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Sample records for acl injury prevention

  1. Understanding and preventing acl injuries: current biomechanical and epidemiologic considerations - update 2010.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Myer, Gregory D

    2010-12-01

    This invited clinical commentary summarizes the current state of knowledge in the area of prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. ACL injuries occur with a four to six fold greater incidence in female compared to male athletes playing the same high risk sports. The combination of increased risk of ACL injury and a 10-fold increase in sports participation since the enactment of Title IX in 1972 has led to an almost epidemic rise in ACL injuries in female athletes. Examination of the mechanisms responsible for this sex disparity in ACL rupture accelerated in the last two decades. A summary of these findings and a synthesis and framework for understanding the results of the intense investigation of this research are detailed herein. This clinical commentary focuses on the current understanding, identification and interventional targeting of the primary neuromuscular and biomechanical risk factors associated with the ACL injury mechanism in high-risk individuals. PMID:21655382

  2. Preventing ACL Injuries in Females: What Physical Educators Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toscano, Lisa; Carroll, Brianne

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries happen at a frequent rate, especially in girls and women. While there are many factors that contribute to ACL tears, teaching proper landing techniques and strengthening certain muscles can decrease the incidence of ACL tears, especially in women. This article reviews some of the high-risk factors that…

  3. Novel methods of instruction in ACL injury prevention programs, a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Benjaminse, Anne; Welling, Wouter; Otten, Bert; Gokeler, Alli

    2015-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have been successful in the short term. Motor learning strategies with an internal focus (IF) to body movements have traditionally been utilized, but may be less suitable than an external focus (EF) for the acquisition and control of complex motor skills required for sport. To investigate the available literature and provide an overview of the effect of IF and EF instructions on jump landing technique. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMed (1966 to May 2014), CINAHL (1981 to May 2014) and PsycInfo (1989 to May 2014). A priori defined inclusion criteria were: (i) full text; (ii) published in English, German or Dutch; (iii) healthy adult subjects (mean age ≥18 years); (iv) jump and landing performance tested and (v) study used comparison between an EF and IF. Performance (jump height and distance) and technique (kinematics and kinetics) were the primary outcome variables of interest. Nine papers were included. Significant better motor performance and movement technique was found with an EF compared to an IF. Considering the beneficial results in the included studies when utilizing an EF, it is suggested to implement these strategies into ACL injury prevention programs. PMID:25042094

  4. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... get ACL injuries usually play contact sports (like football) or sports that feature swift, abrupt movements such ... the things you love — like running or playing football, field hockey, or softball — can be frustrating. Recovering ...

  5. Non-contact ACL Injuries: Mechanisms and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Barry P.; Sheehan, Frances T.; Torg, Joseph S.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Significant advances have recently been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Most ACL injuries involve minimal to no contact. Female athletes sustain a two- to eightfold greater rate of injury than do their male counterparts. Recent videotape analyses demonstrate significant differences in average leg and trunk positions during injury compared with control subjects. These findings as well as those of cadaveric and MRI studies indicate that axial compressive forces are a critical component in noncontact ACL injury. A complete understanding of the forces and risk factors associated with noncontact ACL injury should lead to the development of improved preventive strategiess for this devastating injury. PMID:20810933

  6. A Commentary on Real-Time Biofeedback to Augment Neuromuscular Training for ACL Injury Prevention in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Adam W.; Kushner, Adam M.; Groene, John; Williams, Christopher; Riley, Michael A.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury and the associated long-term sequelae, such as immediate reductions in physical inactivity, increased adiposity and increased risk of osteoarthritis throughout adulthood, are a major health concern for adolescent athletes. Current interventions for injury prevention may have limited effectiveness, are susceptible to issues of compliance and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption. Neuromuscular training (NMT) is a well-established training intervention introduced to affect change in modifiable biomechanical risk factors to reduce the risk of injury in these athletes. Despite moderate success, neuromuscular training is still limited by its reliance on subjective feedback and after the fact (i.e., offline) objective feedback techniques. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement NMT. Electromyography, force plates, motion sensors, and camera-based motion capture systems are innovative tools that may have realistic feasibility for integration as biofeedback into NMT programs to improve training outcomes. Improved functional deficit identification and corrective analysis may further improve and optimize athletic performance, and decrease the risk of sports-related injury during sport performance. Key points Specific, targeted interventions that isolate injury risk factors and can help correct modifiable neuromuscular deficits are essential. Current training interventions for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention have only demonstrated limited effectiveness and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption to reduce ACL injury rates. The paper provides an overview of innovative strategies and technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement neuromuscular training (NMT

  7. A Commentary on Real-Time Biofeedback to Augment Neuromuscular Training for ACL Injury Prevention in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Adam W; Kushner, Adam M; Groene, John; Williams, Christopher; Riley, Michael A; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury and the associated long-term sequelae, such as immediate reductions in physical inactivity, increased adiposity and increased risk of osteoarthritis throughout adulthood, are a major health concern for adolescent athletes. Current interventions for injury prevention may have limited effectiveness, are susceptible to issues of compliance and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption. Neuromuscular training (NMT) is a well-established training intervention introduced to affect change in modifiable biomechanical risk factors to reduce the risk of injury in these athletes. Despite moderate success, neuromuscular training is still limited by its reliance on subjective feedback and after the fact (i.e., offline) objective feedback techniques. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement NMT. Electromyography, force plates, motion sensors, and camera-based motion capture systems are innovative tools that may have realistic feasibility for integration as biofeedback into NMT programs to improve training outcomes. Improved functional deficit identification and corrective analysis may further improve and optimize athletic performance, and decrease the risk of sports-related injury during sport performance. Key pointsSpecific, targeted interventions that isolate injury risk factors and can help correct modifiable neuromuscular deficits are essential.Current training interventions for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention have only demonstrated limited effectiveness and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption to reduce ACL injury rates.The paper provides an overview of innovative strategies and technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement neuromuscular training (NMT) including

  8. Comparative adaptations of lower limb biomechanics during unilateral and bilateral landings after different neuromuscular-based ACL injury prevention protocols.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tyler N; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M; McLean, Scott G

    2014-10-01

    Potentially valuable anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention strategies are lengthy, limiting training success. Shorter protocols that achieve beneficial biomechanical adaptations may improve training effectiveness. This study examined whether core stability/balance and plyometric training can modify female landing biomechanics compared with the standard neuromuscular and no training models. Forty-three females had lower limb biomechanics analyzed during unilateral and bilateral landings immediately before and after a 6-week neuromuscular or no training programs. Sagittal and frontal plane hip and knee kinematics and kinetics were submitted to 3-way repeated-measures analyses of variance to test for the main and interaction effects of training group, landing type, and testing time. Greater peak knee flexion was evident in the standard neuromuscular group following training, during both bilateral (p = 0.027) and unilateral landings (p = 0.076 and d = 0.633). The plyometric group demonstrated reduced hip adduction (p = 0.010) and greater knee flexion (p = 0.065 and d = 0.564) during bilateral landings following training. The control group had significant reduction in peak stance knee abduction moment (p = 0.003) posttraining as compared with pretraining. The current outcomes suggest that significant biomechanical changes are possible by an isolated plyometric training component. The benefits, however, may not be evident across all landing types, seemingly limited to simplistic, bilateral landings. Integrated training protocols may still be the most effective training model, currently improving knee flexion posture during both bilateral and unilateral landings following training. Future prevention efforts should implement integrated training protocols that include plyometric exercises to reduce ACL injury risk of female athletes. PMID:24714537

  9. The female ACL: why is it more prone to injury?

    PubMed

    Ireland, Mary Lloyd

    2002-10-01

    Multiple factors are responsible for ACL tears. The key factor in the gender discrepancy appears to be dynamic, not static, and proximal, not distal. The factors involved in evaluating the female ACL are multiple. However, it is the dynamic movement patterns ot hip and knee position with increased flexion and a coordinated proximal muscle firing pattern to keep the body in a safe landing position that are the most critical factors. An ACL injury at an early age is a life-changing event. We can very successfully reconstruct and rehabilitate an ACL, but we cannot stop there. We must now go into the prevention arena. In the United States there is tremendous variation in the exposure and acquisition of skills of physical activities in our youth. Today, children are often playing inside, using computers and watching television-missing out on the opportunity to learn safe movement patterns. Therefore, physical movement classes should occur very early in life, teaching children to land safely and in control, similar to the cry of "get down, stay down" routinely heard during youth soccer. Similarly, specific strength training programs can address landing as well as foot movements during cutting in basketball. Coaches should issue stern warnings when athletes demonstrate a high-risk movement patterns such as one-leg landings, out-of-control baseline landings, or straight-leg landings. The warnings may serve to keep the athlete from "touching the hot stove again" for fear of getting burned. No athlete feels she will be the one to get injured. Therefore, prospective analysis is likely to be received more warmly by the athletes if the program is presented with an emphasis on performance improvement rather than injury prevention. With increased participation in these programs, multiple-center analysis will have the power necessary to determine which factors significantly predispose athletes to ACL injury. The future for injury prevention is bright. We must rise to the challenge

  10. Reducing the Risk of ACL Injury in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Rasche, Adrienna; Gaudet, Laura; Jackson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is located behind the kneecap (patella) and connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). Stabilizing the knee joint is the primary responsibility of the ACL. Injuries that affect the ACL are three to five times more common in females than males. This is a result of anatomical, biomechanical,…

  11. Body Mass Index, Modulated by Lateral Posterior Tibial Slope, Predicts ACL Injury Risk

    PubMed Central

    Bojicic, Katherine M.; Beaulieu, Melanie L.; Krieger, Daniel Imaizumi; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention strategies to prevent ACL injury rely on increasing knowledge of risk factors. While several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for ACL rupture have been identified, the interaction between them remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between BMI and several knee geometries as potential risk factors for ACL injury. We hypothesized that an increased BMI in the presence of an increased posterior tibial slope or middle cartilage slope would increase risk of ACL injury. We also hypothesized that an increased BMI in the presence of a decreased posterior meniscal height or meniscal bone angle would result in an increased risk of ACL injury. Methods: Sagittal knee MRI files from 76 ACL-injured and 42 non-injured subjects were gathered from the institution’s archive. The PTS, MCS, PMH, and MBA were measured using the circle method and compared with BMI from the subject demographic. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistical regression. Figure 1 details measurements made for each knee geometry. Results: Univariate analysis of PTS showed increases in PTS significantly increase the odds of ACL tear (p = 0.043, OR =1.12). Univariate analysis of MCS showed increases of MCS significantly increase the odds of ACL tear (p = 0.037, OR = 1.12). Multivariate analysis of PTS and BMI centered around the mean (PTS*cBMI) showed increases of PTS in combination with increases in cBMI significantly increases the odds of ACL rupture (p value = .050, OR = 1.03). Table 1 shows predicted increases in ACL injury risk for combinations of increases in PTS and BMI. Conclusion: An increase in BMI will increase the risk of ACL tear when an increase in lateral posterior tibial slope is present. An increase in lateral posterior tibial slope or lateral middle cartilage slope increases the risk of an ACL tear.

  12. Developing a 6-DOF robot to investigate multi-axis ACL injuries under valgus loading coupled with tibia internal rotation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yupeng; Jacobs, Benjamin J; Nuber, Gordon W; Koh, Jason L; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have become more common in recent years as more young people participate in risky sporting activities [1]. Most ACL injuries occur as a result of noncontact mechanisms. Previous in vitro studies of ACL strain have found significant increases in ACL strain primarily with anterior directed force on the tibia relative to the femur and with internal rotation and often with valgus torque [2,3]. However, there remains significant controversy over the mechanisms of ACL failure and the forces on the knee that lead to injury. Some studies have also shown that isolated valgus loading may not load the ACL strongly. The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying valgus-related ACL injuries. An improved understanding of ACL failure may lead to improved ACL injury prevention programs. A novel 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) knee driving robot was developed in this study with a unique multi-axis simultaneous torque/position control. It was found that pure valgus torque caused a torque that internally rotated the tibia and thus increased ACL strain markedly, which may be an important mechanism underlying the rather common seemingly valgus-related ACL injuries. PMID:21097089

  13. Gender Dimorphic ACL Strain In Response to Combined Dynamic 3D Knee Joint Loading: Implications for ACL Injury Risk

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Kiyonori; Andrish, Jack T.; van den Bogert, Antonie J.; McLean, Scott G.

    2009-01-01

    While gender-based differences in knee joint anatomies/laxities are well documented, the potential for them to precipitate gender-dimorphic ACL loading and resultant injury risk has not been considered. To this end, we generated gender-specific models of ACL strain as a function of any six degrees of freedom (6DOF) knee joint load state via a combined cadaveric and analytical approach. Continuously varying joint forces and torques were applied to five male and five female cadaveric specimens and recorded along with synchronous knee flexion and ACL strain data. All data (~10,000 samples) were submitted to specimen-specific regression analyses, affording ACL strain predictions as a function of the combined 6 DOF knee loads. Following individual model verifications, generalized gender-specific models were generated and subjected to 6 DOF external load scenarios consistent with both a clinical examination and a dynamic sports maneuver. The ensuing model-based strain predictions were subsequently examined for gender-based discrepancies. Male and female specimen specific models predicted ACL strain within 0.51% ± 0.10% and 0.52% ± 0.07% of the measured data respectively, and explained more than 75% of the associated variance in each case. Predicted female ACL strains were also significantly larger than respective male values for both of simulated 6 DOF load scenarios. Outcomes suggest that the female ACL will rupture in response to comparatively smaller external load applications. Future work must address the underlying anatomical/laxity contributions to knee joint mechanical and resultant ACL loading, ultimately affording prevention strategies that may cater to individual joint vulnerabilities. PMID:19464897

  14. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement

    PubMed Central

    Renstrom, P; Ljungqvist, A; Arendt, E; Beynnon, B; Fukubayashi, T; Garrett, W; Georgoulis, T; Hewett, T E; Johnson, R; Krosshaug, T; Mandelbaum, B; Micheli, L; Myklebust, G; Roos, E; Roos, H; Schamasch, P; Shultz, S; Werner, S; Wojtys, E; Engebretsen, L

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remains high in young athletes. Because female athletes have a much higher incidence of ACL injuries in sports such as basketball and team handball than male athletes, the IOC Medical Commission invited a multidisciplinary group of ACL expert clinicians and scientists to (1) review current evidence including data from the new Scandinavian ACL registries; (2) critically evaluate high-quality studies of injury mechanics; (3) consider the key elements of successful prevention programmes; (4) summarise clinical management including surgery and conservative management; and (5) identify areas for further research. Risk factors for female athletes suffering ACL injury include: (1) being in the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared with the postovulatory phase; (2) having decreased intercondylar notch width on plain radiography; and (3) developing increased knee abduction moment (a valgus intersegmental torque) during impact on landing. Well-designed injury prevention programmes reduce the risk of ACL for athletes, particularly women. These programmes attempt to alter dynamic loading of the tibiofemoral joint through neuromuscular and proprioceptive training. They emphasise proper landing and cutting techniques. This includes landing softly on the forefoot and rolling back to the rearfoot, engaging knee and hip flexion and, where possible, landing on two feet. Players are trained to avoid excessive dynamic valgus of the knee and to focus on the “knee over toe position” when cutting. PMID:18539658

  15. Incidence of Second ACL Injuries 2 Years After Primary ACL Reconstruction and Return to Sport

    PubMed Central

    Paterno, Mark V.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Ford, Kevin R.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of second anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the first 12 months after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and return to sport (RTS) in a young, active population has been reported to be 15 times greater than that in a previously uninjured cohort. There are no reported estimates of whether this high relative rate of injury continues beyond the first year after RTS and ACLR. Hypothesis The incidence rate of a subsequent ACL injury in the 2 years after ACLR and RTS would be less than the incidence rate reported within the first 12 months after RTS but greater than the ACL injury incidence rate in an uninjured cohort of young athletes. Study Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Seventy-eight patients (mean age, 17.1 ± 3.1 years) who underwent ACLR and were ready to return to a pivoting/ cutting sport and 47 controls (mean age, 17.2 ± 2.6 years) who also participated in pivoting/cutting sports were prospectively enrolled. Each participant was followed for injury and athlete exposure (AE) data for a 24-month period after RTS. Twenty-three ACLR and 4 control participants suffered an ACL injury during this time. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare the rates (per 1000 AEs) of ACL injury in athletes in the ACLR and control groups. For the ACLR group, similar comparisons were conducted for side of injury by sex. Results The overall incidence rate of a second ACL injury within 24 months after ACLR and RTS (1.39/1000 AEs) was nearly 6 times greater (IRR, 5.71; 95% CI, 2.0–22.7; P = .0003) than that in healthy control participants (0.24/1000 AEs). The rate of injury within 24 months of RTS for female athletes in the ACLR group was almost 5 times greater (IRR, 4.51; 95% CI, 1.5–18.2; P = .0004) than that for female controls. Although only a trend was observed, female patients within the ACLR group were twice as likely (IRR, 2.43; 95% CI, 0.8–8.6) to suffer a contralateral injury (1.13/1000 AEs) than an

  16. An Integrated Approach to Change the Outcome Part II: Targeted Neuromuscular Training Techniques to Reduce Identified ACL Injury Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Brent, Jensen L.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Prior reports indicate that female athletes who demonstrate high knee abduction moments (KAMs) during landing are more responsive to neuromuscular training designed to reduce KAM. Identification of female athletes who demonstrate high KAM, which accurately identifies those at risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, may be ideal for targeted neuromuscular training. Specific neuromuscular training targeted to the underlying biomechanical components that increase KAM may provide the most efficient and effective training strategy to reduce noncontact ACL injury risk. The purpose of the current commentary is to provide an integrative approach to identify and target mechanistic underpinnings to increased ACL injury in female athletes. Specific neuromuscular training techniques will be presented that address individual algorithm components related to high knee load landing patterns. If these integrated techniques are employed on a widespread basis, prevention strategies for noncontact ACL injury among young female athletes may prove both more effective and efficient. PMID:22580980

  17. Risk Factors and Predictors Of Subsequent ACL Injury After ACL Reconstruction: Prospective Analysis Of 2801 Primary ACL Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Kaeding, Christopher C.; Pedroza, Angela; Reinke, Emily; Huston, Laura J.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Retear of an ACL after an ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is devastating for all involved. Understanding risk factors and predictors of subsequent ACL tear after an ACLR is vital for patient education of subsequent risk of injury and if a predictor is modifiable, to make adjustments to minimize the risk of repeat ACL tear. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the risk factors and predictors for ispilateral and contralateral ACL tears after primary ACLR and 2) to compare retear risk between the 2002/03 and 2007/08 cohorts. This is the largest and most comprehensive prospective analysis of this kind in the literature. Methods: Data from the 2002-2008 MOON database was used to identify risk factors for ACL retear. Subjects who had a primary ACLR with no history of contralateral knee surgery and had 2 year follow-up data were included. Subjects who had multiligament surgery were excluded. Graft type (auto-BTB, auto-hamstring, allograft), age, Marx score at time of index surgery, sport played post ACLR, sex, smoking status, lateral meniscus tear at the time of ACLR, medial meniscus tear at the time of ACLR, BMI, and MOON site were evaluated to determine their contribution to both ipsilateral retear and contralateral ACL tear. The analysis was repeated using the 2002/3 and 2007/8 cohort and included age, graft, sex, and Marx. An ANOVA with post-hoc analysis was performed to detect significant differences in age and Marx score by graft type over time. Results: A total of 2801 subjects met all inclusion/exclusion criteria. There were 165/2801 (5.89%) ipsilateral and 177/2801 (6.32%) contralateral ACL tears identified in the cohort at the two year follow-up. The odds of ipsilateral retear are 1.68 times greater for hamstring autograft (p=0.04) and 4.67 times greater for an allograft (p<0.001) compared to auto-BTB. The odds of ipsilateral retear decrease by 8% for every yearly increase in age (p < 0.001) and increases by 6% for every increased point on the

  18. Evaluation of the Microsoft Kinect for screening ACL injury.

    PubMed

    Stone, Erik E; Butler, Michael; McRuer, Aaron; Gray, Aaron; Marks, Jeffrey; Skubic, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of the skeletal model generated by the Microsoft Kinect SDK in capturing four biomechanical measures during the Drop Vertical Jump test. These measures, which include: knee valgus motion from initial contact to peak flexion, frontal plane knee angle at initial contact, frontal plane knee angle at peak flexion, and knee-to-ankle separation ratio at peak flexion, have proven to be useful in screening for future knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among female athletes. A marker-based Vicon motion capture system was used for ground truth. Results indicate that the Kinect skeletal model likely has acceptable accuracy for use as part of a screening tool to identify elevated risk for ACL injury. PMID:24110646

  19. A Wearable Neuromuscular Device Reduces ACL Injury Risk in Female Soccer Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michael John; Shaw, Matthew; Maddan, Casey; Campbell, Julie; Davidson, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Female soccer athletes have a three-fold greater risk of sustaining an ACL injury compared with their male counterparts yet only 1 in 5 teams engage in ACL risk reduction programs due to several participation barriers. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a wearable neuromuscular (WNM) device on postural control, performance and ACL injury risk in female soccer athletes. Methods: Seventy-nine elite youth and collegiate female soccer athletes (age range: 12-25 y) trained with a WNM device that applied bi-lateral, topical pressure to the medial quadriceps and hamstrings muscles (Topical Gear, Austin, TX). The athletes performed 7-9 weeks of pre-season training with the WNM device consisting of strength and conditioning exercises and on-field team practices (46-64 total hours of exposure). Postural control was measured in 15 athletes with and without the WNM device before and after the training program; and performance was measured in 25 athletes without the WNM device before and after the training program. Postural control was determined from a single-leg landing on a force plate from a horizontal distance normalized to leg length. The athletes were instructed to gain their balance as fast as possible upon landing and remain balanced for 5 seconds. The peak ground reaction forces (GRF) and the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior and net center of pressure (COP) velocities and displacement ranges were calculated during 2 seconds of single-leg stance. Performance measures including speed, power and endurance were measured from the 40 yard dash, vertical jump for height and the Beep test, respectively. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc comparisons were used to compare the postural variables; and t-tests were used to compare the performance tests (p=.05). ACL injury rates, the absolute risk reduction (ARR) and the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one ACL injury were calculated between the WNM intervention group and 11

  20. Greater fear of re-injury and increased tibial translation in patients who later sustain an ACL graft rupture or a contralateral ACL rupture: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tagesson, Sofi; Kvist, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to compare fear of re-injury, patient reported function, static and dynamic tibial translation and muscle strength assessed before and 5 weeks after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction between individuals who sustained a subsequent ACL graft rupture or a contralateral ACL injury within 5 years after the reconstruction, and individuals with no subsequent injury. Nineteen patients were investigated before, and 5 weeks after an ACL reconstruction with a quadruple hamstring tendon graft. At 5 years follow up, 3 patients had sustained an ACL graft rupture and 2 patients had sustained a contralateral ACL rupture. Fear of re-injury, confidence with the knee, patient reported function, activity level, static and dynamic tibial translation and muscle strength were assessed. The re-injured group reported greater fear of re-injury and had greater static tibial translation in both knees before the ACL reconstruction compared to those who did not sustain another ACL injury. There were no other differences between groups. In conclusion, fear of re-injury and static tibial translation before the index ACL reconstruction were greater in patients who later on suffered an ACL graft rupture or a contralateral ACL rupture. These factors may predict a subsequent ACL injury. PMID:25894209

  1. High knee abduction moments are common risk factors for patellofemoral pain (PFP) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in girls: Is PFP itself a predictor for subsequent ACL injury?

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Di Stasi, Stephanie L; Foss, Kim D Barber; Micheli, Lyle J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying risk factors for knee pain and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can be an important step in the injury prevention cycle. Objective We evaluated two unique prospective cohorts with similar populations and methodologies to compare the incidence rates and risk factors associated with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and ACL injury. Methods The ‘PFP cohort’ consisted of 240 middle and high school female athletes. They were evaluated by a physician and underwent anthropometric assessment, strength testing and three-dimensional landing biomechanical analyses prior to their basketball season. 145 of these athletes met inclusion for surveillance of incident (new) PFP by certified athletic trainers during their competitive season. The ‘ACL cohort’ included 205 high school female volleyball, soccer and basketball athletes who underwent the same anthropometric, strength and biomechanical assessment prior to their competitive season and were subsequently followed up for incidence of ACL injury. A one-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate potential group (incident PFP vs ACL injured) differences in anthropometrics, strength and landing biomechanics. Knee abduction moment (KAM) cut-scores that provided the maximal sensitivity and specificity for prediction of PFP or ACL injury risk were also compared between the cohorts. Results KAM during landing above 15.4 Nm was associated with a 6.8% risk to develop PFP compared to a 2.9% risk if below the PFP risk threshold in our sample. Likewise, a KAM above 25.3 Nm was associated with a 6.8% risk for subsequent ACL injury compared to a 0.4% risk if below the established ACL risk threshold. The ACL-injured athletes initiated landing with a greater knee abduction angle and a reduced hamstrings-to-quadriceps strength ratio relative to the incident PFP group. Also, when comparing across cohorts, the athletes who suffered ACL injury also had lower hamstring/quadriceps ratio than the players in the PFP

  2. Reliability of 3-Dimensional Measures of Single-Leg Drop Landing Across 3 Institutions: Implications for Multicenter Research for Secondary ACL-Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Bates, Nathaniel A.; DiCesare, Christopher A.; Barber Foss, Kim D.; Thomas, Staci M.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Sugimoto, Dai; Roewer, Benjamin D.; Medina McKeon, Jennifer M.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Noehren, Brian W.; McNally, Michael; Ford, Kevin R.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Context Due to the limitations of single-center studies in achieving appropriate sampling with relatively rare disorders, multicenter collaborations have been proposed to achieve desired sampling levels. However, documented reliability of biomechanical data is necessary for multicenter injury-prevention studies and is currently unavailable. Objective To measure the reliability of 3-dimensional (3D) biomechanical waveforms from kinetic and kinematic variables during a single-leg landing (SLL) performed at 3 separate testing facilities. Design Multicenter reliability study. Setting 3 laboratories. Patients 25 female junior varsity and varsity high school volleyball players who visited each facility over a 1-mo period. Intervention Subjects were instrumented with 43 reflective markers to record 3D motion as they performed SLLs. During the SLL the athlete balanced on 1 leg, dropped down off of a 31-cm-high box, and landed on the same leg. Kinematic and kinetic data from both legs were processed from 2 trials across the 3 laboratories. Main Outcome Measures Coefficients of multiple correlations (CMC) were used to statistically compare each joint angle and moment waveform for the first 500 ms of landing. Results Average CMC for lower-extremity sagittal-plane motion was excellent between laboratories (hip .98, knee .95, ankle .99). Average CMC for lower-extremity frontal-plane motion was also excellent between laboratories (hip .98, knee .80, ankle .93). Kinetic waveforms were repeatable in each plane of rotation (3-center mean CMC ≥.71), while knee sagittal-plane moments were the most consistent measure across sites (3-center mean CMC ≥.94). Conclusions CMC waveform comparisons were similar relative to the joint measured to previously published reports of between-sessions reliability of sagittal- and frontal-plane biomechanics performed at a single institution. Continued research is needed to further standardize technology and methods to help ensure that highly

  3. A modeling study of partial ACL injury: simulated KT-2000 arthrometer tests.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Maitland, Murray E; Bell, G Douglas

    2002-06-01

    A partial ACL injury may involve different levels of fiber disruption, orfibers may sustain microscopic changes in their structure without gross disruption, resulting in a change in ligament function. The effect of partial ACL tears on the mechanical and functional stability of the knee has not been well documented, in part because of diagnostic difficulties. A computer model of the knee in the sagittal plane was used in this study to simulate tests using the KT-2000 Knee Arthrometer, which quantifies Lachman's test for ACL injury. A variety of partial ACL anterior and posterior bundle injuries were simulated. Anterior and posterior bundle injuries were subdivided into four different simulated injury levels: mild (one-half tear of the bundle), moderate (complete tear of the bundle), severe (complete tear of the bundle and tear of one-half of the other bundle), and more severe (severe injury plus an additional elongation of the other bundle represented by 5% increases of its initial strain). Force-displacement results obtained from simulated KT-2000 knee arthrometer tests depended on the level of injury. Mild and moderate injuries produced only small change in the anterior tibial translation--at different force levels. Severe injury produced increased anterior tibial translation depending on which bundle was completely ruptured. The compliance index defined as the ratio of the displacement and the force within 68 N and 90 N anterior drawer forces, the stiffness, and the rate of change of stiffness of the anterior force-displacement were found to be better at predicting partial ACL ruptures than simple differences in anterior tibial translation. It was possible in the model results to discriminate knees with various levels of partial ACL injuries using the first and second derivatives of the force-displacement curve. PMID:12071264

  4. The mechanical consequences of dynamic frontal plane limb alignment for non-contact ACL injury.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ajit M; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanical consequences of differences in dynamic frontal plane alignment of the support limb and the influence of anticipatory muscle activation at the hip and ankle on reducing the potential for non-contact ACL injury during single-limb landing. A frontal plane, three-link passive dynamic model was used to estimate an ACL non-contact injury threshold. This threshold was defined as the maximum axial force that the knee could sustain before the joint opened 8 degrees either medially or laterally, which was deemed sufficient to cause injury. The limb alignment and hip and ankle muscle contractions were varied to determine their effects on the ACL injury threshold. Valgus or varus alignment reduced the injury threshold compared to neutral alignment, but increasing the anticipatory contraction of hip abduction and adduction muscle groups increased the injury threshold. Increasing anticipatory ankle inversion/eversion muscle contraction had no effect. This study provides a mechanical rationale for the conclusion that a neutral limb alignment (compared to valgus or varus) during landing and increasing hip muscle contraction (abductors/adductors) prior to landing can reduce the possibility of ACL rupture through a valgus or varus opening mechanism. PMID:16321635

  5. Prevention of Cartilage Degeneration and Gait Asymmetry by Lubricin Tribosupplementation in the Rat Following ACL Transection

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Gregory D.; Elsaid, Khaled A.; Kelly, Karen A.; Anderson, Scott C.; Zhang, Ling; Teeple, Erin; Waller, Kimberly; Fleming, Braden C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether cartilage degeneration is prevented or minimized in an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rat model following a single dose-escalated intra-articular injection of lubricin derived from human synoviocytes in culture (HSL). Methods Unilateral ACL transection (ACLT) of the right hindlimb was performed in Lewis rats (N = 56). Control animals underwent a capsulotomy alone leaving the ACL intact (N = 11). Intra-articular injections (50μl/injection) of PBS (N = 14) and HSL (N = 14; 1600μg/ml) were performed on day 7 post-surgery. Animals were euthanized on day 70 post-surgery. Histological specimens were immunoprobed for lubricin, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Urinary CTX-II (uCTX-II) levels were measured on day 35 and 70 post-surgery. Hindlimb maximum applied force was determined using a variable resistor walkway to monitor quadruped gait asymmetries. Results Increased immunostaining for lubricin in the superficial zone and on the surface of cartilage was observed in lubricin-treated and control animals but not the PBS-treated nor the untreated ACLT animals. On post-operative day 35 and 70, uCTXII levels of HSL-treated animals were lower than corresponding untreated and PBS-treated (p=0.005; p<0.001 respectively) animals. ACLT animals treated with HSL and control animals distributed their weight equally between hindlimbs compared to PBS treated or untreated animals (p<0.01). Conclusion A single intra-articular injection of concentrated lubricin, following ACLT, reduced collagen type II degradation and improved weight bearing in the affected joint. This study supports the practice of tribosupplementation with lubricin in retarding cartilage degeneration and possibly the development of post-traumatic OA. PMID:22127873

  6. Patients With Isolated PCL Injuries Improve From Surgery as Much as Patients With ACL Injuries After 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Owesen, Christian; Sivertsen, Einar Andreas; Engebretsen, Lars; Granan, Lars-Petter; Årøen, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reports on outcome after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction often contain both isolated PCL and combined knee ligament injuries. This makes it difficult to conclude on the outcome after reconstruction of isolated PCL injuries. Purpose: To investigate the outcome after PCL reconstruction in patients with an isolated PCL injury and to compare this with the outcome of patients treated with reconstruction after isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Seventy-one patients with an isolated PCL injury that was reconstructed surgically and who had registered in the Norwegian Knee Ligament Registry between 2004 and 2010 were included in this study. Patients with isolated ACL reconstructions (n = 9661) who had registered in the same period were included for comparison. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used as the patient-reported outcome measure. Preoperative and 2-year postoperative KOOS scores were compared. Changes in KOOS score reported by the PCL patients were compared with changes reported by the ACL patients. Results: At the 2-year postoperative follow-up of the PCL-reconstructed patients, the patient-reported outcome was improved, measured by KOOS as follows: pain, 15.1 (95% CI, 8.5-21.8; P < .001); symptoms, 0.9 (95% CI, –6.6 to 8.3; P = .82); activities of daily living, 13.2 (95% CI, 6.6-13.9; P < .001); sports, 20.7 (95% CI, 11.8-29.4; P < .001); and quality of life, 26.6 (95% CI, 18.9-34.2; P < .001). According to the KOOS, the incremental improvements were similar for PCL and ACL patients. Time from injury to surgery was longer for the PCL patients compared with ACL patients (median, 21.5 vs 8.0 months; P < .001). Conclusion: Patients undergoing PCL reconstruction can expect the same improvements in KOOS score as patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. However, PCL patients start out with an inferior score on average and consequently end up

  7. Analysis of the Three Most Prevalent Injuries in Australian Football Demonstrates a Season to Season Association Between Groin/Hip/Osteitis Pubis Injuries With ACL Knee Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Verrall, Geoffrey M.; Esterman, Adrian; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Injuries are common in contact sports like Australian football. The Australian Football League (AFL) has developed an extensive injury surveillance database that can be used for epidemiological studies. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify any association between the three most prevalent injuries in the AFL. Patients and Methods: From the AFL injury surveillance data 1997-2012 the injury incidence (new injuries per club per season) and the injury prevalence data (missed games per club per season) were analysed to detect the three most common injuries that would cause a player to miss a match in the AFL. The three most prevalent injuries in the AFL are hamstring strains, groin/hip/osteitis pubis injuries and Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) knee injuries. Following this, further study was undertaken to detect the presence of any statistical relationship between injury incidences of the three most prevalent injuries over this sixteen year study period. Results: Statistical analysis demonstrates for any given year that there was an association between having a groin/hip/osteitis pubis injuriy and having a knee ACL injury (P < 0.05) over the entire sixteen years. In other words if the number of groin/hip/osteitis pubis injuries in any given season were higher than average (alternatively lower) then the number of knee ACL injuries were also higher than average (alternatively lower) for that same season. Hamstring injuries had the highest variance of incidence of the three most prevalent injuries. Conclusions: Analysis of the AFL injury data demonstrates an association between incidence of groin/hip/osteitis pubis injuries and incidence of knee ACL injuries for any given playing season. This finding is difficult to explain with further research being required. PMID:25520768

  8. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    Head Injury Prevention Tips American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852 ... defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the ...

  9. THE EFFECT OF CONSERVATIVELY TREATED ACL INJURY ON KNEE JOINT POSITION Sense

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, Lee

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Proprioception is critical for effective movement patterns. However, methods of proprioceptive measurement in previous research have been inconsistent and lacking in reliability statistics making it applications to clinical practice difficult. Researchers have suggested that damage to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can alter proprioceptive ability due to a loss of functioning mechanoreceptors. The majority of patients opt for reconstructive surgery following this injury. However, some patients chose conservative rehabilitation options rather than surgical intervention. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ACL deficiency on knee joint position sense following conservative, non-operative treatment and return to physical activity. A secondary purpose was to report the reliability and measurement error of the technique used to measure joint position sense, (JPS) and comment on the clinical utility of this measurement. Study Design Observational study design using a cross-section of ACL deficient patients and matched uninjured controls. Methods Twenty active conservatively treated ACL deficient patients who had returned to physical activity and twenty active matched controls were included in the study. Knee joint position sense was measured using a seated passive-active reproductive angle technique. The average absolute angle of error score, between 10 °-30 ° of knee flexion was determined. This error score was derived from the difference between the target and repositioning angle. Results The ACL deficient patients had a greater error score (7.9 °±3.6) and hence poorer static proprioception ability that both the contra-lateral leg (2.0 °±1.6; p = 0.0001) and the control group (2.6 °±0.9; p = 0.0001). The standard error of the mean (SEM) of this JPS technique was 0.5 ° and 0.2 ° and the minimum detectable change (MDC) was 1.3 ° and 0.4 ° on asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects

  10. Factors influencing the implementation of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention strategies by girls soccer coaches.

    PubMed

    Joy, Elizabeth A; Taylor, John R; Novak, Melissa A; Chen, Michael; Fink, Barbara P; Porucznik, Christina A

    2013-08-01

    Women are 3 times more likely to injure their anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) while playing soccer than men. ACL injury prevention programs (IPPs) involving stretching and strengthening drills can reduce the incidence of ACL injury when incorporated into routine training. The rate of implementation among coaches is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of implementation of ACL IPP, to identify factors that influence implementation, and to acquire information to assist in design dissemination and implementation strategies. Study subjects were coaches of woman soccer players aged 11-22 years in Utah (n = 756). Data were gathered using a Web-based survey followed by a qualitative study in which "best practice coaches"-coaches who met criteria for successful implementation of ACL IPP-were interviewed via telephone. A minority of survey respondents, 19.8% (27/136), have implemented ACL IPP. Factors associated with successful implementation include length of coaching experience and presence of additional support staff such as a strength and conditioning coach or athletic trainer. Best practice coaches (14/136) unanimously agreed on the following: (a) there are performance-enhancing benefits of ACL IPP, (b) education on ACL injury prevention should be required for licensure, and (c) dissemination and implementation will require soccer associations to enact policies that require IPPs. In conclusion, a minority of girls soccer coaches have implemented ACL IPP and those that have do so because they believe that prevention improves performance and that soccer organizations should enact policies requiring ACL injury prevention education and implementation. Efforts to implement ACL IPP should be driven by soccer organizations, emphasize performance-enhancing benefits, and engage additional coaching staff. PMID:23287828

  11. The Natural History and Tailored Treatment of ACL Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nick A.; Chew, Hall F.; Stanish, William D.

    2001-01-01

    Bodily responses to an anterior cruciate ligament injury can range from minor to very significant. Understanding factors influencing the course can help physicians determine effective treatment strategies. Certain patterns, such as complete disruption and participation in high-demand sports, highlight the need for an aggressive approach.…

  12. ABCs of Evidence-based Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Strategies in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a major concern in physically active females. Although ACL reconstruction techniques have seen significant advances in recent years, risk associated with re-injury and future osteoarthritis remains a major concern. Thus, prevention of ACL injury is a logical step to protect and preserve healthy knee joints in young athletes. The current report aims to summarize a list of evidence-based prevention strategies to reduce ACL injury in female athletes. A list of six critical principles, which come from documented, large scale clinical trial studies and further analyses, were presented with ABC format including age, biomechanics, compliance, dosage, exercise, and feedback. Also, a grade for evidence and implications of future research is noted. Finally, in the conclusion section, importance of collaborative efforts from healthcare practitioners, researchers, and personnel associated with athletics is addressed. PMID:26042191

  13. Risk factors and prevention strategies of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Laible, Catherine; Sherman, Orrin H

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of women playing sports has increased significantly. The passage of Title IX in 1972 had a significant effect in encouraging female participation in sports. This increase in women's sports participation also led to a rise in noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. As ACL injuries in young female athletes have be- come a public health issue, much research has been done on risk factors and prevention strategies. PMID:25150329

  14. Nonsurgical or Surgical Treatment of ACL Injuries: Knee Function, Sports Participation, and Knee Reinjury

    PubMed Central

    Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna

    2014-01-01

    Background: While there are many opinions about the expected knee function, sports participation, and risk of knee reinjury following nonsurgical treatment of injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), there is a lack of knowledge about the clinical course following nonsurgical treatment compared with that after surgical treatment. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 143 patients with an ACL injury. Isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength and patient-reported knee function as recorded on the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) 2000 form were collected at baseline, six weeks, and two years. Sports participation was reported monthly for two years with use of an online activity survey. Knee reinjuries were reported at the follow-up evaluations and in a monthly online survey. Repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA), generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze group differences in functional outcomes, sports participation, and knee reinjuries, respectively. Results: The surgically treated patients (n = 100) were significantly younger, more likely to participate in level-I sports, and less likely to participate in level-II sports prior to injury than the nonsurgically treated patients (n = 43). There were no significant group-by-time effects on functional outcome. The crude analysis showed that surgically treated patients were more likely to sustain a knee reinjury and to participate in level-I sports in the second year of the follow-up period. After propensity score adjustment, these differences were nonsignificant; however, the nonsurgically treated patients were significantly more likely to participate in level-II sports during the first year of the follow-up period and in level-III sports over the two years. After two years, 30% of all patients had an extensor strength deficit, 31% had a flexor strength deficit, 20% had patient-reported knee function below the normal range, and

  15. Prevention of running injuries.

    PubMed

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury. PMID:20463502

  16. Rehabilitation after ACL Injury: A Fluoroscopic Study on the Effects of Type of Exercise on the Knee Sagittal Plane Arthrokinematics

    PubMed Central

    Norouzi, Sadegh; Esfandiarpour, Fateme; Shakourirad, Ali; Salehi, Reza; Akbar, Mohammad; Farahmand, Farzam

    2013-01-01

    A safe rehabilitation exercise for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries needs to be compatible with the normal knee arthrokinematics to avoid abnormal loading on the joint structures. The objective of this study was to measure the amount of the anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the ACL-deficient knees during selective open and closed kinetic chain exercises. The intact and injured knees of fourteen male subjects with unilateral ACL injury were imaged using uniplanar fluoroscopy, while the subjects performed forward lunge and unloaded/loaded open kinetic knee extension exercises. The ATTs were measured from fluoroscopic images, as the distance between the tibial and femoral reference points, at seven knee flexion angles, from 0° to 90°. No significant differences were found between the ATTs of the ACL-deficient and intact knees at all flexion angles during forward lunge and unloaded open kinetic knee extension (P < 0.05). During loaded open kinetic knee extension, however, the ATTs of the ACL deficient knees were significantly larger than those of the intact knees at 0° (P = 0.002) and 15° (P = 0.012). It was suggested that the forward lunge, as a weight-bearing closed kinetic chain exercise, provides a safer approach for developing muscle strength and functional stability in rehabilitation program of ACL-deficient knees, in comparison with open kinetic knee extension exercise. PMID:24066288

  17. Young women's anterior cruciate ligament injuries: an expanded model and prevention paradigm.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Diane L; Goldberg, Linn; Kuehl, Kerry S

    2010-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among young female athletes occur at rates three- to eight-times greater than in male competitors and, in general, females experience more sports injuries than males, when balanced for activity and playing time. ACL injuries are a particular concern, as they result in immediate morbidity, high economic costs and may have long-term adverse effects. While several closely monitored ACL injury preventive programmes have been effective, those efforts have not been uniformly protective nor have they achieved widespread use. To date, ACL injury prevention has focused on neuromuscular and anatomical factors without including issues relating more broadly to the athlete. Coincident with greater female sport participation are other influences that may heighten their injury risk. We review those factors, including early single sport specialization, unhealthy dietary behaviours, chronic sleep deprivation and higher levels of fatigue, substance use and abuse, and psychological issues. We augment existing models of ACL injury with these additional dimensions. The proposed expanded injury model has implications for designing injury prevention programmes. High school athletic teams are natural settings for bonded youth and influential coaches to promote healthy lifestyles, as decisions that result in better athletes also promote healthy lifestyles. As an example of how sport teams could be vehicles to address an expanded injury model, we present an existing evidenced-based sport team-centered health promotion and harm reduction programme for female athletes. Widening the lens on factors influencing ACL injury expands the prevention paradigm to combine existing training with activities to promote psychological well-being and a healthy lifestyle. If developed and shown to be effective, those programmes might better reduce injuries and, in addition, provide life skills that would benefit young female athletes both on and off the playing field

  18. An integrated approach to change the outcome part I: neuromuscular screening methods to identify high ACL injury risk athletes.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Brent, Jensen L; Hewett, Timothy E

    2012-08-01

    An important step for treatment of a particular injury etiology is the appropriate application of a treatment targeted to the population at risk. An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk algorithm has been defined that employs field-based techniques in lieu of laboratory-based motion analysis systems to identify athletes with high ACL injury risk landing strategies. The resultant field-based assessment techniques, in combination with the developed prediction algorithm, allow for low-cost identification of athletes who may be at increased risk of sustaining ACL injury. The combined simplicity and accuracy of the field-based tool facilitate its use to identify specific factors that may increase risk of injury in female athletes. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate novel algorithmic techniques to accurately capture and analyze measures of knee valgus motion, knee flexion range of motion, body mass, tibia length and quadriceps to hamstrings ratio with video analysis software typically used by coaches, strength and conditioning specialists, and athletic trainers. The field-based measurements and software analyses were used in a prediction algorithm to identify those at potential risk of noncontact ACL injury that may directly benefit from neuromuscular training. PMID:22580976

  19. Prevention of youth injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

    1999-01-01

    There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

  20. Prevention of pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Rebecca A; Landry, Gregory L

    2003-12-01

    With over 30 million children participating in sports each year across the United States, a number of significant injuries are to be expected. Although mild injuries such as strains, sprains, and contusions predominate, catastrophic injuries do occur. Young athletes are at an increased risk for growth plate and apophyseal injuries, overuse injuries, and heat illness. Many of these sports injuries can be prevented. Prevention strategies include protective equipment, rule changes, preseason and season prevention interventions, safety measures, better coaching, education, and a societal awareness of injury and prevention. This article discusses current injury prevention for children participating in baseball, football, soccer, and ice hockey. PMID:14583164

  1. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21289691

  2. Injury Risk Estimation Expertise: Cognitive-Perceptual Mechanisms of ACL-IQ.

    PubMed

    Petushek, Erich J; Cokely, Edward T; Ward, Paul; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-06-01

    Instrument-based biomechanical movement analysis is an effective injury screening method but relies on expensive equipment and time-consuming analysis. Screening methods that rely on visual inspection and perceptual skill for prognosticating injury risk provide an alternative approach that can significantly reduce cost and time. However, substantial individual differences exist in skill when estimating injury risk performance via observation. The underlying perceptual-cognitive mechanisms of injury risk identification were explored to better understand the nature of this skill and provide a foundation for improving performance. Quantitative structural and process modeling of risk estimation indicated that superior performance was largely mediated by specific strategies and skills (e.g., irrelevant information reduction), and independent of domain-general cognitive abilities (e.g., mental rotation, general decision skill). These cognitive models suggest that injury prediction expertise (i.e., ACL-IQ) is a trainable skill, and provide a foundation for future research and applications in training, decision support, and ultimately clinical screening investigations. PMID:26265341

  3. Effectiveness of Knee Injury and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jamie E.; Yang, Heidi Y.; Goczalk, Melissa G.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Losina, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Objective Individuals frequently involved in jumping, pivoting or cutting are at increased risk of knee injury, including anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. We sought to use meta-analytic techniques to establish whether neuromuscular and proprioceptive training is efficacious in preventing knee and ACL injury and to identify factors related to greater efficacy of such programs. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of studies published in English between 1996 and 2014. Intervention efficacy was ascertained from incidence rate ratios (IRRs) weighted by their precision (1/variance) using a random effects model. Separate analyses were performed for knee and ACL injury. We examined whether year of publication, study quality, or specific components of the intervention were associated with efficacy of the intervention in a meta-regression analysis. Results Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria and were used in the meta-analysis. The mean study sample was 1,093 subjects. Twenty studies reported data on knee injury in general terms and 16 on ACL injury. Maximum Jadad score was 3 (on a 0–5 scale). The summary incidence rate ratio was estimated at 0.731 (95% CI: 0.614, 0.871) for knee injury and 0.493 (95% CI: 0.285, 0.854) for ACL injury, indicating a protective effect of intervention. Meta-regression analysis did not identify specific intervention components associated with greater efficacy but established that later year of publication was associated with more conservative estimates of intervention efficacy. Conclusion The current meta-analysis provides evidence that neuromuscular and proprioceptive training reduces knee injury in general and ACL injury in particular. Later publication date was associated with higher quality studies and more conservative efficacy estimates. As study quality was generally low, these data suggest that higher quality studies should be implemented to confirm the preventive efficacy of such programs. PMID:26637173

  4. The effects of core muscle activation on dynamic trunk position and knee abduction moments: implications for ACL injury.

