was undertaken. The trait, MPME, was present, but did not segregate, in the F1 progeny or in the progeny of the backcross to the resistant C57Bl/6 parent; this was clear evidence of dominance. Moreover, MPME segregated in a ratio of 1:1 in the progeny of the backcross to the sensitive Swiss Lynch parent and in a ratio of 3:1 in the F2 progeny. It was concluded that MPME was inherited discontinuously and was controlled by a single dominant autosomal gene (or closely linked group); the recessive allele was assigned the gene symbol ack. Linkage experiments showed there to be no association between the ack locus and any of the immune-response genes. PMID:971958

  17. Involvement of phosphotransacetylase, acetate kinase, and acetyl phosphate synthesis in control of the phosphate regulon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wanner, B L; Wilmes-Riesenberg, M R

    1992-04-01

    Two controls of the phosphate (PHO) regulon require sensor proteins that are protein kinases that phosphorylate the regulator, PhoB, which in turn activates transcription only when phosphorylated. Pi control requires the Pi sensor PhoR; the other control is Pi independent and requires the sensor CreC (formerly called PhoM). Here we describe an additional control of the PHO regulon which is Pi independent and requires neither PhoR nor CreC. This control is regulated by a two-step pathway in carbon metabolism in which acetyl coenzyme A, Pi, and ADP are converted into acetate, coenzyme A, and ATP via the enzymes phosphotransacetylase (Pta) and acetate kinase (AckA). It responds to the synthesis of acetyl phosphate, an intermediate in the Pta-AckA pathway. Since the synthesis of acetyl phosphate via this pathway leads to the incorporation of Pi into ATP, the primary phosphoryl donor in metabolism, we propose that a regulatory coupling(s) may exist between the PHO regulon, which encodes genes for Pi uptake, and genes for enzymes in central metabolism for incorporation of Pi into ATP. Regulatory interactions of this sort may be important in global control. Further, it provides a functional basis for the concept of cross-regulation in the PHO regulon. This is also the first evidence that acetyl phosphate may have a role as an effector of gene regulation.

  18. Antagonism of Stem Cell Factor/c-kit Signaling Attenuates Neonatal Chronic Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Young, Karen C; Torres, Eneida; Hehre, Dorothy; Wu, Shu; Suguihara, Cleide; Hare, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that c-kit positive cells are present in the remodeled pulmonary vasculature bed of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Whether stem cell factor (SCF)/ c-kit regulated pathways potentiate pulmonary vascular remodeling is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that attenuated c-kit signaling would decrease chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling by decreasing pulmonary vascular cell mitogenesis. Methods Neonatal FVB/NJ mice treated with non-immune IgG (PL), or c-kit neutralizing antibody (ACK2) as well as c-kit mutant mice (WBB6F1- Kit W− v/ +) and their congenic controls, were exposed to normoxia (FiO2=0.21) or hypoxia (FiO2=0.12) for two weeks. Following this exposure, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), pulmonary vascular cell proliferation and remodeling were evaluated. Results As compared to chronically hypoxic controls, c-kit mutant mice had decreased RVSP, RVH, pulmonary vascular remodeling and proliferation. Consistent with these findings, administration of ACK2 to neonatal mice with chronic hypoxia-induced PH decreased RVSP, RVH, pulmonary vascular cell proliferation and remodeling. This attenuation in PH was accompanied by decreased extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation. Conclusion SCF/c-kit signaling may potentiate chronic hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling by modulating ERK activation. Inhibition of c-kit activity may be a potential strategy to alleviate PH. PMID:26705118

  19. Jeopardizing Christmas: Why spoiled kids and a tight schedule could make Santa Claus fall?

    PubMed

    Donath, L; Roth, R; Lichtenstein, E; Elliot, C; Zahner, L; Faude, O

    2015-03-01

    Santa Claus' spatio-temporal gait characteristics, ground reaction forces during treadmill walking as well as postural sway during loaded, unloaded and cognitive interference tasks were examined in order to estimate his fall risk. Seventeen healthy males, disguised as researchers and students (age: 30±10 years; height: 179±6 years; weight: 76±7kg; BMI: 24±2kg/m(2); physical activity: 12±4h/week) and who still believe in Santa Claus randomly underwent balance and gait analyses with and without cognitive interference. The conditions were to be dressed as "Santa Claus" (wearing costume consisting of a beard, cap, robe, heavy sack with a load of 20kg) or dressed in "normal clothing" (no costume). Spatiotemporal gait parameters (walking velocity, gait variability and stride time, length and width), ground reaction forces (GRF) (left- and right-sided heel strike and push off) and postural sway (30s tandem stance on a force plate) were measured. "Santa-effects" (0.001sack with 20kg of presents. Cognitive loads also impair his neuromuscular performance. It is recommended that Santa trains his strength and balance before Christmas and also to avoid filling his sack with more than 20kg of presents. Also, cognitive training may help to improve his dual task performance.

  20. A Study Protocol for Tracking Quality of Life Among U.S. Service Members Wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan: The Wounded Warrior Recovery Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Wounded Warrior Recovery Project Susan I. Woodruff Michael R . Galarneau Bethi N. Luu Daniel Sack Peggy Han Report No. 13-37 The views...Wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan: The Wounded Warrior Recovery Project Susan I. Woodruff, PhD; Michael R . Galarneau, MS, NREMT; Bethi N. Luu, MPH; Daniel...Warrior Recovery Project ^O^NDED WARRIO R R E C O V E R Y P R O J E C T NOW ENROLLING WE’LL BE COHTACTING YOU SOONÍ FIGURE 3. Introductory postcard

  1. Humanism in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, S

    1993-09-01

    Emergency medicine has not yet appropriated "humanism" as a term of its own. Medical humanism needs to be interpreted in a way that is consistent with the practical goals of emergency medicine. In this essay, humanism in emergency medicine is defined by identifying the dehumanizing aspects of sudden illness and exploring of ways for sustaining the humanity of emergency department patients. Excerpts from Dr Oliver Sacks' autobiographical work A Leg to Stand On give voice to the human needs created by sudden illness and its treatment.

  2. International Conference on Phonon Physics, 31 August-3 September 1981. Bloomington, Indiana,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Campo Formio, 75013Paris, France. XII PRITCHARD, J.- Physics Dept., Univ. ROSENSTOCK, H.B.- Naval Research Lab of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YB, (Sacks...Pleitu Preass,New Tork,1976 3) S. Zeller (editor): Solid Eleatrolytee, Springer Verlag, Berlin 1977 4) 1. Vargas , M.B. Solomon, C.P. flynn, Physical Rev...d’lectronique (E.R.A. 375) Universitg de Provence, Centre de Saint-Jdrme, Rue Henri Poincar6, 13397 Marse’Ille Cedex 13, France. *Spectrochimie du

  3. Enthusiastic Teachers, Vivid Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-04-01

    ascination with materials and chemical change is a hallmark of chemists, and it is also an important pedagogical tool. A fringe benefit of editing JCE is that I encounter so many nice people who send interesting and helpful communications. One of the first of these to cross my desk this year was from E. J. Behrman, who recommended that I read and call to your attention "Brilliant Light: A Chemical Boyhood" by Oliver Sacks, noted neurologist and author. It appeared in the December 20, 1999, issue of The New Yorker and is well worth your time and effort to find and read. Sacks's reminiscence of his boyhood interest in chemistry is fascinating. His obvious love of our science is inspiring. And he has expressed both in words that are brilliantly chosen and a joy to read. In a profile of Sacks that appeared in Chemical and Engineering News (January 10, 2000), Madeleine Jacobs relates that he is writing a book on his boyhood encounters with chemistry (to be published by Alfred A. Knopf). I am looking forward to that with great anticipation. During 1999 he also wrote an article on the periodic table in the New York Times Magazine (April 18) and an op-ed piece on chemistry sets in the New York Times (May 13). In the latter he describes how hard it is these days for a nonchemist, especially a young one, to obtain chemicals to experiment with. Chemistry sets are not what they used to be! Sacks's writings contain important messages for all of us who teach chemistry and all who are involved in piquing students' interest in our subject. A brief excerpt from his New Yorker article illustrates my point.

    I knew zinc--the dull, slightly bluish birdbath in the garden was made of zinc--and tin, from the heavy tinfoil in which sandwiches were wrapped for a picnic. My mother showed me that when tin or zinc was bent it uttered a special "cry." "It's due to deformation of the crystal structure," she said, forgetting that I was five and could not understand her

  4. Sensitivity of Breast Cancer Stem Cells to TRA-8 Anti-DR5 Monoclonal Antibody

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    full-length Mesd and acts as an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer cells. PLoS ONE In press 2013. 2. Londoño-Joshi AI, Oliver PG, Li Y...cancer cell lines. Cancer Res In press 2013. 9 2. Whitworth JM, Londoño-Joshi AI, Sellers JC, Oliver PG, Muccio DD, Atigadda VR, Straughn JM Jr...Exp Parasitol, 2008. 118(4): p. 637-40. 25. Sack , U., et al., Novel effect of antihelminthic Niclosamide on S100A4-mediated metastatic progression

  5. Relativity of Scales: Application to AN Endo-Perspective of Temporal Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottale, Laurent; Timar, Pierre

    The theory of scale relativity is an extension of the principle of relativity to scale transformations of the reference system, in a fractal geometry framework where coordinates become explicitly dependent on resolutions. Applied to an observer perspective, it means that the scales of length and of time, usually attributed to the observed object as being intrinsic to it, have actually no existence by themselves, since only the ratio between an external scale and an internal scale, which serves as unit, is meaningful. Oliver Sacks' observations on patients suffering from temporal and spatial distortions in Parkinson's and encephalitis lethargica disease offer a particularly relevant field of application for such a scale-relativistic view.

  6. The Fatigue in Aircraft Corrosion Testing (FACT) Programme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    TATEnmEN X MAY 15.1989 Approved &ez public teleasgg Diuio Vtnnizted D)WVRUTION *M0 AVAILASILII ON SACK coVEs 8.95 1~5 090 AG (ARD)R-713 NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY...and material * nlfect of environment at each stress level * etest of material at each stress level * etlect ,i environment per material lett f...original Th age , which typically involves heating for about 24 hours at 393 K. Subsequent studies (references 3-8) have confirmed the essential features

  7. Combating Conflict Related Sexual Violence: More Than a Stability Concern

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    explanation for CRSV’s military utility. In ancient history Saint Augustine’s City of God describes the rape of civilians as an “ ancient and customary...evil” part of war when he discusses the 410 AD sack of Rome (Slim 2008, 60). The Japanese rape of the Nanking city in 1937 clearly demonstrated a...definition of CRSV comes from the 1988 Rome Statute and the UN’s definition of conflict related sexual violence. For the purpose of this paper the

  8. Intrapulmonary receptors in the Tegu lizard: I. Sensitivity to CO2.

    PubMed

    Feede, M R; Kuhlmann, W D; Scheid, P

    1977-02-01

    Single unit vagal recordings from intrapulmonary receptors were obtained in decerebrate, paralyzed lizards both during pump ventilation and during unidirectional ventilation on the cannulated, sack-shaped lung. Two types of receptors were identified: (1) CO2-receptors, which increased their discharge frequency as intrapulmonary CO2 concentration decreased but were not sensitive to stretch of the lung. (2) Mechanoreceptors, which rapidly increased discharge frequency when the lung was stretched. These receptors' CO2 sensitivity varied. Lungs of lizards thus appeared to possess both CO2 receptors, which have functional characteristics similar to those in birds, and mechanoreceptors with properties similar to stretch receptors in mammals.

  9. Adaptive Control Techniques for Large Space Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-06

    Point Analy- sis", submitted, IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems; Special Issue on Adaptive Systems, Sept. 1987. I.M.Y. Mareels, R.R. Bitmead, M. Gevers...adaptive system with unmodelled dynamics," Proc. IFAC Workshop on Adaptive Systems, San Francisco, CA. C.A. Desoer , R.W. Liu, J. Murray and R. Sacks...June 1980. C.A. Desoer and M. Vidyasagar, Feedback Systems: Input-Output Properties, Academic Press, * 1975. J.C. Doyle and G. Stein (1981

  10. Niobium Silicides for High Temperature Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-25

    is possible to produce brittle matrix materials which exhibit some degree of damage tolerance. This is reflected in the stress-strain curve of...Lewandowski, in Proc. Second Int’l Ceramic Sci. and Tech. Congress -Advanced Composite Materials, (M.D. Sacks, ed.), 1990, pp. 519-525.. 7. M.G. Mendiratta...winoinchaes of 201 MNPa In’ . shil t11C h0Iron- doped mnatrial had a tiiUglaness eseced- ing 3(1 NI Pa rn’!. NiAI. on the cont tat) denimiotattaed

  11. [Kidney preservation by mechanical perfusion and by hypothermic storage: a comparative study].

    PubMed

    Grundmann, R; Eichmann, J; Strümper, R; Pichlmaier, H

    1977-04-01

    72 dog kidneys were stored under hypothermia as described by COLLINS and SACKS between 24 and 72 hrs and then transplanted. The immediate function of the kidneys was measured by PAH and inulin clearances. 24 hrs proved to be the maximum safe preservation time with both methods. The immediate function of the kidneys stored under hypothermia could not be improved by the addition of furosemide to the flushing solution. These results were compared with those gained by mechanical perfusion of the organ: kidney function after 72 hrs of hypothermic mechanical perfusion was significantly better than after 24 hrs of hypothermic storage.

  12. ATM QoS Experiments Using TCP Applications: Performance of TCP/IP Over ATM in a Variety of Errored Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frantz, Brian D.; Ivancic, William D.

    2001-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Quality of Service (QoS) experiments using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) were performed for various link delays. The link delay was set to emulate a Wide Area Network (WAN) and a Satellite Link. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate the ATM QoS requirements for applications that utilize advance TCP/IP protocols implemented with large windows and Selective ACKnowledgements (SACK). The effects of cell error, cell loss, and random bit errors on throughput were reported. The detailed test plan and test results are presented herein.

  13. Study and Simulation of Enhancements for TCP Performance Over Noisy High Latency Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Craig

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand how TCP behaves over noisy, high-latency links such as satellite links and propose improvements to TCP implementations such that TCP might better handle such links. This report is comprised of a series of smaller reports, presentations and recommendations. Included in these documents are a summary of the TCP enhancement techniques for large windows, protect against wrap around (PAWS), use of selective acknowledgements (SACK), increasing TCP's initial window and recommendations to implement TCP pacing.

  14. The ovary structure, previtellogenic and vitellogenic stages in parthenogenetic species Dactylobiotus dispar (Murray, 1907) (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada).

    PubMed

    Poprawa, Izabela

    2005-10-01

    The reproductive system of Dactylobiotus dispar consists of the ovary and the oviduct that opens into the rectum. The sack-like ovary is filled with the developing oocytes, which are assisted by the trophocytes. In D. dispar, the mixed vitellogenesis takes place. One part of the yolk material is produced inside the oocyte (autosynthesis), the second part is absorbed by micropinocytosis while the third part is synthesized in the trophocytes and is transported to the oocytes through the cytoplasmatic bridges. Moreover, rRNA, lipids and mitochondria are transfered from the trophocytes to the oocytes. The histochemical researches show that the reserve material accumulated in the oocytes contains proteins, polysaccharides and lipids.

  15. Thyroid and pituitary gland development from hatching through metamorphosis of a teleost flatfish, the Atlantic halibut.

    PubMed

    Einarsdóttir, Ingibjörg Eir; Silva, Nadia; Power, Deborah M; Smáradóttir, Heiddis; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2006-01-01

    Fish larval development, not least the spectacular process of flatfish metamorphosis, appears to be under complex endocrine control, many aspects of which are still not fully elucidated. In order to obtain data on the functional development of two major endocrine glands, the pituitary and the thyroid, during flatfish metamorphosis, histology, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques were applied on larvae of the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), a large, marine flatfish species, from hatching through metamorphosis. The material was obtained from a commercial hatchery. Larval age is defined as day-degrees (D degrees =accumulated daily temperature from hatching). Sporadic thyroid follicles are first detected in larvae at 142 D degrees (27 days post-hatch), prior to the completion of yolk sack absorption. Both the number and activity of the follicles increase markedly after yolk sack absorption and continue to do so during subsequent development. The larval triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) content increases, subsequent to yolk absorption, and coincides with the proliferation of thyroid follicles. A second increase of both T(3) and T(4) occurs around the start of metamorphosis and the T(3) content further increases at the metamorphic climax. Overall, the T(3) content is lower than T(4). The pituitary gland can first be distinguished as a separate organ at the yolk sack stage. During subsequent development, the gland becomes more elongated and differentiates into neurohypophysis (NH), pars distalis (PD) and pars intermedia (PI). The first sporadic endocrine pituitary cells are observed at the yolk sack stage, somatotrophs (growth hormone producing cells) and somatolactotrophs (somatolactin producing cells) are first observed at 121 D degrees (23 days post-hatch), and lactotrophs (prolactin producing cells) at 134 D degrees (25 days post-hatch). Scarce thyrotrophs are evident after detection of the first thyroid follicles (142 D

  16. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-13

    husking machines, 200 sacks of rice , and some other war materiel; seizing 15 assorted guns, including 6 AK’s, 7 SK’s, 1 B-40, 1 60-mm mortar, 40 B-40...Urges Preparations for 1987 Production (Phnom Penh Domestic Service, 17 Apr 87) 82 Results of Dry Season Rice Cropping Reported (SPK, 13 Apr 87...cultivation into an all-round and intensive double-crop cultivation. In the 1st 5-Year Plan (1980-1985), agricultural output increased by 42 percent. Rice

  17. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey E.H. Pickering, Photographer September 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey E.H. Pickering, Photographer September 1936 SITE OF JESUIT MISSION ABOUT 1636 ON LAND GIVEN BY INDIAN KING AND CALLED MATTAPANIENT HOUSE. SACKED 1642 BY THE INDIANS. STOCKADED FORT AS PROVINCIAL ARSENAL THEN ERECTED. PATENTED 1663 BY HENRY SEWELL AND CALLED MOUNT SEWELL. HIS WIDOW MARRIED CHARLES, SECOND LORD BALTIMORE WHO LIVED HERE 1665. PLACE OF SURRENDER OF PROPRIETORY GOVERNMENT AUG. 1, 1689 AFTER WHICH MARYLAND BECAME A ROYAL PROVINCE UNTIL 1715. - Mattapany, Patuxent River Vicinity, Lexington Park, St. Mary's County, MD

  18. [Dynamics of litter and under-ground biomass in Carex lasiocarpa wetland on Sanjiang Plain].

    PubMed

    He, Chiquan

    2003-03-01

    With net sack and coring methods, this paper analysed the seasonal dynamics of litter and under-ground biomass of Carex lasiocarpa population in Sanjiang Plain wetland. The standing litter showed exponential seasonal dynamics. The decomposition rate of litter was indicated by the rate of its weight loss, and the daily weight loss was gradually decreased from 0.7058% to 0.2372%. Carex lasiocarpa population produced 210.8876 g.m-2 litter in its vegetative season (from May 2, to October 10, 1999), and its under-ground biomass had an obvious vertical structure, like a converse pyramid or a parabola.

  19. A one-generation cluster of malignant mesothelioma within a family reveals exposure to asbestos-contaminated jute bags in Naples, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ascoli, V; Carnovale-Scalzo, C; Nardi, F; Efrati, C; Menegozzo, M

    2003-01-01

    Substantial evidence supports the role of asbestos in malignant mesothelioma. Clustering for this malignancy among relatives not only suggests genetic susceptibility as a relevant component but also provides a clue to investigate non-occupational sources of exposure. We identified five cases of malignant mesothelioma within one family with exposure to asbestos experienced during childhood, as 'next door' residents of a workshop recycling asbestos-contaminated jute sacks in Naples, Italy. This cluster discloses the health risk in the reuse of bags that previously had contained asbestos. Furthermore, it emphasizes the role of asbestos in the genetic-environmental interaction issue of malignant mesothelioma.

  20. A TCP-Over-UDP Test Harness

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, TH

    2002-10-31

    This report describes an implementation of a TCP-like protocol that runs over UDP. This TCP-like implementation, which does not require kernel modifications, provides a test harness for evaluating variations of the TCP transport protocol over the Internet. The test harness provides a tunable and instrumented version of TCP that supports Reno, NewReno, and SACK/FACK. The test harness can also be used to characterize the TCP-performance of a network path. Several case studies illustrate how one can tune the transport protocol to improve performance.

  1. A 20 MHz CMOS reorder buffer for a superscalar microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenell, John; Wallace, Steve; Bagherzadeh, Nader

    1992-01-01

    Superscalar processors can achieve increased performance by issuing instructions out-of-order from the original sequential instruction stream. Implementing an out-of-order instruction issue policy requires a hardware mechanism to prevent incorrectly executed instructions from updating register values. A reorder buffer can be used to allow a superscalar processor to issue instructions out-of-order and maintain program correctness. This paper describes the design and implementation of a 20MHz CMOS reorder buffer for superscalar processors. The reorder buffer is designed to accept and retire two instructions per cycle. A full-custom layout in 1.2 micron has been implemented, measuring 1.1058 mm by 1.3542 mm.

  2. A shell-neutral modeling approach yields sustainable oyster harvest estimates: a retrospective analysis of the Louisiana state primary seed grounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Klinck, John M.; Powell, Eric N.; Cooper, Nathan; Abdelguerfi, Mahdi; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Dahal, Janak; Tu, Shengru; Finigan, John; Eberline, Benjamin S.; La Peyre, Jerome F.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Qaddoura, Fareed

    2012-01-01

    A numerical model is presented that defines a sustainability criterion as no net loss of shell, and calculates a sustainable harvest of seed (<75 mm) and sack or market oysters (≥75 mm). Stock assessments of the Primary State Seed Grounds conducted east of the Mississippi from 2009 to 2011 show a general trend toward decreasing abundance of sack and seed oysters. Retrospective simulations provide estimates of annual sustainable harvests. Comparisons of simulated sustainable harvests with actual harvests show a trend toward unsustainable harvests toward the end of the time series. Stock assessments combined with shell-neutral models can be used to estimate sustainable harvest and manage cultch through shell planting when actual harvest exceeds sustainable harvest. For exclusive restoration efforts (no fishing allowed), the model provides a metric for restoration success-namely, shell accretion. Oyster fisheries that remove shell versus reef restorations that promote shell accretion, although divergent in their goals, are convergent in their management; both require vigilant attention to shell budgets.

  3. Electroporation of Nucleic Acids into Chick Endoderm Both In Vitro and In Ovo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Kimiko

    During gastrulation, vertebrate embryos generate three different germ layers, the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. The endoderm layer is situated in the most ventral part of the embryo and differentiates into various tissues including the gut, respiratory and endocrine epithelium. In amniotes, the endoderm spreads out in a sheet-like manner and forms the most ventral layer in the early embryo. Subsequently, the anterior-most endoderm folds ventrally and forms a sack-like structure, the foregut. As the foregut extends posteriorly, the endoderm at the most posterior portion of the embryo forms another sack-like structure, the hindgut, and this grows rostrally. Finally, the foregut and hindgut meet at the level of the small intestine and form a simple tube. After the formation of tube, the endoderm becomes the lining epithelium of the gut and differentiates into various organs according to their position along the anterior7#x2014;posterior and the dorsal-ventral axes. These include the esophagus, lung, stomach, duodenum, pancreas, liver, small intestine and large intestine. These organs show specific morphologies and express particular factors depending on their function (Wells and Melton, 2000).

  4. Collisionless expansion of pulsed radio frequency plasmas. II. Parameter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, T.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Boswell, R. W.; Charles, C.

    2016-01-01

    The plasma parameter dependencies of the dynamics during the expansion of plasma are studied with the use of a versatile particle-in-cell simulation tailored to a plasma expansion experiment [Schröder et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 055207 (2014); Schröder et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 013511 (2016)]. The plasma expansion into a low-density ambient plasma features a propagating ion front that is preceding a density plateau. It has been shown that the front formation is entangled with a wave-breaking mechanism, i.e., an ion collapse [Sack and Schamel, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 27, 717 (1985); Sack and Schamel, Phys. Lett. A 110, 206 (1985)], and the launch of an ion burst [Schröder et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 013511 (2016)]. The systematic parameter study presented in this paper focuses on the influence on this mechanism its effect on the maximum velocity of the ion front and burst. It is shown that, apart from the well known dependency of the front propagation on the ion sound velocity, it also depends sensitively on the density ratio between main and ambient plasma density. The maximum ion velocity depends further on the initial potential gradient, being mostly influenced by the plasma density ratio in the source and expansion regions. The results of the study are compared with independent numerical studies.

  5. Jewish immigrant encounters with Canada's Native Peoples: Yiddish writings on Tekahionwake.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    During the mass Jewish immigration of Eastern-European Jews to Canada in the first decades of the twentieth century, Yiddish publications offered a primary forum for a group of local writers to negotiate with their new identities as Canadian Jews. Within this wider process, Montreal writers H.M. Caiserman and B.G. Sack authored studies of Canadian literature in the early 1920s centred on Mohawk-English writer E. Pauline Johnson (Tekahionwake). What these essays show is that, despite the long-standing association of Canada's Jewish population with the country's dominant English culture, their status as "other" impelled leading members of the local Yiddish cultural milieu to seek out literary models among other historically marginalized groups. For Caiserman and Sack, Johnson's Native heritage offered a model for resistance to assimilation into Canada's dominant culture. In contrast, the advent of literature responding to the Nazi Holocaust by A.M. Klein and Eli Mandel, Native peoples became a symbol of loss and vanished landscapes.

  6. Protocol Support for a New Satellite-Based Airspace Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shang, Yadong; Hadjitheodosiou, Michael; Baras, John

    2004-01-01

    We recommend suitable transport protocols for an aeronautical network supporting Internet and data services via satellite. We study the characteristics of an aeronautical satellite hybrid network and focus on the problems that cause dramatically degraded performance of the Transport Protocol. We discuss various extensions to standard TCP that alleviate some of these performance problems. Through simulation, we identify those TCP implementations that can be expected to perform well. Based on the observation that it is difficult for an end-to-end solution to solve these problems effectively, we propose a new TCP-splitting protocol, termed Aeronautical Transport Control Protocol (AeroTCP). The main idea of this protocol is to use a fixed window for flow control and one duplicated acknowledgement (ACK) for fast recovery. Our simulation results show that AeroTCP can maintain higher utilization for the satellite link than end-to-end TCP, especially in high BER environment.

  7. High Temperature Tensile Properties of Unidirectional Hi-Nicalon/Celsian Composites In Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2000-01-01

    High temperature tensile properties of unidirectional BN/SiC-coated Hi-Nicalon SiC fiber reinforced celsian matrix composites have been measured from room temperature to 1200 C (2190 F) in air. Young's modulus, the first matrix cracking stress, and the ultimate strength decreased from room temperature to 1200 C (2190 F). The applicability of various micromechanical models, in predicting room temperature values of various mechanical properties for this CMC, has also been investigated. The simple rule of mixtures produced an accurate estimate of the primary composite modulus. The first matrix cracking stress estimated from ACK theory was in good agreement with the experimental value. The modified fiber bundle failure theory of Evans gave a good estimate of the ultimate strength.

  8. Gateway-Assisted Retransmission for Lightweight and Reliable IoT Communications

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hui-Ling; Wang, Cheng-Gang; Wu, Mong-Ting; Tsai, Meng-Hsun; Lin, Chia-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Message Queuing Telemetry Transport for Sensor Networks (MQTT-SN) and Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) are two protocols supporting publish/subscribe models for IoT devices to publish messages to interested subscribers. Retransmission mechanisms are introduced to compensate for the lack of data reliability. If the device does not receive the acknowledgement (ACK) before retransmission timeout (RTO) expires, the device will retransmit data. Setting an appropriate RTO is important because the delay may be large or retransmission may be too frequent when the RTO is inappropriate. We propose a Gateway-assisted CoAP (GaCoAP) to dynamically compute RTO for devices. Simulation models are proposed to investigate the performance of GaCoAP compared with four other methods. The experiment results show that GaCoAP is more suitable for IoT devices. PMID:27669243

  9. Captive and field-tested radio attachments for bald eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buehler, D.A.; Fraser, J.D.; Fuller, M.R.; McAllister, L.S.; Seegar, J.K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of two radio transmitter attachment techniques on captive and one attachment technique on wild Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were studied. A Y-attachment method with a 160-g dummy transmitter was less apt to cause tissue damage on captive birds than an X-attachment method, and loosely fit transmitters caused less damage than tightly fit transmitters Annual survival of wild birds fitted with 65-g transmitters via an X attachment was estimated at 90-95%. As a result of high survival, only five wild birds marked as nestlings were recovered.Two of these birds had superficial pressure sores from tight-fitting harnesses It is recommended that a 1.3-cm space be left between the transmitter and the bird's b ack when radio-tagging post-fiedging Bald Eagles. Additional space, perhaps up to 2.5 cm, is required for nestlings to allow for added growth and development.

  10. Reliability analysis of ceramic matrix composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David J.; Wetherhold, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    At a macroscopic level, a composite lamina may be considered as a homogeneous orthotropic solid whose directional strengths are random variables. Incorporation of these random variable strengths into failure models, either interactive or non-interactive, allows for the evaluation of the lamina reliability under a given stress state. Using a non-interactive criterion for demonstration purposes, laminate reliabilities are calculated assuming previously established load sharing rules for the redistribution of load as the failure of laminae occur. The matrix cracking predicted by ACK theory is modeled to allow a loss of stiffness in the fiber direction. The subsequent failure in the fiber direction is controlled by a modified bundle theory. Results using this modified bundle model are compared with previous models which did not permit separate consideration of matrix cracking, as well as to results obtained from experimental data.

  11. Load redistribution considerations in the fracture of ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David J.; Wetherhold, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    Using a macroscopic viewpoint, composite laminae are homogeneous orthotropic solids whose directional strengths are random variables. Incorporation of these random variable strengths into failure models, either interactive or noninteractive, allows for the evaluation of the lamina reliability under a given stress state. Using a noninteractive criterion for demonstration purposes, laminate reliabilities are calculated assuming previously established load sharing rules for the redistribution of load as the failure of laminae occur. The matrix cracking predicted by ACK theory is modeled to allow a loss of stiffness in the fiber direction. The subsequent failure in the fiber direction is controlled by a modified bundle theory. Results are compared with previous models which did not permit separate consideration of matrix cracking, as well as to results obtained from experimental data. The effects of variations from the ideal physical geometry which is normally used to depict the matrix cracking are also studied.

  12. Gateway-Assisted Retransmission for Lightweight and Reliable IoT Communications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Ling; Wang, Cheng-Gang; Wu, Mong-Ting; Tsai, Meng-Hsun; Lin, Chia-Ying

    2016-09-22

    Message Queuing Telemetry Transport for Sensor Networks (MQTT-SN) and Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) are two protocols supporting publish/subscribe models for IoT devices to publish messages to interested subscribers. Retransmission mechanisms are introduced to compensate for the lack of data reliability. If the device does not receive the acknowledgement (ACK) before retransmission timeout (RTO) expires, the device will retransmit data. Setting an appropriate RTO is important because the delay may be large or retransmission may be too frequent when the RTO is inappropriate. We propose a Gateway-assisted CoAP (GaCoAP) to dynamically compute RTO for devices. Simulation models are proposed to investigate the performance of GaCoAP compared with four other methods. The experiment results show that GaCoAP is more suitable for IoT devices.

  13. Channel Characterization for EHF Satellite Communications on the Move

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-12

    a satellite communication channel. The forward link supports a medium data rate ( MDR ) 256 khps downlink to the vehicle. The return link to the...p vw MOTM Fixed M)dNLDR Tamibal MDR )LDR MOTM "lTmnal Adapter (octod at Mrr LL Figuie 4. Ei/etimel lit pl.t 1/). E.p•t .rifl/(l~r iticii de ast l o i...03.5,,,,,, 1(1 ll (//.4bfoi /72//?1/ / blo(Acked (mil( open ii itferva/s. Tb e plotfs in (u) olnd (b) s/otr the dusti rii/~ tol, oJ b/fi A ed a,,dI m

  14. NetCoDer: A Retransmission Mechanism for WSNs Based on Cooperative Relays and Network Coding.

    PubMed

    Valle, Odilson T; Montez, Carlos; Medeiros de Araujo, Gustavo; Vasques, Francisco; Moraes, Ricardo

    2016-05-31

    Some of the most difficult problems to deal with when using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are related to the unreliable nature of communication channels. In this context, the use of cooperative diversity techniques and the application of network coding concepts may be promising solutions to improve the communication reliability. In this paper, we propose the NetCoDer scheme to address this problem. Its design is based on merging cooperative diversity techniques and network coding concepts. We evaluate the effectiveness of the NetCoDer scheme through both an experimental setup with real WSN nodes and a simulation assessment, comparing NetCoDer performance against state-of-the-art TDMA-based (Time Division Multiple Access) retransmission techniques: BlockACK, Master/Slave and Redundant TDMA. The obtained results highlight that the proposed NetCoDer scheme clearly improves the network performance when compared with other retransmission techniques.

