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Sample records for acm classification keywords

  1. Categorization of Computing Education Resources into the ACM Computing Classification System

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yinlin; Bogen, Paul Logasa; Fox, Dr. Edward A.; Hsieh, Dr. Haowei; Cassel, Dr. Lillian N.

    2012-01-01

    The Ensemble Portal harvests resources from multiple heterogonous federated collections. Managing these dynamically increasing collections requires an automatic mechanism to categorize records in to corresponding topics. We propose an approach to use existing ACM DL metadata to build classifiers for harvested resources in the Ensemble project. We also present our experience on utilizing the Amazon Mechanical Turk platform to build ground truth training data sets from Ensemble collections.

  2. Keyword: Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The practical goal of graduate education is placement of graduates. But what does "placement" mean? Academics use the word without thinking much about it. "Placement" is a great keyword for the graduate-school enterprise. For one thing, its meaning certainly gives a purpose to graduate education. Furthermore, the word is a portal into the way of…

  3. ACME-III and ACME-IV Final Campaign Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s third and fourth Airborne Carbon Measurements (ACME) field campaigns, ACME-III and ACME-IV, are: 1) to measure and model the exchange of CO2, water vapor, and other greenhouse gases by the natural, agricultural, and industrial ecosystems of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region; 2) to develop quantitative approaches to relate these local fluxes to the concentration of greenhouse gases measured at the Central Facility tower and in the atmospheric column above the ARM SGP Central Facility, 3) to develop and test bottom-up measurement and modeling approaches to estimate regional scale carbon balances, and 4) to develop and test inverse modeling approaches to estimate regional scale carbon balance and anthropogenic sources over continental regions. Regular soundings of the atmosphere from near the surface into the mid-troposphere are essential for this research.

  4. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  5. The Keck keyword layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, A. R.; Lupton, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Each Keck instrument presents a consistent software view to the user interface programmer. The view consists of a small library of functions, which are identical for all instruments, and a large set of keywords, that vary from instrument to instrument. All knowledge of the underlying task structure is hidden from the application programmer by the keyword layer. Image capture software uses the same function library to collect data for the image header. Because the image capture software and the instrument control software are built on top of the same keyword layer, a given observation can be 'replayed' by extracting keyword-value pairs from the image header and passing them back to the control system. The keyword layer features non-blocking as well as blocking I/O. A non-blocking keyword write operation (such as setting a filter position) specifies a callback to be invoked when the operation is complete. A non-blocking keyword read operation specifies a callback to be invoked whenever the keyword changes state. The keyword-callback style meshes well with the widget-callback style commonly used in X window programs. The first keyword library was built for the two Keck optical instruments. More recently, keyword libraries have been developed for the infrared instruments and for telescope control. Although the underlying mechanisms used for inter-process communication by each of these systems vary widely (Lick MUSIC, Sun RPC, and direct socket I/O, respectively), a basic user interface has been written that can be used with any of these systems. Since the keyword libraries are bound to user interface programs dynamically at run time, only a single set of user interface executables is needed. For example, the same program, 'xshow', can be used to display continuously the telescope's position, the time left in an instrument's exposure, or both values simultaneously. Less generic tools that operate on specific keywords, for example an X display that controls optical

  6. Quark ACM with topologically generated gluon mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Ishita Dutta; Lahiri, Amitabha

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the effect of a small, gauge-invariant mass of the gluon on the anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM) of quarks by perturbative calculations at one-loop level. The mass of the gluon is taken to have been generated via a topological mass generation mechanism, in which the gluon acquires a mass through its interaction with an antisymmetric tensor field Bμν. For a small gluon mass ( < 10 MeV), we calculate the ACM at momentum transfer q2 = -M Z2. We compare those with the ACM calculated for the gluon mass arising from a Proca mass term. We find that the ACM of up, down, strange and charm quarks vary significantly with the gluon mass, while the ACM of top and bottom quarks show negligible gluon mass dependence. The mechanism of gluon mass generation is most important for the strange quarks ACM, but not so much for the other quarks. We also show the results at q2 = -m t2. We find that the dependence on gluon mass at q2 = -m t2 is much less than at q2 = -M Z2 for all quarks.

  7. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project is developing technology to build structures on planetary surfaces using in-situ resources. The project focuses on the construction of both 2D (landing pads, roads, and structure foundations) and 3D (habitats, garages, radiation shelters, and other structures) infrastructure needs for planetary surface missions. The ACME project seeks to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of two components needed for planetary surface habitation and exploration: 3D additive construction (e.g., contour crafting), and excavation and handling technologies (to effectively and continuously produce in-situ feedstock). Additionally, the ACME project supports the research and development of new materials for planetary surface construction, with the goal of reducing the amount of material to be launched from Earth.

  8. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  9. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  10. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  11. How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-04-11

    The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos, the pipe and/or the metal frameworks. Safe disposal of ACM at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, likewise, requires large disposal volumes in landfills for non-radioactive ACM and large disposal volumes in radioactive burial grounds for radioactive and suspect contaminated ACM. The availability of regulated disposal sites is rapidly diminishing causing recycle to be a more attractive option. Asbestos adhering to metal (e.g., pipes) can be recycled by safely removing the asbestos from the metal in a patented hot caustic bath which prevents airborne contamination /inhalation of asbestos fibers. The dissolution residue (caustic and asbestos) can be wet slurry fed to a melter and vitrified into a glass or glass-ceramic. Palex glasses, which are commercially manufactured, are shown to be preferred over conventional borosilicate glasses. The Palex glasses are alkali magnesium silicate glasses derived by substituting MgO for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in borosilicate type glasses. Palex glasses are very tolerant of the high MgO and high CaO content of the fillers used in forming asbestos coverings for pipes and found in boiler lashing, e.g., hydromagnesite (3MgCO{sub 3} Mg(OH){sub 2} 3H{sub 2}O) and plaster of paris, gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}). The high temperate of the vitrification process destroys the asbestos fibers and renders the asbestos non-hazardous, e.g., a glass or glass-ceramic. In this manner the glass or glass-ceramic produced can be recycled, e.g., glassphalt or glasscrete, as can the clean metal pipe or metal framework.

  12. Linguistic Aspects of Sociopolitical Keywords.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahane, Henry; Kahane, Renee

    1984-01-01

    Four aspects of sociopolitical language are: (1) keywords are defined by a movement; (2) a movement, realized in its language, must be analyzed as having both surface and hidden meanings; (3) the propagandistic function of sociopolitical language forces "value" on the keyword; and (4) a movement creates its linguistic field. (MSE)

  13. Keywords in the mental lexicon

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Goldstein, Rutherford

    2014-01-01

    Network science draws from a number of fields to examine complex systems using nodes to represent individuals and connections to represent relationships between individuals to form a network. This approach has been used in several areas of Psychology to illustrate the influence that the structure of a network has on processing in that system. In the present study the concept of keyplayers in a network (Borgatti, 2006) was examined in the domain of Psycholinguistics. Keyplayers are nodes in a network that, when removed, result in the network fracturing into several smaller components. A set of such nodes was found in a network of phonological word-forms as was another set of foil words, comparable to the “keywords” on a number of lexical and network characteristics. In three conventional psycholinguistic tasks keywords were responded to more quickly and accurately than the foils. A similar trend was observed in an analysis of the keywords and foils (and another set of foils) in the English Lexicon Project. These results open avenues for further exploration of keywords in various areas of language processing, and demonstrate the utility of the network science approach to psycholinguistics and psychology more generally. PMID:24976678

  14. Keyword Ontology Development for Discovering Hydrologic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecki, Michael; Hooper, Rick; Choi, Yoori

    2010-05-01

    Service (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and the Environmental Protection Agency's STORET data system . In order to avoid overwhelming returns when searching for more general concepts, the ontology's upper layers (called navigation layers) cannot be used to search for data, which in turn prompts the need to identify general groupings of data such as Biological, or Chemical, or Physical data groups, which then must be further subdivided in a cascading fashion all the way to the leaf levels. This classification is not straightforward however and poses much potential for discussion. Finally, it is important to identify on the dimensionality of the ontology, i.e. does the keyword contain only the property measured (e.g., "temperature") or the medium and the property ("air temperature").