    PubMed

    Jamison, Steve T; McNally, Michael P; Schmitt, Laura C; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2013-09-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common serious lower-extremity injuries experienced by athletes participating in field and court sports and often occurs during a sudden change in direction or pivot. Both lateral trunk positioning during cutting and peak external knee abduction moments have been associated with ACL injury risk, though it is not known how core muscle activation influences these variables. In this study, the association between core muscle pre-activation and trunk position as well as the association between core muscle pre-activation and peak knee abduction moment during an unanticipated run-to-cut maneuver were investigated in 46 uninjured individuals. Average co-contraction indices and percent differences between muscle pairs were calculated prior to initial contact for internal obliques, external obliques, and L5 extensors using surface electromyography. Outside tilt of the trunk was defined as positive when the trunk was angled away from the cutting direction. No significant associations were found between pre-activations of core muscles and outside tilt of the trunk. Greater average co-contraction index of the L5 extensors was associated with greater peak knee abduction moment (p=0.0107). Increased co-contraction of the L5 extensors before foot contact could influence peak knee abduction moment by stiffening the spine, limiting sagittal plane trunk flexion (a motion pattern previously linked to ACL injury risk) and upper body kinetic energy absorption by the core during weight acceptance. PMID:23891313

  5. Prevention and Control of Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchfarber, Barbara S.; Zins, Joseph E.; Jason, Leonard A.

    Childhood injury continues to be a major public health crisis in the United States, with a large percentage of injuries being preventable and controllable. This chapter provides information related to understanding child and youth injury. Studies have shown that injuries affect identifiable high-risk groups. Such host factors that put children at…

  6. Biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics of male athletes: implications for the development of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Dai; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Karlsson, Jon; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is likely the most effective strategy to reduce undesired health consequences including reconstruction surgery, long-term rehabilitation, and pre-mature osteoarthritis occurrence. A thorough understanding of mechanisms and risk factors of ACL injury is crucial to develop effective prevention programs, especially for biomechanical and neuromuscular modifiable risk factors. Historically, the available evidence regarding ACL risk factors has mainly involved female athletes or has compared male and female athletes without an intra-group comparison for male athletes. Therefore, the principal purpose of this article was to review existing evidence regarding the investigation of biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics that may imply aberrant knee kinematics and kinetics that would place the male athlete at risk of ACL injury. Biomechanical evidence related to knee kinematics and kinetics was reviewed by different planes (sagittal and frontal/coronal), tasks (single-leg landing and cutting), situation (anticipated and unanticipated), foot positioning, playing surface, and fatigued status. Neuromuscular evidence potentially related to ACL injury was reviewed. Recommendations for prevention programs for ACL injuries in male athletes were developed based on the synthesis of the biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. The recommendations suggest performing exercises with multi-plane biomechanical components including single-leg maneuvers in dynamic movements, reaction to and decision making in unexpected situations, appropriate foot positioning, and consideration of playing surface condition, as well as enhancing neuromuscular aspects such as fatigue, proprioception, muscle activation, and inter-joint coordination. PMID:25663251

  7. The Effect of ACL Reconstruction on Kinematics of the Knee with Combined ACL Injury and Subtotal Medial Meniscectomy - an in-vitro robotic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Seon, Jong Keun; Gadikota, Hemanth R.; Kozanek, Michal; Oh, Luke S.; Gill, Thomas J.; Li, Guoan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the kinematic effect of subtotal medial meniscectomy on ACL deficient knee and 2) the effect of ACL reconstruction on kinematics of the knee with combined ACL deficiency and subtotal medial meniscectomy under an anterior tibial and a simulated quadriceps loads. Methods Eight human cadaveric knees were sequentially tested using a robotic testing system under 4 conditions: intact, ACL deficiency, ACL deficiency with subtotal medial meniscectomy, and single bundle ACL reconstruction using a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. Knee kinematics were measured at 0°, 15°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flex ion under an anterior tibial load of 130 N and a quadriceps muscle load of 400 N. Results Subtotal medial meniscectomy in ACL deficient knee significantly increased anterior and lateral tibial translations under the anterior tibial and quadriceps loads (P < 0.05). These kinematic changes were larger at high flexion (≥ 60°) than at low flexion angles. ACL reconstructio n in knees with ACL deficiency and subtotal medial meniscectomy significantly reduced the increased anterior tibial translation, but could not restore anterior translation to the intact level with differences ranging from 2.6 mm at 0° to 5.5 mm at 30° of flexion. ACL reconstruction did not significantly affect the medial-lateral translation and internal-external tibial rotation in the presence of subtotal meniscectomy. Conclusions Subtotal medial meniscectomy in knees with ACL deficiency altered knee kinematics, especially at high flexion angles. ACL reconstruction significantly reduced the increased tibial translation in knees with combined ACL deficiency and subtotal medial meniscectomy, but could not restore the knee kinematics to the intact knee level. Clinical Relevance This study suggests that meniscus is an important secondary stabilizer against anterior and lateral tibial translations and should be preserved in the setting of ACL reconstruction for

  8. Injury prevention in youth sports.

    PubMed

    Veigel, Jake D; Pleacher, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Sport is the principal cause of injury in children and adolescents. Youth participation in organized athletics is estimated to be 45 million in the United States alone. These injuries influence health and fitness and have socioeconomic impact. Many injuries can be prevented. This article outlines the efficacy of current injury prevention strategies in youth sports through the use of educational programs, rule changes in baseball and hockey, safety equipment, and conditioning programs. PMID:19005358

  9. Bridge-Enhanced ACL Repair: A Review of the Science and the Pathway through FDA Investigational Device Approval

    PubMed Central

    Proffen, Benedikt L.; Perrone, Gabriel S.; Roberts, Gordon; Murray, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are currently treated with replacement of the torn ligament with a graft of tendon harvested from elsewhere in the knee. This procedure, called "ACL reconstruction," is excellent for restoring gross stability to the knee; however, there are relatively high graft failure rates in adolescent patients,4, 12, 60 and the ACL reconstruction procedure does not prevent the premature osteoarthritis seen in patients after an ACL injury.1, 46, 52 Thus, new solutions are needed for ACL injuries. Researchers have been investigating the use of scaffolds, growth factors and cells to supplement a suture repair of the ACL (bio-enhanced repair). In this paper, we will review the varied approaches, which have been investigated for stimulating ACL healing and repair in preclinical models and how one of these technologies was able to move from promising preclinical results to FDA acceptance of an Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) application for a first-in-human study. PMID:25631206

  10. Characterization of thigh and shank segment angular velocity during jump landing tasks commonly used to evaluate risk for ACL injury.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Ariel V; Favre, Julien; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2012-09-01

    The dynamic movements associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during jump landing suggest that limb segment angular velocity can provide important information for understanding the conditions that lead to an injury. Angular velocity measures could provide a quick and simple method of assessing injury risk without the constraints of a laboratory. The objective of this study was to assess the inter-subject variations and the sensitivity of the thigh and shank segment angular velocity in order to determine if these measures could be used to characterize jump landing mechanisms. Additionally, this study tested the correlation between angular velocity and the knee abduction moment. Thirty-six healthy participants (18 male) performed drop jumps with bilateral and unilateral landing. Thigh and shank angular velocities were measured by a wearable inertial-based system, and external knee moments were measured using a marker-based system. Discrete parameters were extracted from the data and compared between systems. For both jumping tasks, the angular velocity curves were well defined movement patterns with high inter-subject similarity in the sagittal plane and moderate to good similarity in the coronal and transverse planes. The angular velocity parameters were also able to detect differences between the two jumping tasks that were consistent across subjects. Furthermore, the coronal angular velocities were significantly correlated with the knee abduction moment (R of 0.28-0.51), which is a strong indicator of ACL injury risk. This study suggested that the thigh and shank angular velocities, which describe the angular dynamics of the movement, should be considered in future studies about ACL injury mechanisms. PMID:22938373

  11. Acute, simultaneous tear of patellar tendon and ACL: possible mechanism of injury and rationality of the two-stage surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Koumis, Panagiotis; Papadopoulos, Alexis; Kyparlis, Dimitris; Papastergiou, Stergios G

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 47-year-old professional driver with an acute, simultaneous tear of patellar tendon and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The patient was treated in two stages. Acute patellar tendon repair and delayed (6-month postinjury) ACL reconstruction was performed. The authors discuss the possible mechanism of injury and the rationality of the two-stage surgical treatment. PMID:22687668

  12. Acute, simultaneous tear of patellar tendon and ACL: possible mechanism of injury and rationality of the two-stage surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Koumis, Panagiotis; Papadopoulos, Alexis; Kyparlis, Dimitris; Papastergiou, Stergios G

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 47-year-old professional driver with an acute, simultaneous tear of patellar tendon and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The patient was treated in two stages. Acute patellar tendon repair and delayed (6-month postinjury) ACL reconstruction was performed. The authors discuss the possible mechanism of injury and the rationality of the two-stage surgical treatment. PMID:22687668

  13. Editorial. Bicycle injuries and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Pless, I B

    2014-07-01

    In 1989, long before this journal added injuries to its title, it published two papers on childhood injuries and I was asked to write an editorial for this occasion. I chose the title "Challenges for Injury Prevention: Two Neglected Aspects" because I thought the papers neglected to mention the inadequacy of injury statistics (at the time there were no emergency department data) and also failed to emphasize the public health importance of childhood injuries. It is instructive, therefore, to compare this issue's offerings with how matters stood nearly 25 years ago and see what progress we've made. Papers in this and the previous issue of this journal discuss bicycle safety in general and helmet use in particular. Although this is a somewhat narrow focus, it serves as one indicator of how the field has evolved and what remains to be done to improve both the science and policy in this domain. PMID:24991769

  14. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  15. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Protecting your eyes from injury is one of the most basic things you can do to keep your vision healthy throughout your life. You may be somewhat aware of the possible ...

  16. Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Finance Human Resources and Administrative Services Information Technology Marketing and Sales Membership Practice Public Affairs Quality Publishing ... Feedback Recent a a a print email share Facebook Twitter 2016 Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet 3/ ...

  17. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... ups and training sessions before practices and before games. This will help ensure that they have fun ... be allowed periods of rest during practices and games. previous continue Common Types of Sports Injuries Three ...

  18. Potential for Non-Contact ACL Injury Between Step-Close-Jump and Hop-Jump Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-I; Gu, Chin-Yi; Chen, Wei-Ling; Chang, Mu-San

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the kinematics and kinetics during the landing of hop-jump and step-close-jump movements in order to provide further inferring that the potential risk of ACL injuries. Eleven elite male volleyball players were recruited to perform hop-jump and step-close-jump tasks. Lower extremity kinematics and ground reaction forces during landing in stop-jump tasks were recorded. Lower extremity kinetics was calculated by using an inverse dynamic process. Step-close-jump tasks demonstrated smaller peak proximal tibia anterior shear forces during the landing phase. In step-close-jump tasks, increasing hip joint angular velocity during initial foot-ground contact decreased peak posterior ground reaction force during the landing phase, which theoretically could reduce the risk of ACL injury. Key points The different landing techniques required for these two stop-jump tasks do not necessarily affect the jump height. Hop-jump decreased the hip joint angular velocity at initial foot contact with ground, which could lead to an increasing peak posterior GRF during the landing phase. Hop-jump decreased hip and knee joint angular flexion displacement during the landing, which could increase the peak vertical loading rate during the landing phase. PMID:24149397

  19. Electromechanical delay of the hamstrings during eccentric muscle actions in males and females: Implications for non-contact ACL injuries.

    PubMed

    De Ste Croix, Mark B A; ElNagar, Youssif O; Iga, John; James, David; Ayala, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Sex differences in neuromuscular functioning has been proposed as one of the factors behind an increased relative risk of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in females. The aim of this study was to explore sex differences in electromechanical delay (EMD) of the hamstring muscles during eccentric muscle actions and during a range of movement velocities. This study recruited 110 participants (55 males, 55 females) and electromyography of the semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris was determined during eccentric actions at 60, 120 and 240°/s. No significant sex differences were observed irrespective of muscle examined or movement velocity. Irrespective of sex EMD significantly increased with increasing movement velocity (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the EMD of the 3 muscles examined. Our findings suggest that during eccentric actions of the hamstrings that there are no sex differences, irrespective of movement velocity. This would suggest that other factors are probably responsible for the increased relative risk of non-contact ACL injury in females compared to males. PMID:26522999

  20. Optimizing whole-body kinematics to minimize valgus knee loading during sidestepping: implications for ACL injury risk.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, C J; Lloyd, D G; Elliott, B C; Reinbolt, J A

    2012-05-11

    The kinematic mechanisms associated with elevated externally applied valgus knee moments during non-contact sidestepping and subsequent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk are not well understood. To address this issue, the residual reduction algorithm (RRA) in OpenSim was used to create nine subject-specific, full-body (37 degrees of freedom) torque-driven simulations of athletic males performing unplanned sidestep (UnSS) sport tasks. The RRA was used again to produce an optimized kinematic solution with reduced peak valgus knee torques during the weight acceptance phase of stance. Pre-to-post kinematic optimization, mean peak valgus knee moments were significantly reduced by 44.2 Nm (p=0.045). Nine of a possible 37 upper and lower body kinematic changes in all three planes of motion were consistently used during the RRA to decrease peak valgus knee moments. The generalized kinematic strategy used by all nine simulations to reduce peak valgus knee moments and subsequent ACL injury risk during UnSS was to redirect the whole-body center of mass medially, towards the desired direction of travel. PMID:22387123

  1. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: identification of risk factors and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Rafael J; Rivera-Vega, Alexandra; Miranda, Gerardo; Micheo, William

    2014-01-01

    Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is common and affects young individuals, particularly girls, who are active in sports that involve jumping, pivoting, as well as change of direction. ACL injury is associated with potential long-term complications including reduction in activity levels and osteoarthritis. Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors have been identified, which include anatomic variations, neuromuscular deficits, biomechanical abnormalities, playing environment, and hormonal status. Multicomponent prevention programs have been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of this injury in both girls and boys. Programs should include a combination of strengthening, stretching, aerobic conditioning, plyometrics, proprioceptive and balance training, as well as education and feedback regarding body mechanics and proper landing pattern. Preventive programs should be implemented at least 6 wk prior to competition, followed by a maintenance program during the season. PMID:24819011

  2. An Athlete's Nightmare: Tearing the ACL

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dr. Boden's ACL patients. There are many different theories as to why young women suffer a higher ... ACL injuries. Dr. Boden says there are other theories based on how estrogen affects the ligament, as ...

  3. Preventing Knee Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... to tearing. Growth Plate Injuries, Fractures, and Dislocations Knee fractures rarely occur in childhood sports, but with any ... is the bump on the front of the knee where the patellar tendon attaches. Fractures to the growth plate in this area often ...

  4. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    PubMed

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations. PMID:23547592

  5. Marine injuries. Prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Frey, C

    1994-08-01

    Penetrating wounds, stings, and inoculation of venom are common marine injuries to unwary walkers during the summer season. In many circumstances, foreign bodies such as wood splinters or small shards of glass can be removed readily with fine-pointed forceps. Other times, objects may not be noticed until radiographic examination of the injured area. With deeply penetrated foreign bodies, attempts at removal must often be weighed against the likelihood of continued symptoms and damage should the object be left in the foot. This review presents methods of prevention and treatment for common sources of marine foot injuries. PMID:7997347

  6. Kinesiology and Injury Prevention. Every Dancer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clippinger-Robertson, Karen

    1986-01-01

    This article focuses on three aspects of kinesiology: training principles, technique, and class design as they relate to injury prevention. Recommendations for prevention of some common dance injuries are offered. (MT)

  7. Barriers to Predicting the Mechanisms and Risk Factors of Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nicholas; Rouhi, Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    High incidences of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, frequent requirements for ACL reconstruction, and limited understanding of ACL mechanics have engendered considerable interest in quantifying the ACL loading mechanisms. Although some progress has been made to better understand non-contact ACL injuries, information on how and why non-contact ACL injuries occur is still largely unavailable. In other words, research is yet to yield consensus on injury mechanisms and risk factors. Biomechanics, video analysis, and related study approaches have elucidated to some extent how ACL injuries occur. However, these approaches are limited because they provide estimates, rather than precise measurements of knee - and more specifically ACL - kinematics at the time of injury. These study approaches are also limited in their inability to simultaneously capture many of the contributing factors to injury. This paper aims at elucidating and summarizing the key challenges that confound our understanding in predicting the mechanisms and subsequently identifying risk factors of non-contact ACL injury. This work also appraise the methodological rigor of existing study approaches, review testing protocols employed in published studies, as well as presents a possible coupled approach to better understand injury mechanisms and risk factors of non-contact ACL injury. Three comprehensive electronic databases and hand search of journal papers, covering numerous full text published English articles were utilized to find studies on the association between ACL and injury mechanisms, ACL and risk factors, as well as, ACL and investigative approaches. This review unveils that new research modalities and/or coupled research methods are required to better understand how and why the ACL gets injured. Only by achieving a better understanding of ACL loading mechanisms and the associated contributing factors, one will be able to develop robust prevention strategies and exercise

  8. Internet Resources for Injury and Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Krista; Sleet, David A.; Mickalide, Angela; Gorcowski, Susan; Bryn, Stephanie; Balsley, Tara; Mitchko, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Access to injury prevention information is being transformed by the Internet and information technology. These new strategies for "knowledge management" are creating new opportunities for health education and injury prevention. This article provides an overview and a list of internet resources on unintentional injury prevention, acute care and…

  9. Preventing paraffin-related injury.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C; Swart, Dehran

    2009-07-01

    Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world) is the most commonly used fuel in ‎non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ‎offers many advantages-especially its comparatively low cost to produce-it poses two major risks of ‎injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ‎fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary ‎discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through ‎multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, ‎and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review ‎successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community ‎initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations. ‎ PMID:21483184

  10. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. PMID:24379726

  11. ACL reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tissue taken from a donor is called an allograft. The procedure is usually performed with the help ... This increases the chance you may have a meniscus tear. ACL reconstruction may be used for these ...

  12. ACL reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... replace your ACL by following these steps: The torn ligament will be removed with a shaver or ... ligaments are also injured When your meniscus is torn Before surgery, talk to your health care provider ...

  13. The application of musculoskeletal modeling to investigate gender bias in non-contact ACL injury rate during single-leg landings.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nicholas; Andersen, Michael Skipper; Rasmussen, John; Robertson, D Gordon E; Rouhi, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    The central tenet of this study was to develop, validate and apply various individualised 3D musculoskeletal models of the human body for application to single-leg landings over increasing vertical heights and horizontal distances. While contributing to an understanding of whether gender differences explain the higher rate of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among females, this study also correlated various musculoskeletal variables significantly impacted by gender, height and/or distance and their interactions with two ACL injury-risk predictor variables; peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and peak proximal tibia anterior shear force (PTASF). Kinematic, kinetic and electromyography data of three male and three female subjects were measured. Results revealed no significant gender differences in the musculoskeletal variables tested except peak VGRF (p = 0.039) and hip axial compressive force (p = 0.032). The quadriceps and the gastrocnemius muscle forces had significant correlations with peak PTASF (r = 0.85, p < 0.05 and r = - 0.88, p < 0.05, respectively). Furthermore, hamstring muscle force was significantly correlated with peak VGRF (r = - 0.90, p < 0.05). The ankle flexion angle was significantly correlated with peak PTASF (r = - 0.82, p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that compared to males, females did not exhibit significantly different muscle forces, or ankle, knee and hip flexion angles during single-leg landings that would explain the gender bias in non-contact ACL injury rate. Our results also suggest that higher quadriceps muscle force increases the risk, while higher hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle forces as well as ankle flexion angle reduce the risk of non-contact ACL injury. PMID:23387967

  14. The effect of isolated valgus moments on ACL strain during single-leg landing: A simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Choongsoo S.; Chaudhari, Ajit M.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    Valgus moments on the knee joint during single-leg landing have been suggested as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The purpose of this study was to test the influence of isolated valgus moment on ACL strain during single-leg landing. Physiologic levels of valgus moments from an in vivo study of single-leg landing were applied to a three-dimensional dynamic knee model, previously developed and tested for ACL strain measurement during simulated landing. The ACL strain, knee valgus angle, tibial rotation, and medial collateral ligament (MCL) strain were calculated and analyzed. The study shows that the peak ACL strain increased nonlinearly with increasing peak valgus moment. Subjects with naturally high valgus moments showed greater sensitivity for increased ACL strain with increased valgus moment, but ACL strain plateaus below reported ACL failure levels when the applied isolated valgus moment rises above the maximum values observed during normal cutting activities. In addition, the tibia was observed to rotate externally as the peak valgus moment increased due to bony and soft-tissue constraints. In conclusion, knee valgus moment increases peak ACL strain during single-leg landing. However, valgus moment alone may not be sufficient to induce an isolated ACL tear without concomitant damage to the MCL, because coupled tibial external rotation and increasing strain in the MCL prevent proportional increases in ACL strain at higher levels of valgus moment. Training that reduces the external valgus moment, however, can reduce the ACL strain and thus may help athletes reduce their overall ACL injury risk. PMID:19100550

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF SEX AND MATURATION ON LANDING BIOMECHANICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ACL INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Sigward, S. M.; Pollard, C. D.; Powers, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    During landing and cutting, females exhibit greater frontal plane moments at the knee (internal knee adductor moments or external knee abduction moments) and favor use of the knee extensors over the hip extensors to attenuate impact forces when compared to males. However, it is not known when this biomechanical profile emerges. The purpose of this study was to compare landing biomechanics between sexes across maturation levels. One hundred and nineteen male and female soccer players (9–22 years) participated. Subjects were grouped based on maturational development. Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were obtained during a drop-land task. Dependent variables included the average internal knee adductor moment and sagittal plane knee/hip moment and energy absorption ratios during the deceleration phase of landing. When averaged across maturation levels, females demonstrated greater internal knee adductor moments (0.06±0.03 vs. 0.01±0.02 Nm/kg*m; P<0.005), knee/hip extensor moment ratios (2.0±0.1 vs. 1.4±0.1 Nm/kg*m; P<0.001), and knee/hip energy absorption ratios (2.9±0.1 vs. 1.96±0.1 Nm/kg*m; P<0.001) compared to males. Higher knee adductor moments combined with disproportionate use of knee extensors relative to hip extensors observed in females reflects a biomechanical pattern that increases ACL loading. This biomechanical strategy already was established in pre-pubertal female athletes. PMID:21210853

  16. Youth Sport Injury Prevention is KEY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimon, Jane M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how providing a well-designed injury prevention program that includes attention to growth and development, training and conditioning, protective equipment, and emergency care can minimize youth sport injuries. (SM)

  17. Preferential Loading of the ACL Compared With the MCL During Landing

    PubMed Central

    Quatman, Carmen E.; Kiapour, Ata M.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.; Kiapour, Ali; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Levine, Jason W.; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    to be significantly greater under combined multiplanar loading compared with anterior tibial shear force (P = .016), knee abduction (P = .018), and internal tibial rotation (P < .0005) moments alone. Conclusion While both the ACL and the MCL resist knee valgus during landing, physiological magnitudes of the applied loads leading to high ACL strain levels and injuries were not sufficient to compromise the MCL’s integrity. Clinical Relevance A better understanding of injury mechanisms may provide insight that improves current risk screening and injury prevention strategies. Current findings support multiplanar knee valgus collapse as a primary factor contributing to a non-contact ACL injury. PMID:24124198

  18. Current trends and update on injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Curry, Parichat; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Vavilala, Monica S

    2011-01-01

    Injuries are a major and growing public health problem, a leading cause of death and disabilities among people aged 1-44 years around the world. Each year, 5.8 million people die from injuries, accounting for 10% of the world's deaths. Road traffic injuries (RTIs), self-inflicted injuries and violence are the top three leading causes of all injury deaths, while RTIs, falls and drowning are the top three leading causes of unintentional injury death. In many high-income countries, trends of injury death have been decreasing as a result of prevention measures. In contrast, trends in low- and middle-income countries have been rising. In this article, we review the prevention strategies for RTIs, violence, falls and drowning developed over decades to disseminate the knowledge and inform health care providers, especially acute care physicians, about the importance of injury prevention. PMID:22096775

  19. Current trends and update on injury prevention

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Parichat; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Vavilala, Monica S.

    2011-01-01

    Injuries are a major and growing public health problem, a leading cause of death and disabilities among people aged 1–44 years around the world. Each year, 5.8 million people die from injuries, accounting for 10% of the world's deaths. Road traffic injuries (RTIs), self-inflicted injuries and violence are the top three leading causes of all injury deaths, while RTIs, falls and drowning are the top three leading causes of unintentional injury death. In many high-income countries, trends of injury death have been decreasing as a result of prevention measures. In contrast, trends in low- and middle-income countries have been rising. In this article, we review the prevention strategies for RTIs, violence, falls and drowning developed over decades to disseminate the knowledge and inform health care providers, especially acute care physicians, about the importance of injury prevention. PMID:22096775

  20. Clinically Relevant Injury Patterns After an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Provide Insight Into Injury Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Jason W.; Kiapour, Ata M.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.

    2014-01-01

    significantly (P = .002) dependent on the applied loading conditions. Damage to the articular cartilage along with depression of the midlateral tibial plateau was primarily associated with knee abduction moments, while cartilage damage with depression of the posterolateral tibial plateau was primarily associated with internal tibial rotation moments. Conclusion The current findings demonstrate the relationship between the location of the tibial plateau injury and ACL injury mechanisms. The resultant injury locations were similar to the clinically observed bone bruises across the tibial plateau during a noncontact ACL injury. These findings indicate that abduction combined with other modes of loading (multiplanar loading) may act to produce ACL injuries. Clinical Relevance A better understanding of ACL injury mechanisms and associated risk factors may improve current preventive, surgical, and rehabilitation strategies and limit the risk of ACL and secondary injuries, which may in turn minimize the future development of posttraumatic osteoarthritis of the knee. PMID:23144366

  1. Injury prevention. Where are the resources?

    PubMed

    Feury, Karen Jean

    2003-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control (2002), each year nearly 150,000 Americans die from injuries, making injury the leading cause of death among children and young adults and a significant problem for Americans of all ages. Nonfatal injuries account for approximately 114 million physician office visits and 25% of all emergency department examinations. It is estimated that one in four Americans will suffer a potentially preventable injury serious enough to require medical attention (Shienfield Gorin & Arnold, 1998). As injury-prevention advocates, we must address this public health problem with a multidimensional approach that includes the three Es: education, engineering, and enforcement. Professionals from many disciplines, including nurses, physicians, health educators, school teachers, social workers, police officers, firefighters, emergency medical technicians, and coaches, must have accurate information to educate. Education in injury prevention must be a collaborative approach. These injury-prevention leaders must stay informed and knowledgeable of this ever-changing science. This article highlights common injuries, preventive strategies, and resources for injury-prevention information. This information will assist the healthcare provider in finding accurate sources of information concerning injury prevention (Shienfield Gorin & Arnold, 1998). PMID:12703396

  2. [Ankle braces prevent ligament injuries].

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Jon

    2002-09-01

    The Cochrane collaboration has performed a meta-analysis of all studies found on the prevention of ankle ligament injuries, frequent in sports like soccer, European handball and basketball. Interventions include the use of modified footwear and associated supports, training programmes and health education. Five randomized trials totalling 3,954 participants were included. With the exception of ankle disc training, all prophylactic interventions entailed the application of an external ankle support in the form of a semi-rigid orthosis, air-cast or high top shoes. The studies showed a significant reduction in the number of ankle sprains in individuals allocated to external ankle support. This reduction was greater for those with a previous history of ankle sprains. PMID:12362747

  3. Injury Risk Estimation Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Petushek, Erich J.; Ward, Paul; Cokely, Edward T.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Simple observational assessment of movement is a potentially low-cost method for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury screening and prevention. Although many individuals utilize some form of observational assessment of movement, there are currently no substantial data on group skill differences in observational screening of ACL injury risk. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare various groups’ abilities to visually assess ACL injury risk as well as the associated strategies and ACL knowledge levels. The hypothesis was that sports medicine professionals would perform better than coaches and exercise science academics/students and that these subgroups would all perform better than parents and other general population members. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 428 individuals, including physicians, physical therapists, athletic trainers, strength and conditioning coaches, exercise science researchers/students, athletes, parents, and members of the general public participated in the study. Participants completed the ACL Injury Risk Estimation Quiz (ACL-IQ) and answered questions related to assessment strategy and ACL knowledge. Results: Strength and conditioning coaches, athletic trainers, physical therapists, and exercise science students exhibited consistently superior ACL injury risk estimation ability (+2 SD) as compared with sport coaches, parents of athletes, and members of the general public. The performance of a substantial number of individuals in the exercise sciences/sports medicines (approximately 40%) was similar to or exceeded clinical instrument-based biomechanical assessment methods (eg, ACL nomogram). Parents, sport coaches, and the general public had lower ACL-IQ, likely due to their lower ACL knowledge and to rating the importance of knee/thigh motion lower and weight and jump height higher. Conclusion: Substantial cross-professional/group differences in visual ACL

  4. Developing a Playground Injury Prevention Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather M.; Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Playgrounds are a major source of unintentional injuries in the school environment. In fact, 80% of all injuries on public playground equipment happen at school. Thus, the need for developing a playground injury prevention plan is critical to provide safe educational outdoor environments for children. The S.A.F.E.[TM] framework for injury…

  5. Cheerleading Injuries. Patterns, Prevention, Case Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Although cheerleading carries a relatively low injury risk, injuries that do occur can be severe, commonly affecting the ankle, head, and neck. Two case reports are presented that illustrate acute injuries typical of cheerleading. Prevention recommendations are offered related to supervising, screening, limiting stunts, optimizing the environment…

  6. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Pediatric Athletes Presenting to Sports Medicine Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Stein, Cynthia J.; Zurakowski, David; Meehan, William P.; Myer, Gregory D.; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Limited data exist regarding the effect of the growth process on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in male versus female children. Hypothesis: The proportion of ACL injuries/sports injuries presenting to clinic will vary by age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Study Design: Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: The study group consisted of a randomly selected 5% probability sample of all children 5 to 17 years of age presenting to a sports medicine clinic from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009; 2133 charts were reviewed. Data collected included demographics, height and weight, injury mechanism, diagnosis, treatment, previous injury, and organized sports. Results: A total of 206 ACL tears were analyzed (104 girls, 102 boys). Girls were slightly older than boys (15.1 ± 1.7 vs 14.3 ± 2.1 years; P < 0.01). Male-female comparison of ACL injury/total injury by age revealed that girls had a steeper increase by age than boys. Among 5- to 12-year-olds, boys had a higher ACL injury/total injury ratio than girls (all P < 0.01). Children 13 to 17 years of age showed no significant difference for sex in ACL injury/total injury ratio. As age advanced, the proportion of ACL injuries/total injuries increased for both girls (P < 0.01) and boys (P = 0.04). BMI was independently associated with an ACL injury (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The proportion of ACL injuries/total injuries was similar for boys and girls aged 13 to 17 years. Girls showed a significantly steeper increase in ACL injury proportion versus boys through puberty. Clinical Relevance: This study will increase clinician awareness of ACL injury occurrence in young male and female athletes 5 to 12 years of age. Injury prevention efforts should target young girls before the onset of puberty and before injury occurs. PMID:25984258

  7. Domain 2: Sport Safety and Injury Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurchiek, Larry; Mokha, Monique Butcher

    2004-01-01

    Most coaches recognize the importance of creating a safe environment and preventing injuries of their athletes. Domain 2 is dedicated to this important aspect of coaching, and outlines specific areas within safety and injury prevention that coaches should address. Domain 2 sets the standards for facility, equipment, and environmental safety…

  8. ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... all ages how to prevent traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries! The ThinkFirst Foundation is a 501c3 nonprofit organization. ... The mission of ThinkFirst is to prevent brain, spinal cord and other traumatic injuries through education, research and advocacy. Support ThinkFirst Support ...

  9. Comparison of ACL strain estimated via a data-driven model with in vitro measurements.

    PubMed

    Weinhandl, Joshua T; Hoch, Matthew C; Bawab, Sebastian Y; Ringleb, Stacie I

    2016-11-01

    Computer modeling and simulation techniques have been increasingly used to investigate anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading during dynamic activities in an attempt to improve our understanding of injury mechanisms and development of injury prevention programs. However, the accuracy of many of these models remains unknown and thus the purpose of this study was to compare estimates of ACL strain from a previously developed three-dimensional, data-driven model with those obtained via in vitro measurements. ACL strain was measured as the knee was cycled from approximately 10° to 120° of flexion at 20 deg s(-1) with static loads of 100, 50, and 50 N applied to the quadriceps, biceps femoris and medial hamstrings (semimembranosus and semitendinosus) tendons, respectively. A two segment, five-degree-of-freedom musculoskeletal knee model was then scaled to match the cadaver's anthropometry and in silico ACL strains were then determined based on the knee joint kinematics and moments of force. Maximum and minimum ACL strains estimated in silico were within 0.2 and 0.42% of that measured in vitro, respectively. Additionally, the model estimated ACL strain with a bias (mean difference) of -0.03% and dynamic accuracy (rms error) of 0.36% across the flexion-extension cycle. These preliminary results suggest that the proposed model was capable of estimating ACL strains during a simple flexion-extension cycle. Future studies should validate the model under more dynamic conditions with variable muscle loading. This model could then be used to estimate ACL strains during dynamic sporting activities where ACL injuries are more common. PMID:27030937

  10. Common injuries and ailments of the female athlete; pathophysiology, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Hilibrand, Miryl J; Hammoud, Sommer; Bishop, Meghan; Woods, Daniel; Fredrick, Robert W; Dodson, Christopher C

    2015-11-01

    With increasing numbers of women competing in high school and collegiate athletics, it is important that physicians become familiar with injury patterns and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. Observations and clinical data have elucidated unique biomechanical, anatomic and hormonal factors that predispose skeletally mature female athletes to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, patellofemoral disorders and lower extremity stress fractures. Additionally, younger female athletes are particularly at risk of developing components of the "Female Athlete Triad" (more recently included under the syndrome of "Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport" [RED-S]): disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. An understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions has led to the development of programs that can treat their underlying causes, decrease susceptibility to injury, and improve the long-term health of the female athlete. This paper is intended to provide physicians with a review of the sex-specific etiology, prevention and treatment of injuries common to the female athlete. PMID:26458108

  11. Gender, Vertical Height and Horizontal Distance Effects on Single-Leg Landing Kinematics: Implications for Risk of non-contact ACL Injury.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nicholas; Rouhi, Gholamreza; Robertson, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of studies investigating gender differences in whole-body kinematics during single-leg landings from increasing vertical heights and horizontal distances. This study determined the main effects and interactions of gender, vertical height, and horizontal distance on whole-body joint kinematics during single-leg landings, and established whether these findings could explain the gender disparity in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rate. Recreationally active males (n=6) and females (n=6) performed single-leg landings from a takeoff deck of vertical height of 20, 40, and 60 cm placed at a horizontal distance of 30, 50 and 70 cm from the edge of a force platform, while 3D kinematics and kinetics were simultaneously measured. It was determined that peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and the ankle flexion angle exhibited significant gender differences (p=0.028, partial η(2)=0.40 and p=0.035, partial η(2)=0.37, respectively). Peak VGRF was significantly correlated to the ankle flexion angle (r= -0.59, p=0.04), hip flexion angle (r= -0.74, p=0.006), and trunk flexion angle (r= -0.59, p=0.045). Peak posterior ground reaction force (PGRF) was significantly correlated to the ankle flexion angle (r= -0.56, p=0.035), while peak knee abduction moment was significantly correlated to the knee flexion angle (r= -0.64, p=0.03). Rearfoot landings may explain the higher ACL injury rate among females. Higher plantar-flexed ankle, hip, and trunk flexion angles were associated with lower peak ground reaction forces, while higher knee flexion angle was associated with lower peak knee abduction moment, and these kinematics implicate reduced risk of non-contact ACL injury. PMID:24146702

  12. Gender, Vertical Height and Horizontal Distance Effects on Single-Leg Landing Kinematics: Implications for Risk of non-contact ACL Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nicholas; Rouhi, Gholamreza; Robertson, Gordon

    There is a lack of studies investigating gender differences in whole-body kinematics during single-leg landings from increasing vertical heights and horizontal distances. This study determined the main effects and interactions of gender, vertical height, and horizontal distance on whole-body joint kinematics during single-leg landings, and established whether these findings could explain the gender disparity in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rate. Recreationally active males (n=6) and females (n=6) performed single-leg landings from a takeoff deck of vertical height of 20, 40, and 60 cm placed at a horizontal distance of 30, 50 and 70 cm from the edge of a force platform, while 3D kinematics and kinetics were simultaneously measured. It was determined that peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and the ankle flexion angle exhibited significant gender differences (p=0.028, partial η 2 =0.40 and p=0.035, partial η 2 =0.37, respectively). Peak VGRF was significantly correlated to the ankle flexion angle (r= −0.59, p=0.04), hip flexion angle (r= −0.74, p=0.006), and trunk flexion angle (r= −0.59, p=0.045). Peak posterior ground reaction force (PGRF) was significantly correlated to the ankle flexion angle (r= −0.56, p=0.035), while peak knee abduction moment was significantly correlated to the knee flexion angle (r= −0.64, p=0.03). Rearfoot landings may explain the higher ACL injury rate among females. Higher plantar-flexed ankle, hip, and trunk flexion angles were associated with lower peak ground reaction forces, while higher knee flexion angle was associated with lower peak knee abduction moment, and these kinematics implicate reduced risk of non-contact ACL injury. PMID:24146702

  13. Occupational injury prevention research: progress and priorities.

    PubMed

    Stout, N A; Linn, H I

    2002-12-01

    The twentieth century witnessed remarkable reductions in the number and rate of occupational fatalities and injuries. However, many preventable injuries and deaths still occur. Barriers to progress in occupational injury prevention are discussed, along with strategies for overcoming them. In mining, the frequency of death has dramatically declined over the century. The latest figures from the BLS indicate that less than 6000 worker deaths from injury occurred in 2000. Catastrophic events have prompted increased attention, resources, and action on workplace hazards and risks, resulting in sweeping changes, including new protective laws. Science based approaches to prevention have contributed to progress. Multidisciplinary collaboration among injury prevention researchers, and collaboration and cooperation among multiple sectors, have improved the relevance and application of injury prevention research and development. Barriers to further progress include lack of evaluation of the effectiveness of prevention strategies and technologies, including cost effectiveness; lack of widespread implementation of known, effective prevention; and lack of efficient transfer and implementation of prevention knowledge and products to the workplace. Evaluation and implementation of prevention efforts are most successfully achieved in partnership between researchers and the industry at risk, which requires outreach efforts on the part of the occupational research community. PMID:12460949

  14. Eye Injury Prevention for the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Annette K; Philip, Swetha S; Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Mackey, David A

    2016-05-01

    Each year an estimated 3.3 to 5.7 million pediatric eye injuries occur worldwide. It is widely reported that 90% of ocular injuries are preventable. Our aim was to identify legislation and policies, education, and mandatory eye protection strategies that have successfully contributed to reducing rates of children's eye injuries. A literature search was conducted using the terms "pediatric" or "children" or "adolescent" and "ocular" or "eye" and "protection" or "injury prevention." Articles were retrieved based on titles and abstracts and assessed in the context of our research question. Strategies identified aimed at reducing ocular trauma fell into 3 broad categories: legislation and policies, education, and personal eye protection. Policies including restrictions on the sale and supply of certain consumer products, mandatory vehicle seatbelts, and laminated windscreens in vehicles have assisted in reducing children's eye injuries. Educational tools aimed at children and their caregivers have been effective in changing attitudes to eye health and safety. Effective pediatric eye injury prevention systems require a multifactorial approach combining legislation, policies, standards, education, and personal eye protection to limit exposure to ocular hazards. A paucity of standardized measurement and lack of funding have limited advances in the field of children's eye injury prevention. Improved eye injury surveillance and research funding along with collaboration with health care providers are important components for strategies to prevent pediatric ocular trauma. PMID:27183290

  15. The Effect of The Intercondyler Notch Width Index on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Görmeli, Cemile Ayşe; Görmeli, Gökay; Öztürk, Yağmur Burak; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kahraman, Ayşegül

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the relationship of the intercondylar notch width with unilateral and bilateral ACL injury by using MR images. Methods: The intercondylar notch width index was measured on the MR images of 18 patients with a bilateral ACL injury, 38 patients with a unilateral ACL injury and 53 healthy subjects with a normal ACL and the results of all groups were compared with each other. Results: The mean NWI values were 0.227 (±0.008) in bilateral injured; 0.245 (±0.009) in unilateral injured and 0.272 (±0.01) in control groups and 0.251(±0.01) in unaffected side of the unilateral group. There were statistically significant differences in intercondylar notch width index (NWI) values between all groups and there was a significant difference between the affected and the unaffected sides in group with unilateral ACL injury. A cutoff value of 0.25 for NWI gave an odds ratio of 26.5 for bilateral and 3.23 for unilateral ACL injuries. Conclusion: The finding that NWI is significantly narrowed in patients with bilateral and unilateral ACL tears compared with the healthy controls suggest a relationship between a narrow NWI and an increased risk of ACL injury. The patients with a narrow NWI should also be screened contralaterally for assessment of ACL injury risk on the other knee. So, specialized training programmes for the people with narrow NWI can be prepared for preventing ACL injuries.

  16. Prediction and prevention of musculoskeletal injury: a paradigm shift in methodology

    PubMed Central

    Quatman, C E; Quatman, C C; Hewett, T E

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods employed to study musculoskeletal injury mechanisms and joint biomechanics utilise in vivo or in vitro techniques. The advent of new technology and improved methods has also given rise to in silico (computer modelling) techniques. Under the current research paradigm, in vivo, in vitro and in silico methods independently provide information regarding the mechanisms and prevention of musculoskeletal injury. However, individually, each of these methods has multiple, inherent limitations and is likely to provide incomplete answers about multifactorial, complex injury conditions. The purpose of this treatise is to review current methods used to study, understand, and prevent musculoskeletal injury and to develop new conceptual-methodological frameworks that may help create a paradigm shift in musculoskeletal injury prevention research. We term the fusion of these three techniques in simulacra amalgama, or simply in sim, meaning a “union of models done on the likeness of phenomena.” Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury will be employed as a model example for the utility and applicability of the proposed, synthesised approach. Shifting the current experimental paradigm to incorporate a multifaceted, multidisciplinary, integration of in vivo, in vitro and in silico methods into the proposed in sim approaches may provide a platform for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationships between complex joint biomechanics and observed injury mechanisms. PMID:19884108

  17. Eye Injuries Can Be Prevented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Eleven thousand eye injuries are suffered annually by 5- to-14-year-old youngsters during sports and recreational activities. Baseball-related accidents result in more eye injuries to youth than any other sport. Protective face gear is discussed and recommended. (MT)

  18. Ways to Prevent Percussion Overuse Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    It is a proven fact that the repetitive nature of percussion playing can cause carpal tunnel syndrome, bursitis, and tendinitis. This paper offers ways to prevent percussion overuse injuries, particularly by developing a healthy warmup routine.

  19. Core Competencies for Injury and Violence Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stephens-Stidham, Shelli; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Bou-Saada, Ingrid; Hunter, Wanda; Lindemer, Kristen; Runyan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence require a workforce that is knowledgeable and skilled in prevention. However, there has been no systematic process to ensure that professionals possess the necessary competencies. To address this deficiency, we developed a set of core competencies for public health practitioners in injury and violence prevention programs. The core competencies address domains including public health significance, data, the design and implementation of prevention activities, evaluation, program management, communication, stimulating change, and continuing education. Specific learning objectives establish goals for training in each domain. The competencies assist in efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence and can provide benchmarks against which to assess progress in professional capacity for injury and violence prevention. PMID:19197083

  20. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  1. Applying a Developmental Approach to Injury Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercy, James A.; Sleet, David A.; Doll, Lynda S.

