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Sample records for acknowledge cultural difference

  1. Acknowledgments

    Cancer.gov

    Acknowledging the following contributors to EPEC™-O: Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care – Oncology (Original Curriculum) and the EPEC™-O: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans.

  2. Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA). This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so that the research outcomes

  3. Creating a Culture that Acknowledges the Power of Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Carol Garboden

    2012-01-01

    The language used by adults in an early childhood setting is one of the most telling indicators of the values of a center. Each center has its own culture of language that consists of often heard phrases and scripts used when teaching and caring for young children. Listening closely to words, tones, and scripts--educators tune into what is unseen,…

  4. Proper Acknowledgment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Julianne

    2005-01-01

    The concern in Australian universities about the prevalence of plagiarism has led to the development of policies about academic integrity and in turn focused attention on the need to inform students about how to avoid plagiarism and how to properly acknowledge. Teaching students how to avoid plagiarism can appear to be straightforward if based on…

  5. Acknowledging the Complexity and Diversity of Historical and Cultural ICT Professional Learning Practices in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Renata; Graham, Anne; Watts, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Professional development in information and communication technology (ICT) remains a major imperative for schools as technologies, and what teachers are able to do with them, continue to evolve. The responses of individual schools to this ongoing challenge can be highly diverse and inevitably shaped by past and current cultural practices, which…

  6. Knowing, Valuing, and Shaping One's Culture: A Precursor to Acknowledging, Accepting, and Respecting the Culture of Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elinor L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share a unique strategy (the cultural puzzle) used in graduate, undergraduate, and secondary education to assist students in examining and sharing their cultural heritage to: (1) raise their level of self-awareness, (2) increase cross-cultural communication, (3) improve authentic cross-cultural knowledge, and (4)…

  7. Dialogue across Lines of Difference: Acknowledging and Engaging Diverse Identities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Mare, Danielle M.

    2013-01-01

    Social identity is central to communication and culture, and while many intercultural communication textbooks devote much more space to the topic than they have in the past, undergraduate students continue to understand social identity in largely superficial terms. In order for them to grasp its complexity and its relationship to communication,…

  8. Science, Spirituality and Truth: Acknowledging Difference for Spiritual Dialogue and Human Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to explain why spiritual education must be clear about the nature of spiritual knowledge and truth and how it differs from the knowledge and truth generated by science. The author argues this is important in order that spirituality and science are equally valued, and in order that spiritual pedagogy appropriately reflects the…

  9. Action Learning: Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Gillian; de Vera, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the experience of forming a set in a higher education institution and offers some observations and insights gained from the perspectives of the role of the set adviser, cultural differences and the challenges of attempting to align theory, practice and experience.

  10. The Widget Effect: Our National Failure to Acknowledge and Act on Differences in Teacher Effectiveness. Executive Summary. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Daniel; Sexton, Susan; Mulhern, Jennifer; Keeling, David

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the pervasive and longstanding failure to recognize and respond to variations in the effectiveness of teachers. At the heart of the matter are teacher evaluation systems, which in theory should serve as the primary mechanism for assessing such variations, but in practice tell everyone little about how one teacher differs from…

  11. The Widget Effect: Our National Failure to Acknowledge and Act on Differences in Teacher Effectiveness. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Daniel; Sexton, Susan; Mulhern, Jennifer; Keeling, David; Schunck, Joan; Palcisco, Ann; Morgan, Kelli

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the pervasive and longstanding failure to recognize and respond to variations in the effectiveness of teachers. At the heart of the matter are teacher evaluation systems, which in theory should serve as the primary mechanism for assessing such variations, but in practice tell everyone little about how one teacher differs from…

  12. Reviewer awards and acknowledgements

    PubMed Central

    Karabulut, Nevzat

    2014-01-01

    Peer review process and the reviewers are crucial to the success of any scientific journal. The expert opinions they provide improve the overall quality of published papers. Each year, numerous independent reviewers invest substantial time, efforts and expertise to manuscripts evaluated by Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology. On behalf of the Editorial Board, I am pleased to acknowledge these efforts in an annual fashion.

  13. Reviewer awards and acknowledgements

    PubMed Central

    Karabulut, Nevzat

    2015-01-01

    The overall quality of published papers in any scientific journal is closely related with the quality of reviews. Each year, many independent reviewers generously invest their time and efforts and provide high quality expert opinions to evaluate the manuscripts submitted to Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology. On behalf of the Editorial Board, I am delighted to acknowledge these efforts in an annual fashion.

  14. Culture Differences and English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…

  15. Acknowledgement of manuscript reviewers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Contributing reviewers We and the Editorial Board acknowledge and thank all reviewers for their active participation and contribution during 2013. We greatly appreciate their dedication and behind the scenes contribution. It is largely due to their support and expertise that we have been able to publish high-standard manuscripts. We would also like to thank authors for choosing Nutrition & Metabolism and contributing their cherished work. PMID:24620989

  16. Acknowledging personal grief.

    PubMed

    2016-08-24

    There is a paucity of studies about nurses' personal experiences of grief, however in Learning Disability Practice, Paul Keenan and Ciara Mac Dermott explore the personal grief of nurses who care for the palliative needs of children with a learning disability. The authors argue that organisations must acknowledge that nurses should be allowed the opportunity to attend funerals for children who die in their care. While the study is small-scale, the research study highlights the need for education and support for nurses in the learning disability sector who care for children and families before and after a child's death. PMID:27641600

  17. Anglo and Latin: The Cultural Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucklin, L. Brice

    Commentary on cultural differences between the Anglo-American and Spanish-American cultures focuses on food, role playing, division of labor, and the concept of making "-etic" and "-emic" distinctions in culture study. Reference is made analagously to the work of Kenneth Pike, to Howard Nostrand's remarks on Eskimo culture, and to Americo Castro's…

  18. Cultural Differences in Justificatory Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soong, Hannah; Lee, Richard; John, George

    2012-01-01

    Justificatory reasoning, the ability to justify one's beliefs and actions, is an important goal of education. We develop a scale to measure the three forms of justificatory reasoning--absolutism, relativism, and evaluativism--before validating the scale across two cultures and domains. The results show that the scale possessed validity and…

  19. The Elephant in the Living Room that No One Wants to Talk about: Why U.S. Anthropologists Are Unable to Acknowledge the End of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Findings from a four-year action research project at a highly diverse, West Coast U.S. university reveal that a large percentage of white students cannot trace their identities to a particular nation in Europe and are, as a result, unable to name the shared meanings of a particular ethnic culture. Each time Latino, Asian American, and African…

  20. Reflections on the differences between religion and culture.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Culture may be thought of as a causal agent that affects the evolutionary process by uniquely human means. Religion, on the other hand, is considered a process of revelation and contains the concept of the "faithful" who receive the message of revelation. Culture permits the "self-conscious evaluation of human possibilities" and therefore presents a device for increasing human control over species change. There are dangers, however, in accepting cultural relativism without any constraint, such as respect for human life and dignity. In this article, the author attempts to clarify the boundaries between religion and culture and acknowledges that further research is needed on the religion/culture dichotomy.

  1. Acknowledgements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-07-01

    The Meeting was sponsored by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the Società Italiana di Fisica (SIF), the European Physics Society (EPS), the University of Pisa and the University of Siena.

  2. Acknowledgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems benefits from the following Organizer, Co-organizers and Sponsors. Tsinghua UniveristyJiangsu Univeristy Tsinghua UniveristyJiangsu Univeristy State Key LaboratoryXi'an University State Key Laboratory ofXi'an University of Technology Hydroscience and Engineering, China CAUHarbin China Agricultural UniversityNational Engineering Center of Hydropower Equipment (Harbin Electric Machinery Co Ltd) DongfangToshiba Hydro Power Dongfang Electric Machinery Co LtdToshiba Hydro Power (Hangzhou) Co Ltd ZhejiangVoith Hydro Zhejiang Fuchunjiang HydropowerVoith Hydro Alstom Hydro Alstom Hydro

  3. Acknowledgements

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  4. Developing Cultural Differences in Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, David J.; Liu, Shaoying; Rodger, Helen; Miellet, Sebastien; Ge, Liezhong; Caldara, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Perception and eye movements are affected by culture. Adults from Eastern societies (e.g. China) display a disposition to process information "holistically," whereas individuals from Western societies (e.g. Britain) process information "analytically." Recently, this pattern of cultural differences has been extended to face processing. Adults from…

  5. Cultural Differences in Autobiographical Memory of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobson, Laura; O'Kearney, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated cultural differences in autobiographical memory of trauma. Australian and Asian international students provided self-defining memories, narratives of everyday and trauma memories and self-reports assessing adjustment to the trauma. No cultural distinction was found in how Australian or Asian subjects remembered a personal…

  6. Linguistic Difference and Cultural Translatability: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyhan, Azade

    2002-01-01

    Suggests current scholarship has paid little attention to issues of linguistic differences and cultural translatability and points out the need for language departments offering courses in cultural, ethnic, and Diaspora studies to require proficiency in another language and to cultivate responsiveness to language politics at both the local and…

  7. Words of Gratitude: A Contrastive Study of Acknowledgment Texts in English and Italian Research Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannoni, Davide Simone

    2002-01-01

    Examines the socio-pragmatic construction and textualization of scholarly Acknowledgements in English and Italian journals from a genre-analytic perspective. Points of difference or similarity between corpora and academic cultures are explored with special attention to such issues as generic complexity and staging, personal involvement, and peer…

  8. Cultural and Gender Differences in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, M. Lee

    1993-01-01

    Examines recent research on cultural and gender differences among early adolescents, focusing on friendship patterns, identity development, social expectations, self-esteem, learning styles, health concerns, achievement aspirations, and sex role attitudes and behaviors. Young adolescents benefit when middle-level educators provide opportunities…

  9. Cross Cultural Differences in Unconscious Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyokawa, Sachiko; Dienes, Zoltan; Tanaka, Daisuke; Yamada, Ayumi; Crowe, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated cross cultural differences in conscious processes, such that Asians have a global preference and Westerners a more analytical one. We investigated whether these biases also apply to unconscious knowledge. In Experiment 1, Japanese and UK participants memorized strings of large (global) letters made out of small…

  10. Interactive and cultural differences in online newspapers.

    PubMed

    Hong, Moonki; McClung, Steven; Park, Youngrak

    2008-08-01

    This research studied the interactivity and cultural differences provided by online versions of daily newspapers. It examined interactivity features on the 116 online versions of South Korean and U.S. newspapers on the basis of users' activities when they read the online newspaper. Within intercultural context, this study found that online versions of Korean newspapers use more "active" interactivity features than do U.S. online versions. However, online versions of U.S. newspapers demonstrated more "inactive" interactivity features than Korean online newspapers. New findings about interactivity and culture in online newspapers are discussed.

  11. Parental Involvement in Children's Schooling: Different Meanings in Different Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Three types of parent involvement--communicating, volunteering at school, and learning at home--were explored in two cultures within the United States. Immigrant Chinese parents and European American parents of young children reflect their different traditions in the ways they involve themselves in their child's academic life. European American…

  12. From cultural traditions to cumulative culture: parameterizing the differences between human and nonhuman culture.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Marius; Lycett, Stephen J; Mesoudi, Alex

    2014-10-21

    Diverse species exhibit cultural traditions, i.e. population-specific profiles of socially learned traits, from songbird dialects to primate tool-use behaviours. However, only humans appear to possess cumulative culture, in which cultural traits increase in complexity over successive generations. Theoretically, it is currently unclear what factors give rise to these phenomena, and consequently why cultural traditions are found in several species but cumulative culture in only one. Here, we address this by constructing and analysing cultural evolutionary models of both phenomena that replicate empirically attestable levels of cultural variation and complexity in chimpanzees and humans. In our model of cultural traditions (Model 1), we find that realistic cultural variation between populations can be maintained even when individuals in different populations invent the same traits and migration between populations is frequent, and under a range of levels of social learning accuracy. This lends support to claims that putative cultural traditions are indeed cultural (rather than genetic) in origin, and suggests that cultural traditions should be widespread in species capable of social learning. Our model of cumulative culture (Model 2) indicates that both the accuracy of social learning and the number of cultural demonstrators interact to determine the complexity of a trait that can be maintained in a population. Combining these models (Model 3) creates two qualitatively distinct regimes in which there are either a few, simple traits, or many, complex traits. We suggest that these regimes correspond to nonhuman and human cultures, respectively. The rarity of cumulative culture in nature may result from this interaction between social learning accuracy and number of demonstrators.

  13. An Investigation of Generic Structures of Pakistani Doctoral Thesis Acknowledgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rofess, Sakander; Mahmood, Muhammad Asim

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates Pakistani doctoral thesis acknowledgements from genre analysis perspective. A corpus of 235 PhD thesis acknowledgements written in English was taken from Pakistani doctoral theses collected from eight different disciplines. HEC Research Repository of Pakistan was used as a data sources. The theses written by Pakistani…

  14. Individual differences, cultural differences, and dialectic conflict description and resolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungil; Markman, Arthur B

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that members of East Asian cultures show a greater preference for dialectical thinking than do Westerners. This paper attempts to account for these differences in cognition using individual difference variables that may explain variation in performance both within and across cultures. Especially, we propose that the abovementioned cultural differences are rooted in a greater fear of isolation (FOI) in East Asians than in Westerners. To support this hypothesis, in Experiment 1, we manipulated FOI in American participants before having them resolve two conflicts: an interpersonal conflict and a conflict between an individual and an institution. We found that the Americans among whom a high level of FOI had been induced were more likely to look for a dialectical resolution than those among whom a low level had been prompted. The relationship between conflict resolution and FOI was further investigated in Experiment 2, in which FOI was not manipulated. The results indicated that Koreans had higher chronic FOI on average than did the Americans. Compared to the Americans, the Koreans were more likely to resolve the interpersonal conflict dialectically, but did not show the same bias in resolving the person-institution conflict. The differences in the preference for dialectical resolution between FOI conditions in Experiment 1 and cultural groups in Experiment 2 were mediated by FOI. These findings bolster previous research on FOI in showing that chronic levels of FOI are positively related to both preference for dialectical sentences and sensitivity to context. They provide clearer insight into how differences in FOI affect attention and thereby higher-level reasoning such as dialectic description and conflict resolution.

  15. Cultural Differences in Professional Help Seeking: A Comparison of Japan and the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Mojaverian, Taraneh; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Kim, Heejung S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found cultural differences in the frequency of support seeking. Asians and Asian Americans report seeking support from their close others to deal with their stress less often compared to European Americans. Similarly, other research on professional help seeking has shown that Asians and Asian Americans are less likely than European Americans to seek professional psychological help. Previous studies link this difference to multitude of factors, such as cultural stigma and reliance on informal social networks. The present research examined another explanation for cultural differences in professional help seeking. We predicted that the observed cultural difference in professional help seeking is an extension of culture-specific interpersonal relationship patterns. In the present research, undergraduate students in Japan and the United States completed the Inventory of Attitudes toward Seeking Mental Health Services, which measures professional help seeking propensity, psychological openness to acknowledging psychological problems, and indifference to the stigma of seeking professional help. The results showed that Japanese reported greater reluctance to seek professional help compared to Americans. Moreover, the relationship between culture and professional help seeking attitudes was partially mediated by use of social support seeking among close others. The implications of cultural differences in professional help seeking and the relationship between support seeking and professional help seeking are discussed. PMID:23426857

  16. Cultural differences are not always reducible to individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jinkyung; Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E. W.; Kitayama, Shinobu; Gonzalez, Richard; Nisbett, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    We show that differences in social orientation and in cognition that exist between cultures and social classes do not necessarily have counterparts in individual differences within those groups. Evidence comes from a large-scale study conducted with 10 measures of independent vs. interdependent social orientation and 10 measures of analytic vs. holistic cognitive style. The social measures successfully distinguish between interdependence (viewing oneself as embedded in relations with others) and independence (viewing oneself as disconnected from others) at the group level. However, the correlations among the measures were negligible. Similar results were obtained for the cognitive measures, for which there are no coherent individual differences despite the validity of the construct at the group level. We conclude that behavioral constructs that distinguish among groups need not be valid as measures of individual differences. PMID:20308553

  17. The impact of conversational acknowledgers on perceptions of psychotherapists.

    PubMed

    Battles, Megan B; Berman, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    During conversations, individuals often signal that they are paying attention by the use of verbal and nonverbal cues. This study examined these conversational acknowledgers in psychotherapy and evaluated the effects of therapists varying levels of two specific actions-short utterances and nodding-on perceptions of the therapist. A series of brief psychotherapy videos with therapists displaying different levels of the two types of acknowledgers were presented to 320 participants recruited both online and from a university campus. Analysis indicated that when therapists used high levels of both verbal acknowledgers and nodding or when they refrained from using both types of acknowledgers, therapist empathy and therapeutic alliance were perceived as greater than when therapists engaged in one type of acknowledger but not the other.

  18. Cultural differences in Research project management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Scientific Projects today have increased in complexity, requiring multidisciplinarity, and requiring a mix of diverse individuals from different countries who must be integrated into an effective project. Effective team building is one of the prime responsibilities of the project manager. When the project is supported by a funding, the integration and the implication of the different partners are quite easy. Particularly when partners are developing high-performing teams. However, management of research project requires further skills when the budget is not very high and/or when partners are from non-European countries and are not using the same vocabulary. The various cultures, values, beliefs and social usages, particularly with Mediterranean countries cause a special style of communication for an individual or group of individuals. This communication style participates in the success of the project and encompasses a lot of diplomatic skills which will be highlighted.

  19. Information and Culture: Cultural Differences in the Perception and Recall of Information from Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Information in general is congruent with cultural values because a culture consists of transmitted social knowledge. Cross-cultural research demonstrates that audiences who are fostered by different cultures may have different understandings of information. This research represents a comprehensive cross-cultural study using an experimental method,…

  20. Learner Cultures and Corporate Cultural Differences in E-Learning Behaviors in the IT Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierczek, Fredric William; Bechter, Clemens; Chankiew, Jeerawan

    2012-01-01

    Corporate cultural values have a major influence on learning. For learning to be effective it must be adapted to the cultural context in which it takes place. E-learning neither eliminates cultural differences nor is it culture free. This study focuses on two major Indian IT companies with different Corporate Cultures sharing the same expected…

  1. 49 CFR 236.564 - Acknowledging time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acknowledging time. 236.564 Section 236.564..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.564 Acknowledging time. Acknowledging time of intermittent automatic train-stop device shall be not more than 30 seconds....

  2. 49 CFR 236.564 - Acknowledging time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acknowledging time. 236.564 Section 236.564..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.564 Acknowledging time. Acknowledging time of intermittent automatic train-stop device shall be not more than 30 seconds....

  3. Cultural Relativism: As Strategy for Teaching the "Culturally-Different."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Cecelia Nails

    "Cultural relativism" exists when individuals can choose the values and responsible life styles that afford the natural and best vehicles of productive and positive expression. This paper suggests a strategy for accomplishing this kind of cultural acceptance in the present educational system. It calls for the transmission of basic, unbiased data…

  4. Similarities and differences in cultural values between Iranian and Malaysian nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Jaafar, Rogayah; Rahim, Ahmad F. Abul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cultural values are invisible and relatively constant in societies. The purpose of the present study is to find diversities in cultural values of Iranian and Malaysian nursing students. Materials and Methods: Convenience sampling method was used for this comparative-descriptive study to gather the data from full-time undergraduate degree nursing students in Iran and Malaysia. The data were collected using Values Survey Module 2008 and were analyzed by independent t-test. Results: The means of power distance, individualism, and uncertainty avoidance values were significantly different between the two study populations. Conclusions: The academics should acknowledge diversities in cultural values, especially in power distance index, to minimize misconceptions in teaching-learning environments. PMID:25400685

  5. Cultural Differences in the Understanding of Modelling and Feedback as Sources of Self-Efficacy Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Hyun Seon; Usher, Ellen L.; Butz, Amanda; Bong, Mimi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The potential role of culture in the development and operation of self-efficacy has been acknowledged by researchers. Clearer understanding of this cultural impact will benefit from research that shows how the same efficacy information is evaluated across cultures. Aims: We tested whether two sources of self-efficacy information…

  6. An Exploratory Analysis of History Students' Dissertation Acknowledgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrivener, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Librarians and archivists can gain insight into the disciplinary culture of historians, and history doctoral students in particular, by examining the acknowledgment sections of these students' doctoral dissertations. This paper is an exploratory analysis of the 219 history dissertations written at the University of Oklahoma between 1930 and 2005.…

  7. Middle East meets West: Negotiating cultural difference in international educational encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodall, Helen

    2014-10-01

    This paper sets out to evaluate a proposed twelve-month programme of development aimed at academic staff at a new university in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The author uses a model of cultural difference proposed by Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede as her starting point. Reference is also made to the work of other researchers and to the views of a number of people with first-hand experience of education in Iraqi Kurdistan. Cultural differences between the Kurdish participants on the proposed programme and its British facilitator are a likely challenge in this kind of project, in particular those associated with collectivist vs. individualist traditions. Focusing on this divide, some marked differences emerge in terms of how learning is viewed and approached in the two different countries. Whilst acknowledging that cultural difference is not confined to national boundaries, the author argues that the degree of collectivism or individualism within a society can be regarded as one of the many significant components of the complex concept of "culture". She does not attempt to offer any empirical evidence to support a "best way" to approach international educational encounters. Rather, the author's aim is to draw some conclusions to inform and facilitate the design and delivery of the proposed programme. At the same time, this paper may also offer some useful insights to those who find themselves in similar situations requiring them to deliver programmes in environments which are culturally removed from their own.

  8. A Cross-Cultural Study of Adult English as a Second Language (ESL) Students: Cultural Differences and Instructional Strategy Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Fujuan

    2010-01-01

    Adult education literature generally acknowledges the appropriateness of the incorporation of instructional strategies that stress students' prior experience. Whether this appropriateness applies to students from diverse cultural backgrounds, such as adult students in ESL programs, is not clear. Based on the assumption that students from different…

  9. 49 CFR 236.739 - Device, acknowledging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Device, acknowledging. 236.739 Section 236.739..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.739 Device, acknowledging. A manually operated electric switch or pneumatic valve by means of which, on...

  10. 32 CFR 536.28 - Claims acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims acknowledgment. 536.28 Section 536.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.28 Claims acknowledgment....

  11. 49 CFR 236.830 - Time, acknowledging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time, acknowledging. 236.830 Section 236.830 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Time, acknowledging. As applied to an intermittent automatic train stop system, a predetermined...

  12. 49 CFR 236.719 - Circuit, acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circuit, acknowledgment. 236.719 Section 236.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, acknowledgment. A circuit consisting of wire or other conducting material installed between...

  13. 49 CFR 236.719 - Circuit, acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, acknowledgment. 236.719 Section 236.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, acknowledgment. A circuit consisting of wire or other conducting material installed between...

  14. 49 CFR 236.719 - Circuit, acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Circuit, acknowledgment. 236.719 Section 236.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, acknowledgment. A circuit consisting of wire or other conducting material installed between...

  15. 49 CFR 236.719 - Circuit, acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circuit, acknowledgment. 236.719 Section 236.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, acknowledgment. A circuit consisting of wire or other conducting material installed between...

  16. 7 CFR 1792.104 - Seismic acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seismic acknowledgments. 1792.104 Section 1792.104... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE WITH OTHER FEDERAL STATUTES, REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.104 Seismic acknowledgments. For...

  17. 7 CFR 1792.104 - Seismic acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Seismic acknowledgments. 1792.104 Section 1792.104... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE WITH OTHER FEDERAL STATUTES, REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.104 Seismic acknowledgments. For...

  18. 7 CFR 1792.104 - Seismic acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seismic acknowledgments. 1792.104 Section 1792.104... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE WITH OTHER FEDERAL STATUTES, REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.104 Seismic acknowledgments. For...

  19. 7 CFR 1792.104 - Seismic acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seismic acknowledgments. 1792.104 Section 1792.104... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE WITH OTHER FEDERAL STATUTES, REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.104 Seismic acknowledgments. For...

  20. 7 CFR 1792.104 - Seismic acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seismic acknowledgments. 1792.104 Section 1792.104... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE WITH OTHER FEDERAL STATUTES, REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.104 Seismic acknowledgments. For...

  1. Media and the Culturally Different Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conte, Joseph M.; Grimes, George H.

    Not all poor people live in cities, but as the problems of those who do are intensified by the urban press, the needs of the urban poor of all racial and cultural backgrounds deserve emphasis. The children of these poor are oriented to the physical and visual rather than to the aural. They are content-centered, problem-centered, externally…

  2. Cultural Differences, Learning Styles and Transnational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, Troy; Morrison, Mark; Basu, Parikshit; Sweeney, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Australian universities have been active participants in the transnational education market over the past twenty years. Many Australian universities have structured various forms of franchising arrangements with universities and other education providers, particularly with educational institutions in China. However, the cultural differences…

  3. Communities of Difference Culture, Language, Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonas, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This book looks at the implications of educational practices in communities that are differentiated by issues of language, culture, and technology. Trifonas argues that a "community" is at once a gathering of like-minded individuals in solidarity of purpose and conviction, and also a gathering that excludes others. The chapters in this collection…

  4. A General Multidimensional Model for the Measurement of Cultural Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Esteban L.; Martinez, Sergio R.

    A multidimensional model for measuring cultural differences (MCD) based on factor analytic theory and techniques is proposed. The model assumes that a cultural space may be defined by means of a relatively small number of orthogonal dimensions which are linear combinations of a much larger number of cultural variables. Once a suitable,…

  5. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  6. ARQ scheme reinforced with past acknowledgement signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Makoto; Takada, Yasushi

    An ARQ (automatic-repeat-request) scheme that can reduce the influence of backward channel errors for bidirectional data transmission systems is proposed. The main feature of the scheme is that both present and past acknowledgement signals are utilized to decide whether the data signals should be retransmitted or not. Throughput performance is analyzed in both go-back-N and selective-repeat ARQ. A small number of returned past acknowledgement signals are required to improve the throughput efficiency. For an ideal selective-repeat ARQ with an infinite buffer, increasing the number of returned past acknowledgement signals makes the throughput efficiency asymptotically close to the upper bound.

  7. Cultural Differences in Perceptions of Allocators of Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, John J.; Murphy-Berman, Virginia A.

    1996-01-01

    Compared cultural differences in perceptions of allocators of resources through a study of 190 United States and 138 German college students. Findings show that subjects did evaluate allocators differently depending on what distribution norm they followed, and that the pattern of differences varied by culture and, for some of the evaluative…

  8. Functional Systems and Culturally-Determined Cognitive Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Richard L.

    Noting that one means of better understanding the nature of cultural differences is to elucidate the cognitive differences between members of differing cultures, this paper examines Alexander Luria's sociohistorical theory of functional cognitive systems. The paper first describes Luria's notion of functional systems, the crux of which postulates…

  9. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    PubMed

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  10. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    PubMed

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned. PMID:22897089

  11. Cultural Differences and Cultivation of Cross-Cultural Communicative Competence in Chinese FLT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve their abilities in cross-cultural communication, language learners should develop not only their language competence, but also communicative competence. This paper presents an understanding on the general cultural differences between the west and China by applying the cultural dimensions of Hofstede and Bond, and points out…

  12. Mental Abilities of Children from Different Cultural Backgrounds in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burg, Blanka; Belmont, Ira

    1990-01-01

    Examines pattern of mental abilities exhibited by first-grade, Israeli-born children whose parents emigrated from Europe, Iraq, North Africa, and Yemen. Results indicate that the groups of culturally different children tended to exhibit different patterns of cognitive abilities. Concludes that historical-cultural background of a population has a…

  13. Disability as Cultural Difference: Implications for Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.

    2012-01-01

    This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…

  14. Cultural differences in interpersonal responses to depressives' nonverbal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Vanger, P; Summerfield, A B; Rosen, B K; Watson, J P

    1991-01-01

    The Social Impression and Interpersonal Attraction of British depressed patients was rated by British and German subjects on the basis of the patients' video-recorded nonverbal behaviour. Depressives were rated negatively by all subjects. Males in both cultural groups agreed in their ratings of depressives but German females expressed a more negative attitude than British females. This is attributed to cultural differences in sex-appropriate interactive behaviour. The importance of studying the expression of depression and its meaning within a particular cultural context is indicated and the role of cultural differences in interactive behaviour is discussed with respect to intercultural assessment and treatment of depression. PMID:1743899

  15. Predicting Rape Victim Empathy Based on Rape Victimization and Acknowledgment Labeling.

    PubMed

    Osman, Suzanne L

    2016-06-01

    Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy.

  16. The Cultural Antecedents of Sociolinguistic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Abraham

    1975-01-01

    This paper sought the answer to the question: What is the origin of the sociolinguistic differences described by Basil Bernstein and others in relation to social class, patterns of family organization and socialization, and modes of speech? (Author/RK)

  17. Compassion and contamination. Cultural differences in vegetarianism.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Matthew B; Heine, Steven J; Kamble, Shanmukh; Cheng, Tessa K; Waddar, Mahadevi

    2013-12-01

    A growing body of research has shown that Western vegetarians report more concern for animal welfare and environmental sustainability, and endorse more liberal values than do Western omnivores. However, despite the prevalence of Indian vegetarianism, its psychological associations and underpinnings remain largely unexamined. In Study 1, we find that Euro-American vegetarians are more concerned than omnivores with the impact of their daily food choices on the environment and animal welfare, show more concern for general animal welfare, and endorse universalistic values more, yet among Indian participants, these differences are not significant. In Study 2, we show that Indian vegetarians more strongly endorse the belief that eating meat is polluting, and show a heightened concern for the conservative ethics of Purity, Authority, and Ingroup relative to their omnivorous peers, whereas these differences are largely absent among Euro-Canadians and Euro-Americans.

  18. Compassion and contamination. Cultural differences in vegetarianism.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Matthew B; Heine, Steven J; Kamble, Shanmukh; Cheng, Tessa K; Waddar, Mahadevi

    2013-12-01

    A growing body of research has shown that Western vegetarians report more concern for animal welfare and environmental sustainability, and endorse more liberal values than do Western omnivores. However, despite the prevalence of Indian vegetarianism, its psychological associations and underpinnings remain largely unexamined. In Study 1, we find that Euro-American vegetarians are more concerned than omnivores with the impact of their daily food choices on the environment and animal welfare, show more concern for general animal welfare, and endorse universalistic values more, yet among Indian participants, these differences are not significant. In Study 2, we show that Indian vegetarians more strongly endorse the belief that eating meat is polluting, and show a heightened concern for the conservative ethics of Purity, Authority, and Ingroup relative to their omnivorous peers, whereas these differences are largely absent among Euro-Canadians and Euro-Americans. PMID:24045211

  19. Is There a Difference in Learning Style among Cultures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierro, Darlene

    Each child has a personal learning style that results from innate tendencies and environmental experiences. Because cultural groups often share common values, the experiences of children growing up with those values are reflected in their classroom learning behaviors. This paper discusses cultural differences in children's learning styles. The…

  20. Productive Engagements with Student Difference: Supporting Equity through Cultural Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda; Niesche, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the focus is on how a group of Australian educators support student equity through cultural recognition. Young's theorising of justice is drawn on to illuminate the problematic impacts arising from the group's efforts to value students' cultural difference associated, for example, with quantifying justice along distributive lines…

  1. Cultural Differences in Online Learning: International Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Shijuan; Lee, Seung-hee; Magjuka, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a case study that investigated the perceptions of international students regarding the impact of cultural differences on their learning experiences in an online MBA program. The study also revealed that online instructors need to design courses in such a way as to remove potential cultural barriers, including…

  2. Age differences in personal values: Universal or cultural specific?

    PubMed

    Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950224

  3. Age differences in personal values: Universal or cultural specific?

    PubMed

    Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Cultural differences in neuropsychological abilities required to perform intelligence tasks.

    PubMed

    Fasfous, Ahmed F; Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia; Vilar-López, Raquel; Catena-Martínez, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Different studies have demonstrated that culture has a basic role in intelligence tests performance. Nevertheless, the specific neuropsychological abilities used by different cultures to perform an intelligence test have never been explored. In this study, we examine the differences between Spaniards and Moroccans in the neuropsychological abilities utilized to perform the Beta III as a non-verbal intelligence test. The results showed that the Spaniard group obtained a higher IQ than the Moroccan group in the Beta III. Moreover, the neuropsychological abilities that predicted scores for the Beta III were dependent on the country of origin and were different for each subtest. Besides showing the cultural effect on non-verbal intelligence test performance, our results suggest that a single test may measure different functions, depending on the subject's cultural background. PMID:24055883

  5. Integrating Differences: Design Culture's Potential Impact on Contemporary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uri, Therese

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study charted the implications and potentialities of embracing a design culture within contemporary education. Unlike the positivist scientific paradigm which dissects and analyzes, a design philosophy offers a unifying logic that facilitates change, acknowledges complexity, and shapes possibilities (Nelson & Stolterman,…

  6. Cross-cultural differences in categorical memory errors.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Aliza J; Boduroglu, Aysecan; Gutchess, Angela H

    2014-06-01

    Cultural differences occur in the use of categories to aid accurate recall of information. This study investigated whether culture also contributed to false (erroneous) memories, and extended cross-cultural memory research to Turkish culture, which is shaped by Eastern and Western influences. Americans and Turks viewed word pairs, half of which were categorically related and half unrelated. Participants then attempted to recall the second word from the pair in response to the first word cue. Responses were coded as correct, as blanks, or as different types of errors. Americans committed more categorical errors than did Turks, and Turks mistakenly recalled more non-categorically related list words than did Americans. These results support the idea that Americans use categories either to organize information in memory or to support retrieval strategies to a greater extent than Turks and suggest that culture shapes not only accurate recall but also erroneous distortions of memory.

  7. Why Youth Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cintron, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses youth culture and raises concerns about the tricky social terrain modernity offers for youth identity. He discusses familiar "topoi" or thematics that seem to drive most work on youth culture, suggests that justice and fairness are moral imperatives, and that acknowledging the worthiness of difference is one…

  8. Characterization of cellulolytic bacterial cultures grown in different substrates.

    PubMed

    Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Lau, Wei Hong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2013-01-01

    Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30°C and agitated at 200 rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1 : 0.2, 1 : 0.3, 1 : 0.4, and 1 : 0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067 DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885 ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248 DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842 ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC.

  9. Characterization of cellulolytic bacterial cultures grown in different substrates.

    PubMed

    Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Lau, Wei Hong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2013-01-01

    Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30°C and agitated at 200 rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1 : 0.2, 1 : 0.3, 1 : 0.4, and 1 : 0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067 DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885 ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248 DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842 ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC. PMID:24319380

  10. Acknowledgement of manuscript reviewers, the underappreciated contributors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Contributing reviewers We and the Editorial Board acknowledge and thank all reviewers for their active participation and contribution during 2012. We greatly appreciate their dedication and behind the scenes contribution. It is largely due to their support and expertise that we have been able to publish high-standard manuscripts. We would also like to thank authors for choosing Nutrition & Metabolism and contributing their cherished work. PMID:23369664

  11. Magnetoencephalography evidence for different brain subregions serving two musical cultures.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Rie; Yokosawa, Koichi; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2012-12-01

    Individuals who have been exposed to two different musical cultures (bimusicals) can be differentiated from those exposed to only one musical culture (monomusicals). Just as bilingual speakers handle the distinct language-syntactic rules of each of two languages, bimusical listeners handle two distinct musical-syntactic rules (e.g., tonal schemas) in each musical culture. This study sought to determine specific brain activities that contribute to differentiating two culture-specific tonal structures. We recorded magnetoencephalogram (MEG) responses of bimusical Japanese nonmusicians and amateur musicians as they monitored unfamiliar Western melodies and unfamiliar, but traditional, Japanese melodies, both of which contained tonal deviants (out-of-key tones). Previous studies with Western monomusicals have shown that tonal deviants elicit an early right anterior negativity (mERAN) originating in the inferior frontal cortex. In the present study, tonal deviants in both Western and Japanese melodies elicited mERANs with characteristics fitted by dipoles around the inferior frontal gyrus in the right hemisphere and the premotor cortex in the left hemisphere. Comparisons of the nature of mERAN activity to Western and Japanese melodies showed differences in the dipoles' locations but not in their peak latency or dipole strength. These results suggest that the differentiation between a tonal structure of one culture and that of another culture correlates with localization differences in brain subregions around the inferior frontal cortex and the premotor cortex. PMID:23063935

  12. Difference or disorder? Cultural issues in understanding neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Sparks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment, are biologically based disorders that currently rely on behaviorally defined criteria for diagnosis and treatment. Specific behaviors that are included in diagnostic frameworks and the point at which individual differences in behavior constitute abnormality are largely arbitrary decisions. Such decisions are therefore likely to be strongly influenced by cultural values and expectations. This is evident in the dramatically different prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder across countries and across different ethnic groups within the same country. In this article, we critically evaluate the understanding of developmental disorders from a cultural perspective. We specifically consider the challenges of applying diagnostic methods across cultural contexts, the influence of cultural values and expectations on the identification and treatment of children with suspected disorders, and how cross-cultural studies can help to refine cognitive theories of disorder that have been derived exclusively from Western North American and European investigations. Our review synthesizes clinical, cultural, and theoretical work in this area, highlighting potential universals of disorder and concluding with recommendations for future research and practice.

  13. Excavating Culture: Disentangling Ethnic Differences from Contextual Influences in Parenting.

    PubMed

    le, Huynh-Nhu; Ceballo, Rosario; Chao, Ruth; Hill, Nancy E; Murry, Velma McBride; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

    2008-01-01

    Historically, much of the research on parenting has not disentangled the influences of race/ethnicity, SES, and culture on family functioning and the development of children and adolescents. This special issue addresses this gap by disentangling ethnic differences in parenting behaviors from their contextual influences, thereby deepening understanding of parenting processes in diverse families. Six members of the Parenting section of the Study Group on Race, Culture and Ethnicity (SGRCE) introduce and implement a novel approach toward understanding this question. The goal of this project is to study culturally related processes and the degree to which they predict parenting. An iterative process was employed to delineate the main parenting constructs (warmth, psychological and behavioral control, monitoring, communication, and self-efficacy), cultural processes, and contextual influences, and to coordinate a data analytic plan utilizing individual datasets with diverse samples to answer the research questions.

  14. Excavating Culture: Disentangling Ethnic Differences from Contextual Influences in Parenting

    PubMed Central

    le, Huynh-Nhu; Ceballo, Rosario; Chao, Ruth; Hill, Nancy E.; Murry, Velma McBride; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, much of the research on parenting has not disentangled the influences of race/ethnicity, SES, and culture on family functioning and the development of children and adolescents. This special issue addresses this gap by disentangling ethnic differences in parenting behaviors from their contextual influences, thereby deepening understanding of parenting processes in diverse families. Six members of the Parenting section of the Study Group on Race, Culture and Ethnicity (SGRCE) introduce and implement a novel approach toward understanding this question. The goal of this project is to study culturally related processes and the degree to which they predict parenting. An iterative process was employed to delineate the main parenting constructs (warmth, psychological and behavioral control, monitoring, communication, and self-efficacy), cultural processes, and contextual influences, and to coordinate a data analytic plan utilizing individual datasets with diverse samples to answer the research questions. PMID:24043923

  15. A Study of English Acknowledgements Written by EFL Thai Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaroenkitboworn, Kandaporn

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates English acknowledgements in dissertations written by Thai PhD students, particularly the generic structure and linguistic patterns of gratitude expressions used in the acknowledgements. Following the line of the move analysis in acknowledgements of Hyland (2004), this article analyzed 70 acknowledgements accompanying PhD…

  16. Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G

    2014-08-01

    Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences. PMID:24708499

  17. Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G

    2014-08-01

    Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences.