  15. A keyword spotting model using perceptually significant energy features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umakanthan, Padmalochini

    The task of a keyword recognition system is to detect the presence of certain words in a conversation based on the linguistic information present in human speech. Such keyword spotting systems have applications in homeland security, telephone surveillance and human-computer interfacing. General procedure of a keyword spotting system involves feature generation and matching. In this work, new set of features that are based on the psycho-acoustic masking nature of human speech are proposed. After developing these features a time aligned pattern matching process was implemented to locate the words in a set of unknown words. A word boundary detection technique based on frame classification using the nonlinear characteristics of speech is also addressed in this work. Validation of this keyword spotting model was done using widely acclaimed Cepstral features. The experimental results indicate the viability of using these perceptually significant features as an augmented feature set in keyword spotting.

  16. Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  17. Sealing Force Increasing of ACM Gasket through Electron Beam Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, D. J.; Batalha, G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Rubber is an engineering material largely used as sealing parts, in form of O-rings, solid gaskets and liquid gaskets, materials applied in liquid state with posterior vulcanization and sealing. Stress relaxation is a rubber characteristic which impacts negatively in such industrial applications (rings and solid gaskets). This work has the purpose to investigate the use of electron beam radiation (EB) as a technology able to decrease the stress relaxation in acrylic rubber (ACM), consequently increasing the sealing capability of this material. ACM samples were irradiated with dose of 100 kGy and 250 kGy, its behavior was comparatively investigated using, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and compression stress relaxation (CSR) experiments. The results obtained by DMA shown an increase of Tg and changes in dynamic mechanical behavior.

  18. Author Keywords in Biomedical Journal Articles

    PubMed Central

    Névéol, Aurélie; Doğan, Rezarta Islamaj; Lu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    As an information retrieval system, PubMed® aims at providing efficient access to documents cited in MEDLINE®. For this purpose, it relies on matching representations of documents, as provided by authors and indexers to user queries. In this paper, we describe the growth of author keywords in biomedical journal articles and present a comparative study of author keywords and MeSH® indexing terms assigned by MEDLINE indexers to PubMed Central Open Access articles. A similarity metric is used to assess automatically the relatedness between pairs of author keywords and indexing terms. A set of 300 pairs is manually reviewed to evaluate the metric and characterize the relationships between author keywords and indexing terms. Results show that author keywords are increasingly available in biomedical articles and that over 60% of author keywords can be linked to a closely related indexing term. Finally, we discuss the potential impact of this work on indexing and terminology development. PMID:21347036

  19. Personal Keyword Extraction from the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Junichiro; Matsuo, Yutaka; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    With the currently growing interest in the Semantic Web, personal metadata to model a user and the relationship between users is coming to play an important role in the Web. This paper proposes a novel keyword extraction method to extract personal information from the Web. The proposed method uses the Web as a large corpus to obtain co-occurrence information of words. Using the co-occurrence information, our method extracts relevant keywords depending on the context of a person. Our evaluation shows better performance to other keyword extraction methods. We give a discussion about our method in terms of general keyword extraction for the Web.

  20. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  1. Precision and Recall in Title Keyword Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McJunkin, Monica Cahill

    This study examines precision and recall for title and keyword searches performed in the "FirstSearch" WorldCat database when keywords are used with and without adjacency of terms specified. A random sample of 68 titles in economics were searched in the OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) Online Union Catalog in order to obtain their Library of…

  2. Acme jumper pipe system for coke-oven charging

    SciTech Connect

    Medved, P.D.; Thomas, H.

    1996-08-01

    Acme Steel has operated larry cars with an attached jumper pipe since 1977 and had been able to meet the State Implementation Plan (SIP). With the advent of the Clean Air Act (CAA), Acme considered that it could not meet these new standards without modifications to the jumper pipe system. Several drop sleeve modifications, boot seal materials and configurations were tested that resulted in limited success in improving the boot seal life. These modifications showed that the Clean Air Act standards could be met, but it would be cost prohibitive to continue to operate in this manner. The company decided to install an off-car jumper pipe system which uses a traveling U-tube for connection to the assist oven through an additional hole in the roof of each oven. Temperature related failures of drop sleeve seals were eliminated. The off-car jumper pipe is a more efficient gas connection to the assist oven and enables the company to meet the Clean Air Act charging requirements in a cost effective manner.

  3. Fuel gas main replacement at Acme Steel's coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    Trevino, O. . Chicago Coke Plant)

    1994-09-01

    ACME Steel's Chicago coke plant consists of two 4-meter, 50-oven Wilputte underjet coke-oven batteries. These batteries were constructed in 1956--1957. The use of blast furnace gas was discontinued in the late 1960's. In 1977--1978, the oven walls in both batteries were reconstructed. Reconstruction of the underfire system was limited to rebuilding the coke-oven gas reversing cocks and meter in orifices. By the early 1980's, the 24-in. diameter underfire fuel gas mains of both batteries developed leaks at the Dresser expansion joints. These leaks were a result of pipe loss due to corrosion. Leaks also developed along the bottoms and sides of both mains. A method is described that permitted pushing temperatures to be maintained during replacement of underfire fuel gas mains. Each of Acme's two, 50-oven, 4-metric Wilputte coke-oven, gas-fired batteries were heated by converting 10-in. diameter decarbonizing air mains into temporary fuel gas mains. Replacement was made one battery at a time, with the temporary 10-in. mains in service for five to eight weeks.

  4. Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Nikunj

    2012-03-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. A set of training examples— examples with known output values—is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate’s measurements. The generalization performance of a learned model (how closely the target outputs and the model’s predicted outputs agree for patterns that have not been presented to the learning algorithm) would provide an indication of how well the model has learned the desired mapping. More formally, a classification learning algorithm L takes a training set T as its input. The training set consists of |T| examples or instances. It is assumed that there is a probability distribution D from which all training examples are drawn independently—that is, all the training examples are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.). The ith training example is of the form (x_i, y_i), where x_i is a vector of values of several features and y_i represents the class to be predicted.* In the sunspot classification example given above, each training example

  5. Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2011-01-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. In supervised learning, a set of training examples---examples with known output values---is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate's measurements. This chapter discusses methods to perform machine learning, with examples involving astronomy.