    2003-01-01

    The epidemiology of unintentional injury and violence, including likely causes and individuals' abilities to respond to risks, are closely related to the stages of human development. The epidemiology and prevention of injury are also influenced by the social contexts (i.e., family, community, and socio-cultural) in which human development occurs.…

  2. Community-based Injury Prevention Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Terry P.; MacKay, J. Morag; Moher, David; Walker, Annie; Jones, Alison L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviewed 32 studies that evaluated the impact of community-based injury prevention efforts on childhood injuries, safety behaviors, and adoption of safety devices. Interventions targeted schools, municipalities, and cities. This approach effectively increased some safety practices (e.g, bicycle helmet and car seat use) but not others. Common…

  3. Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C.; Anderson, Barton E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanic, and clinical studies of core stability for injury prevention (keywords: “core OR trunk” AND “training OR prevention OR exercise OR rehabilitation” AND “risk OR prevalence”) published between January 1980 and October 2012. Articles with relevance to core stability risk factors, assessment, and training were reviewed. Relevant sources from articles were also retrieved and reviewed. Results: Stabilizer, mobilizer, and load transfer core muscles assist in understanding injury risk, assessing core muscle function, and developing injury prevention programs. Moderate evidence of alterations in core muscle recruitment and injury risk exists. Assessment tools to identify deficits in volitional muscle contraction, isometric muscle endurance, stabilization, and movement patterns are available. Exercise programs to improve core stability should focus on muscle activation, neuromuscular control, static stabilization, and dynamic stability. Conclusion: Core stabilization relies on instantaneous integration among passive, active, and neural control subsystems. Core muscles are often categorized functionally on the basis of stabilizing or mobilizing roles. Neuromuscular control is critical in coordinating this complex system for dynamic stabilization. Comprehensive assessment and training require a multifaceted approach to address core muscle strength, endurance, and recruitment requirements for functional demands associated with daily activities, exercise, and sport. PMID:24427426

  4. Preventing equestrian injuries. Locking the stable door.

    PubMed

    Watt, G M; Finch, C F

    1996-09-01

    The medical and sports literature databases were searched for equestrian sports-related injury published in English since 1980, together with conference abstracts and discussions with equestrian sporting bodies. This literature was critically reviewed, with emphasis on measures to prevent or control injury i.e. countermeasures. While there is considerable literature available on the epidemiology of injury incurred in most equestrian sports, there is little on the prevention of these injuries. Case-control or other studies evaluating the effectiveness of the countermeasures suggested by authors do not seem to exist. There is a good body of epidemiology that supports the proper use of approved helmets as a means of preventing injury in these sports. However, protective helmets do not always prevent injury as expected, and many riders do not choose to wear them because of perceived poor design. The search for the ideal equestrian helmet should continue. Ideally the effectiveness of helmets should be assessed scientifically. Among the other countermeasures discussed are the use of rules and regulations for conduct of events, knowledge of horse behaviour, well-conducted lessons, contraindicated medical conditions, public education, rider education, appropriate equipment and clothing, the riding environment, rider experience, safety stirrups, body protectors, falling techniques, and first aid measures. Even though the injury rate for equestrians is relatively low when compared with other sports, the injuries that are incurred are usually severe. prevention is often difficult because the behaviour of the horse is unpredictable. Countermeasures used for prevention should be evaluated for the effectiveness to reduce the frequency and severity of injuries to equestrians. PMID:8883215

  5. Dynamic neuromuscular analysis training for preventing anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Slauterbeck, James R

    2007-01-01

    Female athletes are four to six times more likely to sustain an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than male athletes. Since the enactment of Title IX, male athletic participation at the high school level has remained steady (3.8 million), whereas female athletic participation has increased tenfold (from 0.3 to 3.0 million). Geometric growth in athletic participation and the higher injury rate in female athletes have led to gender inequity in ACL injury rates. Most ACL injuries occur as a result of noncontact mechanisms such as during landing from a jump or while making a lateral pivot. Dynamic knee instability, caused by ligament dominance (decreased dynamic neuromuscular control of the joint), quadriceps dominance (decreased hamstring strength and recruitment), and leg dominance (side-to-side differences in strength and coordination) may be responsible for gender inequity in ACL injury rates. PMID:17472323

  6. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of ...

  7. [Prevention of injuries associated with horseback riding].

    PubMed

    ten Kate, Chantal A; de Kooter, Tabitha A; Kramer, William L M

    2015-01-01

    Each year 9,900 equestrians present at Accident and Emergency Departments, 40% of them 10-19 year old females. The most common horse-riding injuries are to the head, brain, neck and face, torso and extremities. Because of the relatively larger head, children more often fall on their head. Wearing a helmet gives considerable protection. Despite the common use of a helmet by horseback riders, serious head injury still occurs regularly. Further research into improvement of the protective function of the helmet is indicated. The current safety vest (body protector) does not significantly reduce the risk of torso injury. Improvement of its protective function is necessary. Injury to the lower extremities is caused when they become trapped in the stirrup in a fall from or with the horse. Safety stirrups and sturdy footwear are possible preventive measures. Investment in the quality and promotion of preventive measures could reduce the frequency and severity of equestrian injuries. PMID:25923496

  8. Firearm injury prevention training in Preventive Medicine Residency programs.

    PubMed

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph A

    2009-08-01

    Preventive medicine plays a central role in the reducing the number of deaths due to preventable causes of premature deaths. General Preventive Medicine Residency programs have not been studied in relation to training in this area. A three-wave mail survey was conducted with email and telephone follow-ups. The outcome measures were the portion of program directors involved in training residents on firearm injury prevention issues and their perceived benefits and barriers of training residents on firearm injury prevention issues. Only 25% of the programs provided formal training on firearm injury prevention. Program directors who provided formal training perceived significantly higher number of benefits to offering such training than did directors who did not provide such training but no significant difference was found between the two for number of perceived barriers. If preventive medicine residency graduates are to play a role in reducing premature morbidity and mortality from firearms it will require more residencies to offer formal training in this area. The Association for Prevention Teaching and Research needs to develop guidelines on specific curriculum topics regarding firearm injury prevention. PMID:19326195

  9. Fifteen tips for success in injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Judkins, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen tips for success in injury prevention include the following: (1) make a plan; (2) understand injury epidemiology; (3) read, learn, and get educated; (4) show me the data; (5) select prevention strategies thoughtfully; (6) define risk factors and understand risk taking; (7) evaluate; (8) schedule a lunch meeting; (9) use principles of health behavior change, adult education theory, and communication theory; (10) be friends with the marketing and public affairs people; (11) recognize the fact that people are more emotional about injury in children than in adults; (12) understand cost-benefits and payoffs; (13) get stuff; (14) report your results; and (15) be patient. Several useful tables for basic references to resources in injury prevention are included. PMID:20029280

  10. Hamstring Strain Injuries: Recommendations for Diagnosis, Rehabilitation and Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Sherry, Marc A.; Silder, Amy; Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Hamstring strain injuries remain a challenge for both athletes and clinicians given the high incidence rate, slow healing, and persistent symptoms. Moreover, nearly one-third of these injuries recur within the first year following a return to sport, with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high reinjury rate suggests that commonly utilized rehabilitation programs may be inadequate at resolving possible muscular weakness, reduced tissue extensibility, and/or altered movement patterns associated with the injury. Further, the traditional criteria used to determine the readiness of the athlete to return to sport may be insensitive to these persistent deficits, resulting in a premature return. There is mounting evidence that the risk of reinjury can be minimized by utilizing rehabilitation strategies that incorporate neuromuscular control exercises and eccentric strength training, combined with objective measures to assess musculotendon recovery and readiness to return to sport. In this paper, we first describe the diagnostic examination of an acute hamstring strain injury, including discussion of the value of determining injury location in estimating the duration of the convalescent period. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring injuries including specific criteria for treatment progression and return to sport. Finally, we describe directions for future research including injury-specific rehabilitation programs, objective measures to assess reinjury risk, and strategies to prevent injury occurrence. Level of evidence: Diagnosis/therapy, level 5. PMID:20118524

  11. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. PMID:25646308

  12. Prevention of Childhood Injuries: Evaluation of the Statewide Childhood Injury Prevention Program (SCIPP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Bernard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of a community-based injury prevention program in nine communities. Discusses the intervention methods and measurement techniques implemented to avoid injury to children from infancy to five years old. Finds the program effective in reducing motor vehicle occupant injuries and in increasing safety knowledge and…

  13. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Wakeboarding

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Harlan M.; Sanders, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Background: Wakeboarding is an increasingly popular sport that involves aggressive stunts with high risk for lower extremity injury, including anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Little has been reported on prevalence or mechanism of ACL injury while wakeboarding. Hypothesis: The prevalence of ACL injury in wakeboarding approaches that of other high-risk sports. Analyzing the mechanism of ACL injury may aid in future efforts of prevention. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: In sum, 1580 surveys were sent internationally to professional and amateur wakeboarders. The survey questioned the participants on their history of an ACL tear while wakeboarding and asked them to describe the mechanism of injury and treatment. Results: A total of 123 surveys were returned. Of this group, 52 (42.3%) acknowledged having had an ACL tear while wakeboarding. The majority described feeling a pop or buckle after attempting to land a high jump. Only 5 participants (13.5%) described a rotational mechanism created by catching the board edge in the water. Thirty-seven participants (71.15%) said that the injury ruined their ability to wakeboard before reconstruction, and 41 (78.85%) had the injury repaired surgically. Conclusion: The prevalence of ACL tears in this data set, 42.3%, is the highest reported in the literature for wakeboarding and one of the highest for any sport. The main mechanism of injury appears to involve axial compression while one lands in a provocative position; it is not related to a rotational force created by fixed bindings. The injury should be surgically repaired to effectively continue the sport. Further study is needed to determine if wakeboarding represents a high-risk sport for ACL injury. Clinical Significance: Wakeboarding may be a high-risk sport for ACL injury. Noncontact axial compression appears to be the main mechanism of injury. PMID:23016104

  14. Sports Related Injuries: Incidence, Management and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Michael A.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles of prevention involve proper familiarity with the sport, proper equipment and proper conditioning. PMID:21286103

  15. Preventing head injuries in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... strapped in with the safety harness. Store all firearms and bullets in a locked cabinet. ... of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Heads up. Facts for physicians about ...

  16. Prevent Injury After a Disaster

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor ... Heat Prevention Guide (Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme ...

  17. Gastrointestinal radiation injury: Prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shadad, Abobakr K; Sullivan, Frank J; Martin, Joseph D; Egan, Laurence J

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in detection and treatment of cancer, there is an increasing emphasis on the efficacy and safety aspects of cancer therapy. Radiation therapy is a common treatment for a wide variety of cancers, either alone or in combination with other treatments. Ionising radiation injury to the gastrointestinal tract is a frequent side effect of radiation therapy and a considerable proportion of patients suffer acute or chronic gastrointestinal symptoms as a result. These side effects often cause morbidity and may in some cases lower the efficacy of radiotherapy treatment. Radiation injury to the gastrointestinal tract can be minimised by either of two strategies: technical strategies which aim to physically shift radiation dose away from the normal intestinal tissues, and biological strategies which aim to modulate the normal tissue response to ionising radiation or to increase its resistance to it. Although considerable improvement in the safety of radiotherapy treatment has been achieved through the use of modern optimised planning and delivery techniques, biological techniques may offer additional further promise. Different agents have been used to prevent or minimize the severity of gastrointestinal injury induced by ionising radiation exposure, including biological, chemical and pharmacological agents. In this review we aim to discuss various technical strategies to prevent gastrointestinal injury during cancer radiotherapy, examine the different therapeutic options for acute and chronic gastrointestinal radiation injury and outline some examples of research directions and considerations for prevention at a pre-clinical level. PMID:23345942

  18. Noise Injury: Etiology and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lees, R. E. M.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure to noise might be responsible for a wide and varied spectrum of physical and mental morbidity, although many of the claims of cause and effect relationship are controversial and unproven. The etiological relationship between noise and high frequency hearing loss is, however, well documented. While noise-induced hearing loss is considered to be primarily an occupational problem, current leisure time activities have created the potential for it to become more common in the community at large. Once developed, this hearing loss is permanent and cannot be influenced by therapy. Noise-induced hearing loss is almost completely preventable and the family physician has an important responsibility for primary and secondary prevention, whether the noise source is in the workplace or in some other location. PMID:21286519

  19. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, J. L.; Makhija, L. K.; Bajaj, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI) would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme. PMID:21321659

  20. National programme for prevention of burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, J L; Makhija, L K; Bajaj, S P

    2010-09-01

    The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI) would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme. PMID:21321659

  1. ACL Roof Impingement Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Tanksley, John Anthony; Conte, Evan J.; Werner, Brian C.; Gwathmey, Frank Winston; Brockmeier, Stephen F.; Miller, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    intercondylar roof and sustained an angular deformity (IRI Type 1) Figure 1. No grafts in the IF group impinged; 4/6 (66.7%) grafts in the IF group touched the roof but did not deflect (IRI Type 2). The average tibial tunnel fluoroscopic Staubli ratio was 31.9 (range 22 - 39). The impinging TT grafts had an average Staubli ratio of 29.4 while the non-impinging TT grafts had more posterior tibial tunnels (Staubli 38). This did not reach statistical significance. All other grafts avoided contact with the roof (IRI Type 3). Two tibial tunnels in the TT group migrated posteriorly more than 6 mm after femoral tunnel drilling, and this may have prevented graft impingement. No significant differences were found between the tibial tunnel locations in the IF group. Conclusion: The independent femoral drilling technique appears to have a low risk for roof impingement in the setting of anterior tibial tunnel positioning, likely because of more favorable graft trajectory afforded by an anatomic femoral tunnel that lies below Blumensaat's line. Roof impingement remains a concern after transtibial ACL reconstruction with a more anterior tibial tunnel. An unintended protective effect may occur during transtibial drilling that expands the tibial tunnel posteriorly. Future clinical studies are planned to develop better recommendations for ACL tibial tunnel placement.

  2. 75 FR 21307 - Injury Prevention Program; Announcement Type: Cooperative Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Injury Prevention Program; Announcement Type: Cooperative Agreement... Service (IHS) announces competitive cooperative agreement (CA) funding for the Injury Prevention Program... Cooperative Agreement Program (TIPCAP) grantees. (B) PART II is for applicants that will use...

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English Español ( ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  4. Common cycling injuries. Management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Mellion, M B

    1991-01-01

    The increasing participation in the athletic forms of bicycling warrants expanded physician attention to the traumatic and overuse injuries experienced by cyclists. The modern bicycle consists of a frame with various components, including handlebars, brakes, wheels, pedals, and gears, in various configurations for the various modes of cycling. For high performance cycling the proper fit of the bicycle is critical. The most efficient method to provide an accurate fit is the Fitkit, but proper frame selection and adjustment can be made by following simple guidelines for frame size, seat height, fore and aft saddle position, saddle angle, reach and handlebar height. The human body functions most effectively in a narrow range of pedal resistance to effort. Riding at too much pedal resistance is a major cause of overuse problems in cyclists. Overuse injuries are lower using lower gear ratios at a higher cadence. Cycling injuries account for 500,000 visits per year to emergency rooms in the US. Over half the accidents involve motor vehicles, and road surface and mechanical problems with the bicycle are also common causes of accidents. Head injuries are common in cyclists and account for most of the fatal accidents. Despite good evidence of their effectiveness, victims with head injuries have rarely worn helmets. Contusions, sprains and fractures may occur throughout the body, most commonly to the hand, wrist, lower arm, shoulder, ankle and lower leg. The handlebar and seat have been implicated in a wide variety of abdominal and genital injuries. Abrasions, lacerations and bruises of the skin are the most common traumatic injuries. Trauma may be prevented or reduced by proper protective safety equipment and keeping the bike in top mechanical condition. Anticipation of the errors of others and practising and adopting specific riding strategies also help to prevent traumatic injuries. Management of overuse injuries in cycling generally involves mechanical adjustment as well

  5. Implementing Injury Prevention Counseling in a Clinic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBailly, Susan A.; And Others

    While physicians should provide injury prevention counseling to parents of young children, they do not always feel they are adequately prepared to provide such counseling. An injury prevention training project was developed to train physicians in injury prevention counseling and to examine factors related to parental compliance with injury…

  6. Preventing heat injury: military versus civilian perspective.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J K

    1997-01-01

    Guidelines for preventing heat injury (HI) among military personnel are not directly applicable to civilian personnel. Military guidelines call for relatively large volumes of prophylactic water consumption and physical activity limitations depending on the wet bulb globe temperature. However, in civilian populations, there is an increased prevalence of HI risk factors: older age, medication use, especially anticholinergic and psychotropic medications, obesity, previous HI, and skin disorders. Although dehydration is a major contributor to HI in military situations, it is unlikely in classical heat stroke among civilians. Civilian guidelines are based on the heat index. Activity levels must be restricted more for civilians, and prophylactic water consumption (beyond replacing loss from sweat) is not necessary. This review discusses the pathophysiology of heat injury, contrasts the military and civilian approach to prevention of HI, and describes appropriate field intervention for HI. PMID:9002705

  7. [Injury prevention in the elderly population].

    PubMed

    Richter, M; Becker, C; Seifert, J; Gebhard, F; Pieske, O; Holch, M; Lob, G

    2002-12-01

    Injuries in the elderly population have more considerable consequences (more difficult treatment, higher costs,worse outcome) than in the younger population. Therefore, the prevention is especially important. The majority of the injuries are caused by traffic accidents and falls. TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS: An analysis of the current injury situation in elderly road users (65 years and older) involved in road traffic accidents was intended to allow conclusions regarding future prophylaxis. FALLS: Falls are mostly caused by numerous factors. The most important predictors for falls are dementia,Parkinson-Syndrome and neurologic deficits after cerebrovascular insults. The most important symptoms, that indicate an increased risk for fall are gait abnormalities, balance lack and underweight. The most important anamnestic indications are more than one falls in the recent 90 days, need for assistance in daily living and prevailing medication. Another important factor is the residential setting (lighting, stairs, floor conditions,bath installations). The most affective protective interventions involve multiple factors. The incidence of falls could be reduced by 30%. The hip protector is an effective protection against proximal femur fractures. which is the most frequent fracture in the elderly population that requires treatment as an inpatient. Injury prevention in the elderly population is an interdisciplinary task as for example shown by the successful fall clinics in the anglo-american area. PMID:12486574

  8. 75 FR 27797 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Prevention of Suicidal Behavior through the Enhancement...

  9. Patient participation in pressure injury prevention: giving patient's a voice.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Sharon; Chaboyer, Wendy; Gillespie, Brigid

    2014-12-01

    Pressure injuries burden patients and healthcare organisations, with some preventative practices having little impact on prevalence reduction. Patient participation in care may be an effective pressure injury prevention strategy, yet patient preferences are unknown. The aim of this interpretive study was to describe patients' perceptions of their current and future role in pressure injury prevention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 adult inpatients recruited from four medical units, at two Australian metropolitan hospitals. Interview data were analysed using content analysis, with three categories emerging: 'experiencing pressure injuries'; 'participating in pressure injury prevention'; and 'resourcing pressure injury prevention and treatment'. These categories reflect the complex nature of participants' pressure injury experience. The findings suggest participants gather pressure injury knowledge from first-hand and vicarious experience; knowledge they bring to hospital. Most participants preferred a proactive pressure injury prevention role. Many identified barriers in the healthcare environment that impeded their participation and affected their experience of pressure injuries and pressure injury prevention. If patient participation as a pressure injury prevention strategy is to be considered, nurses and organisations need to view patients as partners. PMID:24117711

  10. Prevention of Overuse Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Paterno, Mark V.; Taylor-Haas, Jeffery A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to review current theories regarding prevalence, mechanism and prevention strategies for overuse injuries in a young, athletic population. This information will provide valuable insight into the state of current evidence regarding overuse injuries in young athletes as well as potential future directions in the development of overuse injury prevention interventions. PMID:24095071

  11. Injuries in Female Gymnasts: Trends Suggest Prevention Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackie, Susan J.; Taunton, Jack E.

    1994-01-01

    Survey of 100 young female gymnasts examined injuries over a 40-month period. Injury rates were similar to those found in other studies of female competitive gymnasts, but there were several notable findings regarding injury patterns. Prevention methods to reduce injury include modifying mat design and prescribing strengthening and stretching…

  12. Bilateral ACL Reconstructions with Hamstring Autografts.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Ranajit; Mahapatra, Amita Kumari; Priyadarshi, Ashok; Palo, Nishit; Biswal, Manas R

    2016-07-01

    Bilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are rare with incidence between 2 and 4%, and presently no definitive guidelines for proper management exist. Ideal treatment protocol remains controversial between a single-stage and two-stage bilateral ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of single-stage bilateral ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon autografts in bilateral ACL injuries. A prospective study was undertaken including a total of 14 consecutive patients with bilateral ACL deficient knee who underwent single-stage bilateral ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft with a mean follow-up duration of 28 months (24-38 months). Functional outcomes were evaluated by range of movements, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Lysholm and Tegner activity score, and stability tests. The mean age was 30 years (range 18-42 years). Average duration of rehabilitation was 8 weeks. Time to return to full-time work and full sports was 5.6 weeks and 6.2 months, respectively. Clinical examination demonstrated full range of motion; a total of 12 patients (86%) had a negative Lachman test and 13 patients (93%) had a negative pivot shift at the final follow-ups. The mean IKDC evaluation score was 89 points, the mean Tegner activity score was 7 points, and the mean Lysholm knee score was 91 points. A total of 12 patients (86%) returned to their preinjury level of activity and an overall greater than 90% satisfaction rate was achieved. Single-stage bilateral ACL reconstruction using hamstring autografts is clinically safe, effective, and cost-effective with better patient compliance and with comparable functional outcome as opposed to two-stage ACL reconstructions. PMID:26408992

  13. The Relationship between Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Simon, David; Saltzman, Bryan M.; Rollins, Meaghan; Bach, Bernard R.; MacDonald, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common injury, particularly in the athletic and youth populations. The known association between ACL injury and subsequent osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee merits a more in-depth understanding of the relationship between the ACL-injured knee and osteoarthritis. ACL injury, especially with concomitant meniscal or other ligamentous pathology, predisposes the knee to an increased risk of osteoarthritis. ACL insufficiency results in deterioration of the normal physiologic knee bending culminating in increased anterior tibial translation and increased internal tibial rotation. This leads to increased mean contact stresses in the posterior medial and lateral compartments under anterior and rotational loading. However, surgical reconstruction of the ACL has not been shown to reduce the risk of future OA development back to baseline and has variability based on operative factors of graft choice, timing of surgery, presence of meniscal and chondral abnormalities, and surgical technique. Known strategies to prevent OA development are applicable to patients with ACL deficiency or after ACL reconstruction and include weight management, avoidance of excessive musculoskeletal loading, and strength training. Reconstruction of the ACL does not necessarily prevent osteoarthritis in many of these patients and may depend on several external variables. PMID:25954533

  14. Timing Sequence of Multi-Planar Knee Kinematics Revealed by Physiologic Cadaveric Simulation of Landing: Implications for ACL Injury Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kiapour, Ata M.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Goel, Vijay K.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Challenges in accurate, in vivo quantification of multi-planar knee kinematics and relevant timing sequence during high-risk injurious tasks pose challenges in understanding the relative contributions of joint loads in non-contact injury mechanisms. Biomechanical testing on human cadaveric tissue, if properly designed, offers a practical means to evaluate joint biomechanics and injury mechanisms. This study seeks to investigate detailed interactions between tibiofemoral joint multi-planar kinematics and anterior cruciate ligament strain in a cadaveric model of landing using a validated physiologic drop-stand apparatus. Methods Sixteen instrumented cadaveric legs, 45(SD 7) years (8 female and 8 male) were tested. Event timing sequence, change in tibiofemoral kinematics (position, angular velocity and linear acceleration) and change in anterior cruciate ligament strain were quantified. Findings The proposed cadaveric model demonstrated similar tibiofemoral kinematics/kinetics as reported measurements obtained from in vivo studies. While knee flexion, anterior tibial translation, knee abduction and increased anterior cruciate ligament strain initiated and reached maximum values almost simultaneously, internal tibial rotation initiated and peaked (p<0.015 for all comparisons) significantly later. Further, internal tibial rotation reached 1.8(SD 2.5)°, almost 63% of its maximum value, at the time that peak anterior cruciate ligament strain occurred, while both anterior tibial translation and knee abduction had already reached their peaks. Interpretation Together, these findings indicate that although internal tibial rotation contributes to increased anterior cruciate ligament strain, it is secondary to knee abduction and anterior tibial translation in its effect on anterior cruciate ligament strain and potential risk of injury. PMID:24238957

  15. 75 FR 39544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers (PERLC)...

  16. 76 FR 9018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Annual Estimates of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness for...

  17. 75 FR 30041 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Effectiveness of Empiric Antiviral Treatment for...

  18. 75 FR 7606 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Healthy Passages Longitudinal Study of Youth, Funding...

  19. 76 FR 10371 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grant,...

  20. Injury Prevention and Control for Children and Youth. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widome, Mark D., Ed.

    This book was compiled for pediatricians and others who are interested in the control of pediatric injuries. The manual's three sections are: (1) "The Field of Pediatric Injury Prevention and Control," which provides a broad overview of the field and highlights the roles of the pediatrician in the control of injuries and a developmental approach…

  1. CDC School Health Guidelines to Prevent Unintentional Injuries and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Lisa C.; Sleet, David A.; Mercy, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of all deaths among children and adolescents aged five to 19 years results from injury-related causes: motor-vehicle crashes, all other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Schools have a responsibility to prevent injuries from occurring on school property and at school-sponsored events. In addition, schools can…

  2. Prevention of Injury and Violence in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Dahlberg, Linda L; Simon, Thomas R; Baldwin, Grant T; Sleet, David A; Greenspan, Arlene I

    2015-01-01

    In the first three decades of life, more individuals in the USA die from injuries and violence than from any other cause. Millions more people survive and are left with physical, emotional, and financial problems. Injuries and violence are not accidents; they are preventable. Prevention has a strong scientific foundation, yet efforts are not fully implemented or integrated into clinical and community settings. In this Series paper, we review the burden of injuries and violence in the USA, note effective interventions, and discuss methods to bring interventions into practice. Alliances between the public health community and medical care organisations, health-care providers, states, and communities can reduce injuries and violence. We encourage partnerships between medical and public health communities to consistently frame injuries and violence as preventable, identify evidence-based interventions, provide scientific information to decision makers, and strengthen the capacity of an integrated health system to prevent injuries and violence. PMID:24996591

  3. Wisconsin EMT Association: A Statewide Injury Prevention Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ralph; Evans, Diane

    This report provides a detailed description of a statewide injury prevention program of the Wisconsin Emergency Medical Technician Association. A project introduction is followed by brief descriptions of the components of the injury prevention program: occupant protection seminars; mock crash seminars; Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Buckle Bear,…

  4. Lifting Safety: Tips To Help Prevent Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Lifting Safety: Tips to Help Prevent Back Injuries Lifting Safety: Tips to Help Prevent Back Injuries Have you checked the object before you try to lift it? Test every load before you lift by pushing the object lightly with your hands or feet to see how easily ...

  5. Solar Injury and Heat Illness. Treatment and Prevention in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to solar injury and heat illness. Physicians can lower children's risk through education about short-term and long-term sequelae and through various prevention efforts. The paper discusses how to screen for risk factors and how to prevent and treat heat illness and solar injury. (SM)

  6. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries

    PubMed Central

    Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-01-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse. PMID:16799111

  7. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries.

    PubMed

    Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-07-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse. PMID:16799111

  8. Graduate psychiatric nurse's training on firearm injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Wiblishauser, Michael; Price, James H; Thompson, Amy

    2011-08-01

    Psychiatric nurses should be uniquely positioned for helping to prevent firearm suicides and homicides among the mentally ill. This study assessed the prevalence of firearm injury prevention training in graduate psychiatric nursing training programs through a three-wave mail survey of program directors. Most (87%) of the directors reported that they had not seriously thought about providing firearm injury prevention training. Almost half (48%) reported they did not routinely screen patients for firearm ownership. In addition, most (66%) thought that the American Psychiatric Nurses Association (APNA) should provide curriculum guidelines regarding firearm injury prevention training. Leadership is needed by the APNA to help reduce firearm violence in the mentally ill. PMID:21784283

  9. A national program for injury prevention in children and adolescents: the injury free coalition for kids.

    PubMed

    Pressley, Joyce C; Barlow, Barbara; Durkin, Maureen; Jacko, Sally A; Dominguez, DiLenny Roca; Johnson, Lenita

    2005-09-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and a major source of preventable disability in children. Mechanisms of injury are rooted in a complex web of social, economic, environmental, criminal, and behavioral factors that necessitate a multifaceted, systematic injury prevention approach. This article describes the injury burden and the way physicians, community coalitions, and a private foundation teamed to impact the problem first in an urban minority community and then through a national program. Through our injury prevention work in a resource-limited neighborhood, a national model evolved that provides a systematic framework through which education and other interventions are implemented. Interventions are aimed at changing the community and home environments physically (safe play areas and elimination of community and home hazards) and socially (education and supervised extracurricular activities with mentors). This program, based on physician-community partnerships and private foundation financial support, expanded to 40 sites in 37 cities, representing all 10 US trauma regions. Each site is a local adaptation of the Injury Free Coalition model also referred to as the ABC's of injury prevention: A, "analyze injury data through local injury surveillance"; B, "build a local coalition"; C, "communicate the problem and raise awareness that injuries are a preventable public health problem"; D, "develop interventions and injury prevention activities to create safer environments and activities for children"; and E, "evaluate the interventions with ongoing surveillance." It is feasible to develop a comprehensive injury prevention program of national scope using a voluntary coalition of trauma centers, private foundation financial and technical support, and a local injury prevention model with a well-established record of reducing and sustaining lower injury rates for inner-city children and adolescents. PMID:15958785

  10. The effects of a valgus collapse knee position on in vivo ACL elongation.

    PubMed

    Utturkar, G M; Irribarra, L A; Taylor, K A; Spritzer, C E; Taylor, D C; Garrett, W E; Defrate, Louis E

    2013-01-01

    There are conflicting data regarding what motions increase ACL injury risk. More specifically, the mechanical role of valgus collapse positions during ACL injury remains controversial. Our objective was to evaluate ACL elongation in a model that mimics knee movements thought to occur during ACL injury. Eight healthy male subjects were imaged using MR and biplanar fluoroscopy to measure the in vivo elongation of the ACL and its functional bundles during three static knee positions: full extension, 30° of flexion, and a position intended to mimic a valgus collapse position described in the literature. For this study, the valgus collapse position consisted of 30° of knee flexion, internal rotation of the hip, and 10° of external tibial rotation. ACL length decreased significantly from full extension (30.2 ± 2.6 mm) to 30° of flexion (27.1 ± 2.2 mm). ACL length further decreased in the valgus collapse position (25.6 ± 2.4 mm). Both functional bundles of the ACL followed similar trends with regards to decreases in length in each of the three positions. Since strain would follow patterns of ACL length, landing on an extended knee may be a more relevant risk factor for ACL injuries than the valgus collapse position in males. Future studies should evaluate the effects of dynamic motion patterns on in vivo ACL strains. PMID:22855117

  11. Quality of Movement for Athletes Six Months Post ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    deMille, Polly; Nguyen, Joseph; Brown, Allison; Do, Huong; Selvaggio, Elizabeth; Chiaia, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs evaluate quality of movement (QM) to identify and correct high-risk movement patterns. However, return to play (RTP) decisions post-ACL reconstruction (ACLR) are often based on non-sport relatedquantitative measures such as isokinetic tests and/or time from surgery, with six months post-ACLR being a common expectation for RTP. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether athletes are ready to RTP 6 months post ACLR using a QM assessment (QMA). Methods: A QMA including nine dynamic tasks (squat, single leg [SL] stance, step down, SL squat, jump in place, side to side jump, broad jump, hop to opposite, SL hop) progressing from double- to single-limb vertical and horizontal movements was administered to 136 athletes at five to seven months post-ACLR. Tasks were viewed from the frontal and sagittal planes by a physical therapist and performance specialist. Movements were evaluated live for risk factors associated with ACL injury (strategy, depth, control, symmetry, and alignment). The proportion of patients exhibiting risky movement patterns for each task was calculated. Fisher’s Exact test was used to determine if there were differences in movement patterns between males and females. Results: The proportion of patients demonstrating risky movement patterns for a task ranged from 48% to 100%. All 136 patients exhibited risky movement patterns for at least one task and 60% of patients displayed risky movement patterns in five or more of the nine tasks. Rates of risky movement patterns were not different between males and females for all tasks (P>0.1 for all tasks). Conclusion: Six months has been cited as a probable time for RTP post-ACLR; thus this is the expectation of the athlete. Our data show that athletes demonstrate multiple QM patterns associated with initial ACL injury, as well as 2nd injury at five to seven months post-operatively. Altered movement patterns evident in tasks as

  12. Epidemiology of Injuries and Prevention Strategies in Competitive Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Wanivenhaus, Florian; Fox, Alice J. S.; Chaudhury, Salma; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Competitive swimmers are predisposed to musculoskeletal injuries of the upper limb, knee, and spine. This review discusses the epidemiology of these injuries, in addition to prevention strategies that may assist the physician in formulating rehabilitation programs for the swimmer following an injury. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was performed by a review of Google Scholar, OVID, and PubMed articles published from 1972 to 2011. Results: This study highlights the epidemiology of injuries common to competitive swimmers and provides prevention strategies for the sports health professional. Conclusions: An understanding of swimming biomechanics and typical injuries in swimming aids in early recognition of injury, initiation of treatment, and design of optimal prevention and rehabilitation strategies. PMID:23016094

  13. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  14. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  15. Prevention of Neurologic Injuries in Equestrian Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, William H.; Bixby-Hammett, Doris M.

    1988-01-01

    Risk of neurological injuries accompanies horseback riding, especially for children and adolescents. This article describes the mechanisms of craniospinal injuries and suggests measures to lessen risks. Measures include: identifying individuals who should not ride, developing criteria for resumption of riding after injury, developing protective…

  16. National survey of the injury prevention activities of children's centres

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Michael C; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Kendrick, Denise; Stewart, Jane; Coupland, Carol; Hayes, Mike; Wynn, Persephone

    2014-01-01

    Children's centres were established across England to provide a range of services including early education, social care and health to pre-school children and their families. We surveyed children's centres to ascertain the activities they were undertaking to prevent unintentional injuries in the under fives. A postal questionnaire was sent to a sample of children's centre managers (n = 694). It included questions on current activities, knowledge and attitudes to injury prevention, health priorities and partnership working. Responses were received from 384 (56%) children's centres. Overall, 58% considered unintentional injury prevention to be one of the three main child health priorities for their centre. Over half the respondents (59%) did not know if there was an injury prevention group in their area, and 21% did not know if there was a home safety equipment scheme. Knowledge of how child injury deaths occur in the home was poor. Only 11% knew the major cause of injury deaths in children under five. Lack of both staff time and funding were seen as important barriers by children's centre staff to undertake injury prevention activities. Nearly all stated that training (97%) and assistance with planning injury prevention (94%) would be helpful to their centres. Children's centres need further support if they are to effectively tackle this important public health area. PMID:23837887

  17. Mechanisms of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Sports Activities: A Twenty-Year Clinical Research of 1,700 Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Tomonao; Koshida, Sentaro; Miyashita, Koji; Okado, Tsuruo; Shimizu, Takuya; Yokoe, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are still inconclusive from an epidemiological standpoint. An epidemiological approach in a large sample group over an appropriate period of years will be necessary to enhance the current knowledge of the ACL injury mechanism. The objective of the study was to investigate the ACL injury occurrence in a large sample over twenty years and demonstrate the relationships between the ACL injury occurrence and the dynamic knee alignment at the time of the injury. We investigated the activity, the injury mechanism, and the dynamic knee alignment at the time of the injury in 1,718 patients diagnosed as having the ACL injuries. Regarding the activity at the time of the injury, “competition ”was the most common, accounting for about half of all the injuries. The current result also showed that the noncontact injury was the most common, which was observed especially in many female athletes. Finally, the dynamic alignment of “Knee-in & Toe- out ”(i.e. dynamic knee valgus) was the most common, accounting for about half. These results enhance our understanding of the ACL injury mechanism and may be used to guide future injury prevention strategies. Key points We investigated the situation of ACL injury occurrence, especially dynamic alignments at the time of injury, in 1,718 patients who had visited our institution for surgery and physical therapy for twenty years. Our epidemiological study of the large patient group revealed that “knee-in & toe-out ”alignment was the most frequently seen at the time of the ACL injury. From an epidemiological standpoint, we need to pay much attention to avoiding “Knee-in & Toe-out ”alignment during sports activities. PMID:24149795

  18. Injury prevention in an urban setting: challenges and successes.

    PubMed Central

    Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.; Heagarty, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Harlem Hospital Injury Prevention Program (HHIPP) was established in 1988 with the goal of reducing injuries to children in central Harlem by providing safe play areas, supervised activities, and injury prevention education. To achieve this goal, a broad-based coalition was formed with state and local governmental agencies interested in injury prevention and with community groups, schools, parents, and hospital staff. An evaluation of the program in terms of both process and outcome formed a critical element of this effort. Since 1988 the HHIPP, as the lead agency for the Healthy Neighborhoods/Safe Kids Coalition, developed or participated in two types of programs: injury-prevention education programs and programs that provide safe activities and/or environments for children. The educational programs included Window Guards campaign; Safety City Program; Kids, Injuries and Street Smarts Program (KISS); Burn Prevention Curriculum and Smoke Detector Distribution; Harlem Alternative to Violence Program; Adolescent Outreach Program; and Critical Incident Stress Management Teams. The safe activities and environmental programs included the Bicycle Safety Program/Urban Youth Bike Corps; Playground Injury Prevention Program; the Greening of Harlem Program; the Harlem Horizon Art Studio; Harlem Hospital Dance Clinic; Unity through Murals project; baseball at the Harlem Little League; winter baseball clinic; and the soccer league. Each program was conceived using injury data, coupled with parental concern and activism, which acted as catalysts to create a community coalition to respond to a specific problem. Data systems developed over time, which monitored the prevalence and incidence of childhood injuries in northern Manhattan, including central Harlem, became essential not only to identify specific types of childhood injuries in this community but also to evaluate these programs for the prevention of injuries in children. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7581311

  19. Injury prevention in an urban setting: challenges and successes.

    PubMed

    Laraque, D; Barlow, B; Durkin, M; Heagarty, M

    1995-01-01

    The Harlem Hospital Injury Prevention Program (HHIPP) was established in 1988 with the goal of reducing injuries to children in central Harlem by providing safe play areas, supervised activities, and injury prevention education. To achieve this goal, a broad-based coalition was formed with state and local governmental agencies interested in injury prevention and with community groups, schools, parents, and hospital staff. An evaluation of the program in terms of both process and outcome formed a critical element of this effort. Since 1988 the HHIPP, as the lead agency for the Healthy Neighborhoods/Safe Kids Coalition, developed or participated in two types of programs: injury-prevention education programs and programs that provide safe activities and/or environments for children. The educational programs included Window Guards campaign; Safety City Program; Kids, Injuries and Street Smarts Program (KISS); Burn Prevention Curriculum and Smoke Detector Distribution; Harlem Alternative to Violence Program; Adolescent Outreach Program; and Critical Incident Stress Management Teams. The safe activities and environmental programs included the Bicycle Safety Program/Urban Youth Bike Corps; Playground Injury Prevention Program; the Greening of Harlem Program; the Harlem Horizon Art Studio; Harlem Hospital Dance Clinic; Unity through Murals project; baseball at the Harlem Little League; winter baseball clinic; and the soccer league. Each program was conceived using injury data, coupled with parental concern and activism, which acted as catalysts to create a community coalition to respond to a specific problem. Data systems developed over time, which monitored the prevalence and incidence of childhood injuries in northern Manhattan, including central Harlem, became essential not only to identify specific types of childhood injuries in this community but also to evaluate these programs for the prevention of injuries in children. PMID:7581311

  20. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention reduces injury incidence in Physical Education Teacher Education students.

    PubMed

    Goossens, L; Cardon, G; Witvrouw, E; Steyaert, A; De Clercq, D

    2016-01-01

    Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students are at considerable risk for non-contact sports injuries of the lower extremities. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions including exercises have been successful in sports populations, but no such study has ever been performed in PETE students. This study investigated the efficacy of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention on injury incidence reduction in PETE students. PETE students in the intervention group (n = 154) and in the control group (n = 189) registered sports injuries prospectively. The intervention lasted one academic year and consisted of an injury awareness programme and preventive strategies, implemented by the PETE sports lecturers. Differences in injury incidence between the intervention and control group were tested by Poisson regression Wald tests. There was a trend towards significantly lower incidence rate (2.18 vs. 2.73; p = 0.061) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Students in the intervention group had significantly less acute, first-time and extracurricular injuries. The largest reduction was observed for injuries during unsupervised practice sessions. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention embedded into a regular PETE programme is a promising and feasible strategy to prevent injuries in PETE students. Further research is needed to investigate whether the results may be generalised to other PETE programmes. PMID:25768808

  1. An injury prevention program to prevent gymnastic injuries in children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Swainston, Erin M; Dahlstrom, Jill J; Gubler, K; Long, William B; Beaton, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    There are more than 5 million participants in 1 of 6 gymnastic disciplines that are prone to spinal cord injuries. Working with the gifted scholar and attorney, Jeffrey Beaton, the authors have participated in developing an injury prevention program for children and teenagers who participate in gymnastics. This program includes the following components: (1) a gymnastics center that complies with the e-Book design of gymnasticszone.com; (2) all teachers and students in gymnastics should be members of USA Gymnastics (USAG) and purchase a copy of the USA Gymnastics Safety Manual, the official manual of the United States Gymnastics Safety Association; (3) trampolines should be sunk in the ground with the bed level with the floor; and finally, (4) immediate emergency access of the injured gymnast to either a skilled orthopedic or neurosurgeon. PMID:20528743

  2. Cartilage Pressure Distributions Provide a Footprint to Define Female Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Quatman, Carmen E.; Kiapour, Ali; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    of 5°. Conclusion The results of this study support a valgus collapse as the major ACL injury mechanism that results from tibial abduction rotations combined with anterior tibial translation or external or internal tibial rotations. Clinical Relevance Reduction of large multiplanar knee motions that include abduction, anterior translation, and internal/external tibial motions may reduce the risk for ACL injuries and associated bone bruises. In particular, prevention of an abduction knee posture during initial contact of the foot with the ground may help prevent ACL injury. PMID:21487121

  3. The prevention of spinal injuries in rugby football.

    PubMed

    Silver, J R; Stewart, D

    1994-07-01

    The incidence of injuries to the spinal cord sustained at rugby in South Africa, New Zealand and Australia is reviewed. Ninety-seven injuries seen at Stoke Mandeville Hospital at the National Spinal Injuries Centre (NSIC) between 1956 and 1993 are analysed in detail. There were 93 accidents at rugby union, two at American football and two at rugby league. The injuries were of the cervical spine apart from four hysterics and one thoracic injury. The thoracic injury occurred after the game when the player fell downstairs. The injuries were analysed according to the mechanism of injury, the neurological condition, the causation, the standard of the player and the position in the field. The injuries caused were the result of force being applied to the skull which was transmitted to the cervical spine resulting in injury to the cervical cord. As a result of this research, representations were made to the appropriate authorities and changes in the laws were made. As a result of these law changes there has been a dramatic reduction in the overall number of injuries and the elimination of the injury from the loose scrum. This paper discusses the historical sequence of how these preventative measures came about to reduce the incidence of injuries and the legal implications whereby the authors took part in two law suits. The legal consequences are analysed in detail. PMID:7970845

  4. Racquetball. A game with preventable injuries.

    PubMed

    Soderstrom, C A; Doxanas, M T

    1982-01-01

    One hundred fifty-seven racquetball injuries were identified. Eighty-two involved the face, but ocular injuries were probably underrepresented as a result of patient triage protocols. Facial trauma occurred more frequently among novice players. Only 9.9% of the players wore protective facial equipment and 23.1% had taken lessons before being injured. We propose that injuries could be reduced with proper player education, including the wearing of protective facial equipment. A modification in the design of conventional facial equipment is suggested to further reduce injury. PMID:7114354

  5. Anterior crucate ligament (ACL) injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD, Thopmson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ... MD, Thopmson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  6. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... side of your knee, such as during a football tackle Overextend your knee joint Quickly stop moving ... running, landing from a jump, or turning Basketball, football, soccer, and skiing are common sports linked to ...

  7. Injury prevention and the attainment of child and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Alison; Peden, Margie; Soori, Hamid; Bartolomeos, Kidist

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Urgent attention is required to tackle the problem of child and adolescent injury across the world. There have been considerable shifts in the epidemiological patterns of child deaths; while great progress has been made in preventing infectious diseases, the exposure of children and adolescents to the risks of injury appear to be increasing and will continue to do so in the future. The issue of injuries is too often absent from child and adolescent health agendas. In December 2008, WHO and the United Nations Children’s Fund published the World report on child injury prevention, calling global attention to the problem of child injuries. This article expands on the report’s arguments that child injuries must be integrated into child health initiatives and proposes initial steps for achieving this integration. PMID:19551258

  8. Studying injury prevention: practices, problems, and pitfalls in implementation.

    PubMed

    Sangvai, Shilpa; Cipriani, Lynne; Colborn, D Kathleen; Wald, Ellen R

    2007-04-01

    This prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to determine feasibility and effectiveness of a chronic care model approach to injury prevention compared with standard anticipatory guidance. Enrolled caregivers of children aged 0 to 5 years received focused counseling from a physician and health assistant, educational handouts, phone follow-up, and access to free safety devices and automobile restraint evaluations. Only 35.1% of eligible parents participated. Home visits were completed at 6 months to observe safety practices. Injuries were gleaned from parent report and medical record review. Safety practices were evaluated in 27 households. Chart review showed no significant difference in the number of medically attended injuries between groups (P = 0.6). The impact of the chronic care model on injury prevention in primary care could not be determined with certainty. Evaluating effectiveness of injury prevention strategies on actual safety practices with direct observation is challenging. PMID:17416878

  9. Preventing Dance Injuries: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    This book on the interdisciplinary nature of dance medicine as an emerging field of inquiry contains the following chapters: (1) "A Comparison of Patterns of Injury in Ballet, Modern, and Aerobic Dance" (Marie Schafle, And Others); (2) "Pronation as a Predisposing Factor in Overuse Injuries" (Steven R. Kravitz); (3) "Some Common Foot and Ankle…

  10. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion?