  18. How culture gets embrained: Cultural differences in event-related potentials of social norm violations

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures. PMID:26621713

  19. How culture gets embrained: Cultural differences in event-related potentials of social norm violations.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-12-15

    Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures.

  20. Improving utilisation of dental services by understanding cultural difference.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J A

    1993-10-01

    There is considerable health and medical research and anecdotal evidence showing that members of different cultural groups and people from lower socio-economic status and/or disadvantaged ethnic minority groups are prone to increased morbidity and early mortality. It is also clear that similar patterns are found in terms of dental health status and dental health morbidity. New Zealand data from the Second International Collaborative Study (ICSII) clearly illustrate that poorer health status overall and poorer dental health status are experienced by certain sections and groups within the population. Data from these studies suggest that members of lower socio-economic status groups, different ethnic groups and those with different cultural affiliations experience different health status and use the health services at differential rates. Some of the factors that appear to influence this are clearly related to cultural beliefs and attitudes. Future efforts by the New Zealand health services and in particular by the New Zealand dental health services to redress the situation need to be based on a clear understanding of the many factors that limit the availability and uptake of preventive and dental health care services by high risk groups. Understanding cultural difference is a key requirement.

  1. Cultural Differences in Emotional Responses to Success and Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Takai-Kawakami, Kiyoko; Kawakami, Kiyobumi; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

    2010-01-01

    The emotional responses to achievement contexts of 149 preschool children from three cultural groups were observed. The children were Japanese (N = 32), African American (N = 63) and White American of mixed European ancestry (N = 54). The results showed that Japanese children differed from American children in expressing less shame, pride, and…

  2. Cultural Differences in the Development of Processing Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Robert V.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Ferrer, Emilio; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Shu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine cultural differences in the development of speed of information processing. Four samples of US children ("N" = 509) and four samples of East Asian children ("N" = 661) completed psychometric measures of processing speed on two occasions. Analyses of the longitudinal data indicated…

  3. "Mind the Gap": Bridging Cultural, Age, and Value Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigrigg, Carin

    Students in a University of New Mexico English extension class at Kirtland Air Force Base differ in age, culture, values, and skills, all of which must be taken into account by the instructor. Most of these students are returning students with past experiences and education which most traditional students do not have, and at least half the class…

  4. Age, Sex, and Cultural Differences in the Meaning of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salili, Farideh

    This study explored variations in the meaning and psychological dimensions of achievement among people of different ages, sexes, and cultures. Subjects were 504 male and female British and Chinese students aged 13-55 in Hong Kong. Repertory grid technique was used to elicit success situations and related constructs. A group grid was then…

  5. A Comparison of Learning Cultures in Different Sizes and Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Paula D.; Finch, Kim S.; MacGregor, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This study compared relevant data and information about leadership and learning cultures in different sizes and types of high schools. Research was conducted using a quantitative design with a qualitative element. Quantitative data were gathered using a researcher-created survey. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the means of…

  6. Educational Research with the Culturally Different: Problems, Alternatives and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Lily

    This paper focuses on theoretical and methodological problems in social psychological research on the culturally different. Major problems in using experimental approaches are discussed: (1) the reactive nature of the experiment; (2) selection bias; (3) experimenter bias; and (4) value and ethical problems. The field experiment and combined field…

  7. Cross-cultural differences in memory: the role of culture-based stereotypes about aging.

    PubMed

    Yoon, C; Hasher, L; Feinberg, F; Rahhal, T A; Winocur, G

    2000-12-01

    The extent to which cultural stereotypes about aging contribute to age differences in memory performance is investigated by comparing younger and older Anglophone Canadians to demographically matched Chinese Canadians, who tend to hold more positive views of aging. Four memory tests were administered. In contrast to B. Levy and E. Langer's (1994) findings, younger adults in both cultural groups outperformed their older comparison group on all memory tests. For 2 tests, which made use of visual stimuli resembling ideographic characters in written Chinese, the older Chinese Canadians approached, but did not reach, the performance achieved by their younger counterparts, as well as outperformed the older Anglophone Canadians. However, on the other two tests, which assess memory for complex figures and abstract designs, no differences were observed between the older Chinese and Anglophone Canadians. Path analysis results suggest that this pattern of findings is not easily attributed to a wholly culturally based account of age differences in memory performance.

  8. Differences between tight and loose cultures: a 33-nation study.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Michele J; Raver, Jana L; Nishii, Lisa; Leslie, Lisa M; Lun, Janetta; Lim, Beng Chong; Duan, Lili; Almaliach, Assaf; Ang, Soon; Arnadottir, Jakobina; Aycan, Zeynep; Boehnke, Klaus; Boski, Pawel; Cabecinhas, Rosa; Chan, Darius; Chhokar, Jagdeep; D'Amato, Alessia; Ferrer, Montse; Fischlmayr, Iris C; Fischer, Ronald; Fülöp, Marta; Georgas, James; Kashima, Emiko S; Kashima, Yoshishima; Kim, Kibum; Lempereur, Alain; Marquez, Patricia; Othman, Rozhan; Overlaet, Bert; Panagiotopoulou, Penny; Peltzer, Karl; Perez-Florizno, Lorena R; Ponomarenko, Larisa; Realo, Anu; Schei, Vidar; Schmitt, Manfred; Smith, Peter B; Soomro, Nazar; Szabo, Erna; Taveesin, Nalinee; Toyama, Midori; Van de Vliert, Evert; Vohra, Naharika; Ward, Colleen; Yamaguchi, Susumu

    2011-05-27

    With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and historical threats (e.g., high population density, resource scarcity, a history of territorial conflict, and disease and environmental threats), broad versus narrow socialization in societal institutions (e.g., autocracy, media regulations), the strength of everyday recurring situations, and micro-level psychological affordances (e.g., prevention self-guides, high regulatory strength, need for structure). This research advances knowledge that can foster cross-cultural understanding in a world of increasing global interdependence and has implications for modeling cultural change. PMID:21617077

  9. Identifying Differences in Cultural Behavior in Online Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.

    2012-07-23

    We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.

  10. Understanding cultural difference in caring for dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, B A; Gates-Williams, J

    1995-01-01

    Experiences of illness and death, as well as beliefs about the appropriate role of healers, are profoundly influenced by patients' cultural background. As the United States becomes increasingly diverse, cultural difference is a central feature of many clinical interactions. Knowledge about how patients experience and express pain, maintain hope in the face of a poor prognosis, and respond to grief and loss will aid health care professionals. Many patients' or families' beliefs about appropriate end-of-life care are easily accommodated in routine clinical practice. Desires about the care of the body after death, for example, generally do not threaten deeply held values of medical science. Because expected deaths are increasingly the result of explicit negotiation about limiting or discontinuing therapies, however, the likelihood of serious moral disputes and overt conflict increases. We suggest a way to assess cultural variation in end-of-life care, arguing that culture is only meaningful when interpreted in the context of a patient's unique history, family constellation, and socioeconomic status. Efforts to use racial or ethnic background as simplistic, straightforward predictors of beliefs or behavior will lead to harmful stereotyping of patients and culturally insensitive care for the dying. PMID:7571587

  11. Suddenly included: cultural differences in experiencing re-inclusion.

    PubMed

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Graupmann, Verena; Du, Hongfei; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-03-01

    In the current research, we examined whether re-inclusion (i.e. the change from a previous state of exclusion to a new state of inclusion) was perceived differently by people with individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds. Individualists (German and Austrian participants) but not collectivists (Chinese participants) experienced re-inclusion differently than continued inclusion: While collectivistic participants did not differentiate between both kinds of inclusion, individualistic participants showed reduced fulfilment of their psychological needs under re-inclusion compared to continued inclusion. The results moreover revealed that only participants from individualistic cultures expressed more feelings of exclusion when re-included than when continually included. These exclusionary feelings partially mediated the relationship between the different states of inclusion and basic need fulfilment.

  12. Cultural differences in the development and characteristics of depression.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, Gabriella; Eszlari, Nora; Pap, Dorottya; Gonda, Xenia

    2012-12-01

    Depression is a highly prevalent mental illness with increasing burden for the patients, their families and society as well. In spite of its increasing importance, we still do not have complete understanding either of the phenomenology or the etiopathological background of depression, and cross-country, cross-ethnic and cross-cultural differences in the prevalence and symptomatic manifestation of depression further obscure this picture. Culturally-related features of depressive illness are gaining more importance in clinical practice with the increasing migration trends worldwide. In spite of the differences replicated in multiple studies, no exhaustive explanations are offered so far. In the present paper we describe the most consistently replicated findings concerning the most important cross-national differences in the rates and characteristics of depression with a short comment on possible background factors.

  13. Correlates of college students' physical activity: cross-cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R; Jiang, Nan; Fernandez-Rojas, Xinia; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-10-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in personal and behavioral determinants of vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) among college students living in distinctly different cultures, that is, the United States, Costa Rica, India, and South Korea. Participants of this study were recruited from randomly chosen public universities in the 4 countries during the 2006-2007 academic year. A total of 4685 students participated in the study (response rate 90%). Vigorous-intensity PA was measured by asking on how many of the past 7 days the participants participated in PA for at least 20 minutes that made them sweat or breathe hard. For moderate-intensity PA, participants were asked on how many of the past 7 days they participated in PA for at least 30 minutes that did not make them sweat or breathe hard. Findings indicate that whereas perceived overweight and fruit and vegetable consumption are relatively culture-free predictors of PA, gender and TV/video watching are culture-specific predictors. Binge drinking was not predictive of meeting the vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity PA guidelines in any of the 4 countries. PMID:19661101

  14. Accentuate the negative: the positive effects of negative acknowledgment.

    PubMed

    Ward, Andrew; Brenner, Lyle

    2006-11-01

    Three studies investigated the capacity of negative acknowledgment, the admission of an unfavorable quality, to elicit relatively positive responses. In Study 1, an acknowledgment that a written paragraph was confusing led individuals to rate the paragraph as clearer than they did when no acknowledgment was offered. In Study 2, a foreign speaker was rated as possessing a clearer voice when he acknowledged his strong accent than when he did not. In Study 3, a hypothetical college applicant's acknowledgment of receiving less than stellar high school grades resulted in a more positive evaluation of those grades. The interpersonal risks and benefits of negative acknowledgment as an impression-management strategy are discussed.

  15. Academic Culture, Business Culture, and Measuring Achievement Differences: Internal Auditing Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Benjamin S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether university internal audit directors' views of culture and measuring achievement differences between their institutions and a business were related to how they viewed internal auditing priorities and uses. The Carnegie Classification system's 283 Doctorate-granting Universities were the target population.…

  16. Culture and Difference. Critical Perspectives on the Bicultural Experience in the United States. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darder, Antonia, Ed.

    The teaching and politics of cultural difference and identity are explored in these essays, which examine the possibilities of living with cultural differences through new ethical and pedagogical frameworks. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction. The Politics of Biculturalism: Culture and Difference in the Formation of 'Warriors…

  17. Cultural Differences in Perceiving Sounds Generated by Others: Self Matters

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liyu; Gross, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Sensory consequences resulting from own movements receive different neural processing compared to externally generated sensory consequences (e.g., by a computer), leading to sensory attenuation, i.e., a reduction in perceived intensity or brain evoked responses. However, discrepant findings exist from different cultural regions about whether sensory attenuation is also present for sensory consequences generated by others. In this study, we performed a cross culture (between Chinese and British) comparison on the processing of sensory consequences (perceived loudness) from self and others compared to an external source in the auditory domain. We found a cultural difference in processing sensory consequences generated by others, with only Chinese and not British showing the sensory attenuation effect. Sensory attenuation in this case was correlated with independent self-construal scores. The sensory attenuation effect for self-generated sensory consequences was not replicated. However, a correlation with delusional ideation was observed for British. These findings are discussed with respects to mechanisms of sensory attenuation. PMID:26696931

  18. Neural differences in the processing of semantic relationships across cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hedden, Trey; Ketay, Sarah; Aron, Arthur; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2010-01-01

    The current study employed functional MRI to investigate the contribution of domain-general (e.g. executive functions) and domain-specific (e.g. semantic knowledge) processes to differences in semantic judgments across cultures. Previous behavioral experiments have identified cross-cultural differences in categorization, with East Asians preferring strategies involving thematic or functional relationships (e.g. cow-grass) and Americans preferring categorical relationships (e.g. cow-chicken). East Asians and American participants underwent functional imaging while alternating between categorical or thematic strategies to sort triads of words, as well as matching words on control trials. Many similarities were observed. However, across both category and relationship trials compared to match (control) trials, East Asians activated a frontal-parietal network implicated in controlled executive processes, whereas Americans engaged regions of the temporal lobes and the cingulate, possibly in response to conflict in the semantic content of information. The results suggest that cultures differ in the strategies employed to resolve conflict between competing semantic judgments. PMID:20139116

  19. Importance of life domains in different cultural groups.

    PubMed

    Elizur, Dov; Kantor, Jeffrey; Yaniv, Eyal; Sagie, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the role of individualism and collectivism in the shaping of personal values of Canadians, Israelis, and Palestinians. Based on Sagie and Elizur's (1996) multifaceted approach, we distinguished personal values that are individual centered (i.e., associated with one's home, family, or work) from collective-centered values (i.e., associated with the religion, sports, or politics). The magnitude of the difference between both value types differs according to cultural orientation. As compared with Palestinians, we predicted that Canadians and Israelis would rank individual-centered values higher and collective-centered values lower. Data obtained from samples of Palestinians, Israelis, and Canadians supported this hypothesis.

  20. Overcoming Barriers to Intercultural Relationships: A Culturally Competent Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osher, David; Mejia, Brenda

    1999-01-01

    Profiles programs of two youth centers that are successfully bridging cultural differences through the development of cultural competence. Both centers acknowledge that actualizing cross-cultural competency means providing a way for their ethnic groups to interact with the larger population without losing their cultural heritage. Programs include…

  1. 45 CFR 4.4 - Acknowledgement of mailed process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acknowledgement of mailed process. 4.4 Section 4.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.4 Acknowledgement of mailed process. The Department will not provide a receipt or other acknowledgement of...

  2. 22 CFR 92.31 - Taking an acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... point in mind, especially in connection with acknowledgments by members of their families. (b) Personal appearance of grantor(s). A notarizing officer taking an acknowledgment should always require the personal... certain of the identity of the parties making an acknowledgment. If he is not personally acquainted...

  3. Focusing on the Negative: Cultural Differences in Expressions of Sympathy

    PubMed Central

    Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Tsai, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Feeling concern about the suffering of others is considered a basic human response, and yet, we know surprisingly little about the cultural factors that shape how people respond to the suffering of another person. To this end, we conducted four studies that tested the hypothesis that American expressions of sympathy focus on the negative less and positive more than German expressions of sympathy, in part because Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 1, we demonstrate that American sympathy cards contained less negative and more positive content than German sympathy cards. In Study 2, we show that European Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 3, we demonstrate that these cultural differences in “avoided negative affect” mediate cultural differences in how comfortable Americans and Germans felt focusing on the negative (vs. positive) when expressing sympathy for the hypothetical death of an acquaintance's father. To examine whether greater avoided negative affect results in lesser focus on the negative and greater focus on the positive when responding to another person's suffering, in Study 4, American and German participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (1) to “push negative images away” (i.e., increasing desire to avoid negative affect), or (2) to “pull negative images closer” to themselves (i.e., decreasing desire to avoid negative affect). Participants were then asked to pick a card to send to an acquaintance whose father had hypothetically just died. Across cultures, participants in the “push negative away” condition were less likely to choose sympathy cards with negative (vs. positive) content than were those in the “pull negative closer” condition. Together, these studies suggest that cultures differ in their desire to avoid negative affect, and that these differences influence the degree to which expressions of sympathy focus on the negative (vs

  4. Interaction patterns in crisis negotiations: persuasive arguments and cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Giebels, Ellen; Taylor, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    This research examines cultural differences in negotiators' responses to persuasive arguments in crisis (hostage) negotiations over time. Using a new method of examining cue-response patterns, the authors examined 25 crisis negotiations in which police negotiators interacted with perpetrators from low-context (LC) or high-context (HC) cultures. Compared with HC perpetrators, LC perpetrators were found to use more persuasive arguments, to reciprocate persuasive arguments in the second half of negotiations, and to respond to persuasive arguments in a compromising way. Further analyses found that LC perpetrators were more likely to communicate threats, especially in the first half of the negotiations, but that HC perpetrators were more likely to reciprocate them. The implications of these findings for our understanding of intercultural interaction are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures.

  6. Leaders’ Smiles Reflect Cultural Differences in Ideal Affect

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H.; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value (“ideal affect”). We conducted three studies to examine whether leaders’ smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief-executive-officers (CEOs), and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning vs. losing political candidates and higher vs. lower ranking CEOs and university presidents in the US and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N =266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then eight years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in GDP per capita, democratization, and human development. Together, these findings suggest that leaders’ smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. PMID:26751631

  7. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. PMID:26751631

  8. Hearing Voices in Different Cultures: A Social Kindling Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Luhrmann, Tanya M; Padmavati, R; Tharoor, Hema; Osei, Akwasi

    2015-10-01

    This study compares 20 subjects, in each of three different settings, with serious psychotic disorder (they meet inclusion criteria for schizophrenia) who hear voices, and compares their voice-hearing experience. We find that while there is much that is similar, there are notable differences in the kinds of voices that people seem to experience. In a California sample, people were more likely to describe their voices as intrusive unreal thoughts; in the South Indian sample, they were more likely to describe them as providing useful guidance; and in our West African sample, they were more likely to describe them as morally good and causally powerful. What we think we may be observing is that people who fall ill with serious psychotic disorder pay selective attention to a constant stream of many different auditory and quasi-auditory events because of different "cultural invitations"-variations in ways of thinking about minds, persons, spirits and so forth. Such a process is consistent with processes described in the cognitive psychology and psychiatric anthropology literature, but not yet described or understood with respect to cultural variations in auditory hallucinations. We call this process "social kindling." PMID:26349837

  9. Hearing Voices in Different Cultures: A Social Kindling Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Luhrmann, Tanya M; Padmavati, R; Tharoor, Hema; Osei, Akwasi

    2015-10-01

    This study compares 20 subjects, in each of three different settings, with serious psychotic disorder (they meet inclusion criteria for schizophrenia) who hear voices, and compares their voice-hearing experience. We find that while there is much that is similar, there are notable differences in the kinds of voices that people seem to experience. In a California sample, people were more likely to describe their voices as intrusive unreal thoughts; in the South Indian sample, they were more likely to describe them as providing useful guidance; and in our West African sample, they were more likely to describe them as morally good and causally powerful. What we think we may be observing is that people who fall ill with serious psychotic disorder pay selective attention to a constant stream of many different auditory and quasi-auditory events because of different "cultural invitations"-variations in ways of thinking about minds, persons, spirits and so forth. Such a process is consistent with processes described in the cognitive psychology and psychiatric anthropology literature, but not yet described or understood with respect to cultural variations in auditory hallucinations. We call this process "social kindling."

  10. Carotenoid Production by Halophilic Archaea Under Different Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Calegari-Santos, Rossana; Diogo, Ricardo Alexandre; Fontana, José Domingos; Bonfim, Tania Maria Bordin

    2016-05-01

    Carotenoids are pigments that may be used as colorants and antioxidants in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Since they also benefit human health, great efforts have been undertaken to search for natural sources of carotenoids, including microbial ones. The optimization of culture conditions to increase carotenoid yield is one of the strategies used to minimize the high cost of carotenoid production by microorganisms. Halophilic archaea are capable of producing carotenoids according to culture conditions. Their main carotenoid is bacterioruberin with 50 carbon atoms. In fact, the carotenoid has important biological functions since it acts as cell membrane reinforcement and it protects the microorganism against DNA damaging agents. Moreover, carotenoid extracts from halophilic archaea have shown high antioxidant capacity. Therefore, current review summarizes the effect of different culture conditions such as salt and carbon source concentrations in the medium, light incidence, and oxygen tension on carotenoid production by halophilic archaea and the strategies such as optimization methodology and two-stage cultivation already used to increase the carotenoid yield of these microorganisms. PMID:26750123

  11. Microalgae respond differently to nitrogen availability during culturing.

    PubMed

    Gigova, Liliana G; Ivanova, Natalia J

    2015-06-01

    Variations in the exogenous nitrogen level are known to significantly affect the physiological status and metabolism of microalgae. However, responses of red, green and yellow-green algae to nitrogen (N) availability have not been compared yet. Porphyridium cruentum, Scenedesmus incrassatulus and Trachydiscus minutus were cultured in the absence of N in the medium and subsequent resupply of N to the starved cells. Culture growth and in-gel changes in isoenzyme pattern and activity of glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were studied. The results demonstrated that the algae responded to the fully N-depleted and N-replete culture conditions by species-specific metabolic enzyme changes, suggesting differential regulation of both enzyme activity and cellular metabolism. Substantial differences in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes between N-depleted and N-replete cells of each species as well as between the species were also found. In the present work, besides the more general responses, such as adjustment of growth and pigmentation, we report on the involvement of specific metabolic and antioxidant enzymes and their isoforms in the mechanisms operating during N starvation and recovery in P. cruentum, T. minutus and S. incrassatulus.

  12. Carotenoid Production by Halophilic Archaea Under Different Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Calegari-Santos, Rossana; Diogo, Ricardo Alexandre; Fontana, José Domingos; Bonfim, Tania Maria Bordin

    2016-05-01

    Carotenoids are pigments that may be used as colorants and antioxidants in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Since they also benefit human health, great efforts have been undertaken to search for natural sources of carotenoids, including microbial ones. The optimization of culture conditions to increase carotenoid yield is one of the strategies used to minimize the high cost of carotenoid production by microorganisms. Halophilic archaea are capable of producing carotenoids according to culture conditions. Their main carotenoid is bacterioruberin with 50 carbon atoms. In fact, the carotenoid has important biological functions since it acts as cell membrane reinforcement and it protects the microorganism against DNA damaging agents. Moreover, carotenoid extracts from halophilic archaea have shown high antioxidant capacity. Therefore, current review summarizes the effect of different culture conditions such as salt and carbon source concentrations in the medium, light incidence, and oxygen tension on carotenoid production by halophilic archaea and the strategies such as optimization methodology and two-stage cultivation already used to increase the carotenoid yield of these microorganisms.

  13. Microalgae respond differently to nitrogen availability during culturing.

    PubMed

    Gigova, Liliana G; Ivanova, Natalia J

    2015-06-01

    Variations in the exogenous nitrogen level are known to significantly affect the physiological status and metabolism of microalgae. However, responses of red, green and yellow-green algae to nitrogen (N) availability have not been compared yet. Porphyridium cruentum, Scenedesmus incrassatulus and Trachydiscus minutus were cultured in the absence of N in the medium and subsequent resupply of N to the starved cells. Culture growth and in-gel changes in isoenzyme pattern and activity of glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were studied. The results demonstrated that the algae responded to the fully N-depleted and N-replete culture conditions by species-specific metabolic enzyme changes, suggesting differential regulation of both enzyme activity and cellular metabolism. Substantial differences in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes between N-depleted and N-replete cells of each species as well as between the species were also found. In the present work, besides the more general responses, such as adjustment of growth and pigmentation, we report on the involvement of specific metabolic and antioxidant enzymes and their isoforms in the mechanisms operating during N starvation and recovery in P. cruentum, T. minutus and S. incrassatulus. PMID:25963263

  14. Just How Many Different Forms of Culture Are There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2010-01-01

    Responds to comments by H. Takooshian and J. K. Tebes on the current author's original article, "Many forms of culture". The current author argued that psychologists tend to focus on too narrow a set of cultures (ethnic and national cultures) and some dimensions of those cultures (individualism-collectivism, independence-interdependence). He then…

  15. [Ecological characteristics of different Pseudosciaena crocea culture models].

    PubMed

    Lu, Guang-Ming; Xu, Yong-Jian; Lu, Hui-Xian

    2011-05-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the ecological characteristics of different Pseudosciaena crocea culture models including monoculture P. crocea (F) and polyculture P. crocea with seaweed Gracilaria lichevoides (FG), benthos Perinereis aibuhitensis (FP), and G. lichevoides plus P. aibuhitensis (FGP) in land-based enclosures, with the sediment and water environment condition, culture benefit, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) reclaim efficiency analyzed. G. lichevoides could effectively remove the N and P in the water body. The water N and P concentrations in FG and FGP were significantly lower than those in F and FP, and the P utilization efficiency reached 33.8% - 34.0% of the total P input. P. aibuhitensis improved sediment environment condition. The sediment N and P concentrations in FP and FGP were lower than those in F and FG, and had significant differences between surface sediment (1-2 cm) and subsurface sediment (2-4 cm). Comparing with those in F, the total N, total P, and inorganic P in FP and FGP reduced by 8.9% -9.2% , 6.1% -6.3% and 8.0% -8.1%, respectively. P. aibuhitensis had a higher efficiency in reclaiming sediment P (7.5% -7.8% of the total P input), being able to effectively mitigate the P accumulation in sediment. Among the test models, FGP had the best material utilization efficiency and optimal resource benefit.

  16. Cultural differences in the primacy effect for person perception.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Kenji; Kamada, Akiko; Shrira, Ilan

    2014-06-01

    Previous work has shown there are robust differences in how North Americans and East Asians form impressions of people. The present research examines whether the tendency to weigh initial information more heavily-the primacy effect-may be another component of these cultural differences. Specifically, we tested whether Americans would be more likely to use first impressions to guide person perception, compared to Japanese participants. In this experiment, participants read a vignette that described a target person's behaviour, then rated the target's personality. Before reading the vignette, some trait information was given to create an expectation about the target's personality. The data revealed that Americans used this initial information to guide their judgments of the target, whereas the Japanese sample based their judgments on all the information more evenly. Thus, Americans showed a stronger primacy effect in their impression formation than Japanese participants, who engaged in more data-driven processing.

  17. Cultural differences in the primacy effect for person perception.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Kenji; Kamada, Akiko; Shrira, Ilan

    2014-06-01

    Previous work has shown there are robust differences in how North Americans and East Asians form impressions of people. The present research examines whether the tendency to weigh initial information more heavily-the primacy effect-may be another component of these cultural differences. Specifically, we tested whether Americans would be more likely to use first impressions to guide person perception, compared to Japanese participants. In this experiment, participants read a vignette that described a target person's behaviour, then rated the target's personality. Before reading the vignette, some trait information was given to create an expectation about the target's personality. The data revealed that Americans used this initial information to guide their judgments of the target, whereas the Japanese sample based their judgments on all the information more evenly. Thus, Americans showed a stronger primacy effect in their impression formation than Japanese participants, who engaged in more data-driven processing. PMID:24821510

  18. Welcoming Diversity: Celebrating Our Differences and Acknowledging Our Common Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Allatia; Hosseini, Shyrel

    Celebrating diversity is critical for maximizing the benefits of the diverse makeup of faculty, students, and communities served by colleges. Understanding the importance of diversity is important for academic leaders because their attitudes towards diversity influence the perceptions of others in the institution and can affect hiring practices…

  19. Radiosensitivity of different tissues from carrot root at different phases of growth in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Degani, N.; Pickholtz, D.

    1980-09-01

    The present work compares the effect of ..gamma..-radiation dose and time in culture on the growth of cambium and phloem carrot (Daucus carota) root explants. It was found that the phloem is more radiosensitive than the cambium and that both tissues were more radiosensitive when irradiated on excision at the G/sub 1/ phase rather than at the end of the lag phase on the ninth day of growth in culture when cells were predominantly at the G/sub 2/ phase. The nuclear volumes of cells from both tissues were similar but were larger at the end of the more radioresistant lag phase than those of the G/sub 1/ phase on excision. However, nuclear volume could not account for the differences in radiosensitivity between either the tissues or irradiation times in culture.

  20. Immigrants, Schooling, and Social Mobility: Does Culture Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Hans, Ed.; Perlmann, Joel, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of essays by Dutch and American scholars on the complex relationship between structural and cultural forces shaping the life chances of ethnic minorities. The papers are: (1) "Introduction: The Role of Culture in Explanations of Social Mobility" (Hans Vermeulen); (2) "Introduction: The Persistence of Culture versus…

  1. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.46 Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement. (a) Basis....

  2. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.46 Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement. (a) Basis....

  3. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.46 Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement. (a) Basis....

  4. 14 CFR 150.31 - Preliminary review: Acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Evaluations and Determinations of Effects of Noise Compatibility Programs § 150.31 Preliminary review: Acknowledgments. (a) Upon receipt of a noise...

  5. 14 CFR 150.31 - Preliminary review: Acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Evaluations and Determinations of Effects of Noise Compatibility Programs § 150.31 Preliminary review: Acknowledgments. (a) Upon receipt of a noise...

  6. 14 CFR 150.31 - Preliminary review: Acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Evaluations and Determinations of Effects of Noise Compatibility Programs § 150.31 Preliminary review: Acknowledgments. (a) Upon receipt of a noise...

  7. 14 CFR 150.31 - Preliminary review: Acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Evaluations and Determinations of Effects of Noise Compatibility Programs § 150.31 Preliminary review: Acknowledgments. (a) Upon receipt of a noise...

  8. 14 CFR 150.31 - Preliminary review: Acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Evaluations and Determinations of Effects of Noise Compatibility Programs § 150.31 Preliminary review: Acknowledgments. (a) Upon receipt of a noise...

  9. Cultural and ethnic differences in content validation responses.

    PubMed

    Evans, Bronwynne C

    2004-04-01

    Eight instruments to evaluate grant interventions aimed at increasing recruitment and retention of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian nurses were developed for a Nursing Workforce Diversity Grant. This article compares expert reviewer responses during content validation of these instruments with (a) current literature and (b) seven filmed intervals of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian nurses speaking about their educational experiences. White reviewers responded differently to certain items than did Hispanic/Latino and American Indian reviewers (or reviewers closely affiliated with such persons). Responses of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian experts were aligned with one another but not aligned with the responses of White experts, who also agreed with one another, prompting literature and film comparisons with their responses. Faculty development may be needed to help teachers uncover their assumptions about students of color, acquire knowledge about cultural perspectives, recognize institutional racism, and attain the skills necessary to develop and implement a curriculum of inclusion.

  10. Impact of Cultural Differences on Students' Participation, Communication, and Learning in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Dazhi; Olesova, Larissa; Richardson, Jennifer C.

    2010-01-01

    Being aware of cultural differences and knowing how to deal with related differences is critical for the success of online learning and training that involves learners from multiple countries and cultures. This study examines the perceived differences of participants from two different cultures on (1) students' participation behaviors; (2)…

  11. Cross-cultural differences in drivers' speed choice.

    PubMed

    Wallén Warner, Henriette; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if there are any cross-cultural differences between Swedish and Turkish drivers' rating of the variables in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with regard to complying with the speed limit. A sample of 219 Swedish and 252 Turkish drivers completed a questionnaire including questions based on the theory of planned behaviour (i.e. regarding attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, intention and behaviour). The results show that country differences in drivers' intention to comply with the speed limit as well as their self-reported compliance could be explained by differences found in their attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Furthermore, drivers who live in a country with fewer road traffic fatalities (i.e. Sweden), compared with drivers who live in a country with more road traffic fatalities (i.e. Turkey), reported a more positive attitude towards complying with the speed limit, a more positive subjective norm, a higher perceived behavioural control, a higher intention and a larger proportion of the time spent complying.

  12. Burnout, Engagement, and Organizational Culture: Differences between Physicians and Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Montgomery, Anthony; Panagopoulou, Efharis; Stoleski, Sasho; Minov, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Burnout results from a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal workplace stressors. The focus of research has been widened to job engagement. AIM: Purpose of the study was to examine associations between burnout, job engagement, work demands, and organisational culture (OC) and to demonstrate differences between physicians and nurses working in general hospital in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were used for assessment of burnout and job engagement. Work demands and OC were measured with Hospital Experience Scale and Competing Values Framework, respectively. RESULTS: Higher scores of dedication, hierarchy OC, and organizational work demands were found in physicians. Nurses demonstrated higher scores of clan OC. Burnout negatively correlated with clan and market OC in physicians and nurses. Job engagement positively correlated with clan and market OC in nurses. Different work demands were related to different dimensions of burnout and/or job engagement. Our findings support job demands-resources (JD-R) model (Demerouti and Bakker). CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained can be used in implementation of specific organizational interventions in the hospital setting. Providing adequate JD-R interaction can lead to prevention of burnout in health professionals (HPs) and contribute positively to better job engagement in HPs and higher quality of patient care. PMID:27275279

  13. 22 CFR 92.32 - Notarial certificate to acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notarial certificate to acknowledgment. 92.32 Section 92.32 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.32 Notarial certificate to acknowledgment. (a) Title. The notarial certificate evidencing the taking of...

  14. 20 CFR 423.7 - Acknowledgment of mailed process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acknowledgment of mailed process. 423.7 Section 423.7 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.7 Acknowledgment of mailed process. The Social Security Administration will not provide a receipt or...

  15. 5 CFR 1601.33 - Acknowledgment of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acknowledgment of risk. 1601.33 Section 1601.33 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD PARTICIPANTS' CHOICES OF TSP FUNDS Contribution Allocations and Interfund Transfer Requests § 1601.33 Acknowledgment of...

  16. Social Acknowledgments for Children with Disabilities: Effects of Service Dogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Bonnie; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined the effect of service dogs on the social acknowledgment of 5 disabled children of 10-17 years in shopping malls and school playgrounds. Social acknowledgments were more frequent when a service dog was present and more pronounced in shopping malls. (RJC)

  17. 14 CFR 91.1013 - Operational control briefing and acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Ownership Operations Operational Control § 91.1013 Operational control briefing and acknowledgment. (a) Upon... management services contract, the program manager must brief the fractional owner on the owner's operational... acknowledgment. (c) Each program manager must ensure that the fractional owner or owner's representatives...

  18. 9 CFR 2.26 - Acknowledgment of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acknowledgment of regulations and standards. 2.26 Section 2.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Registration § 2.26 Acknowledgment of regulations...

  19. 9 CFR 2.2 - Acknowledgement of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acknowledgement of regulations and standards. 2.2 Section 2.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.2 Acknowledgement of regulations...

  20. 9 CFR 2.26 - Acknowledgment of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acknowledgment of regulations and standards. 2.26 Section 2.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Registration § 2.26 Acknowledgment of regulations...

  1. 9 CFR 2.2 - Acknowledgement of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acknowledgement of regulations and standards. 2.2 Section 2.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.2 Acknowledgement of regulations...

  2. 9 CFR 2.2 - Acknowledgement of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acknowledgement of regulations and standards. 2.2 Section 2.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.2 Acknowledgement of regulations...

  3. 9 CFR 2.26 - Acknowledgment of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acknowledgment of regulations and standards. 2.26 Section 2.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Registration § 2.26 Acknowledgment of regulations...

  4. 9 CFR 2.26 - Acknowledgment of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acknowledgment of regulations and standards. 2.26 Section 2.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Registration § 2.26 Acknowledgment of regulations...

  5. 9 CFR 2.26 - Acknowledgment of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acknowledgment of regulations and standards. 2.26 Section 2.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Registration § 2.26 Acknowledgment of regulations...

  6. 9 CFR 2.2 - Acknowledgement of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acknowledgement of regulations and standards. 2.2 Section 2.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.2 Acknowledgement of regulations...

  7. 9 CFR 2.2 - Acknowledgement of regulations and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acknowledgement of regulations and standards. 2.2 Section 2.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.2 Acknowledgement of regulations...

  8. 7 CFR 550.28 - Publications and acknowledgment of support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Management of Agreements Program Management § 550.28 Publications and acknowledgment of support. (a) Publications. REE Agencies and the Federal Government shall enjoy a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publications and acknowledgment of support....

  9. Interspecies differences in metabolism of arsenic by cultured primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Drobna, Zuzana; Walton, Felecia S.; Harmon, Anne W.; Thomas, David J.; Styblo, Miroslav

    2010-05-15

    Biomethylation is the major pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in many mammalian species, including the human. However, significant interspecies differences have been reported in the rate of in vivo metabolism of iAs and in yields of iAs metabolites found in urine. Liver is considered the primary site for the methylation of iAs and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in this pathway. Thus, the As3mt-catalyzed methylation of iAs in the liver determines in part the rate and the pattern of iAs metabolism in various species. We examined kinetics and concentration-response patterns for iAs methylation by cultured primary hepatocytes derived from human, rat, mice, dog, rabbit, and rhesus monkey. Hepatocytes were exposed to [{sup 73}As]arsenite (iAs{sup III}; 0.3, 0.9, 3.0, 9.0 or 30 nmol As/mg protein) for 24 h and radiolabeled metabolites were analyzed in cells and culture media. Hepatocytes from all six species methylated iAs{sup III} to methylarsenic (MAs) and dimethylarsenic (DMAs). Notably, dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes were considerably more efficient methylators of iAs{sup III} than mouse, rabbit or human hepatocytes. The low efficiency of mouse, rabbit and human hepatocytes to methylate iAs{sup III} was associated with inhibition of DMAs production by moderate concentrations of iAs{sup III} and with retention of iAs and MAs in cells. No significant correlations were found between the rate of iAs methylation and the thioredoxin reductase activity or glutathione concentration, two factors that modulate the activity of recombinant As3mt. No associations between the rates of iAs methylation and As3mt protein structures were found for the six species examined. Immunoblot analyses indicate that the superior arsenic methylation capacities of dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes examined in this study may be associated with a higher As3mt expression. However, factors other than As3mt expression may also contribute to

  10. Cultural Adaptations to Environmental Variability: An Evolutionary Account of East-West Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei; Mak, Miranda C. K.; Li, Tong; Wu, Bao Pei; Chen, Bin Bin; Lu, Hui Jing

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been conducted to document and sometimes to provide proximate explanations (e.g., Confucianism vs. Western philosophy) for East-West cultural differences. The ultimate evolutionary mechanisms underlying these cross-cultural differences have not been addressed. We propose in this review that East-West cultural differences (e.g.,…

  11. Cultural Differences in Sleeping Practices--Helping Early Childhood Educators Understand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses cultural differences in sleeping practices, focusing on how child caregivers can provide developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive care. Describes co-sleeping as an accepted practice in many cultures with several benefits. Discusses the role of cultural values, beliefs, priorities, and goals and the importance of…

  12. Reporting Differences among Sexually Assaulted College Women: A Cultural Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Malia J.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual assault (SA) is a critical public health problem, and there are many barriers that impede college women from reporting. Although there are many studies that explore these barriers, there is a lack of understanding regarding the cultural implications to reporting. The existing literature often uses race as a proxy for culture when exploring…

  13. Cultural Differences in Children's Emotional Reactions to Difficult Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Pamela M.; Bruschi, Carole J.; Tamang, Babu L.

    2002-01-01

    Two studies examined beliefs about revealing emotion among children from Brahman, Tamang and American cultures. Findings indicated three distinct cultural patterns: Tamang were more likely to appraise difficult situations in terms of shame, while the others endorsed anger. Brahmins were more likely not to communicate negative emotion. Americans…

  14. Modes and Models for Transcending Cultural Differences in International Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hook, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators of international students are frequently challenged to cope with a clashing diversity of cultures in a classroom setting. This study examined what sorts of themes and images might resonate across nationalities and cultures, which could then be used as transcultural tools for international educators. The study employed mixed qualitative…

  15. Themes and Images That Transcend Cultural Differences in International Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hook, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Educators of international students are frequently challenged to cope with a clashing diversity of cultures in a classroom setting. This study examined what sorts of themes and images might resonate across nationalities and cultures, which could then be used as tools to aid an instructional framework for international education. The study employed…

  16. Facial aesthetic surgical goals in patients of different cultures.

    PubMed

    Rowe-Jones, Julian M

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of facial aesthetic surgery is to improve the patient's psychological well-being. To achieve this, the surgeon must understand the patient's body image and their aesthetic and psychological expectations. These factors must be judged in the context of their cultural background. The patient's cultural values must also be understood to optimize the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:25049120

  17. Being Responsive to Cultural Differences: How Teachers Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth, Mary E., Ed.