  6. Access to Periodicals: Search Key versus Keyword.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Susan U.; Golden, Gary A.

    1983-01-01

    Retrievability of titles of 152 periodicals were compared in a fixed-length algorithmic search (Library Computer System) and a keyword search (Washington Library Network) to determine which type of search algorithm is more successful with titles of varying lengths. Three references and a list of English language stopwords are appended. (EJS)

  7. Keyword Extraction from Arabic Legal Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammal, Mahmoud; Bahsoun, Zeinab; Al Achkar Jabbour, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to apply local grammar (LG) to develop an indexing system which automatically extracts keywords from titles of Lebanese official journals. Design/methodology/approach: To build LG for our system, the first word that plays the determinant role in understanding the meaning of a title is analyzed and grouped as…

  8. Towards an Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) with Reflex Autonomicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Hinchey, Mike; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of providing a fault-tolerant environment and achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications. However, the task of manually managing and configuring a cluster quickly becomes daunting as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing, with its vision to provide self-management, can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management and its evolution to include reflex reactions via pulse monitoring.

  9. Air Traffic Complexity Measurement Environment (ACME): Software User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A user's guide for the Air Traffic Complexity Measurement Environment (ACME) software is presented. The ACME consists of two major components, a complexity analysis tool and user interface. The Complexity Analysis Tool (CAT) analyzes complexity off-line, producing data files which may be examined interactively via the Complexity Data Analysis Tool (CDAT). The Complexity Analysis Tool is composed of three independently executing processes that communicate via PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) and Unix sockets. The Runtime Data Management and Control process (RUNDMC) extracts flight plan and track information from a SAR input file, and sends the information to GARP (Generate Aircraft Routes Process) and CAT (Complexity Analysis Task). GARP in turn generates aircraft trajectories, which are utilized by CAT to calculate sector complexity. CAT writes flight plan, track and complexity data to an output file, which can be examined interactively. The Complexity Data Analysis Tool (CDAT) provides an interactive graphic environment for examining the complexity data produced by the Complexity Analysis Tool (CAT). CDAT can also play back track data extracted from System Analysis Recording (SAR) tapes. The CDAT user interface consists of a primary window, a controls window, and miscellaneous pop-ups. Aircraft track and position data is displayed in the main viewing area of the primary window. The controls window contains miscellaneous control and display items. Complexity data is displayed in pop-up windows. CDAT plays back sector complexity and aircraft track and position data as a function of time. Controls are provided to start and stop playback, adjust the playback rate, and reposition the display to a specified time.

  10. Statistical keyword detection in literary corpora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, J. P.; Pury, P. A.

    2008-05-01

    Understanding the complexity of human language requires an appropriate analysis of the statistical distribution of words in texts. We consider the information retrieval problem of detecting and ranking the relevant words of a text by means of statistical information referring to the spatial use of the words. Shannon's entropy of information is used as a tool for automatic keyword extraction. By using The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin as a representative text sample, we show the performance of our detector and compare it with another proposals in the literature. The random shuffled text receives special attention as a tool for calibrating the ranking indices.

  11. Robust keyword retrieval method for OCRed text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yusaku; Takebe, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hotta, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    Document management systems have become important because of the growing popularity of electronic filing of documents and scanning of books, magazines, manuals, etc., through a scanner or a digital camera, for storage or reading on a PC or an electronic book. Text information acquired by optical character recognition (OCR) is usually added to the electronic documents for document retrieval. Since texts generated by OCR generally include character recognition errors, robust retrieval methods have been introduced to overcome this problem. In this paper, we propose a retrieval method that is robust against both character segmentation and recognition errors. In the proposed method, the insertion of noise characters and dropping of characters in the keyword retrieval enables robustness against character segmentation errors, and character substitution in the keyword of the recognition candidate for each character in OCR or any other character enables robustness against character recognition errors. The recall rate of the proposed method was 15% higher than that of the conventional method. However, the precision rate was 64% lower.

  12. Autolysis of Lactococcus lactis caused by induced overproduction of its major autolysin, AcmA.

    PubMed Central

    Buist, G; Karsens, H; Nauta, A; van Sinderen, D; Venema, G; Kok, J

    1997-01-01

    The optical density of a culture of lactococcus lactis MG1363 was reduced more than 60% during prolonged stationary phase. Reduction in optical density (autolysis) was almost absent in a culture of an isogenic mutant containing a deletion in the major autolysin gene, acmA. An acmA mutant carrying multiple coples of a plasmid encoding AcmA lysed to a greater extent than the wild-type strain did. Intercellular action of AcmA was shown by mixing end-exponential-phase cultures of an acmA deletion mutant and a tripeptidase (pepT) deletion mutant. PepT, produced by the acmA mutant, was detected in the supernatant of the mixed culture, but no PepT was present in the culture supernatant of the acmA mutant. A plasmid was constructed in which acmA, lacking its own promoter, was placed downstream of the inducible promoter/operator region of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage r1t. After mitomycin induction of an exponential-phase culture of L. lactis LL302 carrying this plasmid, the cells became subject to autolysis, resulting in the release of intracellular proteins. PMID:9212419

  13. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements VI (ACME VI) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S

    2015-12-01

    From October 1 through September 30, 2016, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility will deploy the Cessna 206 aircraft over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, collecting observations of trace-gas mixing ratios over the ARM’s SGP facility. The aircraft payload includes two Atmospheric Observing Systems, Inc., analyzers for continuous measurements of CO2 and a 12-flask sampler for analysis of carbon cycle gases (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, 13CO2, 14CO2, carbonyl sulfide, and trace hydrocarbon species, including ethane). The aircraft payload also includes instrumentation for solar/infrared radiation measurements. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s ARM Climate Research Facility and Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Program and builds upon previous ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) missions. The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange at the SGP site, 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative forcing, convective processes and CO2 concentrations over the SGP site, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  14. In-situ Data Analysis Framework for ACME Land Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Yao, C.; Jia, Y.; Steed, C.; Atchley, S.

    2015-12-01

    The realistic representation of key biogeophysical and biogeochemical functions is the fundamental of process-based ecosystem models. Investigating the behavior of those ecosystem functions within real-time model simulation can be a very challenging due to the complex of both model and software structure of an environmental model, such as the Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) Land Model (ALM). In this research, author will describe the urgent needs and challenges for in-situ data analysis for ALM simulations, and layouts our methods/strategies to meet these challenges. Specifically, an in-situ data analysis framework is designed to allow users interactively observe the biogeophyical and biogeochemical process during ALM simulation. There are two key components in this framework, automatically instrumented ecosystem simulation, in-situ data communication and large-scale data exploratory toolkit. This effort is developed by leveraging several active projects, including scientific unit testing platform, common communication interface and extreme-scale data exploratory toolkit. Authors believe that, based on advanced computing technologies, such as compiler-based software system analysis, automatic code instrumentation, and in-memory data transport, this software system provides not only much needed capability for real-time observation and in-situ data analytics for environmental model simulation, but also the potentials for in-situ model behavior adjustment via simulation steering.

  15. Pomegranate MR images analysis using ACM and FCM algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morad, Ghobad; Shamsi, Mousa; Sedaaghi, M. H.; Alsharif, M. R.