    PubMed Central

    Brussoni, Mariana; Brunelle, Sara; Pike, Ian; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Herrington, Susan; Turner, Heather; Belair, Scott; Logan, Louise; Fuselli, Pamela; Ball, David J

    2015-01-01

    To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward. PMID:25535208

  11. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion?

    PubMed

    Brussoni, Mariana; Brunelle, Sara; Pike, Ian; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Herrington, Susan; Turner, Heather; Belair, Scott; Logan, Louise; Fuselli, Pamela; Ball, David J

    2015-10-01

    To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward. PMID:25535208

  12. Molten metal burn of the foot: a preventable injury.

    PubMed

    Himel, H J; Syptak, J M; Jones, K C; Towler, M A; Edlich, R F

    1992-01-01

    Molten metal burns of the feet remain a common injury to foundry workers. A case is reported of a foundry worker who sustained circumferential molten metal burns of the distal foot and toes necessitating amputation of four toes. This severe injury could easily have been prevented by the use of protective footwear and spats. PMID:1351490

  13. Injury Prevention in Physical Education: Scenarios and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrie, Michael D.; Shewmake, Cole; Calleja, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide physical educators with practical strategies that can assist in preventing injuries in the classroom. The dynamic nature of physical education and the numerous tasks physical educators must complete daily can be challenging. Embedded in these challenges is the constant risk of student injury. Fortunately,…

  14. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Grades 5 and 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at children because it is early in life that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of child development,…

  15. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Grades 3 and 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at young children because it is during the early years that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of…

  16. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Preschool-Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at young children because it is during the early years that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of…

  17. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Grades 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at young children because it is during the early years that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of…

  18. Preventing Burns and Scalds. Injury Prevention for Young Children from the National Safety Certification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Sheryl L.; Walker, April L.

    This booklet outlines a comprehensive fire and burn injury prevention program which includes an instructor's manual, a videotape, and a test: the video provides additional information and examples of injury prevention techniques, and the test measures the amount of knowledge acquired. Following an introduction, the prevalence and extent of burn…

  19. Ankle Sprains: Healing and Preventing Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to stand on your foot. Ice--Using ice packs, ice slush baths or ice massages can decrease ... after your injury. Ice treatments can consist of ice packs, ice slush baths or ice massages. To use ...

  20. GIS and Injury Prevention and Control: History, Challenges, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nathaniel; Schuurman, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Intentional and unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and potential years of life lost in the first four decades of life in industrialized countries around the world. Despite surgical innovations and improved access to emergency care, research has shown that certain populations remain particularly vulnerable to the risks and consequences of injury. Recent evidence has shown that the analytical, data linkage, and mapping tools of geographic information systems (GIS) technology provide can further address these determinants and identify populations in need. This paper traces the history of injury prevention and discusses current and future challenges in furthering our understanding of the determinants of injury through the use of GIS. PMID:20617015

  1. Prevention, Evaluation, and Rehabilitation of Cycling-Related Injury.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Dana H; Babu, Ashwin N; Robidoux, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The unique quality of the bicycle is its ability to accommodate a wide variety of injuries and disabilities. Cycling for recreation, transportation, and competition is growing nationwide, and has proven health and societal benefits. The demands of each type of cycling dictate the necessary equipment, as well as potential for injury. Prevention of cycling-related injury in both the athlete and the recreational cyclist involves understanding the common mechanisms for both traumatic and overuse injury, and early correction of strength and flexibility imbalances, technique errors, and bicycle fit. PMID:27172085

  2. Predicting and Preventing Injury in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players are at significant risk for both chronic, repetitive overuse injuries as well as acute traumatic injuries. Pitchers have been shown to be at higher risk for sustaining injuries, especially upper extremity injuries, than position players. The past several MLB seasons have seen a dramatic rise in the number of ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions performed in MLB pitchers. Several recent prospective studies have identified risk factors for injuries to both the shoulder and elbow in MLB pitchers. These risk factors include a lack of external rotation, a lack of total rotation, and a lack of flexion in the throwing arm. Thus far, no study has demonstrated a correlation between cumulative work (number of games pitched, total pitches thrown, total innings pitched, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game) and injuries in MLB pitchers, despite several studies showing this correlation in youth pitchers. Although many risk factors have been translated into guidelines for prevention, no study has been conducted to determine whether adherence to these guidelines effectively prevents injuries. Further studies are necessary to define exactly how injuries in MLB players can be prevented. PMID:26991568

  3. Preventing running injuries. Practical approach for family doctors.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, C. A. M.; Taunton, J. E.; Lloyd-Smith, D. R.; McKenzie, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a practical approach for preventing running injuries. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Much of the research on running injuries is in the form of expert opinion and comparison trials. Recent systematic reviews have summarized research in orthotics, stretching before running, and interventions to prevent soft tissue injuries. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common factors implicated in running injuries are errors in training methods, inappropriate training surfaces and running shoes, malalignment of the leg, and muscle weakness and inflexibility. Runners can reduce risk of injury by using established training programs that gradually increase distance or time of running and provide appropriate rest. Orthoses and heel lifts can correct malalignments of the leg. Running shoes appropriate for runners' foot types should be selected. Lower-extremity strength and flexibility programs should be added to training. Select appropriate surfaces for training and introduce changes gradually. CONCLUSION: Prevention addresses factors proven to cause running injuries. Unfortunately, injury is often the first sign of fault in running programs, so patients should be taught to recognize early symptoms of injury. PMID:14526862

  4. Health Literacy and Injury Prevention Behaviors Among Caregivers of Infants

    PubMed Central

    Heerman, William J.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Sanders, Lee M.; Eden, Svetlana K.; Shintani, Ayumi; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Bronaugh, Andrea B.; Barkin, Shari L.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Unintentional injury is a leading cause of infant mortality. Purpose To examine the role of caregiver health literacy in infant injury prevention behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2010–2012 from a randomized trial at four pediatric clinics was performed in 2012–2013. Caregiver health literacy was assessed with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Caregiver-reported adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics-recommended injury prevention behaviors was assessed across seven domains: (1) car seat position; (2) car seat use; (3) sleeping safety; (4) fire safety; (5) hot water safety; (6) fall prevention; and (7) firearm safety. Results Data were analyzed from 844 English and Spanish-speaking caregivers of 2-month-old children. Many caregivers were non-adherent with injury prevention guidelines, regardless of health literacy. Notably, 42.6% inappropriately placed their children in the prone position to sleep, and 88.6% did not have their hot water heater set <120°F. Eleven percent of caregivers were categorized as having low health literacy. Low caregiver health literacy, compared to adequate health literacy, was significantly associated with increased odds of caregiver non-adherence with recommended behaviors for car seat position (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=1.6, 7.1), and fire safety (AOR=2.0, 95% CI=1.02, 4.1) recommendations. Caregivers with low health literacy were less likely to be non-adherent to fall prevention recommendations (AOR=0.5, 95% CI=0.2, 0.9). Conclusions Non-adherence to injury prevention guidelines was common. Low caregiver health literacy was significantly associated with some injury prevention behaviors. Future interventions should consider the role of health literacy in promoting injury prevention. PMID:24745634

  5. GPS and Injury Prevention in Professional Soccer.

    PubMed

    Ehrmann, Fabian E; Duncan, Craig S; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Franzsen, William N; Greene, David A

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between GPS variables measured in training and gameplay and injury occurrences in professional soccer. Nineteen professional soccer players competing in the Australian Hyundai A-League were monitored for 1 entire season using 5 Hz Global Positioning System (GPS) units (SPI-Pro GPSports) in training sessions and preseason games. The measurements obtained were total distance, high-intensity running distance, very-high-intensity running distance, new body load, and meters per minute. Noncontact soft tissue injuries were documented throughout the season. Players' seasons were averaged over 1- and 4-week blocks according to when injuries occurred. These blocks were compared with each other and with players' seasonal averages. Players performed significantly higher meters per minute in the weeks preceding an injury compared with their seasonal averages (+9.6 and +7.4% for 1- and 4-week blocks, respectively) (p < 0.01), indicating an increase in training and gameplay intensity leading up to injuries. Furthermore, injury blocks showed significantly lower average new body load compared with seasonal averages (-15.4 and -9.0% for 1- and 4-week blocks, respectively) (p < 0.01 and p = 0.01). Periods of relative underpreparedness could potentially leave players unable to cope with intense bouts of high-intensity efforts during competitive matches. Although limited by Fédération Internationale de Football Association regulations, the results of this study isolated 2 variables predicting soft tissue injuries for coaches and sports scientists to consider when planning and monitoring training. PMID:26200191

  6. Prevention, Recognition, and Management of Urologic Injuries During Gynecologic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Howard T; Adelman, Marisa R

    2016-06-01

    The urethra, bladder, and ureters are particularly susceptible to injury during gynecologic surgery. When preventive measures fail, prompt recognition and management of injury can avoid long-term sequelae such as fistula formation and loss of renal function. Intraoperative identification should be the primary goal when an injury occurs, although this is not always possible. Postoperative injury recognition requires a high level of suspicion and vigilance. In addition to history and physical examination, appropriate radiologic studies can be useful in localizing injury and planning management strategies. Some injuries may require Foley catheter drainage or ureteral stenting alone, whereas others will require operative intervention with ureteral resection and reanastomosis or reimplantation. Prompt restoration of urinary drainage or diversion will avoid further renal compromise. PMID:27159741

  7. Creating an alternative framework for preventing rape: applying Haddon's injury prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Mantak, F J

    1995-01-01

    As rape becomes recognized as a public health issue, new paradigms must be constructed to discover viable solutions to this highly prevalent problem. Although the injury prevention field has begun to examine rape and offer solutions, physical injuries surrounding rape tend to become the focus in injury prevention literature, thereby minimizing the trauma of rape itself. This article applies William Haddon's ten general strategies for injury prevention to rape, in order to shift our focus away from women and their behavior onto the systemic causes of rape. These strategies have the advantage of encompassing a wide variety of injury reduction measures from many hazards and have provided the means to conceptualize solutions to an extensive range of issues. The application of these strategies emphasizes sociocultural factors and perpetrator, not victim, responsibility. Through this process, a broader range of normative and structural changes can be identified to promote rape prevention. PMID:7738157

  8. Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

  9. Injury Prevention Awareness in an Urban Native American Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, James S. J.; Williams, Scott D.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 50 Native American and 100 other families assessed injury prevention awareness and practices among urban Native Americans in Salt Lake City (Utah). Native American families were less aware of and less likely to practice prevention than others. These characteristics are more likely caused by low-income status than culture. (SLD)

  10. Infection prevention and treatment in patients with major burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Conwy, G

    Infection is a significant challenge in burn care, particularly for those patients who have major burn injuries. This article aims to review the literature and establish best practice in prevention and treatment of infection in patients with major burns. The article considers the causes and clinical features of wound infection, and examines systemic and local methods of prevention and treatment. PMID:21138123

  11. 75 FR 30040 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318,...

  12. 75 FR 34750 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Cooperative Agreement Program for the National Academic Centers...

  13. Preventing Workplace Injuries Among Perinatal Nurses.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Laura; Hurst, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of perinatal nursing put nurses at risk for injuries, including frequent repetitive bending, lifting of clients, and exposure to potentially large amounts of body fluids such as blood and amniotic fluid. Violence is also a potential risk with stressful family situations that may arise around childbirth. Workplace injuries put a health care facility at risk for staff turnover, decreases in the number of skilled nurses, client dissatisfaction, workers' compensation payouts, and employee lawsuits. Through the use of safety equipment, improved safety and violence training programs, "no manual lift" policies, reinforcement of personal protective equipment usage, and diligent staff training to improve awareness, these risks can be minimized. PMID:26902445

  14. Update on rehabilitation following ACL reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Nyland, John; Brand, Emily; Fisher, Brent

    2010-01-01

    As anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has evolved to less invasive, more anatomical approaches, rehabilitation of the injured athlete has likewise become more progressive and innovative, with a sound understanding of graft and fixation strength and biologic healing-remodeling constraints. This review discusses these innovations including specific considerations before surgery, when planning rehabilitation timetables, and the importance of reestablishing nonimpaired active and passive knee range of motion and biarticular musculotendinous extensibility in positions of function. Concepts of self-efficacy or confidence and reestablishing the “athlete role” are also addressed. Since ACL injury and reinjury are largely related to the influence of structure-form-function on dynamic knee joint stability, the interrelationships between sensorimotor, neuromuscular, and conventional resistance training are also discussed. Although pivot shift “giving way” relates to function loss following ACL injury, anterior translational laxity often does not. Although there is growing evidence that progressive eccentric training may benefit the patient following ACL reconstruction, there is less evidence supporting the use of functional ACL knee braces. Of considerable importance is selecting and achieving a criteria-based progression to sports-specific training, reestablishing osseous homeostasis and improved bone density, blending open and closed kinetic chain exercises at the appropriate time period, and appreciating the influence of the trunk, upper extremities, and sports equipment use on knee loads. We believe that knee dysfunction and functional recovery should be considered from a local, regional, and global perspective. These concepts are consolidated into our approach to prepare patients for return to play including field testing and maintenance training. PMID:24198553

  15. Strategies to prevent injury in adolescent sport: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, Liz; Bleakley, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This systematic review set out to identify randomised controlled trials and controlled intervention studies that evaluated the effectiveness of preventive strategies in adolescent sport and to draw conclusions on the strength of the evidence. A literature search in seven databases (Medline, SportDiscus, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Review and DARE) was carried out using four keywords: adolescent, sport, injury and prevention (expanded to capture any relevant literature). Assessment of 154 papers found 12 studies eligible for inclusion. It can be concluded that injury prevention strategies that focus on preseason conditioning, functional training, education, balance and sport‐specific skills, which should be continued throughout the sporting season, are effective. The evidence for the effectiveness of protective equipment in injury prevention is inconclusive and requires further assessment. PMID:17496070

  16. Preventing Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents: The Signs of Self-Injury Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Walsh, Barent W.; McDade, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) continues to be a problem among youth and there is a great need for programming aimed at reducing NSSI in adolescents. The signs of self-injury program is the first known NSSI school-based prevention program for adolescents that attempts to increase knowledge, improve help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, and…

  17. Are pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury preventable?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, L. M.; Redmond, A. D.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine what proportion of pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury--deaths at the scene of the accident and those that occur before the person has reached hospital--are preventable. DESIGN--Retrospective study of all deaths from accidental injury that occurred between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 1990 and were reported to the coroner. SETTING--North Staffordshire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Injury severity score, probability of survival (probit analysis), and airway obstruction. RESULTS--There were 152 pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury (110 males and 42 females). In the same period there were 257 deaths in hospital from accidental injury (136 males and 121 females). The average age at death was 41.9 years for those who died before reaching hospital, and their average injury severity score was 29.3. In contrast, those who died in hospital were older and equally likely to be males or females. Important neurological injury occurred in 113 pre-hospital deaths, and evidence of airway obstruction in 59. Eighty six pre-hospital deaths were due to road traffic accidents, and 37 of these were occupants in cars. On the basis of the injury severity score and age, death was found to have been inevitable or highly likely in 92 cases. In the remaining 60 cases death had not been inevitable and airway obstruction was present in up to 51 patients with injuries that they might have survived. CONCLUSION--Death was potentially preventable in at least 39% of those who died from accidental injury before they reached hospital. Training in first aid should be available more widely, and particularly to motorists as many pre-hospital deaths that could be prevented are due to road accidents. PMID:8173428

  18. Preventing Injuries. Teenage Health Teaching Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Teenage Health Teaching Modules (THTM) program is a health education curriculum for adolescents. Each THTM module frames an adolescent health task emphasizing development of self-assessment, communication, decision making, health advocacy, and self-management. This module deals with the epidemiology or nationwide patterns of injuries, and the…

  19. Preventing injuries from all-terrain vehicles.

    PubMed

    Yanchar, Natalie L

    2012-11-01

    All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are widely used in Canada for recreation, transportation and occupations such as farming. As motorized vehicles, they can be especially dangerous when used by children and young adolescents who lack the knowledge, physical size, strength, and cognitive and motor skills to operate them safely. The magnitude of injury risk to young riders is reflected in explicit vehicle manual warnings and the warning labels on current models, and evidenced by the significant number of paediatric hospitalizations and deaths due to ATV-related trauma. However, helmet use is far from universal among youth operators, and unsafe riding behaviours, such as driving unsupervised and/or driving with passengers, remain common. Despite industry warnings and public education that emphasize the importance of safety behaviours and the risks of significant injury to children and youth, ATV-related injuries and fatalities continue to occur. Until measures are taken that clearly effect substantial reductions in these injuries, restricting ridership by young operators, especially those younger than 16 years of age, is critical to reducing the burden of ATV-related trauma in children and youth. This document replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement published in 2004. PMID:24179426

  20. Prevention of back injuries and pain

    SciTech Connect

    Baptiste, B.

    1982-10-11

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in conjunction with Hansen and Associates (San Mateo, CA), developed an employee education and training class in back care. In three years about 1500 LLNL employees have attended this class. According to accident statistics and employee questionnaires, the class has been effective in reducing back injury and pain.

  1. Parental Compliance with Childhood Injury Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBailly, Susan A.; And Others

    Preliminary data from a study documenting parental perceptions of injuries and steps taken by inner-city and suburban parents to make their homes safe are reported. Participants were 407 families with children under 5 years old. Families were provided one of the following interventions: (1) a well child visit; (2) safety equipment (3) physician…

  2. Eyelid hook injury – A preventable domestic injury

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Nazri; Salleh, Rafidah

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the presentation and management of eyelid injury resulting from the hook of a rubber string. A seven-year-old boy presented with pain of the right upper eyelid. A rubber string with metal hook ends, snatched his right eye from below. The hook pierced through his upper eyelid from the conjunctival surface and remained in situ. However, there was no globe laceration noted. Removal was performed by reverse-tracking of the hook through the wound. The wound was stitched with 6’0 Vicryl sutures. Healing was excellent with minimal scarring. PMID:23960864

  3. An Injury Prevention Strategy for Teen Restaurant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Julie A.; de Castro, A. B.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and internship skills reinforcement. ProSafety is the product of an innovative collaboration with occupational health nurses, business professionals, educators, and government. Its approach is derived from Social Cognitive Theory, is consistent with key values and strategies of occupational health nurses, and provides lessons for practitioners seeking to reduce occupational injuries in food service or among other populations of adolescent workers. PMID:20180503

  4. Histological Predictors of Maximum Failure Loads Differ Between the Healing ACL and ACL Grafts After 6 and 12 Months In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Proffen, Benedikt L.; Fleming, Braden C.; Murray, Martha M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bioenhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair, where the suture repair is supplemented with a biological scaffold, is a promising novel technique to stimulate healing after ACL rupture. However, the histological properties of a successfully healing ACL and how they relate to the mechanical properties have not been fully described. Purpose: To determine which histological features best correlate with the mechanical properties of the healing ACL repairs and ACL grafts in a porcine model at 6 and 12 months after injury. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: A total of 48 Yucatan mini-pigs underwent ACL transection followed by: (1) conventional ACL reconstruction with bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) allograft, (2) bioenhanced ACL reconstruction with BPTB allograft using a bioactive scaffold, or (3) bioenhanced ACL repair using the same bioactive scaffold. After 6 and 12 months of healing, structural properties of the ACL or graft (yield and failure load, linear stiffness) were measured. Following mechanical testing, ACL specimens were histologically analyzed for cell and vascular density and qualitatively assessed using the advanced Ligament Maturity Index. Results: After 6 months of healing, the cellular organization subscore was most predictive of yield load (r 2 = 0.98), maximum load (r 2 = 0.89), and linear stiffness (r 2 = 0.95) of the healing ACL, while at 12 months, the collagen subscore (r 2 = 0.68) became the best predictor of maximum load. For ACL grafts, the reverse was true, with the collagen subscore predictive of yield and maximum loads at 6 months (r 2 = 0.55) and graft cellularity predictive of maximum load of the graft at 12 months (r 2 = 0.50). Conclusion: These findings suggest there may be key biological differences in development and maintenance of ACL tissue after repair or reconstruction, with early ligament function dependent on cellular population of the repair but early graft function dependent on the

  5. PREVENTION OF INJURY FROM X-RADIATION

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Francis R.; Tochilin, Eugene; Hine, Charles H.; Lewis, Leon

    1951-01-01

    Despite continued advances in x-ray technology, evidence indicates that x-radiation injuries occur today to an excessive degree. These injuries have led to a progressive stiffening of standards of permissible exposure, especially in the past 15 years. Protection from radiation damage is logically based on dosimetry, preferably administered by a centralized service laboratory. The experience of two large hospitals in the control of x-radiation exposure is cited. Personnel exposed to x-radiation may be monitored by either pocket dosimeters of the ion chamber or electroscope type or by standardized film badge dosimeters. A recently developed film badge dosimeter that measures effective x-ray energy and radiation exposure in a quantitative manner is described. PMID:14812354

  6. Prevention of injury from x-radiation.

    PubMed

    HOLDEN, F R; TOCHILIN, E; HINE, C H; LEWIS, L

    1951-03-01

    Despite continued advances in x-ray technology, evidence indicates that x-radiation injuries occur today to an excessive degree. These injuries have led to a progressive stiffening of standards of permissible exposure, especially in the past 15 years. Protection from radiation damage is logically based on dosimetry, preferably administered by a centralized service laboratory. The experience of two large hospitals in the control of x-radiation exposure is cited. Personnel exposed to x-radiation may be monitored by either pocket dosimeters of the ion chamber or electroscope type or by standardized film badge dosimeters. A recently developed film badge dosimeter that measures effective x-ray energy and radiation exposure in a quantitative manner is described. PMID:14812354

  7. Shoulder injuries in the skeletally immature baseball pitcher and recommendations for the prevention of injury.

    PubMed

    Zaremski, Jason L; Krabak, Brian J

    2012-07-01

    Since 1996, when the first article on pitch restriction recommendations was published, the number of research articles involving skeletally immature pitchers has increased. Potential shoulder injuries in this age group are proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, glenohumeral instability, rotator cuff dysfunction, and superior labrum anteroposterior lesions. Fatigue, improper biomechanics, and overuse are the most common reasons for these injuries. In the hopes of preventing injury to young pitchers, numerous organizations, including the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee, The American Sports Medicine Institute, Little League Baseball & Softball, and the Long Term Athlete Development Program for Baseball Canada, have developed recommendations on pitching restrictions that include limits on pitch count, pitches per week, pitches per season, and rest between pitching. Awareness by sports medicine providers, coaches, and parents/guardians of the most up-to-date recommendations on injury prevention and return to play guidelines should reduce the incidence of acute and chronic injuries in adolescent baseball pitchers. PMID:22814728

  8. Firearm-related injuries in Canada: issues for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Chapdelaine, A; Samson, E; Kimberley, M D; Viau, L

    1991-01-01

    We reviewed the available data on firearm-related injuries in Canada to suggest strategies for prevention in the context of the proposed amendments to the Criminal Code (Bill C-17) currently before Parliament. The risk of death from a firearm in Canada is equivalent to the risk of death from a motor vehicle crash. We discuss the risks associated with firearms with regard to suicides, homicides and "accidents." We also discuss the accessibility of firearms. This article builds upon a recently published update on the epidemiologic basis of the public health approach for the prevention of firearm-related injuries and deaths. The key to the etiologic approach to preventing such injuries and deaths is to view the incidents, regardless of their medicolegal circumstances, as having one factor in common: the discharge of a firearm. PMID:1933704

  9. [Prevention of hand injuries - current situation in Europe].

    PubMed

    Leixnering, M; Quadlbauer, S; Szolarcz, C; Schenk, C; Leixnering, S; Körpert, K

    2013-12-01

    Hand injuries are a frequent occurrence and account for 41% of all occupational injuries. In general such accidents are the result of stress, inattention, tiredness, use of defective or poorly maintained machinery. However, artention must equally be directed at the large number of accidents occurring in leisure time activities since the inability to work due to a leisure time accident is similarly cost-intensive. Throughout Europe attempts have been made in the past 10 years to improve prevention. At the initiative of the Hand Trauma Committee (HTC) of FESSH prevention conferences were stated in 2009. These have in part reduced the number of hand injuries in -Europe. In Austria a special controlling committee was founded by the Austrian Workers' Compensation Board (AUVA) with the specific objective of reducing the number of hand injuries. Similarly the "Circle for Leisure Time Hand Injury Prevention" was created to specifically deal with hand injuries occurring during leisure time activities. Through the cooperation of these 2 committees and implementation of the thus decided measures, a reduction in the number of accidents involving the hand is to be expected with a concomitant reduction in the associated costs. PMID:24357478

  10. Evaluating injury prevention programs: the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    PubMed

    Mallonee, S

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of injury prevention programs is critical for measuring program effects on reducing injury-related morbidity and mortality or on increasing the adoption of safety practices. During the planning and implementation of injury prevention programs, evaluation data also can be used to test program strategies and to measure the program's penetration among the target population. The availability of this early data enables program managers to refine a program, increasing the likelihood of successful outcomes. The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project illustrates how an evaluation was designed to inform program decisions by providing methodologically sound data on program processes and outcomes. This community intervention trial was instituted to reduce residential fire-related injuries and deaths in a geographic area of Oklahoma City that was disproportionately affected by this problem. The distribution of free smoke alarms in targeted neighborhoods was accompanied by written educational pamphlets and home-based follow-up to test whether the alarms were functioning correctly. Early evaluation during the planning and implementation phases of the program allowed for midcourse corrections that increased the program's impact on desired outcomes. During the six years following the project, the residential fire-related injury rate decreased 81% in the target population but only 7% in the rest of Oklahoma City. This dramatic decline in fire-related injuries in the target area is largely attributed to the free smoke alarm distribution as well as to educational efforts promoting awareness about residential fires and their prevention. PMID:10911692

  11. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of lightning injuries.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B

    2005-01-01

    Lightning is the second most common cause of weather-related death in the United States. Lightning is a natural atmospheric discharge that occurs between regions of net positive and net negative electric charges. There are several types of lightning, including streak lightning, sheet lightning, ribbon lightning, bead lightning, and ball lightning. Lightning causes injury through five basic mechanisms: direct strike, flash discharge (splash), contact, ground current (step voltage), and blunt trauma. While persons struck by lightning show evidence of multisystem derangement, the most dramatic effects involve the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Cardiopulmonary arrest is the most common cause of death in lightning victims. Immediate resuscitation of people struck by lightning greatly affects the prognosis. Electrocardiographic changes observed following lightning accidents are probably from primary electric injury or burns of the myocardium without coronary artery occlusion. Lightning induces vasomotor spasm from direct sympathetic stimulation resulting in severe loss of pulses in the extremities. This vasoconstriction may be associated with transient paralysis. Damage to the central nervous system accounts for the second most debilitating group of injuries. Central nervous system injuries from lightning include amnesia and confusion, immediate loss of consciousness, weakness, intracranial injuries, and even brief aphasia. Other organ systems injured by lightning include the eye, ear, gastrointestinal system, skin, and musculoskeletal system. The best treatment of lightning injuries is prevention. The Lightning Safety Guidelines devised by the Lightning Safety Group should be instituted in the United States and other nations to prevent these devastating injuries. PMID:15777170

  12. Reporting on road traffic injury: content analysis of injuries and prevention opportunities in Ghanaian newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Yankson, Isaac Kofi; Browne, Edmund N L; Tagbor, H; Donkor, Peter; Quansah, Robert; Asare, George Ernest; Mock, Charles N; Ebel, Beth E

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyse traffic injury reporting in Ghanaian newspapers and identify opportunities for improving road safety, the content of 240 articles on road traffic injury was reviewed from 2005 to 2006 editions of two state-owned and two privately owned newspapers. The articles comprised reports on vehicle crashes (37%), commentaries (33%), informational pieces (12%), reports on pedestrian injury (10%), and editorials (8%). There was little coverage of pedestrian injuries, which account for half of the traffic fatalities in Ghana, but only 22% of newspaper reports. Only two articles reported on seatbelt use. Reporting patterns were similar between public and private papers, but private papers more commonly recommended government action (50%) than did public papers (32%, p=0.006). It is concluded that Ghanaian papers provide detailed coverage of traffic injury. Areas for improvement include pedestrian injury and attention to preventable risk factors such as road risk factors, seatbelt use, speed control, and alcohol use. PMID:20570987

  13. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Female Athletes: Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Ireland, Mary Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To present epidemiologic studies on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female athletes. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched from 1978 to 1998 with the terms “anterior cruciate ligament” and “female athlete” among others. Additional sources were knowledge base and oral, didactic, and video presentations. Data Synthesis: Epidemiologic studies have focused on level of participation, specific sports, sex differences and contributing factors, injury mechanism, prevention programs, and outcomes studies. Female athletes have a significantly increased risk of noncontact ACL injuries over male athletes in soccer and basketball. Conclusions/Recommendations: I believe that appropriate intervention programs can reduce these alarming rates of ACL injuries. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3. PMID:16558558

  14. Hamstring injuries: prevention and treatment—an update

    PubMed Central

    Brukner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased knowledge of hamstring muscle injuries, the incidence has not diminished. We now know that not all hamstring injuries are the same and that certain types of injuries require prolonged rehabilitation and return to play. The slow stretch type of injury and injuries involving the central tendon both require longer times to return to play. A number of factors have been proposed as being indicators of time taken to return to play, but the evidence for these is conflicting. Recurrence rates remain high and it is now thought that strength deficits may be an important factor. Strengthening exercise should be performed with the hamstrings in a lengthened position. There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma injection in the treatment of hamstring injuries so at this stage we cannot advise their use. Various tests have been proposed as predictors of hamstring injury and the use of the Nordboard is an interesting addition to the testing process. Prevention of these injuries is the ultimate aim and there is increasing evidence that Nordic hamstring exercises are effective in reducing the incidence. PMID:26105015

  15. Profiling Young Children's Participation in Track and Field, Injuries Sustained and Prevention Methods Employed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulon, Lyn; Mok, Magadalena

    1999-01-01

    Explored nature and extent of track and field injuries of 8- and 9-year-olds and their injury prevention methods. Found that about one-third had at least one injury. About one-fourth considered their injuries serious. Most serious injuries occurred during track and field events. There were no age or gender differences in injury rates. Injury…

  16. Stability Outcomes following Computer-Assisted ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Christino, Melissa A.; Vopat, Bryan G.; Matson, Andrew P.; Reinert, Steven E.; Shalvoy, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intraoperative prereconstruction stability measurements and/or patient characteristics were associated with final knee stability after computer-assisted ACL reconstruction. Methods. This was a retrospective review of all patients who underwent computer-assisted single-bundle ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon. Prereconstruction intraoperative stability measurements were correlated with patient characteristics and postreconstruction stability measurements. 143 patients were included (87 male and 56 female). Average age was 29.8 years (SD ± 11.8). Results. Females were found to have significantly more pre- and postreconstruction internal rotation than males (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, resp.). Patients with additional intra-articular injuries demonstrated more prereconstruction anterior instability than patients with isolated ACL tears (P < 0.001). After reconstruction, these patients also had higher residual anterior translation (P = 0.01). Among all patients with ACL reconstructions, the percent of correction of anterior translation was found to be significantly higher than the percent of correction for internal or external rotation (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Anterior translation was corrected the most using a single-bundle ACL reconstruction. Females had higher pre- and postoperative internal rotation. Patients with additional injuries had greater original anterior translation and less operative correction of anterior translation compared to patients with isolated ACL tears. PMID:25883804

  17. Prevention of Elbow Injuries in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Although baseball is a relatively safe sport, numerous reports suggest a rapid rise in elbow injury rate among youth baseball pitchers. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanical, and clinical studies of elbow injuries in baseball (keywords: “youth OR adolescent” AND baseball AND pitching AND “ulnar collateral ligament OR elbow”; published January 2000 – April 2012). Studies with relevance to youth baseball pitchers were reviewed. Relevant references from these articles were also retrieved and reviewed. Original data, insight, and recommendations were added. Results: The majority of baseball elbow injuries are noncontact injuries to the dominant arm resulting from repetitive pitching. Five percent of youth pitchers suffer a serious elbow or shoulder injury (requiring surgery or retirement from baseball) within 10 years. The risk factor with the strongest correlation to injury is amount of pitching. Specifically, increased pitches per game, innings pitched per season, and months pitched per year are all associated with increased risk of elbow injury. Pitching while fatigued and pitching for concurrent teams are also associated with increased risk. Pitchers who also play catcher have an increased injury risk, perhaps due to the quantity of throws playing catcher adds to the athlete’s arm. Another risk factor is poor pitching biomechanics. Improper biomechanics may increase the torque and force produced about the elbow during each pitch. Although throwing breaking pitches at a young age has been suggested as a risk factor, existing clinical, epidemiologic, and biomechanical data do not support this claim. Conclusions: Some elbow injuries to youth baseball pitchers can be prevented with safety rules, recommendations, education, and common sense. Scientific and medical organizations have published safety rules and recommendations, with emphasis on prevention of overuse and pitching while fatigued. Strength

  18. On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

  19. Child Injury Deaths: Comparing Prevention Information from Two Coding Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Ewigman, Bernard G.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The International Classification of Disease (ICD) external cause of injury E-codes do not sufficiently identify injury circumstances amenable to prevention. The researchers developed an alternative classification system (B-codes) that incorporates behavioral and environmental factors, for use in childhood injury research, and compare the two coding systems in this paper. Methods All fatal injuries among children less than age five that occurred between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 1994, were classified using both B-codes and E-codes. Results E-codes identified the most common causes of injury death: homicide (24%), fires (21%), motor vehicle incidents (21%), drowning (10%), and suffocation (9%). The B-codes further revealed that homicides (51%) resulted from the child being shaken or struck by another person; many fires deaths (42%) resulted from children playing with matches or lighters; drownings (46%) usually occurred in natural bodies of water; and most suffocation deaths (68%) occurred in unsafe sleeping arrangements. Conclusions B-codes identify additional information with specific relevance for prevention of childhood injuries. PMID:15944169

  20. Youth Sports: A Pediatrician's Perspective on Coaching and Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Michael C.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: My objective is to review the factors that influence youth participation in sports, to discuss the role coaches may play in youth sports injuries, and to call on athletic trainers and other health professionals to become involved in youth sports in an effort to limit injury risk. Background: Millions of American youths participate in team sports. Their primary motivation to participate is to have fun. Unfortunately, large numbers of participants have sustained correspondingly large numbers of injuries. Many injuries can be attributed to improper technique and conditioning methods taught by volunteer coaches. Although not the only contributors to injuries, these may be the most amenable to preventive measures, such as formal instruction for coaches in the areas of proper biomechanics and player-coach communication. Description: I provide an overview of the reasons why children participate in sports, discuss participation motivation, and review the literature on coaches' communication methods that have been proved effective in maximizing learning and enjoyment for young athletes. Clinical Advantages: This article provides certified athletic trainers with the background knowledge needed to take an active role in youth sports injury prevention at the community level. PMID:16558664

  1. Preventing Death and Serious Injury from Falling Trees and Branches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Of 128 outdoor education related deaths examined since 1960, 14 have been due to falling trees or branches. This article examines the grounds on which death or serious injury due to falling trees or branches can be regarded as an inherent risk in outdoor education, and the extent to which such incidents can be regarded as preventable. It compares…

  2. Injury Prevention for the Elderly. Field Test Instructor Coursebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bonnie

    This coursebook is intended for use by the instructors presenting a workshop on preventing injuries in the elderly that was developed as a field test of a larger 10-module training program for staff of long-term health care facilities, senior center and adult day care staff, and home health aides. The curriculum guide served as a blueprint for the…

  3. Evaluating Injury Prevention Programs: The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallonee, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates how evaluating the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project increased its success in reducing residential fire-related injuries and deaths. The program distributed and tested smoke alarms in residential dwellings and offered educational materials on fire prevention and safety. Evaluation provided sound data on program processes and outcomes,…

  4. Photoreceptor IRBP prevents light induced injury.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongcui; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Wei; Tian, Jie; Xu, Gezhi

    2016-01-01

    Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is a classic inducer of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). Although IRBP causes neuronal loss in susceptible animals, resistant animals such as Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rats can benefit from the evoked protective autoimmune responses. The aim of the present study was to analyze the neuroprotective effects of IRBP against light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. We immunized 75 male SPD rats with IRBP and the rats were then exposed to blue light for 24 hours (IRBP group). Seventy five rats were included in the control group. We found that the number of apoptotic cells in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) peaked on 1 day after light exposure, and the ONL thickness decreased significantly on day 3. OX42-positive cells appeared in the ONL immediately after light exposure, and their number peaked on day 3, and changed from resting ramified cells to activated amoeboid cells. Compared with the control group (n=75), the IRBP group showed less apoptotic cells, a thicker ONL, and reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These outcomes indicate the IRPB might protect retinal photoreceptors against light-induced injury. PMID:27100484

  5. Anterior cruciate ligament- specialized post-operative return-to-sports (ACL-SPORTS) training: a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is standard practice for athletes that wish to return to high-level activities; however functional outcomes after ACLR are poor. Quadriceps strength weakness, abnormal movement patterns and below normal knee function is reported in the months and years after ACLR. Second ACL injuries are common with even worse outcomes than primary ACLR. Modifiable limb-to-limb asymmetries have been identified in individuals who re-injure after primary ACLR, suggesting a neuromuscular training program is needed to improve post-operative outcomes. Pre-operative perturbation training, a neuromuscular training program, has been successful at improving limb symmetry prior to surgery, though benefits are not lasting after surgery. Implementing perturbation training after surgery may be successful in addressing post-operative deficits that contribute to poor functional outcomes and second ACL injury risk. Methods/Design 80 athletes that have undergone a unilateral ACLR and wish to return to level 1 or 2 activities will be recruited for this study and randomized to one of two treatment groups. A standard care group will receive prevention exercises, quadriceps strengthening and agility exercises, while the perturbation group will receive the same exercise program with the addition of perturbation training. The primary outcomes measures will include gait biomechanics, clinical and functional measures, and knee joint loading. Return to sport rates, return to pre-injury level of activity rates, and second injury rates will be secondary measures. Discussion The results of this ACL-Specialized Post-Operative Return To Sports (ACL-SPORTS) Training program will help clinicians to better determine an effective post-operative treatment program that will improve modifiable impairments that influence outcomes after ACLR. Trial registration Randomized Control Trial NIH 5R01AR048212-07. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01773317 PMID:23522373

  6. Optimization of injury prevention outreach for helmet safety.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christy; Drake, Christiana; Dang, Michelle; Le-Hinds, Nho

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention initiatives are an effective strategy to reduce pediatric morbidity and mortality, but resource constraints can limit hospital-based prevention programs' capacity for carrying out such initiatives. Partnerships that leverage hospital leadership roles and promote collaborative outreach may provide a less resource-intensive means to expand prevention program capacity. One hospital piloted a collaborative helmet safety initiative, partnering with a nursing school and a local school district. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the resulting student nurse-administered school helmet safety program in improving use, knowledge, and attitudes toward helmets among school-age children. PMID:24828777

  7. Pressure injury prevention: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition management.

    PubMed

    Roosen, Kerri; Fulbrook, Paul; Nowicki, Tracy

    2010-08-10

    To prevent pressure injuries research indicates the importance of focusing on three key areas of practice: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition. These are a synergistic trio and many patients require considered management in all three areas. In addition to targeting specific aspects of nursing care in these areas, it is also crucial that there is organisational buy-in for strategic initiatives. Some of the ways that we achieved this are outlined below: Support from managerial level by presenting evidence and education to senior nurses and directors. Nurse unit managers completed individual ward action plans outlining their individual commitments to reducing pressure injuries. Providing support and education to staff to choose and use continence products effectively. Support from allied health colleagues in prevention of pressure injuries. After implementing the actions described above, pressure injury prevalence at the Prince Charles Hospital in Brisbane decreased from 13.78% in 2008 to 5.15% in 2010, representing a 62% reduction overall. Of these pressure injuries, 53% were stage one. PMID:20862898

  8. Interpretation of postmortem forensic toxicology results for injury prevention research.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H; Kennedy, Briohny; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2013-08-01

    Forensic toxicological data provides valuable insight into the potential contribution of alcohol and drugs to external-cause deaths. There is a paucity of material that guides injury researchers on the principles that need to be considered when examining the presence and contribution of alcohol and drugs to these deaths. This paper aims to describe and discuss strengths and limitations of postmortem forensic toxicology sample selection, variations in analytical capabilities and data interpretation for injury prevention research. Issues to be considered by injury researchers include: the circumstances surrounding death (including the medical and drug use history of the deceased person); time and relevant historical factors; postmortem changes (including redistribution and instability); laboratory practices; specimens used; drug concentration; and attribution of contribution to death. This paper describes the range of considerations for testing and interpreting postmortem forensic toxicology, particularly when determining impairment or toxicity as possible causal factors in injury deaths. By describing these considerations, this paper has application to decisions about study design and case inclusion in injury prevention research, and to the interpretation of research findings. PMID:23197673

  9. Evaluation of the effectiveness of neuromuscular training to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: a critical review of relative risk reduction and numbers-needed-to-treat analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D.; McKeon, Jennifer M.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Since previous numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT) and relative risk reduction (RRR) report, a few studies were published to evaluate prophylactic effectiveness of neuromuscular training for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in female athletes. The purpose of the current analyses was to determine the effectiveness of neuromuscular training interventions in reducing both non-contact and overall ACL injury risk in female athletes through RRR and NNT. The keywords ‘knee’, ‘anterior cruciate ligament’, ‘ACL’, ‘prospective’, ‘neuromuscular’, ‘training’, ‘female’ and ‘prevention’ were searched to find studies published from 1995 to 2011 in PubMed and EBSCO (CINAHL, Health source, MEDLINE and SPORT Discus). Inclusion criteria required that relevant studies: recruited physically active young girls as subjects, documented the number of ACL injuries, employed a neuromuscular training intervention, and used a prospective controlled study design. The numbers of non-contact and overall ACL injuries, subjects and observation time period were used to calculate RRR and NNT for each study. A total of 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. There was a 73.4% (95% CI 62.5% to 81.1%) and 43.8% (95% CI 28.9% to 55.5%) of RRR for non-contact and overall ACL injuries. From the NNT analysis, it was determined that, respectively, 108 (95% CI 86 to 150) and 120 (95% CI 74 to 316) individuals would need to be trained to prevent one non-contact or one overall ACL injury over the course of one competitive season. Although the RRR analysis indicated prophylactic benefits of neuromuscular training, the relatively large NNT indicated that many athletes are needed to prevent one ACL injury. A future direction to reduce NNT and improve the efficiency of ACL injury-prevention strategies is to develop a screening system for identifying at-risk athletes. PMID:22745221

  10. Preventing injuries in workers: the role of management practices in decreasing injuries reporting

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Fariba; Khodabakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Researchers have found that management safety practices may predict occupational injuries and psychological distresses in the workplace. The present study examined the perception of management safety practices related to injuries reporting and its dimensions among workers of Isfahan Steel Company (ESCO). Methods: A self-administered anonymous survey was distributed to 189 workers. The survey included demographic factors, management safety perception, injuries reporting and its components (physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and injuries). The data were analyzed by Multivariate and correlation techniques. Results: The results showed that: 1) there were significant correlations between management safety perception with injuries reporting and its two dimensions namely physical and psychological symptoms; 2) there was no significant relationship between management safety perception and injury; 3) in Multivariate analysis, management safety perception significantly predicted about 26%, 19%, and 28% of the variances of variables of injuries reporting, physical symptoms, and psychological symptoms respectively (P< 0.01). Conclusion: Improving employees’ perception of management safety practices can be important to prevent the development of job injuries and to promote workers’ safety and well-being. PMID:25279379

  11. Preventing Flow-Metabolism Uncoupling Acutely Reduces Axonal Injury after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A.; Chen, Szu-Fu; Richards, Hugh K.; Pickard, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We have previously presented evidence that the development of secondary traumatic axonal injury is related to the degree of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and flow-metabolism uncoupling. We have now tested the hypothesis that augmenting LCBF in the acute stages after brain injury prevents further axonal injury. Data were acquired from rats with or without acetazolamide (ACZ) that was administered immediately following controlled cortical impact injury to increase cortical LCBF. Local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (LCMRglc) and LCBF measurements were obtained 3 h post-trauma in the same rat via 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 14C-iodoantipyrine co-registered autoradiographic images, and compared to the density of damaged axonal profiles in adjacent sections, and in additional groups at 24 h used to assess different populations of injured axons stereologically. ACZ treatment significantly and globally elevated LCBF twofold above untreated-injured rats at 3 h (p<0.05), but did not significantly affect LCMRglc. As a result, ipsilateral LCMRglc:LCBF ratios were reduced by twofold to sham-control levels, and the density of β-APP-stained axons at 24 h was significantly reduced in most brain regions compared to the untreated-injured group (p<0.01). Furthermore, early LCBF augmentation prevented the injury-associated increase in the number of stained axons from 3–24 h. Additional robust stereological analysis of impaired axonal transport and neurofilament compaction in the corpus callosum and cingulum underlying the injury core confirmed the amelioration of β-APP axon density, and showed a trend, but no significant effect, on RMO14-positive axons. These data underline the importance of maintaining flow-metabolism coupling immediately after injury in order to prevent further axonal injury, in at least one population of injured axons. PMID:22321027

  12. Partners in health: Injury prevention and the coal mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerner, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    It is necessary to solve many of the work-related problems and areas of concern that are present in the mining industry. An overview of concerns and how to attack the problems is discussed. Some of the worker`s injury problems, such as back pain syndromes, are by no means unique to the industry. However, other problems such as bolter shoulder syndrome problems, are job specific and need biomechanical investigation to determine specific causal relation of job task to injury. The goal would be defined as twofold. The primary goal is to identify the specific job contribution to high risk occupations, and secondly, to implement a total work force injury prevention program. These goals are discussed.