  15. Aerobic production of isoamyl acetate by overexpression of the yeast alcohol acetyl-transferases AFT1 and AFT2 in Escherichia coli and using low-cost fermentation ingredients.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Vadlani, P V; Harrison, M L; Bennett, G N; San, K-Y

    2008-06-01

    Isoamyl acetate, produced via fermentation, is a natural flavor chemical with applications in the food industry. Two alcohol acetyltransferases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATF1 and ATF2) can catalyze the esterification of isoamyl alcohol with acetyl coenzyme A. The respective genes were cloned and expressed in an appropriate ack-pta(-) strain of Escherichia coli. The engineered strains produce isoamyl acetate when isoamyl alcohol is added to the culture medium. Aerobic shake flask experiments examined isoamyl acetate production over various growth times, temperatures, and initial optical densities. The strain carrying the pBAD-ATF1 plasmid exhibited a high molar ester yield from glucose (1.13) after 48 h of aerobic growth at 25 degrees C. Low-cost media components, such as fusel oil, sorghum glucose and corn steep liquor, were found to give a high yield of isoamyl acetate. High-cell-density gave an increased isoamyl acetate yield of 0.18 g/g of glucose consumed.

  16. Development of an experimental model allowing discrimination between virulent and avirulent isolates of Serpulina (Treponema) hyodysenteriae.

    PubMed Central

    Achacha, M; Messier, S; Mittal, K R

    1996-01-01

    Variation in virulence among different strains of Serpulina hyodysenteriae was studied by oral inoculation of specific pathogen free piglets and CD-1 mice. Piglets infected with serotype 2 reference strain B204 and an untypable field strain LHV-90-9-I had severe diarrhea tainted intermittently with mucus and fresh blood. The piglets inoculated with B169, B8044, B6933, and ACK300-8 reference strains representing serotypes 3, 5, 6, and 7 respectively developed moderate diarrhea. However, reference strains B234 and A-1 of serotypes 1 and 4, respectively, failed to cause any diarrhea. None of the S. hyodysenteriae strains caused diarrhea in mice. The results indicate a great variation in virulence among strains of different serotypes of S. hyodysenteriae. Mice were less susceptible to infection with S. hyodysenteriae. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8825993

  17. NetCoDer: A Retransmission Mechanism for WSNs Based on Cooperative Relays and Network Coding

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Odilson T.; Montez, Carlos; Medeiros de Araujo, Gustavo; Vasques, Francisco; Moraes, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most difficult problems to deal with when using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are related to the unreliable nature of communication channels. In this context, the use of cooperative diversity techniques and the application of network coding concepts may be promising solutions to improve the communication reliability. In this paper, we propose the NetCoDer scheme to address this problem. Its design is based on merging cooperative diversity techniques and network coding concepts. We evaluate the effectiveness of the NetCoDer scheme through both an experimental setup with real WSN nodes and a simulation assessment, comparing NetCoDer performance against state-of-the-art TDMA-based (Time Division Multiple Access) retransmission techniques: BlockACK, Master/Slave and Redundant TDMA. The obtained results highlight that the proposed NetCoDer scheme clearly improves the network performance when compared with other retransmission techniques. PMID:27258280

  18. A Cross-Layer PEP for DVB-RCS Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambene, Giovanni; Hadzic, Snezana

    The aim of this paper is to consider the problems of TCP performance in broadband GEO satellite networks and to propose a cross-layer approach for a transport-layer PEP that makes spoofing actions on ACKs to modify them in case the satellite network is congested. This approach is investigated here from the signaling standpoint with a special attention to the BSM reference model and considering a specific GEO satellite network architecture based on the DVB-S2/-RCS standards. The proposed PEP can prevent congestion in the satellite network, thus allowing a better TCP performance. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EU SatNEx II FP6 Network of Excellence.

  19. EFFECT OF STRENGTHENING AT EXPECTED DAMAGING ZONE OF A RC MEMBER WITH DAMAGED ANCHORAGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chijiwa, Nobuhiro; Kawanaka, Isao; Maekawa, Koichi

    When a reinforced concrete member having cracks at the anchorage zones is loaded, diagonal crack is formed from the tip of the exsisting crack, and it lead s to brittle shaer failure. A reinforced concrete beam containing corrosion cracks at the anchorage zone were strengthened with sheets at the expected damaging zones, and tested in 3-point loading. Th e test result shows that the load capacity of the strengthened beam was the same to that of the repli cate beam with no damage at the anchorage zones and contained enough shear reinforcement to develop flexural failure. It means that strenghtneing at the expected damaging zone with keeping corrosion cr acks along to the tensile reinforcements at the anchorage zones may improve the load capacity of the damaged reinforced concrete.

  20. Basic Flight Criteria - Pack on - Model XC-120 (M-107)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-03-15

    N UPW PAIRHI’II|, I~I£N(• & AIH•PI.ANP• I•kpIA"’ IN[ •••~ | I )1 & Subjct: ASIC - if --- -- - ---- -~~~ E, ",•: rch 15, 1949 Sti,•t - BASIC FLIGHT...04 FAIRCHILD AIRCRAFT DIVIStON OF FAIRCIL IKSl O fI~E & AIRPLANE*j COMRFIAflON- N~lXC-120 IFHRPAURN BDIIELCS Y APOEDD I Sbj#* ASIC FLIGHT CRITERIA...3db.ZREPRT7 FAIIIUHIIIU KNIE h 4 AHT "E CKPO3AYII X0.-120 F~lUDnCHECKE DT AfRr~OVIf 13T S 13et: ASIC FLIGHT CRITERI-A - ACK ON _ ; PART II B -8b N :W i4-- IL

  1. Horizontal gene transfer and the evolution of methanogenic pathways.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a driving force in the evolution of metabolic pathways, allowing novel enzymatic functions that provide a selective advantage to be rapidly incorporated into an organism's physiology. Here, the role of two HGT events in the evolution of methanogenesis is described. First, the acetoclastic sub-pathway of methanogenesis is shown to have evolved via a transfer of the ackA and pta genes from a cellulolytic clostridia to a family of methanogenic archaea. Second, the system for encoding the amino acid pyrrolysine, used for the synthesis of enzymes for methanogenesis from methylamines, is shown to likely have evolved via transfer from an ancient, unknown, deeply branching organismal lineage.

  2. Achieving Fair Throughput among TCP Flows in Multi-Hop Wireless Mesh Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ting-Chao; Hsu, Chih-Wei

    Previous research shows that the IEEE 802.11 DCF channel contention mechanism is not capable of providing throughput fairness among nodes in different locations of the wireless mesh network. The node nearest the gateway will always strive for the chance to transmit data, causing fewer transmission opportunities for the nodes farther from the gateway, resulting in starvation. Prior studies modify the DCF mechanism to address the fairness problem. This paper focuses on the fairness study when TCP flows are carried over wireless mesh networks. By not modifying lower layer protocols, the current work identifies TCP parameters that impact throughput fairness and proposes adjusting those parameters to reduce frame collisions and improve throughput fairness. With the aid of mathematical formulation and ns2 simulations, this study finds that frame transmission from each node can be effectively controlled by properly controlling the delayed ACK timer and using a suitable advertised window. The proposed method reduces frame collisions and greatly improves TCP throughput fairness.

  3. Molecular pathways: targeting the kinase effectors of RHO-family GTPases.

    PubMed

    Prudnikova, Tatiana Y; Rawat, Sonali J; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    RHO GTPases, members of the RAS superfamily of small GTPases, are adhesion and growth factor-activated molecular switches that play important roles in tumor development and progression. When activated, RHO-family GTPases such as RAC1, CDC42, and RHOA, transmit signals by recruiting a variety of effector proteins, including the protein kinases PAK, ACK, MLK, MRCK, and ROCK. Genetically induced loss of RHO function impedes transformation by a number of oncogenic stimuli, leading to an interest in developing small-molecule inhibitors that either target RHO GTPases directly, or that target their downstream protein kinase effectors. Although inhibitors of RHO GTPases and their downstream signaling kinases have not yet been widely adopted for clinical use, their potential value as cancer therapeutics continues to facilitate pharmaceutical research and development and is a promising therapeutic strategy.

  4. Department of the Army Procurement Programs Exhibit P-1, Supporting Data for FY 83 Budget Estimate; The President’s Budget, February 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    CURRiNT YEAR PROGRAM 369.4 49.5 308.6 402.9 10 nII-40A (FLACK MeARK) (MYP) (A0302) soV POC (Uk Vo 26.0 60.6 207.6 128.9 I i1lICOP8t8 |9PotO019 lIGHT ...48 1680200) A 254 !3.0 2 rANIt.l (OMMAND POST LIGHT , IT, A 206140 114 ?3.5 57YA2 (680300) 3 CARI(ER. PERSONkL, IT, AIRM, A 176923 52l 92.0 4113A2...0H-58 (1(0.4*) AA47 12 4 liILICITPItR. IMPROVtO LIGHT COMBAT. MODS A AOI .91 n ’ ?4 4 Ull-ICIA01.ACK HAWK) N4ODS AAC0SS0 16 I. AIftPLAht. ul1I[I. Ui

  5. Rationally evolving tRNAPyl for efficient incorporation of noncanonical amino acids.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chenguang; Xiong, Hai; Reynolds, Noah M; Söll, Dieter

    2015-12-15

    Genetic encoding of noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins is a powerful approach to study protein functions. Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS), a polyspecific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase in wide use, has facilitated incorporation of a large number of different ncAAs into proteins to date. To make this process more efficient, we rationally evolved tRNA(Pyl) to create tRNA(Pyl-opt) with six nucleotide changes. This improved tRNA was tested as substrate for wild-type PylRS as well as three characterized PylRS variants (N(ϵ)-acetyllysyl-tRNA synthetase [AcKRS], 3-iodo-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase [IFRS], a broad specific PylRS variant [PylRS-AA]) to incorporate ncAAs at UAG codons in super-folder green fluorescence protein (sfGFP). tRNA(Pyl-opt) facilitated a 5-fold increase in AcK incorporation into two positions of sfGFP simultaneously. In addition, AcK incorporation into two target proteins (Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase and human histone H3) caused homogenous acetylation at multiple lysine residues in high yield. Using tRNA(Pyl-opt) with PylRS and various PylRS variants facilitated efficient incorporation of six other ncAAs into sfGFP. Kinetic analyses revealed that the mutations in tRNA(Pyl-opt) had no significant effect on the catalytic efficiency and substrate binding of PylRS enzymes. Thus tRNA(Pyl-opt) should be an excellent replacement of wild-type tRNA(Pyl) for future ncAA incorporation by PylRS enzymes.

  6. Rationally evolving tRNAPyl for efficient incorporation of noncanonical amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chenguang; Xiong, Hai; Reynolds, Noah M.; Söll, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Genetic encoding of noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins is a powerful approach to study protein functions. Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS), a polyspecific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase in wide use, has facilitated incorporation of a large number of different ncAAs into proteins to date. To make this process more efficient, we rationally evolved tRNAPyl to create tRNAPyl-opt with six nucleotide changes. This improved tRNA was tested as substrate for wild-type PylRS as well as three characterized PylRS variants (Nϵ-acetyllysyl-tRNA synthetase [AcKRS], 3-iodo-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase [IFRS], a broad specific PylRS variant [PylRS-AA]) to incorporate ncAAs at UAG codons in super-folder green fluorescence protein (sfGFP). tRNAPyl-opt facilitated a 5-fold increase in AcK incorporation into two positions of sfGFP simultaneously. In addition, AcK incorporation into two target proteins (Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase and human histone H3) caused homogenous acetylation at multiple lysine residues in high yield. Using tRNAPyl-opt with PylRS and various PylRS variants facilitated efficient incorporation of six other ncAAs into sfGFP. Kinetic analyses revealed that the mutations in tRNAPyl-opt had no significant effect on the catalytic efficiency and substrate binding of PylRS enzymes. Thus tRNAPyl-opt should be an excellent replacement of wild-type tRNAPyl for future ncAA incorporation by PylRS enzymes. PMID:26250114

  7. Association between histone deacetylases and the loss of cochlear hair cells: Role of the former in noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li-Ting; Wang, Jie; Wang, Ye; Chen, Fu-Quan

    2015-08-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the most frequent disabilities in industrialized countries. It has been demonstrated that hair cell loss in the auditory end organ may account for the majority of ear pathological conditions. Previous studies have indicated that histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases, including hearing impairment, in older persons. Thus, we hypothesized that the inhibition of HDACs would prevent hair cell loss and, consequently, NIHL. In the present study, a CBA/J mouse model of NIHL was established. Following an injection with the HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), the expression levels of HDAC1, HDAC4 and acetyl-histone H3 (Lys9) (H3-AcK9) were measured. The number of hair cells was quantified and their morphology was observed. The results revealed that 1 h following exposure to 110 dB SPL broadband noise, there was a significant increase in HDAC1 and HDAC4 expression, and a marked decrease in the H3-AcK9 protein levels, as shown by western blot analysis. Pre-treatment with SAHA significantly inhibited these effects. Two weeks following exposure to noise, the mice exhibited significant hearing impairment and an obvious loss in the number of outer hair cells. An abnormal cell morphology with cilia damage was also observed. Pre-treatment with SAHA markedly attenuated these noise-induced effects. Taken together, the findings of our study suggest that HDAC expression is associated with outer hair cell function and plays a significant role in NIHL. Our data indicate that SAHA may be a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of NIHL.

  8. Usefulness of precise time stamping for exposing network characteristics on high-speed links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitatsuji, Yoshinori; Tsuru, Masato; Katsuno, Satoshi; Oie, Yuji

    2004-09-01

    To expose network characteristics by active/passive measurements, measuring some timing issues such as one-way delay, one-way queuing delay, and inter-packet time is essential, and is conducted by time-stamping for packets passing through an observation point. However, emerging high-speed networks require very high precision of time-stamping, far beyond the precision of conventional software-based time-stamping systems such as 'tcpdump'. For example, the inter-packet time of two consecutive 64-byte length packets on a giga-bit link can be less than 0.001 msec. In this paper, to demonstrate the usefulness and strong necessity of precise time-stamping on high-speed links, experiments of network measurements over a nation-wide IPv6 testbed in Japan have been performed, using a hardware-based time-stamping system that can synchronize to GPS with a high resolution of 0.0001 msec and within a small error of 0.0003 msec. In our experiments, several interesting results are seen, e.g., i) the distribution of one-way queuing delay exhibits a considerable difference depending on the size and the type (UDP/ICMP) of packets; ii) the minimal one-way delays for various sizes of UDP/ICMP packets give an accurate estimate of the transmission delay and the propagation delay; iii) the correlation between interpacket times at the sender and the receiver sides in a sequence of TCP ACK packets clearly shows the degree of ACK compression; iv) the inter-packet time in a UDP stream generated by a DV streaming application shows three dominant sending rates and a very rare peak rate, which might provide crucial information to bandwidth dimensioning; all of which would indicate the usefulness of precise time-stamping.

  9. Amino Acid Catabolism in Staphylococcus aureus and the Function of Carbon Catabolite Repression

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, Cortney R.; Lei, Shulei; Wax, Jacqueline K.; Lehman, Mckenzie K.; Nuxoll, Austin S.; Steinke, Laurey; Sadykov, Marat

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus must rapidly adapt to a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources during invasion of a host. Within a staphylococcal abscess, preferred carbon sources such as glucose are limiting, suggesting that S. aureus survives through the catabolism of secondary carbon sources. S. aureus encodes pathways to catabolize multiple amino acids, including those that generate pyruvate, 2-oxoglutarate, and oxaloacetate. To assess amino acid catabolism, S. aureus JE2 and mutants were grown in complete defined medium containing 18 amino acids but lacking glucose (CDM). A mutation in the gudB gene, coding for glutamate dehydrogenase, which generates 2-oxoglutarate from glutamate, significantly reduced growth in CDM, suggesting that glutamate and those amino acids generating glutamate, particularly proline, serve as the major carbon source in this medium. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies confirmed this supposition. Furthermore, a mutation in the ackA gene, coding for acetate kinase, also abrogated growth of JE2 in CDM, suggesting that ATP production from pyruvate-producing amino acids is also critical for growth. In addition, although a functional respiratory chain was absolutely required for growth, the oxygen consumption rate and intracellular ATP concentration were significantly lower during growth in CDM than during growth in glucose-containing media. Finally, transcriptional analyses demonstrated that expression levels of genes coding for the enzymes that synthesize glutamate from proline, arginine, and histidine are repressed by CcpA and carbon catabolite repression. These data show that pathways important for glutamate catabolism or ATP generation via Pta/AckA are important for growth in niches where glucose is not abundant, such as abscesses within skin and soft tissue infections. PMID:28196956

  10. Growth and acid production of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 in the fermentation of algal carcass.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Zhang, G F; Mao, X; Wang, J Y; Duan, C Y; Wang, Z J; Liu, L B

    2016-06-01

    Algal carcass is a low-value byproduct of algae after its conversion to biodiesel. Dried algal carcass is rich in protein, carbohydrate, and multiple amino acids, and it is typically well suited for growth and acid production of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was used to ferment different algal carcass media (ACM), including 2% ACM, 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose (ACM-G), and 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose and 2g/L amino acid mixture (ACM-GA). Concentrations of organic acids (lactic acid and acetic acid), acetyl-CoA, and ATP were analyzed by HPLC, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetokinase (ACK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK) were determined by using a chemical approach. The growth of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM-GA was close to that in the control medium (de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe). Lactic acid and acetic acid contents were greatly reduced when L. bulgaricus cells were grown in ACM compared with the control medium. Acetyl-CoA content varied with organic acid content and was increased in cells grown in different ACM compared with the control medium. The ATP content of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM was reduced compared with that of cells grown in the control medium. Activities of PFK and ACK of L. bulgaricus cells grown in ACM were higher and those of PK and LDH were lower compared with the control. Thus, ACM rich in nutrients may serve as an excellent substrate for growth by lactic acid bacteria, and addition of appropriate amounts of glucose and amino acids can improve growth and acid production.

  11. Expression and regulation of phosphate stress inducible genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Summers, M L; Elkins, J G; Elliott, B A; McDermott, T R

    1998-11-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti 104A14 was mutated with transposon Tn5B22, which creates lacZ transcriptional fusions when inserted in the correct orientation relative to the promoter. This promoter reporter allowed us to identify six phosphate stress inducible (psi) genes in S. meliloti that are up-regulated in response to inorganic phosphate (Pi) starvation. The transposon and flanking DNA were cloned from each psi::Tn5B22 reporter mutant and the junction DNA sequenced. High identity/similarity of the inferred peptides with those in major data bases allowed identification of the following genes: dnaK, expC, pssB, ackA, vipC, and prkA. The prkA homolog was also found to be up-regulated in response to carbon starvation and when nitrate replaced ammonium as the nitrogen source. Through allele replacement techniques, PhoB- mutants were generated for the expC, ackA, vipC, and pssB reporter strains. Loss of a functional PhoB resulted in the absence of Pi-sensitive induction in all four genes. These experiments suggest the Pho regulon in S. meliloti includes genes that presumably are not directly linked to Pi acquisition or assimilation. The psi strains were tested for their symbiotic properties under growth conditions that were Pi-limiting or Pi-nonlimiting for the host plant. All were Nod+ and Fix+ except the reporter strain of dnaK transcription, which was less effective than the wild-type strain under both P treatments, indicating DnaK is required for optimum symbiotic function.

  12. The synthetic genetic network around PKC1 identifies novel modulators and components of protein kinase C signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Krause, Sue A; Xu, Hong; Gray, Joseph V

    2008-11-01

    Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains one protein kinase C (PKC) isozyme encoded by the essential gene PKC1. Pkc1 is activated by the small GTPase Rho1 and plays a central role in the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. This pathway acts primarily to remodel the cell surface throughout the normal life cycle and upon various environmental stresses. The pathway is heavily branched, with multiple nonessential branches feeding into and out of the central essential Rho1-Pkc1 module. In an attempt to identify novel components and modifiers of CWI signaling, we determined the synthetic lethal genetic network around PKC1 by using dominant-negative synthetic genetic array analysis. The resulting mutants are hypersensitive to lowered Pkc1 activity. The corresponding 21 nonessential genes are closely related to CWI function: 14 behave in a chemical-genetic epistasis test as acting in the pathway, and 6 of these genes encode known components. Twelve of the 21 null mutants display elevated CWI reporter activity, consistent with the idea that the pathway is activated by and compensates for loss of the gene products. Four of the 21 mutants display low CWI reporter activity, consistent with the idea that the pathway is compromised in these mutants. One of the latter group of mutants lacks Ack1(Ydl203c), an uncharacterized SEL-1 domain-containing protein that we find modulates pathway activity. Epistasis analysis places Ack1 upstream of Pkc1 in the CWI pathway and dependent on the upstream Rho1 GTP exchange factors Rom2 and Tus1. Overall, the synthetic genetic network around PKC1 directly and efficiently identifies known and novel components of PKC signaling in yeast.

  13. Correction to “Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights”

    SciTech Connect

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2014-02-16

    In the paper “Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights” by Y. Shinozuka et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118, doi:10.1002/2013JD020596, 2013), Tables 1 and 2 were published with the column heads out of order. Tables 1 and 2 are published correctly here. The publisher regrets the error.

  14. 78 FR 36645 - Availability of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... Force, 547 F.2d 605, 614-16 (DC Cir. 1976). Under the current system, therefore, each non-expedited... requests out of order and therefore process them more quickly than under the current ``first-in, first-out... Federal Regulations, which is published #0;under 50 titles pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 1510. #0; #0;The Code...

  15. Fusion of Time Delayed Measurements With Uncertain Time Delays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    appear out of order. Nettleton derived an elegant implementation of this scheme using the inverse covariance (or information) form of the Kalman filter...measurement problems,” Informa- tion Fusion, vol. 4, pp. 185–199, 2003. [2] E. W. Nettleton and H. F. Durrant-Whyte, “Delayed and asequent data in

  16. Aggression and Violence in Sport: Moving Beyond the Debate

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, David N.; Petscher, Yaacov; Stanley, Christopher T.; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the latest in a series of articles published in The Sport Psychologist in recent years on aggression and violence in sport (Kerr, 1999, 2002; Tenenbaum, Sacks, Miller, Golden, & Doolin, 2000; Tenenbaum, Stewart, Singer, & Duda, 1997). While these respective articles have presented dissenting views on the nature and prevention of aggression and violence in sport, the present paper proposes that much of the apparent disagreement is semantic in nature. Thus, this paper begins by clarifying some definitional issues before specifying both areas of agreement and continued dissention among recent authors. Major emphases in this paper include the importance of adopting preventative rather than reactive measures to reduce the dangers associated with aggression and violence in sport, as well as the manner in which adult sport norms affect youth sport environments. In addition, several broader issues, which have emerged from these recent published debates, are presented for future consideration. PMID:26855638

  17. Savant-like numerosity skills revealed in normal people by magnetic pulses.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Allan; Bahramali, Homayoun; Hawker, Tobias; Mitchell, D John

    2006-01-01

    Oliver Sacks observed autistic twins who instantly guessed the exact number of matchsticks that had just fallen on the floor, saying in unison "111". To test the suggestion that normal individuals have the capacity for savant numerosity, we temporarily simulated the savant condition in normal people by inhibiting the left anterior temporal lobe of twelve participants with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). This site has been implicated in the savant condition. Ten participants improved their ability to accurately guess the number of discrete items immediately following rTMS and, of these, eight became worse at guessing as the effects of the pulses receded. The probability of as many as eight out of twelve people doing best just after rTMS and not after sham stimulation by chance alone is less than one in one thousand.

  18. Aristotle's biopolitics: a defense of biological teleology against biological nihilism.

    PubMed

    Arnhart, L

    1988-02-01

    Modern Darwinian biology seems to promote nihilism, for it seems to teach that there is no rationally discoverable standard in nature for giving meaning to life. The purpose of this article is to argue for a revival of Aristotle's biological teleology as a reasonable alternative to biological nihilism. The article begins with Edward Wilson's vain struggle against nihilism. Then it is argued that a teleological understanding of nature is assumed in the practice of medicine, as illustrated by one case from Oliver Sacks' neurological practice. The article then considers the importance of biological teleology for Aristotle's moral and political philosophy, and attention is given to some points of agreement and disagreement with contemporary sociobiologists. The main part of the article is then devoted to a defense of Aristotle's biology against the five objections that might be made by a Darwinian biologist. Finally, the article illustrates the practical implications of this issue for bioethics by considering the recent work of Engelhardt.

  19. [Hypothermic storage under aerobic conditions--the effect of different flushing solutions on kidney functional recovery].

    PubMed

    Fischer, J H; Miyata, M; Isselhard, W; Casser, H R

    1979-01-01

    Canine kidneys (n = 17) were flushed with COLLINS (C2), SACKS II, LAMBOTTE (KMgS), ROSS (hypertonic citrate), or RINGER glucose-mannitol solution following a 30-min period of normothermic ischemia. After 24 h hypothermic preservation with retrograde oxygen persufflation (ROP) and autotransplantation, the immediate functional recovery was determined using inulin and PAH clearance methods and compared with the normal contralateral kidney. While a good functional recovery was found in the COLLINS group, significantly exceeding results from hypothermic ischemic storage preservation, in experiments using other flush solutions ROP preservation resulted in only a small immediate function. Thus the experiments indicate that COLLINS solution C2 is the optimal flush solution for ROP preservation.

  20. An agent-based model for Leishmania major infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dancik, Garrett M.; Jones, Douglas E.; Dorman, Karin S.

    Leishmania are protozoan parasites transmitted by bites of infected sandflies. Over 20 species of Leishmania, endemic in 88 countries, are capable of causing human disease. Disease is either cutaneous, where skin ulcers occur on exposed surfaces of the body, or visceral, with near certain mortality if left untreated. C3HeB/FeJ mice are resistant to L. major, but develop chronic cutaneous lesions when infected with another species L. amazonensis. The well-characterized mechanism of resistance to L. major depends on a CD4+ Thl immune response, macrophage activation, and elimination of the parasite [Sacks 2002]. The factors that account for host susceptibility to L. Amazonensis, however, are not completely understood, despite being generally attributed to a weakened Th1 response [Vanloubbeck 2004].

  1. An agent-based model for Leishmania major infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dancik, Garrett M.; Jones, Douglas E.; Dorman, Karin S.

    Leishmania are protozoan parasites transmitted by bites of infected sandflies. Over 20 species of Leishmania, endemic in 88 countries, are capable of causing human disease. Disease is either cutaneous, where skin ulcers occur on exposed surfaces of the body, or visceral, with near certain mortality if untreated. C3HeB/FeJ mice are resistant to L. major, but develop chronic cutaneous lesions when infected with another species L. amazonensis. The well-characterized mechanism of resistance to L. major depends on a CD4+ Thl immune response, macrophage activation, and elimination of the parasite [Sacks 2002]. The factors that account for host susceptibility to L. Amazonensis, however, are not completely understood, despite being generally attributed to a weakened Th1 response [Vanloubbeck 2004].

  2. Wet-Strengthening of Paper in Neutral pH Papermaking Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, M. T.; Riehle, Richard J.

    The ability to wet-strengthen paper is an important requirement of the paper industry because wet strength agents allow for the manufacture of a variety of paper grades and products. The most significant area of application is in the manufacture of hygiene grades of paper, including hand towels and facial tissues, kitchen towels and serviettes, and other tableware products. Another important area of application is in packaging grades, including liquid packaging board for fruit juice and milk cartons; carrier bags and paper sacks; and corrugated cardboard boxes for transportation of fruit, meat and other items. Speciality grades, such as tea bags and coffee filters, bottle labels and currency paper, and wallpaper and poster paper also use wet strength agents. In fact, any grade of paper that needs to maintain a degree of strength and integrity after becoming wet involves the application of a wet strength agent.

  3. Heart involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-phospholipid syndrome and neonatal lupus.

    PubMed

    Tincani, A; Rebaioli, C B; Taglietti, M; Shoenfeld, Y

    2006-10-01

    Cardiac involvement is one of the main complications substantially contributing to the morbidity and mortality of patients suffering from systemic autoimmune diseases. All the anatomical heart structures can be affected, and multiple pathogenic mechanisms have been reported. Non-organ-specific autoantibodies have been implicated in immune complex formation and deposition as the initial triggers for inflammatory processes responsible for Libman-Sacks verrucous endocarditis, myocarditis and pericarditis. Anti-phospholipid antibodies have been associated with thrombotic events in coronary arteries, heart valve involvement and intra-myocardial vasculopathy in the context of primary and secondary anti-phospholipid syndrome. Antibodies-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antigens play a major pathogenic role in affecting the heart conduction tissue leading to the electrocardiographic abnormalities of the neonatal lupus syndrome and have been closely associated with endocardial fibroelastosis.

  4. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  5. Rare Presentation of Lupus Myocarditis With Acute Heart Failure-A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Gurveen; Chua, Serafin; Kodumuri, Vamsi; Sivaraman, Sivashankar; Ramdass, Priya

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease with diffuse organ involvement. The cardiac complications include pericarditis, myocarditis, pulmonary hypertension, coronary vasculitis, and Libman-Sacks endocarditis. Symptomatic lupus myocarditis presenting with left ventricular dysfunction, acute heart failure, and pulmonary edema, although rare, is a life-threatening complication. We report the occurrence of acute lupus myocarditis in a 38-year-old postpartum female who had a cesarean section a week before presentation for preeclampsia. Initially she was managed for pneumonia but later found to have acute pericarditis and myocarditis related to systemic lupus erythematosus. She had a complicated hospital course including acute respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock. She was started on pulse dose steroids besides the treatment for heart failure and had a dramatic improvement within days.

  6. Biscrolling nanotube sheets and functional guests into yarns.

    PubMed

    Lima, Márcio D; Fang, Shaoli; Lepró, Xavier; Lewis, Chihye; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Carretero-González, Javier; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Oh, Jiyoung; Rawat, Neema; Haines, Carter S; Haque, Mohammad H; Aare, Vaishnavi; Stoughton, Stephanie; Zakhidov, Anvar A; Baughman, Ray H

    2011-01-07

    Multifunctional applications of textiles have been limited by the inability to spin important materials into yarns. Generically applicable methods are demonstrated for producing weavable yarns comprising up to 95 weight percent of otherwise unspinnable particulate or nanofiber powders that remain highly functional. Scrolled 50-nanometer-thick carbon nanotube sheets confine these powders in the galleries of irregular scroll sacks whose observed complex structures are related to twist-dependent extension of Archimedean spirals, Fermat spirals, or spiral pairs into scrolls. The strength and electronic connectivity of a small weight fraction of scrolled carbon nanotube sheet enables yarn weaving, sewing, knotting, braiding, and charge collection. This technology is used to make yarns of superconductors, lithium-ion battery materials, graphene ribbons, catalytic nanofibers for fuel cells, and titanium dioxide for photocatalysis.

  7. [Distribution of biological particles in two-phase systems of water soluble polymers and salts].

    PubMed

    Kononova, O A; Gorovaia, T B; Tiutiunnikov, A V; Prokhorova, N V; Tarasevich, I V; Khramov, E N

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the problems of purification of Provachek's rickettsias used to prepare typhus vaccines and diagnostic kits. The currently available agents contain many admixtures of rickettsias products, more commonly yolk and chick embryo yolk sack cell detritus, which make it impossible to determine the true antigenic properties of rickettsias in the context of protection and diagnosis. By applying the well-known principle of distribution of biological particles in the two-phase systems of water soluble polymers, investigations were made to examine the distribution of rickettsias and their infected biological mass in the system: polyethylene glycol-6600, sodium-500 dextran sulfate, potassium phosphate, sodium chloride in order to prepare agents of pure rickettsias. It has been found that rickettsias are distributed in the polymer-enriched phase, their number and the degree of purity when isolated from the infected biological mass depends on the capacity of an interphase wherein tissue detritus sorption occurs.