    This book offers suggestions for teacher educators to encourage preservice teachers to construct and expand their own skills and techniques for culturally responsive teaching. The book's 3 parts offer 12 chapters. Part 1 focuses on the perceptions of those grappling with culturally responsive practice. Part 2 suggests ways that attention to…

  18. Doing Culture, Doing Race: Everyday Discourses of "Culture" and "Cultural Difference" in the English as a Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ena

    2015-01-01

    While current conceptualisations of the inextricable connection between language and culture in English language education are largely informed by complex sociocultural theories that view culture as constructed in and through social practices among people, classroom practices continue to be influenced by mainstream discourses of culture that…

  19. Managing the multicultural laboratory, Part I: Tools for understanding cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Ketchum, S M

    1992-01-01

    This article will help laboratory managers better manage their culturally diverse employees by explaining what is meant by "culture" and by presenting a research-based model for assessing the different values, attitudes, and behaviors exhibited by those of different cultural backgrounds. The useful cross-cultural data presented come from an exciting research analysis compiled by Dutch social psychologist and management consultant, Dr. Geert Hofstede. This multi-national corporate study compared the cultures of more than 40 nationalities using four different cultural characteristics. As members of an empirically based profession, laboratory professionals should welcome some hard data about a soft subject. This model will enable laboratory managers to understand their own cultural biases and will interpret some of the attitudes and behaviors of those with different national or ethnic backgrounds. By understanding the elementary principles of culture and by replacing outdated stereotypes with educated generalizations, clinical laboratory managers can take a vital step toward becoming effective multi-cultural managers.

  20. Identification of differences between rural and urban safety cultures.

    PubMed

    Rakauskas, Michael E; Ward, Nicholas J; Gerberich, Susan G

    2009-09-01

    The prevailing risk of traffic fatalities is much larger in rural areas compared to urban areas. A number of explanations have been offered to explain this including road design, emergency medical service proximity, and human factors. This research explored the potential contribution of rural driver attitudes that may underlie the increased fatal crash risk in rural environments. This analysis examined differences between rural and urban drivers in terms of self-reported risk taking for driving behaviors associated with fatal crashes and attitudes toward safety interventions using a large-scale survey. The results suggested that rural drivers engage in riskier behavior, such as not wearing seatbelts, because they have lower perceptions of the risks associated with such behaviors. Results also suggested that vehicle type (e.g., pickup trucks versus passenger vehicles) may be related to seatbelt compliance and frequency of driving under the influence of alcohol. Rural drivers perceived the utility of government-sponsored traffic safety interventions to be lower than their urban counterparts. This study provides insights into the role of the human factor in rural fatal crashes and provides policy suggestions for developing safety interventions that are designed with respect to the psychosocial factors that define the rural culture.

  1. Acculturation: When Individuals and Groups of Different Cultural Backgrounds Meet.

    PubMed

    Sam, David L; Berry, John W

    2010-07-01

    In cross-cultural psychology, one of the major sources of the development and display of human behavior is the contact between cultural populations. Such intercultural contact results in both cultural and psychological changes. At the cultural level, collective activities and social institutions become altered, and at the psychological level, there are changes in an individual's daily behavioral repertoire and sometimes in experienced stress. The two most common research findings at the individual level are that there are large variations in how people acculturate and in how well they adapt to this process. Variations in ways of acculturating have become known by the terms integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization. Two variations in adaptation have been identified, involving psychological well-being and sociocultural competence. One important finding is that there are relationships between how individuals acculturate and how well they adapt: Often those who integrate (defined as being engaged in both their heritage culture and in the larger society) are better adapted than those who acculturate by orienting themselves to one or the other culture (by way of assimilation or separation) or to neither culture (marginalization). Implications of these findings for policy and program development and for future research are presented. PMID:26162193

  2. Similarities and Differences in Meaning in Six Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Douglas J.; Raybeck, Douglas

    1981-01-01

    Employed multidimensional scaling to investigate semantic domains. Studied two semantic categories that varied in abstractness (animals and emotions) in six cultures (Greece, Haiti, Hong Kong, Spain, United States, and Vietnam). (Author/MK)

  3. A Contrastive Study Doctoral Dissertation Acknowledgements by English Non-Native (Chinese) and Native Students in Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golpour, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, genre studies have attracted the attention of many researchers. The aim of the present study was to observe the differences in generic structure of doctoral dissertation acknowledgements texts written by English native and non-native (Chinese) PhD students. To this end, thirty native English students' acknowledgement texts and the…

  4. Developing Alternative Frameworks for Exploring Intercultural Learning: A Critique of Hofstede's Cultural Difference Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Signorini, Paola; Wiesemes, Rolf; Murphy, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Hofstede's model of cultural difference has been used widely for exploring aspects of culture in educational settings. In this paper, we review Hofstede's model and explore some of its limitations, particularly in relation to the field of higher education. These limitations include an oversimplification of cultural differences, inconsistencies…

  5. Use of Cultural Styles or Repertoires of Experience to Guide Instruction: What Difference Does It Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccleave, Anne; Eghan, Felicia

    2010-01-01

    Educators are seeking to meet student needs in increasingly diverse university classrooms. Two contrasting ways of responding to cultural difference are planning instruction on the basis of cultural styles or repertoires of culturally-based experiences (Gutierrez & Rogoff, 2003). Use of learning styles to address individual differences in learning…

  6. The Art of Globalism, the Culture of Difference, the Industry of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalder, Glenda

    This paper speaks in terms of "globalism" rather than "globalization," of a "culture of difference" rather than of cultural difference, of an "industry of knowledge" rather than of knowing. The paper first considers the argument that new communications technologies and systems are bringing cultures together merely by forging global…

  7. Evaluation for citation metrics and peer reviewer acknowledgments

    PubMed Central

    Green, Bart N.

    2016-01-01

    This editorial discusses the indexing systems that include the Journal of Chiropractic Education, reflects on the increased international participation in chiropractic education scholarly meetings and peer review, and acknowledges the editorial board and peer reviewers for the journal. PMID:27557431

  8. 22 CFR 92.31 - Taking an acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... document is written. (e) Acknowledgments of married women. Some of the States still require that a married woman who has executed an instrument of conveyance jointly with her husband be examined separately...

  9. 22 CFR 92.31 - Taking an acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... document is written. (e) Acknowledgments of married women. Some of the States still require that a married woman who has executed an instrument of conveyance jointly with her husband be examined separately...

  10. 22 CFR 92.31 - Taking an acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... document is written. (e) Acknowledgments of married women. Some of the States still require that a married woman who has executed an instrument of conveyance jointly with her husband be examined separately...

  11. 48 CFR 752.7034 - Acknowledgement and disclaimer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the author(s) do not necessarily reflect those of USAID. Acknowledgements should identify the... Development, under the terms of Contract No. ___. The opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s)...

  12. 48 CFR 752.7034 - Acknowledgement and disclaimer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the author(s) do not necessarily reflect those of USAID. Acknowledgements should identify the... Development, under the terms of Contract No. ___. The opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s)...

  13. 48 CFR 752.7034 - Acknowledgement and disclaimer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the author(s) do not necessarily reflect those of USAID. Acknowledgements should identify the... Development, under the terms of Contract No. ___. The opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s)...

  14. 48 CFR 752.7034 - Acknowledgement and disclaimer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the author(s) do not necessarily reflect those of USAID. Acknowledgements should identify the... Development, under the terms of Contract No. ___. The opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s)...

  15. 48 CFR 752.7034 - Acknowledgement and disclaimer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the author(s) do not necessarily reflect those of USAID. Acknowledgements should identify the... Development, under the terms of Contract No. ___. The opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s)...

  16. 47 CFR 80.322 - Form of acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... message is transmitted in the following form: (1) The distress signal SOS; (2) The call sign of the... acknowledging receipt, sent three times; (5) The group RRR; (6) The message signal SOS. (b) The...

  17. Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E

    2006-08-01

    To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings.

  18. Beyond the Boundaries: Critical Thinking and Differing Cultural Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailin, Sharon; Battersby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    After outlining arguments for the general epistemological presumption in favour of taking into consideration alternative perspectives from other cultures, the article details several examples in which such an examination yields epistemic benefits and challenges. First, our example of alternative conceptions of art demonstrates that a western…

  19. Corporal Punishment, Discipline and Cultural Differences and Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Johnny L.

    Schools can no longer be responsible for only the cognitive domain of the child. They must also expand to include the affective domain. When it comes to the corporal punishment or discipline of a disruptive black child, the child's cultural history and history of alienation must be considered. And, because it is the teacher who controls rewards…

  20. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  1. Cultural Differences in Equity Theory Predictions of Relational Maintenance Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yum, Young-ok; Canary, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the theoretic role of equity in predicting relational maintenance strategies is modified by participant country and culture. Research on equity theory in relationships has been conducted primarily in the United States and Western Europe. We argue that equity theory predictions regarding relational communication probably…

  2. Critical Reflection on Cultural Difference in the Computer Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegahn, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Adult educators have a strong interest in designing courses that stimulate learning toward critical, more inclusive cultural perspectives. Critical reflection is a key component of both intercultural learning and a growing medium of instruction, the asynchronous computer conference (CC). This study combined qualitative methodology with a framework…

  3. Intoxication and bad behaviour: understanding cultural differences in the link.

    PubMed

    Room, R

    2001-07-01

    Research developments since the appearance of MacAndrew and Edgerton's landmark volume, Drunken Comportment (1969), are summarized. The challenge of moving beyond the book is to understand what lies behind cultural variations in drunken comportment. Four specific factors in variations in drunken comportment are discussed. (1) A common contrast is between "wet" societies, where drinking is banalized everyday, and "dry" societies, where alcohol is set apart as a special commodity. Problems with this contrast are discussed, and the need for cross-cultural studies comparing expectancies from intoxication. (2) There is a need to study variations in the definition of intoxication as a "time out" state. In some societies, intoxication is likened to possession by spirits; a rationalistic version of this can be found in Canadian court decisions viewing extreme intoxication as potentially "akin to automatism". (3) If bad behaviour is a foreseeable consequence of drinking, why do some societies nevertheless not hold the drinker responsible'? In Anglo-American and similar societies, drunkenness has some excuse value, but it is not a very good excuse. Compromises like this seem to be found also in other cultures. (4) Pseudointoxication is fairly widespread, and seems to mark social situations where alcohol has enhanced excuse value. It appears to be a stratagem of the weaker side across cultural boundaries, and of the young where age-grading favours older groups. Concerning the possibility of cultural changes in drunken comportment, it is argued that there are historical examples, but such a shift requires a substantial social change. PMID:11414386

  4. Cultural Diversity and Saccade Similarities: Culture Does Not Explain Saccade Latency Differences between Chinese and Caucasian Participants

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Paul C.; Wolohan, Felicity D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour. We previously reported a robust difference in saccade behaviour between Chinese and Caucasian participants; Chinese participants are much more likely to execute low latency express saccades, in circumstances in which these are normally discouraged. To assess the extent to which this is the product of culture we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey confirmed that the UK-Chinese group were culturally similar to the Caucasian group. However, their patterns of saccade latency were identical to the mainland Chinese group, and different to the Caucasian group. We conclude that at least for the relatively simple reflexive saccade behaviour we have investigated, culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour. PMID:24709988

  5. Cultural Differences in Early Math Skills among U.S., Taiwanese, Dutch, and Peruvian Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paik, Jae H.; van Gelderen, Loes; Gonzales, Manuel; de Jong, Peter F.; Hayes, Michael

    2011-01-01

    East Asian children have consistently outperformed children from other nations on mathematical tests. However, most previous cross-cultural studies mainly compared East Asian countries and the United States and have largely ignored cultures from other parts of the world. The present study explored cultural differences in young children's early…

  6. Perceptions of Ways in Which French and American Business Practices Reflect Cultural Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Hazel

    The literature concerning the corporate culture of the United States is a starting point for comparing the institutions of different cultures. However, teaching about the cultural context of business is not simply a matter of describing non-American companies in American terms, and American-born language teachers usually have little experience…

  7. Cross-Cultural Differences and the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiu-Bai, Qin

    1983-01-01

    A Chinese student of English is often faced with culturally based differences in denotation and connotation, idioms and proverbs, habits, and formulaic use of language. Since the native speaker of any language has built into his language repertoire his unique cultural assumptions and values, a culture-oriented curriculum in language teaching is…

  8. Acknowledging tissue donation: Human cadaveric specimens in musculoskeletal research.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Andreas; Heinze, Anne-Kathrin; Hendrix, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Human cadaveric specimens are an important resource for research, particularly in biomechanical studies, but their use also raises ethical questions and cannot simply be taken for granted. It was asked how much information authors publishing musculoskeletal research actually give about such specimens and about how they were acquired. The aim was to formulate recommendations on how this reporting might be improved. Relevant articles published between 2009 and 2012 in four North American or European journals were scanned for information regarding the characteristics of the human specimens used, their institutional source and the ethical or legal context of their acquisition. While the majority of articles report biological characteristics of specimens (sex, age at death, preservation method), only 40% of articles refer to body donation, only 23% report the institution that provided specimens, and only 17% refer to some kind of formalized approval of their research. There were regional and journal-to-journal differences. No standard for reporting studies involving human specimens could be detected. It is suggested that such a standard be developed by researchers and editors. Information on the source of specimens and on the ethical or legal basis should be regularly reported to acknowledge this unique research resource and to preserve the good relationship between researchers and the communities, that provide the required specimens by body donation and upon which researchers depend.

  9. Developing an innovative cross-cultural strategy to promote HIV/AIDS prevention in different ethnic cultural groups of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Keats, D

    2005-10-01

    The HIV and STIs epidemic in China has had a significant impact among China's ethnic minorities. However, the official traditional approach, which has used an anti-epidemic social campaign, has not paid any attention to the diversity of cultural backgrounds of the many ethnic minority groups. This study carried out in Sichuan Province is the first to explore how to use cultural resources for developing an effective strategy for promoting HIV prevention in different cultural groups in China. One hundred and fifty male volunteers drawn from the Yi (50), Tibetan (50) and majority Han (50) cultural groups were assigned to a direct training programme. After training, these participants spread safe sex messages to other contacts who became an indirect peer diffusion group. A third group of 150 male volunteers from the same three cultural groups but from another relatively comparable community acted as controls. Each participant was interviewed before and after the intervention to assess knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions regarding HIV/AIDS prevention. The study examined the cultural appropriateness and effectiveness of peer-led health message diffusion in promoting condom use through a traditional oral communication approach from the direct training groups to the indirect intervention groups and broad peer networks within the Yi, Tibetan and Han cultural communities. Key findings showed that the peer-based oral communication strategy was effective for encouraging condom use with casual sexual partners in both the direct training group and the indirect peer diffusion group in all three cultural groups. There was no significant change in any of the comparison groups. Although change in the majority Han cultural group was generally greater than in the ethnic minority groups, the results clearly suggest that the methods can be successfully adopted to promote safe sexual behaviour in different cultural groups of China.

  10. Screening of Different Media and Substrates for Cultural Variability and Mass Culture of Arthrobotrys dactyloides Drechsler.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D; Singh, K P; Jaiswal, R K

    2005-12-01

    Variability in growth and sporulation of five isolates of Arthrobotrys dactyloides was studied on five agar, 6 bran and 5 grain media. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) supported maximum growth of isolate A, C and E, while growth of isolate B and D was significantly lower on this medium. On Czapek's agar and yeast glucose agar media the differentiation in the isolates in relation to growth was poor than PDA. The other two media showed much poorer differentiation. On Czapek's agar medium, sporulation was recorded in isolate B only, whereas other isolates showed rare sporulation. Among the bran media, pea bran agar medium supported maximum growth of all the isolates except isolate B. Gram and rice bran agar media were next best. However, the growth of isolate B on the gram bran agar medium was more or less equal as other isolates. On pigeon pea bran agar medium, isolate E failed to grow while other isolates recorded poor growth. On lentil bran agar medium, only isolate B and D recorded little growth, whereas other isolates failed to grow. All the isolates recorded good sporulation on bran agar media except pigeon pea and lentil bran agar media. The grain agar media supported moderate to very good growth of all the isolates. In general isolate B remained slow growing on these media except gram grain and sorghum grain agar media on which growth of this isolate was comparable to other isolates. Sporulation in general, was good on all the grain agar media. Among different substrates screened, barley grain and pea bran were found superior to others for mass culture of isolate A of A. dactyloides.

  11. Reconcilable differences? Human diversity, cultural relativity, and sense of community.

    PubMed

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M

    2011-03-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.

  12. Young Children's Attention to What's Going On: Cultural Differences.

    PubMed

    Silva, Katie G; Shimpi, Priya M; Rogoff, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines children' attention to surrounding events in which they are not directly involved, a way of learning that fits with the cultural approach of Learning by Observing and Pitching In. Research in instructional settings has found that attention to surrounding events is more common among Indigenous Guatemalan Mayan and some US Mexican-heritage children than among middle-class children from several ethnic backgrounds. We examine this phenomenon in a quasi-naturalistic setting to see if the cultural variation in young children's attention to surrounding events in which they were not directly involved extends beyond instructional settings. During a home visit focused on their younger sibling, 19 Guatemalan Mayan and 18 middle-class European American 3- to 5-year olds were nearby but not addressed, as their mother helped their toddler sibling operate novel objects. The Guatemalan Mayan children more frequently attended to this nearby interaction and other third-party activities, whereas the middle-class European American children more often attended to their own activities in which they were directly involved or they fussed or showed off. The results support the idea that in some Indigenous communities of the Americas where young children are included in a broad range of family and community endeavors, children may be especially inclined to attend to ongoing events, even if they are not directly involved or addressed, compared to European American children whose families have extensive experience in Western school ways.

  13. The pragmatics of culture: the rhetoric of difference in psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Foster, S W

    1990-10-01

    Culture becomes an issue in the treatment of psychiatric patients from diverse cultural backgrounds. Inpatient psychiatry at an urban, general hospital in San Francisco, California, has developed specialized treatment programs for Hispanic, black, and Asian-Pacific patients. These patients are recognized as culturally distinct; their cultural situations must be addressed by a program of culturally sensitive nursing care. The implementation of such a program has not generally led to serious cultural analysis on the part of nurses and other caregivers but rather, to a rhetorical and strategic use of the concept of culture and a stereotyping of traits, styles, and beliefs. This article critically examines this rhetoric of cultural difference as an aspect of the rhetoric of normalization practiced in this setting.

  14. Culturally Responsive Gifted Classrooms for Culturally Different Students: A Focus on Invitational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.

    2015-01-01

    This article expands the notion of culturally responsive learning environments by including Purkey and Novak's (1996) work on invitational learning. Their typology of four types of schools is described and applied to gifted education classrooms, along with associated characteristics of each. Specific attention is focused on implications for…

  15. Cultural Differences in Values as Self-Guides.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wing-Yee; Maio, Gregory R; Rees, Kerry J; Kamble, Shanmukh; Mane, Sangeetha

    2016-06-01

    Three studies tested whether individualism-collectivism moderates the extent to which values are endorsed as ideal self-guides and ought self-guides, and the consequences for regulatory focus and emotion. Across Studies 1 and 2, individualists endorsed values that are relatively central to the self as stronger ideals than oughts, whereas collectivists endorsed them as ideals and oughts to a similar degree. Study 2 found that individualists justified central values using reasons that were more promotion focused than prevention focused, whereas collectivists used similar amount of prevention-focused and promotion-focused reasons. In Study 3, individualists felt more dejected after violating a central (vs. peripheral) value and more agitated after violating a peripheral (vs. central) value. Collectivists felt a similar amount of dejection regardless of values centrality and more agitation after violating central (vs. peripheral) values. Overall, culture has important implications for how we regulate values that are central or peripheral to our self-concept. PMID:27460271

  16. Cultural Differences in Values as Self-Guides.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wing-Yee; Maio, Gregory R; Rees, Kerry J; Kamble, Shanmukh; Mane, Sangeetha

    2016-06-01

    Three studies tested whether individualism-collectivism moderates the extent to which values are endorsed as ideal self-guides and ought self-guides, and the consequences for regulatory focus and emotion. Across Studies 1 and 2, individualists endorsed values that are relatively central to the self as stronger ideals than oughts, whereas collectivists endorsed them as ideals and oughts to a similar degree. Study 2 found that individualists justified central values using reasons that were more promotion focused than prevention focused, whereas collectivists used similar amount of prevention-focused and promotion-focused reasons. In Study 3, individualists felt more dejected after violating a central (vs. peripheral) value and more agitated after violating a peripheral (vs. central) value. Collectivists felt a similar amount of dejection regardless of values centrality and more agitation after violating central (vs. peripheral) values. Overall, culture has important implications for how we regulate values that are central or peripheral to our self-concept.

  17. Cultural differences with end-of-life care in the critical care unit.

    PubMed

    Doolen, Jessica; York, Nancy L

    2007-01-01

    Critical care nurses are providing healthcare for an increasingly multicultural population. This ever-increasing diversity in cultures and subcultures presents a challenge to nurses who want to provide culturally competent care. It is common for patients and families to face difficult decisions about end-of-life care in critical care units, and minority cultures do not always believe in the Westerner's core values of patient autonomy and self-determination. Knowledge of these cultural differences is fundamental if critical care nurses wish to provide appropriate and culturally competent information regarding end-of-life decisions. PMID:17704674

  18. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Cultural Differences on the Adoption of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpaci, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to understand the impact of cultural differences on mobile learning adoption through identifying key adoption characteristics in Canada and Turkey, which have markedly different cultural backgrounds. A multi-group analysis was employed to test the hypothesised relationships based on the data collected by means of…

  19. On the Meaning of Cross-Cultural Differences in Simple Cognitive Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2008-01-01

    A set of 5 reaction time tests of increasing cognitive complexity were administered to 35 secondary school pupils in Zimbabwe and The Netherlands at 4 consecutive school days in order to explore the existence and nature of cross-cultural differences on reaction time tests measuring basic cognitive operations. No cross-cultural differences were…

  20. Characteristics of the Culturally Different Client: A Guide for the Rehabilitation Counselor. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, William R.

    The material focuses on the following areas: definition and purpose, some of the more common characteristics of the culturally different, counselor attitudes in serving the culturally different, counselor's knowledge of client's background, communication in the counseling relationship, and client attitudes toward helping services. Some…

  1. Cultural Diversity in the Classroom: Implications for Curriculum Literacy in South African Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modiba, Maropeng; Van Rensburg, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Cultural literacy is considered as crucial in the process of redress, and of equal recognition, affirmation and nurturing of different cultural symbols and other forms of expression within South Africa. In this paper we reflect conceptually on what the new curriculum policy in Arts and Culture education proposes with regard to acknowledging and…

  2. Sexual Assault Victims' Acknowledgment Status and Revictimization Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather; Axsom, Danny; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2009-01-01

    How a victim of rape characterizes her assault has potential implications for her postassault experiences and revictimization risk. Prior research has identified several potential benefits to not conceptualizing one's experience as a form of victimization. The current study sought to identify whether there are costs to not acknowledging rape as…

  3. 14 CFR 77.19 - Acknowledgment of notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acknowledgment of notice. 77.19 Section 77.19 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE OBJECTS AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE Notice of Construction or Alteration § 77.19...

  4. 7 CFR 2903.11 - Acknowledgment of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acknowledgment of applications. 2903.11 Section 2903.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Preparation of an...

  5. 14 CFR 49.13 - Signatures and acknowledgements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 49.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT RECORDING OF AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.13 Signatures and acknowledgements. (a... date— (i) It is signed; or (ii) The grantor (a corporate officer or other person in a...

  6. 14 CFR 49.13 - Signatures and acknowledgements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 49.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT RECORDING OF AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.13 Signatures and acknowledgements. (a... date— (i) It is signed; or (ii) The grantor (a corporate officer or other person in a...

  7. 14 CFR 49.13 - Signatures and acknowledgements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 49.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT RECORDING OF AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.13 Signatures and acknowledgements. (a... date— (i) It is signed; or (ii) The grantor (a corporate officer or other person in a...

  8. 14 CFR 49.13 - Signatures and acknowledgements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 49.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT RECORDING OF AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.13 Signatures and acknowledgements. (a... date— (i) It is signed; or (ii) The grantor (a corporate officer or other person in a...

  9. 14 CFR 49.13 - Signatures and acknowledgements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 49.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT RECORDING OF AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.13 Signatures and acknowledgements. (a... date— (i) It is signed; or (ii) The grantor (a corporate officer or other person in a...

  10. Capturing Qualitative Data: Northwestern University Special Libraries' Acknowledgments Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stigberg, Sara; Guittar, Michelle; Morse, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and supporting data have become of increasing interest in librarianship. In this paper, we describe the development and implementation of the Northwestern University Library Acknowledgments Database tool, which gathers and documents qualitative data, as well as its component reporting function. This collaborative project and resulting…

  11. Acknowledging Students' Collaborations through Peer Review: A Footnoting Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Shelli M.; Gravett, Emily O.

    2016-01-01

    Student-to-student peer review or peer feedback is commonly used in student-centered or active-learning classrooms. In this article, we describe a footnoting exercise that we implemented in two of our undergraduate courses as one way to encourage students to acknowledge collaborations and contributions made during peer-review processes. This…

  12. 7 CFR 2903.11 - Acknowledgment of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acknowledgment of applications. 2903.11 Section 2903.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Preparation of an...

  13. Listener Responses According to Stuttering Self-Acknowledgment and Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyungjae; Manning, Walter H.

    2010-01-01

    Given the well-documented understanding that stuttering behavior elicits stereotypically negative responses from listeners, two experiments explored the equivocal results of earlier investigations concerning the potential for self-acknowledgment and modification of stuttering to elicit positive responses from naive (unfamiliar with stuttering)…

  14. The Scholar's Courtesy: A Survey of Acknowledgement Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Blaise; Overfelt, Kara

    1994-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey of scholars in major U.S. research universities that was conducted to explore the normative bases of acknowledgment behavior and its role in the scholarly communication process. Questions regarding expectations, etiquette, ethics, equity, and evaluation are addressed, and a copy of the survey is appended. (Contains…

  15. 7 CFR 550.28 - Publications and acknowledgment of support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Publications and acknowledgment of support. 550.28 Section 550.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE...

  16. 7 CFR 550.28 - Publications and acknowledgment of support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publications and acknowledgment of support. 550.28 Section 550.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE...

  17. 47 CFR 80.322 - Form of acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Form of acknowledgement. 80.322 Section 80.322 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  18. 47 CFR 80.322 - Form of acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Form of acknowledgement. 80.322 Section 80.322 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  19. 47 CFR 80.322 - Form of acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Form of acknowledgement. 80.322 Section 80.322 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  20. 47 CFR 80.322 - Form of acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Form of acknowledgement. 80.322 Section 80.322 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  1. 22 CFR 92.31 - Taking an acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... certain of the identity of the parties making an acknowledgment. If he is not personally acquainted with the parties, he should require from each some evidence of identity, such as a passport, police identity card, or the like. The laws of some States and Territories require that the identity of...

  2. Lipid production in Porphyridium cruentum grown under different culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung Ho; Han, Jae Gun; Kim, Young; Ha, Ji Hye; Kim, Seung Seop; Jeong, Myoung Hoon; Jeong, Hyang Suk; Kim, Na Young; Cho, Jeong Sub; Yoon, Won Byong; Lee, Shin Young; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2009-11-01

    Autotrophic growth of Porphyridium cruentum under 18:12 h and 12:12 h light:dark cycles showed the maximum cell concentration of 2.1 g-dry wt./L, whereas the specific growth rate, 0.042 (1/h), at 18:6 h is faster than that of 12:12 h, 0.031 (1/h), respectively. The highest lipid accumulation level, 19.3 (%, w/w), was achieved at 12:12 h cycle. Under dark cultivation condition with 10 g/L of glucose, the lipid accumulation in the cell was 10.9 (%, w/w), whereas the heterotrophic growth with glycerol as the carbon resource showed low level of cell concentration and lipid production, compared to that of glucose. The glucose was decided to be a suitable carbon resource for the heterotrophic growth of P. cruentum. The lipids from P. cruentum seemed be feasible for biodiesel production, because over 30% of the lipid was C16-C(18:1). The cultivation time and temperature were important factors to increase the maximum cell concentration. Extending the cultivation time helps maintain the maximum cell concentration, and higher lipid accumulation was achieved at 25 degrees C, compared to 35 degrees C. The fed-batch cultures showed that, under the light condition, the specific production rate was slightly decreased to 0.4% lipid/g-dry wt./day at the later stage, whereas, under the dark condition, the specific production rate was maintained to be a maximum value of 1.1% lipid/g-dry wt./day, even in the later stage of cultivation. The results indicate that the heterotrophic or 12:12 h cyclic mixotrophic growth of P. cruentum could be used for the production of biodiesel in long-term fed-batch cultivation of P. cruentum.

  3. Correcting Cultural Myopia: The Discovery and Nurturance of the Culturally Different Gifted and Talented in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Neil

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying and developing talent in children from culturally different backgrounds in New Zealand. The paper offers examples of how even applying the recommended "best practice" of multi-dimensional identification approaches can be inadequate for identifying gifted children from Maori, Polynesian, or other…

  4. Spontaneous aneuploidy and clone formation in adipose tissue stem cells during different periods of culturing.

    PubMed

    Buyanovskaya, O A; Kuleshov, N P; Nikitina, V A; Voronina, E S; Katosova, L D; Bochkov, N P

    2009-07-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of 13 mesenchymal stem cell cultures isolated from normal human adipose tissue was carried out at different stages of culturing. The incidence of chromosomes 6, 8, 11, and X aneuploidy and polyploidy was studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization. During the early passages, monosomal cells were more often detected than trisomal ones. A clone with chromosome 6 monosomy was detected in three cultures during late passages.

  5. Difference or Disorder? Cultural Issues in Understanding Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Sparks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment, are biologically based disorders that currently rely on behaviorally defined criteria for diagnosis and treatment. Specific behaviors that are included in diagnostic frameworks and the point at which individual differences in behavior constitute abnormality…

  6. Testing the Cultural Differences of School Characteristics with Measurement Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Ergül

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to model the school characteristics in multivariate structure, and according to this model, aimed to test the invariance of this model across five randomly selected countries and economies from PISA 2012 sample. It is thought that significant differences across group in the context of school characteristics have the…

  7. Respecting Difference: Race, Faith and Culture for Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, Heidi Safia; Meetoo, Veena

    2012-01-01

    "Respecting Difference" demonstrates how teacher educators in the UK and worldwide can attract, recruit and support black and minority ethnic students to become much needed and valued future teachers and educational leaders. This accessible guide presents insights into the institutional and individual dilemmas and experiences of both tutors and…

  8. Cultural Differences in Affect Intensity Perception in the Context of Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Pogosyan, Marianna; Engelmann, Jan B.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese, and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity, or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants perceived high arousal (HA) images as significantly less calm than participants from the other two cultures, while the Japanese participants perceived low arousal (LA) images as significantly more excited than participants from the other cultures. The underlying mechanisms of these cultural differences were further investigated through difference scores that probed for cultural differences in perception and categorization of positive emotions. Findings indicate that rating differences are due to (1) perceptual differences in the extent to which HA images were discriminated from LA images, and (2) categorization differences in the extent to which facial expressions were grouped into affect intensity categories. Specifically, American participants revealed significantly higher perceptual differentiation between arousal levels of facial expressions in high and intermediate intensity categories. Japanese participants, on the other hand, did not discriminate between high and low arousal affect categories to the same extent as did the American and Russian participants. These findings indicate the presence of cultural differences in underlying decoding mechanisms of facial expressions of positive affect intensity. Implications of these results for global advertising are discussed. PMID:22084635

  9. Reading Difference: Picture Book Retellings as Contexts for Exploring Personal Meanings of Race and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaker, Judith; Sedberry, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    In racially and culturally homogeneous school settings, opportunities for children to interact with those who are unlike themselves are not always available. Picture book retellings provide contexts within which students are exposed to racial and cultural differences by allowing them to engage in vicarious events with people they might not…

  10. Thinking Differently about Cultural Diversity: Using Postcolonial Theory to (Re)Read Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lyn

    2004-01-01

    This paper makes use of postcolonial theory to think differently about aspects of cultural diversity within science education. It briefly reviews some of the increasing scholarship on cultural diversity, and then describes the genealogy and selected key themes of postcolonial theory. Postcolonial theory as oppositional or deconstructive reading…

  11. Choice of Appropriate Multimedia Technology and Teaching Methods for Different Culture Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taratoukhina, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the prerequisites for development in the area of cross-cultural multimedia didactics. This approach is based on research studies of differences between mentalities, ways of working with educational information, culturally-specific teaching methods and teaching techniques that determine differentiated approaches to the choice…

  12. Global Organizations and E-Learning: Leveraging Adult Learning in Different Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Edward P.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines a number of issues regarding the leveraged use of global training within multinational organizations. Given a common purpose and using technology that may minimize cultural differences, is it possible for these organizations to overcome some of the cultural barriers to adult learning? In examining this concept, this article…

  13. Are We Tolerant Enough to Read Each Other's Culture? Evidence from Three Different Social Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the effect of cultural background of second-language-readers in different social contexts. Argues that cultural familiarity helps understanding more than the language of the text. Comprehension results are discussed in light of the role of multiculturalism and "melting-pot" policies in shaping minority students' social orientations.…

  14. Differences between Taiwanese and U.S. Cultural Beliefs about Ideal Adult Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Mallinckrodt, Brent S.

    2006-01-01

    Some researchers believe that important tenets of attachment theory are culturally universal, whereas others claim that key constructs are rooted in Western values and should not be generalized further. To explore possible cultural differences in adults, undergraduates from Taiwan (n = 280) and the United States (n = 268) were asked in the present…

  15. Teaching "Understanding Cultural Differences for Business" in an Internet-Based Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to offer a successful pedagogy in the teaching of "Understanding Culture Differences for Business" using Internet sources. The use of the pedagogy has helped the author and several faculty (in the author's University located in the U.S.) to popularize the learning of the origins of national culture and how culture…

  16. Differences in activity profile of bacterial cultures studied by dynamic speckle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Miquet, E. E.; Otero, I.; Rodríguez, D.; Darias, J. G.; Combarro, A. M.; Contreras, O. R.

    2013-02-01

    We outline the main differences in the activity profile of bacterial cultures studied by dynamic laser speckle (or biospeckle) patterns. The activity is detected in two sorts of culture mediums. The optical setup and the experimental procedure are presented. The experimentally obtained images are processed by the temporal difference method and a qualitative assessment is made with the time history of speckle patterns of the sample. The main differences are studied after changing the culture medium composition. We conclude that the EC medium is suitable to detect the E. coli bacterial presence in early hours and that Mueller Hinton agar delays some additional hours to make possible the assessment of bacteria in time.

  17. Is the attribution of cultural differences to minorities an expression of racial prejudice?

    PubMed

    Vala, Jorge; Pereira, Cícero; Costa-Lopes, Rui

    2009-02-01

    The social psychological literature considers two main perspectives on the study of perceived cultural differences between majorities and minorities: one proposes that perception of cultural differences is an antecedent of prejudice and another states that the attribution of cultural differences to minorities is already a hidden expression of racial prejudice. This paper offers further support to this latter perspective. One hundred and ninety-four participants answered a questionnaire measuring (1) general racist belief; (2) cultural differences attributed to Black people (hetero-ethnicization); (3) the asymmetric attribution of secondary and primary emotions to the in-group and to Black people (infra-humanization); (4) the asymmetric attribution of natural and cultural traits to in-group members and to Black people (ontologization); and (5) negative evaluation of this social category. The general racist belief scale was not anchored in a specific group and measured the belief in the inferiority of certain social groups or peoples based on biological or cultural factors. Relationships between the scales were analysed through a set of Structural Equation Models. According to the predictions, results showed that the attribution of cultural differences is a dimension of prejudice. Results also showed that attribution of cultural differences, negative evaluation of Black people, ontologization, and infra-humanization were different dimensions of a common latent factor that can be identified as racial prejudice; and that prejudice was predicted by general racist belief. Results are discussed in the light of the study of the impact of perceived cultural differences on intergroup relations and in the light of the "new racism" approaches.

  18. The death of an animal should be acknowledged.

    PubMed

    2016-06-22

    How should nurses help clients deal with grief following the loss of an animal? Grief following the death of a pet can be significant, but such reactions can be viewed as abnormal by family, friends and professionals. Mental health training team leader Bronwen Williams and veterinary surgeon Rebecca Green, writing in Mental Health Practice, say that a lack of understanding can compound grief. Simply acknowledging the significance of the loss is key. PMID:27332617

  19. Cultural differences in use of an electronic discussion group.

    PubMed

    McTavish, Fiona M; Pingree, Suzanne; Hawkins, Robert; Gustafson, David

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how 121 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer used a computer mediated discussion group to cope with their diagnosis. These data are part of a larger data set from a randomized clinical trial assessing the impact of a computer-based system called CHESS (the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) on health outcomes. The larger study found significant improvement in health outcomes for those in the experimental group (those receiving CHESS), especially for women of color. Since discussion group is by far the most heavily used service of CHESS, one might conclude that these benefits (both overall and greater for women of color) should be attributed to amount of discussion group use. This study looks at how women of color and Caucasian women used the CHESS discussion group over the period of the study. Content analysis of messages in the discussion group showed that women of color used the discussion group differently from Caucasian women-they used it less frequently but their messages were more focused on breast cancer, suggesting they used discussion group more instrumentally. PMID:22113904

  20. Carotenoids production in different culture conditions by Sporidiobolus pararoseus.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; He, Qian; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids produced by Sporidiobolus pararoseus were studied. It was found that biomass was connected with carbon source, temperature, and pH, but carotenoids proportion was seriously influenced by dissolved oxygen and nitrogen source. Different carotenoids could be obtained by using selected optimum conditions. In the end we established the strategies to produce β-carotene or torulene. Fed-batch fermentation in fermentor was used to prove the authenticity of our conclusions. The cell biomass, β-carotene content, and β-carotene proportion could reach 56.32 g/L, 18.92 mg/L and 60.43%, respectively, by using corn steep liquor at 0-5% of dissolved oxygen saturation. β-Carotene content was 271% higher than before this addition. The cell biomass, torulene content, and torulene proportion could reach 62.47 g/L, 31.74 mg/L, and 70.41%, respectively, by using yeast extract at 30-35% of dissolved oxygen saturation. Torulene content was 152% higher than before this addition. The strategy for enhancing specific carotenoid production by selected fermentation conditions may provide an alternative approach to enhance carotenoid production with other strains. PMID:22708808

  1. Models and mosaics: investigating cross-cultural differences in risk perception and risk preference.

    PubMed

    Weber, E U; Hsee, C K

    1999-12-01

    In this article, we describe a multistudy project designed to explain observed cross-national differences in risk taking between respondents from the People's Republic of China and the United States. Using this example, we develop the following recommendations for cross-cultural investigations. First, like all psychological research, cross-cultural studies should be model based. Investigators should commit themselves to a model of the behavior under study that explicitly specifies possible causal constructs or variables hypothesized to influence the behavior, as well as the relationship between those variables, and allows for individual, group, or cultural differences in the value of these variables or in the relationship between them. This moves the focus from a simple demonstration of cross-national differences toward a prediction of the behavior, including its cross-national variation. Ideally, the causal construct hypothesized and shown to differ between cultures should be demonstrated to serve as a moderator or a mediator between culture and observed behavioral differences. Second, investigators should look for converging evidence for hypothesized cultural effects on behavior by looking at multiple dependent variables and using multiple methodological approaches. Thus, the data collection that will allow for the establishment of conclusive causal connections between a cultural variable and some target behavior can be compared with the creation of a mosaic.