  13. Prevention of pelvic sepsis in major open pelviperineal injury.

    PubMed

    Govaert, Geertje; Siriwardhane, Mehan; Hatzifotis, Michael; Malisano, Lawrence; Schuetz, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Compound pelvic fractures are deemed to be one of the most severe orthopaedic injuries with an extremely high morbidity and mortality. After the initial resuscitation phase the prevention of pelvic sepsis is one of the main treatment goals for patients with an open pelvic fracture. If there is a suspicion of a rectal injury or if the wounds are in the perineal area, The Princess Alexandra Hospital's management plan includes early faecal diversion combined with vigorous soft tissue debridement, VAC(®) therapy and (if indicated) external fixation of the pelvic fracture. We present our flowchart for the treatment of trauma patients with compound pelvic fractures illustrated by a case report describing a 32 year old patient who sustained an open pelvic ring injury in a workplace accident. The aim of this paper is to underline the importance of a safe, straightforward approach to compound pelvic fractures. PMID:22222367

  14. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program

    PubMed Central

    Ejnisman, Benno; Barbosa, Gisele; Andreoli, Carlos V; de Castro Pochini, A; Lobo, Thiago; Zogaib, Rodrigo; Cohen, Moises; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. PMID:27563262

  15. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program.

    PubMed

    Ejnisman, Benno; Barbosa, Gisele; Andreoli, Carlos V; de Castro Pochini, A; Lobo, Thiago; Zogaib, Rodrigo; Cohen, Moises; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. PMID:27563262

  16. Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcome Network Early Anti-inflammatory Treatment in Patients with Acute ACL Tear” (MOON-AAA) Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lattermann, Christian; Proffitt, Mary; Huston, Laura J.; Gammon, Lee; Johnson, Darren L.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2016-01-01

    .The administration of 40 mg of Kenalog significantly changes this dynamic. CTX-II shows a dramatic reduction and stays close to baseline levels over the course of 4 weeks pre-operatively. COMP and MMP-1 show a significantly lesser decline.There is no significant difference in the effect of Kenalog if given within 4 days of injury or within 2 weeks. There is a statistical trend indicating that a repeated dose of Kenalog may be more efficient in normalizing the biomarker levels. No AE’s, infections were observed. Two of 49 patients suffered a retear at 6 months upon return to activities. Conclusion: Our data show that posttraumatic osteoarthritis begins at the time of injury and results early on in dramatic matrix changes in the knee joint. An early intervention with an antiinflammatory agent, such as Kenalog, maybe be able to prevent some of these changes observed.We do not currently know if the early intervention results in meaningful clinical differences in overall outcome. Further follow-up will answer this question. However, it is encouraging that a simple early intervention is able to affect early chondral degeneration. Should the early intervention with Kenalog lead to meaningful changes in outcome at 2 or 6 years the current treatment paradigm for ACL injured patients may have to be changed.

  17. [Nerve injury following implant placement: prevention, diagnosis and treatment modalities].

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Y; Eliav, E; Nahlieli, O

    2003-07-01

    Nerve injury is a well-known complication following oral and maxillofacial surgery. Direct trauma, inflammation and infection are postoperative neural disturbances main causes. The most inflicted nerves associated with endosseous implant placement are those innervating the mandible: the inferior alveolar nerve, the mental nerve and the lingual nerve. Evaluation of the nerve injury characteristics and severity as early as possible has always imposed a great challenge for clinicians. We demonstrate a reliable yet simple way of dealing with this kind of problem in conjunction with comparing preoperative and postoperative sensation of the chin, the tongue and the lower lip. On the other hand, it is considerably important to take preventive measures for such injuries by using appropriate radiographic images. If a nerve damage has occurred, best prognosis is to be expected by early and appropriate treatment. It is imperative to treat such injuries in four months following the injury, otherwise a permanent nerve damage may occur. Further investigation of nerve damage risks following implant placement should be performed in order to enable patient to decide whether having implants dependent rehabilitation or choosing an alternative. PMID:14515628

  18. Effect of brace design on patients with ACL-ruptures.

    PubMed

    Strutzenberger, G; Braig, M; Sell, S; Boes, K; Schwameder, H

    2012-11-01

    Different designs of functional knee braces for ACL-injury rehabilitation exist. In addition to the mechanical stabilization provided by rigid shell braces, sleeve braces also address proprioceptive mechanisms, but little is known if this leads to benefits for ACL-deficient subjects. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 different functional brace designs (shell and sleeve brace) on functional achievements in ACL-deficient patients. 28 subjects with ACL-ruptured knees performed tests for knee joint laxity, joint position sense, static and dynamic balance and isometric and dynamic lower limb extension strength in non-braced, sleeve braced and shell braced condition. The results showed a significant decrease in knee joint laxity for sleeve (33%; p<0.001) and rigid shell bracing (14%, p=0.039). The sleeve brace revealed a significant increase in dynamic balance after perturbation (20%; p=0.024) and a significant increase in dynamic lower limb peak rate of force development (17%; p=0.015) compared to the non-braced condition. The effects might be caused by the flexible area of support and the incorporated mechanisms to address proprioceptive aspects. Braces might not be needed in simple daily life tasks, but could provide beneficial support in more dynamic settings when patients return to sporting activities after an ACL-injury. PMID:22706937

  19. Evaluation of a community based childhood injury prevention program.

    PubMed Central

    Bablouzian, L.; Freedman, E. S.; Wolski, K. E.; Fried, L. E.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This pilot study evaluates the effectiveness of a community based childhood injury prevention program on the reduction of home hazards. METHODS: High risk pregnant women, who were enrolled in a home visiting program that augments existing health and human services, received initial home safety assessments. Clients received education about injury prevention practices, in addition to receiving selected home safety supplies. Fourteen questions from the initial assessment tool were repeated upon discharge from the program. Matched analyses were conducted to evaluate differences from initial assessment to discharge. RESULTS: A significantly larger proportion of homes were assessed as safe at discharge, compared with the initial assessment, for the following hazards: children riding unbuckled in all auto travel, Massachusetts Poison Center sticker on the telephone, outlet plugs in all unused electrical outlets, safety latches on cabinets and drawers, and syrup of ipecac in the home. CONCLUSIONS: A community based childhood injury prevention program providing education and safety supplies to clients significantly reduced four home hazards for which safety supplies were provided. Education and promotion of the proper use of child restraint systems in automobiles significantly reduced a fifth hazard, children riding unbuckled in auto travel. This program appears to reduce the prevalence of home hazards and, therefore, to increase home safety. PMID:9113841

  20. Theoretical integration and the psychology of sport injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Chan, Derwin King-Chung; Hagger, Martin S

    2012-09-01

    Integrating different theories of motivation to facilitate or predict behaviour change has received an increasing amount of attention within the health, sport and exercise science literature. A recent review article in Sports Medicine, by Keats, Emery and Finch presented an integrated model using two prominent theories in social psychology, self-determination theory (SDT) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), aimed at explaining and enhancing athletes' adherence to sport injury prevention. While echoing their optimistic views about the utility of these two theories to explain adherence in this area and the virtues of theoretical integration, we would like to seize this opportunity to clarify several conceptual principles arising from the authors' integration of the theories. Clarifying the theoretical assumptions and explaining precisely how theoretical integration works is crucial not only for improving the comprehensiveness of the integrated framework for predicting injury prevention behaviour, but also to aid the design of effective intervention strategies targeting behavioural adherence. In this article, we use the integration of SDT and TPB as an example to demonstrate how theoretical integration can advance the understanding of injury prevention behaviour in sport. PMID:22909184

  1. Prevention strategies for infant walker-related injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Trinkoff, A; Parks, P L

    1993-01-01

    The estimated number of walker-related injuries to infants increased during the 1980s, and standards for walker design safety remain voluntary with no monitoring to assess compliance. Although banning the walker has been proposed, this prevention strategy has not been employed. The most recent statistics available indicate that there were an estimated 27,804 walker-related injuries requiring emergency room attention among ages 0-4 years in 1991. Results of a survey of parents of 3-12-month-olds indicated considerable use of walkers, with greater use among parents with lower educational levels. Reported reasons for using walkers were for the infant's entertainment, enjoyment, and containment, as well as to help infants learn to walk. The authors recommend the consideration of a series of preventive strategies according to the epidemiologic framework for injury control and prevention designed by William Haddon, Jr. These include, but are not limited to, prohibiting the manufacture and sale of the walker, mandatory standards, redesign of the walker, design of an alternative to the walker, and consumer education to reduce use and to change patterns of use. PMID:8265765

  2. Knee instability scores for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rahnemai-Azar, Ata A; Naendrup, Jan-Hendrik; Soni, Ashish; Olsen, Adam; Zlotnicki, Jason; Musahl, Volker

    2016-06-01

    Despite abundant biological, biomechanical, and clinical research, return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remains a significant challenge. Residual rotatory knee laxity has been identified as one of the factors responsible for poor functional outcome. To improve and standardize the assessment of knee instability, a variety of instability scoring systems is available. Recently, devices to objectively quantify static and dynamic clinical exams have been developed to complement traditional subjective grading systems. These devices enable an improved evaluation of knee instability and possible associated injuries. This additional information may promote the development of new treatment algorithms and allow for individualized treatment. In this review, the different subjective laxity scores as well as complementary objective measuring systems are discussed, along with an introduction of injury to an individualized treatment algorithm. PMID:26980119

  3. Assessment of caregiver responsibility in unintentional child injury deaths: challenges for injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, Patricia G; Covington, Theresa M; Kruse, Robin L

    2011-02-01

    Most unintentional injury deaths among young children result from inadequate supervision or failure by caregivers to protect the child from potential hazards. Determining whether inadequate supervision or failure to protect could be classified as child neglect is a component of child death review (CDR) in most states. However, establishing that an unintentional injury death was neglect related can be challenging as differing definitions, lack of standards regarding supervision, and changing norms make consensus difficult. The purpose of this study was to assess CDR team members' categorisation of the extent to which unintentional injury deaths were neglect related. CDR team members were surveyed and asked to classify 20 vignettes-presented in 10 pairs-that described the circumstances of unintentional injury deaths among children. Vignette pairs differed by an attribute that might affect classification, such as poverty or intent. Categories for classifying vignettes were: (1) caregiver not responsible/not neglect related; (2) some caregiver responsibility/somewhat neglect related; (3) caregiver responsible /definitely neglect related. CDR team members from five states (287) completed surveys. Respondents assigned the child's caregiver at least some responsibility for the death in 18 vignettes (90%). A majority of respondents classified the caregiver as definitely responsible for the child's death in eight vignettes (40%). This study documents attributes that influence CDR team members' decisions when assessing caregiver responsibility in unintentional injury deaths, including supervision, intent, failure to use safety devices, and a pattern of previous neglectful behaviour. The findings offer insight for incorporating injury prevention into CDR more effectively. PMID:21278098

  4. Descriptive Epidemiology of the Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has worse outcomes than primary reconstructions. Predictors for these worse outcomes are not known. The Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Group was developed to perform a multisurgeon, multicenter prospective longitudinal study to obtain sufficient subjects to allow multivariable analysis to determine predictors of clinical outcome. Purpose To describe the formation of MARS and provide descriptive analysis of patient demographics and clinical features for the initial 460 enrolled patients to date in this prospective cohort. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods After training and institutional review board approval, surgeons began enrolling patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction, recording patient demographics, previous ACL reconstruction methods, intra-articular injuries, and current revision techniques. Enrolled subjects completed a questionnaire consisting of validated patient-based outcome measures. Results As of April 1, 2009, 87 surgeons have enrolled a total of 460 patients (57% men; median age, 26 years). For 89%, the reconstruction was the first revision. Mode of failure as deemed by the revising surgeon was traumatic (32%), technical (24%), biologic (7%), combination (37%), infection (<1%), and no response (<1%). Previous graft present at the time of injury was 70% autograft, 27% allograft, 2% combination, and 1% unknown. Sixty-two percent were more than 2 years removed from their last reconstruction. Graft choice for revision ACL reconstruction was 45% autograft, 54% allograft, and more than 1% both allograft and autograft. Meniscus and/or chondral damage was found in 90% of patients. Conclusion The MARS Group has been able to quickly accumulate the largest revision ACL reconstruction cohort reported to date. Traumatic reinjury is deemed by surgeons to be the most common single mode of failure, but a combination of factors represents the most

  5. 76 FR 77537 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal..., National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  6. Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Structure, Injuries and Regenerative Treatments.

    PubMed

    Negahi Shirazi, Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Khademhosseini, Ali; Dehghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most vulnerable ligaments of the knee. ACL impairment results in episodic instability, chondral and meniscal injury and early osteoarthritis. The poor self-healing capacity of ACL makes surgical treatment inevitable. Current ACL reconstructions include a substitution of torn ACL via biological grafts such as autograft, allograft. This review provides an insight of ACL structure, orientation and properties followed by comparing the performance of various constructs that have been used for ACL replacement. New approaches, undertaken to induce ACL regeneration and fabricate biomimetic scaffolds, are also discussed. PMID:26545750

  7. Burn injury in patients with dementia: an impetus for prevention.

    PubMed

    Alden, Nicole E; Rabbitts, Angela; Yurt, Roger W

    2005-01-01

    Current literature has reported an increase in the rates of morbidity and mortality in elderly dementia patients who have suffered from illnesses such as pneumonia or traumatic injuries such as falls, motor vehicle collisions, and other insults. The role of dementia in elderly burn patients has not been studied in depth. To assess the extent of this problem, a retrospective, case-control study of patients with dementia who were admitted to a large urban burn center was performed. The demographics, circumstance and severity of injury, critical care use, and discharge disposition of those patients admitted with dementia were reviewed and compared with the findings of age/burn size-matched controls. The results support the premise that burn injuries in this patient population can be severe. Although not statistically significant, 22.2% of the study group patients required ventilatory support, and 75% required monitoring in the intensive care unit compared with the 15.3% and 61.6% of control patients who required ventilatory support and monitoring in the intensive care unit, respectively. Also, although not statistically significant, the mortality rate of the study group was 25%, almost double that of the control group (13.8%). No other significant differences were observed. These findings support the need for assistance and supervision with daily activity and burn prevention education for this population. As our population ages and we are faced with caring for those with dementia, further burn prevention is warranted. PMID:15879750

  8. Prevention of arm injury in youth baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Kerut, Edmund Kenneth; Kerut, Denise Goodfellow; Fleisig, Glenn S; Andrews, James R

    2008-01-01

    The advent of youth year-round baseball has come with an increased incidence of pitching related injury and surgery, most notably involving the shoulder and elbow (ulnar collateral ligament). These injuries become evident in high school and college, but begin at the youth level. Several studies have identified baseball pitching risk factors during youth that increase likelihood for injury and surgery in subsequent years. Based on these studies, the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee has published guidelines for pitching that include limits on pitch count and pitches per week and season as well as recommendations for number of rest days between pitching. Also, recommendations include the restriction of breaking balls prior to puberty, the importance of instruction for proper pitching mechanics as early as possible in development, and at least three months of rest after a season. This review is intended to help guide primary care physicians and pediatricians when discussing youth pitching and injury prevention with parents and coaches. PMID:18681352

  9. Prevention of chaff cutter injuries in rural India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Adarsh; Singh, J K; Singh, Charanjit

    2013-01-01

    Chaff cutter is an extensively used machine in Indian rural households to chop fodder for feeding draft and mulch to animals. A survey was conducted in five villages of Ghaziabad district of Uttar Pradesh (a northern state of India) to determine the causal factors responsible for chaff cutter injuries. It was observed that major injuries were caused during children playing with the machine and workers feeding the fodder in to the chute. Further, a survey of chaff cutter manufacturers was conducted to determine the critical dimensions of the machine so that safety interventions could be developed. Based on the survey results and mechanism of injuries, three safety interventions were developed to prevent the injuries. These interventions can be retrofitted on old machines and can be incorporated in new machines as well. Experiments were conducted using different fodder crops to observe difficulty in chaff cutting with the safety interventions. It was observed that incorporation of the interventions had no effect on performance of chaff cutting operation. These were retrofitted on existing machines at different locations and the response was very positive. PMID:22551169

  10. [Bicycle spoke-related injuries in children: emphasise prevention].

    PubMed

    Kramer, William L M; Haaring, Gert-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Three children, a 6-year-old boy and two girls aged 5 and 4 years, were seen at an emergency department due to distal lower-leg injuries sustained from the spokes of bicycle wheels. All three patients had been passengers on rear carrying seats of moving bicycles. Only the third bicyclist had used a special child safety seat. The second girl had drawn her foot up from underneath a strap and suffered a tibial fracture later treated with an osteosynthetic plate. The other two patients recovered after conservative casting treatment. Bicycle spoke-related injuries are sustained when the foot or lower limb makes contact with the spokes of a bicycle wheel and usually by children who are bicycle passengers. In the Netherlands, approximately 4600 children are seen at emergency departments with such injuries each year. Bicycle spoke-related accidents can cause severe damage that can result in lengthy recovery periods. Not only physical complications but also psychological ones can occur. The latter are often overlooked but do deserve proper treatment. The physician treating a spoke-related injury is in a good position to advice parents as to preventive measures, particularly on the use of special child safety seats. PMID:22085522

  11. 75 FR 7284 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Institutional Collaboration Between Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Malaria, Funding Opportunity...

  12. 75 FR 22816 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Revitalizing Core...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Revitalizing Core Environmental Health Programs Through the Environmental...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the aforementioned meeting: Times...

  13. Child-to-Child Training for Prevention of School Injuries in Odemis, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergün, Sibel; Kalkim, Asli; Dolgun, Eda

    2013-01-01

    Students encounter many risks for injury, which can impact their health and educational success; prevention of these injuries are paramount for school nurses. These article reports results of a study conducted to determine the efficacy of training given to children regarding prevention of school injuries and to compare the effectiveness of…

  14. Conditioning the heart to prevent myocardial reperfusion injury during PPCI

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For patients presenting with a ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), early myocardial reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) remains the most effective treatment strategy for limiting myocardial infarct size, preserving left ventricular systolic function, and preventing the onset of heart failure. Recent advances in PCI technology to improve myocardial reperfusion and the introduction of novel anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic agents to maintain the patency of the infarct-related coronary artery continue to optimize PPCI procedure. However, despite these improvements, STEMI patients still experience significant major adverse cardiovascular events. One major contributing factor has been the inability to protect the heart against the lethal myocardial reperfusion injury, which accompanies PPCI. Past attempts to translate cardioprotective strategies, discovered in experimental studies to prevent lethal myocardial reperfusion injury, into the clinical setting of PPCI have been disappointing. However, a number of recent proof-of-concept clinical studies suggest that the heart can be ‘conditioned’ to protect itself against lethal myocardial reperfusion injury, as evidenced by a reduction in myocardial infarct size. This can be achieved using either mechanical (such as ischaemic postconditioning, remote ischaemic preconditioning, therapeutic hypothermia, or hyperoxaemia) or pharmacological (such as cyclosporin-A, natriuretic peptide, exenatide) ‘conditioning’ strategies as adjuncts to PPCI. Furthermore, recent developments in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging can provide a non-invasive imaging strategy for assessing the efficacy of these novel adjunctive therapies to PPCI in terms of key surrogate clinical endpoints such as myocardial infarct size, myocardial salvage, left ventricular ejection fraction, and the presence of microvascular obstruction or intramyocardial haemorrhage. In this article, we review the

  15. Preventing School Injuries: A Comprehensive Guide for School Administrators, Teachers, and Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Marc

    Every aspect of coping with injuries and preventing injuries in school settings is covered in this book. It examines how and why students are injured and in what situations schools can be held responsible. It also explains how schools can provide a quick, efficient, and effective emergency response to injuries. How to collect injury data, how to…

  16. Multicenter assessment of burn team injury prevention knowledge.

    PubMed

    Klas, Karla S; Smith, Sue Jane; Matherly, Annette F; Dillard, B Daniel; Grant, Ernest J; Cusick-Jost, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Engaging burn professionals to utilize "teachable moments" and provide accurate fire safety and burn prevention (FSBP) education is essential in reducing injury incidence. Minimal data is available regarding burn clinicians' evidence-based FSBP knowledge. A committee of prevention professionals developed, pilot-tested, and distributed a 52-question online survey assessing six major categories: demographical information (n = 7); FSBP knowledge (n = 24); home FSBP practices (n = 6); burn center FSBP education (n = 7); self-assessed competence and confidence in providing FSBP education (n = 2); and improving ABA reach (n = 6). Responses with <50% completion of FSBP knowledge section were excluded. Total group's (TG) mean FSBP score of 61.5% was used to define and compare underperformers (UP). After excluding 36 incomplete responses, test scores ranged: TG (n = 427) 21-88% and UP (n = 183) 21-58%. Ten FSBP knowledge questions covering seven topics were incorrectly answered by >50% of TG. ANOVA showed self-reported competence and confidence in providing FSBP education were not good predictors of FSBP scores, but staff with <2 years experience scored lower. Over 90% of TG wants FSBP fact sheets for patient education. Burn professionals have a responsibility to educate patients, families, and communities on FSBP. Team members report competence and confidence in their ability to provide FSBP education. However, this multicenter survey demonstrates the need for professional training on best practices in injury prevention, specifically targeting knowledge gaps on: smoke alarms, fire-safe cigarettes, children's sleepwear, burn/fire epidemiology, fireworks, bathing/scald injuries, and residential sprinklers. Based on these findings, FSBP educational materials will be created. PMID:25094010

  17. Preventing childhood unintentional injuries--what works? A literature review.

    PubMed Central

    Dowswell, T.; Towner, E. M.; Simpson, G.; Jarvis, S. N.

    1996-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this paper is to report on a systematic review of the world literature to provide information about the most effective forms of health promotion interventions to reduce childhood (0-14 years) unintentional injuries. The findings are of relevance to policy makers at a local or national level, to practitioners and researchers. METHODS: The relevant literature has been identified through the use of electronic databases, hand searching of journals, scanning reference lists, and consultation with key informants. RESULTS: Examples of interventions that have been effective in reducing injury include: bicycle helmet legislation, area wide traffic calming measures, child safety restraint legislation, child resistant containers to prevent poisoning, and window bars to prevent falls. Interventions effective in changing behaviour include bicycle helmet education and legislation, child restraint legislation, child restraint loan schemes, child restraint educational campaigns, pedestrian education aimed at the child/parent, provision of smoke detectors, and parent education on home hazard reduction. For the community based campaigns, the key to success has been the sustained use of surveillance systems, the commitment of interagency cooperation and the time needed to develop networks and implement a range of interventions. Education, environmental modification and legislation all have a part to play and their effect in combination is important. CONCLUSION: The design of evaluations in injury prevention needs to be improved so that more reliable evidence can be obtained. Better information is needed on process, so that successful strategies can be replicated elsewhere. There is also a need for literature reviews on effectiveness to be updated regularly and for their findings to be widely disseminated to policy makers, researchers, and practitioners. PMID:9346079

  18. A Guide To The Prevention Of Running Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Clement, D. B.; Taunton, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    In North America, estimates of recreational runners have grown from two million in 1970 to 30 million in 1979. In Canada increased interest in running has been sparked by Participaction. Habituation to running is attributed to a sense of wellbeing and increased energy levels, as well as the possibility of reducing the threat of cardiovascular disease. Musculoskeletal injury is common to runners and can be prevented by carefully planned training programs, proper selection of training surface, regular stretching and strength drills, the use of protective footwear and balancing of vulnerable biomechanical alignments with functional orthotics in shoes. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:21293616

  19. Prediction and Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Su Rin; Kim, Won Ho; Kim, Dong Joon; Shin, Il-Woo; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery (CS-AKI) ranges from 33% to 94% and is associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. The etiology is suggested to be multifactorial and related to almost all aspects of perioperative management. Numerous studies have reported the risk factors and risk scores and novel biomarkers of AKI have been investigated to facilitate the subclinical diagnosis of AKI. Based on the known independent risk factors, many preventive interventions to reduce the risk of CS-AKI have been tested. However, any single preventive intervention did not show a definite and persistent benefit to reduce the incidence of CS-AKI. Goal-directed therapy has been considered to be a preventive strategy with a substantial level of efficacy. Many pharmacologic agents were tested for any benefit to treat or prevent CS-AKI but the results were conflicting and evidences are still lacking. The present review will summarize the current updated evidences about the risk factors and preventive strategies for CS-AKI. PMID:27419130

  20. Reducing knee and anterior cruciate ligament injuries among female athletes: a systematic review of neuromuscular training interventions.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence that neuromuscular training not only decreases the potential biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury, but also decreases knee and, specifically, ACL injury incidence in female athletes. Five of the six interventions in this systematic review demonstrated significant effects on overall knee or ACL injury rates. It appears that plyometric power, biomechanics and technique, strength, balance, and core stability training can induce neuromuscular changes and potential injury prevention effects in female athletes. However, it is unknown which of these components is most effective or whether the effects are combinatorial. Future research should assess the relative efficacy of these interventions alone and in combination to achieve the optimal effect in the most efficient manner possible. Selective combination of neuromuscular training components may provide additive effects, further reducing the risk of ACL injuries in female athletes. Additional research directions include the assessment of relative injury risk using mass neuromuscular screening, the development of more specific injury prevention protocols targeted toward high-risk athletes, and the determination of when these interventions should be implemented. It may be that prepubertal or early pubertal female athletes may have the potential to achieve optimal biomechanical changes and the greatest chance of injury-free sports participation throughout their careers. PMID:15742602

  1. Mechanisms of cardiac radiation injury and potential preventive approaches.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Jan; Kura, Branislav; Ravingerová, Táňa; Tribulova, Narcisa; Okruhlicova, Ludmila; Barancik, Miroslav

    2015-09-01

    In addition to cytostatic treatment and surgery, the most common cancer treatment is gamma radiation. Despite sophisticated radiological techniques however, in addition to irradiation of the tumor, irradiation of the surrounding healthy tissue also takes place, which results in various side-effects, depending on the absorbed dose of radiation. Radiation either damages the cell DNA directly, or indirectly via the formation of oxygen radicals that in addition to the DNA damage, react with all cell organelles and interfere with their molecular mechanisms. The main features of radiation injury besides DNA damage is inflammation and increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes and cytokines. Endothelial damage and dysfunction of capillaries and small blood vessels plays a particularly important role in radiation injury. This review is focused on summarizing the currently available data concerning the mechanisms of radiation injury, as well as the effectiveness of various antioxidants, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and cytoprotective substances that may be utilized in preventing, mitigating, or treating the toxic effects of ionizing radiation on the heart. PMID:26030720

  2. Injury prevention and risk communication: a mental models approach.

    PubMed

    Austin, Laurel C; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2012-04-01

    Individuals' decisions and behaviour can play a critical role in determining both the probability and severity of injury. Behavioural decision research studies peoples' decision-making processes in terms comparable to scientific models of optimal choices, providing a basis for focusing interventions on the most critical opportunities to reduce risks. That research often seeks to identify the 'mental models' that underlie individuals' interpretations of their circumstances and the outcomes of possible actions. In the context of injury prevention, a mental models approach would ask why people fail to see risks, do not make use of available protective interventions or misjudge the effectiveness of protective measures. If these misunderstandings can be reduced through context-appropriate risk communications, then their improved mental models may help people to engage more effectively in behaviours that they judge to be in their own best interest. If that proves impossible, then people may need specific instructions, not trusting to intuition or even paternalistic protection against situations that they cannot sufficiently control. The method entails working with domain specialists to elicit and create an expert model of the risk situation, interviewing lay people to elicit their comparable mental models, and developing and evaluating communication interventions designed to close the gaps between lay people and experts. This paper reviews the theory and method behind this research stream and uses examples to discuss how the approach can be used to develop scientifically validated context-sensitive injury risk communications. PMID:22088928

  3. Injury prevention education in medical schools: an international survey of medical students

    PubMed Central

    Villaveces, A; Kammeyer, J; Bencevic, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: Injuries account for an estimated 9% of global mortality. Health professionals worldwide receive little formal injury prevention training, especially in developing countries. Objective: To identify injury prevention training topics taught in a sample of medical schools throughout the world. Design and setting: Cross sectional survey of 82 medical schools from 31 countries. Based on a convenience sample, respondents recalled the injury prevention concepts they were taught, estimated the time dedicated to these topics, specified the courses and rotations where these concepts were taught, and noted whether they were compulsory or elective sessions. Participants: Medical students in their last year of medical training. Main exposure measures: Student recall of classes and rotations where topics of injury prevention and control were discussed. Results: Basic injury prevention concepts including risk factors for injuries and injury classification systems were not covered in 60% of medical schools. Concepts related to child abuse and neglect and emergency care were more commonly taught than others such as traffic injury prevention and youth violence prevention. In general, injury prevention and control concepts were less frequently taught in Middle Eastern and African universities compared with other regions and some topics such as violence prevention were more frequently taught in medical schools in the Americas. Injury prevention concepts were taught most frequently in preventive medicine, forensic medicine, emergency medicine, surgery and pediatrics courses, and rotations. Conclusions: Injury prevention and control education is infrequent and fragmented in medical schools around the world. Inclusion or further development of curricula on this subject could benefit prevention and control efforts. PMID:16326768

  4. [Measures to prevent injuries related to bicycle seats].

    PubMed

    Martelli, A; Angrisano, A; Verdoni, F

    1999-01-01

    Injuries related to the use of bicycle seats are increasing due to the more frequent use of bicycles, mostly in metropolis. Several cases of children who suffered lesions to the lower limbs are reported from which we may summarize the most frequent clinical features, characterized by a foot swelling caused by the crushing between the wheel spokes, with different degrees of skin injuries. Fractures of the lower part of the leg bones are frequent as well. A greater number of cases was reported in summertime and, in all the bicycles, there was no spoke cover and the seats did not provide any protection to the feet. So far no precise rules for the marketing approval of bicycle seats have been fixed by UE, contrary to what has been already set for cars. Therefore, we suggest that such rules should soon be enforced. We also recommend the compulsory use of the helmet, as in other countries. We underline the usefulness of a more detailed epidemiological monitoring to better understand the dynamic of such traumatic events and, consequently, achieve some further improvements in the seats design, for an increased safety. The critical factor in prevention, however, will always remain a proper sanitary education. In the general chapter of accidents prevention, pediatrics should provide the parents with all the indications and cautions concerned with bicycle seat safety. PMID:10356943

  5. Childhood injury prevention: intervention in the Bedouin city of Rahat.

    PubMed

    Hemmo-Lotem, Michal; Merrick, Efrat; Endy-Findling, Liri; Freh, Aziza Abu; Jinich-Aronowitz, Claudia; Korn, Liat; Merrick, Joav

    2005-08-01

    For several years, the National Center for Children's Health and Safety (Beterem) has worked on many levels to promote safety and prevent injury of the children in Israel. As part of intervention programs in 20 communities around Israel, this paper describes a 1-year, multidisciplinary, multistrategic childhood safety promotion and injury prevention project. The project took place in the Bedouin city of Rahat in the Southern part of Israel, the Negev, conducted by a local safety coordinator. This specific intervention study took place from March 2003 to March 2004. The main goal was to identify hazards and dangerous obstacles in public places in Rahat, then remove or repair the obstacles found, in order to secure a safe public environment for children. "Obstacle" was defined as any barrier that could endanger the safety of a child. Ten examples are used to illustrate this applied research project, and 80% of the problems were solved within the project period (time to solve between 1 week to 3 months, depending on various factors). We recommend the involvement of a safety coordinator from the community to focus on safety hazards for children, the use of a documentation diary to log the time frame, and also the use of pictures to illustrate the hazards and the changes, or to use as arguments in the lobbying process. PMID:16088342

  6. Acute Kidney Injury by Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Michael, Ashour

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24–72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both. PMID:25197639

  7. The new trend in back injury prevention programs

    SciTech Connect

    Rummerfield, P.D.

    1996-12-31

    The reduction in Worker`s Compensation costs through lumbar strengthening programs is now a proven approach. This is the beginning of a new era in injury prevention. Imagine a test for muscle imbalance along with the strength of all the major muscle groups of every person on the mine site. Occupations, such as roof bolters, and operators of haul trucks, dozers, scrapers, continuous miners and shuttle cars could be tested for musculoskeletal strength of the spine and extremities. With this test data you could then compare your findings to the strength norms necessary for that person to perform his/her job task safely. Armed with this information, you could drastically reduce Workers` Compensation costs due to strains and sprains. Earl Hoerner, M.D. and Robert Wainwright, P.T. have consolidated these cutting-edge technologies that will produce the benchmark for industrial injury prevention for the next century. These technologies are available today, waiting to be used in an industrial setting by a management team with vision.

  8. Acute kidney injury by radiographic contrast media: pathogenesis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Andreucci, Michele; Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Sabbatini, Massimo; Michael, Ashour

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24-72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both. PMID:25197639

  9. The science of softball: implications for performance and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Flyger, Nicholas; Button, Chris; Rishiraj, Neetu

    2006-01-01

    Whilst the sport of softball has achieved worldwide popularity over the last 100 years, a consideration of the scientific principles underpinning softball is in its infancy. It is clear that the various motor skills associated with softball, such as pitching, batting and fielding, place considerable perceptual and physical demands upon players. Each of these skill categories are examined in more detail by reviewing the biomechanical principles associated with skilled performance. For pitching, a certain amount of information can be gleaned from baseball research; however, the underarm technique required by softball places the highest loads on the arm and shoulder during the accelerative, downward phase of the swing. Kinematic analyses of the bat swing suggest that elite batters have approximately 200 ms to decide whether to swing, and approximately the same duration to complete the swing (resulting in reported bat speeds of up to 40 m/sec). The research conducted on fielding has been limited to a consideration of throwing styles adopted in games. A variety of throwing techniques are adopted in the course of a typical game but elite players commonly adopt a sidearm technique when returning to base as quickly as possible. Data obtained from the National Athletic Training Association indicate a similar level of injury incidence in softball as in baseball. Approximately 17% of injuries are experienced by the pitcher and approximately 25% of all injuries are located in the forearm/wrist/hand joint segments. Sports science and sports medicine research have the potential to contribute significantly to performance enhancement and injury prevention in the future. PMID:16937954

  10. Persistent Biomechanical Alterations After ACL Reconstruction Are Associated With Early Cartilage Matrix Changes Detected by Quantitative MR

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Keiko; Pedoia, Valentina; Su, Favian; Souza, Richard B.; Li, Xiaojuan; Ma, C. Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in preventing early osteoarthritis is debated. Restoring the original biomechanics may potentially prevent degeneration, but apparent pathomechanisms have yet to be described. Newer quantitative magnetic resonance (qMR) imaging techniques, specifically T1ρ and T2, offer novel, noninvasive methods of visualizing and quantifying early cartilage degeneration. Purpose: To determine the tibiofemoral biomechanical alterations before and after ACL reconstruction using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to evaluate the association between biomechanics and cartilage degeneration using T1ρ and T2. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Knee MRIs of 51 individuals (mean age, 29.5 ± 8.4 years) with unilateral ACL injuries were obtained prior to surgery; 19 control subjects (mean age, 30.7 ± 5.3 years) were also scanned. Follow-up MRIs were obtained at 6 months and 1 year. Tibial position (TP), internal tibial rotation (ITR), and T1ρ and T2 were calculated using an in-house Matlab program. Student t tests, repeated measures, and regression models were used to compare differences between injured and uninjured sides, observe longitudinal changes, and evaluate correlations between TP, ITR, and T1ρ and T2. Results: TP was significantly more anterior on the injured side at all time points (P < .001). ITR was significantly increased on the injured side prior to surgery (P = .033). At 1 year, a more anterior TP was associated with elevated T1ρ (P = .002) and T2 (P = .026) in the posterolateral tibia and with decreased T2 in the central lateral femur (P = .048); ITR was associated with increased T1ρ in the posteromedial femur (P = .009). ITR at 6 months was associated with increased T1ρ at 1 year in the posteromedial tibia (P = .029). Conclusion: Persistent biomechanical alterations after ACL reconstruction are related to significant changes in cartilage T1ρ and T2 at 1 year

  11. The Landing Error Scoring System as a Screening Tool for an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury–Prevention Program in Elite-Youth Soccer Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Darin A.; DiStefano, Lindsay J.; Beutler, Anthony I.; de la Motte, Sarah J.; DiStefano, Michael J.; Marshall, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Context Identifying neuromuscular screening factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a critical step toward large-scale deployment of effective ACL injury-prevention programs. The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is a valid and reliable clinical assessment of jump-landing biomechanics. Objective To investigate the ability of the LESS to identify individuals at risk for ACL injury in an elite-youth soccer population. Design Cohort study. Setting Field-based functional movement screening performed at soccer practice facilities. Patients or Other Participants A total of 829 elite-youth soccer athletes (348 boys, 481 girls; age = 13.9 ± 1.8 years, age range = 11 to 18 years), of whom 25% (n = 207) were less than 13 years of age. Intervention(s) Baseline preseason testing for all participants consisted of a jump-landing task (3 trials). Participants were followed prospectively throughout their soccer seasons for diagnosis of ACL injuries (1217 athlete-seasons of follow-up). Main Outcome Measure(s) Landings were scored for “errors” in technique using the LESS. We used receiver operator characteristic curves to determine a cutpoint on the LESS. Sensitivity and specificity of the LESS in predicting ACL injury were assessed. Results Seven participants sustained ACL injuries during the follow-up period; the mechanism of injury was noncontact or indirect contact for all injuries. Uninjured participants had lower LESS scores (4.43 ± 1.71) than injured participants (6.24 ± 1.75; t1215 = −2.784, P = .005). The receiver operator characteristic curve analyses suggested that 5 was the optimal cutpoint for the LESS, generating a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 64%. Conclusions Despite sample-size limitations, the LESS showed potential as a screening tool to determine ACL injury risk in elite-youth soccer athletes. PMID:25811846

  12. Return to sport after ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua D; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Bach, Bernard R; Williams, Donna; Heidloff, Dave; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Verma, Nikhil N; Forsythe, Brian; Cole, Brian J

    2014-02-01

    Objective guidelines permitting safe return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are infrequently used. The purpose of this study was to determine the published return to sport guidelines following ACL reconstruction in Level I randomized controlled trials. A systematic review was performed using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Level I randomized controlled trials were included if they reported a minimum 2-year follow-up after ACL reconstruction and return to sport criteria. Outcomes analyzed were the timing of initiation of return to sport, follow-up duration, and use of quantitative/qualitative criteria to determine return to sport. Forty-nine studies were included (N=4178; 68% male; mean patient age, 27.5±3.2 years; mean follow-up, 3.0±1.9 years; mean time from injury to reconstruction, 379±321 days). Ninety-six percent of reconstructions used autograft and 87% were single-bundle reconstructions. Lysholm score, single-leg hop, isokinetic strength, and KT-1000 or KT-2000 arthrometer (MEDmetric, San Diego, California) testing were performed in 67%, 31%, 31%, and 82% of studies, respectively. Only 5 studies reported whether patients were able to successfully return to sport. Ninety percent and 65% of studies failed to use objective criteria or any criteria, respectively, to permit return to sport. Description of permission/allowance to return to sport was highly variable and poor. Twenty-four percent of studies failed to report when patients were allowed return to sport without restrictions. Overall, 39%, 45%, and 51% of studies permitted running at 3 months, return to cutting/pivoting sports at 6 months, and return to sport without restrictions at 6 months, respectively. Further research into validated return to sport guidelines is necessary to fill the existing void in contemporary literature and to guide clinical practice. PMID:24679194

  13. Preventing Workplace Injuries and Illnesses through Ergonomics. Listening to Our Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosskam, Ellen; Baichoo, Pavan

    1997-01-01

    Ergonomics focuses on the prevention of injuries through proper design of equipment, workstations, and products. The adoption of an ergonomic philosophy in the workplace has demonstrable benefits. (JOW)

  14. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    PubMed Central

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns. PMID:25157305

  15. Controversies in Knee Rehabilitation: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Failla, Mathew J.; Arundale, Amelia J.H.; Logerstedt, David S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Controversy in management of athletes exists after anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction. Consensus criteria for evaluating successful outcomes following ACL injury include no re-injury or recurrent giving way, no joint effusion, quadriceps strength symmetry, restored activity level and function, and returning to pre-injury sports. Using these criterions, we will review the success rates of current management strategies after ACL injury and provide recommendations for the counseling of athletes after ACL injury. PMID:25818715

  16. Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.

    PubMed

    West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

    2014-04-18

    A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the

  17. Preventing young children's injuries: analysis of data from a population-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Toblin, Robin L; Brenner, Ruth A; Taneja, Gitanjali S; Rossi, Maryann W; Collins, Millicent; Mickalide, Angela D; Overpeck, Mary D; Clinton-Reid, Yvette; Dever, Jill A; Boyle, Kerrie; Trumble, Ann C; Scheidt, Peter C

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine prevention strategies for potentially serious injury events among children younger than 3 years of age based upon circumstances surrounding injury events. Surveillance was conducted on all injuries to District of Columbia (DC) residents less than 3 years old that resulted in an Emergency Department (ED) visit, hospitalization, or death for 1 year. Data were collected through abstraction of medical records and interviews with a subset of parents of injured children. Investigators coded injury-related events for the potential for death or disability. Potential prevention strategies were then determined for all injury events that had at least a moderate potential for death or disability and sufficient detail for coding (n = 425). Injury-related events included 10 deaths, 163 hospitalizations, and 2,868 ED visits (3,041 events in total). Of the hospitalizations, 88% were coded as moderate or high potential for disability or death, versus only 21% of the coded ED visits. For potentially serious events, environmental change strategies were identified for 47%, behavior change strategies for 77%, and policy change strategies for 24%. For 46% of the events more than one type of prevention strategy was identified. Only 8% had no identifiable prevention strategy. Prevention strategies varied by specific cause of injury. Potential prevention strategies were identifiable for nearly all potentially serious injury events, with multiple potential prevention strategies identified for a large fraction of the events. These findings support developing multifaceted prevention approaches informed by community-based injury surveillance. PMID:21904860

  18. 78 FR 24751 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Continuing Prospective Birth Cohort Study Involving Environmental Uranium Exposure in the Navajo Nation,...

  19. 77 FR 61756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  20. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  1. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  2. 78 FR 37542 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  3. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  4. 77 FR 36544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  5. 78 FR 60875 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  6. 78 FR 60877 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  7. 75 FR 52356 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: National Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Behavioral...

  8. 75 FR 46952 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Behavioral...

  9. 75 FR 55806 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Patient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Infections Program (EIP), Enhancing Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity, Funding Opportunity Announcement... applications received in response to ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), Emerging...

  10. 75 FR 39033 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Patient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Infections Program (EIP), Enhancing Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity, Funding Opportunity Announcement... in response to ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), Emerging Infections Program...

  11. 76 FR 9018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Emerging...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Emerging Infections Sentinel Network (EISN) Research, Funding... initial review, discussion, and evaluation of applications received in response to ``Emerging...

  12. PREVENT: a program of the National Training Initiative on Injury and Violence Prevention.

    PubMed

    Runyan, Carol W; Gunther-Mohr, Carol; Orton, Stephen; Umble, Karl; Martin, Sandra L; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2005-12-01

    Training practitioners to use evidence-based approaches to the primary prevention of violence is challenging as a result of the dearth of well-evaluated intervention programs and the lack of familiarity of some practitioners in drawing critically on existing literature. An element of the National Training Initiative in Injury and Violence Prevention, the PREVENT (Preventing Violence Through Education, Networking, and Technical Assistance) program began in late 2003 to train practitioners to address multiple types of violence by encouraging more widespread use of evidence-based approaches to primary prevention. It is intended to reach practitioners involved in addressing violence against women, sexual violence, child maltreatment, youth violence, and suicide in varied community settings. The program uses a combination of varied types of face-to-face training and distance learning coupled with opportunities for networking and technical assistance. Ultimately the program intends to stimulate and facilitate changes in individual, organizational, and cultural awareness and practices fostering primary prevention of violence. The project employs formative, process, and impact evaluation techniques aimed at improving delivery of the training as well as tracking changes in individual and organizations. PMID:16376727

  13. Strategies for Playground Injury Prevention: An Overview of a Playground Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather; Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Preventing injuries to children, especially debilitating and life threatening, requires an awareness of where these types of injuries occur during the school days. This review examines falls from playground equipment, events that have been identified as the leading causes of nonfatal unintentional injuries for children. Thus, the issue of…

  14. Preventing Unintentional Injuries in the Home Using the Health Impact Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Karin A.; Liller, Karen D.; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David

    2015-01-01

    Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire,…

  15. Electrospinning polymer blends for biomimetic scaffolds for ACL tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Vanessa Lizeth

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is one of the most common knee injuries. Current ACL reconstructive strategies consist of using an autograft or an allograft to replace the ligament. However, limitations have led researchers to create tissue engineered grafts, known as scaffolds, through electrospinning. Scaffolds made of natural and synthetic polymer blends have the potential to promote cell adhesion while having strong mechanical properties. However, enzymes found in the knee are known to degrade tissues and affect the healing of intra-articular injuries. Results suggest that the natural polymers used in this study modify the thermal properties and tensile strength of the synthetic polymers when blended. Scanning electron microscopy display bead-free and enzyme biodegradability of the fibers. Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of the natural and synthetic polymers in the scaffolds while, amino acid analysis present the types of amino acids and their concentrations found in the natural polymers.

  16. Aging and Spinal Cord Injury: External Causes of Injury and Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ying; Allen, Victoria; DeVivo, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a consistent trend toward older age at time of spinal cord injury (SCI), little is known about the external causes of SCI in the elderly. Objective: To examine environmental circumstances, documented by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification codes, at time of SCI among older adults. Method: Data on individuals injured in 2005 or later were retrieved from the National SCI Database. Demographics, injury profiles, and external causes of injury were compared between the study group (age >60 years, n = 1,079) and reference group (age 16–45 years, n = 3,579) using chi-square and Student t tests. Results: Among the elderly, falls were the most common etiology of SCI (60%), followed by transport accidents (24%) and complications of medical and surgical care (12%). In the younger group, transport accidents were the most common etiology of SCI (49%), followed by falls (22%) and assault (21%). Falls on the same level (30%), from stairs and steps (22%), and other slipping, tripping, and stumbling (11%) were the most common mechanisms of falls in the elderly group. Among motor vehicle accidents, car occupant injured in a collision with another car was the most common mechanism of injury among the elderly (28%). Conclusion: There is an urgent need for effective fall prevention programs among the elderly to reduce SCI in this expanding population. Details on the mechanisms of falls and other major causes of SCI among the elderly provided in this study should inform the development of future interventions for high-risk persons, activities, and environments. PMID:26363588

  17. A systematic literature review of the relationship between stretching and athletic injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Athletic-related injuries are a major cause for healthcare visits and financial burden for an otherwise healthy population of adults. The purpose of this article was to investigate the effects of stretching on injury prevention and to determine whether current stretching guidelines are beneficial for athletes. A systematic review of the literature was conducted through searching MEDLINE and CINAHL on topics related to stretching and injury prevention. Current belief is that stretching reduces injury incidence and that it should be performed prior to athletic activities. An examination of 11 articles provided inconclusive outcomes regarding the positive effect of stretching on injury prevention. A sport or activity-specific tailored stretch and warm-up program yielded the best outcomes in relation to preventing injuries. Direct negative effects of stretching were not identified; therefore, the application of stretching should be performed on an individual basis. PMID:25401202

  18. Promoting Health and Preventing Injury in Preschool Children: The Role of Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemagno, Sonia A.; Niles, Sheila A.; Shaffer-King, Peggy; Miller, William J.