  8. Personalia and the current health crisis.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, M

    1993-01-01

    Recent changes in the Russian government introduced by Boris Yeltsin include the appointment of Eduard Nechaev as health minister at the beginning of this year. The appointment received little publicity in the West, although his predecessor was sacked after only one year for failing to make any effort to improve health care. The challenges facing the new minister are enormous. Not only does he have to introduce a new medical insurance system but he has to tackle the problems of falling population, rising childhood illness linked to poor diet, and the spread of polio and diphtheria. It remains to be seen whether his experience in the military medical service has equipped him for the job. Images p910-a PMID:8490420

  9. The Long Path of Human Placenta, and Its Derivatives, in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Silini, Antonietta R.; Cargnoni, Anna; Magatti, Marta; Pianta, Stefano; Parolini, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    In the 1800s, a baby born with a caul, a remnant of the amniotic sack or fetal membranes, was thought to be lucky, special, or protected. Over time, fetal membranes lost their legendary power and were soon considered nothing more than biological waste after birth. However, placenta tissues have reclaimed their potential and since the early 1900s an increasing body of evidence has shown that these tissues have clinical benefits in a wide range of wound repair and surgical applications. Nowadays, there is a concerted effort to understand the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of placental tissues, and, more recently, cells derived thereof. This review will summarize the historical and current clinical applications of human placental tissues, and cells isolated from these tissues, and discuss some mechanisms thought to be responsible for the therapeutic effects observed after tissue and/or cell transplantation. PMID:26539433

  10. Successful treatment of advanced stage yolk sac tumour of extragonadal origin: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Vilius, Rudaitis; Ugnius, Mickys; Justina, Katinaite; Justyna, Dulko

    2016-01-01

    Background. Yolk sac tumour diagnosis should be considered for young age patients admitted to the hospital with non-specific complaints of widespread disease. Correct diagnosis and carefully planned treatment is the key to a successful outcome. Methods and materials. We present a rare case of a widespread yolk sack tumour of a uterine broad ligament. Our team directed a special attention towards the patient’s young age, advanced disease, and fertility sparing strategy of treatment. Results and conclusions. Stage IV yolk sac tumours of extragonadal origin are rarely reported in the literature. Hence, diagnosis and treatment often pose a challenge for emergency care unit doctors, gynaecologists, and oncologists. However, it can be a potentially curable disease. Moreover, patients’ fertility can also be preserved. We believe that further analysis of similar cases is necessary to study outcomes and evaluate patients’ responses to a sequence of medical decisions taken for this specific case.

  11. The study of an ATM switch system used for on-board processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Xiong, Huibo

    2007-11-01

    On-board processing (OBP) is one of significant satellite communication technologies, and the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is widely used in the OBP which can guarantee the QoS. This article presents the CAC (Call Admission Control) algorithm and Congestion Control algorithm. We combine with B-CAC algorithm, Bahadur-Rao's theory, Weiss theory, to improve the old method, and the simulation results show that when the PDR/LR is small the burst is high, the chain utilization and statistic multiplexing gain get a big advantage. Besides, concerning TCP congestion control, the article compared five strategies: Tahoe, Reno, Newreno, Sack and Vegas. The simulation results show that the Vegas can be used to predict congestion conditions correctly; its congestion window (cwnd) control is smoother and is superior to other algorithms in average RTT.

  12. On the use of volumetric strain meters to infer additional characteristics of short-period seismic radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Glassmoyer, G.

    1989-01-01

    Volumetric strain meters (Sacks-Evertson design) are installed at 15 sites along the San Andreas fault system, to monitor long-term strain changes for earthquake prediction. Deployment of portable broadband, high-resolution digital recorders (GEOS) at several of the sites extends the detection band for volumetric strain to periods shorter than 5 ?? 10-2 sec and permits the simultaneous observation of seismic radiation fields using conventional short-period pendulum seismometers. Recordings of local and regional earthquakes indicate that dilatometers respond to P energy but not direct shear energy and that straingrams can be used to resolve superimposed reflect P and S waves for inference of wave characteristics not permitted by either sensor alone. Simultaneous measurements of incident P- and S-wave amplitudes are used to introduce a technique for single-station estimates of wave field inhomogeneity, free-surface reflection coefficients and local material P velocity. -from Authors

  13. Biscrolling Nanotube Sheets and Functional Guests into Yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Márcio D.; Fang, Shaoli; Lepró, Xavier; Lewis, Chihye; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Carretero-González, Javier; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Oh, Jiyoung; Rawat, Neema; Haines, Carter S.; Haque, Mohammad H.; Aare, Vaishnavi; Stoughton, Stephanie; Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2011-01-01

    Multifunctional applications of textiles have been limited by the inability to spin important materials into yarns. Generically applicable methods are demonstrated for producing weavable yarns comprising up to 95 weight percent of otherwise unspinnable particulate or nanofiber powders that remain highly functional. Scrolled 50-nanometer-thick carbon nanotube sheets confine these powders in the galleries of irregular scroll sacks whose observed complex structures are related to twist-dependent extension of Archimedean spirals, Fermat spirals, or spiral pairs into scrolls. The strength and electronic connectivity of a small weight fraction of scrolled carbon nanotube sheet enables yarn weaving, sewing, knotting, braiding, and charge collection. This technology is used to make yarns of superconductors, lithium-ion battery materials, graphene ribbons, catalytic nanofibers for fuel cells, and titanium dioxide for photocatalysis.

  14. Ultrathin Hollow Graphene Oxide Membranes for Use as Nanoparticle Carriers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kurt B; Tomassone, Maria S

    2017-04-04

    We synthesize hollow spherical particles/membrane sacks of graphene oxide loaded with nanoparticles to be used as nanoparticles carriers, through a new method based on emulsion precipitation and sublimation of the cores. We vary the synthesis parameters, such as shear rate, pH, and graphene oxide and oil concentration ratios. Our results show a concentration dependent membrane thickness that varies between 3 and 25 nm depending on the concentration, and their mean diameters vary between 500 nm and 70 μm. In addition, polymeric nanoparticles are loaded inside the graphene oxide shells forming core-shell particles demonstrating that they can be used as carriers for nanoparticles. Our particles are characterized via laser diffraction, zeta potential, FE-SEM, TEM, BET, and AFM. Potential applications of this work include applications that benefit from core-shell structures and nanoparticle carriers, including drug formulation, catalysis, and electrochemical applications.

  15. A first modeling of dynamic and static crustal strain field from near-field dilatation measurements: example of the 2013 M_w 6.2 Ruisui earthquake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canitano, Alexandre; Hsu, Ya-Ju; Lee, Hsin-Ming; Linde, Alan T.; Sacks, Selwyn

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the high-resolution dilatation data for the October 2013 M_w 6.2 Ruisui, Taiwan, earthquake, which occurred at a distance of 15-20 km away from a Sacks-Evertson dilatometer network. Based on well-constrained source parameters (strike=217°, dip=48°, rake=49°), we propose a simple rupture model that explains the permanent static deformation and the dynamic vibrations at short period (˜ 3.5-4.5 s) for most of the four sites with less than 20 % of discrepancies. This study represents a first attempt of modeling simultaneously the dynamic and static crustal strain using dilatation data. The results illustrate the potential for strain recordings of high-frequency seismic waves in the near-field of an earthquake to add constraints on the properties of seismic sources.

  16. Introducing cholera vaccination in Asia, Africa and Haiti: a meeting report.

    PubMed

    Hall, Robert H; Sack, David A

    2015-01-15

    Orally-administered cholera vaccine (OCV) has been increasingly examined as an additional tool to intervene against endemic and epidemic cholera. In 2013, short- and long-term field experience with OCV under nine distinctive field settings was reported from India, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Guinea, Haiti, and Thailand. Lead investigators from each of these projects presented their findings at a symposium chaired by Drs. David A. Sack and Robert H. Hall at the Vaccines for Enteric Diseases (VED) Conference in Bangkok on November 7, 2013. The objective of the symposium was to describe the unique features of each setting and project, share field experience of implementing cholera vaccination, discuss results, and identify constraints to the wider use of OCV. The VED provided a forum where >200 attendees engaged with this exciting and potentially decisive new development in the cholera field.

  17. Disposable plastic diapers: a foreign body hazard.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C M

    1986-02-01

    Foreign body ingestion and aspiration in children has been a serious problem, occasionally resulting in airway obstruction and death. Airway obstruction by balloons and subsequent asphyxiation is well documented. Respiratory blockage by plastic dry-cleaning sacks has resulted in warning labels on most such materials. Two recent cases of nasal aspiration of plastic coating from a commonly used disposable diaper are compared to reports of similar occurrences documented by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. On the basis of these reports we recommend that disposable diapers be continuously covered by other clothing to prevent the child's access to the plastic. Otolaryngologists and pediatricians should be aware of the potential hazard when examining diapered children with chronic rhinorrhea or sudden respiratory distress.

  18. Crumpled graphene nanoreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongying; Lv, Xiaoshu; Chen, Yantao; Liu, Dan; Xu, Xinhua; Palmore, G. Tayhas R.; Hurt, Robert H.

    2015-05-01

    Nanoreactors are material structures that provide engineered internal cavities that create unique confined nanoscale environments for chemical reactions. Crumpled graphene nanoparticles or ``nanosacks'' may serve as nanoreactors when filled with reactive or catalytic particles and engineered for a specific chemical function. This article explores the behavior of crumpled graphene nanoreactors containing nanoscale ZnO, Ag, Ni, Cu, Fe, or TiO2 particles, either alone or in combination, in a series of case studies designed to reveal their fundamental behaviors. The first case study shows that ZnO nanoparticles undergo rapid dissolution inside the nanoreactor cavity accompanied by diffusive release of soluble products to surrounding aqueous media through the irregular folded shell. This behavior demonstrates the open nature of the sack structure, which facilitates rapid small-molecule exchange between inside and outside that is a requirement for nanoreactor function. In a case study on copper and silver nanoparticles, encapsulation in graphene nanoreactors is shown in some cases to enhance their oxidation rate in aqueous media, which is attributed to electron transfer from the metal core to graphene that bypasses surface oxides and allows reduction of molecular oxygen on the high-area graphene shell. Nanoreactors also allow particle-particle electron transfer interactions that are mediated by the connecting conductive graphene, which give rise to novel behaviors such as galvanic protection of Ag nanoparticles in Ag/Ni-filled nanoreactors, and the photochemical control of Ag-ion release in Ag/TiO2-filled nanoreactors. It is also shown that internal graphene structures within the sacks provide pockets that reduce particle mobility and inhibit particle sintering during thermal treatment. Finally, these novel behaviors are used to suggest and demonstrate several potential applications for graphene nanoreactors in catalysts, controlled release, and environmental remediation

  19. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  20. Low-cost grass restoration using erosion barriers in a degraded African rangeland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimiti, David W; Riginos, Corinna; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Rangeland degradation, typified by extensive bare ground and soil erosion, is a serious problem around the world. In sub-Saharan Africa, rangeland degradation threatens the food security of millions of people who depend on livestock and the region's large mammalian wildlife diversity. We tested the ability of five simple, low-cost erosion barriers to promote grass and forb establishment in a bare ground-dominated rangeland in Kenya. These treatments were: (1) trenches with small berms; (2) bundles of branches; and bundles of branches with (3) elephant dung balls, (4) burlap sacking, or (5) nylon mesh sacking inside them. We also tested whether barrier performance depended on (1) supplemental seeding with the grass Cenchrus ciliaris and (2) whether a barrier was located next to existing vegetation patches versus in the open. Within months, the trench and nylon mesh barriers had accumulated 20–50% more sediment than other treatments and had greater grass and forb seedling establishment. Seeding with Cenchrusresulted in higher herbaceous cover but was not necessary for other grasses to establish. After 3 years, the trench and nylon mesh barriers had created patches of new vegetation averaging 18–63% larger than patches created by the other treatments. Barriers that were initially adjacent to existing vegetation had created new vegetation patches averaging 65% larger than those created by solitary barriers. Results suggest that all barrier types increase grass cover but that trenches—especially if placed next to existing vegetation patches—are a particularly cost-effective way to reduce bare ground and erosion in degraded rangelands.

  1. CFD and PTV steady flow investigation in an anatomically accurate abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Boutsianis, Evangelos; Guala, Michele; Olgac, Ufuk; Wildermuth, Simon; Hoyer, Klaus; Ventikos, Yiannis; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable interest in computational and experimental flow investigations within abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). This task stipulates advanced grid generation techniques and cross-validation because of the anatomical complexity. The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of velocity measurements by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) in realistic AAA models. Computed tomography and rapid prototyping were combined to digitize and construct a silicone replica of a patient-specific AAA. Three-dimensional velocity measurements were acquired using PTV under steady averaged resting boundary conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were subsequently carried out with identical boundary conditions. The computational grid was created by splitting the luminal volume into manifold and nonmanifold subsections. They were filled with tetrahedral and hexahedral elements, respectively. Grid independency was tested on three successively refined meshes. Velocity differences of about 1% in all three directions existed mainly within the AAA sack. Pressure revealed similar variations, with the sparser mesh predicting larger values. PTV velocity measurements were taken along the abdominal aorta and showed good agreement with the numerical data. The results within the aneurysm neck and sack showed average velocity variations of about 5% of the mean inlet velocity. The corresponding average differences increased for all velocity components downstream the iliac bifurcation to as much as 15%. The two domains differed slightly due to flow-induced forces acting on the silicone model. Velocity quantification through narrow branches was problematic due to decreased signal to noise ratio at the larger local velocities. Computational wall pressure and shear fields are also presented. The agreement between CFD simulations and the PTV experimental data was confirmed by three-dimensional velocity comparisons at several locations within the investigated AAA

  2. Crumpled graphene nanoreactors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongying; Lv, Xiaoshu; Chen, Yantao; Liu, Dan; Xu, Xinhua; Palmore, G Tayhas R; Hurt, Robert H

    2015-06-14

    Nanoreactors are material structures that provide engineered internal cavities that create unique confined nanoscale environments for chemical reactions. Crumpled graphene nanoparticles or "nanosacks" may serve as nanoreactors when filled with reactive or catalytic particles and engineered for a specific chemical function. This article explores the behavior of crumpled graphene nanoreactors containing nanoscale ZnO, Ag, Ni, Cu, Fe, or TiO2 particles, either alone or in combination, in a series of case studies designed to reveal their fundamental behaviors. The first case study shows that ZnO nanoparticles undergo rapid dissolution inside the nanoreactor cavity accompanied by diffusive release of soluble products to surrounding aqueous media through the irregular folded shell. This behavior demonstrates the open nature of the sack structure, which facilitates rapid small-molecule exchange between inside and outside that is a requirement for nanoreactor function. In a case study on copper and silver nanoparticles, encapsulation in graphene nanoreactors is shown in some cases to enhance their oxidation rate in aqueous media, which is attributed to electron transfer from the metal core to graphene that bypasses surface oxides and allows reduction of molecular oxygen on the high-area graphene shell. Nanoreactors also allow particle-particle electron transfer interactions that are mediated by the connecting conductive graphene, which give rise to novel behaviors such as galvanic protection of Ag nanoparticles in Ag/Ni-filled nanoreactors, and the photochemical control of Ag-ion release in Ag/TiO2-filled nanoreactors. It is also shown that internal graphene structures within the sacks provide pockets that reduce particle mobility and inhibit particle sintering during thermal treatment. Finally, these novel behaviors are used to suggest and demonstrate several potential applications for graphene nanoreactors in catalysts, controlled release, and environmental remediation.

  3. Antiphospholipid syndrome in systemic connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, D; Popović, M; Stefanović, D; Cirković, M; Glisić, B; Pavlica, L; Popović, R; Pejnović, N

    1998-01-01

    Clinical manifestation and immunoserological features of secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (SAPS) were analyzed in this paper in 107 patients with systemic connective tissue diseases. In the group of patients with confirmed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) were positive in 43/93 (46.23%), while in 50/93 (53.76%) they were negative. Among aPL positive patients, 33/43 (76.74%) had clinical manifestations of SAPS, while 10 patients (23.26%) were without any clinical manifestations. The most frequent manifestations of SAPS associated with SLE were: arteriovenous thrombosis in 20/43 (46.51%), thrombocitopenia in 15/43 (34.88%) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in 7/43 (16.27%). In our patients, rare manifestations of SAPS associated with SLE were recurrent fetal loss (1 case), livedo reticularis (1 case), transversal myelitis (2 cases), neuropathy (2 cases) and aseptic endocarditis (Libman-Sacks) (5 cases). Among 7 patients, with Sjögren's syndrome, clinically manifested SAPS was observed in 2, while in other 5 only increased aPL levels were found, as well as in patients with systemic vasculitis-3, MCTD-2 and Sy. Sjögren with vasculitis-1. One RA patient had thrombosis of v. cava inferior. In majority of patients with clinically present SAPS the levels of both examined immunoglobulin isotypes (IgG + IgM) were decreased-21/40 or 52.5%, while isolated increase of IgG was found in 14 (35%) and isolated increase of IgM in 5 (19.22%) patients. In three out of five patients with Libman-Sacks only LA test was positive. This investigation have shown that arterial and venous thromboses are the most common manifestations of SAPS in SLE. Every blood vessel may be involved (from arteriolae to the aorta and from postcapilar venules to the v. cava).

  4. A multi-fault diagnosis method for sensor systems based on principle component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Daqi; Bai, Jie; Yang, Simon X

    2010-01-01

    A model based on PCA (principal component analysis) and a neural network is proposed for the multi-fault diagnosis of sensor systems. Firstly, predicted values of sensors are computed by using historical data measured under fault-free conditions and a PCA model. Secondly, the squared prediction error (SPE) of the sensor system is calculated. A fault can then be detected when the SPE suddenly increases. If more than one sensor in the system is out of order, after combining different sensors and reconstructing the signals of combined sensors, the SPE is calculated to locate the faulty sensors. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by simulation and comparison studies, in which two sensors in the system are out of order at the same time.

  5. A Multi-Fault Diagnosis Method for Sensor Systems Based on Principle Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Daqi; Bai, Jie; Yang, Simon X.

    2010-01-01

    A model based on PCA (principal component analysis) and a neural network is proposed for the multi-fault diagnosis of sensor systems. Firstly, predicted values of sensors are computed by using historical data measured under fault-free conditions and a PCA model. Secondly, the squared prediction error (SPE) of the sensor system is calculated. A fault can then be detected when the SPE suddenly increases. If more than one sensor in the system is out of order, after combining different sensors and reconstructing the signals of combined sensors, the SPE is calculated to locate the faulty sensors. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by simulation and comparison studies, in which two sensors in the system are out of order at the same time. PMID:22315537

  6. Cross Talk Inhibition Nullified by a Receiver Domain Missense Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, TuAnh Ngoc; Lin, Hsia-Yin; Noriega, Chris E.; Lin, Alice V.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In two-component signal transduction, a sensor protein transmitter module controls cognate receiver domain phosphorylation. Most receiver domain sequences contain a small residue (Gly or Ala) at position T + 1 just distal to the essential Thr or Ser residue that forms part of the active site. However, some members of the NarL receiver subfamily have a large hydrophobic residue at position T + 1. Our laboratory previously isolated a NarL mutant in which the T + 1 residue Val-88 was replaced with an orthodox small Ala. This NarL V88A mutant confers a striking phenotype in which high-level target operon expression is both signal (nitrate) and sensor (NarX and NarQ) independent. This suggests that the NarL V88A protein is phosphorylated by cross talk from noncognate sources. Although cross talk was enhanced in ackA null strains that accumulate acetyl phosphate, it persisted in pta ackA double null strains that cannot synthesize this compound and was observed also in narL+ strains. This indicates that acetate metabolism has complex roles in mediating NarL cross talk. Contrariwise, cross talk was sharply diminished in an arcB barA double null strain, suggesting that the encoded sensors contribute substantially to NarL V88A cross talk. Separately, the V88A substitution altered the in vitro rates of NarL autodephosphorylation and transmitter-stimulated dephosphorylation and decreased affinity for the cognate sensor, NarX. Together, these experiments show that the residue at position T + 1 can strongly influence two distinct aspects of receiver domain function, the autodephosphorylation rate and cross talk inhibition. IMPORTANCE Many bacterial species contain a dozen or more discrete sensor-response regulator two-component systems that convert a specific input into a distinct output pattern. Cross talk, the unwanted transfer of signals between circuits, occurs when a response regulator is phosphorylated inappropriately from a noncognate source. Cross talk is

  7. Effect of variations in the structure of a polyleucine-based alpha-helical transmembrane peptide on its interaction with phosphatidylethanolamine Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Lewis, Ruthven N A H; Hodges, Robert S; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2004-10-01

    High-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to study the interaction of a cationic alpha-helical transmembrane peptide, acetyl-Lys2-Leu24-Lys2-amide (L24), and members of the homologous series of zwitterionic n-saturated diacyl phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs). Analogs of L24, in which the lysine residues were replaced by 2,3-diaminopropionic acid (acetyl-DAP2-Leu24-DAP2-amide (L24DAP)) or in which a leucine residue at each end of the polyleucine sequence was replaced by a tryptophan (Ac-K2-W-L22-W-K2-amide (WL22W)), were also studied to investigate the roles of lysine side-chain snorkeling and aromatic side-chain interactions with the interfacial region of phospholipid bilayers. The gel/liquid-crystalline phase transition temperature of the PE bilayers is altered by these peptides in a hydrophobic mismatch-independent manner, in contrast to the hydrophobic mismatch-dependent manner observed previously with zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine (PC) and anionic phosphatidylglycerol (PG) bilayers. Moreover, all three peptides reduce the phase transition temperature to a greater extent in PE bilayers than in PC and PG bilayers, indicating a greater disruption of PE gel-phase bilayer organization. Moreover, the lysine-anchored L24 reduces the phase transition temperature, enthalpy, and the cooperativity of PE bilayers to a much greater extent than DAP-anchored L24DAP, whereas replacement of the terminal leucines by tryptophan residues (Ac-K2-W-L22-W-K2-amide) only slightly attenuates the effects of this peptide on the chain-melting phase transition of the host PE bilayers. All three peptides form very stable alpha-helices in PE bilayers, but small conformational changes occur in response to mismatch between peptide hydrophobic length and gel-state lipid bilayer hydrophobic thickness. These results suggest that the lysine snorkeling plays a significant role in the peptide-PE interactions and that cation

  8. Effect of acetate formation pathway and long chain fatty acid CoA-ligase on the free fatty acid production in E. coli expressing acy-ACP thioesterase from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Li, Mai; Zhang, Xiujun; Agrawal, Arpita; San, Ka-Yiu

    2012-07-01

    Microbial biosynthesis of fatty acid like chemicals from renewable carbon sources has attracted significant attention in recent years. Free fatty acids can be used as precursors for the production of fuels or chemicals. Wild type E. coli strains produce fatty acids mainly for the biosynthesis of lipids and cell membranes and do not accumulate free fatty acids as intermediates in lipid biosynthesis. However, free fatty acids can be produced by breaking the fatty acid elongation through the overexpression of an acyl-ACP thioesterase. Since acetyl-CoA might be an important factor for fatty acid synthesis (acetate formation pathways are the main competitive pathways in consuming acetyl-CoA or pyruvate, a precursor of acetyl-CoA), and the long chain fatty acid CoA-ligase (FadD) plays a pivotal role in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids prior to their subsequent degradation, we examined the composition and the secretion of the free fatty acids in four different strains including the wild type MG1655, a mutant strain with inactivation of the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway (fadD mutant (ML103)), and mutant strains with inactivation of the two major acetate production pathways (an ack-pta (acetate kinase/phosphotransacetylase), poxB (pyruvate oxidase) double mutant (ML112)) and a fadD, ack-pta, poxB triple mutant (ML115). The engineered E. coli cells expressing acyl-ACP thioesterase with glucose yield is higher than 40% of theoretical yield. Compared to MG1655(pXZ18) and ML103(pXZ18), acetate forming pathway deletion strains such as ML112(pXZ18) and ML115(pXZ18) produced similar quantity of total free fatty acids, which indicated that acetyl-CoA availability does not appear to be limiting factor for fatty acid production in these strains. However, these strains did show significant differences in the composition of free fatty acids. Different from MG1655(pXZ18) and ML103(pXZ18), acetate formation pathway deletion strains such as ML112(pXZ18) and ML115

  9. Industrial Acetogenic Biocatalysts: A Comparative Metabolic and Genomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bengelsdorf, Frank R.; Poehlein, Anja; Linder, Sonja; Erz, Catarina; Hummel, Tim; Hoffmeister, Sabrina; Daniel, Rolf; Dürre, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation by anaerobic acetogenic bacteria employing the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway is a bioprocess for production of biofuels and biocommodities. The major fermentation products of the most relevant biocatalytic strains (Clostridium ljungdahlii, C. autoethanogenum, C. ragsdalei, and C. coskatii) are acetic acid and ethanol. A comparative metabolic and genomic analysis using the mentioned biocatalysts might offer targets for metabolic engineering and thus improve the production of compounds apart from ethanol. Autotrophic growth and product formation of the four wild type (WT) strains were compared in uncontrolled batch experiments. The genomes of C. ragsdalei and C. coskatii were sequenced and the genome sequences of all four biocatalytic strains analyzed in comparative manner. Growth and product spectra (acetate, ethanol, 2,3-butanediol) of C. autoethanogenum, C. ljungdahlii, and C. ragsdalei were rather similar. In contrast, C. coskatii produced significantly less ethanol and its genome sequence lacks two genes encoding aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductases (AOR). Comparative genome sequence analysis of the four WT strains revealed high average nucleotide identity (ANI) of C. ljungdahlii and C. autoethanogenum (99.3%) and C. coskatii (98.3%). In contrast, C. ljungdahlii WT and C. ragsdalei WT showed an ANI-based similarity of only 95.8%. Additionally, recombinant C. ljungdahlii strains were constructed that harbor an artificial acetone synthesis operon (ASO) consisting of the following genes: adc, ctfA, ctfB, and thlA (encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase, acetoacetyl-CoA:acetate/butyrate:CoA-transferase subunits A and B, and thiolase) under the control of thlA promoter (PthlA) from C. acetobutylicum or native pta-ack promoter (Ppta-ack) from C. ljungdahlii. Respective recombinant strains produced 2-propanol rather than acetone, due to the presence of a NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase that converts acetone to 2

  10. Metabolic transcription analysis of engineered Escherichia coli strains that overproduce L-phenylalanine

    PubMed Central

    Báez-Viveros, José Luis; Flores, Noemí; Juárez, Katy; Castillo-España, Patricia; Bolivar, Francisco; Gosset, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Background The rational design of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) overproducing microorganisms has been successfully achieved by combining different genetic strategies such as inactivation of the phosphoenolpyruvate: phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) and overexpression of key genes (DAHP synthase, transketolase and chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase), reaching yields of 0.33 (g-Phe/g-Glc), which correspond to 60% of theoretical maximum. Although genetic modifications introduced into the cell for the generation of overproducing organisms are specifically targeted to a particular pathway, these can trigger unexpected transcriptional responses of several genes. In the current work, metabolic transcription analysis (MTA) of both L-Phe overproducing and non-engineered strains using Real-Time PCR was performed, allowing the detection of transcriptional responses to PTS deletion and plasmid presence of genes related to central carbon metabolism. This MTA included 86 genes encoding enzymes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentoses phosphate, tricarboxylic acid cycle, fermentative and aromatic amino acid pathways. In addition, 30 genes encoding regulatory proteins and transporters for aromatic compounds and carbohydrates were also analyzed. Results MTA revealed that a set of genes encoding carbohydrate transporters (galP, mglB), gluconeogenic (ppsA, pckA) and fermentative enzymes (ldhA) were significantly induced, while some others were down-regulated such as ppc, pflB, pta and ackA, as a consequence of PTS inactivation. One of the most relevant findings was the coordinated up-regulation of several genes that are exclusively gluconeogenic (fbp, ppsA, pckA, maeB, sfcA, and glyoxylate shunt) in the best PTS- L-Phe overproducing strain (PB12-ev2). Furthermore, it was noticeable that most of the TCA genes showed a strong up-regulation in the presence of multicopy plasmids by an unknown mechanism. A group of genes exhibited transcriptional responses to both PTS inactivation

  11. Novel pathway engineering design of the anaerobic central metabolic pathway in Escherichia coli to increase succinate yield and productivity.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ailen M; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2005-05-01

    A novel in vivo method of producing succinate has been developed. A genetically engineered Escherichia coli strain has been constructed to meet the NADH requirement and carbon demand to produce high quantities and yield of succinate by strategically implementing metabolic pathway alterations. Currently, the maximum theoretical succinate yield under strictly anaerobic conditions through the fermentative succinate biosynthesis pathway is limited to one mole per mole of glucose due to NADH limitation. The implemented strategic design involves the construction of a dual succinate synthesis route, which diverts required quantities of NADH through the traditional fermentative pathway and maximizes the carbon converted to succinate by balancing the carbon flux through the fermentative pathway and the glyoxylate pathway (which has less NADH requirement). The synthesis of succinate uses a combination of the two pathways to balance the NADH. Consequently, experimental results indicated that these combined pathways gave the most efficient conversion of glucose to succinate with the highest yield using only 1.25 moles of NADH per mole of succinate in contrast to the sole fermentative pathway, which uses 2 moles of NADH per mole of succinate. A recombinant E. coli strain, SBS550MG, was created by deactivating adhE, ldhA and ack-pta from the central metabolic pathway and by activating the glyoxylate pathway through the inactivation of iclR, which encodes a transcriptional repressor protein of the glyoxylate bypass. The inactivation of these genes in SBS550MG increased the succinate yield from glucose to about 1.6 mol/mol with an average anaerobic productivity rate of 10 mM/h (approximately 0.64 mM/h-OD600). This strain is capable of fermenting high concentrations of glucose in less than 24 h. Additional derepression of the glyxoylate pathway by inactivation of arcA, leading to a strain designated as SBS660MG, did not significantly increase the succinate yield and it decreased

  12. Targeted mutagenesis of the Clostridium acetobutylicum acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation pathway.

    PubMed

    Cooksley, Clare M; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Hengzheng; Redl, Stephanie; Winzer, Klaus; Minton, Nigel P

    2012-11-01

    The production of the chemical solvents acetone and butanol by the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum was one of the first large-scale industrial processes to be developed, and in the first part of the last century ranked second in importance only to ethanol production. After a steep decline in its industrial use, there has been a recent resurgence of interest in the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process, with a particular emphasis on butanol production. In order to generate strains suitable for efficient use on an industrial scale, metabolic engineering is required to alter the AB ratio in favour of butanol, and eradicate the production of unwanted products of fermentation. Using ClosTron technology, a large-scale targeted mutagenesis in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was carried out, generating a set of 10 mutants, defective in alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (adhE1, adhE2), butanol dehydrogenases A and B (bdhA, bdhB), phosphotransbutyrylase (ptb), acetate kinase (ack), acetoacetate decarboxylase (adc), CoA transferase (ctfA/ctfB), and a previously uncharacterised putative alcohol dehydrogenase (CAP0059). However, inactivation of the main hydrogenase (hydA) and thiolase (thl) could not be achieved. Constructing such a series of mutants is paramount for the acquisition of information on the mechanism of solvent production in this organism, and the subsequent development of industrial solvent producing strains. Unexpectedly, bdhA and bdhB mutants did not affect solvent production, whereas inactivation of the previously uncharacterised gene CAP0059 resulted in increased acetone, butanol, and ethanol formation. Other mutants showed predicted phenotypes, including a lack of acetone formation (adc, ctfA, and ctfB mutants), an inability to take up acids (ctfA and ctfB mutants), and a much reduced acetate formation (ack mutant). The adhE1 mutant in particular produced very little solvents, demonstrating that this gene was indeed the main contributor to

  13. The two-component system CpxR/A represses the expression of Salmonella virulence genes by affecting the stability of the transcriptional regulator HilD

    PubMed Central

    De la Cruz, Miguel A.; Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Palacios, Irene J.; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Calva, Edmundo; Bustamante, Víctor H.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica can cause intestinal or systemic infections in humans and animals mainly by the presence of pathogenicity islands SPI-1 and SPI-2, containing 39 and 44 genes, respectively. The AraC-like regulator HilD positively controls the expression of the SPI-1 genes, as well as many other Salmonella virulence genes including those located in SPI-2. A previous report indicates that the two-component system CpxR/A regulates the SPI-1 genes: the absence of the sensor kinase CpxA, but not the absence of its cognate response regulator CpxR, reduces their expression. The presence and absence of cell envelope stress activates kinase and phosphatase activities of CpxA, respectively, which in turn controls the level of phosphorylated CpxR (CpxR-P). In this work, we further define the mechanism for the CpxR/A-mediated regulation of SPI-1 genes. The negative effect exerted by the absence of CpxA on the expression of SPI-1 genes was counteracted by the absence of CpxR or by the absence of the two enzymes, AckA and Pta, which render acetyl-phosphate that phosphorylates CpxR. Furthermore, overexpression of the lipoprotein NlpE, which activates CpxA kinase activity on CpxR, or overexpression of CpxR, repressed the expression of SPI-1 genes. Thus, our results provide several lines of evidence strongly supporting that the absence of CpxA leads to the phosphorylation of CpxR via the AckA/Pta enzymes, which represses both the SPI-1 and SPI-2 genes. Additionally, we show that in the absence of the Lon protease, which degrades HilD, the CpxR-P-mediated repression of the SPI-1 genes is mostly lost; moreover, we demonstrate that CpxR-P negatively affects the stability of HilD and thus decreases the expression of HilD-target genes, such as hilD itself and hilA, located in SPI-1. Our data further expand the insight on the different regulatory pathways for gene expression involving CpxR/A and on the complex regulatory network governing virulence in Salmonella. PMID:26300871

  14. Get your science used—Six guidelines to improve your products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Suzanne C.; Blanpied, Michael L.; Burkett, Erin R.; Campbell, Nnenia M.; Carlson, Anders; Cox, Dale A.; Driedger, Carolyn L.; Eisenman, David P.; Fox-Glassman, Katherine T.; Hoffman, Sherry; Hoffman, Susanna M.; Jaiswal, Kishor S.; Jones, Lucile M.; Luco, Nicolas; Marx, Sabine M.; McGowan, Sean M.; Mileti, Dennis S.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Ozman, David; Pastor, Elizabeth; Petersen, Mark D.; Porter, Keith A.; Ramsey, David W.; Ritchie, Liesel A.; Fitzpatrick, Jessica K.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Sellnow, Timothy L.; Vaughon, Wendy L.; Wald, David J.; Wald, Lisa A.; Wein, Anne; Zarcadoolas, Christina

    2016-03-03

    On the basis of research and practice into how people think, use tools, make decisions, and understand scientific/technical information, the social and behavioral scientists, marketers, and social-impact designers at the NSHM workshop provided remarkably consistent guidelines to develop successful science products, such as text, maps, and other products. In this report the guidelines are numbered for clarity, but they can be applied repeatedly, piecemeal, or out of order to fit each project and your resources.