    2011-10-01

    Segmentation of an image plays an important role in image processing applications. In this paper segmentation of pomegranate magnetic resonance (MR) images has been explored. Pomegranate has healthy nutritional and medicinal properties for which the maturity indices and quality of internal tissues play an important role in the sorting process in which the admissible determination of features mentioned above cannot be easily achieved by human operator. Seeds and soft tissues are the main internal components of pomegranate. For research purposes, such as non-destructive investigation, in order to determine the ripening index and the percentage of seeds in growth period, segmentation of the internal structures should be performed as exactly as possible. In this paper, we present an automatic algorithm to segment the internal structure of pomegranate. Since its intensity of stem and calyx is close to the internal tissues, the stem and calyx pixels are usually labeled to the internal tissues by segmentation algorithm. To solve this problem, first, the fruit shape is extracted from its background using active contour model (ACM). Then stem and calyx are removed using morphological filters. Finally the image is segmented by fuzzy c-means (FCM). The experimental results represent an accuracy of 95.91% in the presence of stem and calyx, while the accuracy of segmentation increases to 97.53% when stem and calyx are first removed by morphological filters.

  16. Design and implementation of GaAs HBT circuits with ACME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchings, Brad L.; Carter, Tony M.

    1993-01-01

    GaAs HBT circuits offer high performance (5-20 GHz) and radiation hardness (500 Mrad) that is attractive for space applications. ACME is a CAD tool specifically developed for HBT circuits. ACME implements a novel physical schematic-capture design technique where designers simultaneously view the structure and physical organization of a circuit. ACME's design interface is similar to schematic capture; however, unlike conventional schematic capture, designers can directly control the physical placement of both function and interconnect at the schematic level. In addition, ACME provides design-time parasitic extraction, complex wire models, and extensions to Multi-Chip Modules (MCM's). A GaAs HBT gate-array and semi-custom circuits have been developed with ACME; several circuits have been fabricated and found to be fully functional .

  17. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Stuart J; Cowley,; Wendy E; Crow, Vernon L; Cramer, Nicholas O

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  18. Comparative study of numerical schemes of TVD3, UNO3-ACM and optimized compact scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Duck-Joo; Hwang, Chang-Jeon; Ko, Duck-Kon; Kim, Jae-Wook

    1995-01-01

    Three different schemes are employed to solve the benchmark problem. The first one is a conventional TVD-MUSCL (Monotone Upwind Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme. The second scheme is a UNO3-ACM (Uniformly Non-Oscillatory Artificial Compression Method) scheme. The third scheme is an optimized compact finite difference scheme modified by us: the 4th order Runge Kutta time stepping, the 4th order pentadiagonal compact spatial discretization with the maximum resolution characteristics. The problems of category 1 are solved by using the second (UNO3-ACM) and third (Optimized Compact) schemes. The problems of category 2 are solved by using the first (TVD3) and second (UNO3-ACM) schemes. The problem of category 5 is solved by using the first (TVD3) scheme. It can be concluded from the present calculations that the Optimized Compact scheme and the UN03-ACM show good resolutions for category 1 and category 2 respectively.

  19. Earth Science Keyword Stewardship: Access and Management through NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keyword Management System (KMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, T.; Olsen, L. M.; Ritz, S.; Morahan, M.; Aleman, A.; Cepero, L.; Gokey, C.; Holland, M.; Cordova, R.; Areu, S.; Cherry, T.; Tran-Ho, H.

    2012-12-01

    Discovering Earth science data can be complex if the catalog holding the data lacks structure. Controlled keyword vocabularies within metadata catalogues can improve data discovery. NASA's Global Change Master Directory's (GCMD) Keyword Management System (KMS) is a recently released a RESTful web service for managing and providing access to controlled keywords (science keywords, service keywords, platforms, instruments, providers, locations, projects, data resolution, etc.). The KMS introduces a completely new paradigm for the use and management of the keywords and allows access to these keywords as SKOS Concepts (RDF), OWL, standard XML, and CSV. A universally unique identifier (UUID) is automatically assigned to each keyword, which uniquely identifies each concept and its associated information. A component of the KMS is the keyword manager, an internal tool that allows GCMD science coordinators to manage concepts. This includes adding, modifying, and deleting broader, narrower, or related concepts and associated definitions. The controlled keyword vocabulary represents over 20 years of effort and collaboration with the Earth science community. The maintenance, stability, and ongoing vigilance in maintaining mutually exclusive and parallel keyword lists is important for a "normalized" search and discovery, and provides a unique advantage for the science community. Modifications and additions are made based on community suggestions and internal review. To help maintain keyword integrity, science keyword rules and procedures for modification of keywords were developed. This poster will highlight the use of the KMS as a beneficial service for the stewardship and access of the GCMD keywords. Users will learn how to access the KMS and utilize the keywords. Best practices for managing an extensive keyword hierarchy will also be discussed. Participants will learn the process for making keyword suggestions, which subsequently help in building a controlled keyword

  20. An Efficient Substring Search Method by Using Delayed Keyword Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Makoto; Ando, Kazuaki; Lee, Samuel Sangkon; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Aoe, Jun-ichi

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and extracting appropriate keywords from documents and proposes an effective substring search method by extending a pattern matching machine for multi-keywords called delayed keyword extraction (DKE). Also proposes a construction algorithm of the retrieval structure for speeding up the substring search.…

  1. CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through upregulating L-type calcium channel activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-09-01

    A specialized culture medium termed ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) allows investigators to assess the peripheral effects of CNTF-induced activated astrocytes upon cultured neurons. CNTF-ACM has been shown to upregulate neuronal L-type calcium channel current activity, which has been previously linked to changes in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons. Cortical neurons, CNTF-ACM, and untreated control astrocyte-conditioned medium (UC-ACM) were prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat cortical tissue. Neurons were cultured in either CNTF-ACM or UC-ACM for a 48-h period. Changes in the following parameters before and after treatment with the L-type calcium channel blocker isradipine were assessed: (i) intracellular calcium levels, (ii) mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), (iii) oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation, (iv) intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, (v) mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and (vi) susceptibility to the mitochondrial complex I toxin rotenone. CNTF-ACM neurons displayed the following significant changes relative to UC-ACM neurons: (i) increased intracellular calcium levels (p < 0.05), (ii) elevation in ΔΨm (p < 0.05), (iii) increased OCR and ATP formation (p < 0.05), (iv) increased intracellular NO levels (p < 0.05), (v) increased mitochondrial ROS production (p < 0.05), and (vi) increased susceptibility to rotenone (p < 0.05). Treatment with isradipine was able to partially rescue these negative effects of CNTF-ACM (p < 0.05). CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through elevating L-type calcium channel activity. PMID:27514537

  2. ACME algorithms for contact in a multiphysics environment API version 2.2.

    SciTech Connect

    Heinstein, Martin Wilhelm; Glass, Micheal W.; Gullerud, Arne S.; Brown, Kevin H.; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Jones, Reese E.

    2004-07-01

    An effort is underway at Sandia National Laboratories to develop a library of algorithms to search for potential interactions between surfaces represented by analytic and discretized topological entities. This effort is also developing algorithms to determine forces due to these interactions for transient dynamics applications. This document describes the Application Programming Interface (API) for the ACME (Algorithms for Contact in a Multiphysics Environment) library.