    2008-01-01

    There is concern that parents under stress may not be effective in promoting health and preventing injury in young children, but research in this area has been limited. To explore this issue, a study was conducted to look at the relationship between self-reported parenting stress and actions taken to promote health and to prevent injury in…

  19. 77 FR 2549 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Grants for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Grants for Injury Control Research Centers (Panel 3), Funding... Control Research Centers, Panel 3, FOA CE12-001.'' Contact Person for More Information: Donald...

  20. Toppled television sets and head injuries in the pediatric population: a framework for prevention.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Michael D; Parker, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to children caused by falling televisions have become more frequent during the last decade. These injuries can be severe and even fatal and are likely to become even more common in the future as TVs increase in size and become more affordable. To formulate guidelines for the prevention of these injuries, the authors systematically reviewed the literature on injuries related to toppling televisions. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar according to the Cochrane guidelines for all studies involving children 0-18 years of age who were injured by toppled TVs. Factors contributing to injury were categorized using Haddon's Matrix, and the public health approach was used as a framework for developing strategies to prevent these injuries. The vast majority (84%) of the injuries occurred in homes and more than three-fourths were unwitnessed by adult caregivers. The TVs were most commonly large and elevated off the ground. Dressers and other furniture not designed to support TVs were commonly involved in the TV-toppling incident. The case fatality rate varies widely, but almost all deaths reported (96%) were due to brain injuries. Toddlers between the ages of 1 and 3 years most frequently suffer injuries to the head and neck, and they are most likely to suffer severe injuries. Many of these injuries require brain imaging and neurosurgical intervention. Prevention of these injuries will require changes in TV design and legislation as well as increases in public education and awareness. Television-toppling injuries can be easily prevented; however, the rates of injury do not reflect a sufficient level of awareness, nor do they reflect an acceptable effort from an injury prevention perspective. PMID:26416669

  1. 78 FR 56236 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Elaine L....

  2. 76 FR 78263 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 8 a.m.-5 p.m., January... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: December...

  3. 76 FR 9785 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Programs, National Center for HIV, Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, CDC, 1600... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  4. 76 FR 45575 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ..., Extramural Programs, National Center for HIV, Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, CDC... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  5. 75 FR 6675 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ..., National Center for HIV, Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),...

  6. The ACL Message Passing Library

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, J.; McCormick, P.; Krogh, M.; Hansen, C.; Colin de Verdiere, G.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the ACL (Advanced Computing Lab) Message Passing Library. It is a high throughput, low latency communications library, based on Thinking Machines Corp.`s CMMD, upon which message passing applications can be built. The library has been implemented on the Cray T3D, Thinking Machines CM-5, SGI workstations, and on top of PVM.

  7. Geomatics in injury prevention: the science, the potential and the limitations

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, M D; Chipman, M; Glazier, R H; Rinner, C; Marshall, S P

    2007-01-01

    Background Geomatics describes the activities involved in acquiring and managing geographical data and producing geographical information for scientific, administrative and technical endeavors. As an emerging science, geomatics has a great potential to support public health. Geomatics provides a conceptual foundation for the development of geographic information systems (GIS), computerized tools that manage and display geographical data for analytical applications. As descriptive epidemiology typically involves the examination of person, place and time in the occurrence of disease or injury, geomatics and GIS can play an important role in understanding and preventing injury. Aim This article provides a background to geomatics for those in the injury prevention field who are unfamiliar with spatial analysis. We hope to stimulate researchers and practitioners to begin to use geomatics to assist in the prevention of injury. Methods The authors illustrate the potential benefits and limitations of geomatics in injury prevention in a non-technical way through the use of maps and analysis. Results By analysing the location of patients treated for fall injuries in Central Toronto using GIS, some demographic and land use variables, such as household income, age, and the location of homeless shelters, were identified as explanatory factors for the spatial distribution. Conclusion By supporting novel approaches to injury prevention, geomatics has a great potential for efforts to combat the burden of injury. Despite some limitations, those with an interest in injury prevention could benefit from this science. PMID:17296690

  8. Biomechanical Evaluation of Knee Kinematics after ACL Reconstructions in Anatomic SB and DB - Technique with Additional Medial Meniscus Suture

    PubMed Central

    Lorbach, Olaf; Herbort, Mirco; Engelhardt, Martin; Kieb, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Biomechanical evaluation of knee laxity after single- and double-bundle ACL reconstruction with additional medial meniscus suture. Methods: Kinematics of the intact knee were determined in 12 human cadaver specimens in response to a 134-N anterior tibial load (aTT) and a combined rotatory load of 10 Nm valgus and 4 Nm internal tibial rotation using a robotic/universal force moment sensor testing system. Subsequently, the ACL was resected following the creation of a bucket-handle tear of the medial meniscus. A standard repair of the medial meniscus was performed using 3 inside-out horizontal sutures. Finally, The ACL was reconstructed using an anatomic single-bundle (6) or double-bundle technique (6). Knee kinematics were determined following every sub-step. Results: Significant increase of aTT in the ACL-deficient knee was found with significant increase in the ACL-deficient knee with additional medial meniscal injury (p=.003; p=.009). ACL reconstructions significantly decreased aTT compared to the ACL-deficient knee. No significant differences were found between the intact knee and the ACL reconstructed knee with additional meniscal repair. In response to a simulated pivot shift, aTT in the intact knee significantly increased in the ACL-deficient knee as well as in the meniscus injured/meniscus-sutured knee (p=.003;p=.007). No significant differences were found between the ACL-deficient and ACL reconstructed knee with additional meniscal repair. SB as well as DB ACL reconstruction with additional medial meniscal repair restored knee kinematics compared to the intact knee. Comparison of SB versus DB ACL reconstruction did not reveal any significant differences neither in a simulated Lachman test nor in response to a simulated pivot shift (p=.05). Conclusion: aTT as well as aTT in response to a combined rotatory load significantly increased with ACL deficiency compared to the intact knee, additional medial meniscal injury further increased aTT. Anatomic

  9. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kai C.; Liu, Jie J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  10. Early airway pressure release ventilation prevents ARDS-a novel preventive approach to lung injury.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shreyas; Habashi, Nader; Sadowitz, Benjamin; Andrews, Penny; Ge, Lin; Wang, Guirong; Roy, Preyas; Ghosh, Auyon; Kuhn, Michael; Satalin, Joshua; Gatto, Louis A; Lin, Xin; Dean, David A; Vodovotz, Yoram; Nieman, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) afflicts 200,000 patients annually with a mortality rate of 30% to 60% despite wide use of low tidal volume (LTV) ventilation, the present standard of care. High-permeability alveolar edema and instability occur early in the development of ARDS, before clinical signs of lung injury, and represent potential targets for therapy. We hypothesize that early application of a protective ventilation strategy (airway pressure release ventilation [APRV]) will stabilize alveoli and reduce alveolar edema, preventing the development of ARDS. Yorkshire pigs (30-40 kg) were anesthetized and subjected to two-hit injury: (a) intestinal ischemia-reperfusion, (b) peritoneal sepsis, or sham surgery. Following surgery, pigs were randomized into APRV (n = 4), according to current published guidelines for APRV; LTV ventilation (n = 3), using the current published ARDS Network guidelines (6 mL/kg); or sham (n = 5). The clinical care of all pigs was administered per the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. Animals were killed, and necropsy performed at 48 h. Arterial blood gases were measured to assess for the development of clinical lung injury. Lung tissue epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) was measured to assess alveolar permeability. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) surfactant protein A was measured to assess alveolar stability. Lung edema content and histopathology were analyzed at 48 h. Airway pressure release ventilation pigs did not develop ARDS. In contrast, pigs in the LTV ventilation met ARDS criteria (PaO2/FIO2 ratio) (APRV: baseline = 471 ± 16; 48 h = 392 ± 8; vs. LTV ventilation: baseline = 551 ± 28; 48 h = 138 ± 88; P < 0.001). Airway pressure release ventilation preserved alveolar epithelial integrity demonstrated by higher levels of E-cadherin in lung tissue as compared with LTV ventilation (P < 0.05). Surfactant protein A levels were higher in BALF from the APRV group, suggesting APRV preserved alveolar stability

  11. Preventing Musculoskeletal Sports Injuries in Youth: A Guide for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... major injury. Childhood Sports Injuries: A Common and Serious Problem Like Raoul, more than 38 million children ... ll spend more time having fun in the game and be less likely to be sidelined with ...

  12. Cause and Prevention of Playground Injuries and Litigation; Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.; Sweeney, Theodora B.

    This study examined 187 playground injuries and 13 fatalities that resulted in lawsuits between 1981 and 1995, taken from the files of two expert witnesses on playground safety who testified in the cases. The data are presented by geographic location, nature of injuries, cause of injuries/fatalities, playground equipment implicated, location of…

  13. Windsurfing Injuries: Added Awareness for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Daryl A.; Dietz, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    With proper training and safety precautions, windsurfing is relatively safe, but its unique equipment and unpredictable environmental conditions can produce serious injuries. Clinicians may see fall-related ankle injuries, tarsometatarsal injuries, or anterior shoulder dislocations; chronic low-back pain from torso stress; skin lacerations; and…

  14. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Prevention of Pediatric Overuse Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Decoster, Laura C.; Loud, Keith J.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Parker, J. Terry; Sandrey, Michelle A.; White, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide certified athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care professionals with recommendations on best practices for the prevention of overuse sports injuries in pediatric athletes (aged 6–18 years). Background: Participation in sports by the pediatric population has grown tremendously over the years. Although the health benefits of participation in competitive and recreational athletic events are numerous, one adverse consequence is sport-related injury. Overuse or repetitive trauma injuries represent approximately 50% of all pediatric sport-related injuries. It is speculated that more than half of these injuries may be preventable with simple approaches. Recommendations: Recommendations are provided based on current evidence regarding pediatric injury surveillance, identification of risk factors for injury, preparticipation physical examinations, proper supervision and education (coaching and medical), sport alterations, training and conditioning programs, and delayed specialization. PMID:21391806

  15. Prognosis and predictors of ACL reconstructions using the MOON cohort: a model for comparative effectiveness studies.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Kurt P; Parker, Richard D; Andrish, Jack T; Kaeding, Christopher C; Wright, Rick W; Marx, Robert G; McCarty, Eric C; Amendola, Annunziato; Dunn, Warren R; Huston, Laura J; Harrell, Frank E

    2013-01-01

    Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) threatens an active lifestyle and exposes the patient to risk of early osteoarthritis (OA). ACL reconstruction is typically chosen by individuals to allow a return to their previous work and sports activities. Primary ACL reconstruction (ACLR) has in general been effective at restoring functional stability, but patients' modifiable predictors of both short- and long-term validated outcomes and OA are largely unknown. The Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) consortium was established in 2002 to enroll and longitudinally follow a population cohort of ACL reconstructed patients. The objective was to establish patient-specific predictive models of clinically important outcomes. Over the past 10 years, the overarching aims of this NIAMS-funded prospective multicenter cohort of ACL reconstructions has been threefold: (1) to identify both short- and long-term prognosis and predictors of sports function, activity level, and general health through validated patient-reported outcomes, (2) to identify the symptoms and signs of OA, and (3) to quantify the incidence of ACL reconstruction graft and/or contralateral ACL failures and additional surgical procedures. This manuscript summarizes the Kappa Delta Ann Doner Vaughan Award paper and presentation at the 2012 ORS/AAOS Annual Meeting. PMID:22912340

  16. The Effect of Skeletal Maturity on the Regenerative Function of Intrinsic ACL Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, Ashley N.; Magarian, Elise M.; Palmer, Matthew P.; Vavken, Patrick; Murray, Martha M.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are an important clinical problem, particularly for adolescent patients. The effect of skeletal maturity on the potential for ACL healing is as yet unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that fibroblastic cells from the ACLs of skeletally immature animals would proliferate and migrate more quickly than cells from adolescent and adult animals. ACL tissue from skeletally immature, adolescent, and adult pigs and sheep were obtained and cells obtained using explant culture. Cell proliferation within a collagen–platelet scaffold was measured at days 2, 7, and 14 of culture using AMMTT assay. Cellular migration was measured at 4 and 24 h using a modified Boyden chamber assay, and cell outgrowth from the explants also measured at 1 week. ACL cells from skeletally immature animals had higher proliferation between 7 and 14 days (p < 0.01 for all comparisons) and higher migration potential at all time points in both species (p < 0.01 for all comparisons).ACL cells from skeletally immature animals have greater cellular proliferation and migration potential than cells from adolescent or adult animals. These experiments suggest that skeletal maturity may influence the biologic repair capacity of intrinsic ACL cells. PMID:19890988

  17. Knee injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M R; Ireland, M L

    1995-04-01

    Female athletes are at increased risk for certain sports-related injuries, particularly those involving the knee. Factors that contribute to this increased risk are the differences in sports undertaken and in gender anatomy and structure. Gender differences include baseline level of conditioning, lower extremity alignment, physiological laxity, pelvis width, tibial rotation and foot alignment. Sports like gymnastics and cheerleading create a noncontact environment, but can result in significant knee injuries. In quick stopping and cutting sports, females have an increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by noncontact mechanisms. Patellofemoral (PF) disorders are also very common in female athletes. Awareness of these facts helps the sports medicine professional make an accurate diagnosis and institute earlier treatment-focused rehabilitation with or without surgery. Further prospective and retrospective research is needed in areas of epidemiology, mechanisms, severity and types of knee injuries. The goal is to lessen the severity of certain knee injuries and to prevent others. PMID:7604201

  18. The health profile of professional soccer players: future opportunities for injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Piero; Taioli, Emanuela

    2012-12-01

    Injuries are a major adverse event during a soccer player's career; they require medical and surgical treatment and rehabilitation and thus may interrupt the player's activity, often with severe physical and psychological sequel. Specialists have tried to identify the risk factors for injuries, in an attempt to discover predictors that could be prevented and or eliminated before the injury occurs, but the results are scarce. This article reviews the epidemiology of the frequency and occurrence of injuries in Italian soccer players, reports a list of preventable risk factors that are associated with injuries, and identifies preventable risk factors. We have identified personal factors (age, previous traumatic events, physical and biological characteristics of the player, life style habits such as smoking, alcohol, and diet, changes in physical-athletic aspects of the players, such as increased muscle strength, and use of medications) as possible risk factors for injuries. However, environmental factors such as changes in training techniques, field composition, and shoes structure may also have a major influence. This summary indicates that appropriate preventive measures can be undertaken to prevent injuries in professional soccer players. Professionals who are in close contacts with the players should be informed of the predictors of injuries and should be trained to intervene and plan appropriate preventive measures. PMID:22344052

  19. The Status of Legal Authority for Injury Prevention Practice in State Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Thombley, Melisa L.; Kohn, Melvin A.; Jesada, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the potential for public health strategies to decrease the substantial burden of injuries, injury prevention infrastructure in state health departments is underdeveloped. We sought to describe the legal support for injury prevention activities at state health departments. We searched the Lexis database for state laws providing authority for those activities, and categorized the scope of those laws. Only 10 states have authority that covers the full scope of injury prevention practice; in the others, legal authority is piecemeal, nonspecific, or nonexistent. More comprehensive legal authority could help health departments access data for surveillance, work with partners, address sensitive issues, and garner funding. Efforts should be undertaken to enhance legal support for injury prevention activities across the country. PMID:22515850

  20. Evidence-Based Practice in Primary Prevention of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A spinal cord injury (SCI) not only causes paralysis, but also has long-term impact on physical and mental health. There are between 236,000 to 327,000 individuals living with the consequences of SCI in the United States, and the economic burden on the individuals sustaining the injury, their support network, and society as a whole is significant. The consequences of SCI require that health care professionals begin thinking about primary prevention. Efforts are often focused on care and cure, but evidence-based prevention should have a greater role. Primary prevention efforts can offer significant cost benefits, and efforts to change behavior and improve safety can and should be emphasized. Primary prevention can be applied to various etiologies of injury, including motor vehicle crashes, sports injuries, and firearm misuse, with a clear goal of eliminating unnecessary injury and its life-changing impact. PMID:23678282

  1. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury -- aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... D Jr, Miller M, eds. DeLee & Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2009: ... by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, assistant professor, chief, sports medicine and shoulder service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, ...

  2. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... side of your knee, such as during a football tackle Twist your knee Quickly stop moving and ... or turning Skiers and people who play basketball, football, or soccer are more likely to have this ...

  3. Ketogenesis prevents diet-induced fatty liver injury and hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, David G.; Ercal, Baris; Huang, Xiaojing; Leid, Jamison M.; d’Avignon, D. André; Graham, Mark J.; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Patti, Gary J.; Crawford, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spectrum disorders affect approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. However, the drivers of progressive steatohepatitis remain incompletely defined. Ketogenesis can dispose of much of the fat that enters the liver, and dysfunction in this pathway could promote the development of NAFLD. Here, we evaluated mice lacking mitochondrial 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA synthase (HMGCS2) to determine the role of ketogenesis in preventing diet-induced steatohepatitis. Antisense oligonucleotide–induced loss of HMGCS2 in chow-fed adult mice caused mild hyperglycemia, increased hepatic gluconeogenesis from pyruvate, and augmented production of hundreds of hepatic metabolites, a suite of which indicated activation of the de novo lipogenesis pathway. High-fat diet feeding of mice with insufficient ketogenesis resulted in extensive hepatocyte injury and inflammation, decreased glycemia, deranged hepatic TCA cycle intermediate concentrations, and impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis due to sequestration of free coenzyme A (CoASH). Supplementation of the CoASH precursors pantothenic acid and cysteine normalized TCA intermediates and gluconeogenesis in the livers of ketogenesis-insufficient animals. Together, these findings indicate that ketogenesis is a critical regulator of hepatic acyl-CoA metabolism, glucose metabolism, and TCA cycle function in the absorptive state and suggest that ketogenesis may modulate fatty liver disease. PMID:25347470

  4. Experiences using New Zealand's hospital based surveillance system for injury prevention research.

    PubMed

    Langley, J D

    1995-09-01

    The focus of this paper is the Injury Prevention Research Unit's (IPRU's) experience in analysing New Zealand's national impatient public hospital injury data set. The existence of the national inpatient data management system has enabled the IPRU to develop an injury morbidity data set for the period of 1979-1992. The IPRU, thus, has data on ove 250,000 injury events that were serious enough to warrant admission to a hospital. This data set has been used extensively by the IPRU to address a wide range of injury issues from demographic, environment, activity, product, and injury perspectives. Apart from the demographic variables, those variables that have proved most useful in our work have been: length of stay, readmission indicator, a personal identifier code number, WHO International Classification of Disease coding for diagnoses and external cause of injury (E-code), and written descriptions of external cause of injuries and location of injury event. Practical examples of IPRU's use of each of these variables are given. These examples demonstrate how invaluable New Zealand's inpatient injury data set is for documenting resource utilisation, accurately determining the incidence of events, undertaking analytical epidemiological studies including evaluations, and addressing shortcomings in E-codes. A key aspect of the system is the narrative information. Evidence is produced demonstrates that the electronic recording of narratives of the circumstances of injury is an invaluable tool for conducting epidemiological research which has direct implications for injury prevention policy and practice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7476464

  5. The Incidence of Injuries Among 87,000 Massachusetts Children and Adolescents: Results of the 1980-81 Statewide Childhood Injury Prevention Program Surveillance System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Susan S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of data on injuries among 0-19 year-olds showed that injury rates varied considerably by age, sex, and level of severity. Overall, results demonstrated that both morbidity and mortality must be considered when determining prevention priorities and that prevention efforts must be expanded to target injuries of higher incidence among…

  6. The science of fencing: implications for performance and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Roi, Giulio S; Bianchedi, Diana

    2008-01-01

    In this review we analyse the data from the literature on fencing with the aim of creating a psychobiological and multi-factorial model of fencing performance. Fencing is an open-skilled combat sport that was admitted to the first modern Olympic Games in Athens (1896). It is mainly practised indoors, with three different weapons: the foil, the sabre and the épée, each contested with different rules. A fencing international tournament may last between 9 and 11 hours. Bouts represent only 18% of total competition time, with an effective fight time of between 17 and 48 minutes. The physical demands of fencing competitions are high, involving the aerobic and anaerobic alactic and lactic metabolisms, and are also affected by age, sex, level of training and technical and tactical models utilized in relation to the adversary. The anthropometrical characteristics of fencers show a typical asymmetry of the limbs as a result of the practice of an asymmetrical sport activity. Fencing produces typical functional asymmetries that emphasize the very high level of specific function, strength and control required in this sport. Moreover, the physical demands of fencing are closely linked to the perceptual and psychological ones, and all are subjected to a continuous succession of changes during the bouts based on the behaviour of the opponent. For this reason it is difficult to identify a significant relationship between any one physiological characteristic and performance, and performance is more likely to be influenced by perceptual and neuro-physiological characteristics. Fencers need to anticipate the opponent and to mask their true intentions with a game of feints and counter-feints, which must be supported by an adequate psycho-physical condition to prevent central and peripheral fatigue. Fencing is not particularly dangerous; however, there is a fine line between a fatal lesion and a simple wound from a broken blade. The suggestions for injury prevention fall into three

  7. Public Health Models for Preventing Child Maltreatment: Applications From the Field of Injury Prevention.

    PubMed

    Scott, Debbie; Lonne, Bob; Higgins, Daryl

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary approaches to child protection are dominated by individualized forensically focused interventions that provide limited scope for more holistic preventative responses to children at risk and the provision of support to struggling families and communities. However, in many jurisdictions, it is frequently shown, often through public inquiries and program reviews, that investigatory and removal approaches are failing in critically important ways, particularly regarding reducing the inequities that underpin neglect and abuse. Consequently, there have been increasing calls for a public health model for the protection of children, although there is often a lack of clarity as to what exactly this should entail. Yet, there are opportunities to learn from public health approaches successfully used in the field of injury prevention. Specifically, we advocate for the use of Haddon's Matrix, which provides a detailed theoretical and practical framework for the application of a comprehensive and integrated public health model to guide intervention program design and responses to child protection risk factors. A broad overview of the application of Haddon's Matrix's principles and methods is provided with examples of program and intervention design. It is argued that this framework provides the range of interventions necessary to address the complex social and structural factors contributing to inequity and the maltreatment of children. It also provides the foundation for a holistic and integrated system of prevention and intervention to contribute to system-level change and address child maltreatment. PMID:27580666

  8. The Influence of Age on the M Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training to Reduce Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Sugimoto, Dai; Thomas, Staci; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background In female athletes, sports-related injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) increase during adolescence and peak in incidence during the mid- to late teens. Although biomechanical investigations indicate that a potential window of opportunity exists for optimal timing for the initiation of integrative neuromuscular training (NMT) in young female athletes, the influence of the timing of initiation of these programs on the efficacy of ACL injury reduction has yet to be evaluated. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of the current report was to systematically review and synthesize the scientific literature regarding the influence of age of NMT implementation on the effectiveness for reduction of ACL injury incidence. The hypothesis tested was that NMT would show a greater effect in younger populations. Study Design Meta-analysis; Level of evidence 1a. Methods Data were pooled from 14 clinical trials that met the inclusion criteria of (1) number of ACL injuries reported; (2) NMT program used; (3) female participants were included; (4) investigations used prospective, controlled trials; and (5) age of participants was documented or was obtainable upon contact with the authors. A meta-analysis with odds ratio (OR) was used to compare the ratios of ACL injuries between intervention and control groups among differing age categorizations. Results A meta-analysis of the 14 included studies demonstrated significantly greater knee injury reduction in female athletes who were categorized in the preventive NMT group compared with those who were in the control group (OR: 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.35, 0.83). Lower ACL injuries in mid-teens (OR 0.28; CI: 0.18, 0.42) compared with late teens (OR 0.48; CI: 0.21, 1.07) and early adults (OR 1.01; CI: 0.62, 1.64) were found in participants undergoing NMT. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis revealed an age-related association between NMT implementation and reduction of ACL incidence. Both

  9. We Need to Implement Current Evidence in Early Rehabilitation Programs to Improve Long-Term Outcome After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    PubMed

    Risberg, May Arna; Grindem, Hege; Øiestad, Britt Elin

    2016-09-01

    We like to think that we are successful in the treatment of individuals with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, but recent literature reveals that only about 60% of these individuals make a full recovery, less than 60% return to sport, and more than 50% develop knee osteoarthritis (OA) by middle age. Both short- and long-term outcomes after ACL injury and reconstruction need attention and action. We need to implement strategies early after ACL injury to prevent the development and progression of posttraumatic OA, rather than "sit and wait" until posttraumatic knee OA has developed. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):710-713. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0608. PMID:27581178

  10. 75 FR 19983 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following...

  11. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory Infections in a Malaria- Endemic Area of...

  12. 78 FR 17410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Epi-Centers for the Prevention of...

  13. 76 FR 56461 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  14. 76 FR 67458 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ] Dated: October 25, 2011. Elaine L. Baker, Director, Management Analysis and...

  15. 77 FR 3269 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [FR Doc. 2012-1191 Filed 1-20-12; 8:45 am... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 14 (Monday, January 23, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 3269] [FR Doc... Prevention (CDC) Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP):...

  16. 76 FR 7217 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Enhanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Enhanced Surveillance for New Vaccine Preventable Disease, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA),...

  17. 77 FR 34045 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Cooperative Research... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Dates: 8 a.m.-5 p.m., July...

  18. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Health Promotion... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times And Dates 8...

  19. 77 FR 25485 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research Grants...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: DATES:...

  20. 75 FR 28261 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved Diagnostics for Lyme Borreliosis, Funding Opportunity... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  1. 76 FR 32213 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ..., Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop E-60, Atlanta... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease...

  2. PRP Augmentation for ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Current research is investigating new methods to enhance tissue healing to speed up recovery time and decrease the risk of failure in Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Biological augmentation is one of the most exploited strategies, in particular the application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). Aim of the present paper is to systematically review all the preclinical and clinical papers dealing with the application of PRP as a biological enhancer during ACL reconstructive surgery. Thirty-two studies were included in the present review. The analysis of the preclinical evidence revealed that PRP was able to improve the healing potential of the tendinous graft both in terms of histological and biomechanical performance. Looking at the available clinical evidence, results were not univocal. PRP administration proved to be a safe procedure and there were some evidences that it could favor the donor site healing in case of ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon graft and positively contribute to graft maturation over time, whereas the majority of the papers did not show beneficial effects in terms of bony tunnels/graft area integration. Furthermore, PRP augmentation did not provide superior functional results at short term evaluation. PMID:26064903

  3. PRP Augmentation for ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Andriolo, Luca; Di Matteo, Berardo; Kon, Elizaveta; Filardo, Giuseppe; Venieri, Giulia; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Current research is investigating new methods to enhance tissue healing to speed up recovery time and decrease the risk of failure in Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Biological augmentation is one of the most exploited strategies, in particular the application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). Aim of the present paper is to systematically review all the preclinical and clinical papers dealing with the application of PRP as a biological enhancer during ACL reconstructive surgery. Thirty-two studies were included in the present review. The analysis of the preclinical evidence revealed that PRP was able to improve the healing potential of the tendinous graft both in terms of histological and biomechanical performance. Looking at the available clinical evidence, results were not univocal. PRP administration proved to be a safe procedure and there were some evidences that it could favor the donor site healing in case of ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon graft and positively contribute to graft maturation over time, whereas the majority of the papers did not show beneficial effects in terms of bony tunnels/graft area integration. Furthermore, PRP augmentation did not provide superior functional results at short term evaluation. PMID:26064903

  4. Child-to-child training for prevention of school injuries in Odemis, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ergün, Sibel; Kalkim, Asli; Dolgun, Eda

    2013-10-01

    Students encounter many risks for injury, which can impact their health and educational success; prevention of these injuries are paramount for school nurses. These article report results of a study conducted to determine the efficacy of training given to children regarding prevention of school injuries and to compare the effectiveness of instructor-to-child training to that of the child-to-child training method in affecting student attitudes toward the prevention of school injuries. An interventional teaching program was developed with the objective of positively impacting students' attitudes toward preventing school injuries. The health care training using instructor-to-child and child-to-child training produced a similar effect in changing the attitudes of students with respect to preventing school injuries. Given the high ratio of children to school nurses within the school systems in Turkey, nurses could consider the use of child-to-child training to supplement their own health care training to support changes in students' attitudes toward prevention of school injuries. PMID:23263266

  5. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING STAKEHOLDERS’ ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS REGARDING NAIL GUN INJURY RISKS AND PREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    ALBERS, JAMES T.; HUDOCK, STEPHEN D.; LOWE, BRIAN D.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumatic nail guns are ubiquitous at residential construction sites across the United States. These tools are noted for the traumatic injuries that can occur from their operation. Different trigger mechanisms on these tools are associated with different levels of risk. Residential building subcontractors and workers, both native-born and immigrant, were brought together in focus groups to discuss their attitudes and beliefs regarding risk factors for nail gun injury as well as barriers to the adoption of safer technology. Participants’ comments are organized first by influences on traumatic injury occurrence or prevention and later by sociotechnical system category. Participants attributed influences on injury risk to personal and external causation factors in all sociotechnical system categories; however, participants more frequently described influences on injury prevention as related to workers’ behaviors, rather than to external factors. A discussion of these influences with respect to attribution theory and sociotechnical models of injury causation is presented. PMID:24704813

  6. Residential building stakeholders' attitudes and beliefs regarding nail gun injury risks and prevention.

    PubMed

    Albers, James T; Hudock, Stephen D; Lowe, Brian D

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic nail guns are ubiquitous at residential construction sites across the United States. These tools are noted for the traumatic injuries that can occur from their operation. Different trigger mechanisms on these tools are associated with different levels of risk. Residential building subcontractors and workers, both native-born and immigrant, were brought together in focus groups to discuss their attitudes and beliefs regarding risk factors for nail gun injury as well as barriers to the adoption of safer technology. Participants' comments are organized first by influences on traumatic injury occurrence or prevention and later by sociotechnical system category. Participants attributed influences on injury risk to personal and external causation factors in all sociotechnical system categories; however, participants more frequently described influences on injury prevention as related to workers' behaviors, rather than to external factors. A discussion of these influences with respect to attribution theory and sociotechnical models of injury causation is presented. PMID:24704813

  7. Prevention of iatrogenic inferior alveolar nerve injuries in relation to dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Renton, T

    2010-09-01

    This article aims to review current hypotheses on the aetiology and prevention of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injuries in relation to dental procedures. The inferior alveolar nerve can be damaged during many dental procedures, including administration of local anaesthetic, implant bed preparation and placement, endodontics, third molar surgery and other surgical interventions. Damage to sensory nerves can result in anaesthesia, paraesthesia, pain, or a combination of the three. Pain is common in inferior alveolar nerve injuries, resulting in significant functional problems. The significant disability associated with these nerve injuries may also result in increasing numbers of medico-legal claims. Many of these iatrogenic nerve injuries can be avoided with careful patient assessment and planning. Furthermore, if the injury occurs there are emerging strategies that may facilitate recovery. The emphasis of this review is on how we may prevent these injuries and facilitate resolution in the early post surgical phase. PMID:21133047

  8. Strategies to prevent intraoperative lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    During open heart surgery the influence of a series of factors such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), hypothermia, operation and anaesthesia, as well as medication and transfusion can cause a diffuse trauma in the lungs. This injury leads mostly to a postoperative interstitial pulmonary oedema and abnormal gas exchange. Substantial improvements in all of the above mentioned factors may lead to a better lung function postoperatively. By avoiding CPB, reducing its time, or by minimizing the extracorporeal surface area with the use of miniaturized circuits of CPB, beneficial effects on lung function are reported. In addition, replacement of circuit surface with biocompatible surfaces like heparin-coated, and material-independent sources of blood activation, a better postoperative lung function is observed. Meticulous myocardial protection by using hypothermia and cardioplegia methods during ischemia and reperfusion remain one of the cornerstones of postoperative lung function. The partial restoration of pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB possibly contributes to prevent pulmonary ischemia and lung dysfunction. Using medication such as corticosteroids and aprotinin, which protect the lungs during CPB, and leukocyte depletion filters for operations expected to exceed 90 minutes in CPB-time appear to be protective against the toxic impact of CPB in the lungs. The newer methods of ultrafiltration used to scavenge pro-inflammatory factors seem to be protective for the lung function. In a similar way, reducing the use of cardiotomy suction device, as well as the contact-time between free blood and pericardium, it is expected that the postoperative lung function will be improved. PMID:20064238

  9. Culturally relevant model program to prevent and reduce agricultural injuries.

    PubMed

    Helitzer, D L; Hathorn, G; Benally, J; Ortega, C

    2014-07-01

    Limited research has explored pesticide injury prevention among American Indian farmers. In a five-year agricultural intervention, a university-community partnership, including the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, New Mexico State University, Shiprock Area Cooperative Extension Service, and Navajo Nation communities, used a culturally relevant model to introduce and maintain safe use of integrated pest management techniques. We applied the Diffusion of Innovations theory and community-based approaches to tailor health promotion strategies for our intervention. In a longitudinal study with repeated measures, we trained six "model farmers" to be crop management experts in pesticide safety, application, and control. Subsequently, these model farmers worked with 120 farm families randomized into two groups: intervention (Group 1) and delayed intervention (Group 2). Measurements included a walk-through analysis, test of knowledge and attitudes, and yield analysis. Both groups demonstrated improvements in pesticide storage behaviors after training. Test scores regarding safety practices improved significantly: from 57.3 to 72.4 for Group 1 and from 52.6 to 76.3 for Group 2. Group 1 maintained their knowledge and safety practices after the intervention. Attitudes about pesticides and communication of viewpoints changed across the study years. With pesticides and fertilizer, the number of corn ears increased by 56.3% and yield (kg m(-2)) of alfalfa increased by 41.2%. The study combined traditional farming practices with culturally relevant approaches and behavior change theory to affect knowledge, safety practices, attitudes, communication channels, and crop yield. Storage behaviors, use of pesticides and safety and application equipment, and safety practice knowledge changed significantly, as did attitudes about social networking, social support, and the compatibility and relative advantage of pesticides for farms. PMID:25174150

  10. Inferior alveolar nerve injury in implant dentistry: diagnosis, causes, prevention, and management.

    PubMed

    Alhassani, Ahmed Ali; AlGhamdi, Ali Saad Thafeed

    2010-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve injury is one of the most serious complications in implant dentistry. This nerve injury can occur during local anesthesia, implant osteotomy, or implant placement. Proper understanding of anatomy, surgical procedures, and implant systems and proper treatment planning is the key to reducing such an unpleasant complication. This review discusses the causes of inferior alveolar nerve injury and its diagnosis, prevention, and management. PMID:20545547

  11. The 1990 objectives for the nation for injury prevention: a progress review.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, H F; Schletty, A V; Ing, R T; Wiesner, P J

    1984-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are the principal cause of preventable early death. Beyond terms of human suffering and death, injuries place enormous burdens on this country's economic and health care resources. Demographic, sociological, environmental, and behavioral factors that influence our society contribute to the complexity and scope of the injury problem. Progress in injury prevention will be achieved only through the combined efforts of individuals, organizations, and government at every level of our society. The Federal Government is an important contributor to this process through its role of leading, catalyzing, and providing strategic support. Within the Department of Health and Human Services, numerous agencies have major injury prevention components with a broad range of responsibilities, including the direct delivery of services, establishment of safety standards, sponsorship of education and information efforts, building of the capacity of other sectors, basic and applied research, and surveillance. The Centers for Disease Control, as the lead agency, assists State and local health departments in their injury prevention efforts and coordinates activities undertaken jointly by Federal agencies, State and local governments, and private-sector organizations. To meet the 1990 Objectives for the Nation with respect to injury prevention, both the public health and private-sector providers must recognize the injury problem of the 1980s. Without the support and involvement of the public health and provider communities and of the private sector, injuries and their costs will continue at their present alarming rates. The opportunity is great for promoting health, preventing injuries, and reducing associated costs to society. Making the best of this opportunity is our challenge during this decade. PMID:6422489

  12. Therapeutic hypothermia and frostbite injury: a preventable source.

    PubMed

    Lohana, Parkash; Hart, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Frostbite injury from cold exposure is not uncommon. The application of ice pack is well known in clinical practice; however, its improper use can pose danger to the patient. We report a case of frostbite injury due to prolonged use of ice packs in a ventilated patient. PMID:21680308

  13. Hazard Patterns and Injury Prevention with Infant Walkers and Strollers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishon, Phillip M.; And Others

    Mindful of the potential hazards associated with products intended for young children, this article examines pediatric accidents involving strollers and walkers. According to the latest figures available from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the United States (NEISS), more than 11,800 stroller injuries in 1987 were serious…

  14. Injury incidence, risk factors and prevention in Australian rules football.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2013-05-01

    Along with the enjoyment and the other positive benefits of sport participation, there is also the risk of injury that is elevated in contact sport. This review provides a summary of injury incidence in Australian rules football (ARF), identifies injury risk factors, assesses the efficacy of interventions to reduce injury risk and makes recommendations for future research. The most common injuries were found to be muscle strains, particularly hamstrings; joint ligament sprains, especially ankle; haematomas and concussion. The most severe joint injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Mouthguards are commonly worn and have been shown to reduce orofacial injury. There is evidence that thigh pads can reduce the incidence of thigh haematomas. There is a reluctance to wear padded headgear and an attempt to assess its effectiveness was unsuccessful due to low compliance. The most readily identified risk factor was a history of that injury. There were conflicting findings as to the influence strength imbalances or deficit has on hamstring injury risk in ARF. Static hamstring flexibility was not related to risk but low hip flexor/quadriceps flexibility increased hamstring injury risk. High lower-limb and high hamstring stiffness were associated with an elevated risk of hamstring injury. Since stiffness can be modulated through strength or flexibility training, this provides an area for future intervention studies. Low postural balance ability was related to a greater risk of ankle injury in ARF, players with poor balance should be targeted for balance training. There are preliminary data signifying a link between deficiencies in hip range of motion and hip adductor strength with groin pain or injury. This provides support for future investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention for high-risk players on groin injury rate. Low cross-sectional area of core-region muscle has been associated with more severe injuries and a motor control exercise intervention

  15. Prevention of Lung Injury in Cardiac Surgery: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Young, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Inflammatory lung injury is an inevitable consequence of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The lungs are particularly susceptible to the effects of the systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. This insult is further exacerbated by a pulmonary ischemia–reperfusion injury after termination of bypass. Older patients and those with pre-existing lung disease will clearly be less tolerant of any lung injury and more likely to develop respiratory failure in the postoperative period. A requirement for prolonged ventilation has implications for morbidity, mortality, and cost of treatment. This review contains a summary of recent interventions and changes of practice that may reduce inflammatory lung injury after cardiac surgery. The review also focuses on a number of general aspects of perioperative management, which may exacerbate such injury, if performed poorly. PMID:25208430

  16. 77 FR 18973 - Reinforced Concrete in Construction, and Preventing Backover Injuries and Fatalities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Reinforced Concrete in Construction, and Preventing Backover Injuries and Fatalities AGENCY: Occupational... aware of employee safety risks in two areas, reinforcing operations in concrete work (construction only... following methods (submissions relating to Reinforced Concrete in Construction to Docket No....

  17. Primary Care Opportunities to Prevent Unintentional Home Injuries: A Focus on Children and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Eileen M.; Mack, Karin; Shields, Wendy C.; Lee, Robin P.; Gielen, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are a persistent public health problem in the United States. A new health care landscape has the potential to create a clinical environment that fosters greater involvement by health care providers in injury prevention. The aim of this article is to provide evidence supporting the need for engagement by primary care providers in unintentional home injury prevention along with examples of how this could be accomplished. We know a great deal about what population groups are at risk for certain types of injuries. We also know that many injuries can be prevented through policies, programs, and resources that ensure safe environments and promote safe behaviors. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s STEADI (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries) initiative comprises clinical decision support tools and educational materials for health care providers. Two effective interventions that have demonstrated a reduction in falls among children are the redesign of baby walkers (engineering) and the mandated use of window guards (enforcement). Primary care clinicians can play a key role in promoting their patient’s safety. Taken collectively, a focused attention on preventing unintentional home injuries by primary care providers can contribute to the reduction of injuries and result in optimal health for all. PMID:27141210

  18. The Role of School Health Instruction in Preventing Injury: Making It Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Robert M.

    Reducing the incidence and severity of child and adolescent injuries requires a multifaceted approach involving broad-based health and social service agencies, including schools. Recognition of the need for injury prevention education began with the Industrial Revolution in the 1900s, and safety education was developed as a unit of health…

  19. Preventing Unintentional Firearm Injury in Children: The Need for Behavioral Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himle, Michael B.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2004-01-01

    Unintentional firearm injury in children is a problem in the United States that warrants attention. Recent research has identified several risk factors for such injuries and has developed prevention strategies for reducing their occurrence. Many of these programs, however, have not been evaluated or have been shown to be ineffective. Research on…

  20. Child unintentional injury prevention in Eastern Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Soori, Hamid; Khodakarim, Soheila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unintentional injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability among children in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The issue of child injuries in the EMR is a major public health concern. Objectives: This study aimed to present the epidemiological pattern of children's unintentional injuries in this region and compare the results for the EMR member states and the global status based on the findings of the World Report. Materials and Methods: This is a secondary analysis and focuses on unintentional injuries specifically road traffic injuries, drowning, burns, falls and poisoning, and adjusted for countries from EMR. Results: About 12% of all deaths due to unintentional injuries taking place globally under the age of 20 years took place in EMR with 113 327 deaths which is about 19% higher than the world rate (45.5 Vs. 38.8 per 100 000). In EMR the top five leading causes of death due to childhood unintentional injuries are reported to be from road traffic injuries (17.4 per 100 000), drowning (6.8 per 100 000), burns (4.5 per 100 000), falls (2.9 per 100 000) and poisoning (1.6 per 100 000). Estimated mortality showed that boys were more likely to be killed than girls. However, there was no significant difference for by age group. Conclusions: Injuries are the leading cause of death and disability among children in the EMR and that injury programmes focusing on major risk factors need to be integrated into other child health strategies, with ministries of health playing a pivotal role. PMID:27051620

  1. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Lumbar Spine Injuries in Major League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Camp, Christopher L; Conti, Matthew S; Sgroi, Terrance; Cammisa, Frank P; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement. Linking the upper extremities to the hips and lower extremities, a healthy, strong, and stable spine and core is a prerequisite for performance in all levels of baseball. It has been well documented that baseball players with poor spinal control and stabilization are at increased risk for future injury. Common etiologies of lumbar injuries include stress fractures, muscle injury, annular tears with or without disc herniation, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and stenosis. This review discusses the epidemiology of spinal injuries in baseball. Special attention is paid to the role of the spine in baseball-related activities, common injuries, tips for making the correct diagnosis, treatment options, outcomes, rehabilitation, and injury prevention. PMID:26991566

  2. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Linda; Pike, Ian; Belton, Kathy; Olsen, Lise; Fuselli, Pam; Macpherson, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada’s children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%), cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%), booster seats (28, 49%), ski helmets (24, 42%), and graduated driver’s licensing (21, 37%). The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action. PMID:27399745

  3. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Linda; Pike, Ian; Belton, Kathy; Olsen, Lise; Fuselli, Pam; Macpherson, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada's children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%), cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%), booster seats (28, 49%), ski helmets (24, 42%), and graduated driver's licensing (21, 37%). The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action. PMID:27399745

  4. Preventive Effects of Eccentric Training on Acute Hamstring Muscle Injury in Professional Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Seagrave, Richard A.; Perez, Luis; McQueeney, Sean; Toby, E. Bruce; Key, Vincent; Nelson, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the second most common injury causing missed days in professional baseball field players. Recent studies have shown the preventive benefit of eccentric conditioning on the hamstring muscle group in injury prevention. Specifically, Nordic-type exercises have been shown to decrease the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in professional athletes. Purpose: This was a prospective study performed in coordination with a single Major League Baseball (MLB) organization (major and minor league teams) that targeted the effects of Nordic exercises on the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in the professional-level baseball player. Study Design: Prospective cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: The daily workouts of 283 professional baseball players throughout all levels of a single MLB organization were prospectively recorded. The intervention group participated in the Nordic exercise program and was compared with a randomly selected control group of professional athletes within the organization not participating in the exercise program. The incidence of hamstring injuries in both groups was compared, and the total number of days missed due to injury was compared with the 2 previous seasons. Results: There were 10 hamstring injuries that occurred during the 2012 season among the 283 professional athletes that required removal from play. There were no injuries that occurred in the intervention group (n = 65, 0.00%; P = .0381). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent 1 hamstring injury was 11.3. The average repetitions per week of the injured group were assessed at multiple time points (2, 4, 6, and total weeks) prior to injury. There were significantly fewer repetitions per week performed in the injured group at all time points compared with overall average repetitions per week in the noninjured group (P = .0459, .0127, .0164, and .0299, respectively). After beginning the Nordic exercise program, there were 136 total days

  5. The Importance of Physical Fitness for Injury Prevention: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    This report examines associations between injuries and flexibility, stretching, warm-up, and body composition. Military studies show that either too much or too little flexibility increases injury risk. Static stretching prior to exercise does not appear to reduce the overall injury incidence, although further research is needed on some types of injuries. Static stretching also appears to reduce strength and power (explosive strength). Warm-up (low intensity activity prior to exercise or sports) appears to reduce injury risk. Body mass index (BMI; weight in kg/ height in m²) is a surrogate measure of body fat because it is highly related to laboratory measures of body fat. However, Soldiers can also have a high BMI because of higher muscle mass. If high BMI reflects a larger percentage of body fat relative to height, injury risk might be increased because the additional fat would increase the intensity of physical activity, leading to more rapid fatigue and repetitive stress on the musculoskeletal system. Low BMI could reflect a paucity of fat or muscle/ bone, or both. Low BMI may make Soldiers more susceptible to injury if they lack the muscle mass or strength in the supportive structures (ligaments, bones) required to perform certain physical tasks, and if they overexert or overuse the available muscle mass or supportive structures. Studies in basic combat training show that both high and low BMI increases injury risk. However, studies among active duty Soldiers only show that injury risk increases as BMI increases, possibly because very few active duty Soldiers have very low BMI (i.e., less than 18 kg/m²). PMID:26125174

  6. What Can I Do to Help Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Congress: Epidemiology and Rehabilitation Report to Congress: Military Personnel TBI in the US: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations ... sustaining a traumatic brain injury, including: Buckling your child in the car using a child safety seat, ...