  2. Evolution of cultural traits occurs at similar relative rates in different world regions

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Thomas E.; Mace, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to evolve at similar relative rates in different world regions, despite the unique historical backgrounds of groups inhabiting these regions. We used phylogenetic comparative methods and systematic cross-cultural data to assess how different socio-cultural traits changed in (i) island southeast Asia and the Pacific, and (ii) sub-Saharan Africa. The relative rates of change in these two regions are significantly correlated. Furthermore, cultural traits that are more directly related to external environmental conditions evolve more slowly than traits related to social structures. This is consistent with the idea that a form of purifying selection is acting with greater strength on these more environmentally linked traits. These results suggest that despite contingent historical events and the role of humans as active agents in the historical process, culture does indeed evolve in ways that can be predicted from general principles PMID:25297866

  3. Individualism and the extended-self: cross-cultural differences in the valuation of authentic objects.

    PubMed

    Gjersoe, Nathalia L; Newman, George E; Chituc, Vladimir; Hood, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The current studies examine how valuation of authentic items varies as a function of culture. We find that U.S. respondents value authentic items associated with individual persons (a sweater or an artwork) more than Indian respondents, but that both cultures value authentic objects not associated with persons (a dinosaur bone or a moon rock) equally. These differences cannot be attributed to more general cultural differences in the value assigned to authenticity. Rather, the results support the hypothesis that individualistic cultures place a greater value on objects associated with unique persons and in so doing, offer the first evidence for how valuation of certain authentic items may vary cross-culturally. PMID:24658437

  4. Individualism and the Extended-Self: Cross-Cultural Differences in the Valuation of Authentic Objects

    PubMed Central

    Gjersoe, Nathalia L.; Newman, George E.; Chituc, Vladimir; Hood, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The current studies examine how valuation of authentic items varies as a function of culture. We find that U.S. respondents value authentic items associated with individual persons (a sweater or an artwork) more than Indian respondents, but that both cultures value authentic objects not associated with persons (a dinosaur bone or a moon rock) equally. These differences cannot be attributed to more general cultural differences in the value assigned to authenticity. Rather, the results support the hypothesis that individualistic cultures place a greater value on objects associated with unique persons and in so doing, offer the first evidence for how valuation of certain authentic items may vary cross-culturally. PMID:24658437

  5. Children in Asian cultures say yes to yes-no questions: Common and cultural differences between Vietnamese and Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2008-03-01

    We investigated whether children's response tendency toward yes-no questions concerning objects is a common phenomenon regardless of languages and cultures. Vietnamese and Japanese 2- to 5-year-old (N = 108) were investigated. We also examined whether familiarity with the questioning issue has any effect on Asian children's yes bias. As the result, Asian children showed a yes bias to yes-no questions. The children's response tendency changes dramatically with their age: Vietnamese and Japanese 2- and 3-year-olds showed a yes bias, but 5-year-olds did not. However, Asian 4-year-olds also showed a yes bias only in the familiar condition. Also, Asian children showed a stronger yes bias in the familiar condition than the unfamiliar condition. These two findings in Asian children were different from the previous finding investigated North American children (Fritzley & Lee, 2003). Moreover, there was a within-Asian cross-cultural difference. Japanese children showed different response tendencies, which were rarely observed in Vietnamese children. Japanese 2-year-olds and some 3-year-olds showed a "no answer" response: they tended not to respond to an interviewer's questions. Japanese 4- and 5-year-olds also showed an "I don't know" response when they were asked about unfamiliar objects. Japanese children tended to avoid a binary decision. We discussed the cross-cultural differences.

  6. Reflections on the challenges of understanding racial, cultural and sexual differences in couple relationship research

    PubMed Central

    Gabb, Jacqui; Singh, Reenee

    2015-01-01

    In the field of systemic psychotherapy there has been much recent interest in the areas of culture and reflexivity, and in working with couples. In this article we reflect on the process of conducting research in these areas. Drawing on findings from a large, national, empirical mixed-methods study on long-term relationships, we use two examples from the data to illustrate the complexity of researching across racial, cultural and sexual differences, in terms of research design and sampling, fieldwork and research practice, and making sense of multidimensional data. We point to findings that suggest that notions of coupledom are culturally constructed and thus challenge straightforward ideas of the procreative, sexually active couple dyad, separate from intergenerational extended families. The clinical significance of the findings for both lesbian, gay, bisexual or queer and culturally diverse couples and families are discussed. Practitioner points Cultural or racial matching is not a sufficient condition for engagement and empathy with couples and families. Critical reflexivity about similarity and difference is essential in cross-cultural systemic practice. ‘The couple’ and its distance from the extended family may be defined differently in different cultures. One research tool used in this project, the emotion map, appears to have utility in clinical practice with couples and families. PMID:25820766

  7. Gun Cultures or Honor Cultures? Explaining Regional and Race Differences in Weapon Carrying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felson, Richard B.; Pare, Paul-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We use the National Violence against Women (and Men) Survey to examine the effects of region and race on the tendency to carry weapons for protection. We find that Southern and Western whites are much more likely than Northern whites to carry guns for self-protection, controlling for their risk of victimization. The difference between Southern and…

  8. Managing the multi-cultural laboratory, Part II: Tools for managing the differences.

    PubMed

    Ketchum, S M

    1992-01-01

    This second article provides practical advice from managers in a variety of industries who have first-hand experience as multi-cultural managers. It will help laboratory professionals make practical application of two conceptual models in managing their culturally diverse employees. The advice covers such areas as performance standards, interpersonal skills, language issues, and other management practices. The first article explained what is meant by "culture" and featured the research-based model set forth by Dutch social psychologist and management consultant, Dr. Geert Hofstede. His four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Masculinity/Femininity, Individualism/Collectivism, and Uncertainty Avoidance) provide a useful framework for assessing the different values, attitudes, and behaviors exhibited by those of different cultural backgrounds. In this article, abbreviated reference tables are presented that make these cross-cultural data more useful for management decision making. Laboratory supervisors can use both the models and the advice to challenge their own built-in cultural biases and to meaningfully interpret some of the attitudes and behaviors of culturally diverse coworkers and employees. PMID:10128839

  9. Managing the multi-cultural laboratory, Part II: Tools for managing the differences.

    PubMed

    Ketchum, S M

    1992-01-01

    This second article provides practical advice from managers in a variety of industries who have first-hand experience as multi-cultural managers. It will help laboratory professionals make practical application of two conceptual models in managing their culturally diverse employees. The advice covers such areas as performance standards, interpersonal skills, language issues, and other management practices. The first article explained what is meant by "culture" and featured the research-based model set forth by Dutch social psychologist and management consultant, Dr. Geert Hofstede. His four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Masculinity/Femininity, Individualism/Collectivism, and Uncertainty Avoidance) provide a useful framework for assessing the different values, attitudes, and behaviors exhibited by those of different cultural backgrounds. In this article, abbreviated reference tables are presented that make these cross-cultural data more useful for management decision making. Laboratory supervisors can use both the models and the advice to challenge their own built-in cultural biases and to meaningfully interpret some of the attitudes and behaviors of culturally diverse coworkers and employees.

  10. Extended culture of macrophages from different sources and maturation results in a common M2 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Lisa M; Holt-Casper, Dolly; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Grainger, David W

    2015-09-01

    Inflammatory responses to biomaterials heavily influence the environment surrounding implanted devices, often producing foreign-body reactions. The macrophage is a key immunomodulatory cell type consistently associated with implanted biomaterials and routinely used in short-term in vitro cell studies of biomaterials aiming to reproduce host responses. Inconsistencies within these studies, including differently sourced cells, different durations of culture, and assessment of different activation markers, lead to many conflicting results in vitro that confound consistency and conclusions. We hypothesize that different experimentally popular monocyte-macrophage cell types have intrinsic in vitro culture-specific differences that yield conflicting results. Recent studies demonstrate changes in cultured macrophage cytokine expression over time, leading to the hypothesis that changes in macrophage phenotype also occur in response to extended culture. Here, macrophage cells of different transformed and primary-derived origins were cultured for 21 days on model polymer biomaterials. Cell type-based differences in morphology and cytokine/chemokine expression as well as changes in cell surface biomarkers associated with differentiation stage, activation state, and adhesion were compared. Results reflect consistent macrophage development toward an M2 phenotype via up-regulation of the macrophage mannose receptor for all cell types following 21-day extended culture. Significantly, implanted biomaterials experiencing the foreign-body response and encapsulation in vivo often elicit a shift toward an analogous M2 macrophage phenotype. In vitro "default" of macrophage cultures, regardless of lineage, to this M2 state in the presence of biomaterials at long culture periods is not recognized, but has important implications to in vitro modeling of in vivo host response.

  11. EXTENDED CULTURE OF MACROPHAGES FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES AND MATURATION RESULTS IN A COMMON M2 PHENOTYPE

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Lisa M.; Holt-Casper, Dolly; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Grainger, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory responses to biomaterials heavily influence the environment surrounding implanted devices, often producing foreign body reactions. The macrophage is a key immunomodulatory cell type consistently associated with implanted biomaterials and routinely employed in short term in vitro cell studies of biomaterials aiming to reproduce host responses. Inconsistencies within these studies, including differently sourced cells, different durations of culture, and assessment of different activation markers, lead to many conflicting results in vitro that confound consistency and conclusions. We hypothesize that different experimentally popular monocyte-macrophage cell types have intrinsic in vitro culture-specific differences that yield conflicting results. Recent studies demonstrate changes in cultured macrophage cytokine expression over time, leading to the hypothesis that changes in macrophage phenotype also occur in response to extended culture. Here, macrophage cells of different transformed and primary-derived origins were cultured for 21 days on model polymer biomaterials. Cell type-based differences in morphology and cytokine/chemokine expression as well as changes in cell surface biomarkers associated with differentiation stage, activation state, and adhesion were compared. Results reflect consistent macrophage development towards an M2 phenotype via up-regulation of the macrophage mannose receptor for all cell types following 21-day extended culture. Significantly, implanted biomaterials experiencing the foreign body response and encapsulation in vivo often elicit a shift towards an analogous M2 macrophage phenotype. In vitro “default” of macrophage cultures, regardless of lineage, to this M2 state in the presence of biomaterials at long culture periods is not recognized but has important implications to in vitro modeling of in vivo host response. PMID:25684281

  12. Differences in developmental competence and gene expression profiles between buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) preimplantation embryos cultured in three different embryo culture media.

    PubMed

    Sadeesh, E M; Selokar, N L; Balhara, A K; Yadav, P S

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare effects of in vitro culture systems on embryonic development and expression patterns of developmentally important genes in preimplantation buffalo embryos. After IVM/IVF presumptive zygotes were cultured in one of three systems: undefined TCM-199, mCR2aa medium supplemented with 10 % FBS and defined PVA-myo-inositol-phosphate-EGF medium. No (P > 0.05) differences at 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell to 16- cell stages were observed among the three cultured media used, however, increased (P < 0.05) blastocyst yield, cell number and hatching rate were found in defined medium compared to undefined media. The expression patterns of genes implicated in embryo metabolism (GLUT-1), anti-apoptosis (BCL-2), imprinting (IGF-2R), DNA methylation (DNMT-3A) and maternal recognition of pregnancy (IFNT) were increased (P < 0.05) in hatched blastocysts derived from defined medium compared to undefined media. In conclusion, serum-free, defined medium improved developmental competence of in vitro cultured buffalo embryos. Whether these differences in morphological development and gene expression have long-term effects on buffalo calves born after embryo transfer remains unknown. However, it is possible that early adaptations of the preimplantation embryo to its environment persist during fetal and post-natal development. PMID:27481470

  13. Parental attitudes about sexual education: cross-cultural differences and covariate controls.

    PubMed

    Abramson, P R; Moriuchi, K D; Waite, M S; Perry, L B

    1983-10-01

    Cross-cultural differences in parental attitudes and experiences of childhood sexual education were examined. Parental attitudes and experiences were isolated for study because of their significance as a vehicle for transmitting culturally prescribed norms. The present study also tested for artifactual differences between cultures, in terms of explaining the differences with concomitant variability. Couples with children ranging in age from 1 to 10 were utilized and were drawn from four subcultures (Mexican-American, N = 22, Black American, N = 20, Caucasian American, N = 27, and Japanese-American, N = 18). The most salient and consistent finding was the pronounced significance of the covariate controls (especially father's education and mother's religiosity). That is, although a few cross-cultural effects remained significant despite the influence of a covariate, most of the findings were biased by a concomitant (i.e., demographic) variable. PMID:6651506

  14. Co-variation of tonality in the music and speech of different cultures.

    PubMed

    Han, Shui' er; Sundararajan, Janani; Bowling, Daniel Liu; Lake, Jessica; Purves, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the use of discrete pitch intervals is characteristic of most musical traditions, the size of the intervals and the way in which they are used is culturally specific. Here we examine the hypothesis that these differences arise because of a link between the tonal characteristics of a culture's music and its speech. We tested this idea by comparing pitch intervals in the traditional music of three tone language cultures (Chinese, Thai and Vietnamese) and three non-tone language cultures (American, French and German) with pitch intervals between voiced speech segments. Changes in pitch direction occur more frequently and pitch intervals are larger in the music of tone compared to non-tone language cultures. More frequent changes in pitch direction and larger pitch intervals are also apparent in the speech of tone compared to non-tone language cultures. These observations suggest that the different tonal preferences apparent in music across cultures are closely related to the differences in the tonal characteristics of voiced speech.

  15. East-West Cultural Bias and Creativity: We Are Alike and We Are Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, James C.; Lan, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Persson (2012a) correctly raises the question of how cultural biases may impact giftedness research. He alludes to East-West differences in perceptions of creativity and ways that the collectivist-individualistic approaches may lead to differences in creativity perception. In this commentary, the authors discuss different approaches, and attempt…

  16. Proud Americans and lucky Japanese: cultural differences in appraisal and corresponding emotion.

    PubMed

    Imada, Toshie; Ellsworth, Phoebe C

    2011-04-01

    Appraisal theories of emotion propose that the emotions people experience correspond to their appraisals of their situation. In other words, individual differences in emotional experiences reflect differing interpretations of the situation. We hypothesized that in similar situations, people in individualist and collectivist cultures experience different emotions because of culturally divergent causal attributions for success and failure (i.e., agency appraisals). In a test of this hypothesis, American and Japanese participants recalled a personal experience (Study 1) or imagined themselves to be in a situation (Study 2) in which they succeeded or failed, and then reported their agency appraisals and emotions. Supporting our hypothesis, cultural differences in emotions corresponded to differences in attributions. For example, in success situations, Americans reported stronger self-agency emotions (e.g., proud) than did Japanese, whereas Japanese reported a stronger situation-agency emotion (lucky). Also, cultural differences in attribution and emotion were largely explained by differences in self-enhancing motivation. When Japanese and Americans were induced to make the same attribution (Study 2), cultural differences in emotions became either nonsignificant or were markedly reduced.

  17. 47 CFR 80.1117 - Procedure for receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this standard can be inspected at the Federal... selective calling are only acknowledged using a DSC acknowledgement by a coast station. Ships should delay... ship may transmit a DSC acknowledgement call to stop it from being repeated. Acknowledgement by...

  18. Age and gender differences in self-esteem-A cross-cultural window.

    PubMed

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Arslan, Ruben C; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gebauer, Jochen E; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D

    2016-09-01

    Research and theorizing on gender and age differences in self-esteem have played a prominent role in psychology over the past 20 years. However, virtually all empirical research has been undertaken in the United States or other Western industrialized countries, providing a narrow empirical base from which to draw conclusions and develop theory. To broaden the empirical base, the present research uses a large Internet sample (N = 985,937) to provide the first large-scale systematic cross-cultural examination of gender and age differences in self-esteem. Across 48 nations, and consistent with previous research, we found age-related increases in self-esteem from late adolescence to middle adulthood and significant gender gaps, with males consistently reporting higher self-esteem than females. Despite these broad cross-cultural similarities, the cultures differed significantly in the magnitude of gender, age, and Gender × Age effects on self-esteem. These differences were associated with cultural differences in socioeconomic, sociodemographic, gender-equality, and cultural value indicators. Discussion focuses on the theoretical implications of cross-cultural research on self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Improving TCP throughput performance on high-speed networks with a receiver-side adaptive acknowledgment algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Wing-Keung; Chang, Rocky K. C.

    1998-12-01

    A drastic TCP performance degradation was reported when TCP is operated on the ATM networks. This deadlock problem is 'caused' by the high speed provided by the ATM networks. Therefore this deadlock problem is shared by any high-speed networking technologies when TCP is run on them. The problems are caused by the interaction of the sender-side and receiver-side Silly Window Syndrome (SWS) avoidance algorithms because the network's Maximum Segment Size (MSS) is no longer small when compared with the sender and receiver socket buffer sizes. Here we propose a new receiver-side adaptive acknowledgment algorithm (RSA3) to eliminate the deadlock problems while maintaining the SWS avoidance mechanisms. Unlike the current delayed acknowledgment strategy, the RSA3 does not rely on the exact value of MSS an the receiver's buffer size to determine the acknowledgement threshold.Instead the RSA3 periodically probes the sender to estimate the maximum amount of data that can be sent without receiving acknowledgement from the receiver. The acknowledgment threshold is computed as 35 percent of the estimate. In this way, deadlock-free TCP transmission is guaranteed. Simulation studies have shown that the RSA3 even improves the throughput performance in some non-deadlock regions. This is due to a quicker response taken by the RSA3 receiver. We have also evaluated different acknowledgment thresholds. It is found that the case of 35 percent gives the best performance when the sender and receiver buffer sizes are large.

  20. Valuing difference in students' culture and experience in school science lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banner, Indira

    2016-08-01

    Susan Harper writes about how a cross-cultural learning community can be formed where people from different cultures are not simply assimilated into a school science community but are seen and heard. This makes learning reciprocal and meaningful for both recent refugees and the dominant population. Although maybe not refugees, students from poorer backgrounds in many countries are less likely to choose science at a post-compulsory level. This article discusses some of the potential barriers that are faced by many of these students, that prevent them from participating in school science. It suggests how people involved in school science might address these issues to allow a smoother cultural border crossing between the students' cultures and school science culture by reducing the significance of the crossing.

  1. Investigating the establishment of primary cell culture from different abalone (Haliotis midae) tissues.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Mathilde; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Niesler, Carola; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2010-07-01

    The abalone, Haliotis midae, is the most valuable commodity in South African aquaculture. The increasing demand for marine shellfish has stimulated research on the biology and physiology of target species in order to improve knowledge on growth, nutritional requirements and pathogen identification. The slow growth rate and long generation time of abalone restrict efficient design of in vivo experiments. Therefore, in vitro systems present an attractive alternative for short term experimentation. The use of marine invertebrate cell cultures as a standardised and controlled system to study growth, endocrinology and disease contributes to the understanding of the biology of economically important molluscs. This paper investigates the suitability of two different H. midae tissues, larval and haemocyte, for establishing primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are assessed in terms of culture initiation, cell yield, longevity and susceptibility to contamination. Haliotis midae haemocytes are shown to be a more feasible tissue for primary cell culture as it could be maintained without contamination more readily than larval cell cultures. The usefulness of short term primary haemocyte cultures is demonstrated here with a growth factor trial. Haemocyte cultures can furthermore be used to relate phenotypic changes at the cellular level to changes in gene expression at the molecular level.

  2. Investigating the establishment of primary cell culture from different abalone (Haliotis midae) tissues

    PubMed Central

    Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Niesler, Carola; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2010-01-01

    The abalone, Haliotis midae, is the most valuable commodity in South African aquaculture. The increasing demand for marine shellfish has stimulated research on the biology and physiology of target species in order to improve knowledge on growth, nutritional requirements and pathogen identification. The slow growth rate and long generation time of abalone restrict efficient design of in vivo experiments. Therefore, in vitro systems present an attractive alternative for short term experimentation. The use of marine invertebrate cell cultures as a standardised and controlled system to study growth, endocrinology and disease contributes to the understanding of the biology of economically important molluscs. This paper investigates the suitability of two different H. midae tissues, larval and haemocyte, for establishing primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are assessed in terms of culture initiation, cell yield, longevity and susceptibility to contamination. Haliotis midae haemocytes are shown to be a more feasible tissue for primary cell culture as it could be maintained without contamination more readily than larval cell cultures. The usefulness of short term primary haemocyte cultures is demonstrated here with a growth factor trial. Haemocyte cultures can furthermore be used to relate phenotypic changes at the cellular level to changes in gene expression at the molecular level. PMID:20680682

  3. Cross-cultural differences in relationship- and group-based trust.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W; Brewer, Marilynn B; Takemura, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored differences in depersonalized trust (trust toward a relatively unknown target person) across cultures. Based on a recent theoretical framework that postulates predominantly different bases for group behaviors in Western cultures versus Eastern cultures, it was predicted that Americans would tend to trust people primarily based on whether they shared category memberships; however, trust for Japanese was expected to be based on the likelihood of sharing direct or indirect interpersonal links. Results supported these predictions. In both Study 1 (questionnaire study) and Study 2 (online money allocation game), Americans trusted ingroup members more than outgroup members; however, the existence of a potential indirect relationship link increased trust for outgroup members more for Japanese than for Americans. Implications for understanding group processes across cultures are discussed.

  4. Strategies Used by Foreign-Born Family Therapists to Connect Across Cultural Differences: A Thematic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Niño, Alba; Kissil, Karni; Davey, Maureen P

    2016-01-01

    With the growing diversity in the United States among both clinicians and clients, many therapeutic encounters are cross-cultural, requiring providers to connect across cultural differences. Foreign-born therapists have many areas of differences to work through. Thus, exploring how foreign-born family therapists in the United States connect to their clients can uncover helpful strategies that all therapists can use to establish stronger cross-cultural therapeutic connections. A thematic analysis was conducted to understand strategies 13 foreign-born therapists used during therapeutic encounters. Four themes were identified: making therapy a human-to-human connection, dealing with stereotypes, what really matters, and flexibility. Findings suggest that developing a deep therapeutic connection using emotional attunement and human-to-human engagement is crucial for successful cross-cultural therapy. Clinical and training implications are provided.

  5. Increasing Diversity in Computer Science: Acknowledging, yet Moving Beyond, Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Elizabeth A.; Stubbs, Margaret L.

    Lack of diversity within the computer science field has, thus far, been examined most fully through the lens of gender. This article is based on a follow-on to Margolis and Fisher's (2002) study and includes interviews with 33 Carnegie Mellon University students from the undergraduate senior class of 2002 in the School of Computer Science. We found evidence of similarities among the perceptions of these women and men on definitions of computer science, explanations for the notoriously low proportion of women in the field, characterizations of a typical computer science student, impressions of recent curricular changes, a sense of the atmosphere/culture in the program, views of the Women@SCS campus organization, and suggestions for attracting and retaining well-rounded students in computer science. We conclude that efforts to increase diversity in the computer science field will benefit from a more broad-based approach that considers, but is not limited to, notions of gender difference.

  6. Gibberellic acid production by free and immobilized cells in different culture systems.

    PubMed

    Durán-Páramo, Enrique; Molina-Jiménez, Héctor; Brito-Arias, Marco A; Robles-Martínez, Fabián

    2004-01-01

    Gibberellic acid production was studied in different fermentation systems. Free and immobilized cells of Gibberella fujikuroi cultures in shake-flask, stirred and fixed-bed reactors were evaluated for the production of gibberellic acid (GA3). Gibberellic acid production with free cells cultured in a stirred reactor reached 0.206 g/L and a yield of 0.078 g of GA3/g biomass.

  7. [The birth of acknowledgement: Michel Foucault and Werner Leibbrand].

    PubMed

    Mildenberger, Florian

    2006-01-01

    In 1964, Werner Leibbrand (1896-1974) was the first German medical historian to present, in Sudhoffs Archiv, a review of the work of Michel Foucault (1926-1984). This paper examines some of the reasons leading to the fact that Leibbrand's own generation refused to acknowledge the importance of Foucault's ideas, while, later on, younger German medical historians, although impressed with Foucault's writings, failed to acknowledge, first, the close relationship between Leibbrand's and Foucault's world views, and, second, Leibbrand's attempts at introducing Foucault to German medical historians. Leibbrand with his Jewish wife had survived the Nazi period partly in hiding. His attempts at clearing post-war German psychiatry and medical historiography of NS-sympathizers isolated him among his colleagues, many of whom had begun their career during the Third Reich. Leibbrand enjoyed the support by the Swiss medical historian and avowed Communist Erwin Ackerknecht (1906-1988), but later turned against him, possibly because Acknerknecht had called Leibbrand's writings "unscientific". Leibbrand was unable to overcome his antagonisms with his contemporaries. At the same time, opposition to Ackerknecht made him appear a respresentative of the past in the eyes of the younger generation. Thus, when Foucault was accepted by the latter, they were not prepared to examine the work of Leibbrand and realize how close some of the ideas developed by Leibbrand and Foucault had been.

  8. When “Bouba” equals “Kiki”: Cultural commonalities and cultural differences in sound-shape correspondences

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Huang, Pi-Chun; Woods, Andy; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the Bouba/Kiki effect, in which meaningless speech sounds are systematically mapped onto rounded or angular shapes, reflects a universal crossmodal correspondence between audition and vision. Here, radial frequency (RF) patterns were adapted in order to compare the Bouba/Kiki effect in Eastern and Western participants demonstrating different perceptual styles. Three attributes of the RF patterns were manipulated: The frequency, amplitude, and spikiness of the sinusoidal modulations along the circumference of a circle. By testing participants in the US and Taiwan, both cultural commonalities and differences in sound-shape correspondence were revealed. RF patterns were more likely to be matched with “Kiki” than with “Bouba” when the frequency, amplitude, and spikiness increased. The responses from both groups of participants had a similar weighting on frequency; nevertheless, the North Americans had a higher weighting on amplitude, but a lower weighting on spikiness, than their Taiwanese counterparts. These novel results regarding cultural differences suggest that the Bouba/Kiki effect is partly tuned by differing perceptual experience. In addition, using the RF patterns in the Bouba/Kiki effect provides a “mid-level” linkage between visual and auditory processing, and a future understanding of sound-shape correspondences based on the mechanism of visual pattern processing. PMID:27230754

  9. Cultural Similarities and Differences in Perceived Affordances of Situations for Big Five Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; del Prado, Alicia M.

    2009-01-01

    The perceived affordance or conduciveness of various situations for Big Five behaviors was investigated in the United States (N = 188) and the Philippines (N = 215). The basic proposition that different situations afford different trait-relevant behaviors was supported, at least in the perceptions of cultural informants. Cultural similarities exceeded differences, and in both cultures individuals perceived Big Five behaviors as expressed in if-then patterns of variation across situations. Americans and Filipinos showed some similarity in the general dimensions along which situations are construed, but meaningful differences in the construal of certain interpersonal situations were also observed. The findings contribute to efforts to integrate person and situation approaches in personality and social psychology. PMID:20401176

  10. Cultural, contextual, and gender differences in peer talk: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel; Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu

    2010-08-01

    The study focused on cultural, contextual, and gender differences in children's peer talk. Same-sex dyads of Estonian (n = 38), Finnish (n = 38), and Swedish (n = 34) preschool age children were videotaped during unstructured and structured play settings. We found only one gender difference in children's talkativeness and in the use of regulatory speech: during free play, Swedish boys used more imperatives per directives than Swedish girls. At the same time there were significant cultural and contextual differences. Estonian children were most directive and Swedish children were least directive. Finnish children were less directive than Estonian children but more directive than Swedish children. It was concluded that cultural and contextual factors strongly influence the likelihood, extent, and nature of gender differences in peer talk. PMID:20338014

  11. Teaching Practice and Cultural Difference of an English as Foreign Language Classroom in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Hsien-Chung; Yang, Cheng-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Uninterrupted interactions of merchants and travelers from different countries stress the significance of English. The purpose of the study was to investigate what cultures and teaching practices are different between native English-speaking teachers and Taiwanese senior high school students. Three native English-speaking teachers and six…

  12. A Measurement Invariance Analysis of the General Self-Efficacy Scale on Two Different Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Kam, Chester

    2014-01-01

    The 10-item General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) was developed to assess an individual's beliefs to cope with a variety of situations in life. Despite the GSES being used in numerous research from researchers in different countries and presented in different languages, little is known about the use of its validity in an Asian culture. The aim…

  13. Teachers' Cultural Differences: Case Studies Of Geography Teachers In Brisbane, Changchun and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chi Chung; Lidstone, John

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this exploratory study is to identify variations in the ways in which individual teachers in different educational contexts interpret their curriculum and plan their lessons and in particular to explore the possibility that cultural differences as identified by Hofstede (1991) may be a contributing factor to understanding…

  14. How Two Differing Portraits of Newton Can Teach Us about the Cultural Context of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucci, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Like several scientists, Isaac Newton has been represented many times over many different periods, and portraits of Newton were often commissioned by the scientist himself. These portraits tell us a lot about the scientist, the artist and the cultural context. This article examines two very different portraits of Newton that were realized more…

  15. Maternal Sensitivity and Child Secure Base Use in Early Childhood: Studies in Different Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada, German; Trumbell, Jill; Noblega, Magaly; Plata, Sandra; Peña, Paola; Carbonell, Olga A.; Lu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal sensitivity and child security are related during early childhood and whether such an association is found in different cultural and social contexts. Mother-child dyads (N = 237) from four different countries (Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States) were observed in naturalistic settings when children were…

  16. The Impact of Cultural Differences in Temporal Perception on Global Software Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Richard William

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the impact of cultural differences in temporal perception on globally dispersed software development teams. Literature and anecdotal evidence suggest that these temporal differences affect individual communication quality, which in turn will affect individual satisfaction and trust within global teams. Additionally,…

  17. Cross-Cultural Differences in Polite Epistemic Modal Use in American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youmans, Madeleine

    2001-01-01

    Compared the use of selected epistemic modals in the English speech of Chicano barrio residents and Anglo visitors to the community. Transcribed conversations served as the database. Discusses the epistemic modal functions used the most disparately between groups. Differences are shown to relate to cross-culturally different uses of epistemic…

  18. Cultural Differences on Chinese and English Idioms of Diet and the Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chunli

    2010-01-01

    Idioms is a special culture which is shaped in the daily lives of the local people, particularly the idioms of diet has a close relation with various elements, such as the eating custom, history, fairy tales, geographic situations. Also, different ways of translation on different diet idioms in English and Chinese will be analyzed in this article.…

  19. THE EFFECT OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCE IN THE EDUCATION OF SPANISH AMERICANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ULIBARRI, HORACIO

    MANY SPANISH AMERICANS IN NEW MEXICO HAVE DIFFICULTIES WHICH RESULT FROM DIFFERING VALUES IN THE SPANISH AMERICAN AND AMERICAN CULTURES. THESE DIFFERENCES IN VALUES ARE EVIDENT IN RELIGIOUS PRACTICES, EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, ECONOMIC POLICIES, HEALTH PRACTICES, POLITICAL ATTITUDES, RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES, AND FAMILY LIFE. A SECTION IS INCLUDED…

  20. Cultural Differences in Psychological Distress between Asian and Caucasian American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined possible cultural differences in psychological distress between 50 Asian-American and 48 Caucasian-American college students using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Found significant differences between the two groups on six of the nine symptom scales. Asians scored significantly higher than Caucasians on obsessive compulsiveness,…

  1. A Cross-Cultural Study of Differences in Romantic Attitudes between American and Albanian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoxha, Eneda; Hatala, Mark N.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in romantic attitudes are often taken for granted and accepted. However, very little research has been conducted to clearly state how much and how different Albanian and American college students are in the way they love. Results indicate that Americans are more romantic than Albanians. In addition, Americans are more…

  2. Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Development: Attention to Relations and Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates a suite of generalized differences in the attentional and cognitive processing of adults from Eastern and Western cultures. Cognition in Eastern adults is often more relational and in Western adults is more object focused. Three experiments examined whether these differences characterize the cognition of preschool…

  3. In vitro culture of immature embryos of Cinnamomum tamala Nees.--the role of different factors.

    PubMed

    Deb, Madhabi S; Jamir, N S; Deb, Chitta Ranjan

    2014-10-01

    Seed characteristics and in vitro culture of C. tamala embryos were studied. Embryos desiccated below 50% (fresh weight) exhibited poor morphogenetic response in vitro and confirmed the recalcitrant nature of seeds. The immature embryos of various developmental ages (4-16 week after flowering, WAF) were cultured on different strengths of MS medium. Morphogenesis responses were recorded after 10 days of culture. The best culture responses were achieved from the immature embryos of 12 WAF on MS medium with sucrose (3%, w/v), polyvinyl pyrollidone (100 mg L(-1)) and benzyl adenine (12 microM). Under optimum condition -60% explants responded; and -7.3 shoots buds developed per explants after 35 days of culture initiation. The shoot buds could be converted into micro-shoots on MS medium with sucrose (3%) and kinetin (3 microM). About 5.3 micro-shoots/shoot buds sprouted per sub-culture. The micro-shoots were rooted by maintaining them on MS medium with alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (3 microM) where within 6-8 wk of culture -8-10 roots developed. The rooted plantlets were acclimatized in vitro before they were transferred to community potting mix and maintained in the poly-shade ca 75% shading. The transplants registered -70% survival after two months of transfer. PMID:25345250

  4. Microcystin-Bound Protein Patterns in Different Cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa and Field Samples

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Nian; Hu, Lili; Song, Lirong; Gan, Nanqin

    2016-01-01

    Micocystin (MC) exists in Microcystis cells in two different forms, free and protein-bound. We examined the dynamic change in extracellular free MCs, intracellular free MCs and protein-bound MCs in both batch cultures and semi-continuous cultures, using high performance liquid chromatography and Western blot. The results showed that the free MC per cell remained constant, while the quantity of protein-bound MCs increased with the growth of Microcystis cells in both kinds of culture. Significant changes in the dominant MC-bound proteins occurred in the late exponential growth phase of batch cultures, while the dominant MC-bound proteins in semi-continuous cultures remained the same. In field samples collected at different months in Lake Taihu, the dominant MC-bound proteins were shown to be similar, but the amount of protein-bound MC varied and correlated with the intracellular MC content. We identified MC-bound proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis immunoblots and mass spectrometry. The 60 kDa chaperonin GroEL was a prominent MC-bound protein. Three essential glycolytic enzymes and ATP synthase alpha subunit were also major targets of MC-binding, which might contribute to sustained growth in semi-continuous culture. Our results indicate that protein-bound MC may be important for sustaining growth and adaptation of Microcystis sp. PMID:27754336

  5. Characterization of cell cultures in contact with different orthopedic implants biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouenzerfi, G.; Hannoun, A.; Hassler, M.; Brizuela, L.; Youjil, S.; Bougault, C.; Trunfio-Sfarghiu, A.-M.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the role of biological and mechanical constraints (at the cellular level) surrounding living tissues (cartilage and bone) in the presence of different joint implant biomaterials. In this fact, cells cultures in the presence of different types of biomaterials (pyrolytic carbon, cobalt-Chromium, titanium) has been performed. These cell cultures were subjected to biological characterization tests and mechanical characterization. The obtained results correlate with the in vivo observations (a promotion of the creation of a neocartilagical tissue in contact with the Pyrolytic Carbon implants).

  6. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response

    PubMed Central

    Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N.; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion in adults, and reactivity or responsivness in diverse animal species. Some biologists view the trait as one of two innate strategies—observing carefully before acting vs being first to act. Thus the central characteristic of SPS is hypothesized to be a deep processing of information. Here, 10 European-Americans and 10 East Asians underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing simple visuospatial tasks emphasizing judgments that were either context independent (typically easier for Americans) or context dependent (typically easier for Asians). As reported elsewhere, each group exhibited greater activation for the culturally non-preferred task in frontal and parietal regions associated with greater effort in attention and working memory. However, further analyses, reported here for the first time, provided preliminary support for moderation by SPS. Consistent with the careful-processing theory, high-SPS individuals showed little cultural difference; low-SPS, strong culture differences. PMID:20388694

  7. Cross-cultural differences in cognitive development: Attention to relations and objects

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates a suite of generalized differences in the attentional and cognitive processing of adults from Eastern and Western cultures. Cognition in Eastern adults is often more relational and in Western adults is more object focused. Three experiments examined whether these differences characterize the cognition of preschool children in the two cultures. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds from the two cultures (N = 64) participated in a relational match-to-standard task in two conditions, with simple or richly detailed objects, in which a focus on individual objects may hurt performance. Rich objects, consistent with past research, strongly limited the performance of U.S. children but not Japanese children. In Experiment 2, U.S. and Japanese 4-year-olds (N = 72) participated in a visual search task that required them to find a specific object in a cluttered, but organized as a scene, visual field in which object-centric attention might be expected to aid performance and relational attentional pattern may hinder the performance because of relational structure that was poised by the scene. U.S. children outperformed Japanese children. In Experiment 3, 4-year-olds from both cultures (N = 36) participated in a visual search task that was similar to Experiment 2 but with randomly placed objects, where there should not be a difference between the performance of two cultures because the relational structure that may be posed by the scene is eliminated. This double-dissociation is discussed in terms of implications for different developmental trajectories, with different developmental subtasks in the two cultures. PMID:22677459

  8. The Impact of National Cultural Differences on Nurses' Acceptance of Hospital Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsien-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of national cultural differences on nurses' perceptions of their acceptance of hospital information systems. This study uses the perspective of Technology Acceptance Model; national cultural differences in terms of masculinity/femininity, individualism/collectivism, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance are incorporated into the Technology Acceptance Model as moderators, whereas time orientation is a control variable on hospital information system acceptance. A quantitative research design was used in this study; 261 participants, US and Taiwan RNs, all had hospital information system experience. Data were collected from November 2013 to February 2014 and analyzed using a t test to compare the coefficients for each moderator. The results show that individualism/collectivism, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance all exhibit significant difference on hospital information system acceptance; however, both masculinity/femininity and time orientation factors did not show significance. This study verifies that national cultural differences have significant influence on nurses' behavioral intention to use hospital information systems. Therefore, hospital information system providers should emphasize the way in which to integrate different technological functions to meet the needs of nurses from various cultural backgrounds. PMID:25899441

  9. The Impact of National Cultural Differences on Nurses' Acceptance of Hospital Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsien-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of national cultural differences on nurses' perceptions of their acceptance of hospital information systems. This study uses the perspective of Technology Acceptance Model; national cultural differences in terms of masculinity/femininity, individualism/collectivism, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance are incorporated into the Technology Acceptance Model as moderators, whereas time orientation is a control variable on hospital information system acceptance. A quantitative research design was used in this study; 261 participants, US and Taiwan RNs, all had hospital information system experience. Data were collected from November 2013 to February 2014 and analyzed using a t test to compare the coefficients for each moderator. The results show that individualism/collectivism, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance all exhibit significant difference on hospital information system acceptance; however, both masculinity/femininity and time orientation factors did not show significance. This study verifies that national cultural differences have significant influence on nurses' behavioral intention to use hospital information systems. Therefore, hospital information system providers should emphasize the way in which to integrate different technological functions to meet the needs of nurses from various cultural backgrounds.