  15. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    DOEpatents

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2016-10-25

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  16. What should I do?--a study about conflicting and ambiguous warning messages.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Emília; Rebelo, Francisco; Teles, Júlia; Noriega, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Warnings are intended to reduce accidents caused by hazards. Behavioral compliance is the most important measure of warning effectiveness. However, in result of diverse circumstances (e.g., distraction, misuse, negligence), conflicting or ambiguous safety messages can be perceived. Since these are recurrent and can result in wrong behaviors encompassing severe consequences, such cases should be studied for safety purposes. We report findings on the participants' compliant behavior when performing a work-related task, while immersed in a virtual environment, and investigate the effect of conflicting messages on compliance with warnings. Two warnings (one regular and one with an appended out-of-order sign) and two types of signs (static and dynamic) were considered. The warning with the out-of-order sign configures the case of potentially conflicting messages. The gender effect was also investigated. The participants' behavior was assessed regarding to pushing a button as directed by the warnings. In the "out-of-order" warning, compliance was higher in the dynamic situation (53.3%) than in the static one (3.3%). Comparing with the non-conflicting warning, compliance was higher for both situations (static: 76.7%; dynamic: 100%). Women complied more than men. Although these results have limitations in their generalization, they are nonetheless relevant and deserve to be studied further.

  17. SDTCP: Towards Datacenter TCP Congestion Control with SDN for IoT Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yifei; Ling, Zhen; Zhu, Shuhong; Tang, Ling

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has gained popularity in recent years. Today’s IoT applications are now increasingly deployed in cloud platforms to perform Big Data analytics. In cloud data center networks (DCN), TCP incast usually happens when multiple senders simultaneously communicate with a single receiver. However, when TCP incast happens, DCN may suffer from both throughput collapse for TCP burst flows and temporary starvation for TCP background flows. In this paper, we propose a software defined network (SDN)-based TCP congestion control mechanism, referred to as SDTCP, to leverage the features, e.g., centralized control methods and the global view of the network, in order to solve the TCP incast problems. When we detect network congestion on an OpenFlow switch, our controller can select the background flows and reduce their bandwidth by adjusting the advertised window of TCP ACK packets of the corresponding background flows so as to reserve more bandwidth for burst flows. SDTCP is transparent to the end systems and can accurately decelerate the rate of background flows by leveraging the global view of the network gained via SDN. The experiments demonstrate that our SDTCP can provide high tolerance for burst flows and achieve better flow completion time for short flows. Therefore, SDTCP is an effective and scalable solution for the TCP incast problem. PMID:28075347

  18. SDTCP: Towards Datacenter TCP Congestion Control with SDN for IoT Applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yifei; Ling, Zhen; Zhu, Shuhong; Tang, Ling

    2017-01-08

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has gained popularity in recent years. Today's IoT applications are now increasingly deployed in cloud platforms to perform Big Data analytics. In cloud data center networks (DCN), TCP incast usually happens when multiple senders simultaneously communicate with a single receiver. However, when TCP incast happens, DCN may suffer from both throughput collapse for TCP burst flows and temporary starvation for TCP background flows. In this paper, we propose a software defined network (SDN)-based TCP congestion control mechanism, referred to as SDTCP, to leverage the features, e.g., centralized control methods and the global view of the network, in order to solve the TCP incast problems. When we detect network congestion on an OpenFlow switch, our controller can select the background flows and reduce their bandwidth by adjusting the advertised window of TCP ACK packets of the corresponding background flows so as to reserve more bandwidth for burst flows. SDTCP is transparent to the end systems and can accurately decelerate the rate of background flows by leveraging the global view of the network gained via SDN. The experiments demonstrate that our SDTCP can provide high tolerance for burst flows and achieve better flow completion time for short flows. Therefore, SDTCP is an effective and scalable solution for the TCP incast problem.

  19. TPLE: A Reliable Data Delivery Scheme for On-Road WSN Traffic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Chang, Fei; Ren, Suli

    2016-01-01

    In an on-road environment, motor-engines severely disturb the wireless link of a sensor node, leading to high package loss rate, high delivery delay, and poor radio communication quality. The existing data delivery mechanisms, such as the ACK-based retransmission mechanism and window-based link quality estimation mechanism, could not handle these challenges well. To solve this challenge, we propose a Target-Prediction-based Link quality Estimation scheme (TPLE) to realize high quality data delivery in an on-road environment. To perform on-road link quality estimation, TPLE dynamically calculates the track of a nearby vehicle target and estimates target impact on wireless link. Based on the local estimation of link quality, TPLE schedules radio communication tasks effectively. Simulations indicate that our proposed TPLE scheme produces a 94% data delivery rate, its average retransmission number is around 0.8. Our conducted on-road data delivery experiments also indicated a similar result as the computer simulation. PMID:28036001

  20. Phenotype differentiation of three E. coli strains by GC-FID and GC-MS based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Shi, Chunyun; Gao, Peng; Yuan, Kailong; Yang, Dawei; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2008-08-15

    Two mutants of E. coli with deletion of sdhAB and ackA-pta genes respectively and their wild-type strains were subjected to gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics analysis. Intracellular metabolites of the three strains were profiled by GC-FID firstly. Methodological evaluation of the employed platform indicated that the limit of detection ranges were from 0.2 to 12.5 ng for some representative metabolites and the corresponding recoveries were varied from 68.7 to 122.7%. Secondly, multivariable data analysis was applied to the acquired data sets. As expected, the three phenotypes could be easily differentiated, and the perturbed metabolite pools in the genetically modified strains were screened. Lastly, the metabolites playing key roles in the differentiation were further identified by GC-MS. It was confirmed that succinic acid and aspartic acid were similarly affected in the modified strains. But proline content was altered contrarily. Additionally, deletion of sdhAB gene also affected the growth property of relevant mutant greatly. The potential mechanism was postulated accordingly.

  1. [Recombinant Escherichia coli strains deficient in mixed acid fermentation pathways and capable of rapid aerobic growth on glucose with a reduced Crabtree effect].

    PubMed

    Morzhakova, A A; Skorokhodova, A Iu; Gulevich, A Iu; Debabov, V G

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we constructed and characterized Escherichia coli strains deficient for mixed acid fermentation pathways, which are capable of rapid aerobic growth on glucose without pronounced bacterial Crabtree effect. The main pathways of production of acetic and lactic acids and ethanol in these strains were inactivated by a deletion of the ackA, pta, poxB, IdhA, and adhEgenes. The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system of glucose transport and phosphorylation was inactivated in the strains by a deletion of the ptsG gene. The possibility of alternative transport and phosphorylation of the carbohydrate substrate was ensured in recombinants by constitutive expression of the galP and glk genes, which encode the low-affinity H+-symporter of D-galactose and glucokinase, respectively. SGMI.0DeltaptsG PtacgalP and SG M1.0DeltaptsG PIglk PtacgalP strains were capable of rapid aerobic growth in a minimal medium containing 2.0 and 10.0 g/l of glucose and secreted only small amounts of acetic acid and trace amounts of pyruvic acid.

  2. Van der Waals interactions in density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langreth, David C.

    2009-03-01

    The van der Waals density functional which we introduced half a decade agoootnotetextM. Dion et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004). and its self-consistent generalizationootnotetextT. Thonhauser et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 125112 (2007). will be briefly reviewed. There are many collaborators in the application review that will follow, not only those who worked in the physics department at Rutgers% ootnotetextMaxime Dion, Aaron Puzder, T. Thonhauser, Valentino R. Cooper, Shen Li, Eamonn Murray, Lingzhu Kong, and Kyuho Lee. and at Chalmers,% ootnotetextHenrik Rydberg, Svetla Chakarova-K"ack, Jesper Kleis, Elsebeth Schr"oder, Per Hyldgaard, and Bengt I. Lundqvist. but also at Denmarks Technical University,% ootnotetextAndrei Kelkkanen, Poul G. Moses, Jesper Kleis, and Bengt I. Lundqvist. the chemistry department at Rutgers,% ootnotetextKonhoa Li, Jing Li, Yves Chabal, and Wilma K. Olson. and most recently at the University of Texas at Dallas.% ootnotetextNour Nijem and Yves Chabal. I will expand on our recent review article,ootnotetextD. C. Langreth et al., J. Phys. Cond. Mat. (in press). which hopefully will be published before the present talk, and include applications by other groups not listed below. If possible, I will also review results from a more recent collaboration to study nucleosomal DNA and beyond.

  3. [1-butanol synthesis by Escherichia coli cells through butyryl-CoA formation by heterologous enzymes of clostridia and native enzymes of fatty acid beta-oxidation].

    PubMed

    Gulevich, A Iu; Skorokhodova, A Iu; Morzhakova, A A; Antonova, S V; Sukhozhenko, A V; Shakulov, R S; Debabov, V G

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic biosynthesis of 1-butanol from glucose is investigated in recombinant Escherichia coli strains which form butyryl-CoA using the heterologous enzyme complex of clostridia or as a result of a reversal in the action of native enzymes of the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. It was revealed that when the basic pathways of acetic and lactic acid formation are inactivated due to deletions in the ackA, pta, poxB, and ldhA genes, the efficiency of butyryl-CoA biosynthesis and its reduced product, i.e., 1-butanol, by two types of recombinant stains is comparable. The limiting factor for 1-butanol production by the obtained strains is the low substrate specificity of the basic CoA-dependent alcohol/aldehyde AdhE dehydrogenase from E. coli to butyryl-CoA. It was concluded that, in order to construct an efficient 1-butanol producer based on a model strain synthesizing butyryl-CoA as a result of a reversal in fatty acid beta-oxidation enzymes, it is necessary to provide intensive formation of acetyl-CoA and enhanced activity of alternative alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in the cells of a strain.

  4. Anionic metabolite biosynthesis enhanced by potassium under dark, anaerobic conditions in cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Sakiko; Kawamura, Yuhki; Iijima, Hiroko; Nakajima, Mitsuharu; Shirai, Tomokazu; Okamoto, Mami; Kondo, Akihiko; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Osanai, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K+) is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms including cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a group of bacteria performing oxygenic photosynthesis, widely studied in basic and applied sciences. The primary metabolism of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is altered by environmental conditions, and it excretes organic acids and hydrogen under dark, anaerobic conditions. Here we demonstrated that K+ widely changes the primary carbon metabolism of this cyanobacterium. Succinate and lactate excretion from the cells incubated under dark, anaerobic conditions was enhanced in the presence of K+, while hydrogen production was repressed. The addition of K+ and the genetic manipulation of acetate kinase AckA and an RNA polymerase sigma factor SigE additively increased succinate and lactate production to 141.0 and 217.6 mg/L, which are 11 and 46 times, compared to the wild-type strain without K+, respectively. Intracellular levels of 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, and malate increased by K+ under dark, anaerobic conditions. This study provides the evidence of the considerable effect of K+ on the biosynthesis of anionic metabolites in a unicellular cyanobacterium. PMID:27576448

  5. High Temperature Mechanical Characterization and Analysis of Al2O3 /Al2O3 Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen ply unidirectional zirconia coated single crystal Al2O3 fiber reinforced polycrystalline Al2O3 was tested in uniaxial tension at temperatures to 1400 C in air. Fiber volume fractions ranged from 26 to 31%. The matrix has primarily open porosity of approximately 40%. Theories for predicting the Young's modulus, first matrix cracking stress, and ultimate strength were applied and evaluated for suitability in predicting the mechanical behavior of Al2O3/Al2O3 composites. The composite exhibited pseudo tough behavior (increased area under the stress/strain curve relative to monolithic alumina) from 22 to 1400 C. The rule-of-mixtures provides a good estimate of the Young's modulus of the composite using the constituent properties from room temperature to approximately 1200 C for short term static tensile tests in air. The ACK theory provides the best approximation of the first matrix cracking stress while accounting for residual stresses at room temperature. Difficulties in determining the fiber/matrix interfacial shear stress at high temperatures prevented the accurate prediction of the first matrix cracking stress above room temperature. The theory of Cao and Thouless, based on Weibull statistics, gave the best prediction for the composite ultimate tensile strength.

  6. Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli for Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Production under Microaerobic Condition.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Xing; Zheng, Wei-Tao; Hou, Xue; Liang, Jian; Li, Zheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase promoter PadhE and mixed acid fermentation pathway deficient mutants of Escherichia coli were employed to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB) under microaerobic condition. The E. coli mutant with ackA-pta, poxB, ldhA, and adhE deletions accumulated 0.67 g/L P3HB, up to 78.84% of cell dry weight in tube cultivation. The deletion of pyruvate formate-lyase gene pflB drastically decreased P3HB production and P3HB content to 0.09 g/L and 24.44%, respectively. Overexpressing pflB via the plasmid in its knocked out mutant restored cell growth and P3HB accumulation, indicating the importance of the pyruvate formate-lyase in microaerobic carbon metabolism. The engineered E. coli BWapld (pWYC09) produced 5.00 g/L P3HB from 16.50 g/L glucose in 24 h batch fermentation, and P3HB production yield from glucose was 0.30 g/g, which reached up to 63% of maximal theoretical yield.

  7. Bacterioplankton communities of Crater Lake, OR: Dynamic changes with euphotic zone food web structure and stable deep water populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urbach, E.; Vergin, K.L.; Larson, G.L.; Giovannoni, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of bacterial and archaeal species in Crater Lake plankton varies dramatically over depth and with time, as assessed by hybridization of group-specific oligonucleotides to RNA extracted from lakewater. Nonmetric, multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of relative bacterial phylotype densities revealed complex relationships among assemblages sampled from depth profiles in July, August and September of 1997 through 1999. CL500-11 green nonsulfur bacteria (Phylum Chloroflexi) and marine Group I crenarchaeota are consistently dominant groups in the oxygenated deep waters at 300 and 500 m. Other phylotypes found in the deep waters are similar to surface and mid-depth populations and vary with time. Euphotic zone assemblages are dominated either by ??-proteobacteria or CL120-10 verrucomicrobia, and ACK4 actinomycetes. MDS analyses of euphotic zone populations in relation to environmental variables and phytoplankton and zooplankton population structures reveal apparent links between Daphnia pulicaria zooplankton population densities and microbial community structure. These patterns may reflect food web interactions that link kokanee salmon population densities to community structure of the bacterioplankton, via fish predation on Daphnia with cascading consequences to Daphnia bacterivory and predation on bacterivorous protists. These results demonstrate a stable bottom-water microbial community. They also extend previous observations of food web-driven changes in euphotic zone bacterioplankton community structure to an oligotrophic setting. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  8. Metabolic networks to generate pyruvate, PEP and ATP from glycerol in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Alhasawi, Azhar; Thomas, Sean C; Appanna, Vasu D

    2016-04-01

    Glycerol is a major by-product of the biodiesel industry. In this study we report on the metabolic networks involved in its transformation into pyruvate, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and ATP. When the nutritionally-versatile Pseudomonas fluorescens was exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a mineral medium with glycerol as the sole carbon source, the microbe reconfigured its metabolism to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) primarily via substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP). This alternative ATP-producing stratagem resulted in the synthesis of copious amounts of PEP and pyruvate. The production of these metabolites was mediated via the enhanced activities of such enzymes as pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). The high energy PEP was subsequently converted into ATP with the aid of pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PEPS) and pyruvate kinase (PK) with the concomitant formation of pyruvate. The participation of the phospho-transfer enzymes like adenylate kinase (AK) and acetate kinase (ACK) ensured the efficiency of this O2-independent energy-generating machinery. The increased activity of glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) in the stressed bacteria provided the necessary precursors to fuel this process. This H2O2-induced anaerobic life-style fortuitously evokes metabolic networks to an effective pathway that can be harnessed into the synthesis of ATP, PEP and pyruvate. The bioconversion of glycerol to pyruvate will offer interesting economic benefit.

  9. Mechanical properties of ceramic composite tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, W.A.; Oleksuk, L.L.; Reifsnider, K.L.; Stinton, D.P.

    1995-08-01

    Results of axial tension tests on SiC/SiC tubular ceramic composite components fabricated by a forced-M technique are presented. Axial elastic modulus measurements on a number of tubes show that the Young`s modulus varies along the length of the tube, with occasional very stiff or very soft regions. Tests to failure on a few tubes show the initiation of non-linear stress-strain behavior to be in the range of 3-9 ksi, followed by extensive non-linear deformation up to failure. For one tube, the failure stress obtained was 20.1 ksi, but the strains to failure at various axial locations varies from 0.19%to 0.24%. The correlation between modulus and proportional limit is considered within the ACK matrix cracking theory and within a model in which matrix cracking between fiber tows occurs, both modified to account for matrix porosity. The crack size required to cause stress concentrations large enough to cause failure at the observed strength is considered. Predictions for both matrix cracking and strength suggest that the current generation of tubes are controlled by microstructural defects.

  10. Annual periodicity in planktonic bacterial and archaeal community composition of eutrophic Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junfeng; Zhang, Junyi; Liu, Liyang; Fan, Yucai; Li, Lianshuo; Yang, Yunfeng; Lu, Zuhong; Zhang, Xuegong

    2015-01-01

    Bacterioplankton plays a key role in nutrient cycling and is closely related to water eutrophication and algal bloom. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile archaeal and bacterial community compositions in the surface water of Lake Taihu. It is one of the largest lakes in China and has suffered from recurring cyanobacterial bloom. A total of 81 water samples were collected from 9 different sites in 9 different months of 2012. We found that temporal variation of the microbial community was significantly greater than spatial variation (adonis, n = 9999, P < 1e−4). The composition of bacterial community in December was similar to that in January, and so was the archaeal community, suggesting potential annual periodicity. Unsupervised K-means clustering was used to identify the synchrony of abundance variations between different taxa. We found that the cluster consisting mostly of ACK-M1, C111 (members of acIV), Pelagibacteraceae (alfV-A) and Synechococcaceae showed relatively higher abundance in autumn. On the contrary, the cluster of Comamonadaceae and Methylophilaceae (members of lineage betI and betIV) had higher abundance in spring. The co-occurrence relationships between taxa were greatly altered during the cyanobacterial bloom according to our further network module analysis. PMID:26503553

  11. Cacades: A reliable dissemination protocol for data collection sensor network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peng, Y.; Song, W.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.; Pei, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast and reliable data dissemination protocol Cascades to disseminate data from the sink(base station) to all or a subset of nodes in a data collection sensor network. Cascades makes use of the parentmonitor-children analogy to ensure reliable dissemination. Each node monitors whether or not its children have received the broadcast messages through snooping children's rebroadcasts or waiting for explicit ACKs. If a node detects a gap in its message sequences, it can fetch the missing messages from its neighbours reactively. Cascades also considers many practical issues for field deployment, such as dynamic topology, link/node failure, etc.. It therefore guarantees that a disseminated message from the sink will reach all intended receivers and the dissemination is terminated in a short time period. Notice that, all existing dissemination protocols either do not guarantee reliability or do not terminate [1, 2], which does not meet the requirement of real-time command control. We conducted experiment evaluations in both TOSSIM simulator and a sensor network testbed to compare Cascades with those existing dissemination protocols in TinyOS sensor networks, which show that Cascades achieves a higher degree of reliability, lower communication cost, and less delivery delay. ??2009 IEEE.

  12. Interaction of 7-bromoacetyl-7-desacetylforskolin with adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Laurenza, A.; Morris, D.I.; Seamon, K.B.

    1986-05-01

    7-Bromoacetyl-7-desacetylforskolin (BrAcFk) and the 12-tritio derivative (/sup 3/H-BrAckFk) were synthesized as alkylating analogs of forskolin. BrAcFk stimulated adenylate cyclase in human platelet and bovine brain membranes with an EC50 of 50..mu..M and inhibited /sup 3/H-forskolin binding to these membranes with a K/sub i/ of 300 nM. /sup 3/H-forskolin binding was decreased in membranes pretreated for 20 min with 10 ..mu..M BrAcFk. The i,9-dideoxy derivative of BrAcFk did not activate adenylate cyclase or inhibit /sup 3/H-forskolin binding. Proteins labelled by BrAcFk in solubilized preparations from bovine brain and human platelets were identified by fluorography of SDS gels. The two predominant bands labelled in the low and high molecular weight regions had molecular weights of 50,000 and 135,000 daltons respectively. The 135,000 dalton band identified by fluorography coeluted with adenylate cyclase activity on a Dupont GF450 column and has a molecular weight identical to that of the catalytic subunit determined by silver staining of SDS gels. These results suggest that BrAcFk can react covalently with the catalytic subunit of adenylate cyclase.

  13. Conditional gene silencing of multiple genes with antisense RNAs and generation of a mutator strain of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Nobutaka; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we describe a method of simultaneous conditional gene silencing of up to four genes in Escherichia coli by using antisense RNAs. We used antisense RNAs with paired termini, which carried flanking inverted repeats to create paired double-stranded RNA termini; these RNAs have been proven to have high silencing efficacy. To express antisense RNAs, we constructed four IPTG-inducible vectors carrying different but compatible replication origins. When the lacZ antisense RNA was expressed using these vectors, lacZ expression was successfully silenced by all the vectors, but the expression level of the antisense RNA and silencing efficacy differed depending on the used vectors. All the vectors were co-transformable; the antisense RNAs against lacZ, ackA, pta and pepN were co-expressed, and silencing of all the target genes was confirmed. Furthermore, when antisense RNAs were targeted to the mutator genes mutS, mutD (dnaQ) and ndk, which are involved in DNA replication or DNA mismatch repair, spontaneous mutation frequencies increased over 2000-fold. The resulting mutator strain is useful for random mutagenesis of plasmids. The method provides a robust tool for investigating functional relationships between multiple genes or altering cell phenotypes for biotechnological and industrial applications. PMID:19515932

  14. Study of Multi-Armed Bandits for Energy Conservation in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Jiang, Hong; Huang, Zhenhua; Chen, Chunmei; Jiang, Hesong

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances have led to the emergence of wireless sensor nodes in wireless networks. Sensor nodes are usually battery powered and hence have strict energy constraints. As a result, energy conservation is very important in the wireless sensor network protocol design and the limited power resources are the biggest challenge in wireless network channels. Link adaptation techniques improve the link quality by adjusting medium access control (MAC) parameters such as frame size, data rate, and sleep time, thereby improving energy efficiency. In this paper we present an adaptive packet size strategy for energy efficient wireless sensor networks. The main goal is to reduce power consumption and extend the whole network life. In order to achieve this goal, the paper introduces the concept of a bounded MAB to find the optimal packet size to transfer by formulating different packet sizes for different arms under the channel condition. At the same time, in achieve fast convergence, we consider the bandwidth evaluation according to ACK. The experiment shows that the packet size is adaptive when the channel quality changes and our algorithm can obtain the optimal packet size. We observe that the MAB packet size adaptation scheme achieves the best energy efficiency across the whole simulation duration in comparison with the fixed frame size scheme, the random packet size and the extended Kalman filter (EKF). PMID:25905702

  15. SCF/c-kit signaling is required in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes for epidermal pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weiming; Yang, Ke; Lei, Mingxing; Yan, Hongtao; Tang, Hui; Bai, Xiufeng; Yang, Guihong; Lian, Xiaohua; Wu, Jinjin

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicle melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) are responsible for hair pigmentation and also function as a major melanocyte reservoir for epidermal pigmentation. However, the molecular mechanism promoting McSCs for epidermal pigmentation remains elusive. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) mimics key signaling involved in melanocyte growth, migration and differentiation. We therefore investigated the molecular basis for the contribution of hair follicle McSCs to epidermal pigmentation using the TPA induction model. We found that repetitive TPA treatment of female C57BL/6 mouse dorsal skin induced epidermal pigmentation by increasing the number of epidermal melanocytes. Particularly, TPA treatment induced McSCs to initiate proliferation, exit the stem cell niche and differentiate. We also demonstrated that TPA promotes melanoblast migration and differentiation in vitro. At the molecular level, TPA treatment induced robust expression of stem cell factor (SCF) in keratinocytes and c-kit in melanoblasts and melanocytes. Administration of ACK2, a neutralizing antibody against the Kit receptor, suppressed mouse epidermal pigmentation, decreased the number of epidermal melanocytes, and inhibited melanoblast migration. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TPA promotes the expansion, migration and differentiation of hair follicle McSCs for mouse epidermal pigmentation. SCF/c-kit signaling was required for TPA-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes. Our findings may provide an excellent model to investigate the signaling mechanisms regulating epidermal pigmentation from mouse hair follicle McSCs, and a potential therapeutic option for skin pigmentation disorders.

  16. TROIKA: a general framework for heart rate monitoring using wrist-type photoplethysmographic signals during intensive physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhilin; Pi, Zhouyue; Liu, Benyuan

    2015-02-01

    Heart rate monitoring using wrist-type photoplethysmographic signals during subjects' intensive exercise is a difficult problem, since the signals are contaminated by extremely strong motion artifacts caused by subjects' hand movements. So far few works have studied this problem. In this study, a general framework, termed TROIKA, is proposed, which consists of signal decomposiTion for denoising, sparse signal RecOnstructIon for high-resolution spectrum estimation, and spectral peaK trAcking with verification. The TROIKA framework has high estimation accuracy and is robust to strong motion artifacts. Many variants can be straightforwardly derived from this framework. Experimental results on datasets recorded from 12 subjects during fast running at the peak speed of 15 km/h showed that the average absolute error of heart rate estimation was 2.34 beat per minute, and the Pearson correlation between the estimates and the ground truth of heart rate was 0.992. This framework is of great values to wearable devices such as smartwatches which use PPG signals to monitor heart rate for fitness.

  17. Inhibition of acetate accumulation leads to enhanced production of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol from glycerol in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaolin; Lin, Yuheng; Jain, Rachit; Yuan, Qipeng; Yan, Yajun

    2012-11-01

    This work describes the production of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol in Escherichia coli using glycerol by metabolic engineering approaches. The introduction of a synthetic pathway converting pyruvate to (R,R)-2,3-butanediol into wild-type E. coli strain BW25113 led to the production of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol at a titer of 3.54 g/l and a yield of 0.131 g product/g glycerol (26.7 % of theoretical maximum) with acetate (around 3.00 g/l) as the dominant by-product. We therefore evaluated the impacts of deleting the genes ackA or/and poxB that are responsible for the major by-product, acetate. This increased production of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol to 9.54 g/l with a yield of 0.333 g product/g glycerol (68.0 % of theoretical maximum) in shake flask studies. The utilization of low-priced crude glycerol to produce value-added chemicals is of great significance to the economic viability of the biodiesel industry.

  18. Genomic and enzymatic evidence for acetogenesis among multiple lineages of the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota widespread in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    He, Y; Li, M; Perumal, V; Feng, X; Fang, J; Xie, J; Sievert, S M; Wang, F

    2016-04-04

    Members of the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota are widespread and abundant in the energy-deficient marine subsurface sediments. However, their life strategies have remained largely elusive. Here, we provide genetic evidence that some lineages of Bathyarchaeota are acetogens, being capable of homoacetogenesis, a metabolism so far restricted to the domain Bacteria. Metabolic reconstruction based on genomic bins assembled from the metagenome of deep-sea subsurface sediments shows that the metabolism of some lineages of Bathyarchaeota is similar to that of bona fide bacterial homoacetogens, by having pathways for acetogenesis and for the fermentative utilization of a variety of organic substrates. Heterologous expression and activity assay of the acetate kinase gene ack from Bathyarchaeota, demonstrate further the capability of these Bathyarchaeota to grow as acetogens. The presence and expression of bathyarchaeotal genes indicative of active acetogenesis was also confirmed in Peru Margin subsurface sediments where Bathyarchaeota are abundant. The analyses reveal that this ubiquitous and abundant subsurface archaeal group has adopted a versatile life strategy to make a living under energy-limiting conditions. These findings further expand the metabolic potential of Archaea and argue for a revision of the role of Archaea in the carbon cycle of marine sediments.

  19. Constraints of nonresponding flows based on cross layers in the networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi-Chao; Xiao, Yang; Wang, Dong

    2016-02-01

    In the active queue management (AQM) scheme, core routers cannot manage and constrain user datagram protocol (UDP) data flows by the sliding window control mechanism in the transport layer due to the nonresponsive nature of such traffic flows. However, the UDP traffics occupy a large part of the network service nowadays which brings a great challenge to the stability of the more and more complex networks. To solve the uncontrollable problem, this paper proposes a cross layers random early detection (CLRED) scheme, which can control the nonresponding UDP-like flows rate effectively when congestion occurs in the access point (AP). The CLRED makes use of the MAC frame acknowledgement (ACK) transmitting congestion information to the sources nodes and utilizes the back-off windows of the MAC layer throttling data rate. Consequently, the UDP-like flows data rate can be restrained timely by the sources nodes in order to alleviate congestion in the complex networks. The proposed CLRED can constrain the nonresponsive flows availably and make the communication expedite, so that the network can sustain stable. The simulation results of network simulator-2 (NS2) verify the proposed CLRED scheme.

  20. Rapid one-step inactivation of single or multiple genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Song, Chan Woo; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-07-01

    Gene knockout experiments are frequently performed for both fundamental and applied biological research. We developed an integration helper plasmid-based knockout system for more efficient and rapid engineering of Escherichia coli. The integration helper plasmid, pCW611, contains two recombinases that are expressed in the reverse direction by two independent inducible systems. One is Red recombinase under the control of the arabinose-inducible system to induce a recombination event by using the linear gene knockout DNA fragment, while the other is Cre recombinase, which is controlled by the isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside-inducible system to obtain markerless mutant strains. The time and effort required can be reduced with this system because iterative transformation and curing steps are not required. We could delete one target gene in three days by using pCW611. To verify the usefulness of this system, deletion experiments were performed to knock out four target genes individually (adhE, sfcA, frdABCD, and ackA) and two genes simultaneously for two cases (adhE-aspA and sfcA-aspA). Also, sequential deletion of four target genes (fumB, iclR, fumA, and fumC) was successfully performed to make a fumaric acid producing strain. This successfully developed and validated rapid and efficient gene manipulation system should be useful for the metabolic engineering of E. coli.

  1. Abundance of the Multiheme c-Type Cytochrome OmcB Increases in Outer Biofilm Layers of Electrode-Grown Geobacter sulfurreducens

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Camille S.; LaBelle, Edward V.; Brantley, Susan L.; Bond, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    When Geobacter sulfurreducens utilizes an electrode as its electron acceptor, cells embed themselves in a conductive biofilm tens of microns thick. While environmental conditions such as pH or redox potential have been shown to change close to the electrode, less is known about the response of G. sulfurreducens to growth in this biofilm environment. To investigate whether respiratory protein abundance varies with distance from the electrode, antibodies against an outer membrane multiheme cytochrome (OmcB) and cytoplasmic acetate kinase (AckA) were used to determine protein localization in slices spanning ∼25 µm-thick G. sulfurreducens biofilms growing on polished electrodes poised at +0.24 V (vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode). Slices were immunogold labeled post-fixing, imaged via transmission electron microscopy, and digitally reassembled to create continuous images allowing subcellular location and abundance per cell to be quantified across an entire biofilm. OmcB was predominantly localized on cell membranes, and 3.6-fold more OmcB was detected on cells 10–20 µm distant from the electrode surface compared to inner layers (0–10 µm). In contrast, acetate kinase remained constant throughout the biofilm, and was always associated with the cell interior. This method for detecting proteins in intact conductive biofilms supports a model where the utilization of redox proteins changes with depth. PMID:25090411

  2. Study of multi-armed bandits for energy conservation in cognitive radio sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Jiang, Hong; Huang, Zhenhua; Chen, Chunmei; Jiang, Hesong

    2015-04-21

    Technological advances have led to the emergence of wireless sensor nodes in wireless networks. Sensor nodes are usually battery powered and hence have strict energy constraints. As a result, energy conservation is very important in the wireless sensor network protocol design and the limited power resources are the biggest challenge in wireless network channels. Link adaptation techniques improve the link quality by adjusting medium access control (MAC) parameters such as frame size, data rate, and sleep time, thereby improving energy efficiency. In this paper we present an adaptive packet size strategy for energy efficient wireless sensor networks. The main goal is to reduce power consumption and extend the whole network life. In order to achieve this goal, the paper introduces the concept of a bounded MAB to find the optimal packet size to transfer by formulating different packet sizes for different arms under the channel condition. At the same time, in achieve fast convergence, we consider the bandwidth evaluation according to ACK. The experiment shows that the packet size is adaptive when the channel quality changes and our algorithm can obtain the optimal packet size. We observe that the MAB packet size adaptation scheme achieves the best energy efficiency across the whole simulation duration in comparison with the fixed frame size scheme, the random packet size and the extended Kalman filter (EKF).