  3. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT, PHASE I - IMMEDIATE ASSESSMENT, ACME SOLVENTS SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a site assessment and feasibility study of incineration alternatives at the ACME Solvents Site at Rockford, Illinois. The document contains laboratory results that are reported to simulate incineration conditions but no details on test methods were provided. The d...

  4. An audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework for health communication campaigns.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-07-01

    Recent reviews of the literature have indicated that a number of health communication campaigns continue to fail to adhere to principles of effective campaign design. The lack of an integrated, organizing framework for the design, implementation, and evaluation of health communication campaigns may contribute to this state of affairs. The current article introduces an audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework that organizes the major principles of health campaign design, implementation, and evaluation. ACME also explicates the relationships and linkages between the varying principles. Insights from ACME include the following: The choice of audience segment(s) to focus on in a campaign affects all other campaign design choices, including message strategy and channel/component options. Although channel selection influences options for message design, choice of message design also influences channel options. Evaluation should not be thought of as a separate activity, but rather should be infused and integrated throughout the campaign design and implementation process, including formative, process, and outcome evaluation activities. Overall, health communication campaigns that adhere to this integrated set of principles of effective campaign design will have a greater chance of success than those using principles idiosyncratically. These design, implementation, and evaluation principles are embodied in the ACME framework. PMID:21441207

  5. Attribute-based proxy re-encryption with keyword search.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiqiang; Han, Zhen; Zheng, Qingji; Zhang, Rui; Qiu, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Keyword search on encrypted data allows one to issue the search token and conduct search operations on encrypted data while still preserving keyword privacy. In the present paper, we consider the keyword search problem further and introduce a novel notion called attribute-based proxy re-encryption with keyword search (ABRKS), which introduces a promising feature: In addition to supporting keyword search on encrypted data, it enables data owners to delegate the keyword search capability to some other data users complying with the specific access control policy. To be specific, ABRKS allows (i) the data owner to outsource his encrypted data to the cloud and then ask the cloud to conduct keyword search on outsourced encrypted data with the given search token, and (ii) the data owner to delegate other data users keyword search capability in the fine-grained access control manner through allowing the cloud to re-encrypted stored encrypted data with a re-encrypted data (embedding with some form of access control policy). We formalize the syntax and security definitions for ABRKS, and propose two concrete constructions for ABRKS: key-policy ABRKS and ciphertext-policy ABRKS. In the nutshell, our constructions can be treated as the integration of technologies in the fields of attribute-based cryptography and proxy re-encryption cryptography. PMID:25549257

  6. Attribute-Based Proxy Re-Encryption with Keyword Search

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiqiang; Han, Zhen; Zheng, Qingji; Zhang, Rui; Qiu, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Keyword search on encrypted data allows one to issue the search token and conduct search operations on encrypted data while still preserving keyword privacy. In the present paper, we consider the keyword search problem further and introduce a novel notion called attribute-based proxy re-encryption with keyword search (), which introduces a promising feature: In addition to supporting keyword search on encrypted data, it enables data owners to delegate the keyword search capability to some other data users complying with the specific access control policy. To be specific, allows (i) the data owner to outsource his encrypted data to the cloud and then ask the cloud to conduct keyword search on outsourced encrypted data with the given search token, and (ii) the data owner to delegate other data users keyword search capability in the fine-grained access control manner through allowing the cloud to re-encrypted stored encrypted data with a re-encrypted data (embedding with some form of access control policy). We formalize the syntax and security definitions for , and propose two concrete constructions for : key-policy and ciphertext-policy . In the nutshell, our constructions can be treated as the integration of technologies in the fields of attribute-based cryptography and proxy re-encryption cryptography. PMID:25549257

  7. XQSuggest: An Interactive XML Keyword Search System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Junhu

    Query suggestion is extensively used in web search engines to suggest relevant queries, which can help users better express their information needs. In this paper, we explore the application of query suggestion in xml keyword search and propose a novel interactive xml query system XQSuggest, which mainly targets non-professional users who roughly know the contents of the database. Our system extends conventional keyword search systems by instantly suggesting several understandable semantic strings after each keyword is typed in, so that the users can easily select their desired semantic string, which represents a specific meaning of the keyword, to replace the ambiguous keyword. We provide a novel algorithm to compute the final results. Experimental results are provided to verify the better effectiveness of our system.

  8. Boolean Burritos: How the Faculty Ate Up Keyword Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Sherry

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity that librarians can use to acquaint teachers with keyword searching and Boolean operators to more successfully use the library's online catalog. Uses food ingredients to represent various possible combinations. (LRW)

  9. Model Diagnostics for the Department of Energy's Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B.

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, eight Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, four academic institutions, one company, and the National Centre for Atmospheric Research combined forces in a project called Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) with the goal to speed Earth system model development for climate and energy. Over the planned 10-year span, the project will conduct simulations and modeling on DOE's most powerful high-performance computing systems at Oak Ridge, Argonne, and Lawrence Berkeley Leadership Compute Facilities. A key component of the ACME project is the development of an interactive test bed for the advanced Earth system model. Its execution infrastructure will accelerate model development and testing cycles. The ACME Workflow Group is leading the efforts to automate labor-intensive tasks, provide intelligent support for complex tasks and reduce duplication of effort through collaboration support. As part of this new workflow environment, we have created a diagnostic, metric, and intercomparison Python framework, called UVCMetrics, to aid in the testing-to-production execution of the ACME model. The framework exploits similarities among different diagnostics to compactly support diagnosis of new models. It presently focuses on atmosphere and land but is designed to support ocean and sea ice model components as well. This framework is built on top of the existing open-source software framework known as the Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT). Because of its flexible framework design, scientists and modelers now can generate thousands of possible diagnostic outputs. These diagnostics can compare model runs, compare model vs. observation, or simply verify a model is physically realistic. Additional diagnostics are easily integrated into the framework, and our users have already added several. Diagnostics can be generated, viewed, and manipulated from the UV-CDAT graphical user interface, Python command line scripts and programs

  10. Development of a taxonomy of keywords for engineering education research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finelli, Cynthia J.; Borrego, Maura; Rasoulifar, Golnoosh

    2016-05-01

    The diversity of engineering education research provides an opportunity for cross-fertilisation of ideas and creativity, but it also can result in fragmentation of the field and duplication of effort. One solution is to establish a standardised taxonomy of engineering education terms to map the field and communicate and connect research initiatives. This report describes the process for developing such a taxonomy, the EER Taxonomy. Although the taxonomy focuses on engineering education research in the United States, inclusive efforts have engaged 266 individuals from 149 cities in 30 countries during one multiday workshop, 7 conference sessions, and several other virtual and in-person activities. The resulting taxonomy comprises 455 terms arranged in 14 branches and 6 levels. This taxonomy was found to satisfy four criteria for validity and reliability: (1) keywords assigned to a set of abstracts were reproducible by multiple researchers, (2) the taxonomy comprised terms that could be selected as keywords to fully describe 243 articles in 3 journals, (3) the keywords for those 243 articles were evenly distributed across the branches of the taxonomy, and (4) the authors of 31 conference papers agreed with 90% of researcher-assigned keywords. This report also describes guidelines developed to help authors consistently assign keywords for their articles by encouraging them to choose terms from three categories: (1) context/focus/topic, (2) purpose/target/motivation, and (3) research approach.