  10. Cultural differences define diagnosis and genomic medicine practice: implications for undiagnosed diseases program in China

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaohong; Markello, Thomas; Adams, David; Toro, Camilo; Tifft, Cynthia; Gahl, William A.; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the current acceleration and increasing leadership of Chinese genetics research, genetics and its clinical application have largely been imported to China from the Occident. Neither genetics nor the scientific reductionism underpinning its clinical application is integral to the traditional Chinese worldview. Given that disease concepts and their incumbent diagnoses are historically derived and culturally meaningful, we hypothesize that the cultural expectations of genetic diagnoses and medical genetics practice differs between the Occident and China. Specifically, we suggest that an undiagnosed diseases program in China will differ from the recently established Undiagnosed Diseases Program at the United States National Institutes of Health; a culturally sensitive concept will integrate traditional Chinese understanding of disease with the scientific reductionism of Occidental medicine. PMID:23856975

  11. Cross-cultural differences in tolerance for crowding: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Evans, G W; Lepore, S J; Allen, K M

    2000-08-01

    It is widely believed that cultures vary in their tolerance for crowding. There is, however, little evidence to substantiate this belief, coupled with serious shortcomings in the extant literature. Tolerance for crowding has been confused with cultural differences in personal space preferences along with perceived crowding. Furthermore, the few studies that have examined cultural variability in reactions to crowding have compared subgroup correlations, which is not equivalent to a statistical interaction. Although the authors found a statistical interaction indicating that Asian Americans and Latin Americans differ in the way they perceive crowding in comparison to their fellow Anglo-American and African American citizens, all four ethnic groups suffer similar, negative psychological distress sequelae of high-density housing. These results hold independently of household income.

  12. Culture or anonymity? Differences in proposer behaviour in Korea and Germany.

    PubMed

    Horak, Sven

    2015-10-01

    This study explores the proposer behaviour in an ultimatum game (UG) frame under anonymous and non-anonymous conditions among a Korean and German subject pool (n = 590) in comparison. Whereas the anonymous condition is represented by the standard UG, the non-anonymous condition integrates an aggregate of the Korean cultural context variables university affiliation, regional origin and seniority. The latter, a classic Confucian context variable, is measured by age differentials. The former two are impactful components of so-called Yongo networks, a unique Korean informal institution identical to Chinese Guanxi ties. Yongo networks, yet underrepresented in research, are said to be a central context variable to explain Korean social ties and decision-making behaviour. We observe significant differences between the offer behaviours of Korean and German subjects when exposing selected cultural variables. We argue that the behavioural differences observed are in fact due to culture not anonymity.

  13. Cultural differences define diagnosis and genomic medicine practice: implications for undiagnosed diseases program in China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaohong; Markello, Thomas; Adams, David; Toro, Camilo; Tifft, Cynthia; Gahl, William A; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2013-09-01

    Despite the current acceleration and increasing leadership of Chinese genetics research, genetics and its clinical application have largely been imported to China from the Occident. Neither genetics nor the scientific reductionism underpinning its clinical application is integral to the traditional Chinese worldview. Given that disease concepts and their incumbent diagnoses are historically derived and culturally meaningful, we hypothesize that the cultural expectations of genetic diagnoses and medical genetics practice differ between the Occident and China. Specifically, we suggest that an undiagnosed diseases program in China will differ from the recently established Undiagnosed Diseases Program at the United States National Institutes of Health; a culturally sensitive concept will integrate traditional Chinese understanding of disease with the scientific reductionism of Occidental medicine. PMID:23856975

  14. My face, my heart: cultural differences in integrated bodily self-awareness.

    PubMed

    Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

    2014-01-01

    Body-awareness is produced by an integration of both interoceptive and exteroceptive bodily signals. However, previous investigations into cultural differences in bodily self-awareness have only studied these two aspects in isolation. We investigated the interaction between interoceptive and exteroceptive self-processing in East Asian and Western participants. During an interoceptive awareness task, self-face observation improved performance of those with initially low awareness in the Western group, but did not benefit the East Asian participants. These results suggest that the integrated, coherent experience of the body differs between East Asian and Western cultures. For Western participants, viewing one's own face may activate a bodily self-awareness which enhances processing of other bodily information, such as interoceptive signals. Instead, for East Asian individuals, the external appearance of the self may activate higher-level, social aspects of self-identity, reflecting the importance of the sociocultural construct of "face" in East Asian cultures. PMID:24168204

  15. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Bell, Terrence H.; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E.; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods. PMID:26053848

  16. Exploring Cultural Differences in the Recognition of the Self-Conscious Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Joanne M.; Robins, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the self-conscious emotions of embarrassment, shame, and pride have distinct, nonverbal expressions that can be recognized in the United States at above-chance levels. However, few studies have examined the recognition of these emotions in other cultures, and little research has been conducted in Asia. Consequently the cross-cultural generalizability of self-conscious emotions has not been firmly established. Additionally, there is no research that examines cultural variability in the recognition of the self-conscious emotions. Cultural values and exposure to Western culture have been identified as contributors to variability in recognition rates for the basic emotions; we sought to examine this for the self-conscious emotions using the University of California, Davis Set of Emotion Expressions (UCDSEE). The present research examined recognition of the self-conscious emotion expressions in South Korean college students and found that recognition rates were very high for pride, low but above chance for shame, and near zero for embarrassment. To examine what might be underlying the recognition rates we found in South Korea, recognition of self-conscious emotions and several cultural values were examined in a U.S. college student sample of European Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian-born individuals. Emotion recognition rates were generally similar between the European Americans and Asian Americans, and higher than emotion recognition rates for Asian-born individuals. These differences were not explained by cultural values in an interpretable manner, suggesting that exposure to Western culture is a more important mediator than values. PMID:26309215

  17. Exploring Cultural Differences in the Recognition of the Self-Conscious Emotions.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joanne M; Robins, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the self-conscious emotions of embarrassment, shame, and pride have distinct, nonverbal expressions that can be recognized in the United States at above-chance levels. However, few studies have examined the recognition of these emotions in other cultures, and little research has been conducted in Asia. Consequently the cross-cultural generalizability of self-conscious emotions has not been firmly established. Additionally, there is no research that examines cultural variability in the recognition of the self-conscious emotions. Cultural values and exposure to Western culture have been identified as contributors to variability in recognition rates for the basic emotions; we sought to examine this for the self-conscious emotions using the University of California, Davis Set of Emotion Expressions (UCDSEE). The present research examined recognition of the self-conscious emotion expressions in South Korean college students and found that recognition rates were very high for pride, low but above chance for shame, and near zero for embarrassment. To examine what might be underlying the recognition rates we found in South Korea, recognition of self-conscious emotions and several cultural values were examined in a U.S. college student sample of European Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian-born individuals. Emotion recognition rates were generally similar between the European Americans and Asian Americans, and higher than emotion recognition rates for Asian-born individuals. These differences were not explained by cultural values in an interpretable manner, suggesting that exposure to Western culture is a more important mediator than values. PMID:26309215

  18. Assess suitability of hydroaeroponic culture to establish tripartite symbiosis between different AMF species, beans, and rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    Tajini, Fatma; Suriyakup, Porntip; Vailhe, Hélène; Jansa, Jan; Drevon, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Background Like other species of the Phaseoleae tribe, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia and to fix the atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) for its N nutrition. Common bean has also the potential to establish symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that improves the uptake of low mobile nutrients such as phosphorus, from the soil. Both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses can act synergistically in benefits on plant. Results The tripartite symbiosis of common bean with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in hydroaeroponic culture with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), by comparing the effects of three fungi spp. on growth, nodulation and mycorrhization of the roots under sufficient versus deficient P supplies, after transfer from initial sand culture. Although Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith colonized intensely the roots of common bean in both sand and hydroaeroponic cultures, Gigaspora rosea Nicolson & Schenck only established well under sand culture conditions, and no root-colonization was found with Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck under either culture conditions. Interestingly, mycorrhization by Glomus was also obtained by contact with mycorrhized Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) sw in sand culture under deficient P before transfer into hydroaeroponic culture. The effect of bean genotype on both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses with Glomus was subsequently assessed with the common bean recombinant inbreed line 7, 28, 83, 115 and 147, and the cultivar Flamingo. Significant differences among colonization and nodulation of the roots and growth among genotypes were found. Conclusion The hydroaeroponic culture is a valuable tool for further scrutinizing the physiological interactions and nutrient partitioning within the tripartite symbiosis. PMID:19534785

  19. Exploring Cultural Differences in the Recognition of the Self-Conscious Emotions.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joanne M; Robins, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the self-conscious emotions of embarrassment, shame, and pride have distinct, nonverbal expressions that can be recognized in the United States at above-chance levels. However, few studies have examined the recognition of these emotions in other cultures, and little research has been conducted in Asia. Consequently the cross-cultural generalizability of self-conscious emotions has not been firmly established. Additionally, there is no research that examines cultural variability in the recognition of the self-conscious emotions. Cultural values and exposure to Western culture have been identified as contributors to variability in recognition rates for the basic emotions; we sought to examine this for the self-conscious emotions using the University of California, Davis Set of Emotion Expressions (UCDSEE). The present research examined recognition of the self-conscious emotion expressions in South Korean college students and found that recognition rates were very high for pride, low but above chance for shame, and near zero for embarrassment. To examine what might be underlying the recognition rates we found in South Korea, recognition of self-conscious emotions and several cultural values were examined in a U.S. college student sample of European Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian-born individuals. Emotion recognition rates were generally similar between the European Americans and Asian Americans, and higher than emotion recognition rates for Asian-born individuals. These differences were not explained by cultural values in an interpretable manner, suggesting that exposure to Western culture is a more important mediator than values.

  20. Cross-Cultural Register Differences in Infant-Directed Speech: An Initial Study.

    PubMed

    Farran, Lama K; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Yoo, Hyunjoo; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2016-01-01

    Infant-directed speech (IDS) provides an environment that appears to play a significant role in the origins of language in the human infant. Differences have been reported in the use of IDS across cultures, suggesting different styles of infant language-learning. Importantly, both cross-cultural and intra-cultural research suggest there may be a positive relationship between the use of IDS and rates of language development, underscoring the need to investigate cultural differences more deeply. The majority of studies, however, have conceptualized IDS monolithically, granting little attention to a potentially key distinction in how IDS manifests across cultures during the first two years. This study examines and quantifies for the first time differences within IDS in the use of baby register (IDS/BR), an acoustically identifiable type of IDS that includes features such as high pitch, long duration, and smooth intonation (the register that is usually assumed to occur in IDS), and adult register (IDS/AR), the type of IDS that does not include such features and thus sounds as if it could have been addressed to an adult. We studied IDS across 19 American and 19 Lebanese mother-infant dyads, with particular focus on the differential use of registers within IDS as mothers interacted with their infants ages 0-24 months. Our results showed considerable usage of IDS/AR (>30% of utterances) and a tendency for Lebanese mothers to use more IDS than American mothers. Implications for future research on IDS and its role in elucidating how language evolves across cultures are explored. PMID:26981626

  1. Cross-Cultural Register Differences in Infant-Directed Speech: An Initial Study

    PubMed Central

    Farran, Lama K.; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Yoo, Hyunjoo; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2016-01-01

    Infant-directed speech (IDS) provides an environment that appears to play a significant role in the origins of language in the human infant. Differences have been reported in the use of IDS across cultures, suggesting different styles of infant language-learning. Importantly, both cross-cultural and intra-cultural research suggest there may be a positive relationship between the use of IDS and rates of language development, underscoring the need to investigate cultural differences more deeply. The majority of studies, however, have conceptualized IDS monolithically, granting little attention to a potentially key distinction in how IDS manifests across cultures during the first two years. This study examines and quantifies for the first time differences within IDS in the use of baby register (IDS/BR), an acoustically identifiable type of IDS that includes features such as high pitch, long duration, and smooth intonation (the register that is usually assumed to occur in IDS), and adult register (IDS/AR), the type of IDS that does not include such features and thus sounds as if it could have been addressed to an adult. We studied IDS across 19 American and 19 Lebanese mother-infant dyads, with particular focus on the differential use of registers within IDS as mothers interacted with their infants ages 0–24 months. Our results showed considerable usage of IDS/AR (>30% of utterances) and a tendency for Lebanese mothers to use more IDS than American mothers. Implications for future research on IDS and its role in elucidating how language evolves across cultures are explored. PMID:26981626

  2. Region-Urbanicity Differences in Locus of Control: Social Disadvantage, Structure, or Cultural Exceptionalism?

    PubMed

    Shifrer, Dara; Sutton, April

    2014-11-01

    People with internal rather than external locus of control experience better outcomes in multiple domains. Previous studies on spatial differences in control within America only focused on the South, relied on aggregate level data or historical evidence, or did not account for other confounding regional distinctions (such as variation in urbanicity). Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, we find differences in adolescents' loci of control depending on their region and urbanicity are largely attributable to differences in their social background, and only minimally to structural differences (i.e., differences in the qualities of adolescents' schools). Differences that persist net of differences across adolescents and their schools suggest the less internal control of rural Southern adolescents, and the more internal control of rural and urban Northeastern adolescents, may be due to cultural distinctions in those areas. Results indicate region is more closely associated than urbanicity with differences in locus of control, with Western and Northeastern cultures seemingly fostering more internal control than Midwestern and Southern cultures. These findings contribute to research on spatial variation in a variety of psychological traits.

  3. Region-Urbanicity Differences in Locus of Control: Social Disadvantage, Structure, or Cultural Exceptionalism?

    PubMed Central

    Shifrer, Dara; Sutton, April

    2014-01-01

    People with internal rather than external locus of control experience better outcomes in multiple domains. Previous studies on spatial differences in control within America only focused on the South, relied on aggregate level data or historical evidence, or did not account for other confounding regional distinctions (such as variation in urbanicity). Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, we find differences in adolescents' loci of control depending on their region and urbanicity are largely attributable to differences in their social background, and only minimally to structural differences (i.e., differences in the qualities of adolescents' schools). Differences that persist net of differences across adolescents and their schools suggest the less internal control of rural Southern adolescents, and the more internal control of rural and urban Northeastern adolescents, may be due to cultural distinctions in those areas. Results indicate region is more closely associated than urbanicity with differences in locus of control, with Western and Northeastern cultures seemingly fostering more internal control than Midwestern and Southern cultures. These findings contribute to research on spatial variation in a variety of psychological traits. PMID:25382875

  4. Stereotype content model across cultures: towards universal similarities and some differences.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Fiske, Susan T; Kwan, Virginia S Y; Glick, Peter; Demoulin, Stéphanie; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe; Bond, Michael Harris; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Ellemers, Naomi; Sleebos, Ed; Htun, Tin Tin; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Maio, Greg; Perry, Judi; Petkova, Kristina; Todorov, Valery; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Morales, Elena; Moya, Miguel; Palacios, Marisol; Smith, Vanessa; Perez, Rolando; Vala, Jorge; Ziegler, Rene

    2009-03-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) proposes potentially universal principles of societal stereotypes and their relation to social structure. Here, the SCM reveals theoretically grounded, cross-cultural, cross-groups similarities and one difference across 10 non-US nations. Seven European (individualist) and three East Asian (collectivist) nations (N=1,028) support three hypothesized cross-cultural similarities: (a) perceived warmth and competence reliably differentiate societal group stereotypes; (b) many out-groups receive ambivalent stereotypes (high on one dimension; low on the other); and (c) high status groups stereotypically are competent, whereas competitive groups stereotypically lack warmth. Data uncover one consequential cross-cultural difference: (d) the more collectivist cultures do not locate reference groups (in-groups and societal prototype groups) in the most positive cluster (high-competence/high-warmth), unlike individualist cultures. This demonstrates out-group derogation without obvious reference-group favouritism. The SCM can serve as a pancultural tool for predicting group stereotypes from structural relations with other groups in society, and comparing across societies.

  5. Different strategies of energy storage in cultured and freshly isolated Symbiodinium sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Hung-Kai; Jhu, Chu-Sian; Cheng, Jing-O; Fang, Lee-Shing; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2015-12-01

    The endosymbiotic relationship between cnidarians and Symbiodinium is critical for the survival of coral reefs. In this study, we developed a protocol to rapidly and freshly separate Symbiodinium from corals and sea anemones. Furthermore, we compared these freshly-isolated Symbiodinium with cultured Symbiodinium to investigate host and Symbiodinium interaction. Clade B Symbiodinium had higher starch content and lower lipid content than those of clades C and D in both freshly isolated and cultured forms. Clade C had the highest lipid content, particularly when associated with corals. Moreover, the coral-associated Symbiodinium had higher protein content than did cultured and sea anemone-associated Symbiodinium. Regarding fatty acid composition, cultured Symbiodinium and clades B, C, and D shared similar patterns, whereas sea anemone-associated Symbiodinium had a distinct pattern compared coral-associated Symbiodinium. Specifically, the levels of monounsaturated fatty acids were lower than those of the saturated fatty acids, and the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were the highest in all examined Symbiodinium. Furthermore, PUFAs levels were higher in coral-associated Symbiodinium than in cultured Symbiodinium. These results altogether indicated that different Symbiodinium clades used different energy storage strategies, which might be modified by hosts. PMID:26987007

  6. Stereotype content model across cultures: Towards universal similarities and some differences

    PubMed Central

    Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Fiske, Susan T.; Kwan, Virginia S. Y.; Glick, Peter; Demoulin, Stéphanie; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe; Bond, Michael Harris; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Ellemers, Naomi; Sleebos, Ed; Htun, Tin Tin; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Maio, Greg; Perry, Judi; Petkova, Kristina; Todorov, Valery; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Morales, Elena; Moya, Miguel; Palacios, Marisol; Smith, Vanessa; Perez, Rolando; Vala, Jorge; Ziegler, Rene

    2014-01-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) proposes potentially universal principles of societal stereotypes and their relation to social structure. Here, the SCM reveals theoretically grounded, cross-cultural, cross-groups similarities and one difference across 10 non-US nations. Seven European (individualist) and three East Asian (collectivist) nations (N = 1, 028) support three hypothesized cross-cultural similarities: (a) perceived warmth and competence reliably differentiate societal group stereotypes; (b) many out-groups receive ambivalent stereotypes (high on one dimension; low on the other); and (c) high status groups stereotypically are competent, whereas competitive groups stereotypically lack warmth. Data uncover one consequential cross-cultural difference: (d) the more collectivist cultures do not locate reference groups (in-groups and societal prototype groups) in the most positive cluster (high-competence/high-warmth), unlike individualist cultures. This demonstrates out-group derogation without obvious reference-group favouritism. The SCM can serve as a pancultural tool for predicting group stereotypes from structural relations with other groups in society, and comparing across societies. PMID:19178758

  7. Cultural and School-Grade Differences in Korean and White American Children's Narrative Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Meesook

    2003-03-01

    A great deal of ethnographic research describes different communicative styles in Asian and Western countries. Asian cultures emphasise the listener's role in assuring successful communication, whereas Western cultures place the responsibility primarily on the speaker. This pattern suggests that Asian children may develop higher-level receptive skills and Western children may develop higher-level expressive skills. However, the language of children in formal education may develop in certain ways regardless of cultural influences. The present study quantifies the cultural and school-grade differences in language abilities reflected in middle-class Korean and white American children's story-telling and story-listening activities. Thirty-two Korean first- and fourth-grade children and their American counterparts were individually asked to perform two tasks: one producing a story from a series of pictures, and one involving listening to and then retelling a story. The individual interview was transcribed in their native languages and analysed in terms of ambiguity of reference, the number of causal connectors, the amount of information, and the number of central and peripheral idea units that were included in the story retelling. The data provided some empirical evidence for the effects of culture and school education in children's language acquisition.

  8. Cultural scripts for a good death in Japan and the United States: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Long, Susan Orpett

    2004-03-01

    Japan and the United States are both post-industrial societies, characterised by distinct trajectories of dying. Both contain multiple "cultural scripts" of the good death. Seale (Constructing Death: the Sociology of Dying and Bereavement, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998) has identified at least four "cultural scripts", or ways to die well, that are found in contemporary anglophone countries: modern medicine, revivalism, an anti-revivalist script and a religious script. Although these scripts can also be found in Japan, different historical experiences and religious traditions provide a context in which their content and interpretation sometimes differ from those of the anglophone countries. To understand ordinary people's ideas about dying well and dying poorly, we must recognise not only that post-industrial society offers multiple scripts and varying interpretive frameworks, but also that people actively select from among them in making decisions and explaining their views. Moreover, ideas and metaphors may be based on multiple scripts simultaneously or may offer different interpretations for different social contexts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in both countries, this paper explores the metaphors that ordinary patients and caregivers draw upon as they use, modify, combine or ignore these cultural scripts of dying. Ideas about choice, time, place and personhood, elements of a good death that were derived inductively from interviews, are described. These Japanese and American data suggest somewhat different concerns and assumptions about human life and the relation of the person to the wider social world, but indicate similar concerns about the process of medicalised dying and the creation of meaning for those involved. While cultural differences do exist, they cannot be explained by reference to 'an American' and 'a Japanese' way to die. Rather, the process of creating and maintaining cultural scripts requires the active participation of

  9. Developmental and Cross-Cultural Differences in the Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Millard C.

    An experimental task with accompanying apparatus was developed for use in the study of developmental and cultural differences in the cooperative-competitive behavior of children in a small Mexican town and in California. Two groups of 20 Mexican children (aged 7-8 and 10-11), from an elementary school in a town in Baja, California, Mexico, were…

  10. Dimensions of Cultural Differences: Pancultural, ETIC/EMIC, and Ecological Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the factorial structure of four major domains in social psychology (personality traits, social attitudes, values, and social norms) with an emphasis on cross-cultural differences. Three distinctive approaches--pancultural, multigroup, and multilevel--were applied to the data based on 22 measures that were collected from 2029…

  11. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children's Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Leyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2007-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children's moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an…

  12. Developmental and Cross-Cultural Differences in the Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Millard C.

    1971-01-01

    In a two-person experimental task used in the study of age and cultural differences in the cooperative-competitive behavior of children in a small Mexican town and in California, a higher level of cooperation was seen among Mexican than among Anglo children, as was also an increase in nonadaptive competition with age among the latter. (RJ)

  13. Measuring the Impact of Cross-Cultural Differences on Learners' Comprehension of Imageable Idioms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boers, Frank; Demecheleer, Murielle

    2001-01-01

    Measures the impact of cross-cultural differences on language learners' interpretation of imageable idioms--idioms that have associated conventional images. French-speaking students were asked to guess the meaning of unfamiliar English idioms without contextual clues. Results invite teachers and learners to approach the semantics of imageable…

  14. Selected Readings in Transition: Cultural Differences, Chronic Illness, and Job Matching. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dais, Teresa; And Others

    This collection of four papers examines various aspects of the transition from school to adulthood and employment for individuals with disabilities. The first paper, "An Analysis of Transition Assessment Practices: Do They Recognize Cultural Differences?" (Teresa A. Dais), discusses the need for assessment practices to meet the needs of culturally…

  15. Cultural Differences in the Health Information Environments and Practices between Finnish and Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askola, Kreetta; Atsushi, Toshimori; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify cultural differences in the information environment and information practices, namely active seeking and encountering, of web-based health information between Finnish and Japanese university students. Method: The data were gathered with a Web-based survey among first-year university students at…

  16. Native American Students' Experiences of Cultural Differences in College: Influence and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Leslie E.

    2012-01-01

    The culture of most colleges and universities is very different for Native American students with close ties to their traditional communities. "Traditional," in a Native American sense, means multiple interconnections of emotional, physical, intellectual, and spiritual identity that combine to define expectations for the Native American…

  17. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children's Emotional Reactions to a Disappointing Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett-Peters, Patricia T.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2007-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in emotional expressions following disappointment were examined in 59 Chinese American (CA) and 58 European American (EA) children. Children aged four or seven participated in a disappointing gift situation. Dimensions of expressive behaviors following disappointment were coded and included positive, negative, social…

  18. The Concept of Environment in Folktales from Different Cultures: Analysis of Content and Visuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahi, Berat; Yaya, Dilara; Ozsoy, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine how the children's stories, which are such powerful, handled the nature and environment through the texts, and were portrayed the concept of nature in different cultures. This study examined the texts in 15 children's picture stories which subjected to the perception of nature and environment, published between…

  19. The Evaluation of the Culturally Different: Pre-School, Primary and Elementary Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Stanley S.

    This report asserts that the evaluation of young children can be viewed as a classic case of evaluation of the culturally different. Emphasized is the fact that not only are the majority of tests developed with an adult's perspective concerning adequacy of directions, items, and formats, but also the evaluation of the products is carried out…

  20. Beyond Socioeconomics: Explaining Ethnic Group Differences in Parenting through Cultural and Immigration Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth; Kanatsu, Akira

    2008-01-01

    This study examined both socioeconomic and cultural factors in explaining ethnic differences in monitoring, behavioral control, and warmth--part of a series of coordinated studies presented in this special issue. Socioeconomic variables included mother's and father's educational levels, employment status, home ownership, number of siblings in the…

  1. A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Registered Training Organisations. Support Document 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Berwyn; Fisher, Thea; Harris, Roger; Bateman, Andrea; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This document supports the report "A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Registered Training Organisations." The first section outlines the methodology used to undertake the research and covers the design of the research, sample details, the data collection process and the strategy for data analysis and reporting. The limitations of…

  2. An Exploration of Gender and Cultural Differences in MBA Students' Cheating Behavior: Implications for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Bianco, Amy; Deeter-Schmelz, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    The effects of gender and culture on MBA students' self-reported cheating behavior were examined. Data collected from MBA students from the U.S. and India suggest U.S. males are more likely to cheat than U.S. females, with Indian males and females reporting similar cheating behaviors. The results also reveal key differences in cheating behavior…

  3. Comparison of Web 2.0 Technology Acceptance Level Based on Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wen-hao David

    2011-01-01

    In order to inform educators in higher education on the integration of Web 2.0 applications for engaging and effective learning experiences, this survey study compared the use and acceptance of Web 2.0 applications between American and Korean college students through the lens of cultural differences. Undergraduate students were recruited to…

  4. Middle East Meets West: Negotiating Cultural Difference in International Educational Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out to evaluate a proposed twelve-month programme of development aimed at academic staff at a new university in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The author uses a model of cultural difference proposed by Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede as her starting point. Reference is also made to the work of other researchers and to the…

  5. Cultural and Acculturation Differences in Trajectories of Home Environment Inventory Scores for Latino Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Mark F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the influence of social context on the home environment for children aged 0 to 14years, testing for differences between Cubans (n = 47), Mexicans (n = 240), Mexican Americans (n = 415), and Puerto Ricans (n = 162). Hierarchical linear models showed significant cultural and acculturation effects on the trajectories of cognitive…

  6. Cross-cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy: a review of the literature and directions for future research

    PubMed Central

    Ma-Kellams, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This review examines cross-cultural differences in interoception and the role of culturally bound epistemologies, historical traditions, and contemplative practices to assess four aspects of culture and interoception: (1) the extent to which members from Western and non-Western cultural groups exhibit differential levels of interoceptive accuracy and somatic awareness; (2) the mechanistic origins that can explain these cultural differences, (3) culturally bound behavioral practices that have been empirically shown to affect interoception, and (4) consequences for culturally bound psychopathologies. The following outlines the scope of the scientific review. Part 1 reviews studies on cultural variation in spontaneous somatic word use, linguistic expressions, traditional medical practices, and empirical laboratory studies to assess the evidence for cultural differences in somatic processes. Integration of these findings suggests a startling paradox: on the one hand, non-Western cultures consistently exhibit heightened somatic focus and awareness across a variety of contexts; on the other hand, non-Western cultures also exhibit less interoceptive accuracy in laboratory studies. Part 2 discusses the various mechanistic explanations that have been proposed to explain these cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy, focusing on cultural schemas and epistemologies. Part 3 addresses the behavioral and contemplative practices that have been proposed as possible “interventions,” or methods of cultivating bodily awareness and perceptual accuracy. Finally, Part 4 reviews the consequences of interoception for psychopathology, including somatization, body dysmorphia, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders. PMID:25520688

  7. Cross-cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy: a review of the literature and directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Ma-Kellams, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This review examines cross-cultural differences in interoception and the role of culturally bound epistemologies, historical traditions, and contemplative practices to assess four aspects of culture and interoception: (1) the extent to which members from Western and non-Western cultural groups exhibit differential levels of interoceptive accuracy and somatic awareness; (2) the mechanistic origins that can explain these cultural differences, (3) culturally bound behavioral practices that have been empirically shown to affect interoception, and (4) consequences for culturally bound psychopathologies. The following outlines the scope of the scientific review. Part 1 reviews studies on cultural variation in spontaneous somatic word use, linguistic expressions, traditional medical practices, and empirical laboratory studies to assess the evidence for cultural differences in somatic processes. Integration of these findings suggests a startling paradox: on the one hand, non-Western cultures consistently exhibit heightened somatic focus and awareness across a variety of contexts; on the other hand, non-Western cultures also exhibit less interoceptive accuracy in laboratory studies. Part 2 discusses the various mechanistic explanations that have been proposed to explain these cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy, focusing on cultural schemas and epistemologies. Part 3 addresses the behavioral and contemplative practices that have been proposed as possible "interventions," or methods of cultivating bodily awareness and perceptual accuracy. Finally, Part 4 reviews the consequences of interoception for psychopathology, including somatization, body dysmorphia, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders. PMID:25520688

  8. Measuring individual differences in generic beliefs in conspiracy theories across cultures: conspiracy mentality questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ's factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N = 476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  9. Measuring individual differences in generic beliefs in conspiracy theories across cultures: conspiracy mentality questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ's factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N = 476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  10. Measuring Individual Differences in Generic Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Across Cultures: Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ’s factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2–4 (total N = 476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  11. Reproduction of Difference through Learning about a "Different Culture": The Paradox of Double Subject Positions and the Pedagogy of the Privileged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko Musha

    2015-01-01

    Culture is not a predetermined, static, bounded unit. Both its boundaries and what is considered cultural difference are constructed through social processes. Ray McDermott and Herve Varenne (1995) argue that only certain differences are noticed, usually according to what is regarded as meaningful difference in one's own society. For example,…

  12. Horizontal and Vertical Cultural Differences in the Content of Advertising Appeals

    PubMed Central

    Shavitt, Sharon; Johnson, Timothy P.; Zhang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The distinction between vertical (emphasizing hierarchy) and horizontal (valuing equality) cultures yields novel predictions regarding the prevalence of advertising appeals. A content analysis of 1211 magazine advertisements in five countries (Denmark, Korea, Poland, Russia, U.S.) revealed differences in ad content that underscore the value of this distinction. Patterns in the degree to which ads emphasized status benefits and uniqueness benefits corresponded to the countries' vertical/horizontal cultural classification. These and other patterns of ad benefits are analyzed and the predictions afforded by the vertical/horizontal distinction versus the broader individualism-collectivism distinction are compared and tested. PMID:25554720

  13. The house of difference: gender, culture, and the subject-in-process on the American stage.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L

    1993-01-01

    A lesbian woman of color is often defined by her multiple differences as "other" and/or "object." Yet these very differences can also allow her to challenge culturally held notions of gender, subjectivity, and representation. This article examines one such example, Cherríe Moraga's teatro Giving Up the Ghost where, for the first time, the issue of Chicana lesbian sexuality is addressed on the stage. PMID:8113621

  14. Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Deschepper, Reginald; Grigoryan, Larissa; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Hofstede, Geert; Cohen, Joachim; Kelen, Greta Van Der; Deliens, Luc; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M

    2008-01-01

    Background Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed) are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation). Methods Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR), based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997–2002), and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Results Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62) and with self-medication (rho = 0.54) in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study the correlations were

  15. 75 FR 50718 - Acknowledgment Letters for Customer Funds and Secured Amount Funds; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ...; ] COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 1 RIN 3038-AC72 Acknowledgment Letters for Customer Funds... rulemaking published in the Federal Register of August 9, 2010, regarding Acknowledgment Letters for Customer... Sec. 1.20--Acknowledgment Letter for CFTC Regulation 1.20 Customer Segregated Account'' to...

  16. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children’s Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Heyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children’s moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an individual or vice versa. Participants chose to lie or to tell the truth as if they were the character (Experiments 1 and 2) and categorized and evaluated the story characters’ truthful and untruthful statements (Experiments 3 and 4). Most children in both cultures labeled lies as lies and truths as truths. The major cultural differences lay in choices and moral evaluations. Chinese children chose lying to help a collective but harm an individual, and they rated it less negatively than lying with opposite consequences. Chinese children rated truth telling to help an individual but harm a group less positively than the alternative. Canadian children did the opposite. These findings suggest that cross-cultural differences in emphasis on groups versus individuals affect children’s choices and moral judgments about truth and deception. PMID:17352539

  17. Cultural similarities and differences in perceiving and recognizing facial expressions of basic emotions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoqian; Andrews, Timothy J; Young, Andrew W

    2016-03-01

    The ability to recognize facial expressions of basic emotions is often considered a universal human ability. However, recent studies have suggested that this commonality has been overestimated and that people from different cultures use different facial signals to represent expressions (Jack, Blais, Scheepers, Schyns, & Caldara, 2009; Jack, Caldara, & Schyns, 2012). We investigated this possibility by examining similarities and differences in the perception and categorization of facial expressions between Chinese and white British participants using whole-face and partial-face images. Our results showed no cultural difference in the patterns of perceptual similarity of expressions from whole-face images. When categorizing the same expressions, however, both British and Chinese participants were slightly more accurate with whole-face images of their own ethnic group. To further investigate potential strategy differences, we repeated the perceptual similarity and categorization tasks with presentation of only the upper or lower half of each face. Again, the perceptual similarity of facial expressions was similar between Chinese and British participants for both the upper and lower face regions. However, participants were slightly better at categorizing facial expressions of their own ethnic group for the lower face regions, indicating that the way in which culture shapes the categorization of facial expressions is largely driven by differences in information decoding from this part of the face.

  18. Metabolic analysis of antibody producing Chinese hamster ovary cell culture under different stresses conditions.

    PubMed

    Badsha, Md Bahadur; Kurata, Hiroyuki; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Oga, Takushi; Omasa, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are commonly used as the host cell lines concerning their ability to produce therapeutic proteins with complex post-translational modifications. In this study, we have investigated the time course extra- and intracellular metabolome data of the CHO-K1 cell line, under a control and stress conditions. The addition of NaCl and trehalose greatly suppressed cell growth, where the maximum viable cell density of NaCl and trehalose cultures were 2.2-fold and 2.8-fold less than that of a control culture. Contrariwise, the antibody production of both the NaCl and trehalose cultures was sustained for a longer time to surpass that of the control culture. The NaCl and trehalose cultures showed relatively similar dynamics of cell growth, antibody production, and substrate/product concentrations, while they indicated different dynamics from the control culture. The principal component analysis of extra- and intracellular metabolome dynamics indicated that their dynamic behaviors were consistent with biological functions. The qualitative pattern matching classification and hierarchical clustering analyses for the intracellular metabolome identified the metabolite clusters whose dynamic behaviors depend on NaCl and trehalose. The volcano plot revealed several reporter metabolites whose dynamics greatly change between in the NaCl and trehalose cultures. The elastic net identified some critical, intracellular metabolites that are distinct between the NaCl and trehalose. While a relatively small number of intracellular metabolites related to the cell growth, glucose, glutamine, lactate and ammonium ion concentrations, the mechanism of antibody production was suggested to be very complicated or not to be explained by elastic net regression analysis. PMID:26803706

  19. In vitro development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in different culture media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Yeom, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyo; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Hong-Tea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of three different culture media on the development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Canine cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF), porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), or G1/G2 sequential media. Our results showed that the G1/G2 media yielded significantly higher morula and blastocyst development in canine SCNT embryos (26.1% and 7.8%, respectively) compared to PZM-3 (8.5% and 0%or mSOF (2.3% and 0%) media. In conclusion, this study suggests that blastocysts can be produced more efficiently using G1/G2 media to culture canine SCNT embryos.

  20. East-West cultural differences in context-sensitivity are evident in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Imada, Toshie; Carlson, Stephanie M; Itakura, Shoji

    2013-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that North Americans tend to focus on central objects whereas East Asians tend to pay more attention to contextual information in a visual scene. Although it is generally believed that such culturally divergent attention tendencies develop through socialization, existing evidence largely depends on adult samples. Moreover, no past research has investigated the relation between context-sensitivity and other domains of cognitive development. The present study examined children in the United States and Japan (N = 175, age 4-9 years) to investigate the developmental pattern in context-sensitivity and its relation to executive function. The study found that context-sensitivity increased with age across cultures. Nevertheless, Japanese children showed significantly greater context-sensitivity than American children. Also, context-sensitivity fully mediated the cultural difference in a set-shifting executive function task, which might help explain past findings that East Asian children outperformed their American counterparts on executive function. PMID:23432830

  1. Limitations are not properly acknowledged in the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2007-04-01

    Limitations are important to understand for placing research findings in context, interpreting the validity of the scientific work, and ascribing a credibility level to the conclusions of published research. This goes beyond listing the magnitude and direction of random and systematic errors and validity problems. Acknowledgment of limitations requires an interpretation of the meaning and influence of errors and validity problems on the published findings. An examination of the full-text files of the first 50 articles published in 2005 in the six most-cited research journals and in two recently launched leading open-access journals showed that only 67 articles (17%) used at least one word denoting limitations in the context of the presented scientific work. Only four articles (1%) used the word limitation in their abstract; none referred to limitations of the present work that materially affected conclusions. Only five articles had a separate section on limitations. Conversely, 243 articles (61%) used words detected by the roots error, valid, bias, reproducib, or false and 289 articles (72%) used words with the root importan. Among the 25 top-cited journals' instructions to the authors and editorial policies, only one encourages discussion of limitations; importance, novelty, and lack of error are typically encouraged. Limitations should be better covered and discussed in research articles. To facilitate this, journals should give better guidance and promote the discussion of limitations. Otherwise, we are facing an important loss of context for the scientific literature.

  2. More Similar than Different? Exploring Cultural Models of Depression among Latino Immigrants in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Martinez Tyson, Dinorah (Dina); Castañeda, Heide; Porter, Milagro; Quiroz, Marisel; Carrion, Iraida

    2011-01-01

    The Surgeon General's report, “Culture, Race, and Ethnicity: A Supplement to Mental Health,” points to the need for subgroup specific mental health research that explores the cultural variation and heterogeneity of the Latino population. Guided by cognitive anthropological theories of culture, we utilized ethnographic interviewing techniques to explore cultural models of depression among foreign-born Mexican (n = 30), Cuban (n = 30), Columbian (n = 30), and island-born Puerto Ricans (n = 30), who represent the largest Latino groups in Florida. Results indicate that Colombian, Cuban, Mexican, and Puerto Rican immigrants showed strong intragroup consensus in their models of depression causality, symptoms, and treatment. We found more agreement than disagreement among all four groups regarding core descriptions of depression, which was largely unexpected but can potentially be explained by their common immigrant experiences. Findings expand our understanding about Latino subgroup similarities and differences in their conceptualization of depression and can be used to inform the adaptation of culturally relevant interventions in order to better serve Latino immigrant communities. PMID:21941643

  3. Neural evidence for cultural differences in the valuation of positive facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Park, BoKyung; Tsai, Jeanne L; Chim, Louise; Blevins, Elizabeth; Knutson, Brian

    2016-02-01

    European Americans value excitement more and calm less than Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans value excited and calm states similarly, whereas Chinese value calm more than excited states. To examine how these cultural differences influence people's immediate responses to excited vs calm facial expressions, we combined a facial rating task with functional magnetic resonance imaging. During scanning, European American (n = 19) and Chinese (n = 19) females viewed and rated faces that varied by expression (excited, calm), ethnicity (White, Asian) and gender (male, female). As predicted, European Americans showed greater activity in circuits associated with affect and reward (bilateral ventral striatum, left caudate) while viewing excited vs calm expressions than did Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans responded to excited vs calm expressions similarly, whereas Chinese showed greater activity in these circuits in response to calm vs excited expressions regardless of targets' ethnicity or gender. Across cultural groups, greater ventral striatal activity while viewing excited vs. calm expressions predicted greater preference for excited vs calm expressions months later. These findings provide neural evidence that people find viewing the specific positive facial expressions valued by their cultures to be rewarding and relevant.