  3. [Regulation on EGFR function via its interacting proteins and its potential application].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun-Fang; Chen, Hui-Min; He, Jun-Qi

    2013-12-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is imptortant for cell activities, oncogenesis and cell migration, and EGFR inhibitor can treat cancer efficiently, but its side effects, for example, in skin, limited its usage. On the other hand, EGFR interacting proteins may also lead to oncogenesis and its interacting protein as drug targets can avoid cutaneous side effect, which implies possibly a better outcome and life quality of cancer patients. For the multiple EGFR interaction proteins, B1R enhances Erk/MAPK signaling, while PTPN12, Kek1, CEACAM1 and NHERF repress Erk/MAPK signaling. CaM may alter charge of EGFR juxamembrane domain and regulate activation of PI3K/Akt and PLC-gamma/PKC. STAT1, STAT5b are widely thought to be activated by EGFR, while there is unexpectedly inhibiting sequence within EGFR to repress the activity of STATs. LRIG1 and ACK1 enhance the internalization and degration of EGFR, while NHERF and HIP1 repress it. In this article, proteins interacting with EGFR, their interacting sites and their regulation on EGFR signal transduction will be reviewed.

  4. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for n-butanol production from maltose and soluble starch by overexpressing α-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Le; Xu, Mengmeng; Tang, I-Ching; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-07-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum does not have the enzymes needed for using maltose or starch. Two extracellular α-glucosidases encoded by agluI and agluII from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 catalyzing the hydrolysis of α-1,4-glycosidic bonds in maltose and starch from the non-reducing end were cloned and expressed in C. tyrobutyricum (Δack, adhE2), and their effects on n-butanol production from maltose and soluble starch in batch fermentations were studied. Compared to the parental strain grown on glucose, mutants expressing agluI showed robust activity in breaking down maltose and produced more butanol (17.2 vs. 9.5 g/L) with a higher butanol yield (0.20 vs. 0.10 g/g) and productivity (0.29 vs. 0.16 g/L h). The mutant was also able to use soluble starch as substrate, although at a slower rate compared to maltose. Compared to C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824, the mutant produced more butanol from maltose (17.2 vs. 11.2 g/L) and soluble starch (16.2 vs. 8.8 g/L) in batch fermentations. The mutant was stable in batch fermentation without adding antibiotics, achieving a high butanol productivity of 0.40 g/L h. This mutant strain thus can be used in industrial production of n-butanol from maltose and soluble starch.

  5. Ab initio calculations of correlated electron dynamics in ultrashort pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    The availability of ultrashort and intense light pulses on the femtosecond and attosecond timescale promises to allow to directly probe and control electron dynamics on their natural timescale. A crucial ingredient to understanding the dynamics in many-electron systems is the influence of electron correlation, induced by the interelectronic repulsion. In order to study electron correlation in ultrafast processes, we have implemented an ab initio simulation of the two-electron dynamics in helium atoms. We solve the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation in its full dimensionality, with one temporal and five spatial degrees of freedom in linearly polarized laser fields. In our computational approach, the wave function is represented through a combination of time-dependent close coupling with the finite element discrete variable representation, while time propagation is performed using an Arnoldi-Lanczos approximation with adaptive step size. This approach is optimized to allow for efficient parallelization of the program and has been shown to scale linearly using up to 1800 processor cores for typical problem sizes. This has allowed us to perform highly accurate and well- converged computations for the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with He. I will present some recent results on using attosecond and femtosecond pulses to probe and control the temporal structure of the ionization process. This work was performed in collaboration with Stefan Nagele, Renate Pazourek, Andreas Kaltenb"ack, Emil Persson, Barry I. Schneider, Lee A. Collins, and Joachim Burgd"orfer.

  6. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa acsA gene, encoding an acetyl-CoA synthetase, is essential for growth on ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, U; Schobert, M; Görisch, H

    2001-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 17933 uses a pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent ethanol oxidation system. Two mutants of P. aeruginosa, unable to grow on ethanol and showing no acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) activity under standard test conditions, were complemented by cosmid pTB3018. Subcloning led to the isolation of a gene which encodes a protein with high similarity to acetyl-CoA synthetases. Interruption of the putative acsA gene by a kanamycin-resistance cassette resulted in a mutant also unable to grow on ethanol and with very low residual acetyl-CoA-forming activity. Complementation by the wild-type allele of the acsA gene restored growth and led to the expression of ACS activity in excess of that of wild-type cells. In wild-type P. aeruginosa, ACS activity was induced upon growth on ethanol, 2,3-butanediol, malonate and acetate. The wild-type and mutants defective in ACS activity showed an active acetate kinase (ACK) under the growth conditions used; however, phosphotransacetylase (PTA) could not be detected. The data indicate that P. aeruginosa requires active acsA gene product for growth on ethanol.

  7. Packaging and Transportation Support at LANL CTMA 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, Nick

    2012-06-08

    Operations Support Packaging and Transportation (OS-PT) supports LANL in various functions. Some highlights of the past year have been with the work relating to environmental remediation, type B packaging, non-DOT compliant transfers, and special permit training. The TA-21 remediation project was part of the ARRA funding that LANL received. The $212 million in funding was used to demolish 24 buildings at TA-21, excavate the lab's oldest waste disposal site, and install 16 groundwater monitoring wells. The project was completed ahead of schedule and under budget. More than 300 tons of metal was recycled and all the soil excavated from MDA-B was replaced with clean fill. OS-PT supported this projected by transporting more than 7 million pounds of waste to TA-54 Area G with an addendum to their TSD. Because of the public access on the transfer route, Los Alamos County restricted the transfer to happen from 2:00 AM to 4:00 AM. OS-PT conducted 8 transfers in support of this project. Some concerns included the contaminated trailers at receipt facilities when transferring filled Super Sacks. Future Super Sacks were over packed into new IP-2 Super Sacks before shipping. OS-PT is also supporting the remediation of TA-54 Area G. LANL has an agreement with the State of New Mexico to remove all TRU waste currently stored above ground from at Area G. OS-PT supports this initiative with transfers of TRU waste under LANL's TSD and support of TRU shipments to WIPP. Another project supported by our organization is gas cylinder/dewar recycling and remediation. We are focusing on reducing risk associated with unneeded gasses at LANL. To minimized excessive ordering, to save money and time, and to minimize hazards OS-PT is supporting a gas recycling program. This program will allow programmatic organization across LANL to share unused/unneeded gasses. Instead of old dewars being disposed of, OS-PT has began identifying these dewars and sending them for refurbishment. To date, this

  8. About one supplement of teh "Harmony of Universe" by J. Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Vladimir

    1999-08-01

    In book of J. Kepler "welt harmonik" (Munich-berlin 1939, Verlag R. Oldenburg) musical proportions are amalgamated with geometrical by means of building Platoon's right bodies, enter and described figures. By the physical sense of such association may serve total wave nature those construction. Proportions, received by J. Kepler, are possible in the case of formation of planets (as to J. Kepler constructed Platoon's figures) conform the surfaces to nodes of standing waves having as an the source of central luminary Solar system. By likeness image in experiments of Chladny at the formation of standing wave on the planes of oscillation plate scatter about along it particles collect together, sack from dots, which oscillation plate scatter about along it particles collect together, sack from dots, which oscillation with maximal amplitude, on dots the amplitude fluctuations of fluctuations is equal to zero, fill in nodes lines. Coordinates, count off from the source of wave, must correspond to the distances of planets from Sun, as explaining the physical sense of rule Bode. So, shall adopt the length of base gravitational wave ("basic one") L=0, 52 AU. Then planets the orbits of solar system must distribute in nodes lines in dots, be away from next on multiple L/2 numeral's. From such condition it may be receive the "theoretical" distances of planets from Sun. In Table are presented such distances in compare with true distances. Mecrury 0.39 0.39 Venus 0.72 0,39+0,50L=0,65 Earth 1.00 0,39+1,50L=1,17 Mars 1.52 1,00+1,00L=1.52 Main belt of asteroids 2.90 1.00+4,00L=3.08 Jupiter 5.20 1.00+8,00L=5.16 Saturn9.54 1.00+16,00L=9.32 Uranus 19.20 1.00+35,00L=19.20 Neptun 30.10 1.00+56,00L=30,12 Pluto 39.50 1.00+74,00L=39.48 As visible form Table, with the distance increasing from central body, scale filling "nodes surfaces" in space, or dost in viewed one-dimension accident, grows almost in geometrical progression. Obviously, here tell on mechanics of "gold section", ensuring

  9. Effects of Dynamic Assimilation: Mineral Dissolution Controlled AFC Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, B. R.; Russell, J. K.

    2002-12-01

    If N.L. Bowen were alive today, he would probably be conducting experiments aimed at understanding one of the great unresolved challenges of igneous petrology: documenting the time scales of non-equilibrium, magmatic processes. Over the last 20 years thermodynamicists (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995) have developed models that compute liquid-solid equilibrium for a broad range of silicate melt compositions undergoing crystallization processes such as assimilation. Unfortunately, the equilibrium world neglects one variable that is critical to a dynamic world - time. The marriage of equilibrium thermodynamics with time-dependent processes occurs within the field of irreversible thermodynamics - a field petrologists have ventured into via laboratory experiments aimed at documenting the rates at which minerals react with silicate liquids (e.g., Donaldson, 1985). Such experiments, documenting the temporal effects of magmatic reactions, are critical for the future progress of our science. As a first step toward understanding the effects of dynamic assimilation, we developed a simple model for predicting rates of mineral dissolution using the thermodynamic potential affinity. The dissolution rate data used in the model was only slightly modified, for geometric consistency, from the reported raw experimental data. The affinities for the dissolution reactions were calculated using the reported experimental conditions as input to the MELTS software. We developed a linear predictive model based on direct comparison of the modified reaction rates and the calculated affinities. Our model for predicting rates of mineral dissolution, when paired with the MELTS thermodynamic database, predicts the time scales of crystallization and cooling due to dissolution-controlled assimilation. We have applied the model to examine the development of peralkaline magmas at Hoodoo Mountain volcano via AFC processes acting on an AOB parental magma. Given broad age constraints on the formation of the

  10. Radiation Measurement Systems and Experiences in Japan after the Fukushima Accident

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    In the approximately 4 years since the March 2011 earthquake and subsequent Tsunami damaged the three Dai-Ichi nuclear power plants, the AREVA and Canberra team have deployed a variety of different radiation measurement machines in Japan. These measurement projects or instruments include: - Dose-rate mapping of the close-in areas on the damaged reactor site using the stored output of dose rate meters carried by workers planning for the installing of a water processing unit; - Spectroscopic on-line measurements of the first water processing unit on the site, where these nuclide-specific measurements at multiple points allowed remote users to determine the optimum processing parameters - General purpose food measurement units, both high precision HPGe systems and low cost NaI systems, which were used throughout the country for food quality measurements; - In-vivo measurement systems, both fixed and mobile whole body counting units, that were used on at least 500,000 people, demonstrating to them that internal doses were very low; - In-vivo measurements with special high-sensitivity whole body counters on babies and children, demonstrating to the parents of these children that internal doses are very low; - Automatic systems for high throughput assay of bags of rice that are part of the consumer confidence plan to prove to customers that Fukushima Prefecture rice is safe; - High sensitivity automatic system to assay boxes of special semi-dry persimmons and to report the activity of each individual item within the box meets the regulatory limit; - System to assay soil on a conveyor belt and sort the output according to level of radioactivity, which would then reduce the volume of material that must be treated as radioactive; - System to assay a truck loaded with 1 cubic meter sacks of soil and vegetation, and report the results of each individual sack. - On-line water measurement system for SrY90 at levels that are suitable for release to the environment; - Mobile

  11. Magnitude-Dependent Seismic Quiescence: A Meta-Analysis of Data and Numerical Simulations of the Underlying Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. E.; Sacks, S. I.

    2013-12-01

    Magnitude-dependent seismic quiescence, the slowing down or ceasing of background seismicity above a threshold magnitude prior to a major earthquake, has been observed for many earthquakes including the 1982 Urakawa-Oki [Taylor et al., 1991] and the 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki [Takanami et al., 1996] in Japan, and the 1994 Northridge earthquake in California [Smith and Sacks, 2013 submitted]. Magnitude-dependent quiescence is a more robust observation than simple quiescence, because the cessation of seismicity in certain magnitude bins but not others, allows one to rule out overall fluctuations in seismicity rate as a source of the signal. We postulate that the mechanism behind magnitude-dependent quiescence involves dilatant expansion of stress asperities in the medium. Under high stress, rock will dilate or volumetrically expand, which will lower the pore pressure and increase the effective normal stress in a water-saturated medium. These higher stress asperities, which tend to release a large stress drop and shear strain energy into the medium when they fail, now become locked due to the increased normal stress. Based on the model of Rydelek and Sacks [1995], which modeled the fault surface as a set of interacting small segments (roughly equivalent in size to the inner-scale of fault roughness), we have seen that events above a threshold magnitude require the failure of a number segments; hence, the clamping of high stress asperities should have the effect of quieting down and ceasing events above a threshold magnitude, since it is the failure of high stress asperities that is most likely to propagate rupture to other segments. We investigate this hypothesized model via: 1) A meta-analysis of data and 2) a numerical model. In the meta-analysis, we examine regions of high deviatoric stress to see how well their behavior agrees with the postulate. Indeed, virtually every observation of quiescence occurs in a compressional environment with a relatively high shear stress

  12. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N.; Pollard, M.

    2011-09-30

    The high-level goal of this multi-year effort was to facilitate the Advanced Combustion Engine goal of 20% improvement (compared to 2009 baseline) of commercial engine efficiency by 2015. A sub-goal is to increase the reliability of diesel fuel injectors by investigating modelbased scenarios that cannot be achieved by empirical, trial and error methodologies alone. During this three-year project, ORNL developed the methodology to evaluate origins and to record the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks emanating from holes that were electrodischarge machined (EDM), the method used to form spray holes in fuel injector tips. Both x-ray and neutron-based methods for measuring residual stress at four different research facilities were evaluated to determine which, if any, was most applicable to the fuel injector tip geometry. Owing to the shape and small volumes of material involved in the sack area, residual stress data could only be obtained in the walls of the nozzle a few millimeters back from the tip, and there was a hint of only a small compressive stress. This result was consistent with prior studies by Caterpillar. Residual stress studies were suspended after the second year, reserving the possibility of pursuing this in the future, if and when methodology suitable for injector sacks becomes available. The smooth specimen fatigue behavior of current fuel injector steel materials was evaluated and displayed a dual mode initiation behavior. At high stresses, cracks started at machining flaws in the surface; however, below a critical threshold stress of approximately 800 MPa, cracks initiated in the bulk microstructure, below the surface. This suggests that for the next generation for high-pressure fuel injector nozzles, it becomes increasingly important to control the machining and finishing processes, especially if the stress in the tip approaches or exceeds that threshold level. Fatigue tests were also conducted using EDM notches in the gage sections

  13. Mineralization of organic-matter labile fragments in the humus-accumulative horizon of soddy-podzolic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, S. Ya.; Lazarev, A. S.; Fokin, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    The mineralization rate of the 14C-labeled organic matter (OM) in the humus-accumulative AE horizon of a soddy-podzolic soil was determined in a laboratory experiment. The labeling was performed in a field experiment when microamounts of 14C-labeled glucose, glycine, and uracil were added to tree waste in sacks embedded in the upper layer of the forest litter. Samples containing 14C were taken from the AE horizon (above which the sacks with the labeled material were placed) 7 and 20 months after the beginning of the experiment. The soil samples were wetted to a water content corresponding to ˜80% of the total water capacity and placed in hermetic vessels containing vials with a periodically renewed alkali solution. The incubation was performed at room temperature for 3.5 months; the alkali solutions in the vials were replaced and titrated 12 times during this period. Mineralization curves were plotted from the amounts of carbon dioxide absorbed by a 0.3 N NaOH solution, which were calculated for each time interval; its 14C content was determined by the scintillation method. The experimental treatments also included the determination of the OM mineralization rate in material from the AE horizon pretreated with a heavy liquid or a heavy liquid and a 0.1 N NaOH solution. The differences between the mineralization rates of the labeled organic matter applied to the soil in the form of glucose, glycine, and uracil under the field conditions after the interaction for 7 and 20 months were revealed. The changes in the mineralization rate after the successive extraction of the labile organic matter with a heavy liquid and a 0.1 N NaOH solution were studied. It was shown that the transformation of the labeled low-molecular-weight organic compounds in the soil over 20 months included their strong inclusion into the humus composition, which was confirmed by the similar values of the mineralization constants of the native and 14C-labeled OM. In addition, the treatments with the

  14. The history of lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mallavarapu, Ravi K; Grimsley, Edwin W

    2007-09-01

    This article explores the history of lupus erythematosus from the origins of the name to the most modern therapeutic advances. The review includes information about the origin of the name "lupus," the first clear description of the skin lesions, the discovery of the systemic and discoid forms, and further advances which define our current view of this illness. The classical descriptions of Hippocrates, Paracelsus, Manardi, Rudolph Virchow, Cazenave, Robert Willan, and Moritz Kaposi are chronologically described. Later, the contributions of Sir William Osler, Jonathan Hutchinson, Sequira and Balean, Kraus and Bohac, Libman and Sacks, Malcolm Hargraves, and Edmund L. Dubois are highlighted. The major breakthroughs of the modern period, including the diagnostic tests, animal models, and genetics, are briefly described. The article ends with the history of drug-induced lupus, diagnostic criteria, and the history of the therapy of lupus erythematosus. With modern therapeutic advances, the mortality rate from lupus erythematosus has decreased substantially. It is hoped that current research will further improve the prognosis of this disease in the near future.

  15. Methyl Jasmonate Ameliorates Testosterone Propionate-induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Castrated Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Akanni, Olubukola Oyebimpe; Abiola, Olusoji John; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle

    2017-04-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a progressive disease that is related to age. Known therapeutic agents used in the treatment of BPH are associated with toxicity. Therefore, chemoprevention could be an effective approach. We investigated the ameliorative effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH in castrated rats. Castration was performed by removing both testes through the scrotum sack under ketamine anesthesia. Rats were assigned into seven groups of seven animals each: non-castrated control, castrated control, castrated rats that received TP, castrated rats that received TP and MeJA, castrated rats that received TP and finasteride, castrated rats that received MeJA, and castrated rats that received finasteride. Results indicate that BPH rats had significantly (p < 0.05) elevated prostate weight and relative weight of prostate relative to control. Also, BPH rats had significantly (p < 0.05) increased activities of prostatic acid and alkaline phosphatases, levels of zinc, and malondialdehyde. Further, levels of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidative indices were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in BPH. Histology of prostate revealed hyperplasia of transition lobe, increased expression of PSA, and Ki67 in BPH. Treatment with MeJA and finasteride attenuated the activities of the phosphatases and levels of antioxidants in BPH. Overall, MeJA ameliorates BPH via antioxidative mechanism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Using the Humanities to Teach Neuroscience to Non-majors.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Hewlet G; Richeimer, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We developed and offered a sequence of neuroscience courses geared toward changing the way non-science students interact with the sciences. Although we accepted students from all majors and at all class levels, our target population was first and second year students who were majoring in the fine arts or the humanities, or who had not yet declared a major. Our goal was to engage these students in science in general and neuroscience in particular by teaching science in a way that was accessible and relevant to their intellectual experiences. Our methodology was to teach scientific principles through the humanities by using course material that is at the intersection of the sciences and the humanities and by changing the classroom experience for both faculty and students. Examples of our course materials included the works of Oliver Sacks, V.S. Ramachandran, Martha Nussbaum, Virginia Woolf and Karl Popper, among others. To change the classroom experience we used a model of team-teaching, which required the simultaneous presence of two faculty members in the classroom for all classes. We changed the structure of the classroom experience from the traditional authority model to a model in which inquiry, debate, and intellectual responsibility were central. We wanted the students to have an appreciation of science not only as an endeavor guided by evidence and experimentation, but also a public discourse driven by creativity and controversy. The courses attracted a significant number of humanities and fine arts students, many of whom had already completed their basic science requirement.

  17. The mind with a radio of its own: a case report and review of the literature on the treatment of musical hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Colon-Rivera, Hector A; Oldham, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Musical hallucinations (MH) have been labeled Oliver Sacks syndrome, and in the majority of cases, they occur in the context of a hearing loss. In these instances, they have been described as auditory Charles Bonnet syndrome because they are thought to represent a cortical release phenomenon. Patients with MH tend to have intact reality testing, and as such, the condition may also be described as musical hallucinosis. The temporal course of MH is variable, but given that they may improve or remit with time, education on their benign nature is often sufficient. MH also may improve when hearing loss is reversed. The use of ambient noise potentially ameliorates mild to moderate MH; however, where this is insufficient, somatic treatments may be considered. Case reports have documented successful use of low-dose antiepileptics, atypical antipsychotics and donepezil. We present a case of a 52-year-old man who received only partial relief from serial treatment with several psychotropic agents. He developed major depression with suicidal ideation in the context of persistent, intrusive MH that were refractory to several medication trials, and whereas a course of electroconvulsive therapy led to remission of depressive and suicidal symptoms, it provided only transient relief of his MH. In this article, we also provide a review of the literature on the neurobiology and treatment of MH.

  18. Wittgenstein's neurophenomenology.

    PubMed

    Cole, J

    2007-06-01

    Wittgenstein, despite being considered an analytical philosopher, has been quoted extensively by neurologists like Oliver Sacks. This paper explores how Wittgenstein, despite suggesting that science was antithetical to philosophy, made observations relevant to cognitive neuroscience. His work on the inner and the outer, the relation between language and sensation or perception, and on the embodied nature of emotion and its communication, is important for an understanding of neurological impairment beyond our experience. In some of his enigmatic short writing his insights are pertinent to patients' experience, say of pain, Capgras' Syndrome and spinal cord injury. He also made observations on movement sense, will and action. He did not engage in empirical science, nor obtain data in any conventional sense. But his genius was not confined to abstract philosophy. His powers of observation and introspection led him to explore lived experience in new ways, some of which are only now being approached empirically. The method of science, he once wrote, leads philosophy into complete darkness. Had he lived today, one hopes that even he might have changed his mind.

  19. Floral nectary anatomy and ultrastructure in mycoheterotrophic plant, Epipogium aphyllum Sw. (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Święczkowska, Emilia; Kowalkowska, Agnieszka K

    2015-01-01

    Epipogium aphyllum is a European-Asian obligatory mycoheterotrophic orchid containing no chlorophyll. Flowers are not resupinate with a sack-shape spur and cordate lip, which is divided into two parts: the basal (hypochile) and distal one (epichile). The floral analysis provides strong evidence to conclude that nectar is secreted on the upper surface of pink-coloured papillate ridges and epidermal (adaxial) cells at different place in spur, especially at the apex. The exudation on papillae has been observed through the entire anthesis and it has been stained on polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids. The dense cytoplasm of papillae contains profuse endoplasmic reticulum, plentiful vesicles (bigger ones with tannin-like materials), numerous mitochondria, sometimes dictyosomes, starch grains, and plastids with tubular structures. The large electron-dense bodies in cell walls are structurally the same as tannin-like materials from vesicles that are in contact with plasmalemma. The rupture of thin layer of swelled cuticle is caused by pressure of gathered substances exuded due to granulocrine secretion. The idioblasts with raphides occur mainly in tepals tissue. The dynamic changes of the nectar exudation, released through endocrine secretion, have been noticeable during the anthesis: both on the lip and inside the spur. The nectar secretion is not dependent on the colour form of E. aphyllum blooming shoots. The floral biology and ultrastructure differ from mycoheterotrophic plants known up to date.

  20. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae) from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment.

    PubMed

    Ponert, Jan; Trávníček, Pavel; Vuong, Truong Ba; Rybková, Romana; Suda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macro)morphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy), assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis), determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry) and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences). Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma.

  1. Explosives detection with quadrupole resonance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Timothy J.; Thorson, Benjamin D.; Beevor, Simon; West, Rebecca; Krauss, Ronald A.

    1997-02-01

    The increase in international terrorist activity over the past decade has necessitated the exploration of new technologies for the detection of plastic explosives. Quadrupole resonance analysis (QRA) has proven effective as a technique for detecting the presence of plastic, sheet, and military explosive compounds in small quantities, and can also be used to identify narcotics such as heroin and cocaine base. QRA is similar to the widely used magnetic resonance (MR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, but has the considerable advantage that the item being inspected does not need to be immersed in a steady, homogeneous magnetic field. The target compounds are conclusively identified by their unique quadrupole resonance frequencies. Quantum magnetics has develop and introduced a product line of explosives and narcotics detection devices based upon QRA technology. The work presented here concerns a multi-compound QRA detection system designed to screen checked baggage, cargo, and sacks of mail at airports and other high-security facilities. The design philosophy and performance are discussed and supported by test results from field trials conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom. This detection system represents the current state of QRA technology for field use in both commercial and government sectors.

  2. Exploring corrective experiences in a successful case of short-term dynamic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Myrna L; Sutherland, Olga; Sandler, Steven; Kortz, Laura; Bernardi, Shaina; Lee, Hsin-Hua; Drozd, Agata

    2012-09-01

    The concept of corrective emotional experience, originally formulated by psychoanalysts Alexander and French (1946), has been redefined by contemporary researchers to be theoretically nonspecific, that is, as "coming to understand or experience an event or relationship in a different or unexpected way" (Castonguay & Hill, 2011). Using postsession questionnaires, videotapes, and posttermination interviews, we explored whether (and how) a corrective experience occurred in a successful case of short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP; Davanloo, 1980). A 35-year-old woman suffering severe panic attacks was seen for 31 sessions by an experienced STDP therapist. The questionnaires and interviews focused on (a) perceived intrapsychic and interpersonal changes, and (b) how these changes came about. At termination, the client reported complete symptom relief, greater self-acceptance, improved relationships, and more emotional flexibility. Her corrective experience was evident in the qualitative themes, which showed that she came to understand and affectively experience her relationships with both parents differently. Moreover, the themes reflected both STDP-specific (e.g., confrontation of defenses) and nonspecific (e.g., rapport, acceptance) mechanisms of change. Conversation analysis (Sacks, 1995) of what the client described as "the 'gentle shove' of questions that make me see what I have been trying to ignore since childhood" showed, on a microlinguistic level, how she overcame resistance to strong emotional experience and expression.

  3. Floating marine debris in fjords, gulfs and channels of southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, Iván A; Thiel, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Floating marine debris (FMD) is reported from all oceans. The bulk of FMD are plastics, which due to their longevity cause multiple negative impacts on wildlife and environment. Identifying the origins of FMD (land- or sea-based) is important to take the necessary steps to diminish their abundance. Using ship surveys we examined the abundance, composition and distribution of FMD during the years 2002-2005 in the fjords, gulfs and channels of southern Chile. Abundances of FMD were relatively high compared with other studies, ranging from 1 to 250 items km(-2). The majority (approximately 80%) of FMD was composed of styrofoam (expanded polystyrene), plastic bags and plastic fragments. Styrofoam, which is intensively used as flotation device by mussel farms, was very abundant in the northern region but rarely occurred in the southern region of the study area. Food sacks from salmon farms were also most common in the northern region, where approximately 85% of the total Chilean mussel and salmon harvest is produced. Plastic bags, which could be from land- or sea-based sources, were found throughout the entire study area. Our results indicate that sea-based activities (mussel farming and salmon aquaculture) are responsible for most FMD in the study area. In order to reduce FMDs in the environment, in addition to stronger legislation and identification of potential sources, we suggest environmental education programs and we encourage public participation (e.g. in beach surveys and clean-ups).

  4. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    PubMed Central

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2008-01-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey (“Theoclymenus's prophecy”) to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192–1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250–1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse. PMID:18577587

  5. Morphological aspects of the capybara stomach (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris): gross and microscopic structure.

    PubMed

    Moraes, P T de Barros; Pacheco, M R; de Souza, W M; da Silva, R A; Neto, P B S; Barreto, C S de Figueiredo; Ribeiro, A A C M

    2002-12-01

    The digestive system of the capybara has been investigated because of its coprofagia habits, important for their absorptive activity. These species present differences in terms of gastrointestinal morphological characters when compared with other rodents. Macroscopiclly, the stomach of the capybara is constituted of the following parts: cardiac, pyloric, body, fundic and gastric diverticulum. It presents two curvatures, one big and another small. Externally, the presence of gastric bands (tenias) is observed. With regards to the volumetric view, the gastric capacity varies from 850 to 2010 ml, with an average of 1498.57 ml. So, the stomach of this animal can be classified as a simple stomach, in the format of a curved sack and similar to an inverted letter 'J'. The gastric mucous membrane presents a surface filled by numerous tortuous gastric folds and longitudinally distributed along all its extension. The mucous tunic also possesses recesses located among the successive gastric folds, which were denoted as gastric parts with numerous openings described as gastric pits. In the cardiac part, a glandular epithelium with cardiac glands is noticed containing a lot of parietal and mucous neck cells. The fundic part, body and gastric diverticulum contain proper gastric glands with main, parietal and mucous neck cells. Finally, the pyloric part has pyloric glands with two cellular types, mucous neck and parietal cells.

  6. Effect of taurine and gold nanoparticles on the morphological and molecular characteristics of muscle development during chicken embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Marlena; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta; Balcerak, Marek; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Skomial, Jacek; Sawosz, Filip; Chwalibog, Andrè

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of taurine and Au nanoparticles on the expression of genes related to embryonic muscle development and on the morphological characteristics of muscles. Fertilised chicken eggs (n = 160) were randomly divided into four groups: without injection (Control) and with injection of Au nanoparticles (NanoAu), taurine (Tau) or Au nanoparticles with taurine (NanoAu + Tau). The experimental solutions were given in ovo, on the third day of incubation, by injecting 0.3 ml of the experimental solution into the air sack. The embryos were evaluated on the 20th day of incubation. The methods included gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels, immunohistochemistry, histology and microscopy. In groups NanoAu, Tau and NanoAu + Tau, the muscle structure and the number of muscle cells were affected. Furthermore, taurine increased fibre diameter, the total number of nuclei, the proportion of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells and the total cell number. Also, gene expression of basic fibroblast growth factor-2 and PCNA was downregulated. There were no significant interactions between NanoAu and taurine, indicating that NanoAu did not enhance the effects of taurine. It may be concluded that 20 days after injection, NanoAu affected some parameters of muscle development, but the most profound effects were those of taurine.

  7. Preventive effect of ferulic acid on bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Sassa, Shuji; Kikuchi, Takashi; Shinoda, Hisashi; Suzuki, Satoe; Kudo, Hideki; Sakamoto, Shinobu

    2003-01-01

    An extract from corn germ induced a positive response in the pigeon crop sack test, used for the detection of prolactin-like substances. One of the substances extracted was identified as ferulic acid, which was reported to affect serum gonadotropin levels in ovariectomized male rats. To evaluate the effects of ferulic acid on bone loss, ovariectomized female rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain at age 35 weeks were given ferulic acid and/or 17a-ethynylestradiol daily for 8 weeks, and serum hormone levels and tibial bone mineral density were measured. In metaphysis of the tibia, which was abundant in cancellous bone and more reflective of BMD than whole tibia, the BMD was markedly reduced by ovariectomy and enhanced by the treatment with estrogen or ferulic acid in the ovariectomized rats. The treatment slightly increased the serum levels of estrogen and progesterone and alkaline phosphatase activity, which was reduced by estrogentreatment, i.e. the mechanism of bone formation by ferulic acid was suggested to be different from that by estrogens. These results indicate that ferulic acid promotes bone remodeling, leading to a predominantly osteoblastic phase, besides bone resorption by osteoclasts.

  8. Pattern dynamics analysis of seismic catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K.; Rundle, J.; Klein, W.; McGinnis, S.; Posadas, A.; Fernàndez, J.; Luzòn, F.