  7. Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.

    PubMed

    Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

    2003-06-01

    Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker. PMID:12846457

  8. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  9. Training on a knife's edge: how to balance triathlon training to prevent overuse injuries.

    PubMed

    Bales, James; Bales, Karrn

    2012-12-01

    The sport of triathlon offers athletes the chance to build and/or maintain cardiovascular fitness across 3 endurance disciplines. Swimming, biking, and running each have a host of overuse injuries that can occur as a result of overtraining. High running mileage, a history of previous injury, inadequate warm up or cool down, and an increase in the years of triathlon experience are a few of the factors that have been linked to triathlon overuse injuries. Early identification of overtraining symptoms and a corresponding reallocation of balance between each discipline, perhaps with an emphasis on increasing swimming, may help prevent many overuse injuries. PMID:23147091

  10. CDC Grand Rounds: Evidence-based injury prevention.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 5.8 million persons die from injuries each year, accounting for 10% of all deaths worldwide. In the United States, 180,000 persons die each year from injuries, making the category the country's leading cause of death for those aged 1-44 years and the leading cause of years of potential life lost before age 65 years. Injuries also result in 2.8 million hospitalizations and 29 million emergency department visits each year in the United States. Motor vehicle crashes, falls, homicides, suicides, domestic violence, child maltreatment, and other forms of intentional and unintentional injury affect all strata of society, with widespread physical, mental, and reproductive health consequences. Injuries and violence affect not only individuals, but also families and communities, producing substantial economic and societal burdens related to health-care costs, work loss, and disruption of education. The estimated annual U.S. cost in medical expenses and lost productivity resulting from injuries is $355 billion. PMID:24381079

  11. Comprehensive warm-up programme to prevent injuries in young female footballers: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Myklebust, Grethe; Steffen, Kathrin; Holme, Ingar; Silvers, Holly; Bizzini, Mario; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri; Bahr, Roald; Andersen, Thor Einar

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of a comprehensive warm-up programme designed to reduce the risk of injuries in female youth football. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial with clubs as the unit of randomisation. Setting 125 football clubs from the south, east, and middle of Norway (65 clusters in the intervention group; 60 in the control group) followed for one league season (eight months). Participants 1892 female players aged 13-17 (1055 players in the intervention group; 837 players in the control group). Intervention A comprehensive warm-up programme to improve strength, awareness, and neuromuscular control during static and dynamic movements. Main outcome measure Injuries to the lower extremity (foot, ankle, lower leg, knee, thigh, groin, and hip). Results During one season, 264 players had relevant injuries: 121 players in the intervention group and 143 in the control group (rate ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.03). In the intervention group there was a significantly lower risk of injuries overall (0.68, 0.48 to 0.98), overuse injuries (0.47, 0.26 to 0.85), and severe injuries (0.55, 0.36 to 0.83). Conclusion Though the primary outcome of reduction in lower extremity injury did not reach significance, the risk of severe injuries, overuse injuries, and injuries overall was reduced. This indicates that a structured warm-up programme can prevent injuries in young female football players. Trial registration ISRCTN10306290. PMID:19066253

  12. Equestrian injury is costly, disabling, and frequently preventable: the imperative for improved safety awareness.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Kristina; Houchen-Wise, Emily; Peck, Ellen; Mayberry, John

    2013-01-01

    Horse-related injury can be severe and disabling. We investigated the causes, severity, and costs of equestrian injury with the goal of injury prevention. A retrospective review of horse-related injuries from 2001 to 2008 identified 231 patients with a mean age of 38 years and a mean Injury Severity Score of 11 (range, 1 to 45). Mean length of stay was 5.5 days. Fifty-nine patients (25%) required 84 surgeries. Helmet use was 20 per cent and of the 172 patients not wearing a helmet while mounted, 38 per cent received potentially preventable head injuries. There were three deaths of which two were the result of intracranial hemorrhage in riders not wearing a helmet. Mean hospital charge was $29,800 for a total of $6.9 million. Ninety-one patients completed a survey regarding causation and disability. Thirty-four per cent reported wearing a helmet at the time of injury. Forty per cent reported that poor environmental factors contributed, 30 per cent reported poor horse and rider pairing, and 9 per cent reported equipment failure. Fifty-nine per cent reported long-term disabilities. Compared with the general population, respondents had diminution in their ability to perform usual daily activities associated with physical problems, diminution in social function, and higher bodily pain. We conclude that equestrian injury is costly, disabling, and frequently preventable. PMID:23317616

  13. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Ann M.; Johansson, Fredrik R.; Borms, Dorien; Maenhout, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1) risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2) established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3) these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4) preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD); rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength. PMID:26537804

  14. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach.

    PubMed

    Cools, Ann M; Johansson, Fredrik R; Borms, Dorien; Maenhout, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1) risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2) established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3) these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4) preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD); rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength. PMID:26537804

  15. Modeling the Injury Prevention Impact of Mandatory Alcohol Ignition Interlock Installation in All New US Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Flannagan, Carol A. C.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the injury prevention impact and cost savings associated with alcohol interlock installation in all new US vehicles. Methods. We identified fatal and nonfatal injuries associated with drinking driver vehicle crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and National Automotive Sampling System’s General Estimates System data sets (2006–2010). We derived the estimated impact of universal interlock installation using an estimate of the proportion of alcohol-related crashes that were preventable in vehicles < 1 year-old. We repeated this analysis for each subsequent year, assuming a 15-year implementation. We applied existing crash-induced injury cost metrics to approximate economic savings, and we used a sensitivity analysis to examine results with varying device effectiveness. Results. Over 15 years, 85% of crash fatalities (> 59 000) and 84% to 88% of nonfatal injuries (> 1.25 million) attributed to drinking drivers would be prevented, saving an estimated $342 billion in injury-related costs, with the greatest injury and cost benefit realized among recently legal drinking drivers. Cost savings outweighed installation costs after 3 years, with the policy remaining cost effective provided device effectiveness remained above approximately 25%. Conclusions. Alcohol interlock installation in all new vehicles is likely a cost-effective primary prevention policy that will substantially reduce alcohol-involved crash fatalities and injuries, especially among young vulnerable drivers. PMID:25790385

  16. Inter-segmental Postural Coordination Measures Differentiate Athletes with ACL Reconstruction from Uninjured Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Adam W.; Ford, Kevin R.; Paterno, Mark V.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Myer, Gregory D.; Riley, Michael A.; Shockley, Kevin; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Athletes who sustain non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and undergo surgical reconstruction exhibit deficits in sensorimotor control, which often impairs lower-limb movement coordination. The purpose of this experiment was to measure the influence of sensorimotor deficits on the ankle-hip coordination of a postural coordination task in athletes following ACL reconstruction. Twenty-two female athletes who were cleared to return to sports participation following ACL reconstruction and 22 uninjured female athletes performed a unilateral dynamic postural rhythmic coordination task at two movement frequencies (0.2 and 0.7 Hz). Athletes with ACL-reconstruction exhibited greater ankle-hip relative phase variability and reduced regularity of coupling than uninjured athletes, especially during the 0.2 Hz condition. The results of this study show altered lower extremity coordination patterns in athletes following ACL reconstruction and return to sports participation. The results also indicate that dynamical coordination measures may provide objective measures of sensorimotor deficits following ACL reconstruction and can potentially guide rehabilitation interventions following reconstruction. PMID:23219784

  17. Overcoming the organization-practice barrier in sports injury prevention: A nonhierarchical organizational model.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Ö; Jacobsson, J; Timpka, T

    2015-08-01

    The organization of sports at the national level has seldom been included in scientific discussions of sports injury prevention. The aim of this study was to develop a model for organization of sports that supports prevention of overuse injuries. The quality function deployment technique was applied in seminars over a two-season period to develop a national organizational structure for athletics in Sweden that facilitates prevention of overuse injuries. Three central features of the resulting model for organization of sports at the national level are (a) diminishment of the organizational hierarchy: participatory safety policy design is introduced through annual meetings where actors from different sectors of the sporting community discuss training, injury prevention, and sports safety policy; (b) introduction of a safety surveillance system: a ubiquitous system for routine collection of injury and illness data; and (c) an open forum for discussion of safety issues: maintenance of a safety forum for participants from different sectors of the sport. A nonhierarchical model for organization of sports at the national level - facilitated by modern information technology - adapted for the prevention of overuse injuries has been developed. Further research is warranted to evaluate the new organizational model in prospective effectiveness studies. PMID:25430864

  18. Effects of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention in physical education teachers: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, Sien; Haerens, Leen; Verhagen, Evert; Goossens, Lennert; De Clercq, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Physical education (PE) teachers are at a high risk of musculoskeletal sports or work-related injuries because of the physical activity as inherent part of their profession. Such injuries have a negative impact on work and leisure time activities, and effective injury prevention interventions are needed. The present study aimed at testing the effectiveness of an injury prevention intervention that was developed and optimized according to PE teachers' wishes and values. Fifty-five PE teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group teachers engaged in two days of training during which they familiarized with eight injury prevention strategies (seven intrinsic and one extrinsic). A special feature of the intervention was that the way of delivery was based on the self-determination theory in order to stimulate participants' motivation to adhere to the proposed strategies. Prospective registrations during one school year were conducted concerning injuries and preventive behaviours. Results showed that the intervention group teachers had a lower number of injuries per 1000 h time of exposure (TOE) than the controls (INT: 0.49, CON: 1.14 injuries/1000 h TOE, OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06-5.07), and applied a broader variety of strategies including dynamic and static stretching, core stability, balance and strength training, when compared to the controls who mainly engaged in warming-up. In conclusion, with the same amount of time, an injury reduction was found in PE teachers through a more balanced use of provided preventive strategies. PMID:26848872

  19. Injury prevention and care: an important public health agenda for health, survival and safety of children.

    PubMed

    Gururaj, Gopalkrishna

    2013-03-01

    Injuries affect the lives of thousands of young people and their families each year in India. With the gradual decline of communicable and nutritional diseases, injuries will be a leading cause of mortality, morbidity and disabilities and the success achieved so far in child health and survival is in jeopardy. Available data indicate that among children less than 18 y, 10-15 % of deaths, 20-30 % of hospital registrations and 20 % of disabilities are due to injuries. Based on available data, it is estimated that injuries result in death of nearly 1, 00,000 children every year in India and hospitalisations among 2 million children. Road Traffic Injuries (RTI's), drowning, falls, burns and poisoning are leading injury causes in India. Drowning and burns are major causes of mortality in less than 5 y, while RTIs, falls and poisoning are leading causes in 5-18 y. A shift in the occurrence of suicides to younger age groups of 15-20 y is a matter of serious concern in recent years. More number of males, those in rural areas, and majority of poor income households are affected due to injuries.Child injuries are predictable and preventable. Children have limitations of size, development, vision, hearing and risk perceptions as compared to adults and hence are more susceptible and vulnerable to injuries. Thus, it is important to make products and home - road and school environments safer along with greater supervision by parents and care givers. The key approaches include vehicle and product safety, environmental modification, legislation and enforcement, education and skills development along with availability of quality trauma care. Child injury prevention and care requires good quality data, building human and financial resources, strengthening policies and programmes based on evidence and integrated implementation of countermeasures along with monitoring and evaluation. Child injury prevention and control is crucial and should be an integral part of child health and

  20. The child and adolescent athlete: a review of three potentially serious injuries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The increased participation of children and adolescents in organized sports worldwide is a welcome trend given evidence of lower physical fitness and increased prevalence of overweight in this population. However, the increased sports activity of children from an early age and continued through the years of growth, against a background of their unique vulnerability to injury, gives rise to concern about the risk and severity of injury. Three types of injury–anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, concussion, and physeal injury – are considered potentially serious given their frequency, potential for adverse long-term health outcomes, and escalating healthcare costs. Concussion is probably the hottest topic in sports injury currently with voracious media coverage and exploding research interest. Given the negative cognitive effects of concussion, it has the potential to have a great impact on children and adolescents during their formative years and potentially impair school achievement and, if concussion management is not managed appropriately, there can be long term negative impact on cognitive development and ability to resume sports participation. Sudden and gradual onset physeal injury is a unique injury to the pediatric population which can adversely affect growth if not managed correctly. Although data are lacking, the frequency of stress-related physeal injury appears to be increasing. If mismanaged, physeal injuries can also lead to long-term complications which could negatively affect ability to participate in sports. Management of ACL injuries is an area of controversy and if not managed appropriately, can affect long-term growth and recovery as well as the ability to participate in sports. This article considers the young athlete’s vulnerability to injury, with special reference to ACL injury, concussion, and physeal injury, and reviews current research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these injury types. This article is

  1. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Examination of Environmental Characteristics...

  2. 76 FR 4703 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), DP11-001...

  3. 76 FR 71568 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Behavioral Surveillance For Young Men Who Have Sex With Men, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), PS11... Young Men Who Have Sex With Men, FOA PS11-0010201SUPP12.'' Contact Person for More Information: Amy...

  4. 77 FR 291 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National HIV Behavioral Surveillance For Young Men...

  5. 76 FR 82299 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Data...

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), DP11-001 Panel D, Initial Review In accordance...

  7. 75 FR 77645 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), DP11-001 Panel E, Initial Review In accordance...

  8. 76 FR 28790 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review.

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review. The meeting announced below concerns Affordable Care Act (ACA): Childhood Obesity...

  9. 76 FR 29756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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  10. 77 FR 44618 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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  11. 77 FR 48986 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  12. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Development...

  13. 77 FR 22326 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Extension of...

  14. 76 FR 28790 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  15. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Health...

  16. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: A notice was published in...

  17. 78 FR 35035 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Centers...

  18. 77 FR 7164 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  19. 78 FR 25743 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  20. 76 FR 52330 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  1. 76 FR 27327 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Virologic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Virologic Evaluation of the Modes of Influenza Virus...

  2. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... evaluation of applications received in response to ``Development and Evaluation of a Clinic-Based Screening... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Development and Evaluation of a Clinic-Based Screening and...

  3. 76 FR 13621 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family History and Diamond Blackfan Anemia, DD11- 010,...

  4. 77 FR 20822 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Identifying Modifiable Protective Factors for...

  5. 78 FR 37542 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) Correction: This notice was published in...

  6. 78 FR 35036 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) Correction: This notice was published in...

  7. 75 FR 28626 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-029, Pilot Study--Cancer Survivorship Care Planning & SIP 10-030, Evaluating Special Events as...

  8. 78 FR 20319 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Malaria Control and Elimination Activities, FOA GH13-005; and Research and Technical Assistance for Public... Surveillance for Japanese Encephalitis in India, FOA GH13-004; Monitoring and Evaluation of Malaria Control and... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  9. 78 FR 17411 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Evaluation of Malaria Control and Elimination Activities, FOA GH13-005, initial review. In accordance with... in response to ``Monitoring and Evaluation of Malaria Control and Elimination Activities, FOA GH13... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  10. 75 FR 29561 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance, Natural History, Quality of Care and Outcomes of Diabetes Mellitus with Onset in Childhood...

  11. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research...

  12. 77 FR 39497 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special Interest Project (SIP): Evaluation of School...

  13. 76 FR 33305 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Program to Support New Implementation of State...

  14. 78 FR 19489 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...-067; and Feasibility Study of the New Clinical Measure of Colorectal Cancer Screening for Federally... the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  15. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Medicaid... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  16. 75 FR 28625 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Assessment of Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome, Funding...-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome,'' FOA CK10-004. Contact Person for More Information: Maurine Goodman,...

  17. 76 FR 9020 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Ability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...) Technologies To Reduce the Entomological Risk of Lyme Disease, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK11-005... (ITM) Technologies To Reduce the Entomological Risk of Lyme Disease, FOA CK11-005.'' Contact Person for... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  18. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes of Screening American Indian/Alaska Native Women of Reproductive Age for Chronic Conditions...

  19. 75 FR 27561 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): A Prospective Birth Cohort Study Involving Environmental Uranium... with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for...

  20. 78 FR 23768 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Developing Research Capacity to Assess Health...

  1. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ..., initial review, published in the Federal Register on October 2, 2013 (FR Volume 78, Number 191, Page 60877... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This notice...

  2. 78 FR 66938 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... review, published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2013 (FR Volume 78, Number 181, Page 57391... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This notice...

  3. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Reducing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... among People with Intellectual Disabilities, FOA DD12-003, initial review.'' Contact Person for More... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Reducing Health Disparities Among People With...

  4. 76 FR 10908 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal Vitamin D Status and Preterm Birth, DP11-002,...

  5. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Capacity Building Assistance for High Impact...

  6. 75 FR 1062 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463),...

  7. 75 FR 13559 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Long Term...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) IP10-006, Initial Review In accordance... in response to ``Long Term Outcomes of Infants Identified with Congenital CMV Infection, FOA...

  8. 75 FR 76987 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Epidemiologic and Ecologic Determinants of Monkeypox in a...

  9. Interventions to prevent back pain and back injury in nurses: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Anna P; McLennan, Skye N; Schiller, Stefan D; Jull, Gwendolen A; Hodges, Paul W; Stewart, Simon

    2007-01-01

    A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of interventions that aim to prevent back pain and back injury in nurses. Ten relevant databases were searched; these were examined and reference lists checked. Two reviewers applied selection criteria, assessed methodological quality and extracted data from trials. A qualitative synthesis of evidence was undertaken and sensitivity analyses performed. Eight randomised controlled trials and eight non‐randomised controlled trials met eligibility criteria. Overall, study quality was poor, with only one trial classified as high quality. There was no strong evidence regarding the efficacy of any interventions aiming to prevent back pain and injury in nurses. The review identified moderate level evidence from multiple trials that manual handling training in isolation is not effective and multidimensional interventions are effective in preventing back pain and injury in nurses. Single trials provided moderate evidence that stress management programs do not prevent back pain and limited evidence that lumbar supports are effective in preventing back injury in nurses. There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of exercise interventions and the provision of manual handling equipment and training. This review highlights the need for high quality randomised controlled studies to examine the effectiveness of interventions to prevent back pain and injury in nursing populations. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:17522134

  10. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of lightning injuries: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Davis, Chris; Engeln, Anna; Johnson, Eric L; McIntosh, Scott E; Zafren, Ken; Islas, Arthur A; McStay, Christopher; Smith, William R; Cushing, Tracy

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the treatment and prevention of lightning injuries. These guidelines include a review of the epidemiology of lightning and recommendations for the prevention of lightning strikes, along with treatment recommendations organized by organ system. Recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original WMS Practice Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Lightning Injuries published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2012;23(3):260-269. PMID:25498265

  11. Recovery of Psychological Readiness May Differ Between Genders Following ACL Reconstruction in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Milewski, Matthew David; Kostyun, Regina; Iannicelli, Julie P.; Kostyun, Kyle J.; Solomito, Matthew; Nissen, Carl W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a traumatic and emotional event for adolescent athletes. Preparation to return to play (RTP) and the potential risk of re-injury are often equally as emotional as the injury, and have been identified as possible limiting factors to a successful rehabilitation and RTP. In order to create a comprehensive rehabilitation model, further understanding of psychological readiness following surgical intervention is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinical outcomes of subjective knee function and psychological readiness differ between genders following ACL reconstruction surgery in adolescent athletes, and if higher knee function and physiological readiness was associated with an earlier to RTP. Methods: Athletes who underwent ACL reconstruction surgery and were successfully returned back to unrestricted sport were included in the analysis. At approximately six months post surgery, knee function was assessed using the validated International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Form, and psychological readiness was assessed using the validated ACL-Return to Sport after Injury (ACL-RSI) scale. Formal clearance to resume unrestricted sport was obtained from clinic notes. A T-test was used to determine if demographics, IKDC and ACL-RSI scores between genders. A mixed effects random intercept regression model was used to determine the association of time to RTP with IKDC and ACL-RSI scores. Results: A total of 45 adolescent athletes (23 females) were included in this analysis. No significant differences were found between males and females for age (16.2±1.5 years, 16.3±2.2 years) and average time to RTP (7.3±2.0 months, 7.3±1.8 months). No significant differences in IKDC scores were found between males and females (88±10%, 87±10%). A trend was identified that males demonstrated higher ACL-RSI scores at six month post surgery than females (81±14%, 72±17%, p = 0.063). In females

  12. Resistance training for performance and injury prevention in golf

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Gregory J

    2006-01-01

    This introductory resistance training program is designed to minimize injury risk, improve golf swing speed and the overall fitness of recreational golfers. This article aims to introduce to the Chiropractor the basic concepts sport specific resistance training, periodization models of resistance training and proposes a year round conditioning resistance training program specific to golf. The exercises have been chosen based on the best biomechanical evidence to minimize injury risk and on the research supporting the use of movement specific training adaptations. Upper body strength exercises are performed standing to develop both trunk and hip stabilizing musculature and the primary movement of the golf swing. PMID:17549167

  13. Establishing an injury prevention program to address pediatric pedestrian collisions.

    PubMed

    Violano, Pina; Davis, Kimberly A; Lane, Vivian; Lofthouse, Rebecca; Carusone, Carla

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of a pedestrian safety education program in public schools can change the knowledge and beliefs about safe pedestrian behaviors among students and their parents or caregivers with the goal of reducing morbidity and mortality of children. WalkSafe is a well-established, multiphase pedestrian safety intervention program. This program has been shown to improve pedestrian safety knowledge of school-aged children in kindergarten through grade 5 after receiving a 3-day educational curriculum. A reduction in pediatric pedestrian struck injuries is anticipated following program implementation in an urban area with significantly increased incidence of such injuries. PMID:20029287

  14. Effects of ACL Reconstructive Surgery on Temporal Variations of Cytokine Levels in Synovial Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Bigoni, Marco; Gandolla, Marta; Sacerdote, Paola; Piatti, Massimiliano; Castelnuovo, Alberto; Franchi, Silvia; Gorla, Massimo; Munegato, Daniele; Gaddi, Diego; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Omeljaniuk, Robert J.; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction restores knee stability but does not reduce the incidence of posttraumatic osteoarthritis induced by inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this research was to longitudinally measure IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α levels in patients subjected to ACL reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. Synovial fluid was collected within 24–72 hours of ACL rupture (acute), 1 month after injury immediately prior to surgery (presurgery), and 1 month thereafter (postsurgery). For comparison, a “control” group consisted of individuals presenting chronic ACL tears. Our results indicate that levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 vary significantly over time in reconstruction patients. In the acute phase, the levels of these cytokines in reconstruction patients were significantly greater than those in controls. In the presurgery phase, cytokine levels in reconstruction patients were reduced and comparable with those in controls. Finally, cytokine levels increased again with respect to control group in the postsurgery phase. The levels of IL-1β and TNF-α showed no temporal variation. Our data show that the history of an ACL injury, including trauma and reconstruction, has a significant impact on levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in synovial fluid but does not affect levels of TNF-α and IL-1β. PMID:27313403

  15. Perceptions regarding the occurrence and prevention of orofacial injuries during general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Azeredo, Fellipe N A; Maia, Diogo W C; Pomarico, Luciana; Antunes, Lívia A; Antunes, Leonardo A

    2015-09-01

    Orofacial trauma can occur during general anesthesia. Protective measures should be taken to prevent or minimize such injuries. We evaluated perceptions regarding the occurrence and prevention of orofacial injuries during general anesthesia among 74 professionals who perform this procedure. All participants were from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and information was collected in interviews, using a semi-structured questionnaire administered during an academic conference. The data were tabulated and analyzed, frequencies were calculated, and the chi-square test (P < 0.05) was used to assess relationships between variables of interest. Most participants (77.0%) had witnessed orofacial trauma during general anesthesia, and the most frequent type of dental injury was fracture (54.4%). Although most participants (64.9%) considered mouthguard use to be important during such procedures, only three reported using mouthguards to protect against patient injury. The likelihood of a dentist referral after injury was significantly associated with participant age (P = 0.03), length of time since graduation (P = 0.02), and area of specialization (P ≤ 0.01). Although most participants had witnessed orofacial injuries, mouthguards were not routinely used for injury prevention. PMID:26369492

  16. PATIENT-SPECIFIC AND SURGERY-SPECIFIC FACTORS THAT AFFECT RETURN TO SPORT AFTER ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Andrew; Rabuck, Stephen; Lynch, Brittany; Davin, Sarah; Irrgang, James

    2016-01-01

    Context Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is frequently performed to allow individuals to return to their pre-injury levels of sports participation, however, return to pre-injury level of sport is poor and re-injury rates are unacceptably high. Re-injury is likely associated with the timeframe and guidelines for return to sport (RTS). It is imperative for clinicians to recognize risk factors for re-injury and to ensure that modifiable risk factors are addressed prior to RTS. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize the current literature on the outcomes following return to sport after ACL reconstruction and to outline the biologic and patient-specific factors that should be considered when counseling an athlete on their progression through rehabilitation. Evidence Acquisition A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify RTS criteria and RTS rates after ACL reconstruction with consideration paid to graft healing, anatomic reconstruction, and risk factors for re-injury and revision. Results were screened for relevant original research articles and review articles, from which results were summarized. Study Design Clinical Review of the Literature Results Variable RTS rates are presented in the literature due to variable definitions of RTS ranging from a high threshold (return to competition) to low threshold (physician clearance for return to play). Re-injury and contralateral injury rates are greater than the risk for primary ACL injury, which may be related to insufficient RTS guidelines based on time from surgery, which do not allow for proper healing or resolution of post-operative impairments and elimination of risk factors associated with both primary and secondary ACL injuries. Conclusions RTS rates to pre-injury level of activity after ACLR are poor and the risk for graft injury or contralateral injury requiring an additional surgery is substantial. Resolving impairments while eliminating movement patterns associated with

  17. [Effective interventions to prevent child injuries: a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Nguyen Thanh, Viêt; Clément, Juliette; Thélot, Bertrand; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Lamboy, Béatrice; Arwidson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Child injuries represent an important public health problem. The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific knowledge on interventions designed to prevent child injuries. The current state of knowledge in this area was assessed by means of a specific method involving a review of literature reviews and a classification of health promotion interventions identified in these reviews (rapid reviews). We found a large number of effective or promising programmes devoted to the prevention of the most common child injuries: drowning, burns, falls, poisoning, electrocution, sports and leisure injuries. Some interventions are based on environmental measures, while others are educational or use law and regulatory processes. Some are primary prevention measures, others are secondary prevention measures, while others are multidimensional and can effectively reduce several types of injuries. For example, home safety education and provision of safety equipment, or home-based parenting interventions, can have an impact on injury rates. These findings present a number of limitations due to the marked diversity of the quality of the documents reviewed. It should also be stressed that interventions that are not listed in this article are not necessarily ineffective: they may simply lack a rigorous evaluation enabling them to be identified in our review. PMID:26751923

  18. Spinal Injuries in the Aquatics Environment, Part I: Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Gerald M.

    1987-01-01

    Water-related activities are the number one cause of spinal cord injuries resulting from sports and recreation activities. This article discusses principles of safe diving; principles of safe water sliding; ways to reduce springboard diving accidents; factors contributing to springboard diving accidents; and safety recommendations for open water…

  19. Review of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Prevention in the Endoscopy Practitioner

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Practitioners of endoscopy often experience musculoskeletal pain and injury (most often in the back, neck, shoulders, hands, wrists, and thumbs) that are associated with the minute and repetitive strain that is placed on these areas during endoscopic procedures. This review of the current documentation of endoscopy-related pain and injuries among practitioners finds that such problems are widespread and specific in kind as well as strongly correlated with high procedure volume and procedure duration. Research on the nature and impact of cumulative trauma and overuse syndromes in other professions such as dentistry, pianists, production labor, and athletics is brought to bear on the work of the endoscopist. A more thorough understanding of the nature and prevalence of work-related pain and injury sustained by endoscopists should inform further development of ergonomic practices and equipment design. This article reviews current recommendations for ergonomic design in the endoscopy procedure space and finds that reported compliance with those recommendations is quite low. Strategies for the management of the risk of musculoskeletal injuries related to the practice of endoscopy include compliance with currently recommended ergonomic practices, education of trainees in ergonomic technique when practicing endoscopy, and research toward the modification and development of more ergonomic endoscopes and procedure spaces. PMID:24798940

  20. Review of musculoskeletal injuries and prevention in the endoscopy practitioner.

    PubMed

    Harvin, Glenn

    2014-08-01

    Practitioners of endoscopy often experience musculoskeletal pain and injury (most often in the back, neck, shoulders, hands, wrists, and thumbs) that are associated with the minute and repetitive strain that is placed on these areas during endoscopic procedures. This review of the current documentation of endoscopy-related pain and injuries among practitioners finds that such problems are widespread and specific in kind as well as strongly correlated with high procedure volume and procedure duration. Research on the nature and impact of cumulative trauma and overuse syndromes in other professions such as dentistry, pianists, production labor, and athletics is brought to bear on the work of the endoscopist. A more thorough understanding of the nature and prevalence of work-related pain and injury sustained by endoscopists should inform further development of ergonomic practices and equipment design. This article reviews current recommendations for ergonomic design in the endoscopy procedure space and finds that reported compliance with those recommendations is quite low. Strategies for the management of the risk of musculoskeletal injuries related to the practice of endoscopy include compliance with currently recommended ergonomic practices, education of trainees in ergonomic technique when practicing endoscopy, and research toward the modification and development of more ergonomic endoscopes and procedure spaces. PMID:24798940

  1. Therapeutic strategies for preventing skeletal muscle fibrosis after injury

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Koyal; Corona, Benjamin T.; Walters, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle repair after injury includes a complex and well-coordinated regenerative response. However, fibrosis often manifests, leading to aberrant regeneration and incomplete functional recovery. Research efforts have focused on the use of anti-fibrotic agents aimed at reducing the fibrotic response and improving functional recovery. While there are a number of mediators involved in the development of post-injury fibrosis, TGF-β1 is the primary pro-fibrogenic growth factor and several agents that inactivate TGF-β1 signaling cascade have emerged as promising anti-fibrotic therapies. A number of these agents are FDA approved for other conditions, clearing the way for rapid translation into clinical treatment. In this article, we provide an overview of muscle's host response to injury with special emphasis on the cellular and non-cellular mediators involved in the development of fibrosis. This article also reviews the findings of several pre-clinical studies that have utilized anti-fibrotic agents to improve muscle healing following most common forms of muscle injuries. Although some studies have shown positive results with anti-fibrotic treatment, others have indicated adverse outcomes. Some concerns and questions regarding the clinical potential of these anti-fibrotic agents have also been presented. PMID:25954202

  2. Nylon shock absorber prevents injury to parachute jumpers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Nylon shock absorbers reduce the canopy-opening shock of a parachute to a level that protects the wearer from injury. A shock absorber is mounted on each of the four risers between the shroud lines and the harness. Because of their size and location, they pose no problem in repacking the chute and harness after a jump.

  3. Orthopedic Injuries: Protocols to Prevent and Manage Patient Falls.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Lynn C; Revell, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    Health care organizations must adopt a culture of safety and implement effective fall prevention protocols. The teach-back method is a useful strategy for health providers to determine patient understanding of information taught to maintain a safe environment and prevent falls. Purposeful rounding is a proactive approach to ensure that patient assessments are accurate and research supports that patients use the call light less when nurses participate in hourly rounding. This article provides the reader with evidence-based fall prevention interventions, tips for using the teach-back method, and fall prevention tools to safely care for patients of all ages. PMID:26596654

  4. Comparison of the Insall-Salvati ratio of the patella in patients with and without an ACL tear.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Fu Jeff; Wu, Jiunn-Jer; Chen, Teng-Shung; Huang, Tung-Fu

    2005-01-01

    The object of this prospective study is to compare the Insall-Salvati ratio between the patients who have an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear and receive arthroscopic-assistant ACL reconstruction and the patients who have no ACL tear but do have an internal disorder of the knee and receive arthroscopic surgery. We prospectively and consecutively collected into two groups a total of 217 patients who had sport injuries and received arthroscopic surgery. The study group included 115 patients who had an ACL tear and received arthroscopic-assistant ACL reconstruction with middle-third bone-patella tendon-bone graft. The control group included 102 patients with internal disorders of the knee joint, including meniscus tear, plicae, or other chondral lesion, but without an ACL tear. We measured the patellar Insall-Salvati ratio [12] on the pre-operative X-ray films for all patients. The Insall-Salvati ratio in the ACL-tear study group is significantly smaller than the control group of internal disorders of the knee (0.99+/-0.11 vs 1.05+/-0.12, p=0.001). There is no significant difference in age, gender, the side of the involved knee, duration of symptoms, patella length and patella tendon length between the two groups. In conclusion, our study shows that patella infra has an association with ACL tears, and patella infra may be a risk factor for ACL tears. In patients with an ACL tear who had patella baja, the middle-third patellar tendon may not be an ideal graft for reconstruction. PMID:15654645

  5. Injury patterns in aviation-related fatalities. Implications for preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Baker, S P

    1997-09-01

    Autopsy data from individual aviation crashes have long been used in aviation safety research in the form of case reports and case series studies. Injuries sustained from aviation crashes, however, have not been well documented at a national level. This study examines the injury patterns for persons who died in aviation crashes in the United States and the implications for preventive strategies. Death certificate data for all aviation-related fatalities for the years 1980 (n = 1,543) and 1990 (n = 1.011) were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. The immediate cause of death and all injury diagnoses recorded on the death certificates were analyzed in relation to year of injury, crash category, and type of victim. Despite a 34% reduction in the number of aviation-related fatalities between 1980 and 1990, injury patterns were fairly stable. Multiple injuries were listed as the immediate cause of death in 42% of the fatalities, followed by head injury (22%); internal injury of thorax, abdomen, or pelvis (12%); burns (4%); and drowning (3%). Head injuries were most common among children. The majority (86%) died at the scene or were dead on arrival at the hospital. Eighteen percent of the victims were reported to have sustained a single injury, with head injury being the cause of death in nearly a third of these fatalities. Blunt injuries resulting from deceleration forces, in particular head injury, are still the most important hazard threatening occupants' survival in aviation crashes. To further reduce aviation-related fatalities requires more effective restraint systems and other improvements in aircraft design. PMID:9290873

  6. Pediatric transport related injuries in Tehran: the necessity of implementation of injury prevention protocols.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Moosa; Sayyar Roudsari, Bahman; Shadman, Mazyar; Kaviani, Ahmad; Tarighi, Payam

    2003-11-01

    Prehospital and hospital data was prospectively gathered on all hospitalized trauma patients admitted to six major trauma hospitals in Tehran from August 1999 to September 2000. Data from patients of under 19 years of age was analyzed for this article. From 8000 hospitalized trauma patients, 2354 cases (29%) belonged to this age group. Fall and transport related injuries (TRIs) with 1074 (46%) and 921 (39%) cases respectively, were the most common mechanism of injury. In TRIs, boys were affected 3.5 times as often as girls. Younger children were more prone to pedestrian-related injuries while teenagers were more prone to motorcycle related injuries. Head trauma was the most common cause of death and 28 out of 32 trauma deaths were attributed to this kind of injury. Lower extremity (513) and head injuries (322) were the most common injuries. Only a few of motorcyclists and car passengers used safety devices (helmet and seat belt respectively) at the time of accident. PMID:14580813

  7. [Recreational and competitive alpine skiing. Typical injury patterns and possibilities for prevention].

    PubMed

    Brucker, P U; Katzmaier, P; Olvermann, M; Huber, A; Waibel, K; Imhoff, A B; Spitzenpfeil, P

    2014-01-01

    Alpine skiing is the most popular winter sport discipline in Germany and is performed by more than 4 million recreational sportsmen and ski racing athletes. Compared to other sports, however, the injury rate in alpine skiing is quite high. Especially the knee joint is the most commonly injured area of the musculoskeletal system. Knee injuries are classified as severe in a high percentage of cases. In this review article, epidemiologic data and typical injury patterns in recreational alpine skiing and in competitive alpine ski racing are compared. In addition, the potentials of preventive methods in alpine skiing are presented and evaluated with a special focus on orthotic devices and protection wear as injury prevention equipment. PMID:24445993

  8. Guarding the Precious Smile: Incidence and Prevention of Injury in Sports: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or kickboxing, but also for seemingly less dangerous sports such as football. Amongst the different types of mouthguards, the most acceptable and safe ones are the custom-fabricated mouthguards, in particular the pressure-laminated ones. In general, mouthguard usage is less than the dental profession would recommend. As much of progress has been made in this area, need for the use of mouthguard needs to be emphasized and promoted by the dental profession. PMID:25214744

  9. Prevention of deep tissue injury through muscle contractions induced by intermittent electrical stimulation after spinal cord injury in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Leandro R.; Twist, Elizabeth; Seres, Peter; Thompson, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a severe medical complication that commonly affects those with spinal cord injury. It is caused by prolonged external loading of the muscles, entrapping them between a bony prominence and the support surface. The entrapment causes excessive mechanical deformation and increases in interstitial pressure, leading to muscle breakdown deep around the bony prominences. We proposed the use of intermittent electrical stimulation (IES) as a novel prophylactic method for the prevention of DTI. In this study, we assessed the long-term effectiveness of this technique in pigs that had received a partial spinal cord injury that paralyzed one hindlimb. The pigs recovered for 2 wk postsurgery, and subsequently, their paralyzed limbs were loaded to 25% of their body weights 4 h/day for 4 consecutive days each week for 1 mo. One group of pigs (n = 3) received IES during the loading, whereas another group (n = 3) did not. DTI was quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and postmortem histology. In the group that did not receive IES, MRI assessments revealed signs of tissue damage in 48% of the volume of the loaded muscle. In the group that did receive IES, only 8% of the loaded muscle volume showed signs of tissue damage. Similar findings were found through postmortem histology. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that IES may be an effective technique for preventing the formation of DTI in loaded muscles after spinal cord injury. PMID:23172030

  10. New PPE Policy Will Help Prevent Injuries | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley Shoemaker, Guest Writer In January 2013, a revised policy on personal protective equipment (PPE) was approved for all government and contractor employees at NCI at Frederick. This new policy was driven by a high number of eye injuries at NCI at Frederick (56 between 2007 and 2012) that were directly related to inadequate PPE. The Occupational Safety and Health Act states that each employer is responsible for identifying hazards in the workplace and determining what kind of PPE is necessary.

  11. Prevention of liver ischemia reperfusion injury by a combined thyroid hormone and fish oil protocol.

    PubMed

    Mardones, Marcelo; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Romanque, Pamela; Covarrubias, Natalia; Anghileri, Fiorella; Fernández, Virginia; Videla, Luis A; Tapia, Gladys

    2012-09-01

    Several preconditioning strategies are used to prevent ischemia-reperfusion (IR) liver injury, a deleterious condition associated with tissue resection, transplantation or trauma. Although thyroid hormone (T₃) administration exerts significant protection against liver IR injury in the rat, its clinical application is controversial due to possible adverse effects. Considering that prevention of liver IR injury has also been achieved by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation to rats, we studied the effect of n-3 PUFA dietary supplementation plus a lower dose of T₃ against IR injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving fish oil (300 mg/kg) for 3 days followed by a single intraperitoneal dose of 0.05 mg T₃/kg were subjected to 1 h of ischemia followed by 20 h of reperfusion. Parameters of liver injury (serum transaminases, histology) and oxidative stress (liver contents of GSH and oxidized proteins) were correlated with fatty acid composition, NF-κB activity, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and haptoglobin expression. IR significantly modified liver histology; enhanced serum transaminases, TNF-α response or liver oxidative stress; and decreased liver NF-κB activity and haptoglobin expression. Although IR injury was not prevented by either n-3 PUFA supplementation or T₃ administration, substantial decrease in liver injury and oxidative stress was achieved by the combined protocol, which also led to increased liver n-3 PUFA content and decreased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios, with recovery of NF-κB activity and TNF-α and haptoglobin expression. Prevention of liver IR injury achieved by a combined protocol of T₃ and n-3 PUFA supplementation may represent a novel noninvasive preconditioning strategy with potential clinical application. PMID:22137030

  12. Ethanol Potentiates the Acute Fatty Infiltration of Liver Caused by Burn Injury: Prevention by Insulin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Emanuele, Nicholas V.; Emanuele, Mary Ann; Morgan, Michelle O.; Sulo, Denise; Yong, Sheri; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Himes, Ryan D.; Callaci, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Burn injury is a significant and severe representation of critical illness. Nearly, 50% of patients admitted to hospitals for burn injuries have detectable levels of ethanol in their circulations and these patients have poorer clinical outcomes than burned individuals without measurable circulating ethanol. We report here data on a clinically relevant form of hepatic injury, the development of microvesicular steatosis, in a murine model wherein animals were either given ethanol or saline, and were subjected to burn or sham injury. Because better glycemic control with insulin has been shown in clinical studies to impart major clinical benefit, an additional group of burn ethanol animals were treated with insulin. Insulin significantly reduced blood glucose in injured animals to levels no different from those seen in animals that were neither ethanol exposed nor burned. A single intraperitoneal injection of ethanol was insufficient to raise blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT), measured as an index of liver injury. However, burn injury led to significant increases in ALT at 24 and 48 hours, which had returned to preinjury levels by 7 days. This ALT rise was completely prevented with insulin treatment. A single injection of ethanol did not evoke increased microvesicular steatosis but did potentiate the ability of burn to do so at 24 hours after injury. The burn induced increase in microvesicular steatosis was also seen at 48 hours, but had subsided by 7 days. The increased microvesicular steatosis was prevented by insulin therapy. Thus, ethanol potentiates the ability of burn to cause acute liver injury, which is completely preventable by insulin therapy. These findings may have substantial clinical significance and suggest this model may be useful for the study of the mechanisms of hepatic injury as well as the mechanisms, probably multiple, of insulin action in this setting. PMID:19349879

  13. Health and Economic Benefits of Improved Injury Prevention and Trauma Care Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Kotagal, Meera; Agarwal-Harding, Kiran J.; Mock, Charles; Quansah, Robert; Arreola-Risa, Carlos; Meara, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Injury is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and often disproportionately affects younger, more productive members of society. While many have made the case for improved injury prevention and trauma care, health system development in low- and middle-income countries is often limited by resources. This study aims to determine the economic benefit of improved injury prevention and trauma care in low- and middle-income countries. Methods This study uses existing data on injury mortality worldwide from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate the number of lives that could be saved if injury mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries could be reduced to rates in high-income countries. Using economic modeling – through the human capital approach and the value of a statistical life approach – the study then demonstrates the associated economic benefit of these lives saved. Results 88 percent of injury-related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. If injury mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries were reduced to rates in high-income countries, 2,117,500 lives could be saved per year. This would result in between 49 million and 52 million disability adjusted life years averted per year, with discounting and age weighting. Using the human capital approach, the associated economic benefit of reducing mortality rates ranges from $245 to $261 billion with discounting and age weighting. Using the value of a statistical life approach, the benefit is between 758 and 786 billion dollars per year. Conclusions Reducing injury mortality in low- and middle-income countries could save over 2 million lives per year and provide significant economic benefit globally. Further investments in trauma care and injury prevention are needed. PMID:24626472

  14. Blocking neutrophil integrin activation prevents ischemia–reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Yago, Tadayuki; Petrich, Brian G.; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Zhenghui; Shao, Bojing; Ginsberg, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment, mediated by β2 integrins, combats pyogenic infections but also plays a key role in ischemia–reperfusion injury and other inflammatory disorders. Talin induces allosteric rearrangements in integrins that increase affinity for ligands (activation). Talin also links integrins to actin and other proteins that enable formation of adhesions. Structural studies have identified a talin1 mutant (L325R) that perturbs activation without impairing talin’s capacity to link integrins to actin and other proteins. Here, we found that mice engineered to express only talin1(L325R) in myeloid cells were protected from renal ischemia–reperfusion injury. Dissection of neutrophil function in vitro and in vivo revealed that talin1(L325R) neutrophils had markedly impaired chemokine-induced, β2 integrin–mediated arrest, spreading, and migration. Surprisingly, talin1(L325R) neutrophils exhibited normal selectin-induced, β2 integrin–mediated slow rolling, in sharp contrast to the defective slow rolling of neutrophils lacking talin1 or expressing a talin1 mutant (W359A) that blocks talin interaction with integrins. These studies reveal the importance of talin-mediated activation of integrins for renal ischemia–reperfusion injury. They further show that neutrophil arrest requires talin recruitment to and activation of integrins. However, although neutrophil slow rolling requires talin recruitment to integrins, talin-mediated integrin activation is dispensable. PMID:26169939

  15. Aluminum citrate prevents renal injury from calcium oxalate crystal deposition.

    PubMed

    Besenhofer, Lauren M; Cain, Marie C; Dunning, Cody; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2012-12-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are responsible for the kidney injury associated with exposure to ethylene glycol or severe hyperoxaluria. Current treatment strategies target the formation of calcium oxalate but not its interaction with kidney tissue. Because aluminum citrate blocks calcium oxalate binding and toxicity in human kidney cells, it may provide a different therapeutic approach to calcium oxalate-induced injury. Here, we tested the effects of aluminum citrate and sodium citrate in a Wistar rat model of acute high-dose ethylene glycol exposure. Aluminum citrate, but not sodium citrate, attenuated increases in urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the ratio of kidney to body weight in ethylene glycol-treated rats. Compared with ethylene glycol alone, the addition of aluminum citrate significantly increased the urinary excretion of both crystalline calcium and crystalline oxalate and decreased the deposition of crystals in renal tissue. In vitro, aluminum citrate interacted directly with oxalate crystals to inhibit their uptake by proximal tubule cells. These results suggest that treating with aluminum citrate attenuates renal injury in rats with severe ethylene glycol toxicity, apparently by inhibiting calcium oxalate's interaction with, and retention by, the kidney epithelium. PMID:23138489