  11. Biological Control of Pathogens Causing Root Rot Complex in Field Pea Using Clonostachys rosea Strain ACM941.

    PubMed

    Xue, Allen G

    2003-03-01

    ABSTRACT Pea root rot complex (PRRC), caused by Alternaria alternata, Aphanomyces euteiches, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi, F. solani f. sp. pisi, Mycosphaerella pinodes, Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a major yield-limiting factor for field pea production in Canada. A strain of Clonostachys rosea (syn. Gliocladium roseum), ACM941 (ATCC 74447), was identified as a mycoparasite against these pathogens. When grown near the pathogen, ACM941 often was stimulated to produce lateral branches that grew directly toward the pathogen mycelium, typically entwining around the pathogen mycelium. When applied to the seed, ACM941 propagated in the rhizosphere and colonized the seed coat, hypocotyl, and roots as the plant developed and grew. ACM941 significantly reduced the recovery of all fungal pathogens from infected seed, increased in vitro seed germination by 44% and seedling emergence by 22%, and reduced root rot severity by 76%. The effects were similar to those of thiram fungicide, which increased germination and emergence by 33 and 29%, respectively, and reduced root rot severity by 65%. When soil was inoculated with selected PRRC pathogens in a controlled environment, seed treatment with ACM941 significantly increased emergence by 26, 38, 28, 13, and 21% for F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi, F. solani f. sp. pisi, M. pinodes, R. solani, and S. sclerotiorum, respectively. Under field conditions from 1995 to 1997, ACM941 increased emergence by 17, 23, 22, 13, and 18% and yield by 15, 6, 28, 6, and 19% for the five respective pathogens. The seed treatment effects of ACM941 on these PRRC pathogens were greater or statistically equivalent to those achieved with thiram. Results of this study suggest that ACM941 is an effective bioagent in controlling PRRC and is an alternative to existing chemical products. PMID:18944343

  12. A Keyword Extraction Based Model for Web Advertisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ning; Wu, Jiaxin; Zhang, Shaolong

    In this paper, a keyword extraction based model is proposed to deal with web advertisement. In our model, we take web advertisement as an information retrieval problem. Web page and advertisement are firstly represented with a simple data structure which will be the source file for keyword extraction based on x 2-measure for single document. Later we get two vectors to make a retrieval process with a specific similarity function. This model is suitable for common cases of web advertisement. It supports the web page selection in view of advertisement as well as the advertisement selection for specific web page.

  13. Using the Keyword Mnemonics Method among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Alfredo; Camino, Estefania; Perez-Fabello, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of word image vividness on the immediate and long-term recall (one-day interval) of words using either the rote repetition learning method or the keyword mnemonics method in a sample of adults aged 55 to 70 years. Subjects learned a list of concrete and abstract words using either rote…

  14. Collocations of High Frequency Noun Keywords in Prescribed Science Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Sujatha; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the discourse of science through the study of collocational patterns of high frequency noun keywords in science textbooks used by upper secondary students in Malaysia. Research has shown that one of the areas of difficulty in science discourse concerns lexis, especially that of collocations. This paper describes a corpus-based…

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Acme Solvents, Morristown, Illinois, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-27

    The Acme Solvents Reclaiming, Inc. facility is located approximately five miles south of Rockford, Illinois. From 1960 until 1973, the facility served as a disposal site for paints, oils and still bottoms from the solvent reclamation plant located in Rockford. In addition, empty drums were stored onsite. Wastes were dumped into depressions created from either previous quarrying activities or by scraping overburden from the near surface bedrock to form berms. In September 1972, the Illinois Pollution Control Board (IPCB) ordered Acme to remove all drums and wastes from the facility and to backfill the lagoons. Follow-up inspections revealed that wastes and crushed drums were being left onsite and merely covered with soil. Sampling of the site revealed high concentrations of chlorinated organics in the drinking water. The major source of hazardous substances at the facility are the waste disposal mounds. These mounds contain volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds and concentrations of PCBs up to several hundred mg/kg. The selected remedial action is included.

  16. AIHA position statement on the removal of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) from buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The health risks associated with asbestos exposure for building occupants has been demonstrated to be very low. The decision to remove asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in undamaged, intact condition that are not readily accessible to occupants should be made only after assessing all other options. Both technical and financial issues should be fully explored by a team of trained specialists, including industrial hygienists, architects, and engineers. The optimal solution will vary from building to building, based on factors unique to each situation. One important consideration is the use of a well-designed air-monitoring program to identify changes in airborne levels of asbestos. Special training and maintenance programs are needed to ensure the safety and health of building and contract workers who may encounter asbestos or who may disturb it during routine or nonroutine activities. Each building owner who has ACM in a building should identify an in-house asbestos manager, and it is also necessary to provide appropriate resources, including professional consultants, to develop and manage a responsible and effective in-place management program throughout the life of a building containing asbestos.

  17. Keyword Search over Data Service Integration for Accurate Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemleris, Vidmantas; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Gwadera, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Virtual Data Integration provides a coherent interface for querying heterogeneous data sources (e.g., web services, proprietary systems) with minimum upfront effort. Still, this requires its users to learn a new query language and to get acquainted with data organization which may pose problems even to proficient users. We present a keyword search system, which proposes a ranked list of structured queries along with their explanations. It operates mainly on the metadata, such as the constraints on inputs accepted by services. It was developed as an integral part of the CMS data discovery service, and is currently available as open source.

  18. Keywords image retrieval in historical handwritten Arabic documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saabni, Raid; El-Sana, Jihad

    2013-01-01

    A system is presented for spotting and searching keywords in handwritten Arabic documents. A slightly modified dynamic time warping algorithm is used to measure similarities between words. Two sets of features are generated from the outer contour of the words/word-parts. The first set is based on the angles between nodes on the contour and the second set is based on the shape context features taken from the outer contour. To recognize a given word, the segmentation-free approach is partially adopted, i.e., continuous word parts are used as the basic alphabet, instead of individual characters or complete words. Additional strokes, such as dots and detached short segments, are classified and used in a postprocessing step to determine the final comparison decision. The search for a keyword is performed by the search for its word parts given in the correct order. The performance of the presented system was very encouraging in terms of efficiency and match rates. To evaluate the presented system its performance is compared to three different systems. Unfortunately, there are no publicly available standard datasets with ground truth for testing Arabic key word searching systems. Therefore, a private set of images partially taken from Juma'a Al-Majid Center in Dubai for evaluation is used, while using a slightly modified version of the IFN/ENIT database for training.

  19. Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS): A Demonstration of Autonomic Principles at Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldassari, James D.; Kopec, Christopher L.; Leshay, Eric S.; Truszkowski, Walt; Finkel, David

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications, while simultaneously affording the ability to. increase that capability simply by adding more (inexpensive) processors. However, the task of manually managing and con.guring a cluster quickly becomes impossible as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing is a relatively new approach to managing complex systems that can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Automatic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management.