    2003-04-01

    The historical earthquake record, while not complete, spans hundreds to thousands of years of human history. As a result, large, extended fault systems such as those in California are known to demonstrate complex space-time seismicity patterns, which include, but are not limited to, repetitive events, precursory activity and quiescence, and aftershock sequences ((Mogi, 1969; Keilis-Borok et al., 1980; Kanamori, 1981; Kagan and Jackson, 1992; Saleur et al., 1996; Ellsworth and Cole, 1997; Pollitz and Sacks, 1997; Bowman et al., 1998; Nanjo et al., 1998; Wyss and Wiemer, 1999). Although the characteristics of these patterns can be qualitatively described, a systematic quantitative analysis remains elusive (Kanamori, 1981; Turcotte, 1991; Geller et al., 1997). Here we describe a new technique, formulated based on new developments in the physical and theoretical understanding of these complex, nonlinear fault systems that isolates emergent regions of coherent, correlated seismicity (Bak and Tang, 1989; Rundle, 1989; Sornette and Sornette, 1989; Rundle and Klein, 1995; Sammis et al., 1996; 1997; Fisher et al., 1997; Jaume and Sykes, 1999; Rundle et al., 1999; Tiampo et al., 2002). Analysis of data taken prior to large events reveals that the appearance of the coherent correlated regions is often associated with the future occurrence of major earthquakes in the same areas or other tectonic mechanisms such as aseismic slip events (Tiampo et al., 2002). We proceed to detail this pattern dynamics methodology and then identify systematic space-time variations in the seismicity from several tectonic regions.

  9. UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase is essential for arabinose and xylose recycling, and is required during vegetative and reproductive growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Geserick, Claudia; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2013-04-01

    Numerous nucleotide sugars are needed in plants to synthesize cell wall polymers and glycoproteins. The de novo synthesis of nucleotide sugars is of major importance. During growth, however, some polymers are broken down to monosaccharides. Reactivation of these sugars into nucleotide sugars occurs in two steps: first, by a substrate-specific sugar-1-kinase and, second, by UDP-sugar-pyrophosphorylase (USP), which has broad substrate specificity. A knock-out of the USP gene results in non-fertile pollen. By using various genetic complementation approaches we obtained a strong (>95%) knock-down line in USP that allowed us to investigate the physiological role of the enzyme during the life cycle. Mutant plants show an arabinose reduction in the cell wall, and accumulate mainly two sugars, arabinose and xylose, in the cytoplasm. The arabinogalactanproteins in usp mutants show no significant reduction in size. USP is also part of the myo-inositol oxygenation pathway to UDP-glucuronic acid; however, free glucuronic acid does not accumulate in cells, suggesting alternative conversion pathways of this monosaccharide. The knock-down plants are mostly sterile because of the improper formation of anthers and pollen sacks.

  10. Experiences with TCP/IP over an ATM OC12 WAN

    SciTech Connect

    Nitzan, Rebecca L.; Tierney, Brian L.

    1999-12-23

    This paper discusses the performance testing experiences of a 622.08 Mbps OC12 link. The link will be used for large bulk data transfer, and as such, of interest are both the ATM level throughput rates and end-to-end TCP/IP throughput rates. Tests were done to evaluate the ATM switches, the IP routers, the end hosts, as well as the underlying ATM service provided by the carrier. A low level of cell loss, (resulting in <.01 % packet loss), decreased the TCP throughput rate considerably when one TCP flow was trying to use the entire OC12 bandwidth. Identifying and correcting cell loss in the network proved to be extremely difficult. TCP Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) improved performance dramatically, and the maximum throughput rate increased from 300 Mbps to 400 Mbps. The effects of TCP slow start on performance at OC12 rates are also examined, and found to be insignificant for very large file transfers (e.g., for a 10 GB file). Finally, a history of TCP performance over high-speed networks is presented.

  11. Unexpected behavioural consequences of preterm newborns' clothing.

    PubMed

    Durier, Virginie; Henry, Séverine; Martin, Emmanuelle; Dollion, Nicolas; Hausberger, Martine; Sizun, Jacques

    2015-03-17

    Restrictions of preterm newborns' movements could have consequences ranging from stress enhancement to impairment of their motor development. Therefore, ability to freely express motor activities appears crucial for their behavioural and physiological development. Our aim was to evaluate behavioural issues of two types of clothing used in NICU. We observed 18 healthy 34-37 post-conception week-old preterm newborns, during resting periods, when they were undisturbed by any interventions. Newborns wore either light clothing (bodysuit and a light wrapping) or heavy clothing (pyjamas, cardigan and sleep-sack). The percentages of time each subject spent in different postures were compared between clothing situations. Arm and hand postures differed in relation to clothing: babies bent their arms more and held their hands nearer their heads when in bodysuits than when in sleepwear. Consequently, babies in bodysuits spent more time touching their body or their environment whereas the others generally were touching nothing. Self-touch is an important way to comfort one's self. Heavy clothing may impair self-soothing behaviours of preterm newborn babies that already lack other forms of contact. Results suggest that more attention should be paid to apparently routine and marginal decisions such as choice of clothes.

  12. Preliminary survey report: control technology for manual transfer of chemical powders at City of Hamilton Municipal Electric Plant, Hamilton, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Godbey, F.W.

    1984-08-01

    Health-hazard control methods, work processes, and existing control technologies used in the manual transfer of chemical powders were surveyed at the City of Hamilton Municipal Electric Site, Hamilton, Ohio in May, 1984. The facility employed 48 workers involved in generating electricity. Soda ash, phosphates, and flake caustic soda were used in water-treatment operations. Water was used to produce steam which in turn was used to drive the electricity-generating rotors. The dry materials were manually removed from drums and sacks and dumped into 75 gallon water tanks. The mixture was manually stirred with a stick until the dry materials were in solution. The solution was then automatically pumped into one of three boiler drums. No ventilation was used in the water treatment area. Workers were encouraged to use good work practices, and were provided with safety glasses, respirators, and gloves. Employees received pre-employment physical examinations and training in first-aid procedures. The author does not recommend an in-depth study of control technologies at the facility since no unique state-of-the-art methods are used.

  13. Physical phenomena and the microgravity response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The living biological cell is not a sack of Newtonian fluid containing systems of chemical reactions at equilibrium. It is a kinetically driven system, not a thermodynamically driven system. While the cell as a whole might be considered isothermal, at the scale of individual macromolecular events there is heat generated, and presumably sharp thermal gradients exist at the submicron level. Basic physical phenomena to be considered when exploring the cell's response to inertial acceleration include particle sedimentation, solutal convection, motility electrokinetics, cytoskeletal work, and hydrostatic pressure. Protein crystal growth experiments, for example, illustrate the profound effects of convection currents on macromolecular assembly. Reaction kinetics in the cell vary all the way from diffusion-limited to life-time limited. Transport processes vary from free diffusion, to facilitated and active transmembrane transport, to contractile-protein-driven motility, to crystalline immobilization. At least four physical states of matter exist in the cell: aqueous, non-aqueous, immiscible-aqueous, and solid. Levels of order vary from crystalline to free solution. The relative volumes of these states profoundly influence the cell's response to inertial acceleration. Such subcellular phenomena as stretch-receptor activation, microtubule re-assembly, synaptic junction formation, chemotactic receptor activation, and statolith sedimentation were studied recently with respect to both their basic mechanisms and their responsiveness to inertial acceleration. From such studies a widespread role of cytoskeletal organization is becoming apparent.

  14. Timing in turn-taking and its implications for processing models of language

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Stephen C.; Torreira, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The core niche for language use is in verbal interaction, involving the rapid exchange of turns at talking. This paper reviews the extensive literature about this system, adding new statistical analyses of behavioral data where they have been missing, demonstrating that turn-taking has the systematic properties originally noted by Sacks et al. (1974; hereafter SSJ). This system poses some significant puzzles for current theories of language processing: the gaps between turns are short (of the order of 200 ms), but the latencies involved in language production are much longer (over 600 ms). This seems to imply that participants in conversation must predict (or ‘project’ as SSJ have it) the end of the current speaker’s turn in order to prepare their response in advance. This in turn implies some overlap between production and comprehension despite their use of common processing resources. Collecting together what is known behaviorally and experimentally about the system, the space for systematic explanations of language processing for conversation can be significantly narrowed, and we sketch some first model of the mental processes involved for the participant preparing to speak next. PMID:26124727

  15. Incorporation of experimentally-derived fiber orientation into a structural constitutive model for planar collagenous tissues.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Michael S

    2003-04-01

    Structural constitutive models integrate information on tissue composition and structure, avoiding ambiguities in material characterization. However, critical structural information (such as fiber orientation) must be modeled using assumed statistical distributions, with the distribution parameters estimated from fits to the mechanical test data. Thus, full realization of structural approaches continues to be limited without direct quantitative structural information for direct implementation or to validate model predictions. In the present study, fiber orientation information obtained using small angle light scattering (SALS) was directly incorporated into a structural constitutive model based on work by Lanir (J. Biomech., v. 16, pp. 1-12, 1983). Demonstration of the model was performed using existing biaxial mechanical and fiber orientation data for native bovine pericardium (Sacks and Chuong, ABME, v.26, pp. 892-902, 1998). The structural constitutive model accurately predicted the complete measured biaxial mechanical response. An important aspect of this approach is that only a single equibiaxial test to determine the effective fiber stress-strain response and the SALS-derived fiber orientation distribution were required to determine the complete planar biaxial mechanical response. Changes in collagen fiber crimp under equibiaxial strain suggest that, at the meso-scale, fiber deformations follow the global tissue strains. This result supports the assumption of affine strain to estimate the fiber strains. However, future evaluations will have to be performed for tissue subjected to a wider range of strain to more fully validate the current approach.

  16. WRKY45-dependent priming of diterpenoid phytoalexin biosynthesis in rice and the role of cytokinin in triggering the reaction.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Aya; Fukushima, Setsuko; Okada, Kazunori; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Yoshida, Riichiro; Nakayama, Akira; Shimono, Masaki; Sugano, Shoji; Yamane, Hisakazu; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Plant activators such as benzothiadiazole (BTH) protect plants against diseases by priming the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway. In rice, the transcription factor WRKY45 plays a central role in this process. To investigate the mechanism involved in defense-priming by BTH and the role of WRKY45 in this process, we analyzed the transcripts of biosynthetic genes for diterpenoid phytoalexins (DPs) during the rice-Magnaporthe oryzae interaction. The DP biosynthetic genes were barely upregulated in BTH-treated rice plants, but were induced rapidly after M. oryzae infection in a WRKY45-dependent manner. These results indicate that the DP biosynthetic genes were primed by BTH through WRKY45. Rapid induction of the DP biosynthetic genes was also observed after M. oryzae infection to WRKY45-overexpressing (WRKY45-ox) plants. The changes in gene transcription resulted in accumulation of DPs in WRKY45-ox and BTH-pretreated rice after M. oryzae infection. Previously, we reported that cytokinins (CKs), especially isopentenyladenines, accumulated in M. oryzae-infected rice. Here, we show that DP biosynthetic genes are regulated by the SA/CK synergism in a WRKY45-dependent manner. Together, we propose that CK plays a role in mediating the signal of M. oryzae infection to trigger the induction of DP biosynthetic genes in BTH-primed plants.

  17. Root growth and uptake dynamics under different drip-irrigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, A.; Assouline, S.

    2009-04-01

    Root uptake of water and nutrients is a dominant and crucial component in the design of efficient irrigation and fertigation practices for applications ranging from conventional irrigation to highly-advanced high frequency irrigation practices, as well towards other unique uses of land and water resources. Nevertheless, root water and nutrient uptake is often ignored or oversimplified when simulating soil water flow and solute transport. This is primarily so because of the a-priori unknown dynamic processes of root uptake, especially when coupled with spatially heterogeneous soil water and nutrient distributions. In this research we investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of root water uptake, and the way these patterns are influenced by environmental conditions. We consider the soil-root system as continuum. Our greenhouse setup includes sweet bell pepper grown in sand under three different irrigation schemes, differing in the rate at which water is applied (high rate, small rate, and pulses). For each scheme we have two cylindrical growing chambers equipped with 96 ERT electrodes (one with and one without a plant), similar chambers with TDR probes, continuous weighting of chambers and of drainage, and 12 equal dimensions sacks for bi-weekly mapping of root presence. The experimental set-up enables the quantification of the dynamics of the root system, the total water uptake, the water regime within the growing medium, and the spatial and temporal distribution of the uptake function within the root zone by means of the ERT data.

  18. An efficient and cost effective method of RNA extraction from mucilage, phenol and secondary metabolite rich bark tissue of tossa jute (C. olitorius L.) actively developing phloem fiber.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, S B; Kumar, M; Chowdhury, I; Singh, R K; Pandey, S P; Sharma, H K; Karmakar, P G

    2016-06-01

    Tossa jute is an important natural fiber crop of Southeast Asian countries including India, Bangladesh, China, Thailand, Myanmar etc. Traditional industrial application of jute fiber is limited to the packaging products like hessians, sacks, etc. and the fiber found unsuitable for textile industries largely due to significantly high lignin content. Therefore, understanding genetic factors underlying lignin biosynthesis in tossa jute holds promise for jute based product diversification. The major limiting factor in undertaking such study is unavailability of efficient protocol for RNA extraction at secondary growth active stage of tossa jute. Here we report a simplified, swift and cost effective protocol for isolating fairly good quality RNA from bark tissue of 65-days-old field grown tossa jute plant with active secondary growth. The purity, concentration and integrity of extracted RNA ascertained. To confirm downstream amenability, isolated RNA samples were reverse transcribed and PCR analysis done by using CCoAMT1 primer. Results established that method of RNA extraction presented here is an improvement over the other methods, particularly for bark tissue of field grown tossa jute at advance developmental stage. Therefore, present study will enhance our ability to understand expression pattern of fiber formation and maturation related genes in mature bark tissue that holds key for much talked genetic manipulation of fiber quality via lignin optimisation in the crop.

  19. Capturing the worlds of multiple sclerosis: Hannah Laycock's photography.

    PubMed

    Bolaki, Stella

    2017-03-01

    This essay explores UK photographer Hannah Laycock's Awakenings and, to a lesser extent, Perceiving Identity that were created in 2015, following her diagnosis with multiple sclerosis (MS) in 2013. It draws on scholarship by people with chronic illness while situating these two MS projects in the context of Laycock's earlier art and portrait photography dealing with fragility, image and desire, and power relations between subject and observer. The analysis illustrates how her evocative photography captures the lived or subjective experience of an invisible and often misunderstood condition by initially focusing on the tension between transparency and opacity in her work. It further shows how her images counter dominant didactic metaphors such as, 'the body as machine', that perpetuate the dehumanising and objectifying aspects of medical care. Subsequent sections trace the influence that Oliver Sacks has had on Laycock's practice, and reflect on other metaphors and tropes in Awakenings that illuminate the relationship between body and self in MS. The essay concludes by acknowledging the therapeutic power of art and calling upon health professionals to make more use of such artistic work in clinical practice.

  20. Non-invasive identification of incoming raw pharmaceutical materials using Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Matthew; Andrews, Darren; Loeffen, Paul; Tombling, Craig; York, Tim; Matousek, Pavel

    2013-03-25

    A new approach to verification of incoming raw materials through packaging in pharmaceutical manufacturing is proposed and demonstrated. The method is based around Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) and permits a rapid chemical identity analysis of incoming materials to satisfy regulatory requirements but without the need to open the packaging. This dramatically increases the throughput of incoming raw materials into the pharmaceutical manufacturing chain and eliminates the need for a chemically safe sampling environment required for invasive inspection methods. Since the inspection is non-invasive the safety of the operators is ensured and the integrity of inspected material is not compromised by preventing exposure to the ambient atmosphere and cross contamination. The experiments presented here demonstrate the ability to accurately identify common pharmaceutical materials, typically in under 10s acquisition time, through a range of frequently used packaging, including translucent plastic and paper sacks and coloured glass bottles, which can be challenging for conventional Raman spectroscopy as well as other optical spectroscopy methods. With the exception of metallic containers and cardboard drums all the tested packaging materials proved to be amenable to this technique. This demonstrates the viability of this new rapid verification method for non-invasive materials identification in pharmaceutical manufacture.

  1. Leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding protein contracts upon binding of ligand.

    PubMed

    Olah, G A; Trakhanov, S; Trewhella, J; Quiocho, F A

    1993-08-05

    Small-angle x-ray scattering and computer modeling have been used to study the effects of ligand binding to the leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding protein, an initial component of the high-affinity active transport system for branched-chain aliphatic amino acids in Escherichia coli. Measurements were made with no ligand present and with either L-leucine or L-valine present. Upon binding of either leucine or valine, there is a decrease in the radius of gyration, from 23.2 +/- 0.2 to 22.2 +/- 0.2 A, and in the maximum particle dimension, from 82 +/- 3 to 73 +/- 3 A. The x-ray structure of the unbound form has been determined and gives a radius of gyration and a maximum dimension consistent with the values found for the solution structure in this study (Sack, J. S., Saper, M. A., and Quiocho, F. A. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 206, 171-191). The reduction in the radius of gyration and maximum dimension upon ligand binding can be accounted for by a substrate-induced cleft closure in a combined "hinge-twist" motion. Modeling of the substrate-bound state was done by comparison of this protein with another periplasmic binding protein (L-arabinose-binding protein), which possesses a similar two-lobe structure and for which the x-ray structure is known in its ligand-bound form.

  2. Floral Nectary Anatomy and Ultrastructure in Mycoheterotrophic Plant, Epipogium aphyllum Sw. (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Święczkowska, Emilia; Kowalkowska, Agnieszka K.

    2015-01-01

    Epipogium aphyllum is a European-Asian obligatory mycoheterotrophic orchid containing no chlorophyll. Flowers are not resupinate with a sack-shape spur and cordate lip, which is divided into two parts: the basal (hypochile) and distal one (epichile). The floral analysis provides strong evidence to conclude that nectar is secreted on the upper surface of pink-coloured papillate ridges and epidermal (adaxial) cells at different place in spur, especially at the apex. The exudation on papillae has been observed through the entire anthesis and it has been stained on polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids. The dense cytoplasm of papillae contains profuse endoplasmic reticulum, plentiful vesicles (bigger ones with tannin-like materials), numerous mitochondria, sometimes dictyosomes, starch grains, and plastids with tubular structures. The large electron-dense bodies in cell walls are structurally the same as tannin-like materials from vesicles that are in contact with plasmalemma. The rupture of thin layer of swelled cuticle is caused by pressure of gathered substances exuded due to granulocrine secretion. The idioblasts with raphides occur mainly in tepals tissue. The dynamic changes of the nectar exudation, released through endocrine secretion, have been noticeable during the anthesis: both on the lip and inside the spur. The nectar secretion is not dependent on the colour form of E. aphyllum blooming shoots. The floral biology and ultrastructure differ from mycoheterotrophic plants known up to date. PMID:25884020

  3. Hello, Who is Calling?: Can Words Reveal the Social Nature of Conversations?

    PubMed

    Stark, Anthony; Shafran, Izhak; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to infer the social nature of conversations from their content automatically. To place this work in context, our motivation stems from the need to understand how social disengagement affects cognitive decline or depression among older adults. For this purpose, we collected a comprehensive and naturalistic corpus comprising of all the incoming and outgoing telephone calls from 10 subjects over the duration of a year. As a first step, we learned a binary classifier to filter out business related conversation, achieving an accuracy of about 85%. This classification task provides a convenient tool to probe the nature of telephone conversations. We evaluated the utility of openings and closing in differentiating personal calls, and find that empirical results on a large corpus do not support the hypotheses by Schegloff and Sacks that personal conversations are marked by unique closing structures. For classifying different types of social relationships such as family vs other, we investigated features related to language use (entropy), hand-crafted dictionary (LIWC) and topics learned using unsupervised latent Dirichlet models (LDA). Our results show that the posteriors over topics from LDA provide consistently higher accuracy (60-81%) compared to LIWC or language use features in distinguishing different types of conversations.

  4. Nathaniel Hodges (1629-1688): Plague doctor.

    PubMed

    Duffin, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Nathaniel Hodges was the son of Thomas Hodges (1605-1672), an influential Anglican preacher and reformer with strong connections in the political life of Carolingian London. Educated at Westminster School, Trinity College Cambridge and Christ Church College, Oxford, Nathaniel established himself as a physician in Walbrook Ward in the City of London. Prominent as one of a handful of medical men who remained in London during the time of the Great Plague of 1665, he wrote the definitive work on the outbreak. His daily precautions against contracting the disease included fortifying himself with Théodore de Mayerne's antipestilential electuary and the liberal consumption of Sack. Hodges' approach to the treatment of plague victims was empathetic and based on the traditional Galenic method rather than Paracelsianism although he was pragmatic in the rejection of formulae and simples which he judged from experience to be ineffective. Besieged by financial problems in later life, his practice began to fail in the 1680s and he eventually died in a debtor's prison.

  5. Morphological changes of skeletal muscle in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), Kennedy's disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Acewicz, Albert; Wierzba-Bobrowicz, Teresa; Lewandowska, Eliza; Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Halina; Sulek, Anna; Antczak, Jakub; Rakowicz, Maria; Ryglewicz, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA, Kennedy's disease) is an X-linked recessive disease affecting lower motor neurons. In the present case report, we describe morphological changes in a muscle biopsy obtained from a 62-year-old patient with gynecomastia and with the following neurological symptoms: dysphagia, dysarthria, wasting and fasciculation of the tongue, proximal weakness, fasciculations in the limb muscles, and an absence of all tendon reflexes. Neurogenic alternations were predominantly observed using light and electron microscopy. The angulated atrophic muscle fibers formed bundles. The numerous nuclei were pyknotic or pale, some of them were also ubiquitin positive; they were grouped inside so-called "nuclear sacks". At the ultrastructural level, atrophic muscle fibers revealed disruption and loss of sarcomeres, duplication of Z-line, and rod-like structures. The nuclei, often with irregular shapes, revealed varying degrees of chromatin condensation, from dispersed to highly condensed, like pyknotic nuclei. Occasionally electron-dense inclusions in the nuclei were found. Some myogenic features like hypertrophic muscle fibers and proliferation of connective tissue were also visible. The neurogenic and myogenic pathological changes suggested SBMA, which was confirmed with genetic analysis (trinucleotide CAG (glutamie)-repeat expansion in the androgen-receptor gene).

  6. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae) from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ponert, Jan; Trávníček, Pavel; Vuong, Truong Ba; Rybková, Romana; Suda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macro)morphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy), assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis), determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry) and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences). Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma. PMID:27008538

  7. Salinity-dependent toxicity of water-dispersible, single-walled carbon nanotubes to Japanese medaka embryos.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Chisato; Nakahara, Kousuke; Shimizu, Kaori; Kowase, Shinsuke; Nagasaka, Seiji; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Kashiwada, Shosaku

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effects of salinity on the behavior and toxicity of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), which are chemical modified nanotube to increase dispersibility, medaka embryos were exposed to non-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (N-SWCNTs), water-dispersible, cationic, plastic-polymer-coated, single-walled carbon nanotubes (W-SWCNTs), or hydrophobic polyethylene glycol-functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG-SWCNTs) at different salinities, from freshwater to seawater. As reference nanomaterials, we tested dispersible chitin nanofiber (CNF), chitosan-chitin nanofiber (CCNF) and chitin nanocrystal (CNC, i.e. shortened CNF). Under freshwater conditions, with exposure to 10 mg l(-1)  W-SWCNTs, the yolk sacks of 57.8% of embryos shrank, and the remaining embryos had a reduced heart rate, eye diameter and hatching rate. Larvae had severe defects of the spinal cord, membranous fin and tail formation. These toxic effects increased with increasing salinity. Survival rates declined with increasing salinity and reached 0.0% in seawater. In scanning electron microscope images, W-SWCNTs, CNF, CCNF and CNC were adsorbed densely over the egg chorion surface; however, because of chitin's biologically harmless properties, only W-SWCNTs had toxic effects on the medaka eggs. No toxicity was observed from N-SWCNT and PEG-SWCNT exposure. We demonstrated that water dispersibility, surface chemistry, biomedical properties and salinity were important factors in assessing the aquatic toxicity of nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Biscrolling nanotube sheets and functional guests into yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baughman, Ray

    2011-03-01

    Multifunctional applications of textiles have been limited by the inability to spin important materials into yarns. Generically applicable methods are demonstrated for producing weavable yarns comprising up to 95 wt % of otherwise unspinnable particulate or nanofiber powders that remain highly functional. Scrolled 50 nm thick carbon nanotube sheets confine these powders in the galleries of irregular scroll sacks, whose observed complex structures are related to twist-dependent extension of Archimedean spirals, Fermat spirals, or spiral pairs into scrolls. The strength and electronic connectivity of a small weight fraction of scrolled carbon nanotube sheet enables yarn weaving, sewing, knotting, braiding, and charge collection. This technology is used to make yarns of superconductors, Li-ion battery materials, graphene ribbons, catalytic nanofibers for fuel cells, and Ti O2 for photocatalysis. Work done in collaboration with Shaoli Fang, Xavier Lepro-Chavez, Chihye Lewis, Raquel Ovalle-Robles, Javier Carratero-Gonzalez, Elisabet Castillo-Martinez, Mikhail Kozlov, Jiyoung Oh, Neema Rawat, Carter Haines, Mohammed Haque, Vaishnavi Aare, Stephanie Stoughton, Anvar Zakhidov, and Ray Baughman, The University of Texas at Dallas / Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute.

  9. [Study on the histopathology of cats inoculated with H5N1 subtype high pathogenic avian influenza virus originated from tigers].

    PubMed

    Chang, Shuang; Ding, Zhuang; Yang, Song-Tao; Gao, Yu-Wei; Zou, Xiao-Huan; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2007-11-01

    In this study, the HPAIV A/Tiger/Harbin/01/2002 (H5N1) used was originated from tigers and propagated in SPF embryonated hen eggs. TCID5, of the virus was 10(-7.36)/0. 05mL on MDCK cell. The cats were inoculated through bronchus route and then, the cats of dead and control were collected for histopathological and immunohistochemistry examination. Meanwhile, the emulsion supernatant fluid of organs and the pharyngeal swab samples of the dead cats were collected for RT-PCR, survived cats and the control cats were tested for the presence of HI antibody by standard method. The results indicated that the damage of lungs from the dead cats were most obvious, the wide range of red consolidation focus emerged on the lobus pulmonis, the fused focus of infection caused injury of lungs. Histology under the microscope revealed diffuse alveolar damage, confluence phlegmasia pathology, infiltration of lymphomonocytes, sackful of infiltration of macrophages and manipulus protein-like effusion in the alveolar. By immunohistochemistry, the positively stained virus particles were found on the epithelial cells of bronchus and alveolus, and also in the endochylema of lymphomonocytes. The specific electophoretic band of 464bp amplified by RT-PCR from samples of pharyngeal swabs, lungs, kidneys, hearts and brains was as same as the theory value. HI antibody titers of the survived cat were 1:32.

  10. Optical coatings for metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Yi-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Optical coatings have been referred as thin films that create interference effect to change optical properties of substrates. The most common applications of optical thin films are anti-reflection coatings, high reflective coatings, beamsplitter coatings, and bandpass filter coatings. In the recent development of metamaterials, the optical coatings also play a critical role in design, fabrication and measurement. In fabrication, glancing angle deposition has been applied to grow slanted metal nanorod arrays. The associated longitudinal plasmon and transverse plasmon modes under linear polarized illuminations are induced and generate anisotropic refractive index and extinction coefficient. Strong birefringence of a silver nanorod array reveals positive and negative real refractive indices exist for two orthogonal linear polarization states. Recently, negative index materials and hyperbolic metamaterials are realized as multilayers comprising subwavelength-scale metal and dielectric films alternatively. From the view of optical coatings, the design of optical edge filters can be applied to arrange the metal-dielectric multilayer as a symmetrical film sack to perform equivalent complex admittance and refractive index. On the other hand, the traditional admittance diagram used in design of antireflection and bandpass filters can be applied to induce the transmission of a negative index multilayer. The admittance loci of metal films are designed to be huge contours in the admittance diagram to reduce the energy loss in metal films. Five-layered symmetrical film stack and seven-layered symmetrical film stack are shown here to present as new bandpass filters with negative real refractive indices.

  11. Investigation of the midgut structure and ultrastructure in Cimex lectularius and Cimex pipistrelli (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Rost-Roszkowska, M M; Vilimova, J; Włodarczyk, A; Sonakowska, L; Kamińska, K; Kaszuba, F; Marchewka, A; Sadílek, D

    2017-02-01

    Cimicidae are temporary ectoparasites, which means that they cannot obtain food continuously. Both Cimex species examined here, Cimex lectularius (Linnaeus 1758) and Cimex pipistrelli (Jenyns 1839), can feed on a non-natal host, C. lectularius from humans on bats, C. pipistrelli on humans, but never naturally. The midgut of C. lectularius and C. pipistrelli is composed of three distinct regions-the anterior midgut (AMG), which has a sack-like shape, the long tube-shaped middle midgut (MMG), and the posterior midgut (PMG). The different ultrastructures of the AMG, MMG, and PMG in both of the species examined suggest that these regions must fulfill different functions in the digestive system. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the AMG fulfills the role of storing food and synthesizing and secreting enzymes, while the MMG is the main organ for the synthesis of enzymes, secretion, and the storage of the reserve material. Additionally, both regions, the AMG and MMG, are involved in water absorption in the digestive system of both Cimex species. The PMG is the part of the midgut in which spherites accumulate. The results of our studies confirm the suggestion of former authors that the structure of the digestive tract of insects is not attributed solely to diet but to the basic adaptation of an ancestor.

  12. Quadrivalvular marantic endocarditis (ME) mimicking acute bacterial endocarditis (ABE).

    PubMed

    Durie, Nicole M; Eisenstein, Lawrence E; Cunha, Burke A; Plummer, Maria Maratta

    2007-01-01

    Marantic endocarditis (ME) is defined by noninfectious valvular vegetations. The most common disorders associated with ME are malignancy with or without hypercoagulable state, intercardiac instrumentation, residual vegetations from previously treated infective endocarditis (IE), renal insufficiency, and burns. Another important cause of ME is systemic lupus erythematosus when accompanied by vegetations, that is, Libman-Sacks endocarditis. ME should be differentiated from IE because they may present with similar clinical features. Both ME and IE may present with fever and a heart murmur with or without embolic phenomenon. Leukocytosis and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate suggest the diagnosis of IE. The hallmark of IE is a cardiac vegetation and continuous high-grade bacteremia. After exclusion of the causes of culture negative endocarditis, the absence of bacteremia clearly differentiates ME from IE. We present a case of ME mimicking acute bacterial endocarditis (ABE). The differential diagnostic features of ME versus IE are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of quadrivalvular ME with massive vegetations on all cardiac valves, as well as the aorta, atria, and pulmonary artery.

  13. Orthopyroxenes as recorders of diogenite petrogenesis: Trace element systematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Layne, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    Eucrite, howardite, and diogenite members of the achondrites are considered, by many, to be genetically related. Therefore, each provide a piece of the puzzle for reconstructing magmatic processes on the eucrite parent body (EPB). The relationship between eucrites and diogenites can be viewed within the context of two distinctly different models: (1) fractional crystallization; and (2) partial melting. In fractional crystallization models, eucrites and diogenites represent a complementary continuum of planetary fractional crystallization products in which the diogenites represent crystal accumulations during the crystallization of eucritic magmas at shallow to deep levels in the EPB. Alternatively, experimental studies may be interpreted as indicating eucrites represent peritectic partial melts of a primitive, chondritic EPB mantle. Within this type of model, the diogenites are also generally considered to be cumulates; however, their petrogenetic relationship to the eucrites is less clear. Sack et al. proposed that the olivine diogenites represent residua from the partial melting events that produced eucritic liquids. Initial trace element studies of orthopyroxene (OPX) are consistent with this model. However, this trace element modeling of the olivine diogenites is nonunique. As a further test of these models, we did the following three things: (1) analyzed OPX from cumulate diogenites to compare with the olibine diogenite data; (2) improved ion microprobe analytical techniques for the analysis of elements critical to our interpretations; and (3) selected more relevant Kd's for OPX-eucritic melt.

  14. Recyclable bio-reagent for rapid and selective extraction of contaminants from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Lomasney, H.L.