  4. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  5. Comparative analysis of microbial community of novel lactic acid fermentation inoculated with different undefined mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Settles, Matthew L; Forney, Larry J; Coats, Erik R; McDonald, Armando G

    2015-03-01

    Three undefined mixed cultures (activated sludge) from different municipal wastewater treatment plants were used as seeds in a novel lactic acid fermentation process fed with potato peel waste (PPW). Anaerobic sequencing batch fermenters were run under identical conditions to produce predominantly lactic acid. Illumina sequencing was used to examine the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in the three seeds and fermenters. Results showed that the structure of microbial communities of three seeds were different. All three fermentation products had unique community structures that were dominated (>96%) by species of the genus Lactobacillus, while members of this genus constituted <0.1% in seeds. The species of Lactobacillus sp. differed among the three fermentations. Results of this study suggest the structure of microbial communities in lactic acid fermentation of PPW with undefined mixed cultures were robust and resilient, which provided engineering prospects for the microbial utilization of carbohydrate wastes to produce lactic acid.

  6. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  7. Different Perspectives of Cultural Mediation: Implications for the Research Design on Studies Examining Its Effect on Students' Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-01-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper "Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development" to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural…

  8. Framing attention in Japanese and american comics: cross-cultural differences in attentional structure.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books - the narrative frames in sequential images - highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese "manga" to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer's integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention.

  9. Framing Attention in Japanese and American Comics: Cross-Cultural Differences in Attentional Structure

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books – the narrative frames in sequential images – highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese “manga” to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention. PMID:23015794

  10. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    PubMed

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies. PMID:25343628

  11. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    PubMed

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  12. Cross-cultural differences in crossmodal correspondences between basic tastes and visual features.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaoang; Woods, Andy T; van den Bosch, Jasper J F; McKenzie, Kirsten J; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report a cross-cultural study designed to investigate crossmodal correspondences between a variety of visual features (11 colors, 15 shapes, and 2 textures) and the five basic taste terms (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami). A total of 452 participants from China, India, Malaysia, and the USA viewed color patches, shapes, and textures online and had to choose the taste term that best matched the image and then rate their confidence in their choice. Across the four groups of participants, the results revealed a number of crossmodal correspondences between certain colors/shapes and bitter, sour, and sweet tastes. Crossmodal correspondences were also documented between the color white and smooth/rough textures on the one hand and the salt taste on the other. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the correspondences between certain colors, shapes, and one of the textures and the taste terms. The taste-patterns shown by the participants from the four countries tested in the present study are quite different from one another, and these differences cannot easily be attributed merely to whether a country is Eastern or Western. These findings therefore highlight the impact of cultural background on crossmodal correspondences. As such, they raise a number of interesting questions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences.

  13. Cross-cultural differences in crossmodal correspondences between basic tastes and visual features

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiaoang; Woods, Andy T.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report a cross-cultural study designed to investigate crossmodal correspondences between a variety of visual features (11 colors, 15 shapes, and 2 textures) and the five basic taste terms (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami). A total of 452 participants from China, India, Malaysia, and the USA viewed color patches, shapes, and textures online and had to choose the taste term that best matched the image and then rate their confidence in their choice. Across the four groups of participants, the results revealed a number of crossmodal correspondences between certain colors/shapes and bitter, sour, and sweet tastes. Crossmodal correspondences were also documented between the color white and smooth/rough textures on the one hand and the salt taste on the other. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the correspondences between certain colors, shapes, and one of the textures and the taste terms. The taste-patterns shown by the participants from the four countries tested in the present study are quite different from one another, and these differences cannot easily be attributed merely to whether a country is Eastern or Western. These findings therefore highlight the impact of cultural background on crossmodal correspondences. As such, they raise a number of interesting questions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences. PMID:25538643

  14. Diversity or Difference? New Research Supports the Case for a Cultural Perspective on Women in Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieze, Carol; Quesenberry, Jeria L.; Kemp, Elizabeth; Velázquez, Anthony

    2012-08-01

    Gender difference approaches to the participation of women in computing have not provided adequate explanations for women's declining interest in computer science (CS) and related technical fields. Indeed, the search for gender differences can work against diversity which we define as a cross-gender spectrum of characteristics, interests, abilities, experiences, beliefs and identities. Our ongoing case studies at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) provide evidence to show that a focus on culture offers the most insightful and effective approach for investigating women's participation in CS. In this paper, we illustrate this approach and show the significance of cultural factors by describing a new case study which examines the attitudes of CS majors at CMU. Our analysis found that most men and women felt comfortable in the school, believed they could be successful in the CS environment at CMU, and thought they fit in socially and academically. In brief, we did not see any evidence of a strong gender divide in student attitudes towards fitting in or feeling like they could be successful; indeed we found that the Women-CS fit remained strong from prior years. Hence, our research demonstrates that women, alongside their male peers, can fit successfully into a CS environment and help shape that environment and computing culture, for the benefit of everyone, without accommodating presumed gender differences or any compromises to academic integrity.

  15. Physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of polysaccharide fractions from Phellinus baumii cultured with different methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yanfang; Zhou, Shuai; Yan, Meng Qiu; Wu, Di; Zhang, Jingsong; Tang, Chuanhong

    2015-11-01

    Nine polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the fruiting bodies, submerged mycelia, and solid state fermented products of Phellinus baumii using different concentrations of ethanol precipitation. The chemical characteristics and in vitro immunological activities of the nine polysaccharide fractions were compared and studied. Results indicated that the fractions precipitated with 50% ethanol had higher yields of polysaccharides and submerged mycelia contributed to high extraction yields of polysaccharides and possessed higher polysaccharide contents. HPSEC-MALLS-RI analysis showed that the molecular weight (Mw) of polysaccharide fractions from these three materials decreased with the increasing of precipitated ethanol concentration. The Mw of fruiting body polysaccharide fractions ranged from 1.98×10(4)Da to 1.89×10(6)Da. Large-molecular-weight polysaccharides (from 2.11×10(6)Da to 2.01×10(7)Da) were found in submerged mycelia. Some lower-molecular-weight polysaccharide components were found in solid fermented products. Different culture methods contributed to significant differences in monosaccharide components and molar ratios. The 50% ethanol precipitated fractions exhibited more complexity on monosaccharide compositions comparing with fractions precipitated with 30% and 70% ethanol. Polysaccharide fractions derived from submerged mycelia exhibited higher macrophages stimulation activities. Submerged culture was found to be a suitable method to prepare active polysaccharides because of its short culture span and reasonable cost. PMID:26344493

  16. Cultural differences and similarities of environmental epistemology among Native American nations

    SciTech Connect

    Duplantier, S.

    1997-08-01

    A recent major effort of Xavier University`s Consortium for Environmental Risk Evaluation Project (CERE) has been to act as a facilitator for the convening of tribal forums on various environmental management decision making processes, especially the use of risk assessment. Two recent forums sponsored by the Shoshone-Bannock Nation of Ft. Hall, Idaho and the Nez Perce Nation of Lapwai, Idaho brought together tribal leaders, tribal professionals and tribal elders from around the nation to discuss tribal approaches to risk assessment. A statement in the brochure announcing the Nez Perce Forum said ``Our various cultural understandings of, and relationships to, the environment must play an essential role in determining how future risk assessment methods are determined and practiced.`` This paper will present and discuss the issue of differences in Native American epistemologies (ways of knowing) about the environment. Are these merely distinctions without differences? Do the differences in regional ecologies and cultures affect tribal views and tribal perceptions on risk assessment and risk communication? Must the tribes develop a single cultural risk model or can and must each one be unique? These and other topics will be discussed in this paper. This paper is an effort in understanding what Native Americans are saying about nature, the environment, and environmental risk and remediation.

  17. Thinking differently about cultural diversity: Using postcolonial theory to (re)read science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Lyn

    2004-11-01

    This paper makes use of postcolonial theory to think differently about aspects of cultural diversity within science education. It briefly reviews some of the increasing scholarship on cultural diversity, and then describes the genealogy and selected key themes of postcolonial theory. Postcolonial theory as oppositional or deconstructive reading practice is privileged, and its practical application illustrated by using some of these key ideas to (re)read Gloria Snively and John Corsiglia's (2001) article Discovering indigenous science: implications for science education and their rejoinder, from the special issue of Science Education (Vol. 85, pp. 6-34) on multiculturalism and science education. While many would regard the expressed views on diversity, inclusivity, multiculturalism, and sustainability to be just and equitable, postcolonial analysis of the texts reveals subtle and lingering referents that unwittingly work against the very attitudes Snively and Corsiglia (2001) seek to promote. Such postcolonial analyses open up thinking about the material and cultural conditions in which science education is produced, circulated, interpreted, and enacted. They also privilege a unique methodology already prominent in academic inquiry that is yet to be well explored within science education. Finally, I conclude this paper with some general comments regarding postcolonialism and the science education scholarship on cultural diversity.

  18. Cultural differences in on-line sensitivity to emotional voices: comparing East and West

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pan; Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that culture modulates on-line neural responses to the emotional meanings encoded by vocal and facial expressions was demonstrated recently in a study comparing English North Americans and Chinese (Liu et al., 2015). Here, we compared how individuals from these two cultures passively respond to emotional cues from faces and voices using an Oddball task. Participants viewed in-group emotional faces, with or without simultaneous vocal expressions, while performing a face-irrelevant visual task as the EEG was recorded. A significantly larger visual Mismatch Negativity (vMMN) was observed for Chinese vs. English participants when faces were accompanied by voices, suggesting that Chinese were influenced to a larger extent by task-irrelevant vocal cues. These data highlight further differences in how adults from East Asian vs. Western cultures process socio-emotional cues, arguing that distinct cultural practices in communication (e.g., display rules) shape neurocognitive activity associated with the early perception and integration of multi-sensory emotional cues. PMID:26074808

  19. Cultural differences in on-line sensitivity to emotional voices: comparing East and West.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pan; Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that culture modulates on-line neural responses to the emotional meanings encoded by vocal and facial expressions was demonstrated recently in a study comparing English North Americans and Chinese (Liu et al., 2015). Here, we compared how individuals from these two cultures passively respond to emotional cues from faces and voices using an Oddball task. Participants viewed in-group emotional faces, with or without simultaneous vocal expressions, while performing a face-irrelevant visual task as the EEG was recorded. A significantly larger visual Mismatch Negativity (vMMN) was observed for Chinese vs. English participants when faces were accompanied by voices, suggesting that Chinese were influenced to a larger extent by task-irrelevant vocal cues. These data highlight further differences in how adults from East Asian vs. Western cultures process socio-emotional cues, arguing that distinct cultural practices in communication (e.g., display rules) shape neurocognitive activity associated with the early perception and integration of multi-sensory emotional cues. PMID:26074808

  20. Different perspectives of cultural mediation: implications for the research design on studies examining its effect on students' cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-06-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural mediation of students' cognition. Specifically, cultural mediation may be attributed to innate psychological attributes, an accretion of cultural elements, or the social interaction process. Each of these ideas represents a theoretical lens and has implications for the research design of studies relating cultural mediation to cognition. In the final section of this forum paper, I show how a study conducted from the symbolic interactionist viewpoint underscoring cultural mediation as a social interaction process might unfold.

  1. Cultural differences affecting euthanasia practice in Belgium: one law but different attitudes and practices in Flanders and Wallonia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Wesemael, Yanna; Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Deliens, Luc

    2012-09-01

    Since 2002, Belgium has had a national law legalising euthanasia. The law prescribes several substantive due care requirements and two procedural due care requirements, i.e. consultation with an independent physician and reporting of euthanasia to a Federal Control Committee. A large discrepancy in reporting rates between the Dutch-speaking (Flanders) and the French-speaking (Wallonia) parts of Belgium has led to speculation about cultural differences affecting the practice of euthanasia in both regions. Using Belgian data from the European Values Study conducted in 2008 among a representative sample of the general public and data from a large-scale mail questionnaire survey on euthanasia of 480 physicians from Flanders and 305 from Wallonia (conducted in 2009), this study presents empirical evidence of differences between both regions in attitudes towards and practice of euthanasia. Acceptance of euthanasia by the general population was found to be slightly higher in Flanders than in Wallonia. Compared with their Flemish counterparts, Walloon physicians held more negative attitudes towards performing euthanasia and towards the reporting obligation, less often labelled hypothetical cases correctly as euthanasia, and less often defined a case of euthanasia having to be reported. A higher proportion of Flemish physicians had received a euthanasia request since the introduction of the law. In cases of a euthanasia request, Walloon physicians consulted less often with an independent physician. Requests were more often granted in Flanders than in Wallonia (51% vs 38%), and performed euthanasia cases were more often reported (73% vs 58%). The study points out some significant differences between Flanders and Wallonia in practice, knowledge and attitudes regarding euthanasia and its legal requirements which are likely to explain the discrepancy between Wallonia and Flanders in the number of euthanasia cases reported. Cultural factors seem to play an important role in the

  2. Multi-cultural network security

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.F.

    1996-04-01

    Education and awareness are widely acknowledged to be among the fundamental issues of Internet security, but only in the sense of making Internet users more security conscious. For the Internet to achieve its promise as an information highway, however, a complementary education effort is needed. If adequate Internet security is to be achieved, we must also increase the awareness of the professional security community of the requirements, attitudes, and habits of the many different cultures that participate in the Internet. Discussions of {open_quotes}the Internet{close_quotes} encourage the misapprehension that there is a single, uniform user community instead of a loose alliance of many cultures that differ in many fundamental aspects. This is true even if we limit our consideration to ethical cultures. At this Workshop alone we have representatives of administrative and military cultures, Governmental and commercial cultures, profit-cultures and non-profit cultures, research and operational cultures. Internet cultures are united in their desire to exploit the connectivity, flexibility, and rapidity of communication provided by the net, but differ greatly in their motivations, their attitudes towards authority, their willingness to cooperate within their own communities, their interest in technical arcana, and the patience with which they will put up with - or the enthusiasm with which they will embrace - the growing list of procedures deemed necessary for acceptable security. They even differ in how they define {open_quotes}acceptable security{close_quotes}.

  3. How two differing portraits of Newton can teach us about the cultural context of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, Pasquale

    2015-07-01

    Like several scientists, Isaac Newton has been represented many times over many different periods, and portraits of Newton were often commissioned by the scientist himself. These portraits tell us a lot about the scientist, the artist and the cultural context. This article examines two very different portraits of Newton that were realized more than a century apart, to show how the observer’s attention can be focused on the history of physics, the history of art, their relationships and the use of the history of science in science education.

  4. Mosaic (MSC) cucumbers regenerated from independent cell cultures possess different mitochondrial rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Malepszy, Stefan; Havey, Michael J

    2004-02-01

    Passage of the highly inbred cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) line B through cell culture produces progenies with paternally transmitted, mosaic (MSC) phenotypes. Because the mitochondrial genome of cucumber shows paternal transmission, we evaluated for structural polymorphisms by hybridizing cosmids spanning the entire mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis thaliana L. to DNA-gel blots of four independently generated MSC and four wild-type cucumbers. Polymorphisms were identified by cosmids carrying rrn18, nad5-exon2, rpl5, and the previously described JLV5 deletion. Polymorphisms revealed by rrn18 and nad5-exon2 were due to one rearrangement bringing together these two coding regions. The polymorphism revealed by rpl5 was unique to MSC16 and was due to rearrangement(s) placing the rpl5 region next to the forward junction of the JLV5 deletion. The rearrangement near rpl5 existed as a sublimon in wild-type inbred B, but was not detected in the cultivar Calypso. Although RNA-gel blots revealed reduced transcription of rpl5 in MSC16 relative to wild-type cucumber, Western analyses revealed no differences for the RPL5 protein and the genetic basis of the MSC16 phenotype remains enigmatic. We evaluated 17 MSC and wild-type lines regenerated from independent cell-culture experiments for these structural polymorphisms and identified eight different patterns, indicating that the passage of cucumber through cell culture may be a unique mechanism to induce or select for novel rearrangements affecting mitochondrial gene expression.

  5. Metabolic characterization of natural and cultured Ophicordyceps sinensis from different origins by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianshuang; Zhong, Xin; Li, Shaosong; Zhang, Guren; Liu, Xin

    2015-11-10

    Ophicordyceps sinensis is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and cultured mycelium is a substitute for wild O. sinensis. Metabolic profiles of wild O. sinensis from three geographical locations and cultivated mycelia derived from three origins were investigated using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis combined with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 56 primary metabolites were identified and quantified from O. sinensis samples. The principle component analysis (PCA) showed significant differences between natural O. sinensis and fermentation mycelia. Seven metabolites responsible for differentiation were screened out by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The concentrations of mannitol, trehalose, arginine, trans-4-hydroxyproline, alanine and glucitol were significantly different between wild and cultured groups. The variation in metabolic profiling among artificial mycelia was greater than that among wild O. sinensis. Furthermore, wild samples from different origins were clearly distinguished by the levels of mannitol, trehalose and some amino acids. This study indicates that (1)H NMR-based metabolomics is useful for fingerprinting and discriminating O. sinensis of different geographical regions and cultivated mycelia of different strains. The present study provided an efficient approach for investigating chemical compositions and evaluating the quality of medicine and health food derived from O. sinensis. PMID:26279370

  6. Metabolic characterization of natural and cultured Ophicordyceps sinensis from different origins by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianshuang; Zhong, Xin; Li, Shaosong; Zhang, Guren; Liu, Xin

    2015-11-10

    Ophicordyceps sinensis is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and cultured mycelium is a substitute for wild O. sinensis. Metabolic profiles of wild O. sinensis from three geographical locations and cultivated mycelia derived from three origins were investigated using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis combined with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 56 primary metabolites were identified and quantified from O. sinensis samples. The principle component analysis (PCA) showed significant differences between natural O. sinensis and fermentation mycelia. Seven metabolites responsible for differentiation were screened out by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The concentrations of mannitol, trehalose, arginine, trans-4-hydroxyproline, alanine and glucitol were significantly different between wild and cultured groups. The variation in metabolic profiling among artificial mycelia was greater than that among wild O. sinensis. Furthermore, wild samples from different origins were clearly distinguished by the levels of mannitol, trehalose and some amino acids. This study indicates that (1)H NMR-based metabolomics is useful for fingerprinting and discriminating O. sinensis of different geographical regions and cultivated mycelia of different strains. The present study provided an efficient approach for investigating chemical compositions and evaluating the quality of medicine and health food derived from O. sinensis.

  7. Performance in intercultural interactions at work: cross-cultural differences in response to behavioral mirroring.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey; Bartel, Caroline A; Blount, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how performance in intercultural workplace interactions can be compromised even in the absence of overt prejudice. The authors show that individuals respond differently to nonverbal behavioral mirroring cues exhibited in workplace interactions, depending on their cultural group membership. In a field study with experienced managers, U.S. Anglos and U.S. Latinos interacted with a confederate who, unbeknownst to the participant, engaged (or not) in behavioral mirroring. Results show that the level of the confederate's mirroring differentially affected Latinos' state anxiety, but not Anglos' state anxiety, as well as actual performance in the interaction. Two additional laboratory experiments provide further evidence of the interactive relationship of behavioral mirroring and cultural group membership on evaluations of workplace interactions. Implications for intercultural interactions and research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19186906

  8. The impact on attitudes towards cultural difference of participation in a health focused study abroad program.

    PubMed

    Inglis, A; Rolls, C; Kristy, S

    2000-01-01

    The changes in attitudes towards cultural difference of seventeen participants in a three-week community health study abroad program to Nepal were compared with the changes in attitudes of a similar group who did not participate in the tour. Participants in the tour group were surveyed eight weeks prior to departure and in the last week of the tour using a twenty-six item questionnaire employing a six-point forced-choice response scale. The responses of participants in the tour group showed significant shifts in relation to eight items compared while the responses for the control group showed no significant shifts. Observed student advantages of participation in this study tour included the development of independent behaviour and positive cultural adjustment and adaptation. PMID:11855033

  9. Toward a dialect theory: cultural differences in the expression and recognition of posed facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Beaupré, Martin; Lévesque, Manon; Hess, Ursula

    2007-02-01

    Two studies provided direct support for a recently proposed dialect theory of communicating emotion, positing that expressive displays show cultural variations similar to linguistic dialects, thereby decreasing accurate recognition by out-group members. In Study 1, 60 participants from Quebec and Gabon posed facial expressions. Dialects, in the form of activating different muscles for the same expressions, emerged most clearly for serenity, shame, and contempt and also for anger, sadness, surprise, and happiness, but not for fear, disgust, or embarrassment. In Study 2, Quebecois and Gabonese participants judged these stimuli and stimuli standardized to erase cultural dialects. As predicted, an in-group advantage emerged for nonstandardized expressions only and most strongly for expressions with greater regional dialects, according to Study 1.

  10. Growth and toxin production of Azadinium poporum strains in batch cultures under different nutrient conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Jiang, Baozhou; Chen, Huidan; Gu, Haifeng

    2016-05-01

    Azaspiracid-2 (AZA2) is the dominant toxin produced by Azadinium poporum strains AZDY06 and AZFC22 isolated from the South China Sea. Biomass and AZA2-production were examined within batch cultures with variation in experimental concentrations of nitrate (0, 88, 882, and 2647µM) or phosphate (0, 3.6, 36, and 109µM), different nitrogen sources (nitrate and urea) and media (f/2-Si, L1-Si, and K-Si) in the present study. Growth of both strains positively responded to nitrate or phosphate nutrients, but the growth status was significantly repressed by the highest additional level of phosphate (109µM). Both AZDY06 and AZFC22 grew well with higher specific growth rates, but with shorter growth periods, within f/2-Si medium spiked with urea than that within media spiked with nitrate. L1-Si medium with relatively high concentrations of trace metals was relatively favorable to both strains of A. poporum tested here. No obvious change within the toxin profile occurred in all cultures of both strains under the various nutrient conditions, although trace amounts of some suspicious derivatives of AZA2 occurred in some cultures. AZA2 cell quotas within both strains significantly (p<0.05) increased at the stationary phase under lower additional phosphate (0 and 3.6µM). Significant differences were not found within AZA2 cell quotas in cultures with additional nitrate ranging from 0 to 2647µM. The highest AZA2 cell quota and maximum AZA2 quantity per culture volume occurred in batch culture at the stationary phase under phosphate concentrations at 3.6µM. Neither A. poporum strain exhibited significant changes in AZA2 cell quotas within f/2-Si media spiked with urea or nitrate as nitrogen sources. The AZA2 cell quota of strain AZDY06 also did not change remarkably within f/2-Si, L1-Si, and K-Si media, however the AZA2 cell quota of strain AZFC22 within L1-Si medium was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that within f/2-Si medium.

  11. A Single Dynamic Metabolic Model Can Describe mAb Producing CHO Cell Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures on Different Culture Media.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Julien; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2015-01-01

    CHO cell culture high productivity relies on optimized culture medium management under fed-batch or perfused chemostat strategies enabling high cell densities. In this work, a dynamic metabolic model for CHO cells was further developed, calibrated and challenged using datasets obtained under four different culture conditions, including two batch and two fed-batch cultures comparing two different culture media. The recombinant CHO-DXB11 cell line producing the EG2-hFc monoclonal antibody was studied. Quantification of extracellular substrates and metabolites concentration, viable cell density, monoclonal antibody concentration and intracellular concentration of metabolite intermediates of glycolysis, pentose-phosphate and TCA cycle, as well as of energetic nucleotides, were obtained for model calibration. Results suggest that a single model structure with a single set of kinetic parameter values is efficient at simulating viable cell behavior in all cases under study, estimating the time course of measured and non-measured intracellular and extracellular metabolites. Model simulations also allowed performing dynamic metabolic flux analysis, showing that the culture media and the fed-batch strategies tested had little impact on flux distribution. This work thus paves the way to an in silico platform allowing to assess the performance of different culture media and fed-batch strategies.

  12. Three Educational Values for a Multicultural Society: Difference Recognition, National Cohesion and Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Educational aims for societies comprising multiple ethnic, cultural and racial groups should involve three different values--recognizing difference, national cohesion and equality. Recognition of difference acknowledges and respects ethnocultural identities and in educational contexts also encourages mutual engagement across difference. National…

  13. Nurturing Hidden Resilience in At-Risk Youth in Different Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Introduction While there has been growing interest in the concept of resilience, there has been little attention paid to the cultural and contextual factors that influence children’s healthy growth and development under adversity. Using findings from the International Resilience Project, a study of over 1500 youth in 11 countries on five continents, it has been possible to show that there are both generic and culturally specific aspects to resilience. Method Fourteen communities were invited to participate based on the variability in the risks children face in each setting. A minimum of 60 youth in each community were administered the Child and Youth Resilience Measure. Qualitative interviews were also conducted with a subsample of youth. Results Both homogeneity and heterogeneity in the overall sample was demonstrated, with exploratory factor analyses suggesting at least four subgroups of youth distinguished by their status as Western or non-Western, boys or girls, and the degree of social cohesion of their communities. Qualitative data explains these differences as related to seven tensions experienced by youth developmentally. Conclusion This work highlights the need for greater cultural and contextual sensitivity in how resilience is understood. Implications for practice with at-risk youth include the need to understand the contextual specificity of positive development under stress. PMID:18392194

  14. Postnatal Depression and Its Associated Factors in Women From Different Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Lye, Munn-Sann; Md Zain, Azhar; Shariff Ghazali, Sazlina; Zarghami, Mehran

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common health problem which affects women in the postpartum period. This is a brief note on its associated factors in women from different cultures. Methods: A literature review was performed in MEDLINE and Pubmed from 1991 to 2008 and Magiran from 1991 to 2009. Additional articles and book chapters were referenced from these sources. Results: The prevalence of postpartum depression has been reported to be from 0.5% to 60% globally, and from 3.5% to 63.3% in Asian countries, in which Malaysia and Pakistan had respectively the lowest and highest rates. One of the factors contributing to PPD in Asian societies can be that women may not have the empowerment to reject traditional rituals that are imposed on them by their caregivers. Unsatisfactory pre-existing relationships between the mothers and their caregivers resulting in mothers experiencing difficulties during their confinement period may be another factor. Thirdly, some features of these traditional rituals may be the cause of tension, stress and emotional distress. Emotional conflicts caused by insistence on practice of traditional rituals during the postpartum period may lead to mental breakdown. Conclusion: Health care professionals should be aware that the phenomenon in Asian cultures is as prevalent as European cultures. Moreover, further research needs to be conducted on the global prevalence of the experiences of childbearing women with depressive symptoms. PMID:24644441

  15. What's in the Chinese Babyface? Cultural Differences in Understanding the Babyface.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenwen; Yang, Qian; Peng, Kaiping; Yu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the cultural differences in understanding and reacting to the babyface in an effort to identify both cultural and gender biases in the universal hypothesis that the babyfaced individuals are perceived as naïve, cute, innocent, and more trustworthy. Sixty-six Chinese and Sixty-six American participants were required to evaluate Chinese faces selected from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)-Pose, Expression, Accessories, and Lighting (PEAL) Large-Scale Chinese Face Database. In our study, we applied Active Shape Models, a modern technique of machine learning to measure facial features. We found some cultural similarities and also found that a Chinese babyface has bigger eyes, higher eyebrows, a smaller chin, and greater WHR (Facial width-to-height ratio), and looks more attractive and warmer. New findings demonstrate that Chinese babyfaces have a lower forehead and closer pupil distance (PD). We found that when evaluating the babyfacedness of a face, Chinese are more concerned with the combination of all facial features and American are more sensitive to specific highlighted babyfaced features. The Chinese babyface tended to be perceived as more babyfaced for American participants, but not less competent for Chinese participants. PMID:27303360

  16. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC.

    PubMed

    Adamzyk, Carina; Emonds, Tanja; Falkenstein, Julia; Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation. PMID:24228035

  17. Influence of Different Carbohydrates on Flavonoid Accumulation in Hairy Root Cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Young Seon; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2016-06-01

    Carbohydrate sources play important roles in energy and growth of plants. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the optimal carbohydrate source in hairy root cultures (HRCs) of Scutellaria baicalensis infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain R1000. The hairy roots were cultured in half-strength B5 liquid medium supplemented with seven different carbohydrates sources (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, sorbitol, mannitol and maltose), each at a concentration of 100 mM, in order to identify the best carbon sources for the production of major flavones, such as wogonin, baicalin and baicalein. Sucrose, galactose and fructose markedly influenced the production of major flavones and were therefore chosen for subsequent experiments. HRC growth and flavone accumulation were examined following culture with 30, 100 and 150 mM sucrose, galactose and fructose, respectively. From these data, 150 mM sucrose was found to be the optimal carbon source for the enhancement of baicalein production and growth of S. baicalensis HRCs. Fructose caused the greatest increase in baicalin accumulation. Additionally, galactose was the optimal carbon source for wogonin production. These results provide important insights into the optimal growth conditions, particularly the appropriate carbohydrate source, for S. baicalensis. PMID:27534120

  18. What's in the Chinese Babyface? Cultural Differences in Understanding the Babyface

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wenwen; Yang, Qian; Peng, Kaiping; Yu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the cultural differences in understanding and reacting to the babyface in an effort to identify both cultural and gender biases in the universal hypothesis that the babyfaced individuals are perceived as naïve, cute, innocent, and more trustworthy. Sixty-six Chinese and Sixty-six American participants were required to evaluate Chinese faces selected from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)—Pose, Expression, Accessories, and Lighting (PEAL) Large-Scale Chinese Face Database. In our study, we applied Active Shape Models, a modern technique of machine learning to measure facial features. We found some cultural similarities and also found that a Chinese babyface has bigger eyes, higher eyebrows, a smaller chin, and greater WHR (Facial width-to-height ratio), and looks more attractive and warmer. New findings demonstrate that Chinese babyfaces have a lower forehead and closer pupil distance (PD). We found that when evaluating the babyfacedness of a face, Chinese are more concerned with the combination of all facial features and American are more sensitive to specific highlighted babyfaced features. The Chinese babyface tended to be perceived as more babyfaced for American participants, but not less competent for Chinese participants. PMID:27303360

  19. Lignolytic enzymes produced by Trametes villosa ccb176 under different culture conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Renata; Soares, Clarissa F.; Matheus, Dácio R.; Machado, Kátia M.G.

    2008-01-01

    The expression of the enzymatic system produced by basidiomycetous fungi, which is involved in the degradation of xenobiotics, mainly depends on culture conditions, especially of the culture medium composition. Trametes villosa is a strain with a proven biotechnological potential for the degradation of organochlorine compounds and for the decolorization of textile dyes. The influence of glucose concentration, addition of a vegetable oil-surfactant emulsion, nature of the surfactant and the presence of manganese and copper on the growth, pH and production of laccase, total peroxidase and manganese-dependent peroxidase activities were evaluated. In general, acidification of the medium was observed, with the pH reaching a value close to 3.5 within the first days of growth. Laccase was the main activity detected under the different conditions and was produced throughout the culture period of the fungus, irrespective of the growth phase. Supplementation of the medium with vegetable oil emulsified with a surfactant induced manganese-dependent peroxidase activity in T. villosa. Higher specific yields of laccase activity were obtained with the addition of copper. PMID:24031184

  20. Recognition of depression in people of different cultures: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne; Mattsson, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Background Many minority group patients who attend primary health care are depressed. To identify a depressive state when GPs see patients from other cultures than their own can be difficult because of cultural and gender differences in expressions and problems of communication. The aim of this study was to explore and analyse how GPs think and deliberate when seeing and treating patients from foreign countries who display potential depressive features. Methods The data were collected in focus groups and through individual interviews with GPs in northern Sweden and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results In the analysis three themes, based on various categories, emerged; "Realizing the background", "Struggling for clarity" and "Optimizing management". Patients' early life events of importance were often unknown which blurred the accuracy. Reactions to trauma, cultural frictions and conflicts between the new and old gender norms made the diagnostic process difficult. The patient-doctor encounter comprised misconceptions, and social roles in the meetings were sometimes confused. GPs based their judgement mainly on clinical intuition and the established classification of depressive disorders was discussed. Tools for management and adequate action were diffuse. Conclusion Dialogue about patients' illness narratives and social context are crucial. There is a need for tools for multicultural, general practice care in the depressive spectrum. It is also essential to be aware of GPs' own conceptions in order to avoid stereotypes and not to under- or overestimate the occurrence of depressive symptoms PMID:19635159

  1. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC.

    PubMed

    Adamzyk, Carina; Emonds, Tanja; Falkenstein, Julia; Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation.

  2. Influence of Different Carbohydrates on Flavonoid Accumulation in Hairy Root Cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Young Seon; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2016-06-01

    Carbohydrate sources play important roles in energy and growth of plants. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the optimal carbohydrate source in hairy root cultures (HRCs) of Scutellaria baicalensis infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain R1000. The hairy roots were cultured in half-strength B5 liquid medium supplemented with seven different carbohydrates sources (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, sorbitol, mannitol and maltose), each at a concentration of 100 mM, in order to identify the best carbon sources for the production of major flavones, such as wogonin, baicalin and baicalein. Sucrose, galactose and fructose markedly influenced the production of major flavones and were therefore chosen for subsequent experiments. HRC growth and flavone accumulation were examined following culture with 30, 100 and 150 mM sucrose, galactose and fructose, respectively. From these data, 150 mM sucrose was found to be the optimal carbon source for the enhancement of baicalein production and growth of S. baicalensis HRCs. Fructose caused the greatest increase in baicalin accumulation. Additionally, galactose was the optimal carbon source for wogonin production. These results provide important insights into the optimal growth conditions, particularly the appropriate carbohydrate source, for S. baicalensis.

  3. Solution-Focused Therapy as a Culturally Acknowledging Approach with American Indians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Dixie D.; Cottone, R. Rocco

    2013-01-01

    Limited literature is available applying specific theoretical orientations with American Indians. Solution-focused therapy may be appropriate, given the client-identified solutions, the egalitarian counselor/client relationship, the use of relationships, and the view that change is inevitable. However, adaption of scaling questions and the miracle…

  4. Isolation of Campylobacter from Brazilian broiler flocks using different culturing procedures.

    PubMed

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; Pozza, J S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2014-11-01

    Conventional culturing methods enable the detection of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. However, laboratory culture of Campylobacter is laborious because of its fastidious behavior and the presence of competing nontarget bacteria. This study evaluated different protocols to isolate Campylobacter from broiler litter, feces, and cloacal and drag swabs. Samples taken from commercial Brazilian broiler flocks were directly streaked onto Preston agar (PA), Campy-Line agar (CLA), and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and also enriched in blood-free Bolton broth (bfBB) for 24 and 48 h followed by plating onto the different selective media. Higher numbers of Campylobacter-positive cloacal and drag swab samples were observed using either direct plating or enrichment for 24 h before plating onto PA, compared with enrichment for 48 h (P < 0.05). Furthermore, direct plating was a more sensitive method to detect Campylobacter in broiler litter and feces samples. Analysis of directly plated samples revealed that higher Campylobacter levels were detected in feces streaked onto PA (88.8%), cloacal swabs plated onto mCCDA (72.2%), drag swabs streaked onto CLA or mCCDA (69.4%), and litter samples inoculated onto PA (63.8%). Preston agar was the best agar to isolate Campylobacter from directly plated litter samples (P < 0.05), but there was no difference in the efficacies of PA, mCCDA, and CLA in detecting Campylobacter in other samples. The isolated Campylobacter strains were phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The predominant contaminant observed in the Campylobacter cultures was Proteus mirabilis, which was resistant to the majority of antimicrobial agents in selective media. Together, these data showed that direct plating onto PA and onto either CLA or mCCDA as the second selective agar enabled the reliable isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter species from broiler samples. Finally, Campylobacter was detected in all

  5. Alpha particle induced DNA damage and repair in normal cultured thyrocytes of different proliferation status.

    PubMed

    Lyckesvärd, Madeleine Nordén; Delle, Ulla; Kahu, Helena; Lindegren, Sture; Jensen, Holger; Bäck, Tom; Swanpalmer, John; Elmroth, Kecke

    2014-07-01

    Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer later in life and this is suggested to be due to higher proliferation of the young thyroid. The interest of using high-LET alpha particles from Astatine-211 ((211)At), concentrated in the thyroid by the same mechanism as (131)I [1], in cancer treatment has increased during recent years because of its high efficiency in inducing biological damage and beneficial dose distribution when compared to low-LET radiation. Most knowledge of the DNA damage response in thyroid is from studies using low-LET irradiation and much less is known of high-LET irradiation. In this paper we investigated the DNA damage response and biological consequences to photons from Cobolt-60 ((60)Co) and alpha particles from (211)At in normal primary thyrocytes of different cell cycle status. For both radiation qualities the intensity levels of γH2AX decreased during the first 24h in both cycling and stationary cultures and complete repair was seen in all cultures but cycling cells exposed to (211)At. Compared to stationary cells alpha particles were more harmful for cycling cultures, an effect also seen at the pChk2 levels. Increasing ratios of micronuclei per cell nuclei were seen up to 1Gy (211)At. We found that primary thyrocytes were much more sensitive to alpha particle exposure compared with low-LET photons. Calculations of the relative biological effectiveness yielded higher RBE for cycling cells compared with stationary cultures at a modest level of damage, clearly demonstrating that cell cycle status influences the relative effectiveness of alpha particles. PMID:24769180

  6. Alpha particle induced DNA damage and repair in normal cultured thyrocytes of different proliferation status.

    PubMed

    Lyckesvärd, Madeleine Nordén; Delle, Ulla; Kahu, Helena; Lindegren, Sture; Jensen, Holger; Bäck, Tom; Swanpalmer, John; Elmroth, Kecke

    2014-07-01

    Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer later in life and this is suggested to be due to higher proliferation of the young thyroid. The interest of using high-LET alpha particles from Astatine-211 ((211)At), concentrated in the thyroid by the same mechanism as (131)I [1], in cancer treatment has increased during recent years because of its high efficiency in inducing biological damage and beneficial dose distribution when compared to low-LET radiation. Most knowledge of the DNA damage response in thyroid is from studies using low-LET irradiation and much less is known of high-LET irradiation. In this paper we investigated the DNA damage response and biological consequences to photons from Cobolt-60 ((60)Co) and alpha particles from (211)At in normal primary thyrocytes of different cell cycle status. For both radiation qualities the intensity levels of γH2AX decreased during the first 24h in both cycling and stationary cultures and complete repair was seen in all cultures but cycling cells exposed to (211)At. Compared to stationary cells alpha particles were more harmful for cycling cultures, an effect also seen at the pChk2 levels. Increasing ratios of micronuclei per cell nuclei were seen up to 1Gy (211)At. We found that primary thyrocytes were much more sensitive to alpha particle exposure compared with low-LET photons. Calculations of the relative biological effectiveness yielded higher RBE for cycling cells compared with stationary cultures at a modest level of damage, clearly demonstrating that cell cycle status influences the relative effectiveness of alpha particles.

  7. What pediatricians should know about normal language development: ensuring cultural differences are not diagnosed as disorders.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Amy L; Van Haren, Melissa S

    2003-07-01

    The roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists and pediatricians have become greater with the changing population demographics in the United States. In some states, the majority of the population belongs to a national cultural minority, eg, New Mexico. Even a state such as Iowa, with only a 5% nonmajority population, has a school-aged population that is almost 10% nonmajority. This growth of diversity is likely to continue. Rather than viewing sensitivity to the influence of culture on language learning and other developmental areas as an "add-on" to a practice, it may be wiser to recognize that approaching all clients with as few assumptions about their behaviors as possible will guarantee nonbiased service delivery for all. Without nonbiased service delivery, incorrect diagnoses and provision of inappropriate therapy become more likely. Fortunately, many resources are available to assist pediatricians and speech-language pathologists in learning about various cultures. Institutional review boards have become more vigilant about the inclusion of a cross-section of subject populations as participants in research studies in addition to protecting the rights of all participants. Funding agencies also have expressed as a priority the inclusion of research subjects from minority populations to add to the information available about the incidence and prevalence of disorders across the range of our potential patients. In a society in which cultural differences are not just defined by race or ethnicity, but by gender, sexual orientation, age, geographic region, and religion, belief systems about disease, disability, and treatment are dynamic entities for health professionals to take into consideration. It is a challenge that speech-language pathologists and pediatricians must meet if they are to provide the best and most appropriate services for their patients.