  20. Sparse Polynomial Chaos Surrogate for ACME Land Model via Iterative Bayesian Compressive Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, K.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Safta, C.; Debusschere, B.; Najm, H. N.; Thornton, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    For computationally expensive climate models, Monte-Carlo approaches of exploring the input parameter space are often prohibitive due to slow convergence with respect to ensemble size. To alleviate this, we build inexpensive surrogates using uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods employing Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansions that approximate the input-output relationships using as few model evaluations as possible. However, when many uncertain input parameters are present, such UQ studies suffer from the curse of dimensionality. In particular, for 50-100 input parameters non-adaptive PC representations have infeasible numbers of basis terms. To this end, we develop and employ Weighted Iterative Bayesian Compressive Sensing to learn the most important input parameter relationships for efficient, sparse PC surrogate construction with posterior uncertainty quantified due to insufficient data. Besides drastic dimensionality reduction, the uncertain surrogate can efficiently replace the model in computationally intensive studies such as forward uncertainty propagation and variance-based sensitivity analysis, as well as design optimization and parameter estimation using observational data. We applied the surrogate construction and variance-based uncertainty decomposition to Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) Land Model for several output QoIs at nearly 100 FLUXNET sites covering multiple plant functional types and climates, varying 65 input parameters over broad ranges of possible values. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research, Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) project. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. AcmB Is an S-Layer-Associated β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase and Functional Autolysin in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brant R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autolysins, also known as peptidoglycan hydrolases, are enzymes that hydrolyze specific bonds within bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan during cell division and daughter cell separation. Within the genome of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, there are 11 genes encoding proteins with peptidoglycan hydrolase catalytic domains, 9 of which are predicted to be functional. Notably, 5 of the 9 putative autolysins in L. acidophilus NCFM are S-layer-associated proteins (SLAPs) noncovalently colocalized along with the surface (S)-layer at the cell surface. One of these SLAPs, AcmB, a β-N-acetylglucosaminidase encoded by the gene lba0176 (acmB), was selected for functional analysis. In silico analysis revealed that acmB orthologs are found exclusively in S-layer- forming species of Lactobacillus. Chromosomal deletion of acmB resulted in aberrant cell division, autolysis, and autoaggregation. Complementation of acmB in the ΔacmB mutant restored the wild-type phenotype, confirming the role of this SLAP in cell division. The absence of AcmB within the exoproteome had a pleiotropic effect on the extracellular proteins covalently and noncovalently bound to the peptidoglycan, which likely led to the observed decrease in the binding capacity of the ΔacmB strain for mucin and extracellular matrices fibronectin, laminin, and collagen in vitro. These data suggest a functional association between the S-layer and the multiple autolysins noncovalently colocalized at the cell surface of L. acidophilus NCFM and other S-layer-producing Lactobacillus species. IMPORTANCE Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of the most widely used probiotic microbes incorporated in many dairy foods and dietary supplements. This organism produces a surface (S)-layer, which is a self-assembling crystalline array found as the outermost layer of the cell wall. The S-layer, along with colocalized associated proteins, is an important mediator of probiotic activity through intestinal adhesion and modulation of

  2. Management of information for mission operations using automated keyword referencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Roger A.; Curran, Patrick S.

    1993-01-01

    Although millions of dollars have helped to improve the operability and technology of ground data systems for mission operations, almost all mission documentation remains bound in printed volumes. This form of documentation is difficult and timeconsuming to use, may be out-of-date, and is usually not cross-referenced with other related volumes of mission documentation. A more effective, automated method of mission information access is needed. A new method of information management for mission operations using automated keyword referencing is proposed. We expound on the justification for and the objectives of this concept. The results of a prototype tool for mission information access that uses a hypertextlike user interface and existing mission documentation are shared. Finally, the future directions and benefits of our proposed work are described.

  3. Segmentation of solid subregion of high grade gliomas in MRI images based on active contour model (ACM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seow, P.; Win, M. T.; Wong, J. H. D.; Abdullah, N. A.; Ramli, N.

    2016-03-01

    Gliomas are tumours arising from the interstitial tissue of the brain which are heterogeneous, infiltrative and possess ill-defined borders. Tumour subregions (e.g. solid enhancing part, edema and necrosis) are often used for tumour characterisation. Tumour demarcation into substructures facilitates glioma staging and provides essential information. Manual segmentation had several drawbacks that include laborious, time consuming, subjected to intra and inter-rater variability and hindered by diversity in the appearance of tumour tissues. In this work, active contour model (ACM) was used to segment the solid enhancing subregion of the tumour. 2D brain image acquisition data using 3T MRI fast spoiled gradient echo sequence in post gadolinium of four histologically proven high-grade glioma patients were obtained. Preprocessing of the images which includes subtraction and skull stripping were performed and then followed by ACM segmentation. The results of the automatic segmentation method were compared against the manual delineation of the tumour by a trainee radiologist. Both results were further validated by an experienced neuroradiologist and a brief quantitative evaluations (pixel area and difference ratio) were performed. Preliminary results of the clinical data showed the potential of ACM model in the application of fast and large scale tumour segmentation in medical imaging.

  4. A step beyond simple keyword searches: Services enabled by a full content digital journal archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccippio, D. J.

    2003-12-01

    The problems of managing and searching large archives of scientific journal articles can potentially be addressed through data mining and statistical techniques matured primarily for quantitative scientific data analysis. A journal paper could be represented by a multivariate descriptor, e.g., the occurrence counts of a number key technical terms or phrases (keywords), perhaps derived from a controlled vocabulary (e.g., the American Meteorological Society's Glossary of Meteorology) or bootstrapped from the journal archive itself. With this technique, conventional statistical classification tools can be leveraged to address challenges faced by both scientists and professional societies in knowledge management. For example, cluster analyses can be used to find bundles of "most-related" papers, and address the issue of journal bifurcation (when is a new journal necessary, and what topics should it encompass). Similarly, neural networks can be trained to predict the optimal journal (within a society's collection) in which a newly submitted paper should be published. Comparable techniques could enable very powerful end-user tools, all premised on the view of a paper as a data point in a multidimensional descriptor space, e.g.: "find papers most similar to the one I am reading", "build a personalized subscription service, based on the content of the papers I am interested in, rather than preselected keywords", "find suitable reviewers, based on the content of their own published works", etc. Such services may represent the next "quantum leap" beyond the rudimentary search interfaces currently provided to end-users, as well as a compelling value-added component needed to help bridge the print-to-digital-medium gap, and help stabilize professional societies' revenue stream during the print-to-digital transition.

  5. A Step Beyond Simple Keyword Searches: Services Enabled by a Full Content Digital Journal Archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    The problems of managing and searching large archives of scientific journal articles can potentially be addressed through data mining and statistical techniques matured primarily for quantitative scientific data analysis. A journal paper could be represented by a multivariate descriptor, e.g., the occurrence counts of a number key technical terms or phrases (keywords), perhaps derived from a controlled vocabulary ( e . g . , the American Meteorological Society's Glossary of Meteorology) or bootstrapped from the journal archive itself. With this technique, conventional statistical classification tools can be leveraged to address challenges faced by both scientists and professional societies in knowledge management. For example, cluster analyses can be used to find bundles of "most-related" papers, and address the issue of journal bifurcation (when is a new journal necessary, and what topics should it encompass). Similarly, neural networks can be trained to predict the optimal journal (within a society's collection) in which a newly submitted paper should be published. Comparable techniques could enable very powerful end-user tools for journal searches, all premised on the view of a paper as a data point in a multidimensional descriptor space, e.g.: "find papers most similar to the one I am reading", "build a personalized subscription service, based on the content of the papers I am interested in, rather than preselected keywords", "find suitable reviewers, based on the content of their own published works", etc. Such services may represent the next "quantum leap" beyond the rudimentary search interfaces currently provided to end-users, as well as a compelling value-added component needed to bridge the print-to-digital-medium gap, and help stabilize professional societies' revenue stream during the print-to-digital transition.