  16. Aluminum Citrate Prevents Renal Injury from Calcium Oxalate Crystal Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Besenhofer, Lauren M.; Cain, Marie C.; Dunning, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are responsible for the kidney injury associated with exposure to ethylene glycol or severe hyperoxaluria. Current treatment strategies target the formation of calcium oxalate but not its interaction with kidney tissue. Because aluminum citrate blocks calcium oxalate binding and toxicity in human kidney cells, it may provide a different therapeutic approach to calcium oxalate-induced injury. Here, we tested the effects of aluminum citrate and sodium citrate in a Wistar rat model of acute high-dose ethylene glycol exposure. Aluminum citrate, but not sodium citrate, attenuated increases in urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the ratio of kidney to body weight in ethylene glycol–treated rats. Compared with ethylene glycol alone, the addition of aluminum citrate significantly increased the urinary excretion of both crystalline calcium and crystalline oxalate and decreased the deposition of crystals in renal tissue. In vitro, aluminum citrate interacted directly with oxalate crystals to inhibit their uptake by proximal tubule cells. These results suggest that treating with aluminum citrate attenuates renal injury in rats with severe ethylene glycol toxicity, apparently by inhibiting calcium oxalate’s interaction with, and retention by, the kidney epithelium. PMID:23138489

  17. Firearm-related injuries affecting the pediatric population. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention. American Academy of Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    2000-04-01

    This statement reaffirms the 1992 position of the American Academy of Pediatrics that the absence of guns from children's homes and communities is the most reliable and effective measure to prevent firearm-related injuries in children and adolescents. A number of specific measures are supported to reduce the destructive effects of guns in the lives of children and adolescents, including the regulation of the manufacture, sale, purchase, ownership, and use of firearms; a ban on handguns and semiautomatic assault weapons; and expanded regulations of handguns for civilian use. In addition, this statement reviews recent data, trends, prevention, and intervention strategies of the past 5 years. PMID:10742344

  18. Preventing unintentional injuries in the home using the Health Impact Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Mack, Karin A; Liller, Karen D; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David

    2015-04-01

    Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire, scald, and poisoning-related injuries, this article illustrates the utility of an approach that incorporates a social-environmental perspective in identifying and selecting interventions to improve the health and safety of individuals. Injury prevention efforts to prevent home injuries benefit from multilevel modifications of behavior, public policy, laws and enforcement, the environment, consumer products and engineering standards, as demonstrated with Frieden's Health Impact Pyramid. A greater understanding, however, is needed to explain the associations between tiers. While interventions that include modifications of the social environment are being field-tested, much more work needs to be done in measuring social-environmental change and in evaluating these programs to disentangle what works best. PMID:25829110

  19. Preventing Unintentional Injuries in the Home Using the Health Impact Pyramid

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Karin A.; Liller, Karen D.; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David

    2015-01-01

    Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire, scald, and poisoning-related injuries, this article illustrates the utility of an approach that incorporates a social–environmental perspective in identifying and selecting interventions to improve the health and safety of individuals. Injury prevention efforts to prevent home injuries benefit from multilevel modifications of behavior, public policy, laws and enforcement, the environment, consumer products and engineering standards, as demonstrated with Frieden’s Health Impact Pyramid. A greater understanding, however, is needed to explain the associations between tiers. While interventions that include modifications of the social environment are being field-tested, much more work needs to be done in measuring social–environmental change and in evaluating these programs to disentangle what works best. PMID:25829110

  20. Data visualisation in surveillance for injury prevention and control: conceptual bases and case studies

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Ramon; Ordunez, Pedro; Soliz, Patricia N; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Background The complexity of current injury-related health issues demands the usage of diverse and massive data sets for comprehensive analyses, and application of novel methods to communicate data effectively to the public health community, decision-makers and the public. Recent advances in information visualisation, availability of new visual analytic methods and tools, and progress on information technology provide an opportunity for shaping the next generation of injury surveillance. Objective To introduce data visualisation conceptual bases, and propose a visual analytic and visualisation platform in public health surveillance for injury prevention and control. Methods The paper introduces data visualisation conceptual bases, describes a visual analytic and visualisation platform, and presents two real-world case studies illustrating their application in public health surveillance for injury prevention and control. Results Application of visual analytic and visualisation platform is presented as solution for improved access to heterogeneous data sources, enhance data exploration and analysis, communicate data effectively, and support decision-making. Conclusions Applications of data visualisation concepts and visual analytic platform could play a key role to shape the next generation of injury surveillance. Visual analytic and visualisation platform could improve data use, the analytic capacity, and ability to effectively communicate findings and key messages. The public health surveillance community is encouraged to identify opportunities to develop and expand its use in injury prevention and control. PMID:26728006

  1. Translating an Evidence-Based Injury Prevention Program for Implementation in a Home Visitation Setting.

    PubMed

    Nicks, Shannon E; Weaver, Nancy L; Recktenwald, Angela; Jupka, Keri A; Elkana, Maia; Tompkins, Ron

    2016-07-01

    Safe N' Sound (SNS), a computer-based childhood injury prevention program, provides individually tailored information to parents about their child's injury risks with specific behavioral recommendations. We translated SNS for implementation in a home visitation organization in order to increase its capacity to effectively address injury prevention and decrease the burden of injury experienced by high-need families. The aim of this study was to identify behavioral and organizational barriers and facilitators to translating and implementing SNS in a home visitation setting. Nurse home visitors (NHVs) participated in semistructured interviews that examined perceptions of program implementation, intervention characteristics, individual characteristics of NHVs, and recommendations for improving implementation. The utility of the program for promoting injury prevention systematically and its alignment with the organization's mission were facilitators of successful implementation. Barriers included NHVs' concerns about overburdening clients and missed educational opportunities related to injury risks not addressed by the program and delayed delivery of educational reports. Findings illustrate the dynamic interactions of intervention characteristics with organizational and individual factors and suggest that customizing implementation to organizational capacity and specific needs may better support successful program implementation in home visitation settings. PMID:26826110

  2. The training—injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder?

    PubMed Central

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    Background There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury. Clearly, for athletes to develop the physical capacities required to provide a protective effect against injury, they must be prepared to train hard. Finally, there is also evidence that under-training may increase injury risk. Collectively, these results emphasise that reductions in workloads may not always be the best approach to protect against injury. Main thesis This paper describes the ‘Training-Injury Prevention Paradox’ model; a phenomenon whereby athletes accustomed to high training loads have fewer injuries than athletes training at lower workloads. The Model is based on evidence that non-contact injuries are not caused by training per se, but more likely by an inappropriate training programme. Excessive and rapid increases in training loads are likely responsible for a large proportion of non-contact, soft-tissue injuries. If training load is an important determinant of injury, it must be accurately measured up to twice daily and over periods of weeks and months (a season). This paper outlines ways of monitoring training load (‘internal’ and ‘external’ loads) and suggests capturing both recent (‘acute’) training loads and more medium-term (‘chronic’) training loads to best capture the player's training burden. I describe the critical variable—acute:chronic workload ratio—as a best practice predictor of training-related injuries. This provides the foundation for interventions to reduce players risk, and

  3. Household Safety: Preventing Injuries from Firearms (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... room a child shouldn't enter to prevent wandering into places that haven't been properly childproofed. ... the activities that develop your child's body and mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  4. Evaluation of RugbySmart: a rugby union community injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Simon M; Quarrie, Ken L; Hume, Patria A

    2009-05-01

    RugbySmart, a rugby union injury prevention programme, was launched in New Zealand in 2001. It was compulsory for all coaches and referees to complete RugbySmart requirements annually in order to continue coaching or refereeing. After 5 years of implementation the programme partners, Accident Compensation Corporation and New Zealand Rugby Union, evaluated RugbySmart to determine its effectiveness in reducing injuries. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of RugbySmart on reducing injury rates per 100,000 players and resulting injury prevention behaviours. The RugbySmart programme was associated with a decrease in injury claims per 100,000 players in most areas the programme targeted; the programme had negligible impact on non-targeted injury sites. The decrease in injury claims numbers was supported by results from the player behaviour surveys pre- and post-RugbySmart. There was an increase in safe behaviour in the contact situations of tackle, scrum and ruck technique. PMID:18356104

  5. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes From 2010 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Christopher C.; Secrist, Eric S.; Bhat, Suneel B.; Woods, Daniel P.; Deluca, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among National Football League (NFL) athletes; however, the incidence of reinjury in this population is unknown. Purpose: This retrospective epidemiological study analyzed all publicly disclosed ACL tears occurring in NFL players between 2010 and 2013 to characterize injury trends and determine the incidence of reinjury. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A comprehensive online search identified any NFL player who had suffered an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013. Position, playing surface, activity, and date were recorded. Each player was researched for any history of previous ACL injury. The NFL games database from USA Today was used to determine the incidence of ACL injuries on artificial turf and grass fields. Databases from Pro Football Focus and Pro Football Reference were used to determine the injury rate for each position. Results: NFL players suffered 219 ACL injuries between 2010 and 2013. Forty players (18.3%) had a history of previous ACL injury, with 27 (12.3%) retears and 16 (7.3%) tears contralateral to a previous ACL injury. Five players (2.28%) suffered their third ACL tear. Receivers (wide receivers and tight ends) and backs (linebackers, fullbacks, and halfbacks) had significantly greater injury risk than the rest of the NFL players, while perimeter linemen (defensive ends and offensive tackles) had significantly lower injury risk than the rest of the players. Interior linemen (offensive guards, centers, and defensive tackles) had significantly greater injury risk compared with perimeter linemen. ACL injury rates per team games played were 0.050 for grass and 0.053 for turf fields (P > .05). Conclusion: In this retrospective epidemiological study of ACL tears in NFL players, retears and ACL tears contralateral to a previously torn ACL constituted a substantial portion (18.3%) of total ACL injuries. The significant majority of ACL injuries in

  6. Kinetic energy management in road traffic injury prevention: a call for action

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Bigdeli, Maryam; Saadat, Soheil; Mohammadi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: By virtue of their variability, mass and speed have important roles in transferring energies during a crash incidence (kinetic energy). The sum of kinetic energy is important in determining an injury severity and that is equal to one half of the vehicle mass multiplied by the square of the vehicle speed. To meet the Vision Zero policy (a traffic safety policy) prevention activities should be focused on vehicle speed management. Understanding the role of kinetic energy will help to develop measures to reduce the generation, distribution, and effects of this energy during a road traffic crash. Road traffic injury preventive activities necessitate Kinetic energy management to improve road user safety. PMID:24284810

  7. Injury Prevention Practices as Depicted in G- and PG-Rated Movies, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Andrew R; Tongren, J Eric; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children in the United States. The use of recommended safety practices can reduce injuries. Children often learn behaviors from media exposure. Children's movies released in 1995-2007 infrequently depicted appropriate injury prevention practices. The aim of this study was to determine if injury prevention practices in children's movies have improved. The top grossing 25 G- and PG-rated movies in the United States per year for 2008-2012 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Movies or scenes were excluded if they were animated, not set in the present day, fantasy, documentary, or not in English. Injury prevention practices involving riding in a motor vehicle, walking, boating, bicycling, and four other activities were recorded for characters with speaking roles. Fifty-six (45%) of the 125 movies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 603 person-scenes were examined involving 175 (29%) children and 428 (71%) adults. Thirty-eight person-scenes involved crashes or falls, resulting in four injuries and no deaths. Overall, 59% (353/603) of person-scenes showed appropriate injury prevention practices. This included 313 (70%) of 445 motor-vehicle passengers who were belted; 15 (30%) of 50 pedestrians who used a crosswalk, 2 (7%) of 30 boaters who wore personal flotation devices, and 8 (29%) of 28 bicyclists who wore helmets. In comparison with previous studies, there were significant increases in usage of seat belts, crosswalks, personal flotation devices, and bicycle helmets. However, 41% of person-scenes still showed unsafe practices and the consequences of those behaviors were infrequently depicted. PMID:25476034

  8. Injury Prevention Practices as Depicted in G- and PG-Rated Movies, 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Tongren, J. Eric; Gilchrist, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children in the United States. The use of recommended safety practices can reduce injuries. Children often learn behaviors from media exposure. Children’s movies released in 1995–2007 infrequently depicted appropriate injury prevention practices. The aim of this study was to determine if injury prevention practices in children’s movies have improved. The top grossing 25 G-and PG-rated movies in the United States per year for 2008–2012 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Movies or scenes were excluded if they were animated, not set in the present day, fantasy, documentary, or not in English. Injury prevention practices involving riding in a motor vehicle, walking, boating, bicycling, and four other activities were recorded for characters with speaking roles. Fifty-six (45 %) of the 125 movies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 603 person-scenes were examined involving 175 (29 %) children and 428 (71 %) adults. Thirty-eight person-scenes involved crashes or falls, resulting in four injuries and no deaths. Overall, 59 % (353/603) of person-scenes showed appropriate injury prevention practices. This included 313 (70 %) of 445 motor-vehicle passengers who were belted; 15 (30 %) of 50 pedestrians who used a crosswalk, 2 (7 %) of 30 boaters who wore personal flotation devices, and 8 (29 %) of 28 bicyclists who wore helmets. In comparison with previous studies, there were significant increases in usage of seat belts, crosswalks, personal flotation devices, and bicycle helmets. However, 41 % of person-scenes still showed unsafe practices and the consequences of those behaviors were infrequently depicted. PMID:25476034

  9. A cost-outcome approach to pre and post-implementation of national sports injury prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Simon; Hume, Patria A

    2007-12-01

    In New Zealand (NZ), the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) has developed a pre and post-implementation cost-outcome formulae for sport injury prevention to provide information regarding the success of a prevention programme. The ACC provides for the cost of all personal injuries in NZ and invests in prevention programmes to offset 1.6 million annual claims that cost $NZD 1.9 billion. The ACC invests in nine national community sport injury prevention programmes that represent 40% of sport claims and costs. Pre-implementation is used to determine the decision whether to invest in implementation and to determine the level of such investment for the injury prevention programme. Post-implementation is calculated two ways: unadjusted, assuming ceteris paribus; and adjusted assuming no prevention programme was in place. Post-implementation formulae provide a return on investment (ROI) for each dollar invested in the programme and cost-savings. The cost-outcome formulae approach allows ACC to manage expectations of the prevention programme as well as when it will provide a ROI, allowing it to take a long-term view for investment in sport injury prevention. Originally developed for its sport injury prevention programmes, the cost-outcome formulae have now been applied to the other prevention programmes ACC invests in such as home, road and workplace injury prevention. PMID:17353149

  10. Meniscal tears in the ACL-deficient knee: correlation between meniscal tears and the timing of ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Papastergiou, Stergios G; Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Mikalef, Petros; Ziogas, Evangelos; Voulgaropoulos, Harilaos

    2007-12-01

    Despite the fact that anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is a common procedure, no clear guideline regarding the timing of reconstruction has been established. We hypothesized that there is a point in post injury period, after which significant increase in meniscal tears occurs. The purpose of this study was to derive a guideline in order to reduce the rate of secondary meniscal tears in the ACL-deficient knee. A total of 451 patients were retrospectively studied and divided into six groups according to the time from injury to ACLR: (a) 105 patients had undergone ACLR within 1.5 months post injury, (b) 93 patients within 1.5-3 months, (c) 72 patients within fourth to sixth month, (d) 56 patients within seventh to twelfth month, (e) 45 patients within the second year and (f) 80 patients within the third to fifth year. The presence of meniscal tears was noted at the time of ACL reconstruction and then recorded and statistically analysed. Fifty-three (50.5%) patients from group a, 46 (49.5%) from group b, 39 (54.2%) from group c, 31 (68.9%) from group d, 28 (62.2%) from group e and 54 (67.5%) from group f had meniscal tear requiring treatment. The statistical analysis demonstrated that the earliest point of significantly higher incidence of meniscal tears was in patients undergoing ACLR more than 3 months post injury. Therefore, ACLR should be carried out within the first 3 months post injury in order to minimise the risk of secondary meniscal tears. PMID:17899001

  11. Preventing Injuries among Watercraft Paddlers: Steady as You Go!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Michele M.

    1989-01-01

    Recreational watercraft paddlers are susceptible to problems ranging from simple contusions and blisters to drowning. Most of these problems can be prevented by simple precautions, such as proper technique, good warmup, carrying first-aid kits, wearing personal flotation devices, and respecting the environment. (Author/SM)

  12. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of chemical injuries.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Werner, Charles L; Gubler, K Dean

    2005-01-01

    Chemical injuries are commonly encountered following exposure to acids and alkali, including hydrofluoric acid, formic acid, anhydrous ammonia, cement, and phenol. Other specific agents that cause chemical burns include white phosphorus, elemental metals, nitrates, hydrocarbons, and tar. Even though there are more than 65,000 chemicals available on the market, and an estimated 60,000 new chemicals produced each year, the potential deleterious effects of these chemicals on humans are still unknown. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act contains extensive provisions for emergency planning and the rights of communities to know about toxic chemical releases. Since 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has maintained an active, state-based Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system to describe the public health consequences risked by access to hazardous chemicals. Most chemical agents damage the skin by producing a chemical reaction rather than hyperthermic injury. Although some chemicals produce considerable heat as a result of an exothermic reaction when they come in contact with water, their ability to produce direct chemical changes on the skin accounts for the most skin injury. Specific chemical changes depend on the agent, including acids, alkalis, corrosives, oxidizing and reducing agents, desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons. The concentration of toxic agent and duration of its contact primarily determine degree of skin destruction. Hazardous materials (hazmats) are substances that may injure life and damage the environment if improperly handled. HAZMAT accidents are particularly dangerous for responding personnel, who are in danger from the moment of arrival on the scene until containment of the accident. Consequently, the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act mandates community preparedness for dealing with hazmat accidents. Paramedics and members of the hazmat response team

  13. Targeting the TGF-β1 Pathway to Prevent Normal Tissue Injury After Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    With >10,000,000 cancer survivors in the U.S. alone, the late effects of cancer treatment are a significant public health issue. Over the past 15 years, much work has been done that has led to an improvement in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of normal tissue injury after cancer therapy. In many cases, these injuries are characterized at the histologic level by loss of parenchymal cells, excessive fibrosis, and tissue atrophy. Among the many cytokines involved in this process, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is thought to play a pivotal role. TGF-β1 has a multitude of functions, including both promoting the formation and inhibiting the breakdown of connective tissue. It also inhibits epithelial cell proliferation. TGF-β1 is overexpressed at sites of injury after radiation and chemotherapy. Thus, TGF-β1 represents a logical target for molecular therapies designed to prevent or reduce normal tissue injury after cancer therapy. Herein, the evidence supporting the critical role of TGF-ß1 in the development of normal tissue injury after cancer therapy is reviewed and the results of recent research aimed at preventing normal tissue injury by targeting the TGF-ß1 pathway are presented. PMID:20413640

  14. [Anatomical rationale for lingual nerve injury prevention during mandibular block].

    PubMed

    Semkin, V A; Dydikin, S S; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2015-01-01

    The topographic and anatomical study of lingual nerve structural features was done. It was revealed that during mandibular anesthesia possible lingual nerve injury can occur if puncture needle is lower than 1 cm. of molars occlusal surface level. The position of the lingual nerve varies withmandible movements. At the maximum open mouth lingual nerve is not mobile and is pressed against the inner surface of the mandibular ramus by the medial pterygoid muscle and the temporal muscle tendon. When closing the mouth to 1.25±0.2 cmfrom the physiological maximum, lingual nerve is displaced posteriorly from the internal oblique line of the mandible and gets mobile. On the basis of topographic and anatomic features of the lingual nervestructure the authors recommend the re-do of inferior alveolar nerve block, a semi-closed mouth position or the use the "high block techniques" (Torus anesthesia, Gow-Gates, Vazirani-Akinozi). PMID:26271698

  15. E coding: a missing link for injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Halpern, J S

    1993-06-01

    E codes are a practical, detailed, and feasible method of collecting much needed information about trauma morbidity. Emergency care providers are the key to ensuring accurate information because of their ability to obtain specific information from prehospital personnel or family. Charting the information on the emergency record will simplify the task for medical records coders, researchers, epidemiologists, and public health officials. The detailed information used for E codes is not just research trivia, but rather beneficial information for all emergency providers. A specific plan of care can be developed to address the medical and social needs of each patient. This in turn may help to reduce future injuries, whether they are caused by high-risk behaviors or repetitive abuse situations. PMID:8510363

  16. Intraoperative brachial plexus injury during emergence following movement with arms restrained: a preventable complication?

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Mark H; DiMatteo, Laura; Hasenboehler, Erik A; Temple, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite considerable analysis and preventive strategies, brachial plexus injuries remain fairly common in the perioperative setting. These injuries range from brief periods of numbness or discomfort in the immediate postoperative period to, in rare cases, profound, prolonged losses of sensation and function. We present a case of an orthopedic surgery patient who suffered a brachial plexus injury while under anesthesia after trying to sit upright with his arms restrained. Case presentation After the uneventful placement of an intramedullary tibial nail, an 18 year old patient tried to sit upright with his arms restrained while still under the influence of anesthesia. In the immediate postoperative period, the patient complained of a profound loss of sensation in his left arm and an inability to flex his left elbow, suppinate his arm, or abduct and rotate his shoulder. Neurological examination and subsequent studies revealed a C5-6 brachial plexus injury. The patient underwent range of motion physical therapy and, over the next three months, regained the full function and sensation of his left arm. Conclusion Restraining arms during general anesthesia to prevent injury remains a wise practice. However, to avoid injuring the brachial plexus while the arms are restrained, extra caution must be used to prevent unexpected patient movement and to ensure gentle emergence. PMID:18271944

  17. Injury prevention in male veteran football players - a randomised controlled trial using "FIFA 11+".

    PubMed

    Hammes, Daniel; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Kaiser, Stephanie; Frisen, Eugen; Bizzini, Mario; Meyer, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The warm-up programme "FIFA 11+" has been shown to reduce football injuries in different populations, but so far veteran players have not been investigated. Due to differences in age, skill level and gender, a simple transfer of these results to veteran football is not recommended. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of the "FIFA 11+" in veteran football players. Twenty veteran football teams were recruited for a prospective 9-month (1 season) cluster-randomised trial. The intervention group (INT, n = 146; 45 ± 8 years) performed the "FIFA 11+" at the beginning of each training session, while the control group (CON, n = 119; 43 ± 6 years) followed its regular training routine. Player exposure hours and injuries were recorded according to an international consensus statement. No significant difference was found between INT and CON in overall injury incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.91 [0.64-1.48]; P = 0.89). Only severe injuries reached statistical significance with higher incidence in CON (IRR: 0.46 [0.21-0.97], P = 0.04). Regular conduction (i.e. once a week) of the "FIFA 11+" did not prevent injuries in veteran footballers under real training and competition circumstances. The lack of preventive effects is likely due to the too low overall frequency of training sessions. PMID:25370591

  18. Amniotic fluid stem cells prevent β-cell injury

    PubMed Central

    VILLANI, VALENTINA; MILANESI, ANNA; SEDRAKYAN, SARGIS; DA SACCO, STEFANO; ANGELOW, SUSANNE; CONCONI, MARIA TERESA; DI LIDDO, ROSA; DE FILIPPO, ROGER; PERIN, LAURA

    2015-01-01

    Background aims The contribution of amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) to tissue protection and regeneration in models of acute and chronic kidney injuries and lung failure has been shown in recent years. In the present study, we used a chemically induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes to determine whether AFSC could play a role in modulating β-cell injury and restoring β-cell function. Methods Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were given intracardial injection of AFSC; morphological and physiological parameters and gene expression profile for the insulin pathway were evaluated after cell transplantation. Results AFSC injection resulted in protection from β-cell damage and increased β-cell regeneration in a subset of mice as indicated by glucose and insulin levels, increased islet mass and preservation of islet structure. Moreover, β-cell preservation/regeneration correlated with activation of the insulin receptor/Pi3K/Akt signaling pathway and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression involved in maintaining β-cell mass and function. Conclusions Our results suggest a therapeutic role for AFSC in preserving and promoting endogenous β-cell functionality and proliferation. The protective role of AFSC is evident when stem cell transplantation is performed before severe hyperglycemia occurs, which suggests the importance of early intervention. The present study demonstrates the possible benefits of the application of a non–genetically engineered stem cell population derived from amniotic fluid for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus and gives new insight on the mechanism by which the beneficial effect is achieved. PMID:24210784

  19. Displaced Medial and Lateral Bucket Handle Meniscal Tears With Intact ACL and PCL.

    PubMed

    Boody, Barrett S; Omar, Imran M; Hill, James A

    2015-08-01

    Bucket handle lesions are vertical longitudinal tears in the meniscus that may displace centrally into the respective medial or lateral compartment, frequently causing mechanical symptoms, including pain, perceived instability, and mechanical locking. Bucket handle meniscal tears are most commonly from a traumatic etiology and are frequently found with concomitant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Multiple imaging signs and associations have been described for the diagnosis of bucket handle meniscus tears, including coronal truncation, absent bow tie sign, double posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), double ACL, displacement of the bucket handle fragment, and disproportionate posterior horn signs. Among meniscal pathology encountered on magnetic resonance imaging or during arthroscopy, bucket handle meniscal tears are infrequent occurrences. Furthermore, the occurrence of displaced medial and lateral bucket handle tears found on imaging and during arthroscopy is very uncommon and is only sparsely reported in the literature. When displaced medial and lateral bucket handle meniscal segments are visualized within the intercondylar notch along with the ACL and PCL, the radiologic findings are referred to as the "quadruple cruciate" sign or the "Jack and Jill lesion." Of the few case reports described in the literature, only one noted displaced medial and lateral bucket handle meniscus tears with an intact ACL and PCL. The current case report outlines a similar rare case of the quadruple cruciate sign: displaced medial and lateral bucket handle meniscal tears located within the intercondylar notch and an intact ACL and PCL. PMID:26270763

  20. Operative and nonoperative treatment options for ACL tears in the adult patient: a conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Matava, Matthew J

    2013-11-01

    Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is common among athletic individuals. Both nonoperative and operative treatment options exist. The optimal treatment of an adult with an ACL tear depends on several patient-specific factors, including age, occupation, and desired activity level. In less active patients with sedentary jobs, nonoperative management, consisting of physical therapy, bracing, and activity modification can yield successful results. In active patients who want to resume participation in jumping, cutting, or pivoting sports, patients who have physically demanding occupations, or patients who fail a trial of nonoperative management, ACL reconstruction is recommended. Reconstruction utilizing autograft tissue is preferred over allograft, especially in the younger athlete, but allograft tissue is a reasonable option in the older (aged > 40 years) and less active adult, as well. Successful results have been achieved with both patellar tendon and hamstring grafts. The optimal treatment in adult patients with ACL tears should be based on careful consideration of the patient's goals for return to activity, knee-specific comorbidities, such as coexistent meniscal pathology or osteoarthritis, and his or her willingness to follow a detailed rehabilitation regimen. Our article provides an overview of current nonoperative and operative treatment options for adults with ACL tears, considers the outcomes of both nonoperative and operative strategies, and provides general recommendations as to the ideal management for a given patient. PMID:24231595

  1. USE OF SPATIOTEMPORAL GAIT PARAMETERS TO DETERMINE RETURN TO SPORTS AFTER ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    LEPORACE, GUSTAVO; METSAVAHT, LEONARDO; ZEITOUNE, GABRIEL; MARINHO, THIAGO; OLIVEIRA, TAINÁ; PEREIRA, GLAUBER RIBEIRO; OLIVEIRA, LISZT PALMEIRA DE; BATISTA, LUIZ ALBERTO

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To compare gait spatiotemporal parameters of healthy and ACL reconstructed subjects in order to classify the status of gait normality. Methods : Fourteen healthy subjects and eight patients submitted to ACL reconstruction walked along a walkway while the lower limbs movement was captured by an infrared camera system. The frames where the initial contact and toe-off took place were determined and the following dependent variables, which were compared between groups through the Mann-Whitney test (a=0.05) were calculated: percentage of time in initial double stance, percentage of time in single stance, percentage of time in terminal double stance, stride length and gait velocity. Initially, all variables were compared between groups using a Mann-Whitney test. A logistic regression was applied, including all dependent variables, to create a model that could differentiate healthy and ACL reconstructed subjects. Results : ACL reconstructed group showed no differences in any spatiotemporal parameter of gait (p > 0.05) in relation to the control group, although the angular kinematic differences of the knee remained altered, as evidenced in a study with a similar sample. Conclusion : The regression classified all subjects as healthy, including the ACL reconstructed group, suggesting the spatiotemporal variables should not be used as the sole criterion of return to sports activities at the same level as prior to injury. Level of Evidence III, Case Control Study. PMID:26981039

  2. Aggression, Violence and Injury in Minor League Ice Hockey: Avenues for Prevention of Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Ilie, Gabriela; Mullen, Sarah J.; Pauley, Christopher R.; Stulberg, Jennifer R.; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Zhang, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Background In North America, more than 800,000 youth are registered in organized ice hockey leagues. Despite the many benefits of involvement, young players are at significant risk for injury. Body-checking and aggressive play are associated with high frequency of game-related injury including concussion. We conducted a qualitative study to understand why youth ice hockey players engage in aggressive, injury-prone behaviours on the ice. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 61 minor ice hockey participants, including male and female players, parents, coaches, trainers, managers and a game official. Players were aged 13–15 playing on competitive body checking teams or on non-body checking teams. Interviews were manually transcribed, coded and analyzed for themes relating to aggressive play in minor ice hockey. Results Parents, coaches, teammates and the media exert a large influence on player behavior. Aggressive behavior is often reinforced by the player’s social environment and justified by players to demonstrate loyalty to teammates and especially injured teammates by seeking revenge particularly in competitive, body-checking leagues. Among female and male players in non-body checking organizations, aggressive play is not reinforced by the social environment. These findings are discussed within the framework of social identity theory and social learning theory, in order to understand players’ need to seek revenge and how the social environment reinforces aggressive behaviors. Conclusion This study provides a better understanding of the players’ motivations and environmental influences around aggressive and violent play which may be conducive to injury. The findings can be used to help design interventions aimed at reducing aggression and related injuries sustained during ice hockey and sports with similar cultures and rules. PMID:27258426

  3. Design of the iPlay study: systematic development of a physical activity injury prevention programme for primary school children.

    PubMed

    Collard, Dorine C M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M

    2009-01-01

    Health benefits of physical activity in children are well known. However, a drawback is the risk of physical activity-related injuries. Children are at particular risk for these injuries, because of a high level of exposure. Because of the high prevalence of physical activity injuries and the negative short- and long-term consequences, prevention of these injuries in children is important. This article describes how we systematically developed a school-based physical activity injury prevention programme using the intervention mapping (IM) protocol. IM describes a process for developing theory- and evidence-based health promotion programmes. The development can be described in six steps: (i) perform a needs assessment; (ii) identify programme and performance objectives; (iii) select methods and strategies; (iv) develop programme; (v) adopt and implement; and (vi) evaluate. First, the results of the needs assessment showed the injury problem in children and the different risk factors for physical activity injuries. Based on the results of the needs assessment the main focus of the injury prevention programme was described. Second, the overall programme objective of the injury prevention programme was defined as reducing the incidence of lower extremity physical activity injuries. Third, theoretical methods and practical strategies were selected to accomplish a decrease in injury incidence. The theoretical methods used were active learning, providing cues and scenario-based risk information, and active processing of information. The practical strategy of the injury prevention programme was an 8-month course about injury prevention to be used in physical education classes in primary schools. Fourth, programme materials that were used in the injury prevention programme were developed, including newsletters for children and parents, posters, exercises to improve motor fitness, and an information website. Fifth, an implementation plan was designed in order to ensure that

  4. Management of Acute Combined ACL-Medial and Posteromedial Instability of the Knee.

    PubMed

    Medvecky, Michael J; Tomaszewski, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries are the most common ligamentous injury of the knee. The extent of injury can range from a minor first-degree (1-degree) sprain to an extensive third-degree (3-degree) sprain that can propagate across the knee, rupturing one or both cruciate ligaments, and result in a knee subluxation or dislocation. A common pattern involves the combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and MCL injury that is the focus of this chapter. The vast majority of these combined medial-sided injuries are treated nonoperatively with delayed reconstruction of the ACL injury in athletically active individuals. The MCL and associated medial structures are carefully assessed on physical examination, and classification of injury is based upon abnormal limits of joint motion. In vitro cadaveric biomechanical testing has given us a better understanding of ligament deficiency and altered joint motion. Consistency in terminology is necessary for proper classification of injury and reproducible categorization of injury patterns to be able to compare both nonoperative and operative treatment of various injury patterns. PMID:25932883

  5. Focused deterrence and the prevention of violent gun injuries: practice, theoretical principles, and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Weisburd, David L

    2015-03-18

    Focused deterrence strategies are a relatively new addition to a growing portfolio of evidence-based violent gun injury prevention practices available to policy makers and practitioners. These strategies seek to change offender behavior by understanding the underlying violence-producing dynamics and conditions that sustain recurring violent gun injury problems and by implementing a blended strategy of law enforcement, community mobilization, and social service actions. Consistent with documented public health practice, the focused deterrence approach identifies underlying risk factors and causes of recurring violent gun injury problems, develops tailored responses to these underlying conditions, and measures the impact of implemented interventions. This article reviews the practice, theoretical principles, and evaluation evidence on focused deterrence strategies. Although more rigorous randomized studies are needed, the available empirical evidence suggests that these strategies generate noteworthy gun violence reduction impacts and should be part of a broader portfolio of violence prevention strategies available to policy makers and practitioners. PMID:25494051

  6. Prevention of iatrogenic ureteral injuries during robotic gynecologic surgery: a review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ziho; Kaplan, Joshua; Giusto, Laura; Eun, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Iatrogenic ureteral injuries, more than half of which occur during gynecologic surgery, may have devastating consequences for both patients and physicians. Gynecologists have employed various techniques such as cystoscopy, ureteral stents, and lighted ureteral stents to prevent ureteral injuries. The emergence and increasing prevalence of robotic surgery necessitates that we not only reevaluate the utility of these techniques, but also develop new ones specific for the robotic modality. In the robotic setting, the surgeon lacks tactile feedback and must rely primarily on visual cues. The use of intraureteral indocyanine green and subsequent visualization under near-infrared fluorescence appears to be a promising technique to primarily and secondarily prevent ureteral injuries during robotic gynecologic surgery. PMID:26519785

  7. Child Pedestrian Injury: A Review of Behavioral Risks and Preventive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Davis, Aaron L.; O’Neal, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrian injury is among the leading causes of pediatric death in the United States and much of the world. This paper is divided into two sections. First, we review the literature on behavioral risk factors for child injury. Cognitive and perceptual development risks are discussed. The roles of distraction, temperament and personality, and social influences from parents and peers are presented. We conclude the first section with brief reviews of environmental risks, pedestrian safety among special populations, and the role of sleep and fatigue on pediatric pedestrian safety. The second section of the review considers child pedestrian injury prevention strategies. Categorized by mode of presentation, we discuss parent instruction strategies, school-based instruction strategies (including crossing guards), and streetside training techniques. Technology-based training strategies using video, internet, and virtual reality are reviewed. We conclude the section on prevention with discussion of community-based interventions. PMID:23066380

  8. The Prevention and Management of Urinary Tract Infection among People with Spinal Cord Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIDRR Consensus Statement, 1992

    1992-01-01

    A 1992 Urinary Tract Infection Consensus Validation Conference brought together researchers, clinicians, and consumers to arrive at consensus on the best practices for preventing and treating urinary tract infections (UBI) in people with spinal cord injuries; the risk factors and diagnostic studies that should be done; indications for antibiotic…

  9. A Process Evaluation of an Injury Prevention School-Based Programme for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, L.; Sheehan, M.

    2009-01-01

    A process evaluation provides critical information that can inform the design and implementation of a programme. This study sought to provide examples of how to operationalize a process evaluation of an effective programme (Skills for Preventing Injury in Youth). A comprehensive definition of process evaluation was used which included assessing…

  10. 78 FR 64505 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... and Control. Matters to be Discussed: The BSC, NCIPC will discuss the recommendations provided by the... strategies needed to guide the Center's focus. The BSC members will also discuss potential topics for...

  11. Sports Safety. Accident Prevention and Injury Control in Physical Education, Athletics, and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Charles Peter, Ed.

    This anthology of articles concerned with injury in sports and safety procedures is divided into three parts. Part One is devoted to general discussions of safety and a guiding philosophy for accident prevention. Part Two develops articles on administration and supervision, including discussions of health examination, legal liability, facilities,…

  12. Can Stretching Prior to Exercise and Sports Improve Performance and Prevent Injury?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracko, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines data from research on stretching as it relates to enhanced performance and injury prevention so that fitness, exercise, and sports performance professionals can make informed decisions about stretching programs for clients. The paper notes that stretching is a misunderstood component of fitness and sports training. Few studies show…

  13. Prevention of Home-Related Injuries of Preschoolers: Safety Measures Taken by Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khameesa, Nedaa A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to find out the extent of safety measures taken by mothers to prevent serious injuries to their pre-school children in the home, and the factors that influence mothers' behaviour in taking these safety measures. Design: A self-completion questionnaire based on a Five Level Likert Scale was used in the study.…

  14. Prevention Practice Differences Among Persons With Spinal Cord Injuries Who Rarely Versus Frequently Sustain Pressure Ulcers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael L.; Marini, Irmo; Slate, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are common among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and not only are costly to treat but also affect the quality of life of those affected by them. Despite a plethora of literature on prevention, there are few wellness studies focusing on the practices of people who do not develop pressure ulcers. This preliminary study sought to…

  15. Status report - The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: a dynamic and innovative injury surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Crain, J; McFaull, S; Thompson, W; Skinner, R; Do, M T; Fréchette, M; Mukhi, S

    2016-06-01

    This status report on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), an emergency department-based injury and poisoning surveillance system, describes the result of migrating from a centralized data entry and coding process to a decentralized process, the web-based eCHIRPP system, in 2011. This secure system is improving the CHIRPP's overall flexibility and timeliness, which are key attributes of an effective surveillance system. The integrated eCHIRPP platform enables near real-time data entry and access, has user-friendly data management and analysis tools, and allows for easier communication and connectivity across the CHIRPP network through an online collaboration centre. Current pilot testing of automated data monitoring and trend analysis tools-designed to monitor and flag incoming data according to predefined criteria (for example, a new consumer product)-is revealing eCHIRPP's potential for providing early warnings of new hazards, issues and trends. PMID:27284703

  16. Pediatric farm injuries involving non-working children injured by a farm work hazard: five priorities for primary prevention

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, W; Brison, R; Berg, R; Zentner, J; Linneman, J; Marlenga, B

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To describe pediatric farm injuries experienced by children who were not engaged in farm work, but were injured by a farm work hazard and to identify priorities for primary prevention. Design: Secondary analysis of data from a novel evaluation of an injury control resource using a retrospective case series. Data sources: Fatal, hospitalized, and restricted activity farm injuries from Canada and the United States. Subjects: Three hundred and seventy known non-work childhood injuries from a larger case series of 934 injury events covering the full spectrum of pediatric farm injuries. Methods: Recurrent injury patterns were described by child demographics, external cause of injury, and associated child activities. Factors contributing to pediatric farm injury were described. New priorities for primary prevention were identified. Results: The children involved were mainly resident members of farm families and 233/370 (63.0%) of the children were under the age of 7 years. Leading mechanisms of injury varied by data source but included: bystander and passenger runovers (fatalities); drowning (fatalities); machinery entanglements (hospitalizations); falls from heights (hospitalizations); and animal trauma (hospitalizations, restricted activity injuries). Common activities leading to injury included playing in the worksite (all data sources); being a bystander to or extra rider on farm machinery (all data sources); recreational horseback riding (restricted activity injuries). Five priorities for prevention programs are proposed. Conclusions: Substantial proportions of pediatric farm injuries are experienced by children who are not engaged in farm work. These injuries occur because farm children are often exposed to an occupational worksite with known hazards. Study findings could lead to more refined and focused pediatric farm injury prevention initiatives. PMID:15691981

  17. Risk factors and injury prevention in elite athletes: a descriptive study of the opinions of physical therapists, doctors and trainers

    PubMed Central

    Saragiotto, Bruno T.; Di Pierro, Carla; Lopes, Alexandre D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently in elite athletes. Understanding what professionals who work with patients with sports injuries think about prevention has been suggested as an important aspect to improve the effectiveness of programs to prevent sports injuries. Objectives To describe and characterize the opinions of physical therapists, physicians and trainers on 'risk factors' and 'prevention of injury' in elite athletes. Method This is a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews with members of the medical and technical department of the Brazilian delegation who participated in the Pan American Games of Guadalajara 2011. The interview was conducted using two questions: 1) "What do you think can cause injuries in athletes participating in your sport?" 2) "What do you do to prevent injuries in your sport?" The interviews were analyzed in two stages, the identification of thematic units, followed by the categorization and grouping of thematic units. Results We interviewed a total of 30 professionals. Regarding question 1, the main factors attributed as responsible for injury were over-training and incorrect sports techniques. Regarding question 2, the main reported strategies used to prevent injuries were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. Conclusions The main factors affecting the appearance of lesions were over-training, incorrect sports technique, inadequate nutrition and factors related to the athlete's behavior. The main injury prevention strategies were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. PMID:24845023

  18. Preventing kidney injury in children with neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Larijani, Faezeh Javadi; Moghtaderi, Mastaneh; Hajizadeh, Nilofar; Assadi, Farahnak

    2013-12-01

    The most common cause of neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD) in newborn infants is myelomeningocele. The pathophysiology almost always involves the bladder detrusor sphincter dyssynergy (DSD), which if untreated can cause severe and irreversible damage to the upper and lower urinary tracts. Early diagnosis and adequate management of NBD is critical to prevent both renal damage and bladder dysfunction and to reduce chances for the future surgeries. Initial investigation of the affected newborn infant includes a renal and bladder ultrasound, measurement of urine residual, determination of serum creatinine level, and urodynamics study. Voiding cystogram is indicated when either hydronephrosis or DSD is present. The main goal of treatment is prevention of urinary tract deterioration and achievement of continuance at an appropriate age. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) in combination with anticholinergic (oxybutynin) and antibiotics are instituted in those with high filling and voiding pressures, DSD and/or high grade reflux immediately after the myelomeningocele is repaired. Botulium toxin-A injection into detrusor is a safe alternative in patients with insufficient response or significant side effects to anticholinergic (oral or intravesical instillation) therapy. Surgery is an effective alternative in patients with persistent detrusor hyperactivity and/or dyssynergic detrusor sphincter despites of the CIC and maximum dosage of anticholinergic therapy. Children with NBD require care from a multidisciplinary team approach consisting of pediatricians, neurosurgeon, urologist, nephrologists, orthopedic surgeon, and other allied medical specialists. PMID:24498490

  19. Perceptions of injury causes and solutions in a Johannesburg township: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Butchart, A; Kruger, J; Lekoba, R

    2000-02-01

    As with other diseases, citizen perceptions of injury causes and solutions are important determinants of their response to the problem. This study explores qualitative responses to questions about the causes and solutions for injuries due to violence, transport, and unintentional burns, falls and other causes from 1,075 residents in six neighbourhoods of a low-income area in Johannesburg, South Africa. These included council houses, council apartment blocks and informal settlements. Data were analysed using content analytic procedures. Perceived causes of injury varied sharply between neighbourhoods. Violence was seen as an outcome of unemployment, socialisation, drug abuse and drug dealing in the formal housing areas, while in the informal settlements it was attributed to unemployment, poor housing and environmental conditions, and excessive alcohol consumption. In the formal housing areas, suggested solutions for violence emphasised increased policing and other repressive measures that contradicted the attribution of causes to environmental factors. In the informal areas, solutions were more congruent with perceived causes, emphasising housing development, education and employment. Perceived causes and solutions for transport injuries reflected the specific context of each neighbourhood, and indicated strong support for the implementation of environmental modifications to reduce the speed of motor vehicles and thus the number of pedestrian injuries. Where perceived causes and solutions for violence and transport-related injuries were located beyond the community in the broader environment, unintentional injuries due to other causes were seen as more in the sphere of potential personal control, except in the informal areas where electrification and formal housing provision were the most commonly suggested solutions. Popular constructions of the causes and solutions for major categories of injury are important in shaping injury prevention responses, and their

  20. Graft Diameter matters in Hamstring ACL reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Clatworthy, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recently techniques have been developed to increase graft diameter in hamstring ACL reconstruction with the hope to decrease graft failure. To date there is limited evidence to show that a smaller graft diameter results in a higher ACL failure rate. Method: The factors for failure in 1480 consecutive single surgeon hamstring ACL reconstructions were evaluated prospectively. Patients were followed for 2-15 years. A multivariate analysis was performed which looked at graft size, age, sex, time to surgery, meniscal integrity, meniscal repair and ACL graft placement to determine whether graft diameter matters in determining the failure of hamstring ACL reconstruction. Results: Graft diameters ranged from 6-10 mm. The mean graft diameter for all patients was 7.75 mm. 83 ACL reconstructions failed. The mean size of graft failures was 7.55 mm ACL reconstructions that failed had a significantly smaller hamstring graft diameter p=0.001. The Hazard Ratio for a smaller diameter graft is 0.517 p=<0.0001. For every 1 mm decrease in graft diameter there is a 48.3% higher chance of failure. The multivariate analysis showed a hazard ratio of 0.543 p=0.002. For every 1 mm decrease in graft diameter there is a 45.7% higher chance of failure. Conclusion: Smaller diameter hamstring grafts do have a higher failure rate. Grafts ≤ 7.5 mm had twice the failure rate of grafts ≥8 mm using a multivariate analysis for every 1 mm decrease in graft diameter there is a 45.7% higher chance of failure.