    1997-10-01

    This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program is confirming the effectiveness of a bio-reagent to cost-effectively and selectively extract a wide range of heavy metals and radionuclide contaminants from soil. This bioreagent solution, developed by ISOTRON{reg_sign} Corporation (New Orleans, LA), is flushed through the soil and recycled after flowing through an electrokinetic separation module, also developed by ISOTRON{reg_sign}. The process is ex situ, and the soil remains in its transport container through the decontamination process. The transport container can be a fiberglass box, or a bulk bag or {open_quotes}super sack.{close_quotes} Rocks, vegetation, roots, etc. need not be removed. High clay content soils are accommodated. The process provides rapid injection of reagent solution, and when needed, sand is introduced to speed up the heap leach step. The concentrated waste form is eventually solidified. The bio-reagent is essentially a natural product, therefore any solubizer residual in soil is not expected to cause regulatory concern. The Phase I work will confirm the effectiveness of this bio-reagent on a wide range of contaminants, and the engineering parameters that are needed to carry out a full-scale demonstration of the process. ISOTRON{reg_sign} scientists will work with contaminated soil from Los Alamos National Laboratory. LANL is in the process of decontaminating and decommissioning more than 300 sites within its complex, many of which contain heavy metals or radionuclides; some are mixed wastes containing TCE, PCB, and metals.

  15. New records of Anthalona acuta Van Damme, Sinev & Dumont 2011 and Anthalona brandorffi (Sinev & Hollwedel, 2002) in Brazil, with description of a new species of the simplex-branch (Crustacea: Cladocera: Chydoridae).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Francisco Diogo R; Elmoor-Loureiro, Lourdes M A; Debastiani-Júnior, José Roberto; Mugnai, Riccardo; Senna, André

    2015-11-18

    The range of geographical distribution of Anthalona acuta Van Damme, Sinev & Dumont 2011 and Anthalona brandorffi (Sinev & Hollwedel, 2002) in Brazil has increased by almost 2000 km to the south. New records of Anthalona verrucosa verrucosa (Sars, 1901) were also added. Populations of Anthalona brandorffi from Central Brazil showed a peculiar morphological variation, with some individuals having only a single denticle on the labral keel. A new species of the simplex-branch, Anthalona neotropica sp. nov., was described based on Brazilian material, and this is the first taxon of this branch registered in the Neotropics. It differs from Anthalona simplex Van Damme, Sinev & Dumont 2011, a Central African species, in the morphology of underneath sack of the lateral head pores, length of IDL setae and armature of first flaming-torch seta of limb IV. It could be distinguished from Anthalona sanoamuangae Sinev & Kotov, 2012 (distributed through the South- East Asia) by the morphology of the main head pores, length of IDL setae and armature of the pecten of postabdominal claw. Anthalona neotropica sp. nov. seems to have a benthic/hyporheic habit. All studied species have a wide geographical distribution and could be confused with Anthalona verrucosa Sars, 1901, thus at least some if not all previous records of this species on the continent must be revised.

  16. Kuwaiti reconstruction project unprecedented in size, complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Tippee, B.

    1993-03-15

    There had been no challenge like it: a desert emirate ablaze; its main city sacked; the economically crucial oil industry devastated; countryside shrouded in smoke from oil well fires and littered with unexploded ordnance, disabled military equipment, and unignited crude oil. Like the well-documented effort that brought 749 burning wells under control in less than 7 months, Kuwaiti reconstruction had no precedent. Unlike the firefight, reconstruction is no-where complete. It nevertheless has placed two of three refineries back on stream, restored oil production to preinvasion levels, and repaired or rebuilt 17 of 26 oil field gathering stations. Most of the progress has come since the last well fire went out on Nov. 6, 1991. Expatriates in Kuwait since the days of Al-Awda- the return,' in Arabic- attribute much of the rapid progress under Al-Tameer- the reconstruction'- to decisions and preparations made while the well fires still raged. The article describes the planning for Al-Awda, reentering the country, drilling plans, facilities reconstruction, and special problems.

  17. [The Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and its surgical implications].

    PubMed

    Naclerio, S; Bassetta, P; Sorgente, F; Orlando, C; Polito, D; Mattei, A; Fava, A; Vitalone, V

    1990-02-28

    The Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, type IV, i.e. the arterial and ecchymotic variety, has a severe prognosis and may represent a threat to life in that it predisposes to spontaneous rupture of the intestine and large vessels. The authors report a case in which spontaneous rupture of the colon and thoracic aorta occurred in short succession. Description of the syndrome and its many variants is preceded by a brief explanatory note on the formation and composition of collagen and its different types. The authors stress the important surgical implications of the syndrome the special risks deriving from elective surgery. Serious consequences may also derive from pregnancy trauma and from acts such as arteriography, endotracheal intubation, endoscopy and other invasive procedures. After examining the cases reported in literature (Sacks, Barabas, Beighton Sykes), they point out that, contrary to what is generally believed, the syndrome is not rare and cases, sporadic or familial, of recurrent episodes of spontaneous rupture of the intestine and large vessels or peripheral arteries are frequent. The authors come to the following conclusions: rupture of the aorta may occur spontaneously or after minimal trauma in subjects with EDS type IV and the cases complicated by spontaneous colon perforation would take advantage from definitive colostomy, considering the high incidence of recurrent perforations when intestinal continuity is restored.

  18. A serum fucose-binding lectin (DlFBL) from adult Dicentrarchus labrax is expressed in larva and juvenile tissues and contained in eggs.

    PubMed

    Parisi, M Giovanna; Cammarata, Matteo; Benenati, Gigliola; Salerno, Giuseppina; Mangano, Valentina; Vizzini, Aiti; Parrinello, Nicolò

    2010-08-01

    The purification, cloning, sequencing, molecular properties and expression of a fucose-binding lectin from the serum of Dicentrarchus labrax (DlFBL) have been previously reported. We now describe the distribution and expression of DlFBL during fish ontogeny. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization assays were carried out at various developmental stages (from 10 days post-hatching larvae to juveniles). Another fucose-binding lectin, similar to DlFBL in biochemical, immunochemical and agglutinating properties, was extracted and purified from eggs and appeared to be localized in the embryo yolk sack residual. DlFBL was found in columnar and goblet cells of the intestinal epithelium of larvae (from 20 days post-hatching) and juveniles and in parenchymal tissue of juveniles. DlFBL mRNA and protein were detected in the intestinal epithelium and in hepatocytes. An amplification product from degenerate primers indicates that lectin isotypes with DlFBL epitopes are expressed in eggs and embryos. Whether the lectin fraction isolated from eggs and embryos includes DlFBL of maternal origin remains unclear.

  19. Trousseau's syndrome: multiple definitions and multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    In 1865, Armand Trousseau noted that unexpected or migratory thrombophlebitis could be a forewarning of an occult visceral malignancy. An analysis by Sack and colleagues in 1977 extended the term Trousseau's syndrome to include chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy associated with microangiopathy, verrucous endocarditis, and arterial emboli in patients with cancer, often occurring with mucin-positive carcinomas. In recent times the term has been ascribed to various clinical situations, ranging all the way from these classic descriptions to any kind of coagulopathy occurring in the setting of any kind of malignancy. These multiple definitions of Trousseau's syndrome are partly the consequence of multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms that apparently contribute to the hypercoagulability associated with cancer. Even the classic syndrome probably represents a spectrum of disorders, ranging from exaggerated fluid-phased thrombosis dependent on prothrombotic agents such as tissue factor to a platelet- and endotheliumum-based selectin-dependent microangiopathy associated with mucin-producing carcinomas, along with thrombin and fibrin production. Also considered here are recent hypotheses about genetic pathways within tumor cells that might trigger these thrombotic phenomena, and the reasons why therapy with heparins of various kinds remain the preferred treatment, probably because of their salutary actions on several of the proposed pathologic mechanisms. PMID:17496204

  20. The history of memory arts.

    PubMed

    Patten, B M

    1990-02-01

    Ancient humans, lacking devices to store large amounts of information, invented and developed a system of mnemonics which evolved and passed to modern times. The mnemonics, collectively known as the Ancient Art of Memory, were discovered in 447 BC by a Greek poet, Simonides, and were adequately described by Cicero, Quintilian, and Pliny. These arts fell into neglect after Alaric sacked Rome in 410 AD, but were subsequently revived in 1323 by Saint Thomas Aquinas, who transferred them from a division of rhetoric to ethics and used them to recall Catholic doctrine and versions of biblical history. In 1540 Saint Ignatius Loyola used mnemonic images to affirm the faith with his newly formed Society of Jesus and tried to convert the Ming dynasty in China by teaching these memory skills to Chinese nobles. Today, the ancient memory arts have applications in pilot training, gambling, mentalism and telepathy demonstrations, and may have a role in the rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. Objective testing confirms that with the use of these memory skills, recall is increased, at least 10-fold, and the memory deficits of proactive and retroactive inhibition do not exist.

  1. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    PubMed

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2008-07-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey ("Theoclymenus's prophecy") to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192-1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250-1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse.

  2. Application of Phase-Trafficking Methods to Natural Products Research

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan J.; Montenegro, Gloria; Mitscher, Lester A.; Timmermann, Barbara N.

    2010-01-01

    A novel simultaneous phase-trafficking approach using spatially separated solid-supported reagents (SSR) for rapid separation of neutral, basic, and acidic compounds from organic plant extracts with minimum labor is reported. Acidic and basic ion exchange resins were physically separated into individual sacks (“teabags”) for trapping basic and acidic compounds respectively, leaving behind in solution neutral components of the natural mixtures. Trapped compounds were then recovered from solid phase by appropriate suspension in acidic or basic solutions. The feasibility of the proposed separation protocol was demonstrated and optimized with an “artificial mixture” of model compounds. In addition, the utility of this methodology was illustrated with the successful separation of the alkaloid skytanthine from Skytanthus acutus Meyen and the main catechins and caffeine from Camellia sinensis L. (Kuntze). This novel approach offers multiple advantages over traditional extraction methods, as it is not labor intensive, makes use of only small quantities of solvents, produces fractions in adequate quantities for biological assays, and can be easily adapted to field conditions for bioprospecting activities. PMID:20704309

  3. [Spinal epidural lymphoma. A study using computed tomography].

    PubMed

    Ibarra, B; Romero, F J; Torrents, C; Rovira, M

    1990-02-01

    We have gone through the computerized tomographies (CT) of four cases of spinal epidural lymphomas (SEL) studied in our department. Paraparesis with a sensitive level was the beginning of the disease three times; sciatic pain with recurrent fever once. A myelography followed by CT was done in the three cases of paraparesis while a non-contrast CT and a contrast-enhanced study was done in the case of sciatic pain. An homogeneous intraspinal mass stretching at least along one vertebral segment was the most usual finding. This mass spread into paraspinal tissue effacing fat lines. The mass was hyperdense in relation to dural sack and was limited to intraspinal space in one occasion. We have revised bibliography about osseous lesions in SEL and have found out disagreement on it. We have found them only once in our study. Intrathecal contrast was useless in determining tumour nature but useful in delimiting intraspinal extent. We have searched for tomographic features in order to establish differential diagnosis with other spinal epidural diseases. We did not find any SEL-exclusive features but we found that an homogeneous intra-extraspinal mass, extended at least along one vertebral segment and either producing or not producing osseous lesions can make us think of the presence of spinal epidural lymphoma.

  4. [Structural characterization of copper-phthalocyanine thin solid films by FTIR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ding, H; Zhang, Y; Chen, W; Xi, S

    1997-04-01

    The structure of tris- (2, 4-di-t-amylpheoxy) - (8-quinolinoxy) copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin solid films has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmission, polarized transmission and reflection absorption (RA) spectroscopy. The following conclusions can be obtained from the above measurements: (1)in LB films, the hydrocarbon chains of CuPc are in hexagonal or pseudohexagonal subcell packing, the CH2 asymmetric vibrational vector is oriented with respect to the substrate surface and the RA spectroscopy can distinguish the two CH2 streching modes of benzene cycle; (2)in sublimed films, the molecules of CuPc are out of order.

  5. End User Perceptual Distorted Scenes Enhancement Algorithm Using Partition-Based Local Color Values for QoE-Guaranteed IPTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinsul

    In this letter, we propose distorted scenes enhancement algorithm in order to provide end user perceptual QoE-guaranteed IPTV service. The block edge detection with weight factor and partition-based local color values method can be applied for the degraded video frames which are affected by network transmission errors such as out of order, jitter, and packet loss to improve QoE efficiently. Based on the result of quality metric after using the distorted scenes enhancement algorithm, the distorted scenes have been restored better than others.

  6. A Systematic Methodology for Verifying Superscalar Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivas, Mandayam; Hosabettu, Ravi; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    1999-01-01

    We present a systematic approach to decompose and incrementally build the proof of correctness of pipelined microprocessors. The central idea is to construct the abstraction function by using completion functions, one per unfinished instruction, each of which specifies the effect (on the observables) of completing the instruction. In addition to avoiding the term size and case explosion problem that limits the pure flushing approach, our method helps localize errors, and also handles stages with interactive loops. The technique is illustrated on pipelined and superscalar pipelined implementations of a subset of the DLX architecture. It has also been applied to a processor with out-of-order execution.

  7. TCDD modulation of gut microbiome correlated with liver and immune toxicity in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic mice.

    PubMed

    Lefever, Daniel E; Xu, Joella; Chen, Yingjia; Huang, Guannan; Tamas, Nagy; Guo, Tai L

    2016-08-01

    An increasing body of evidence has shown the important role of the gut microbiome in mediating toxicity following environmental contaminant exposure. The goal of this study was to determine if the adverse metabolic effects of chronic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure would be sufficient to exacerbate hyperglycemia, and to further determine if these outcomes were attributable to the gut microbiota alteration. Adult male CD-1 mice were exposed to TCDD (6μg/kg body weight biweekly) by gavage and injected (i.p.) with STZ (4×50mg/kg body weight) to induced hyperglycemia. 16S rRNA sequencing was used to characterize the changes in the microbiome community composition. Glucose monitoring, flow cytometry, histopathology, and organ characterization were performed to determine the deleterious phenotypic changes of TCDD exposure. Chronic TCDD treatment did not appear to exacerbate STZ-induced hyperglycemia as blood glucose levels were slightly reduced in the TCDD treated mice; however, polydipsia and polyphagia were observed. Importantly, TCDD exposure caused a dramatic change in microbiota structure, as characterized at the phylum level by increasing Firmicutes and decreasing Bacteroidetes while at the family level most notably by increasing Lactobacillaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae, and decreasing Prevotellaceae and ACK M1. The changes in microbiota were further found to be broadly associated with phenotypic changes seen from chronic TCDD treatment. In particular, the phylum level Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio negatively correlated with both liver weight and liver pathology, and positively associated with %CD3(+)NK(+) T cells, a key mediator of host-microbial interactions. Collectively, these findings suggest that the dysregulated gut microbiome may contribute to the deleterious effects (e.g., liver toxicity) seen with TCDD exposure.

  8. Spatial and temporal dynamics of the microbial community in the Hanford unconfined aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xueju; McKinley, James; Resch, Charles T; Kaluzny, Rachael; Lauber, Christian L; Fredrickson, James; Knight, Rob; Konopka, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes was used to study temporal dynamics of groundwater bacteria and archaea over 10 months within three well clusters separated by ∼30 m and located 250 m from the Columbia River on the Hanford Site, WA. Each cluster contained three wells screened at different depths ranging from 10 to 17 m that differed in hydraulic conductivities. Representative samples were selected for analyses of prokaryotic 16S and eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene copy numbers. Temporal changes in community composition occurred in all nine wells over the 10-month sampling period. However, there were particularly strong effects near the top of the water table when the seasonal rise in the Columbia River caused river water intrusion at the top of the aquifer. The occurrence and disappearance of some microbial assemblages (such as Actinobacteria ACK-M1) were correlated with river water intrusion. This seasonal impact on microbial community structure was greater in the shallow saturated zone than deeper zone in the aquifer. Spatial and temporal patterns for several 16S rRNA gene operational taxonomic units associated with particular physiological functions (for example, methane oxidizers and metal reducers) suggests dynamic changes in fluxes of electron donors and acceptors over an annual cycle. In addition, temporal dynamics in eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene copies and the dominance of protozoa in 18S clone libraries suggest that bacterial community dynamics could be affected not only by the physical and chemical environment but also by top-down biological control. PMID:22456444

  9. Impact of the SCF signaling pathway on leukemia stem cell-mediated ATL initiation and progression in an HBZ transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Kuribayashi, Wakako; Takizawa, Kazuya; Sugata, Kenji; Kuramitsu, Madoka; Momose, Haruka; Sasaki, Eita; Hiradate, Yuki; Furuhata, Keiko; Asada, Yoshihisa; Iwama, Atsushi; Matsuoka, Masao; Mizukami, Takuo; Hamaguchi, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a malignant disease caused by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1. In aggressive ATL, the response to chemotherapy is extremely poor. We hypothesized that this poor response is due to the existence of chemotherapy-resistant cells, such as leukemic stem cells. Previously, we successfully identified an ATL stem cell (ATLSC) candidate as the c-kit+/CD38−/CD71− cells in an ATL mouse model using Tax transgenic mice. Here, with a new ATL mouse model using HBZ-transgenic mice, we further discovered that the functional ATLSC candidate, which commonly expresses c-kit, is drug-resistant and has the ability to initiate tumors and reconstitute lymphomatous cells. We characterized the ATLSCs as c-kit+/CD4−/CD8− cells and found that they have a similar gene expression profile as T cell progenitors. Additionally, we found that AP-1 gene family members, including Junb, Jund, and Fosb, were up-regulated in the ATLSC fraction. The results of an in vitro assay showed that ATLSCs cultured with cytokines known to promote stem cell expansion, such as stem cell factor (SCF), showed highly proliferative activity and maintained their stem cell fraction. Inhibition of c-kit–SCF signaling with the neutralizing antibody ACK2 affected ATLSC self-renewal and proliferation. Experiments in Sl/Sld mice, which have a mutation in the membrane-bound c-kit ligand, found that ATL development was completely blocked in these mice. These results clearly suggest that the c-kit–SCF signal plays a key role in ATLSC self-renewal and in ATL initiation and disease progression. PMID:27340921

  10. Toward homosuccinate fermentation: metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for anaerobic production of succinate from glucose and formate.

    PubMed

    Litsanov, Boris; Brocker, Melanie; Bott, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the capability of Corynebacterium glutamicum for anaerobic succinate production from glucose under nongrowing conditions. In this work, we have addressed two shortfalls of this process, the formation of significant amounts of by-products and the limitation of the yield by the redox balance. To eliminate acetate formation, a derivative of the type strain ATCC 13032 (strain BOL-1), which lacked all known pathways for acetate and lactate synthesis (Δcat Δpqo Δpta-ackA ΔldhA), was constructed. Chromosomal integration of the pyruvate carboxylase gene pyc(P458S) into BOL-1 resulted in strain BOL-2, which catalyzed fast succinate production from glucose with a yield of 1 mol/mol and showed only little acetate formation. In order to provide additional reducing equivalents derived from the cosubstrate formate, the fdh gene from Mycobacterium vaccae, coding for an NAD(+)-coupled formate dehydrogenase (FDH), was chromosomally integrated into BOL-2, leading to strain BOL-3. In an anaerobic batch process with strain BOL-3, a 20% higher succinate yield from glucose was obtained in the presence of formate. A temporary metabolic blockage of strain BOL-3 was prevented by plasmid-borne overexpression of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene gapA. In an anaerobic fed-batch process with glucose and formate, strain BOL-3/pAN6-gap accumulated 1,134 mM succinate in 53 h with an average succinate production rate of 1.59 mmol per g cells (dry weight) (cdw) per h. The succinate yield of 1.67 mol/mol glucose is one of the highest currently described for anaerobic succinate producers and was accompanied by a very low level of by-products (0.10 mol/mol glucose).

  11. Triboluminescent Materials for Smart Optical Damage Sensors for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Mohan D.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Miller, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Triboluminescence is light that is produced by pressure, friction or mechanical shock. New composite materials are constantly being reengi neered in an effort to make lightweight spacecrafts for various NASA missions. For these materials there is interest in monitoring the con dition of the composite in real time to detect any delamination or cr acking due to damage, fatigue or external forces. Methods of periodic inspection of composite structures for mechanical damage such as ult rasonic testing are rather mature. However, there is a need to develop a new technique of damage detection for composites, which could dete ct cracking or delamination from any desired location within a materi al structure in real time. This could provide a valuable tool in the confident use of composite materials for various space applications. Recently, triboluminnescent materials have been proposed as smart sen sors of structural damage. To sense the damage, these materials can b e epoxy bonded or coated in a polymer matrix or embedded in a composi te host structure. When the damage or fracture takes place in the hos t structure, it will lead to the fracture of triboluminescent crystal s resulting in a light emission. This will warn, in real time, that a structural damage has occurred. The triboluminescent emission of the candidate phosphor has to be sufficiently bright, so that the light signal reaching from the point of fracture to the detector through a fiber optic cable is sufficiently strong to be detected. There are a large number of triboluminescent materials, but few satisfy the above criterion. Authors have synthesized a Eu based organic material know n as Europium tetrakis (dibenzoylmethide) triethylammonium .(EuD(sub 4)TEA), one of the bright triboluminescent materials, which is a pote ntial candidate for application as a damage sensor and could be made into a wireless sensor with the addition of microchip, antenna and el ectronics. Preliminary results on the synthesis and

  12. Morphometric and ultrastructural analysis of the effect of bromocriptine and cyclosporine on the vasospastic femoral artery of rats

    PubMed Central

    Tokmak, Mehmet; Başocak, Kahan; Canaz, Hüseyin; Canaz, Gökhan; İplikçioğlu, Celal

    2015-01-01

    Vasospasm is the main causes of mortality and morbidity in patiens with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The arterial narrowing mechanism that develops after SAH is not yet fully understood but many studies showed that hypotension, neurogenic reflexes, clots in the subarachnoidal space, spasmogenic agents, humoral and celluler immunity play a role in the etiology. In this study we investigate the effects of Bromocriptine and Cyclosporine A in vasospasm secondary to SAH on rat femoral artery from ultrastructural and morphometric perspectives. 120 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 12 groups: Vasospasm (V), control (K), surgical control (CK) groups, vasospasm+Bromocriptine and/or Cyclosporine-A groups (VCyA, VBr, VBr+CyA), Bromocriptine and/or Cyclosporine-A control groups (CK, BK, Br+CyAK), Bromocriptine and/or Cyclosporine-A surgical control groups (BCK, CyCK, Br+CyACK). In order to create SAH model, 0, 1 cm3 blood injected into silastic sheath wrapped rat femoral artery. Bromocriptine (2 mg/kg/d) and Cyclosporine A (10 mg/kg/d) combinations applied to control, surgical control and vasospastic models. Light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy used during this study. Statistical evaluation of the morphometric measurement data concerning vascular wall thickness and luminal cross-sectional areas of all groups were performed using Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon-signed rank, and Student-t tests. Cyclosporine A, whose effects in the prevention of vasospasm have been demonstrated in previous studies. In this study we discovered that Bromocriptine demonstrated strong effects similar to Cyclosporine-A. Bromocriptine and Cyclosporine A markedly prevent the development of chronic morphologic vasospasm following SAH. The combined use of both drugs does not change this preventive effect. PMID:26770311

  13. The Response Regulator RcsB Activates Expression of Mat Fimbriae in Meningitic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lehti, Timo A.; Heikkinen, Johanna; Korhonen, Timo K.

    2012-01-01

    The common colonization factor of Escherichia coli, the Mat (also termed ECP) fimbria, functions to advance biofilm formation on inert surfaces as well as bacterial adherence to epithelial cells and subsequent colonization. We used global mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis to identify novel regulators of biofilm formation by the meningitic E. coli isolate IHE 3034. Of the 4,418 transformants, we found 17 that were impaired in biofilm formation. Most of these mutants were affected in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and were reduced in growth but not in Mat fimbria expression. In contrast, two mutants grew well but did not express Mat fimbria. The insertions in these two mutants were located at different sites of the rcsB gene, which encodes a DNA-binding response regulator of the Rcs response regulon. The mutations abrogated temperature-dependent biofilm formation by IHE 3034, and the phenotype correlated with loss of mat expression. The defect in biofilm formation in the rcsB mutant was reversed upon complementation with rcsB as well as by overexpression of structural mat genes but not by overexpression of the fimbria-specific activator gene matA. Monitoring of the mat operon promoter activity with chromosomal reporter fusions showed that the RcsB protein and an RcsAB box in the mat regulatory region, but not RcsC, RcsD, AckA, and Pta, are essential for initiation of mat transcription. Gel retardation assays showed that RcsB specifically binds to the mat promoter DNA, which enables its function in promoting biofilm formation by E. coli. PMID:22522901

  14. Expression and function of c-kit in hemopoietic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The expression and function of a receptor tyrosine kinase, c-kit, in the adult bone marrow of the mouse were investigated by using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the extracellular domain of murine c-kit. In adult C57BL/6 mouse, 7.8% of total bone marrow cells express c-kit on their surface. Half of the c-kit+ cells do not express lineage markers including Mac-1, Gr-1, TER-119, and B220, while the remainder coexpress myeloid lineage markers such as Mac-1 and Gr-1. After c-kit+ cells were removed from the bone marrow cell preparation, hemopoietic progenitor cells reactive to IL-3, GM-CSF, or M-CSF and also those which give rise to spleen colonies in irradiated recipients disappeared almost completely. Thus, most hemopoietic progenitors in the adult bone marrow express c-kit. To investigate whether or not c-kit has any role in the hemopoiesis of adult bone marrow, we took the advantage of one of the anti-c-kit mAbs that can antagonize the function of c-kit. As early as two days after the injection of 1 milligram of an antagonistic antibody, ACK2, almost all hemopoietic progenitor cells disappeared from the bone marrow, which eventually resulted in the absence of mature myeloid and erythroid cells in the bone marrow. These results provide direct evidence that c-kit is an essential molecule for constitutive intramarrow hemopoiesis, especially for the self-renewal of hemopoietic progenitor cells at various stages of differentiation. PMID:1711568

  15. Efficient multi-enzyme-catalyzed CDP-choline production driven by an ATP donor module.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingmiao; Wang, Junzhi; Xu, Chongmao; Chen, Yong; Yang, Junjie; Liu, Dong; Niu, Huanqing; Jiang, Yu; Yang, Sheng; Ying, Hanjie

    2017-02-01

    Cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) has been applied for treating acute craniocerebral injury and allowing recovery of consciousness after brain surgery. In this study, an acetate kinase (ACK)/acetyl phosphate system was used to supply ATP and combined with Escherichia coli-overexpressed CMP kinase (CMK), NDP kinase (NDK), choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase (CCT), and choline kinase (CKI) to produce CDP-choline from CMP and choline chloride. Within 1 h, 49 mM CDP-choline was produced, for a molar yield of 89.9 and 68.4 % based on CMP and choline chloride, respectively; the utilization efficiency of energy (UEE) was 79.5 %. Acetyl phosphate, sodium acetate, and CTP inhibited the reaction when the concentration exceeded 18.5, 600, and 30 mM, respectively. This inhibition could be overcome by controlling the rate of acetyl phosphate, CMP addition or using KOH instead of NaOH to regulate the pH in fed-batch transformation. After 24 h, the maximum titer was 124.1 ± 2.7 mM, the productivity was 5.1 ± 0.1 mM l(-1) h(-1), the molar yield to CMP and choline chloride were 83.8 and 63.7 %, respectively, and the UEE was 58.2 %. This high yield and productivity of CDP-choline through biocatalysis suggest future application at the industrial scale.

  16. Temporal quantitation of mutant Kit tyrosine kinase signaling attenuated by a novel thiophene kinase inhibitor OSI-930.

    PubMed

    Petti, Filippo; Thelemann, April; Kahler, Jen; McCormack, Siobhan; Castaldo, Linda; Hunt, Tony; Nuwaysir, Lydia; Zeiske, Lynn; Haack, Herbert; Sullivan, Laura; Garton, Andrew; Haley, John D

    2005-08-01

    OSI-930, a potent thiophene inhibitor of the Kit, KDR, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, was used to selectively inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation downstream of juxtamembrane mutant Kit in the mast cell leukemia line HMC-1. Inhibition of Kit kinase activity resulted in a rapid dephosphorylation of Kit and inhibition of the downstream signaling pathways. Attenuation of Ras-Raf-Erk (phospho-Erk, phospho-p38), phosphatidyl inositol-3' kinase (phospho-p85, phospho-Akt, phospho-S6), and signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling pathways (phospho-STAT3/5/6) were measured by affinity liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, by immunoblot, and by tissue microarrays of fixed cell pellets. To more globally define additional components of Kit signaling temporally altered by kinase inhibition, a novel multiplex quantitative isobaric peptide labeling approach was used. This approach allowed clustering of proteins by temporal expression patterns. Kit kinase, which dephosphorylates rapidly upon kinase inhibition, was shown to regulate both Shp-1 and BDP-1 tyrosine phosphatases and the phosphatase-interacting protein PSTPIP2. Interactions with SH2 domain adapters [growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2), Cbl, Slp-76] and SH3 domain adapters (HS1, cortactin, CD2BP3) were attenuated by inhibition of Kit kinase activity. Functional crosstalk between Kit and the non-receptor tyrosine kinases Fes/Fps, Fer, Btk, and Syk was observed. Inhibition of Kit modulated phosphorylation-dependent interactions with pathways controlling focal adhesion (paxillin, leupaxin, p130CAS, FAK1, the Src family kinase Lyn, Wasp, Fhl-3, G25K, Ack-1, Nap1, SH3P12/ponsin) and septin-actin complexes (NEDD5, cdc11, actin). The combined use of isobaric protein quantitation and expression clustering, immunoblot, and tissue microarray strategies allowed temporal measurement signaling pathways modulated by mutant Kit inhibition in a model of mast cell

  17. Unusual bacterioplankton community structure in ultra-oligotrophic Crater Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urbach, Ena; Vergin, Kevin L.; Morse, Ariel

    2001-01-01

    The bacterioplankton assemblage in Crater Lake, Oregon (U.S.A.), is different from communities found in other oxygenated lakes, as demonstrated by four small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene clone libraries and oligonucleotide probe hybridization to RNA from lake water. Populations in the euphotic zone of this deep (589 m), oligotrophic caldera lake are dominated by two phylogenetic clusters of currently uncultivated bacteria: CL120-10, a newly identified cluster in the verrucomicrobiales, and ACK4 actinomycetes, known as a minor constituent of bacterioplankton in other lakes. Deep-water populations at 300 and 500 m are dominated by a different pair of uncultivated taxa: CL500-11, a novel cluster in the green nonsulfur bacteria, and group I marine crenarchaeota. b-Proteobacteria, dominant in most other freshwater environments, are relatively rare in Crater Lake (<=16% of nonchloroplast bacterial rRNA at all depths). Other taxa identified in Crater Lake libraries include a newly identified candidate bacterial division, ABY1, and a newly identified subcluster, CL0-1, within candidate division OP10. Probe analyses confirmed vertical stratification of several microbial groups, similar to patterns observed in open-ocean systems. Additional similarities between Crater Lake and ocean microbial populations include aphotic zone dominance of group I marine crenarchaeota and green nonsulfur bacteria. Comparison of Crater Lake to other lakes studied by rRNA methods suggests that selective factors structuring Crater Lake bacterioplankton populations may include low concentrations of available trace metals and dissolved organic matter, chemistry of infiltrating hydrothermal waters, and irradiation by high levels of ultraviolet light.

  18. Effects of Fiber Coating Composition on Mechanical Behavior of Silicon Carbide Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Elderidge, Jeffrey I.

    1998-01-01

    Celsian matrix composites reinforced with Hi-Nicalon fibers, precoated with a dual layer of BN/SiC by chemical vapor deposition in two separate batches, were fabricated. Mechanical properties of the composites were measured in three-point flexure. Despite supposedly identical processing, the composite panels fabricated with fibers coated in two batches exhibited substantially different mechanical behavior. The first matrix cracking stresses (sigma(sub mc)) of the composites reinforced with fibers coated in batch 1 and batch 2 were 436 and 122 MPa, respectively. This large difference in sigma(sub mc) was attributed to differences in fiber sliding stresses(tau(sub friction)), 121.2+/-48.7 and 10.4+/-3.1 MPa, respectively, for the two composites as determined by the fiber push-in method. Such a large difference in values of tau(sub friction) for the two composites was found to be due to the difference in the compositions of the interface coatings. Scanning Auger microprobe analysis revealed the presence of carbon layers between the fiber and BN, and also between the BN and SiC coatings in the composite showing lower tau(sub friction). This resulted in lower sigma(sub mc) in agreement with the ACK theory. The ultimate strengths of the two composites, 904 and 759 MPa, depended mainly on the fiber volume fraction and were not significantly effected by tau(sub friction) values, as expected. The poor reproducibility of the fiber coating composition between the two batches was judged to be the primary source of the large differences in performance of the two composites.