  8. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) moderates cultural difference in independent versus interdependent social orientation.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Shinobu; King, Anthony; Yoon, Carolyn; Tompson, Steve; Huff, Sarah; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-06-01

    Prior research suggests that cultural groups vary on an overarching dimension of independent versus interdependent social orientation, with European Americans being more independent, or less interdependent, than Asians. Drawing on recent evidence suggesting that the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) plays a role in modulating cultural learning, we predicted that carriers of DRD4 polymorphisms linked to increased dopamine signaling (7- or 2-repeat alleles) would show higher levels of culturally dominant social orientations, compared with noncarriers. European Americans and Asian-born Asians (total N = 398) reported their social orientation on multiple scales. They were also genotyped for DRD4. As in earlier work, European Americans were more independent, and Asian-born Asians more interdependent. This cultural difference was significantly more pronounced for carriers of the 7- or 2-repeat alleles than for noncarriers. Indeed, no cultural difference was apparent among the noncarriers. Implications for potential coevolution of genes and culture are discussed.

  9. Qualitative Feedback From a Text Messaging Intervention for Depression: Benefits, Drawbacks, and Cultural Differences

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background Mobile health interventions are often standardized and assumed to work the same for all users; however, we may be missing cultural differences in the experiences of interventions that may impact how and if an intervention is effective. Objective The objective of the study was to assess qualitative feedback from participants to determine if there were differences between Spanish speakers and English speakers. Daily text messages were sent to patients as an adjunct to group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for depression. Methods Messages inquired about mood and about specific themes (thoughts, activities, social interactions) of a manualized group CBT intervention. There were thirty-nine patients who participated in the text messaging pilot study. The average age of the participants was 53 years (SD 10.4; range of 23-72). Results Qualitative feedback from Spanish speakers highlighted feelings of social support, whereas English speakers noted increased introspection and self-awareness of their mood state. Conclusions These cultural differences should be explored further, as they may impact the effect of supportive mobile health interventions. Trial Registration Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01083628; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01083628 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6StpbdHuq). PMID:25373390

  10. Cross-cultural differences in color preferences: implication for international film distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes the necessity of manipulating colors of movie contents to fit diverse audiences around the world. Since films are highly color-dependent messages, it is critical to understand how people in different cultures respond differently to color. In recent years, the international market for filmed entertainment has grown more than the U.S. market. However, a lack of research on audience preferences shows no constant guide for the motion picture industry. The film production stage is often disregarded to deliver the appropriate visual color contents for local audience when U.S. films are distributed to foreign markets. Therefore, it is assumed that it would cause distractions for local audiences and it could result in poor ticket sales. When the U.S. produced films are distributed in Asia, colors of original films are always shown without manipulation. It is common that when a U.S. manufactured car is imported to Japan, a driver seat is installed on the right side and also other parts are modified for local customers. Film development is also significantly dependent on audience behavior, so film content also needs to be localized for the different culture. This paper will only address a hypothesis of the implementation of color marketing methodology present in motion pictures.

  11. The role of cultural interaction in Tianeptine Abuse and Different Tianeptine Application Methods.

    PubMed

    Şen, Ahmet; İlhan, Gökhan; Tomak, Yakup; Erdivanlı, Başar; Ersöz, Tahir; Ergene, Murat Şaban

    2013-12-01

    Tianeptine is a selective serotonin reuptake enhancer, possessing strong antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Its relative lack of sedative, anticholinergic and cardiovascular side effects makes it a highly tolerable substance of abuse. However, physical dependence quickly develops and withdrawal symptoms are common. Abusers in Georgia and Armenia use tianeptine by intravenous injection. Drug abusing behaviour usually starts during puberty, since it stems from psychological, social and cultural circumstances. Sociodemographic studies show that drug abusing behaviour in Turkey varies according to region and substance. This paper investigates differences between Georgian foreigners and the local population in the eastern Black Sea region in terms of tianeptine abuse and discusses complications resulting from intravenous injection of tiapentine.

  12. Comparison of mixed-acid fermentations inoculated with six different mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Andrea K; Hollister, Emily B; Gentry, Terry J; Wilkinson, Heather H; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2012-08-01

    The MixAlco™ process biologically converts biomass to carboxylate salts that may be converted to a variety of chemicals and fuels. This study examines the fermentation performance of six different mixed cultures, and how the performance was affected by the bacterial composition of each community. All six countercurrent fermentations had very similar performance, but were dissimilar in microbial community composition. The acid concentrations varied by only 12% between fermentation trains and the conversions varied only by 6%. The microbial communities were profiled using 16S rRNA tag-pyrosequencing, which revealed the presence of dynamic communities that were dominated by bacteria resembling Clostridia, but they shared few taxa in common. Yue-Clayton similarity calculations of the communities revealed that they were extremely different. The presence of different but functionally similar microbial communities in this study suggests that it is the operating parameters that determine the fermentation end-products. PMID:22705541

  13. Cross-cultural differences in children’s beliefs about the objectivity of social categories

    PubMed Central

    Diesendruck, Gil; Goldfein, Rebecca; Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan; Neumark, Noam

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared 5- and 10-year-old North American and Israeli children's beliefs about the objectivity of different categories. Children saw picture-triads composed of two exemplars of the same category (e.g., two women), and an exemplar of a contrasting category (e.g., a man). Children were asked whether it would be acceptable or wrong for people in a different country to consider contrasting exemplars to be the same kind. We found that children from both countries viewed gender as objectively correct and occupation as flexible. The findings regarding race and ethnicity differed in the two countries, revealing how an essentialist bias interacts with cultural input in directing children's conceptualization of social groups. PMID:23581723

  14. Forensic differentiation of Bacillus cereus spores grown using different culture media using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dettman, Joshua R; Goss, Jessica M; Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Scott, Kristina A; Bannan, Jason D; Robertson, James M

    2015-06-01

    Some microorganisms have been shown to retain a chemical signature indicative of the medium used for culturing. However, the repeatability of medium-specific chemical signatures has not been demonstrated from samples of microorganisms produced in the same batch or in different batches by the same sporulation protocol. Here, the variation in Raman spectra of bacterial endospores repeatedly prepared by the same procedure is compared to the variation between Raman spectra of spores prepared using different media. Bacillus cereus T strain (BcT) samples were correctly classified according to the medium used to induce sporulation for 100 % of spores grown in a controlled manner by the same scientist using Raman spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. The proof-of-concept results from BcT spores produced in 12 different sporulation media showed correct classification by medium for 98 % of samples (with 100 % classification accuracy for all but one sporulation medium in this data set). Spectral differences were discerned between spores that had been freshly prepared or freeze-dried and spores that had been frozen; however, the differences did not impact the classification of the sporulation medium. Latent variables reduced the classification accuracy of BcT sporulated in G medium by different scientists using different media lots and stored for different periods of time and requires further study. PMID:25893804

  15. Co-culture of mouse embryos with oviduct and uterine cells prepared from mice at different days of pseudopregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sakkas, D; Trounson, A O

    1990-09-01

    Oviduct and uterine cell cultures were prepared from mice at different days of pseudopregnancy and their effects on the development of 1- and 8-cell mouse embryos in co-culture were examined. One-cell mouse embryos in co-culture with oviduct cells from 20 h to 120 h after hCG had a mean (+/- s.e.) cell number of 70.1 +/- 3.6, significantly (P less than 0.001) higher compared with those cultured in Whittingham's T6 medium supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum (T6 + 5% FCS) (30.4 +/- 1.6). Transfer of embryos, at 96 h after hCG, to synchronous pseudopregnant recipients showed that more embryos in oviduct co-culture formed fetuses than those cultured in T6 + 5% FCS. Co-culture of 1-cell embryos with uterine cells did not confer an advantage in cell numbers over T6 + 5% FCS. However, more 8-cell embryos formed blastocyst outgrowths after 100 h in co-culture with uterine cells prepared from mice at Day 3 of pseudopregnancy than with uterine cultures prepared from mice at Day 1 of pseudopregnancy or oviduct cells. In addition, there was further improvement when the Day 3 uterine co-cultures were supplemented with 1 or 10 ng progesterone/ml. These results highlight the importance of the oviduct and uterine cells during the different stages of preimplantation embryo development.

  16. In vitro embryo rescue culture of F1 progenies from crosses between different ploidy grapes.

    PubMed

    Ji, W; Li, G R; Luo, Y X; Ma, X H; Wang, M; Ren, R

    2015-01-01

    Crossing different ploidy grapes is an effective way to obtain new seedless cultivars. Although embryo rescue has been extensively applied in breeding seedless and triploid grapes, only a few improved cultivars have been developed. Based on preliminary studies, we set five crosses between tetraploid and diploid grape varieties to obtain new hybrid triploid germplasms. Additionally, we compared two different methods of performing in vitro embryo rescue and sowing in the development of hybrid triploid grape plants. The results showed that the germination rate of hybrid seeds was much lower (0-22.8%) than that of the self-pollinated seeds (50.9-61.2%) obtained though the same method of in vitro culture. Meanwhile, the seed germination rates of all crosses obtain through in vitro culture (0-61.2%) were higher than those obtained through sowing (0-42.0%). Identification of ploidy level confirmed that three lines obtained from the crosses of 'Ruby Seedless (2x) x Black Olympia (4x)' and 'Big black (2x) x Kyoho (4x)' were triploid, and one line from the cross of 'Big black (2x) x Kyoho (4x)' was haploid, and the others were diploid, tetraploid, or aneuploidy plants. Moreover, 4 haploid and 42 triploid surviving grape seedlings were planted in a vineyard after propagation. Therefore, an efficient system of breeding triploid seedless grapes using embryo rescue was established and 42 hybrid triploid germplasms were obtained for use in future studies. PMID:26782511

  17. Dialysis buffer with different ionic strength affects the antigenicity of cultured nervous necrosis virus (NNV) suspensions.

    PubMed

    Gye, Hyun Jung; Nishizawa, Toyohiko

    2016-09-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) belongs to the genus Betanodavirus (Nodaviridae). It is highly pathogenic to various marine fishes. Here, we investigated the antigenicity changes of cultured NNV suspensions during 14days of dialyses using a dialysis tube at 1.4×10(4) molecular weight cut off (MWCO) in three different buffers (Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (D-PBS), 15mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), and deionized water (DIW)). Total NNV antigen titers of cultured NNV suspension varied depending on different dialysis buffers. For example, total NNV antigen titer during D-PBS dialysis was increased once but then decreased. During Tris-HCl dialysis, it was relatively stable. During dialysis in DIW, total NNV antigen titer was increased gradually. These antigenicity changes in NNV suspension might be due to changes in the aggregation state of NNV particles and/or coat proteins (CPs). ELISA values of NNV suspension changed due to changing aggregates state of NNV antigens. NNV particles in suspension were aggregated at a certain level. These aggregates were progressive after D-PBS dialysis, but regressive after Tris-HCl dialysis. The purified NNV particles self-aggregated after dialysis in D-PBS or in Tris-HCl containing 600mM NaCl, but not after dialysis in Tris-HCl or DIW. Quantitative analysis is merited to determine NNV antigens in the highly purified NNV particles suspended in buffer at low salt condition. PMID:27381060

  18. Confronting the meat paradox in different cultural contexts: Reactions among Chinese and French participants.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qirui; Hilton, Denis; Becker, Maja

    2016-01-01

    As a well-known source of nutrition and pleasure, meat plays an important role in most people's diet. However, awareness of the "meat paradox"-the association of liking to eat meat but not wanting to kill animals-often implies the experience of cognitive dissonance. In two studies, focusing on meat production and meat consumption respectively, we examined whether participants used reduction of willingness to eat meat and reduction of mind attribution to food animals as strategies to reduce cognitive dissonance from the meat paradox in the Chinese and French cultural contexts. Focusing on meat production (slaughtering of an animal to produce meat; Study 1, n = 520), participants reported lower willingness to eat beef in a condition that emphasized the slaughter of a cow compared to a condition that presented a diagram of a cow as meat. In addition, French but not Chinese participants attributed less mind to cows when the relation between meat and its animal origin was made salient. Focusing on meat consumption (the transformation of meat into food; Study 2, n = 518), participants reported lower willingness to eat beef and attributed less mind to cows in a condition that emphasized the animal origin of meat compared to a condition that presented a recipe. These results suggest that the use of different strategies to resolve cognitive dissonance from the meat paradox depends on different contexts of the meat-animal link as well as on cultural context.

  19. Confronting the meat paradox in different cultural contexts: Reactions among Chinese and French participants.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qirui; Hilton, Denis; Becker, Maja

    2016-01-01

    As a well-known source of nutrition and pleasure, meat plays an important role in most people's diet. However, awareness of the "meat paradox"-the association of liking to eat meat but not wanting to kill animals-often implies the experience of cognitive dissonance. In two studies, focusing on meat production and meat consumption respectively, we examined whether participants used reduction of willingness to eat meat and reduction of mind attribution to food animals as strategies to reduce cognitive dissonance from the meat paradox in the Chinese and French cultural contexts. Focusing on meat production (slaughtering of an animal to produce meat; Study 1, n = 520), participants reported lower willingness to eat beef in a condition that emphasized the slaughter of a cow compared to a condition that presented a diagram of a cow as meat. In addition, French but not Chinese participants attributed less mind to cows when the relation between meat and its animal origin was made salient. Focusing on meat consumption (the transformation of meat into food; Study 2, n = 518), participants reported lower willingness to eat beef and attributed less mind to cows in a condition that emphasized the animal origin of meat compared to a condition that presented a recipe. These results suggest that the use of different strategies to resolve cognitive dissonance from the meat paradox depends on different contexts of the meat-animal link as well as on cultural context. PMID:26368579

  20. Popularity of Different Lampyrid Species in Japanese Culture as Measured by Google Search Volume.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kenta

    2011-07-05

    I investigated the popularity of different lampyrid species (34 species) in Japanese culture as part of a study on cultural entomology. Popularity was assessed by the Google search volume for Japanese lampyrid species names in katakana and hiragana scripts, using the Keyword Tool of Google AdWords. The search volume of lampyrid species as "Genji-botaru" (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky), "Heike-botaru" (Luciola lateralis Motschulsky) and "Hime-botaru" (Hotaria parvula Kiesenwetter), in either or both katakana and hiragana syllabic scripts, was enormously high relative to other lampyrid species, indicating the biased attention of Japanese to these lampyrid species. In addition, search volumes for familial or common lampyrid name ("Hotaru") was assessed and compared with that of 34 lampyrid species. This analyzing result showed that: (1) the search volumes for katakana and hiragana were 37.7 and 773.1 times higher for "Hotaru" than "Genji-botaru", respectively; and (2) the search volume for all lampyrid species was clearly higher in katakana than hiragana, whereas the search volumes for "Hotaru" were clearly higher in hiragana than katakana. These results suggest that: (1) the Japanese public tends to perceive lampyrids with not a clear but an ambiguous taxonomic view; and (2) the attitude of the Japanese public toward lampyrids differs between those who perceive lampyrids with a clear taxonomic view (at species level) and with an ambiguous taxonomic view.

  1. Self-Perceived Peer Acceptance in Preschoolers of Differing Economic and Cultural Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    DiBiase, Rosemarie; Miller, Patrice M

    2015-01-01

    Self-evaluation begins in early childhood and becomes more nuanced as children get older. However, little is known about the specific factors that predict self-perception and in particular peer acceptance, early in life. This is especially true for low-income children and children of different ethnicities. This study examined 4-year-old children's feelings of social acceptance relative to teachers' perceptions. It also explored whether temperament, language skills, traditional parenting, and teachers' perceptions of peer acceptance were related to children's self-perceptions. Using 94 preschoolers from different cultural and economic backgrounds as participants, results of a mixed model analysis of variance indicated that the relation between children's self-perceptions and teachers' ratings were not uniform across economic and cultural groups. In addition, results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that traditional parenting was one of the strongest predictors of children's social self-perceptions. Beyond parenting, children with relatively good verbal skills, who were not temperamentally shy, tended to perceive themselves as socially competent. PMID:26135243

  2. Self-Perceived Peer Acceptance in Preschoolers of Differing Economic and Cultural Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    DiBiase, Rosemarie; Miller, Patrice M

    2015-01-01

    Self-evaluation begins in early childhood and becomes more nuanced as children get older. However, little is known about the specific factors that predict self-perception and in particular peer acceptance, early in life. This is especially true for low-income children and children of different ethnicities. This study examined 4-year-old children's feelings of social acceptance relative to teachers' perceptions. It also explored whether temperament, language skills, traditional parenting, and teachers' perceptions of peer acceptance were related to children's self-perceptions. Using 94 preschoolers from different cultural and economic backgrounds as participants, results of a mixed model analysis of variance indicated that the relation between children's self-perceptions and teachers' ratings were not uniform across economic and cultural groups. In addition, results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that traditional parenting was one of the strongest predictors of children's social self-perceptions. Beyond parenting, children with relatively good verbal skills, who were not temperamentally shy, tended to perceive themselves as socially competent.

  3. The Cultural-Distance Approach: A Model for Analyzing Black-White Performance Differences on Measures of IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Henry Jefferson

    The basic tenet of this paper is that the difference between black and white children on IQ measures is not due to genetics but describes the cultural distance between the two groups. The cultural distance approach is described as an amalgam of the environmental and social psychology points of view. It holds that any subculture operating according…

  4. Immigrants' adaptation to different cultural settings: A contextual perspective on acculturation: Introduction for the special section on immigration.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    In modern multicultural societies more and more individuals deal with 2 or more cultures due to the unprecedented increase in international migration. This special section brings together research about immigrants' adaptation to various life domains, about the demands of dealing with different cultural scripts and about how immigrants can successfully bridge different cultural demands. This introduction to the special section provides a broader theoretical framework that links the different studies of the special section and demonstrates areas for further research. It also clearly illustrates the growing necessity for research in increasingly diverse societies.

  5. Sex and strain differences in the hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair test

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, C.A.; Way, B.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The hepatocyte primary culture (HPC)/DNA repair test was developed using hepatocytes isolated from male F-344 rats. A number of genetic polymorphisms have been shown to occur in inbred strains of rats, which may lead to variation in biotransformation of xenobiotics resulting in differences in susceptibility to genotoxins. The effect of the strain utilized as a source of hepatocytes was investigated with female Lewis, F-344, and DA rats. Variation was observed when hepatocytes from the three strains were exposed to aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}). No clearcut strain differences were seen when cells were exposed to diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or 2-acetylaminofluorene. These results demonstrate that both the strain and the sex of the animal used as a source of hepatocytes can affect the HPC/DNA repair test.

  6. Adhesion and morphology of fibroblastic cells cultured on different polymeric biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Lombello, C B; Santos, A R; Malmonge, S M; Barbanti, S H; Wada, M L F; Duek, E A R

    2002-09-01

    Cell adhesion is influenced by the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials used as substrate for cell culturing. In this work, we evaluated the influence of the morphological and chemical characteristics of different polymeric substrates on the adhesion and morphology of fibroblastic cells. Cell growth on poly (L-lactic acid) [PLLA] membranes and poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) [polyHEMA], poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate)-cellulose acetate [polyHEMA-CA] and poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) [polyHEMA-poly(MMA-co-AA)] hydrogels of different densities and pore diameters was examined. Cells adhered preferentially to more negatively charged substrates, with polyHEMA hydrogels being more adhesive than the other substractes. The pores present in PLLA membranes did not interfere with adhesion, but the cells showed a distinctive morphology on each membrane.

  7. Bitter reproach or sweet revenge: cultural differences in response to racism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Elizabeth A; Soto, José A; Swim, Janet K; Bernstein, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    Culture has been shown to influence response styles. The authors conducted two studies to test the notion that African Americans would be more likely to respond to racism directly, whereas Asian Americans would be more likely to respond indirectly and therefore more subtly. Study 1 showed that Black women subjected to a racist comment from a confederate during an online interaction were more likely than Asian women to verbally reproach the perpetrator. These group differences were not present when the outcome measure was indirect responding--administration of good/bad jellybeans. Study 2 used an online format to demonstrate that Asian women were more likely than Black women to say they would not respond directly to a racist comment. This group difference in unwillingness to confront was significantly mediated by a goal of maintaining peace with their interaction partner. Implications of these findings for the study of discrimination, coping, and well-being are discussed.

  8. An experimental study of gender and cultural differences in hue preference.

    PubMed

    Al-Rasheed, Abdulrahman S

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of both gender and culture on color preference. Inspection of previous studies of color preference reveals that many of these studies have poor control over the colors that are shown-the chromatic co-ordinates of colors are either not noted or the illuminant that colors are shown under is not controlled. This means that conclusions about color preference are made using subjective terms for hue with little knowledge about the precise colors that were shown. However, recently, a new quantitative approach to investigating color preference has been proposed, where there is no need to summarize color preference using subjective terms for hue (Hurlbert and Ling, 2007; Ling and Hurlbert, 2007). This approach aims to quantitatively summarize hue preference in terms of weights on the two channels or "cardinal axes" underlying color vision. Here I further extend Hurlbert and Ling's (2007) approach to investigating color preference, by replicating their study but with Arabic and English participants, and to answer several questions: First, are there cultural differences in the shape of the overall preference curve for English and Arabic participants? Second, are there gender differences in the shape of the overall preference curve for English and Arabic participants? Thirty eight British and 71 Saudi Arabian (Arabic) participants were compared. Results revealed that Arabic and English preference curves were found to differ, yet there was greater similarity for Arabic and English males than Arabic and English females. There was also a sex difference that was present for both Arabic and English participants. The male curve is fairly similar for both samples: peak-preference is in the blue-green region, and a preference minimum is in the red-pink/purple region. For Arabic females the preference peak appears to be in the red-pink region, whilst for English females it is shifted toward purple/blue-green.

  9. Girls' and Boys' Use of Acknowledging Moves in Pupil Group Classroom Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauntson, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on research that examines the use of acknowledging moves in the single-sex group discussions of 12-13-year-old girls and boys in their Key Stage 3 Design and Technology lessons. Within structural-functional models of discourse analysis, acknowledging moves are a discourse feature that perform the function of providing feedback…

  10. Generation of parthenogenetic goat blastocysts: effects of different activation methods and culture media.

    PubMed

    Malik, Hruda Nanda; Singhal, Dinesh Kumar; Saugandhika, Shrabani; Dubey, Amit; Mukherjee, Ayan; Singhal, Raxita; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai Kumar; Mohanty, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bikash Chandra; Bag, Sadhan; Bhanja, Subrata Kumar; Malakar, Dhruba

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of different activation methods and culture media on the in vitro development of parthenogenetic goat blastocysts. Calcium (Ca2+) ionophore, ethanol or a combination of the two, used as activating reagents, and embryo development medium (EDM), modified Charles Rosenkrans (mCR2a) medium and research vitro cleave (RVCL) medium were used to evaluate the developmental competence of goat blastocysts. Quantitative expression of apoptosis, stress and developmental competence-related genes were analysed in different stages of embryos. In RVCL medium, the cleavage rate of Ca2+ ionophore-treated oocytes (79.61 ± 0.86) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in ethanol (74.90 ± 1.51) or in the combination of both Ca2+ ionophore and ethanol. In mCR2a or EDM, hatched blastocyst production rate of Ca2+ ionophore-treated oocytes (8.33 ± 1.44) was significantly higher than in ethanol (6.46 ± 0.11) or in the combined treatment (6.70 ± 0.24). In ethanol, the cleavage, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst production rates in RVCL medium (74.90 ± 1.51, 18.30 ± 1.52 and 8.24 ± 0.15, respectively) were significantly higher than in EDM (67.81 ± 3.21, 14.59 ± 0.27 and 5.59 ± 0.42) or mCR2a medium (65.09 ± 1.57, 15.36 ± 0.52 and 6.46 ± 0.11). The expression of BAX, Oct-4 and GlUT1 transcripts increased gradually from 2-cell stage to blastocyst-stage embryos, whereas the transcript levels of Bcl-2 and MnSOD were significantly lower in blastocysts. In addition, different activation methods and culture media had little effect on the pattern of variation and relative abundance of the above genes in different stages of parthenogenetic activated goat embryos. In conclusion, Ca2+ ionophore as the activating agent, and RVCL as the culture medium are better than other tested options for development of parthenogenetic activated goat blastocysts.

  11. Culture Conditions Determine the Balance between Two Different Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactobacillus pentosus LPS26▿

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jorge-Ignacio; Martínez, Beatriz; Guillén, Rafael; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino; Rodríguez, Ana

    2006-01-01

    Lactobacillus pentosus LPS26, isolated from a natural fermentation of green olives, produces a capsular polymer constituted of two exopolysaccharides (EPS): EPS A, a high-molecular-weight (high-Mw) polysaccharide (1.9 × 106 Da) composed of glucose and rhamnose (3:1), and EPS B, a low-Mw polysaccharide (3.3 × 104 Da) composed of glucose and mannose (3:1). Fermentation experiments in a chemically semidefined medium with different carbon sources (glucose, fructose, mannitol, and lactose) showed that all of them except fructose supported EPS A production rather than EPS B production. The influence of temperature and pH was further analyzed. As the temperature dropped, increased synthesis of both EPS was detected. The control of pH especially enhanced EPS B production. With regard to this, the maximum total EPS production (514 mg liter−1) was achieved at a suboptimal growth temperature (20°C) and pH 6.0. Continuous cultures showed that EPS A, synthesized mainly at low dilution rates, is clearly dependent on the growth rate, whereas EPS B synthesis was hardly affected. EPS production was also detected in supplemented skimmed milk, but no increase on the viscosity of the fermented milk was recorded. This could be linked to the high proportion of the low-Mw polysaccharide produced in these conditions in contrast to that observed in culture media. Overall, the present study shows that culture conditions have a clear impact on the type and concentration of EPS produced by strain LPS26, and consequently, these conditions should be carefully selected for optimization and application studies. Finally, it should be noted that this is, to our knowledge, the first report on EPS production by L. pentosus. PMID:17012595

  12. Effects of different culture conditions on biological potential and metabolites production in three Penicillium isolates.

    PubMed

    Reis, Filipa S; Ćirić, Ana; Stojković, Dejan; Barros, Lillian; Ljaljević-Grbić, Milica; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-01

    The genus Penicillium is well known for its importance in drug and food production. Certain species are produced on an industrial scale for the production of antibiotics (e.g. penicillin) or for insertion in food (e.g. cheese). In the present work, three Penicillium species, part of the natural mycobiota growing on various food products were selected - P. ochrochloron, P. funiculosum and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium. The objective of our study was to value these species from the point of view of production of bioactive metabolites. The species were obtained after inoculation and growth in Czapek and Malt media. Both mycelia and culture media were analyzed to monitor the production of different metabolites by each fungus and their release to the culture medium. The concentrations of sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids and tocopherols were determined. Antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was evaluated, as also the antimicrobial activity of phenolic acids, organic acids and tocopherols extracts. Rhamnose, xylose, fructose and trehalose were found in all the mycelia and culture media; the prevailing organic acids were oxalic and fumaric acids, and protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids were the most common phenolic acids; γ-tocopherol was the most abundant vitamin E isoform. Generally, the phenolic extracts corresponding to the mycelia samples revealed higher antioxidant activity. Concerning the antimicrobial activity there were some fluctuations, however all the studied species revealed activity against the tested strains. Therefore, the in-vitro bioprocesses can be an alternative for the production of bioactive metabolites that can be used by pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Atrazine degradation by fungal co-culture enzyme extracts under different soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Chan-Cupul, Wilberth; Heredia-Abarca, Gabriela; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the atrazine degradation by fungal enzyme extracts (FEEs) in a clay-loam soil microcosm contaminated at field application rate (5 μg g(-1)) and to study the influence of different soil microcosm conditions, including the effect of soil sterilization, water holding capacity, soil pH and type of FEEs used in atrazine degradation through a 2(4) factorial experimental design. The Trametes maxima-Paecilomyces carneus co-culture extract contained more laccase activity and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content (laccase = 18956.0 U mg protein(-1), H2O2 = 6.2 mg L(-1)) than the T. maxima monoculture extract (laccase = 12866.7 U mg protein(-1), H2O2 = 4.0 mg L(-1)). Both extracts were able to degrade atrazine at 100%; however, the T. maxima monoculture extract (0.32 h) achieved a lower half-degradation time than its co-culture with P. carneus (1.2 h). The FEE type (p = 0.03) and soil pH (p = 0.01) significantly affected atrazine degradation. The best degradation rate was achieved by the T. maxima monoculture extract in an acid soil (pH = 4.86). This study demonstrated that both the monoculture extracts of the native strain T. maxima and its co-culture with P. carneus can efficiently and quickly degrade atrazine in clay-loam soils.

  14. An action research study; cultural differences impact how manufacturing organizations receive continuous improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattman, Braden R.

    National culture and organizational culture impact how continuous improvement methods are received, implemented and deployed by suppliers. Previous research emphasized the dominance of national culture over organizational culture. The countries studied included Poland, Mexico, China, Taiwan, South Korea, Estonia, India, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. The research found that Canada was most receptive to continuous improvement, with China being the least receptive. The study found that organizational culture was more influential than national culture. Isomorphism and benchmarking is driving continuous-improvement language and methods to be more universally known within business. Business and management practices are taking precedence in driving change within organizations.

  15. Cross-cultural sex differences in situational triggers of aggressive responses.

    PubMed

    Zajenkowska, Anna; Mylonas, Kostas; Lawrence, Claire; Konopka, Karolina; Rajchert, Joanna

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines male and female individual differences in situational triggers of aggressive responses (STAR) in three countries as well as cross-cultural sex differences in trait aggression (aggression questionnaire, AQ). Convenience sampling was employed (university students) for the descriptive correlational study (Poland N = 300, 63% female, mean age 21.86, SD = 2.12; UK N = 196, 60% female, mean age 20.48, SD = 3.79; Greece N = 299, 57% female, mean age 20.71, SD = 4.42). The results showed that the STAR scale is an equivalent construct across all three countries. Overall, females were more sensitive to both provocation (SP) and frustration (SF) than males. When controlling for trait aggression, Polish and Greek females scored similarly in SP and higher than UK females. No sex differences in SP or SF were found in the UK sample. Additionally, Polish participants scored the highest in SP. Furthermore, when trait aggression was removed, the Greek participants were most sensitive to frustration, whereas Polish and English participants' SF did not differ. We discuss the results with regard to intercultural differences between investigated countries. PMID:25178957

  16. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473

  17. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks.

  18. Evolution and Social Dynamics of Acknowledged Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-Yáñez, Julián; Altopiedi, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Changes in higher education institutions characteristic of a knowledge society are strongly affecting academic life, scientists' working conditions and the social dynamics of scientific groups. In such situations, it is important to understand the different ways in which these groups are tackling the structural dilemmas posed by the changes…

  19. Kinetic response of a Drosophila melanogaster cell line to different medium formulations and culture conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bovo, R.; Galesi, A. L. L; Jorge, S. A. C.; Piccoli, R. A. M.; Moraes, A. M.; Pereira, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    In the past few years, Drosophila melanogaster cells have been employed for recombinant protein production purposes, and a comprehensive knowledge of their metabolism is essential for process optimization. In this work, the kinetic response of a Schneider S2 cell line, grown in shake flasks, in two different culture media, the serum-free SF900-II® and the serum-supplemented TC-100, was evaluated. Cell growth, amino acids and glucose uptake, and lactate synthesis were measured allowing the calculation of kinetic parameters. The results show that S2 cells metabolism was able to adjust to different environmental situations, as determined by medium formulation, as well as by the particular situation resulting from the culture conditions. Cells attained a 163% higher final cell concentration (1.4 × 107 cells mL−1) in SF900 II® medium, when compared to serum-supplemented TC-100 medium. Also, a maximum specific cell growth rate 52% higher in SF900 II® medium, when compared to serum-supplemented TC-100 one, was observed. Glutamine was the growth limiting factor in SF900 II® medium, while glucose, sometimes associated with glutamine, controlled growth in serum-supplemented TC-100 medium based formulation. The different pattern of lactate production is an example of the versatility of the metabolism of these cells. This by-product was produced only in glutamine limitation, but the amount synthesized depended not only on the excess glucose, but on other medium components. Therefore, in serum-supplemented TC-100 medium a much smaller lactate amount was generated. Besides, glucose was identified not only as a growth limiting factor, but also as a viability limiting factor, since its depletion accelerated cell death. PMID:19003169

  20. Malaysian cultural differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to erectile dysfunction: focus group discussions.

    PubMed

    Low, W Y; Wong, Y L; Zulkifli, S N; Tan, H M

    2002-12-01

    This qualitative study aimed to examine cultural differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to erectile dysfunction (ED) utilizing focus group discussion. Six focus groups consisting of 66 men, 45-70-y-old were conducted-two Malay groups (n=18), two Chinese groups (n=25) and two Indian groups (n=23). Participants were purposely recruited from the general public on a voluntary basis with informed consent. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative data analysis software ATLASti. The Malay and Chinese traditional remedies for preventing or treating ED are commonly recognized among all races. Many have a negative perception of someone with ED. Malay and Chinese men tended to blame their wife for their problem and thought that the problem might lead to extra-marital affairs, unlike the Indian men who attributed their condition to fate. Malays would prefer traditional medicine for the problem. The Chinese felt they would be more comfortable with a male doctor whilst this is not so with the Malays or Indians. Almost all prefer the doctor to initiate discussion on sexual issues related to their medical condition. There is a need for doctors to consider cultural perspectives in a multicultural society as a lack of understanding of this often contributes to an inadequate consultation.

  1. Cross-Cultural Differences and Similarities in Proneness to Shame: An Adaptationist and Ecological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Kosuke; Delton, Andrew W.; Sato, Kosuke; Robertson, Theresa; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2013-01-01

    People vary in how easily they feel ashamed, that is, in their shame proneness. According to the information threat theory of shame, variation in shame proneness should, in part, be regulated by features of a person’s social ecology. On this view, shame is an emotion program that evolved to mitigate the likelihood or costs of reputation-damaging information spreading to others. In social environments where there are fewer possibilities to form new relationships (i.e., low relational mobility), there are higher costs to damaging or losing existing ones. Therefore, shame proneness toward current relationship partners should increase as perceived relational mobility decreases. In contrast, individuals with whom one has little or no relationship history are easy to replace, and so shame-proneness towards them should not be modulated by relational mobility. We tested these predictions cross-culturally by measuring relational mobility and shame proneness towards friends and strangers in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Japanese subjects were more shame-prone than their British and American counterparts. Critically, lower relational mobility was associated with greater shame proneness towards friends (but not strangers), and this relationship partially mediated the cultural differences in shame proneness. Shame proneness appears tailored to respond to relevant features of one’s social ecology. PMID:22947644

  2. Well-being and consumer culture: a different kind of public health problem?

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Sandra; Hanlon, Phil

    2007-09-01

    The concept of well-being is now of interest to many disciplines; as a consequence, it presents an increasingly complex and contested territory. We suggest that much current thinking about well-being can be summarized in terms of four main discourses: scientific, popular, critical and environmental. Exponents of the scientific discourse argue that subjective well-being is now static or declining in developed countries: a paradox for economists, as incomes have grown considerably. Psychological observations on the loss of subjective well-being have also entered popular awareness, in simplified form, and conceptions of well-being as happiness are now influencing contemporary political debate and policy-making. These views have not escaped criticism. Philosophers understand well-being as part of a flourishing human life, not just happiness. Some social theorists critique the export of specific cultural concepts of well-being as human universals. Others view well-being as a potentially divisive construct that may contribute to maintaining social inequalities. Environmentalists argue that socio-cultural patterns of over-consumption, within the neo-liberal economies of developed societies, present an impending ecological threat to individual, social and global well-being. As the four discourses carry different implications for action, we conclude by considering their varied utility and applicability for health promotion.

  3. Production of bacterial cellulose using different carbon sources and culture media.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Azin, Mehrdad; Ashori, Alireza

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the effects of carbon sources and culture media on the production and structural properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) have been studied. BC nanofibers were synthesized using Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain PTCC 1734. Media used were Hestrin-Schramm (H), Yamanaka (Y), and Zhou (Z). Five different carbon sources, namely date syrup, glucose, mannitol, sucrose, and food-grade sucrose were used in these media. All the produced BC pellicles were characterized in terms of dry weight production, biomass yield, thermal stability, crystallinity and morphology by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The obtained results showed that mannitol lead to the highest yield, followed by sucrose. The highest production efficiency of mannitol might be due to the nitrogen source, which plays an important role. The maximum improvement on the thermal stability of the composites was achieved when mannitol was used in H medium. In addition, the crystallinity was higher in BC formed in H medium compared to other media. FE-SEM micrographs illustrated that the BC pellicles, synthesized in the culture media H and Z, were stable, unlike those in medium Y that were unstable. The micrographs of BC produced in media containing mannitol and sucrose provided evidence of the strong interfacial adhesion between the BC fibers without noticeable aggregates. PMID:25498666

  4. Metabolism of fluoranthene in different plant cell cultures and intact plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, M.; Harms, H.

    2000-05-01

    The metabolism of fluoranthene was investigated in 11 cell cultures of different plant species using a [{sup 14}C]-labeled standard. Most species metabolized less than 5% of fluoranthene to soluble metabolites and formed less than 5% nonextractable residues during the standardized 48-h test procedure. Higher metabolic rates were observed in lettuce (Lactuca sativa, 6%), wheat (Tricitum aestivum, 9%), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, 15%). A special high metabolic rate of nearly 50% was determined for the rose species Paul's Scarlet. Chromatographic analysis of metabolites extracted from aseptically grown tomato plants proved that the metabolites detected in the cell cultures were also formed in the intact plants. Metabolites produced in tomato and rose cells from [{sup 14}C]-fluoranthene were conjugated with glucose, glucuronic acid, and other cell components. After acid hydrolyses, the main metabolite of both species was 1-hydroxyfluoranthene as identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The second metabolite formed by both species was 8-hydroxyfluoranthene. A third metabolite in tomatoes was 3-hydroxyfluoranthene.

  5. Production of bacterial cellulose using different carbon sources and culture media.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Azin, Mehrdad; Ashori, Alireza

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the effects of carbon sources and culture media on the production and structural properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) have been studied. BC nanofibers were synthesized using Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain PTCC 1734. Media used were Hestrin-Schramm (H), Yamanaka (Y), and Zhou (Z). Five different carbon sources, namely date syrup, glucose, mannitol, sucrose, and food-grade sucrose were used in these media. All the produced BC pellicles were characterized in terms of dry weight production, biomass yield, thermal stability, crystallinity and morphology by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The obtained results showed that mannitol lead to the highest yield, followed by sucrose. The highest production efficiency of mannitol might be due to the nitrogen source, which plays an important role. The maximum improvement on the thermal stability of the composites was achieved when mannitol was used in H medium. In addition, the crystallinity was higher in BC formed in H medium compared to other media. FE-SEM micrographs illustrated that the BC pellicles, synthesized in the culture media H and Z, were stable, unlike those in medium Y that were unstable. The micrographs of BC produced in media containing mannitol and sucrose provided evidence of the strong interfacial adhesion between the BC fibers without noticeable aggregates.

  6. Toxicity of Two Different Sized Lanthanum Oxides in Cultured Cells and Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of both nano- and micro-sized lanthanum has been increasing in the production of optical glasses, batteries, alloys, etc. However, a hazard assessment has not been performed to determine the degree of toxicity of lanthanum. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the toxicity of both nano- and micro-sized lanthanum oxide in cultured cells and rats. After identifying the size and the morphology of lanthanum oxides, the toxicity of two different sized lanthanum oxides was compared in cultured RAW264.7 cells and A549 cells. The toxicity of the lanthanum oxides was also analyzed using rats. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations of micro-La2O3 in the RAW264.7 cells, with and without sonication, were 17.3 and 12.7 times higher than those of nano-La2O3, respectively. Similar to the RAW264.7 cells, the toxicity of nano-La2O3 was stronger than that of micro-La2O3 in the A549 cells. We found that nano-La2O3 was absorbed in the lungs more and was eliminated more slowly than micro-La2O3. At a dosage that did not affect the body weight, numbers of leukocytes, and concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and albumin in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, the weight of the lungs increased. Inflammatory effects on BAL decreased over time, but lung weight increased and the proteinosis of the lung became severe over time. The effects of particle size on the toxicity of lanthanum oxides in rats were less than in the cultured cells. In conclusion, smaller lanthanum oxides were more toxic in the cultured cells, and sonication decreased their size and increased their toxicity. The smaller-sized lanthanum was absorbed more into the lungs and caused more toxicity in the lungs. The histopathological symptoms caused by lanthanum oxide in the lungs did not go away and continued to worsen until 13 weeks after the initial exposure. PMID:26191385

  7. Production of novel types of antibacterial liamocins by diverse strains of Aureobasidium pullulans grown on different culture media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The objective was to compare production of antibacterial liamocins by diverse strains of A. pullulans grown on different culture media. Results: Liamocins produced by strains of A. pullulans have potential agricultural and pharmaceutical applications as antibacterials with specificity aga...

  8. How Is Young Children's Intellectual Culture of Understanding Nature Different from Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyun, Eunsook

    This paper explores the development of the "ecological human brain" in children, children's intellectual culture of "naturalist intelligence," and developmentally and culturally congruent curricula for young children. In early cognitive development, nature-given perception conducts thought. In contrast, for adults, intellectual culture as a way of…

  9. Practicing What We Teach: How Culturally Responsive Literacy Classrooms Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Patricia Ruggiano, Ed.; Lazar, Althier M., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This readable book features K-12 teachers and teacher educators who report their experiences of culturally responsive literacy teaching in primarily high poverty, culturally nondominant communities. These extraordinary teachers show us what culturally responsive literacy teaching looks like in their classrooms and how it advances children's…

  10. Learning How to "Swallow the World": Engaging with Human Difference in Culturally Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oord, Lodewijk; Corn, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The perception of culture prevailing in the literature on international and intercultural education is often too limited to be effectively utilized by educators who wish to embrace the diversity in their classrooms. Only by reimagining the notions of "culture" and "cultural diversity" and by liberating them from the rigidities of dominant…

  11. Cross-cultural differences in distributive justice: a comparison of Turkey and the U.S.

    PubMed

    Murphy-Berman, Virginia A; Berman, John J; Cukur, Cem Safak

    2012-01-01

    When allocators make decisions about distributing resources, they face a dilemma if the expectations for consequences that will flow from particular choices are incongruent with each other. For example, a certain allocation choice might be expected to make an allocator appear warm and likable but unfair. Previous research has found that culture can shape these perceptions and, thus, their congruence or incongruence. The present study further investigated these ideas. Differences between Turkish and U.S. students' perceptions of allocators who distributed resources on the basis of merit vs. need were investigated. Results revealed an allocation dilemma among the U.S. but not among the Turkish students. Specifically, the U.S. students perceived greater incongruence among allocation consequences for both merit and need choices than did the students from Turkey for whom perceptions of allocator's fairness were more aligned with perceptions of allocator's warmth.

  12. Cultural differences in the development of cognitive shifting: East-West comparison.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Evans, Angela D; Hiraki, Kazuo; Itakura, Shoji; Lee, Kang

    2012-02-01

    Prior research has documented that Japanese children's performance on the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS) task can be influenced by their observation of another person completing the task, which is referred to as social transmission of disinhibition. The current study explored whether Canadian children would also show a social transmission of disinhibition and whether their performance would be comparable to that of Japanese children. In this study, 3- and 4-year-olds in Canada and Japan were given both the standard version and social version of the DCCS. Results indicated that Canadian children displayed the social transmission of disinhibition, but their effects were significantly weaker than those with Japanese children. On the other hand, performance on the standard DCCS was comparable between children in the two countries. We discuss the results in terms of cultural differences in the relationship between self and other. PMID:21967676

  13. Influence of thaxtomins in different combinations and concentrations on growth of micropropagated potato shoot cultures.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Lea H; Laakso, Into; Chobot, Vladimír; Hakala, Kati S; Weckman, Anja; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2006-05-01

    Plant-pathogenic Streptomyces species produce a variety of different phytotoxic 4-nitroindol-3-yl-containing 2,5-dioxopiperazines (thaxtomins) that induce scab symptoms on potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum). The possible mutual synergistic or antagonistic effects of thaxtomins are unknown. Modified methodology using column chromatography allowed the purification of thaxtomin A in large quantities (27 mg, HPLC purity of 97%). Thaxtomin A ortho isomer, thaxtomin B, and C-14 deoxythaxtomin B (thaxtomin D) were also purified. All four compounds induced similar symptoms of reduced root and shoot growth, root swelling (10-200 ppb), or necrosis (200-1000 ppb) on micropropagated in vitro cultures of potato. The scab-resistant potato cvs. Sabina and Nicola were more tolerant to thaxtomins than was the scab-susceptible cv. Matilda. Thaxtomins applied in combinations showed additive effects but no synergism, whereas thaxtomins A and B displayed antagonism with thaxtomin A ortho isomer.

  14. Beauty and the brain: culture, history and individual differences in aesthetic appreciation.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Human aesthetic processing entails the sensation-based evaluation of an entity with respect to concepts like beauty, harmony or well-formedness. Aesthetic appreciation has many determinants ranging from evolutionary, anatomical or physiological constraints to influences of culture, history and individual differences. There are a vast number of dynamically configured neural networks underlying these multifaceted processes of aesthetic appreciation. In the current challenge of successfully bridging art and science, aesthetics and neuroanatomy, the neuro-cognitive psychology of aesthetics can approach this complex topic using a framework that postulates several perspectives, which are not mutually exclusive. In this empirical approach, objective physiological data from event-related brain potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging are combined with subjective, individual self-reports.

  15. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  16. The role of cultural interaction in Tianeptine Abuse and Different Tianeptine Application Methods.

    PubMed

    Şen, Ahmet; İlhan, Gökhan; Tomak, Yakup; Erdivanlı, Başar; Ersöz, Tahir; Ergene, Murat Şaban

    2013-12-01

    Tianeptine is a selective serotonin reuptake enhancer, possessing strong antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Its relative lack of sedative, anticholinergic and cardiovascular side effects makes it a highly tolerable substance of abuse. However, physical dependence quickly develops and withdrawal symptoms are common. Abusers in Georgia and Armenia use tianeptine by intravenous injection. Drug abusing behaviour usually starts during puberty, since it stems from psychological, social and cultural circumstances. Sociodemographic studies show that drug abusing behaviour in Turkey varies according to region and substance. This paper investigates differences between Georgian foreigners and the local population in the eastern Black Sea region in terms of tianeptine abuse and discusses complications resulting from intravenous injection of tiapentine. PMID:27366378

  17. The role of cultural interaction in Tianeptine Abuse and Different Tianeptine Application Methods

    PubMed Central

    Şen, Ahmet; İlhan, Gökhan; Tomak, Yakup; Erdivanlı, Başar; Ersöz, Tahir; Ergene, Murat Şaban

    2013-01-01

    Tianeptine is a selective serotonin reuptake enhancer, possessing strong antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Its relative lack of sedative, anticholinergic and cardiovascular side effects makes it a highly tolerable substance of abuse. However, physical dependence quickly develops and withdrawal symptoms are common. Abusers in Georgia and Armenia use tianeptine by intravenous injection. Drug abusing behaviour usually starts during puberty, since it stems from psychological, social and cultural circumstances. Sociodemographic studies show that drug abusing behaviour in Turkey varies according to region and substance. This paper investigates differences between Georgian foreigners and the local population in the eastern Black Sea region in terms of tianeptine abuse and discusses complications resulting from intravenous injection of tiapentine. PMID:27366378

  18. Beauty and the brain: culture, history and individual differences in aesthetic appreciation

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Human aesthetic processing entails the sensation-based evaluation of an entity with respect to concepts like beauty, harmony or well-formedness. Aesthetic appreciation has many determinants ranging from evolutionary, anatomical or physiological constraints to influences of culture, history and individual differences. There are a vast number of dynamically configured neural networks underlying these multifaceted processes of aesthetic appreciation. In the current challenge of successfully bridging art and science, aesthetics and neuroanatomy, the neuro-cognitive psychology of aesthetics can approach this complex topic using a framework that postulates several perspectives, which are not mutually exclusive. In this empirical approach, objective physiological data from event-related brain potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging are combined with subjective, individual self-reports. PMID:19929909

  19. Raman spectroscopy analysis of differences in composition of spent culture media of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Dušan; Kačmarová, Martina; Kubandová, Janka; Čikoš, Štefan; Koppel, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare overall patterns of metabolic activity of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams by means of non-invasive profiling of spent culture media using Raman spectroscopy. To produce females with two different types of body condition (normal and fat), a previously established two-generation model was used, based on overfeeding of experimental mice during prenatal and early postnatal development. Embryos were isolated from spontaneously ovulating and naturally fertilized dams at the 2-cell stage of development and cultured to the blastocyst stage in synthetic oviductal medium KSOMaa. Embryos from fat mice (displaying significantly elevated body weight and fat) showed similar developmental capabilities in vitro as embryos isolated from normal control dams (displaying physiological body weight and fat). The results show that alterations in the composition of culture medium caused by the presence of developing mouse preimplantation embryos can be detected using Raman spectroscopy. Metabolic activity of embryos was reflected in evident changes in numerous band intensities in the 1620-1690cm(-1) (amide I) region and in the 1020-1140cm(-1) region of the Raman spectrum for KSOMaa. Moreover, multivariate analysis of spectral data proved that the composition of proteins and other organic compounds in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos isolated from fat dams was different from that in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos from control dams. This study demonstrates that metabolic activity of cultured preimplantation embryos might depend on the body condition of their donors. PMID:27288336

  20. Competitiveness and antibacterial potential of bacteriocin-producing starter cultures in different types of fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Ravyts, Frédéric; Barbuti, Silvana; Frustoli, Maria Angela; Parolari, Giovanni; Saccani, Giovanna; De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2008-09-01

    Application of bacteriocin-producing starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria in fermented sausage production contributes to food safety. This is sometimes hampered by limited efficacy in situ and by uncertainty about strain dependency and universal applicability for different sausage types. In the present study, a promising antilisterial-bacteriocin producer, Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494, was applied as a coculture in addition to commercial fermentative starters in different types of dry-fermented sausages. The strain was successful in both Belgian-type sausage and Italian salami that were artificially contaminated with about 3.5 log CFU g(-1) of Listeria monocytogenes. After completion of the production process, this led to listerial reductions of up to 1.4 and 0.6 log CFU g(-1), respectively. In a control sausage, containing only the commercial fermentative starter, the reduction was limited to 0.8 log CFU g(-1) for the Belgian-type recipe, where pH decreased from 5.9 to 4.9, whereas an increase of 0.2 log CFU g(-1) was observed for Italian salami, in which the pH rose from 5.7 to 5.9 after an initial decrease to pH 5.3. In a Cacciatore recipe inoculated with 5.5 log CFU g(-1) of L. monocytogenes and in the presence of L. sakei CTC 494, there was a listerial reduction of 1.8 log CFU g(-1) at the end of the production process. This was superior to the effect obtained with the control sausage (0.8 log CFU g(-1)). Two commercial antilisterial cultures yielded reductions of 1.2 and 1.5 log CFU g(-1). Moreover, repetitive DNA sequence-based PCR fingerprinting demonstrated the competitive superiority of L. sakei CTC 494.

  1. Development of voltage-activated potassium currents in cultured cerebellar granule neurons under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Gorter, J A; Aronica, E; Hack, N J; Balázs, R; Wadman, W J

    1995-07-01

    1. The functional expression of two potassium currents in cultured cerebellar granule cells was investigated with the whole cell patch-clamp technique in relation to development and growth condition. Cells were grown in medium containing different concentrations of potassium: 25 mM (K25) and 40 mM (K40), together referred to as "high K+"; 10 mM (K10) or "low K+"; and K10 with 100 microM N-methyl-D-aspartate (KNMDA). All conditions are known to influence maturation and survival of granule cells in culture. 2. At 2 days in vitro (DIV) the membrane capacitance, taken as index of membrane surface area, was the same for cells grown in each growth condition. At 7-9 DIV it had increased in each condition, but to a substantially larger extent in cells grown in KNMDA, K25, and K40 than in cells grown in K10. During development the input resistance only decreased in cells grown in KNMDA and high K+. 3. A delayed potassium current (IK) and a fast transient potassium current (IA) could both be recorded at 2 DIV in each growth condition, although a few neurons only expressed the IK. The IK was partially suppressed by tetraethylammonium (5 mM), whereas IA was predominantly sensitive to 4-aminopyridine (5 mM). 4. Normalized for cell capacitance, the specific IA conductance hardly changed during development in cells grown in high K+ and KNMDA. Cells in K10, however, displayed an IA with totally different properties in 23 of 24 cells; the specific IA conductance in these cells was considerably smaller at 7-9 DIV, suggesting a deletion of these channels during development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Transcriptome Sequencing and Gene Expression Analysis of Trichoderma brevicompactum under Different Culture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Xu-Ping; Liu, Wei-Ping; Zhan, Xiao-Huan; Xu, Yi-Peng; Xu, Jian-Feng; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Background Trichoderma brevicompactum is the Trichoderma species producing simple trichothecenes-trichodermin, a potential antifungal antibiotic and a protein synthesis inhibitor. However, the biosynthetic pathway of trichodermin in Trichoderma is not completely clarified. Therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling data for this species are needed as an important resource to better understand the mechanism of the trichodermin biosynthesis and provide a blueprint for further study of T. brevicompactum. Results In this study, de novo assembly of the T. brevicompactum transcriptome using the short-read sequencing technology (Illumina) was performed. In addition, two digital gene expression (DGE) libraries of T. brevicompactum under the trichodermin-producing and trichodermin-nonproducing culture conditions, respectively, were constructed to identify the differences in gene expression. A total of 23,351 unique transcripts with a mean length of 856 bp were obtained by a new Trinity de novo assembler. The variations of the gene expression under different culture conditions were also identified. The expression profiling data revealed that 3,282 unique transcripts had a significantly differential expression under the trichodermin-producing condition, as compared to the trichodermin-nonproducing condition. This study provides a large amount of transcript sequence data that will contribute to the study of the trichodermin biosynthesis in T. brevicompactum. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was found to be useful to confirm the differential expression of the unique transcripts. Conclusion Our study provides considerable gene expression information of T. brevicompactum at the transcriptional level,which will help accelerate the research on the trichodermin biosynthesis. Additionally, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using the Illumina sequencing based DGE system for gene expression profiling, and have shed new light on functional studies of

  3. Effect of different artificial tears against desiccation in cultured human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tost, Frank; Keiss, Ramona; Großjohann, Rico; Jürgens, Clemens; Giebel, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background A large number of artificial tears is widely used to treat dry eye symptoms. To test the efficacy of these drugs independent of individual parameters in vitro models are required. As described previously, we employed a reproducible in vitro cell culture system to evaluate the desiccation protection capability of some artificial tears. In the present paper data is presented of another set of pharmaceutical agents. Material/Methods Conjunctival epithelial cell line Chang 1-5c-4 (series 1) and the corneal cell line 2.040 pRSV-T (series 2) were cultured under standard conditions. Confluent cells were wetted for 20 min with artificial tears (Arufil® Uno, Arufil®, Lacrimal®, Lacophthal® sine, Siccaprotect®, Tears Again®, Vidisept® EDO, Vistil®, Wet Comod®) or PBS as a control. After exposure to a constant air flow for 0, 15, 30 and 45 minutes respectively, cells were incubated with the vital dye alamarBlue. Subsequently, absorption of the oxidised form of the dye was assessed using an ELISA-Reader. Results Cell best survival rates in series 1 after 15 min were found for Lacrimal® (0.89), Wet Comod® (0.84) compared to PBS (0.66) and in series 2 for Vidisept® EDO (0.57) and Lacrimal® (0.56) compared to PBS (0.01). After 45 min highest survival was seen in series 1 for Lacrimal® (0.46) and Lacophthal® sine (0.36) compared to PBS (0.33) and in series 2 for Lacrimal® (−0.06) and Arufil (−0.16) compared to PBS (−0.23). Conclusions Both cell lines tested showed different susceptibility towards desiccation and the artificial tears showed differences in preventing cells from desiccation. PMID:22534701

  4. [Psycho-organic comorbidity of climacteric: acknowledgement of denial].

    PubMed

    Souza y Machorro, Mario

    2002-03-01

    Considering psychiatric co-morbidity of menopause within the context of a new historical and psychosocial view of woman and femininity, the recommendations of current scientific literature focused to its attention, treatment and prevention, become different from the traditional sociomedical observations. In order to reach a new more effective assistance, prevailing prejudices must be overcame to achieve an adequate updating before being really effective. That is, to be suitable to the psychosocial needs of those who suffer a physiological condition. The change in the social role of women (which requires a genuine community acceptance) is not consolidated to new favorable attitudes which is required in the general thinking in our country, in order to offer better therapeutic alternatives to women's problems and its complications. Such situation is reflected even the medical and psychological handling of cases, where women are the main protagonists. This paper offers a brief discussion of this issue and some recommendations for diffusion purposes. PMID:12017957

  5. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale Elicit Different Gene Expression Responses in Cultured Tick Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zivkovic, Zorica; Blouin, Edmour F.; Manzano-Roman, Raúl; Almazán, Consuelo; Naranjo, Victoria; Massung, Robert F.; Jongejan, Frans; Kocan, Katherine M.; de la Fuente, José

    2009-01-01

    The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) includes obligate tick-transmitted intracellular organisms, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale that multiply in both vertebrate and tick host cells. Recently, we showed that A. marginale affects the expression of tick genes that are involved in tick survival and pathogen infection and multiplication. However, the gene expression profile in A. phagocytophilum-infected tick cells is currently poorly characterized. The objectives of this study were to characterize tick gene expression profile in Ixodes scapularis ticks and cultured ISE6 cells in response to infection with A. phagocypthilum and to compare tick gene expression responses in A. phagocytophilum- and A. marginale-infected tick cells by microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses. The results of these studies demonstrated modulation of tick gene expression by A. phagocytophilum and provided evidence of different gene expression responses in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale. These differences in Anaplasma-tick interactions may reflect differences in pathogen life cycle in the tick cells. PMID:19636428

  6. Asthma and Latino cultures: different prevalence reported among groups sharing the same environment.

    PubMed Central

    Ledogar, R J; Penchaszadeh, A; Garden, C C; Iglesias Garden

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This 1999 study measured asthma prevalence among Latinos of different cultural traditions who live on the same streets and in the same buildings. METHODS: Health promoters from El Puente in North Brooklyn, New York City, surveyed 3015 people in 946 households, asking standard asthma prevalence questions. RESULTS: Some 46% of households identified themselves as Dominican, 42% as Puerto Rican, 6% as other Latino, and 6% as other. Reported asthma period prevalence was 5.3% (93 of 1749) among Dominicans and other Latinos, compared with 13.2% (147 of 1115) among Puerto Ricans (odds ratio = 0.37; 95% confidence interval = 0.28, 0.49), a difference not explained by location (cluster or building), household size, use of home remedies, educational attainment, or country where education was completed. Differences were least detectable among 13- to 24-year-olds of both sexes and sharpest among women aged 45 years and older and girls from birth to 12 years. CONCLUSIONS: Further research on gene-environment interactions is needed among Puerto Ricans and Dominicans, but asthma's associations with low income and unhealthy environment, which more recent immigrants seem better able to withstand, should not be overlooked. PMID:10846511

  7. Culture and language differences as a barrier to provision of quality care by the health workforce in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Khalid M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify, synthesize, and summarize issues and challenges related to the culture and language differences of the health workforce in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in May 2014 to locate published articles. Two independent researchers in consultation with several experts used 4 electronic databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, PubMed, and Cochrane) to scrutinize articles published from January 2000 - March 2014. Each of the studies was given a quality assessment rating of weak, moderate, or strong, and was evaluated for methodological soundness using Russell and Gregory’s criteria. Results: The online literature search identified 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Lack of knowledge of non-Muslim nurses or culture in Saudi Arabia, difficulties in achieving cultural competence, and culture shock were documented as cultural difference factors. Issues in language difference include the clarity of language use by health care providers in giving information and providing adequate explanation regarding their activities. Conclusion: The available information provided by this review study shows that there is a communication barrier between patients and health care workers such as healthcare workers demonstrate low cultural competency. Despite the fact that the government provides programs for expatriate healthcare workers, there is a need to further improve educational and orientation programs regarding the culture and language in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25828278

  8. Adaptation to cell culture induces functional differences in measles virus proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bankamp, Bettina; Fontana, Judith M; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    Background Live, attenuated measles virus (MeV) vaccine strains were generated by adaptation to cell culture. The genetic basis for the attenuation of the vaccine strains is unknown. We previously reported that adaptation of a pathogenic, wild-type MeV to Vero cells or primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) resulted in a loss of pathogenicity in rhesus macaques. The CEF-adapted virus (D-CEF) contained single amino acid changes in the C and matrix (M) proteins and two substitutions in the shared amino terminal domain of the phosphoprotein (P) and V protein. The Vero-adapted virus (D-VI) had a mutation in the cytoplasmic tail of the hemagglutinin (H) protein. Results In vitro assays were used to test the functions of the wild-type and mutant proteins. The substitution in the C protein of D-CEF decreased its ability to inhibit mini-genome replication, while the wild-type and mutant M proteins inhibited replication to the same extent. The substitution in the cytoplasmic tail of the D-VI H protein resulted in reduced fusion in a quantitative fusion assay. Co-expression of M proteins with wild-type fusion and H proteins decreased fusion activity, but the mutation in the M protein of D-CEF did not affect this function. Both mutations in the P and V proteins of D-CEF reduced the ability of these proteins to inhibit type I and II interferon signaling. Conclusion Adaptation of a wild-type MeV to cell culture selected for genetic changes that caused measurable functional differences in viral proteins. PMID:18954437

  9. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium.

    PubMed

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered. PMID:26691456

  10. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium

    PubMed Central

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered. PMID:26691456

  11. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium.

    PubMed

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered.

  12. Exploring the Relationship of Organizational Culture and Implicit Leadership Theory to Performance Differences in the Nuclear and Fossil Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravey, Kristopher J.

    Notable performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil power generation plants in areas such as safety, outage duration efficiency, and capacity factor. This study explored the relationship of organizational culture and implicit leadership theory to these performance differences. A mixed methods approach consisting of quantitative instruments, namely the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the GLOBE Leadership Scales, and qualitative interviews were used in this study. Subjects were operations middle managers in a U.S. energy company that serves nuclear or fossil power plants. Results from the quantitative instruments revealed no differences between nuclear and fossil groups in regards to organizational culture types and implicit leadership theories. However, the qualitative results did reveal divergence between the two groups in regards to what is valued in the organization and how that drives behaviors and decision making. These organizational phenomenological differences seem to explain why performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil plants because, ultimately, they affect how the organization functions.

  13. Transcripts for the acetylcholine receptor and acetylcholine esterase show distribution differences in cultured chick muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    In situ hybridization of chick cultured muscle cells using exonic DNA probes for both AChR alpha-sub-unit and the catalytic subunit of AChE, revealed major differences in the distribution of label both over nuclei and in their surrounding cytoplasm, although some overlap in these distributions exists. For the AChR alpha-subunit there is a highly skewed distribution of labeled nuclei, with 35% of the nuclei being relatively inactive (less than 0.25 times the mean label) and approximately 10% being very heavily labeled (greater than 2.5 times the mean label). In contrast the nuclei labeled with the exonic probe for the AChE transcripts had a more Gaussian distribution, yet with some slight skewness in the direction of a few heavily labeled nuclei. There was also a difference in the cytoplasmic distribution of the label. The AChR alpha-subunit mRNA was mainly within 4 microns of labeled nuclei while the AChE mRNA was more widely distributed throughout the cytoplasm, possibly within a 10 microns rim around labeled nuclei. An intronic probe for the AChE gave the identical distribution of nuclear label to that of the exonic probe (but without any cytoplasmic label). In addition, calibration of the technique indicated that per myotube the AChE transcript is about sixfold more abundant than the AChR alpha-subunit transcript. PMID:1512293

  14. Setting the agenda: Different strategies of a Mass Media in a model of cultural dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Sebastián; Balenzuela, Pablo; Dorso, Claudio O.

    2016-09-01

    Day by day, people exchange opinions about news with relatives, friends, and coworkers. In most cases, they get informed about a given issue by reading newspapers, listening to the radio, or watching TV, i.e., through a Mass Media (MM). However, the importance of a given new can be stimulated by the Media by assigning newspaper's pages or time in TV programs. In this sense, we say that the Media has the power to "set the agenda", i.e., it decides which new is important and which is not. On the other hand, the Media can know people's concerns through, for instance, websites or blogs where they express their opinions, and then it can use this information in order to be more appealing to an increasing number of people. In this work, we study different scenarios in an agent-based model of cultural dissemination, in which a given Mass Media has a specific purpose: To set a particular topic of discussion and impose its point of view to as many social agents as it can. We model this by making the Media has a fixed feature, representing its point of view in the topic of discussion, while it tries to attract new consumers, by taking advantage of feedback mechanisms, represented by adaptive features. We explore different strategies that the Media can adopt in order to increase the affinity with potential consumers and then the probability to be successful in imposing this particular topic.

  15. A novel method for primary neuronal culture and characterization under different high temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Hu, Huaiqiang; Tao, Zhen; Niu, Bing; Jiao, Shusheng; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yiyang; Cao, Bingzhen

    2016-09-01

    Heatstroke is a big threat to human health; however, the characteristic of pathological changes of neurons during heatstroke development remains unclear. Here, using an in vitro model of primary cultured neurons from newborn Wistar rats, we investigated the effects of the different combinations of high temperature (37, 39, 41, 43, 45, and 47°C) and exposure time (45 min and 1 h) on the neurons. We found that, under the treatment of 45 min-heat, the neurons could resist high temperature up to 45°C, and under the treatment of 1 h-heat, the mortality of neurons increased as the temperature rises. After heating for 1 h, only a small minority of the neurons died under 41 and 43°C, which primarily occurred in the form of apoptosis. Up to 45°C for 1 h, most neurons occurred to necrosis. Meaningfully, some necrotic neurons expressed specific fried egg-like morphology. Our findings suggest that different high temperatures and exposure times were two key factors influencing the death of neurons. Under the high temperature (below 43°C for 1 h) similar to heatstroke, it just led a small percentage of neurons to apoptosis, and anti-apoptosis controls for preventing and treating heatstroke are promising. PMID:27130681

  16. Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Genes and culture are often thought of as opposite ends of the nature–nurture spectrum, but here we examine possible interactions. Genetic association studies suggest that variation within the genes of central neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonin (5-HTTLPR, MAOA-uVNTR) and opioid (OPRM1 A118G), are associated with individual differences in social sensitivity, which reflects the degree of emotional responsivity to social events and experiences. Here, we review recent work that has demonstrated a robust cross-national correlation between the relative frequency of variants in these genes and the relative degree of individualism–collectivism in each population, suggesting that collectivism may have developed and persisted in populations with a high proportion of putative social sensitivity alleles because it was more compatible with such groups. Consistent with this notion, there was a correlation between the relative proportion of these alleles and lifetime prevalence of major depression across nations. The relationship between allele frequency and depression was partially mediated by individualism–collectivism, suggesting that reduced levels of depression in populations with a high proportion of social sensitivity alleles is due to greater collectivism. These results indicate that genetic variation may interact with ecological and social factors to influence psychocultural differences. PMID:20592043

  17. Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Way, Baldwin M; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2010-06-01

    Genes and culture are often thought of as opposite ends of the nature-nurture spectrum, but here we examine possible interactions. Genetic association studies suggest that variation within the genes of central neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonin (5-HTTLPR, MAOA-uVNTR) and opioid (OPRM1 A118G), are associated with individual differences in social sensitivity, which reflects the degree of emotional responsivity to social events and experiences. Here, we review recent work that has demonstrated a robust cross-national correlation between the relative frequency of variants in these genes and the relative degree of individualism-collectivism in each population, suggesting that collectivism may have developed and persisted in populations with a high proportion of putative social sensitivity alleles because it was more compatible with such groups. Consistent with this notion, there was a correlation between the relative proportion of these alleles and lifetime prevalence of major depression across nations. The relationship between allele frequency and depression was partially mediated by individualism-collectivism, suggesting that reduced levels of depression in populations with a high proportion of social sensitivity alleles is due to greater collectivism. These results indicate that genetic variation may interact with ecological and social factors to influence psychocultural differences.

  18. Dispositional Differences of Collegiate Athletes' Flow State: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weina; Ji, Liu; Watson, Jack C

    2015-01-01

    Csikszentmihalyi (1990) suggested that certain types of people might be better psychologically equipped to experience flow. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences exist in one's ability to experience flow based upon factors such as cultural background, gender, years of specialized training, skill level, and sport event type. The English and Chinese versions of the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 were used to assess trait flow in American (N = 160) and Chinese collegiate athletes (N = 341). Using a one-way ANOVA analysis, the flow scores of American participants were found to be higher than those of Chinese participants, η2 = 0.175, 95% CI: 3.536-3.622, p < .005. The flow scores of male athletes were higher than those of female athletes within the Chinese sample, η2 = 0.032, 95% CI: 3.390-3.486, p < .005. The flow scores of university athletes were higher than those of national team level athletes within the Chinese sample, η2 = 0.044, 95% CI: 3.279-3.501, p < .005. Flow scores for athletes in skill-showing events were higher than those of athletes participating in physical ability-showing events for the American participants, η2 = 0.074, 95% CI: 3.812-3.948, p < .005. This study suggests that individual differences exist in the psychological characteristics of athletes' trait flow. PMID:26055496

  19. Eye movements during information processing tasks: individual differences and cultural effects.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Keith; Li, Xingshan; Williams, Carrick C; Cave, Kyle R; Well, Arnold D

    2007-09-01

    The eye movements of native English speakers, native Chinese speakers, and bilingual Chinese/English speakers who were either born in China (and moved to the US at an early age) or in the US were recorded during six tasks: (1) reading, (2) face processing, (3) scene perception, (4) visual search, (5) counting Chinese characters in a passage of text, and (6) visual search for Chinese characters. Across the different groups, there was a strong tendency for consistency in eye movement behavior; if fixation durations of a given viewer were long on one task, they tended to be long on other tasks (and the same tended to be true for saccade size). Some tasks, notably reading, did not conform to this pattern. Furthermore, experience with a given writing system had a large impact on fixation durations and saccade lengths. With respect to cultural differences, there was little evidence that Chinese participants spent more time looking at the background information (and, conversely less time looking at the foreground information) than the American participants. Also, Chinese participants' fixations were more numerous and of shorter duration than those of their American counterparts while viewing faces and scenes, and counting Chinese characters in text.

  20. The Widget Effect: Our National Failure to Acknowledge and Act on Differences in Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Daniel; Sexton, Susan; Mulhern, Jennifer; Keeling, David

    2009-01-01

    A teacher's effectiveness--the most important factor for schools in improving student achievement--is not measured, recorded, or used to inform decision making in any meaningful way. The failure of evaluation systems to provide accurate and credible information about individual teachers' instructional performance sustains and reinforces a…

  1. Cognitive socialization across ethnocultural contexts: literacy and cultural differences in intellectual performance and parent-child interaction.

    PubMed

    Portes, P R; Cuentas, T E; Zady, M

    2000-03-01

    A comparative study of parent-child interaction and its relation to children's intellectual achievement is presented. The question of cultural continuities in cognitive development was examined. The cross-national design also illustrates some of the problems encountered when such relationships are studied across social contexts in general. The results suggest that although interaction characteristics are related to children's intellectual achievement, that relation is moderated by context factors that may operate differently in each culture. The findings are discussed in terms of how literacy mediates parents' teaching styles in ways that remain culturally ingrained. Research issues and recommendations for future research and policy are discussed.

  2. The Emergence of Sex Differences in Personality Traits in Early Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional, Cross-Cultural Study

    PubMed Central

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R.; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T.; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J.; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Lima, Margarida P.; Martin, Thomas A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3, McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850) and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents’ personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (1) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge towards adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (2) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (3) the emergence of sex differences was similar across culture. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:25603371

  3. The emergence of sex differences in personality traits in early adolescence: A cross-sectional, cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Costa, Paul T; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; Leibovich de Figueroa, Nora; Lima, Margarida P; Martin, Thomas A; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850), and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents' personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (a) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge toward adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (b) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (c) the emergence of sex differences was similar across cultures. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. 36 CFR 1206.90 - Must I acknowledge NHPRC grant support?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... grant staff personnel may publish results of any work supported by an NHPRC grant without review by the Commission; however, publications or other products resulting from the project must acknowledge...

  5. 78 FR 42542 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Federal Acknowledgment of Tribes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... for Federal Acknowledgment of Tribes authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0104. This information... public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. III. Data OMB Control Number:...

  6. 78 FR 15034 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Federal Acknowledgment of Tribes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... for Federal Acknowledgment of Tribes authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0104. ] This information... public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. III. Data OMB Control Number:...

  7. 75 FR 22615 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Federal Acknowledgment of Indian Tribes; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Number 1076-0104, which expires April 30, 2010. The information collection allows OFA to determine... Number: 1076-0104. Title: Documented Petitions for Federal Acknowledgment as an Indian Tribe, 25 CFR...

  8. Interoperability and different ways of knowing: How semantics can aid in cross-cultural understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulsifer, P. L.; Parsons, M. A.; Duerr, R. E.; Fox, P. A.; Khalsa, S. S.; McCusker, J. P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    To address interoperability, we first need to understand how human perspectives and worldviews influence the way people conceive of and describe geophysical phenomena. There is never a single, unambiguous description of a phenomenon - the terminology used is based on the relationship people have with it and what their interests are. So how can these perspectives be reconciled in a way that is not only clear to different people but also formally described so that information systems can interoperate? In this paper we explore conceptions of Arctic sea ice as a means of exploring these issues. We examine multiple conceptions of sea ice and related processes as fundamental components of the Earth system. Arctic sea ice is undergoing rapid and dramatic decline. This will have huge impact on climate and biological systems as well as on shipping, exploration, human culture, and geopolitics. Local hunters, operational shipping forecasters, global climate researchers, and others have critical needs for sea ice data and information, but they conceive of, and describe sea ice phenomena in very different ways. Our hypothesis is that formally representing these diverse conceptions in a suite of formal ontologies can help facilitate sharing of information across communities and enhance overall Arctic data interoperability. We present initial work to model operational, research, and Indigenous (Iñupiat and Yup'ik) concepts of sea ice phenomena and data. Our results illustrate important and surprising differences in how these communities describe and represent sea ice, and we describe our approach to resolving incongruities and inconsistencies. We begin by exploring an intriguing information artifact, the World Meteorological Organization "egg code". The egg code is a compact, information rich way of illustrating detailed ice conditions that has been used broadly for a century. There is much agreement on construction and content encoding, but there are important regional

  9. The Need for Culturally Relevant Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy-Brown, Nyama

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for culturally relevant teaching in dance education. Many dance teachers have heard the buzz words "culturally relevant teaching methods." Yet these dance educators acknowledge that the "dance culture" is not always synonymous with "culturally relevant." This paper examines the issue of culturally relevant teaching methods in dance…

  10. Reviewer acknowledgement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Contributing reviewers The World Journal of Emergency Surgery—which received its first Impact Factor in 2013—is extremely grateful for the time, hard work and support of its highly-qualified peer reviewers. The editors of World Journal of Emergency Surgery and BioMed Central would like to show our appreciation by thanking the following people for their assistance reviewing manuscripts for the journal in 2013. PMID:25143782

  11. Reviewer acknowledgement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Contributing reviewers A peer-reviewed journal would not survive without the generous time and insightful comments of the reviewers whose efforts often go unrecognized. AIDS Research and Therapy is very grateful for the support of highly qualified peer reviewers and would like to show its appreciation by thanking the following for their assistance with review of manuscripts for the journal in 2013. PMID:24495401

  12. PREFACE: Acknowledgements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-06-01

    The organizers of the conference would like to thank for the support from the Physics Department and the Offce of Academic Affairs of the Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados and from the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Conacyt), projects 152574 and 166581.

  13. PREFACE: Acknowledgements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    The organizers of the conference would like to thank for the support from National Research Nuclear University MEPhI in the framework of the Russian Academic Excellence Project (contract No. 02.a03.21.0005, 27.08.2013).

  14. Myricetin and quercetin attenuate ischemic injury in glial cultures by different mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have demonstrated that polyphenols from cinnamon and green tea reduce cell swelling and mitochondrial dysfunction in C6 glial cultures following ischemic injury. We tested the protective effects of the flavonoid polyphenols, myricetin and quercetin, on key features of ischemic injury. C6 cultures...

  15. Perceptions of Cultural Competence among Urban School Social Workers: Does Experience Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Martell L.; Baffour, Tiffany D.; Tyson, Edgar H.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the contribution of social work experience and licensure to self-reported levels of cultural competence of social workers in urban public school systems. In addition, it examined the influence of practitioners race or ethnicity on perceived levels of culturally competent practice in urban schools. Using survey…

  16. Cross-Cultural Differences in American and Russian General Conventions of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartalova, Yuliya B.

    A study investigated linguistic and non-linguistic conventions of communication between Russians and North Americans and explored how aspects of culture and its institutions are encoded in symbolic meanings in 16 cultural themes (food, money, space, possessions, work, courtesy, marriage, friendship, dating, studying, time, humor, small talk,…

  17. Collective Pedagogical Teacher Culture and Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Neena; Bottia, Martha Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have not adequately assessed how organizational cultures in schools differentially influence students' mathematics achievement by race and socioeconomic status (SES). We focus on what we term "collective pedagogical teacher culture", highlighting the role of professional communities and teacher collaboration in influencing…

  18. Teaching Children of Different Cultures in the Classroom: A Language Approach. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheyney, Arnold B.

    Teaching within the context of individuality, desire, and emotion means that teachers must have an understanding of various cultures, the languages children speak, and the strengths the children possess. This second edition of the text "Teaching Culturally Disadvantaged in the Elementary School" is more inclusive of minority groups, moves into the…

  19. Navigating Difference: Development and Implementation of a Successful Cultural Competency Training for Extension and Outreach Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deen, Mary Y.; Parker, Louise A.; Hill, Laura Griner; Huskey, Melynda; Whitehall, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    As our world becomes more interconnected on international, domestic, and personal levels, our need to be more culturally competent increases (Samovar, Porter, & McDaniel, 2007; Ting-Toomey, 1999). Recognizing this need, Washington State University Extension sought to increase skills of its personnel by developing a set of cultural competencies…

  20. Cultural Differences in Business Management Programmes--Implications for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anuradha, N. S.; Ramirez Nunez, Jacobo; Hansen, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the influence of culture on education systems is central to the internationalization process of academic programs. In this paper we analyze the effect of societal culture on teaching and learning in the management programs of three educational institutions in Germany, India, and Mexico. We applied of the findings of GLOBE (House et…