  19. Replacing the CCSDS Telecommand Protocol with the Next Generation Uplink (NGU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazz, Greg J.; Greenberg, Ed; Burleigh, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    The current CCSDS Telecommand (TC) Recommendations 1-3 have essentially been in use since the early 1960s. The purpose of this paper is to propose a successor protocol to TC. The current CCSDS recommendations can only accommodate telecommand rates up to approximately 1 mbit/s. However today's spacecraft are storehouses for software including software for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) which are rapidly replacing unique hardware systems. Changes to flight software occasionally require uplinks to deliver very large volumes of data. In the opposite direction, high rate downlink missions that use acknowledged CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP)4 will increase the uplink data rate requirements. It is calculated that a 5 mbits/s downlink could saturate a 4 kbits/s uplink with CFDP downlink responses: negative acknowledgements (NAKs), FINISHs, End-of-File (EOF), Acknowledgements (ACKs). Moreover, it is anticipated that uplink rates of 10 to 20 mbits/s will be required to support manned missions. The current TC recommendations cannot meet these new demands. Specifically, they are very tightly coupled to the Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) code in Ref. 2. This protocol requires that an uncorrectable BCH codeword delimit the TC frame and terminate the randomization process. This method greatly limits telecom performance since only the BCH code can support the protocol. More modern techniques such as the CCSDS Low Density Parity Check (LDPC)5 codes can provide a minimum performance gain of up to 6 times higher command data rates as long as sufficient power is available in the data. This paper will describe the proposed protocol format, trade-offs, and advantages offered, along with a discussion of how reliable communications takes place at higher nominal rates.

  20. The critical role of Akt in cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Abeyrathna, Prasanna; Su, Yunchao

    2015-11-01

    Akt kinase, a member of AGC kinases, is important in many cellular functions including proliferation, migration, cell growth and metabolism. There are three known Akt isoforms which play critical and diverse roles in the cardiovascular system. Akt activity is regulated by its upstream regulatory pathways at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Beta-catenin/Tcf-4, GLI1 and Stat-3 are some of few known transcriptional regulators of AKT gene. Threonine 308 and serine 473 are the two critical phosphorylation sites of Akt1. Translocation of Akt to the cell membrane facilitates PDK1 phosphorylation of the threonine site. The serine site is phosphorylated by mTORC2. Ack1, Src, PTK6, TBK1, IKBKE and IKKε are some of the non-canonical pathways which affect the Akt activity. Protein-protein interactions of Akt to actin and Hsp90 increase the Akt activity while Akt binding to other proteins such as CTMP and TRB3 reduces the Akt activity. The action of Akt on its downstream targets determines its function in cardiovascular processes such as cell survival, growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, vasorelaxation, and cell metabolism. Akt promotes cell survival via caspase-9, YAP, Bcl-2, and Bcl-x activities. Inhibition of FoxO proteins by Akt also increases cell survival by transcriptional mechanisms. Akt stimulates cell growth and proliferation through mTORC1. Akt also increases VEGF secretion and mediates eNOS phosphorylation, vasorelaxation and angiogenesis. Akt can increase cellular metabolism through its downstream targets GSK3 and GLUT4. The alterations of Akt signaling play an important role in many cardiovascular pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and vascular remodeling. Several Akt inhibitors have been developed and tested as anti-tumor agents. They could be potential novel therapeutics for the cardiovascular diseases.

  1. The mobilization and effect of endogenous bone marrow progenitor cells in diabetic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Fiorina, Paolo; Pietramaggiori, Giorgio; Scherer, Saja S; Jurewicz, Mollie; Mathews, Jasmine C; Vergani, Andrea; Thomas, Gebhard; Orsenigo, Elena; Staudacher, Carlo; La Rosa, Stefano; Capella, Carlo; Carothers, Adelaide; Zerwes, Hans-Gunter; Luzi, Livio; Abdi, Reza; Orgill, Dennis P

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic patients suffer from impaired wound healing, characterized by only modest angiogenesis and cell proliferation. Stem cells may stimulate healing, but little is known about the kinetics of mobilization and function of bone marrow progenitor cells (BM-PCs) during diabetic wound repair. The objective of this study was to investigate the kinetics of BM-PC mobilization and their role during early diabetic wound repair in diabetic db/db mice. After wounding, circulating hematopoietic stem cells (Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+)) stably increased in the periphery and lymphoid tissue of db/db mice compared to unwounded controls. Peripheral endothelial progenitor cells (CD34(+)VEGFR(+)) were 2.5- and 3.5-fold increased on days 6 and 10 after wounding, respectively. Targeting the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis induced an increased release and engraftment of endogenous BM-PCs that was paralleled by an increased expression of CXCL12/SDF-1α in the wounds. Increased levels of peripheral and engrafted BM-PCs corresponded to stimulated angiogenesis and cell proliferation, while the addition of an agonist (GM-CSF) or an antagonist (ACK2) did not further modulate wound healing. Macroscopic histological correlations showed that increased levels of stem cells corresponded to higher levels of wound reepithelialization. After wounding, a natural release of endogenous BM-PCs was shown in diabetic mice, but only low levels of these cells homed in the healing tissue. Higher levels of CXCL12/SDF-1α and circulating stem cells were required to enhance their engraftment and biological effects. Despite controversial data about the functional impairment of diabetic BM-PCs, in this model our data showed a residual capacity of these cells to trigger angiogenesis and cell proliferation.

  2. Spatial and temporal dynamics of the microbial community in the Hanford unconfined aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Xueju; McKinley, James P.; Resch, Charles T.; Kaluzny, Rachael M.; Lauber, C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Knight, Robbie C.; Konopka, Allan

    2012-03-29

    Pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes was used to study temporal dynamics of groundwater Bacteria and Archaea over 10 months within 3 well clusters separated by ~30 m and located 250 m from the Columbia River on the Hanford Site, WA. Each cluster contained 3 wells screened at different depths ranging from 10 to 17 m that differed in hydraulic conductivities. Representative samples were selected for analyses of prokaryotic 16S and eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene copy numbers. Temporal changes in community composition occurred in all 9 wells over the 10 month sampling period. However, there were particularly strong effects near the top of the water table when the seasonal rise in the Columbia River caused river water intrusion at the top of the aquifer. The occurrence and disappearance of some microbial assemblages (such as Actinobacteria ACK-M1) were correlated to river water intrusion. This seasonal impact on microbial community structure was greater in the shallow saturated zone than deeper in the aquifer. Spatial and temporal patterns for several 16S rRNA gene operational taxonomic units associated with particular physiological functions (e.g.methane oxidizers and metal reducers) suggests dynamic changes in fluxes of electron donors and acceptors over an annual cycle. In addition, temporal dynamics in eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene copies and the dominance of protozoa in 18S clone libraries suggest that bacterial community dynamics could be affected not only by the physical and chemical environment, but also by top-down biological control.

  3. Role of Acetyl-Phosphate in Activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS Pathway in Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haijun; Caimano, Melissa J.; Lin, Tao; He, Ming; Radolf, Justin D.; Norris, Steven J.; Gheradini, Frank; Wolfe, Alan J.; Yang, X. Frank

    2010-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, dramatically alters its transcriptome and proteome as it cycles between the arthropod vector and mammalian host. During this enzootic cycle, a novel regulatory network, the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway (also known as the σ54–σS sigma factor cascade), plays a central role in modulating the differential expression of more than 10% of all B. burgdorferi genes, including the major virulence genes ospA and ospC. However, the mechanism(s) by which the upstream activator and response regulator Rrp2 is activated remains unclear. Here, we show that none of the histidine kinases present in the B. burgdorferi genome are required for the activation of Rrp2. Instead, we present biochemical and genetic evidence that supports the hypothesis that activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway occurs via the small, high-energy, phosphoryl-donor acetyl phosphate (acetyl∼P), the intermediate of the Ack-Pta (acetate kinase-phosphate acetyltransferase) pathway that converts acetate to acetyl-CoA. Supplementation of the growth medium with acetate induced activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, the overexpression of Pta virtually abolished acetate-induced activation of this pathway, suggesting that acetate works through acetyl∼P. Overexpression of Pta also greatly inhibited temperature and cell density-induced activation of RpoS and OspC, suggesting that these environmental cues affect the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway by influencing acetyl∼P. Finally, overexpression of Pta partially reduced infectivity of B. burgdorferi in mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that acetyl∼P is one of the key activating molecule for the activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway and support the emerging concept that acetyl∼P can serve as a global signal in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:20862323

  4. Spatial and temporal dynamics of the microbial community in the Hanford unconfined aquifer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xueju; McKinley, James; Resch, Charles T; Kaluzny, Rachael; Lauber, Christian L; Fredrickson, James; Knight, Rob; Konopka, Allan

    2012-09-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes was used to study temporal dynamics of groundwater bacteria and archaea over 10 months within three well clusters separated by ~30 m and located 250 m from the Columbia River on the Hanford Site, WA. Each cluster contained three wells screened at different depths ranging from 10 to 17 m that differed in hydraulic conductivities. Representative samples were selected for analyses of prokaryotic 16S and eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene copy numbers. Temporal changes in community composition occurred in all nine wells over the 10-month sampling period. However, there were particularly strong effects near the top of the water table when the seasonal rise in the Columbia River caused river water intrusion at the top of the aquifer. The occurrence and disappearance of some microbial assemblages (such as Actinobacteria ACK-M1) were correlated with river water intrusion. This seasonal impact on microbial community structure was greater in the shallow saturated zone than deeper zone in the aquifer. Spatial and temporal patterns for several 16S rRNA gene operational taxonomic units associated with particular physiological functions (for example, methane oxidizers and metal reducers) suggests dynamic changes in fluxes of electron donors and acceptors over an annual cycle. In addition, temporal dynamics in eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene copies and the dominance of protozoa in 18S clone libraries suggest that bacterial community dynamics could be affected not only by the physical and chemical environment but also by top-down biological control.

  5. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGES

    Papanek, Beth A.; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; ...

    2015-09-12

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, we study a mutant strain of C. thermocellum that was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulosemore » Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4 mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1 mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. In conclusion, with the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.« less

  6. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Papanek, Beth; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M

    2015-11-01

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, a mutant strain of C. thermocellum was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. With the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

  7. Evidence for a Late Reducing Event in IAB-Silicate Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seckendorff, V. V.; O'Neill, H. St. C.; Zipfel, J.; Palme, H.

    1992-07-01

    Coexisting orthopyroxene (opx) and olivine (ol) in silicate inclusions of IAB-iron meteorites have different Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios. Ferrosilite (fs) contents of opx are higher than fayalite contents (fa) of ol (e.g., Bunch and Keil 1970). Non-ideal solid solution of fs in opx and/or fa in ol is generally assumed. We reinvestigated the equilibrium Fe-Mg distribution between coexisting ol+opx in the system MgO-FeO-SiO2 (von Seckendorff and O'Neill 1992). Reversal experiments at high- Mg compositions were performed from 900 to 1600 degrees C at 16 and 20 kbar using a barium borosilicate flux. The data could be fitted to a simple thermodynamic model with ol and opx treated as regular solutions and this model was found to describe satisfactorily the literature data extending down to 700 degrees C. For Fe/(Fe+Mg) between 0.05 to 0.15 we find KD^ol-opx close to one from 1600 to 700 degrees C, virtually independent of pressure and temperature. Fig. 1 shows experimental results at the Mg-rich end. Error bars mark 1-sigma standard deviations. Ol is in all cases more Fe-rich than coexisting opx, except for a single run at 1000 degrees C that probably did not reach equilibrium because of slow reaction kinetics. Two calculated distribution curves (1300, 700 degrees C at 16 kbar) lie close together indicating the absence of any significant temperature dependence of the exchange reaction at the Mg- rich end of the system. IAB-silicate inclusions plot outside the range of experimental data (Fig. 1). Although some previous models for Fe-Mg exchange between ol and opx (e.g., Sack 1980) extrapolate to KD<1 at temperatures near 500 degrees C, such models reproduce the experimental data (700 to 1600 degrees C) less well, than our updated model. In addition, temperatures at 500 degrees C are probably too low to allow Fe diffusion in opx. Two pyroxene equilibration temperatures of IAB-silicate inclusions are around 900-1000 degrees C suggesting a similar closure temperature for Fe diffusion

  8. Thermodynamic Modelling of Volatiles in Kimberlite Ascent and Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. K.; Gordon, T. M.

    2009-04-01

    The unique aspect of kimberlite magmas is their potential for having high dissolved contents of primary volatiles (e.g., H2O + CO2 > 15 wt. %) coupled to a high ascent rate. The high ascent rates help couple the exsolved fluid to the magma as it rises to the point of eruption. During ascent the system evolves from a system featuring 30-40% suspended solids in a silicate melt to a system that is volumetrically dominated by the exsolved fluids (due to exsolution and expansion). The physical-chemical properties of kimberlite melt govern the transport and eruption behaviour of kimberlite magmas. For example, exsolution of a CO2-H2O fluid phase provides a logical and efficient means of reducing magma density and promoting the buoyancy critical for rapid ascent and eruption. The composition of the exsolved fluid depends on the total dissolved fluid content of the melt as well as the T-P ascent path. Under conditions of equilibrium degassing (e.g., closed system), the original dissolved fluid content limits the range of fluid compositions produced during ascent. Under perfect fractional degassing (open system), increments of equilibrium fluid are released and "fractionated". Such situations arise when 2-phase flow (melt and gas) develops and the gas phase decouples from the host magma. Separated two-phase flow is likely to develop in kimberlite and allows for highly transient fluid compositions beginning with fluids extremely enriched in CO2, and ending with H2O-dominated fluid. The physical properties and behaviour of the fluids during ascent are, thus, constantly changing in response to the evolving fluid composition. Here we use computational models calibrated on experimental data for multicomponent melts (e.g., MELTS; Ghiorso & Sack 1995) saturated with a CO2-H2O fluid (e.g., Papale et al. 2006) to explore the physical-chemical properties of volatile-saturated kimberlite during ascent and eruption. The exsolved magmatic fluid is modelled as mixtures of CO2 and H2O. No

  9. Role of Volatiles in Kimberlite Ascent and Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. K.; Gordon, T. M.

    2009-05-01

    The unique aspect of kimberlite magmas is their potential for having high dissolved contents of primary volatiles (e.g., H2O and CO2) coupled to a high ascent rate. The high ascent rates help couple the exsolved fluid to the magma as it rises to the point of eruption. During ascent the system evolves from a system featuring 30-40% suspended solids in a silicate melt to a system that is volumetrically dominated by the exsolved fluids (due to exsolution and expansion). The physical-chemical properties of kimberlite melt govern the transport and eruption behaviour of kimberlite magmas. For example, exsolution of a CO2-H2O fluid phase provides a logical and efficient means of reducing magma density and promoting the buoyancy critical for rapid ascent and eruption. The composition of the exsolved fluid depends on the total dissolved fluid content of the melt as well as the T-P ascent path (e.g., Holloway & Blank 1994). Under conditions of equilibrium degassing (e.g., closed system), the original dissolved fluid content limits the range of fluid compositions produced during ascent. Under perfect fractional degassing (open system), increments of equilibrium fluid are released and "fractionated". Such situations arise when 2-phase flow (melt and gas) develops and the gas phase decouples from the host magma. Separated two-phase flow is likely to develop in kimberlite and allows for highly transient fluid compositions beginning with fluids extremely enriched in CO2, and ending with H2O-dominated fluid. The physical properties and behaviour of the fluids during ascent are, thus, constantly changing in response to the evolving fluid composition. Here we use computational models calibrated on experimental data for multicomponent melts (e.g., MELTS; Ghiorso & Sack 1995) saturated with a CO2-H2O fluid (e.g., Papale et al. 2006) to explore the physical-chemical properties of volatile-saturated kimberlite during ascent and eruption. The exsolved magmatic fluid is modelled as

  10. Multi-component diffusion between molten SiO2 inclusions and surrounding felsic melt in an indochinite: Tektites as natural laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macris, C. A.; Eiler, J. M.; Asimow, P. D.; Stolper, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    a lesser degree Na, diffused against their concentration gradients. The uphill diffusion of alkalis in corona glass surrounding quartz was interpreted by Sato (1974) with a diffusion model assuming non-ideality of alkali elements in silicate melt, in which diffusion occurs according to the chemical potential gradient of each species. Preliminary calculations using the MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995) activity-composition model to transform the composition profiles across lechatelierite and felsic glass into chemical potential profiles (at 2200 °C) indicate that all components, including K2O, diffuse down their own chemical potential gradients. We will investigate these phenomena further in attempt to model the observed profiles. A deeper understanding of this problem may inform the factors controlling diffusion coefficients in silicate melts derived from crustal material, as well as the thermal histories of tektites. Bunch T.E. et al. (2012) P NATL ACAD SCI 109:1903-1912 Ghiorso M.S., Sack R.O. (1995) CONTRIB MINERAL PETR 119:197-212 Koeberl C. (1994) GEOL S AM S 133-151 Newman S. et al. (1995) LPS XXVI 26:1039-1040 Sato H. (1974) CONTRIB MINERAL PETROL 50:49-64

  11. Modul.LES: a multi-compartment, multi-organism aquatic life support system as experimental platform for research in ∆g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbig, Reinhard; Anken, Ralf; Grimm, Dennis

    nitrogene-cycle (concentration of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate) as well as conductivity will be measured. For this long term mission an external food supply as has been used with OmegaHab is not sufficient and, therefore, in OmegaHab-XP a nutrition compartment has been added. OmegaHab-XP is a multi-trophic system, designed as a basic concept and test-bed for future multi-modular platform Modul.LES. OmegaHab-XP comprises four different trophic lev-els. The algae experimental container is used as CO2 / O2 exchanger and serves as oxygen source for all heterotrophic organisms. The fish compartment is divided into two areas -namely a hatchery (larval cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus) and a fish tank (subadult cichlids). Once the yolk sack is resorbed (stage 19) the juvenile fish are capable to leave the hatchery via escapements into the fish compartment. In order to enable the development of fish from larval yolk sack stages to subadult fish a nutrition compartment is enclosed: In this nutrition compartment the crustacean Hyalella azteca will reproduce and build up a stable population by feeding on the Rigid Hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum). Younger crustaceans can cross the barrier to the fish tank and can serve as nutrition for fully developed subadult fish. Waste products of all organisms will be assimilated by the water snail Biomphalaria glabrata. The scientific concept of Modul.LES is to establish a multidisciplinary framework of scientists and areas of scientific research (biophysics, molecular-organismic biology, biochemistry etc.) to analyze impacts of g on plants and animals.

  12. GRAVI-2 space experiment: investigating statoliths displacement and location effects on early stages of gravity perception pathways in lentil roots.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizet, François; Eche, Brigitte; Pereda Loth, Veronica; Badel, Eric; Legue, Valerie; Brunel, Nicole; Label, Philippe; Gérard, Joëlle

    2016-07-01

    The plants ability to orient their growth with respect to external stimuli such as gravity is a key factor for survival and acclimation to their environment. Belowground, plant roots modulate their growth towards gravity, allowing soil exploration and uptake of water and nutrients. In roots, gravity sensing cells called statocytes are located in the center of the root cap. Statocytes contain starch-filled plastids denser than the cytoplasm, which sedimentation along the direction of gravity is widely accepted as being involved into early stages of gravity perception (the starch-statolith hypothesis; Sack, 1991). Root gravitropism following statoliths displacement is based on auxin redistribution in the root apex, inducing differential growth between the root upward and downward sides. However at the cell scale, the chain of transduction starting from statoliths displacement and leading to auxin redistribution remains poorly documented. Signaling molecules such as calcium, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate are serious candidates previously shown to be involved within minutes before modification of the expression of auxin-related genes (Morita, 2010; Sato et al., 2015). Here, we observe and quantify statoliths displacements and locations at various levels of gravity to investigate two hypothesis: (i) Are contacts between statoliths and the endoplasmic reticulum necessary to induce gravitropism? (ii) Are very low displacements of statoliths sufficient to initiate transduction pathways such as the calcium's one? These questionings have led to an experiment called GRAVI-2 which took place aboard the ISS in 2014. During the experiment, lentil roots were grown in the European modular cultivation system for several hours in microgravity and were then submitted to short high gravity stimulus (5 and 15 minutes at 2 g) before the return to Earth for analyses. Ongoing cytological measurements will reveal the effects of statoliths

  13. Building a large magma chamber at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, H. M.; Karlstrom, L.; Bacon, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Crater Lake caldera, Oregon, a structure produced by the 50 km3 eruption of Mount Mazama ~7.7 ka, is one of only three identified Quaternary calderas in the Cascades volcanic chain (Hildreth 2007). What were the conditions necessary to build a large volume magma chamber capable of producing this caldera-forming eruption at Mount Mazama? Using the well-documented >400,000 year volcanic history at Mazama (Bacon and Lanphere 2006), an approximation of vent locations for each eruptive unit (Bacon 2008), and a compilation of over 900 whole-rock compositions from Mount Mazama and regional volcanic rocks, we examine questions of magma chamber assembly in an active volcanic arc. These questions include: (1) is magmatic input approximately constant in composition between Mazama and regional monogenetic volcanic centers? (2) how did melt evolution differ in the two cases (Mazama vs. regional volcanism)? (3) is there spatiotemporal evidence in eruption data (including eruptive volume and chemistry) for a growing magma chamber at depth? and (4) does stability of that chamber require pre-warming of the surrounding country rock? An assumption of approximately constant major-element composition magmatic input is consistent with observed compositional overlap between basaltic to basaltic andesitic eruptive products at Mount Mazama and its vicinity (within 15 km of the volcano). MELTS modeling (Ghiorso and Sack 1995) from an initial composition of magnesian basaltic andesite of monogenetic Red Cone (erupted at a distance of ~8 km from the climactic vent) is consistent with water-saturated magmatic evolution at relatively shallow depths (<500 MPa, with the caveat that shallow pressure calibration data are largely lacking from MELTS models). Within this pressure range, differences in whole-rock compositions indicate that regional magmatic rocks evolved at shallower depths and/or drier conditions than those at the Mazama center. Observations of eruptive ages, compositions, vent

  14. Novel functions of Stomatal Cytokinesis-Defective 1 (SCD1) in innate immune responses against bacteria.

    PubMed

    Korasick, David A; McMichael, Colleen; Walker, Katie A; Anderson, Jeffrey C; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Heese, Antje

    2010-07-23

    Eukaryotes employ complex immune mechanisms for protection against microbial pathogens. Here, we identified SCD1 (Stomatal Cytokinesis-Defective 1), previously implicated in growth and development through its role in cytokinesis and polarized cell expansion (Falbel, T. G., Koch, L. M., Nadeau, J. A., Segui-Simarro, J. M., Sack, F. D., and Bednarek, S. Y. (2003) Development 130, 4011-4024) as a novel component of innate immunity. In Arabidopsis, SCD1 is a unique gene encoding for the only protein containing a complete DENN (Differentially Expressed in Normal and Neoplastic cells) domain. The DENN domain is a largely uncharacterized tripartite protein motif conserved among eukaryotic proteins. We show that conditional scd1-1 plants containing a point mutation in a conserved DENN residue affected a subset of signaling responses to some bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Consistent with increased transcript accumulation of Pathogen-related (PR) genes, scd1-1 plants were more resistant to Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection implicating SCD1 as a negative regulator of basal resistance against bacteria. scd1-1 plants were different from known mutants exhibiting constitutive expressor of PR (cpr)-like phenotypes, in that growth impairment of scd1-1 plants was genetically independent of constitutive immune response activation. For scd1-1, shift to elevated temperature or introduction of a mutant allele in Salicylic acid Induction-Deficient 2 (SID2) suppressed constitutive defense response activation. sid2-2 also repressed the resistance phenotype of scd1-1. Temperature shift and sid2-2, however, did not rescue conditional growth and sterility defects of scd1-1. These results implicate SCD1 in multiple cellular pathways, possibly by affecting different proteins. Overall, our studies identified a novel role for eukaryotic DENN proteins in immunity against bacteria.

  15. KINETICS OF DRY RUPTURE OF BACTERIAL SPORES IN THE PRESENCE OF SALT.

    PubMed

    SACKS, L E; PERCELL, P B; THOMAS, R S; BAILEY, G F

    1964-04-01

    Sacks, L. E. (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Albany, Calif.), Peter B. Percell, Richard S. Thomas, and Glen F. Bailey. Kinetics of dry rupture of bacterial spores in the presence of salt. J. Bacteriol. 87:952-960. 1964.-The kinetics of breaking spores in the dry state by use of an excess of sodium chloride and a steel ball in a shaking device were investigated. Under most conditions, disruption is a first-order process. The disruption-rate constant varies directly with the weight of the ball and inversely with the weight of the capsule contents (spores plus salt). Different spore batches differ somewhat in susceptibility to dry rupture. The dry-rupture process is highly reproducible and it is relatively simple to obtain preparations in which exactly 50%, or 90%, of the spores are broken. The procedure is uniquely suited to the disruption of small (5 to 20 mg) samples, but 150 mg of spores have been handled with conventional equipment. Apparently, the chief function of the salt is to separate the spores from one another with a relatively hard, energy-nonabsorbing matrix, preventing aggregation and consequent cushioning of the ball's impact. However, under certain conditions (small ball, high salt, large crystals) appreciable breakage results from collisions of spores with the salt crystals. The minimal salt-spore ratio for efficient breakage depends on the spore batch, but is usually greater than 3:1. Fine glass beads or inorganic salts other than sodium chloride will also serve as the matrix. Electron micrographs of the spores in various stages of disruption are shown, as are electron micrographs of the spore coats of Bacillus macerans, B. megaterium, B. cereus, B. coagulans, and Clostridium bifermentans. Prolonged agitation disintegrates spore coats. The spore coats of B. macerans exhibit a characteristic ribbed structure, previously detected only by carbon replicas of intact spores. Possible application to other biological materials is considered.

  16. 'A leg to stand on': an existential-phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Bruggen, H

    1999-12-01

    The analysis of a paradigm-case (a person with an injured leg, an autobiographical history related by Dr Sacks) presented here is an illustration of how existential-phenomenological analysis can be done. The aim of existential-phenomenological research is to analyse and to describe some dimensions of being. The person with an injured leg appears 'to bescotomized'. Well then, 'being-scotomized' can be analysed and described as a particular mode of 'being', even as a particular mode of 'being-ill'. 'Being' has been studied (in the philosophical tradition of Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Sartre) as that existential movement that brings an individual, the 'self', towards the world, meanwhile 'affecting' the personal body, personal time and space, the objects in a person's life-world, the individual's life-world and, finally, coexistence. The study of 'being-ill' is the study of the particular way the self, the body, time and space, the objects, the life-world, and coexistence are affected when being-ill. 'Being-scotomized' may appear as affecting: (i) the self, isolating the subject and leading to a personal disintegration; (ii) the body to which he maintains an ambiguous relationship: being a body and having a body, and not having a part of the body any more; (iii) time and space being vanished with the vanished leg. The subject is 'at' a nowhereness and 'at' a motionless time; there is no meaningful future; (iv) the things in the person's life-world, to which it appears impossible to give the 'right' sense; (v) the life-world, revealing itself as a noland, characterized by silence and motionlessness; (vi) the others in this life-world that appears no-man's-land, uninhabitable nearly by definition. Coexistence reveals not to be possible.

  17. Using the Humanities to Teach Neuroscience to Non-majors

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Hewlet G.; Richeimer, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We developed and offered a sequence of neuroscience courses geared toward changing the way non-science students interact with the sciences. Although we accepted students from all majors and at all class levels, our target population was first and second year students who were majoring in the fine arts or the humanities, or who had not yet declared a major. Our goal was to engage these students in science in general and neuroscience in particular by teaching science in a way that was accessible and relevant to their intellectual experiences. Our methodology was to teach scientific principles through the humanities by using course material that is at the intersection of the sciences and the humanities and by changing the classroom experience for both faculty and students. Examples of our course materials included the works of Oliver Sacks, V.S. Ramachandran, Martha Nussbaum, Virginia Woolf and Karl Popper, among others. To change the classroom experience we used a model of team-teaching, which required the simultaneous presence of two faculty members in the classroom for all classes. We changed the structure of the classroom experience from the traditional authority model to a model in which inquiry, debate, and intellectual responsibility were central. We wanted the students to have an appreciation of science not only as an endeavor guided by evidence and experimentation, but also a public discourse driven by creativity and controversy. The courses attracted a significant number of humanities and fine arts students, many of whom had already completed their basic science requirement. PMID:26240533

  18. Maximizing ammonium nitrogen removal from solution using different zeolites.

    PubMed

    Penn, Chad J; Warren, Jason G; Smith, Savannah

    2010-01-01

    Zeolite minerals are ideal for removing ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) from animal wastes, leachates, and industrial effluents. The objectives of this study were to compare NH4+ removal and kinetics among several commercially available zeolites under various conditions and determine if calorimetry could provide information regarding kinetics of NH4+ removal. Ammonium sorption onto potassium (K) saturated zeolites was compared using synthetic vs. natural swine effluent and with either traditional batch-shaken system or a "tea bag" approach in which zeolites were contained in a mesh sack and suspended in a solution of swine effluent. Ammonium sorption was measured at four retention times using a flow-through system, and the resulting heat response was measured using isothermal calorimetry. Ammonium removal was not significantly different in synthetic vs. natural swine effluent. Ammonium removal was lower in batch-stirred compared to batch-shaken systems, suggesting that diffusion between particles was rate-limiting in the former system. Flow-through cells possessing contact times > 100 s displayed greater NH4+ sorption than batch systems, suggesting that maintaining high NH4+ concentration in solution, removal of exchange products, and sufficient reaction time are critical to maximizing NH4+ removal by zeolites. Within 100 s after NH4+ addition, endothermic heat responses indicated that NH4(+)-K+ exchange had peaked; this was followed by significant heat rate reduction for 50 min. This confirmed findings of an initial fast NH4(+)-K+ exchange followed by a slower one and suggests the 100-s period of rapid reaction is an indicator of the minimum flow through retention time required to optimize NH4+ sorption to zeolites used in this study.

  19. New capability for hazardous materials ID within sealed containers using a portable spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Robert J.; Bailey, Mike; Bonthron, Stuart; Stone, Thomas; Maskall, Guy; Presly, Oliver; Roy, Eric; Tombling, Craig; Loeffen, Paul W.

    2016-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy allows the acquisition of molecularly specific signatures of pure compounds and mixtures making it a popular method for material identification applications. In hazardous materials, security and counter terrorism applications, conventional handheld Raman systems are typically limited to operation by line-of-sight or through relatively transparent plastic bags / clear glass vials. If materials are concealed behind thicker, coloured or opaque barriers it can be necessary to open and take a sample. Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS)[1] is a novel variant of Raman spectroscopy whereby multiple measurements at differing positions are used to separate the spectrum arising from the sub layers of a sample from the spectrum at the surface. For the first time, a handheld system based on SORS has been developed and applied to hazardous materials identification. The system - "Resolve" - enables new capabilities in the rapid identification of materials concealed by a wide variety of non-metallic sealed containers such as; coloured and opaque plastics, paper, card, sacks, fabric and glass. The range of potential target materials includes toxic industrial chemicals, explosives, narcotics, chemical warfare agents and biological materials. Resolve has the potential to improve the safety, efficiency and critical decision making in incident management, search operations, policing and ports and border operations. The operator is able to obtain a positive identification of a potentially hazardous material without opening or disturbing the container - to gain access to take a sample - thus improving safety. The technique is fast and simple thus suit and breathing gear time is used more efficiently. SORS also allows Raman to be deployed at an earlier stage in an event before more intrusive techniques are used. Evidential information is preserved and the chain of custody protected. Examples of detection capability for a number of materials and barrier types are

  20. [Markedly dilated cervical carotid arteries in a patient with a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery: a case report].

    PubMed

    Nakai, H; Kawata, Y; Tomabechi, M; Aizawa, S; Ohgami, S; Yonemasu, Y; Muraoka, S

    1993-04-01

    We reported a case of ruptured aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery with marked dilatation of bilateral cervical carotid arteries. A 38 year old female suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography on admission revealed markedly dilated cervical carotid arteries with smooth lumen and a few segmental areas with mild constrictions in their entire course up to the carotid canals (their maximal sagittal diameters exceeded those of a cervical vertebral body). A saccular aneurysm was also seen at the junction of right A1, A2, and Acom. External carotid arteries were normal in size. Vertebral arteries were not examined because of failures of selective cannulation. The patient was operated upon and trapping of Acom was performed. During the operation, no definite arteriosclerotic changes were identified in the intracranial arteries. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimens revealed marked hyperplasia of the smooth muscle of the tunica media with intact internal elastic lamina both in a superficial temporal artery and a middle meningeal artery. During the operation, pneumothorax developed due to the rupture of bullae in the right lung. Past history of this patient disclosed hypertension noted a few years previously, and frequent severe bruises following minor trauma. Repeated angiography performed three months after the operation disclosed unchanged dilatation of the cervical carotid arteries as well as mild intraluminal irregularities in the proximal one third of the left renal artery. This patient died of pneumonia one year after the operation, but autopsy was not permitted. Possible diagnosis of this patient was discussed, with particular emphasis on fibromuscular dysplasia and Ehlers-Danlos type IV (arterial, ecchymotic, or Sack-Barabas type).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)