  6. Development and first application of an Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) for quasi online compound specific aerosol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohaus, Thorsten; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Trimborn, Dagmar; Jayne, John; Wahner, Andreas; Worsnop, Doug

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence climate and human health on regional and global scales (IPCC, 2007). In many environments organics are a major fraction of the aerosol influencing its properties. Due to the huge variety of organic compounds present in atmospheric aerosol current measurement techniques are far from providing a full speciation of organic aerosol (Hallquist et al., 2009). The development of new techniques for compound specific measurements with high time resolution is a timely issue in organic aerosol research. Here we present first laboratory characterisations of an aerosol collection module (ACM) which was developed to allow for the sampling and transfer of atmospheric PM1 aerosol. The system consists of an aerodynamic lens system focussing particles on a beam. This beam is directed to a 3.4 mm in diameter surface which is cooled to -30 °C with liquid nitrogen. After collection the aerosol sample can be evaporated from the surface by heating it to up to 270 °C. The sample is transferred through a 60cm long line with a carrier gas. In order to test the ACM for linearity and sensitivity we combined it with a GC-MS system. The tests were performed with octadecane aerosol. The octadecane mass as measured with the ACM-GC-MS was compared versus the mass as calculated from SMPS derived total volume. The data correlate well (R2 0.99, slope of linear fit 1.1) indicating 100 % collection efficiency. From 150 °C to 270 °C no effect of desorption temperature on transfer efficiency could be observed. The ACM-GC-MS system was proven to be linear over the mass range 2-100 ng and has a detection limit of ~ 2 ng. First experiments applying the ACM-GC-MS system were conducted at the Jülich Aerosol Chamber. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was formed from ozonolysis of 600 ppbv of b-pinene. The major oxidation product nopinone was detected in the aerosol and could be shown to decrease from 2 % of the total aerosol to 0.5 % of the aerosol over the 48 hours of

  7. A Novel Framework for Extracting Visual Feature-Based Keyword Relationships from an Image Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsurai, Marie; Ogawa, Takahiro; Haseyama, Miki

    In this paper, a novel framework for extracting visual feature-based keyword relationships from an image database is proposed. From the characteristic that a set of relevant keywords tends to have common visual features, the keyword relationships in a target image database are extracted by using the following two steps. First, the relationship between each keyword and its corresponding visual features is modeled by using a classifier. This step enables detection of visual features related to each keyword. In the second step, the keyword relationships are extracted from the obtained results. Specifically, in order to measure the relevance between two keywords, the proposed method removes visual features related to one keyword from training images and monitors the performance of the classifier obtained for the other keyword. This measurement is the biggest difference from other conventional methods that focus on only keyword co-occurrences or visual similarities. Results of experiments conducted using an image database showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Evolutionary features of academic articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence network: Based on two-mode affiliation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajiao; An, Haizhong; Wang, Yue; Huang, Jiachen; Gao, Xiangyun

    2016-05-01

    Keeping abreast of trends in the articles and rapidly grasping a body of article's key points and relationship from a holistic perspective is a new challenge in both literature research and text mining. As the important component, keywords can present the core idea of the academic article. Usually, articles on a single theme or area could share one or some same keywords, and we can analyze topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword networks and keywords co-occurrence networks to realize the in-depth analysis of the articles. This paper seeks to integrate statistics, text mining, complex networks and visualization to analyze all of the academic articles on one given theme, complex network(s). All 5944 "complex networks" articles that were published between 1990 and 2013 and are available on the Web of Science are extracted. Based on the two-mode affiliation network theory, a new frontier of complex networks, we constructed two different networks, one taking the articles as nodes, the co-keyword relationships as edges and the quantity of co-keywords as the weight to construct articles co-keyword network, and another taking the articles' keywords as nodes, the co-occurrence relationships as edges and the quantity of simultaneous co-occurrences as the weight to construct keyword co-occurrence network. An integrated method for analyzing the topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence networks is proposed, and we also defined a new function to measure the innovation coefficient of the articles in annual level. This paper provides a useful tool and process for successfully achieving in-depth analysis and rapid understanding of the trends and relationships of articles in a holistic perspective.

  9. Duration Model-Based Post-processing for the Performance Improvement of a Keyword Spotting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Ji; Yoon, Jae Sam; Oh, Yoo Rhee; Kim, Hong Kook; Choi, Song Ha; Kim, Ji Woon; Kim, Myeong Bo

    In this paper, we propose a post-processing method based on a duration model to improve the performance of a keyword spotting system. The proposed duration model-based post-processing method is performed after detecting a keyword. To detect the keyword, we first combine a keyword model, a non-keyword model, and a silence model. Using the information on the detected keyword, the proposed post-processing method is then applied to determine whether or not the correct keyword is detected. To this end, we generate the duration model using Gaussian distribution in order to accommodate different duration characteristics of each phoneme. Comparing the performance of the proposed method with those of conventional anti-keyword scoring methods, it is shown that the false acceptance and the false rejection rates are reduced.

  10. Effects of the Keyword Mnemonic Strategy on Vocabulary Acquisition and Maintenance by Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condus, Maria M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The efficacy of a keyword mnemonic strategy to teach word meanings was evaluated with 64, 12-year-old learning disabled poor readers. Subjects were instructed via either keyword-image, picture context, sentence-experience context, or control. Results indicated that the students in the keyword condition significantly outperformed other students…

  11. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Acme Solvent Reclaiming, Winnebago County, IL. (Second remedial action), December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The 20-acre Acme Solvent Reclaiming site is a former industrial disposal site in Winnebago County, Illinois. Land use in the area is mixed agricultural and residential. From 1960 to 1973, Acme Solvent Reclaiming disposed of paints, oils, and still bottoms onsite from its solvent reclamation plant. Wastes were dumped into depressions created from previous quarrying and landscaping operations, and empty drums also were stored onsite. State investigations in 1981 identified elevated levels of chlorinated organic compounds in ground water. A 1985 Record of Decision (ROD) provided for excavation and onsite incineration of 26,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil and sludge, supplying home carbon treatment units to affected residences, and further study of ground water and bedrock. During illegal removal actions taken by PRPs in 1986, 40,000 tons of soil and sludge were removed from the site. The selected remedial action for the site includes excavating and treating 6,000 tons of soil and sludge from two waste areas, using low-temperature thermal stripping; treating residuals using solidification, if necessary, followed by onsite or offsite disposal; treating the remaining contaminated soil and possibly bedrock using soil/bedrock vapor extraction; consolidating the remaining contaminated soil onsite with any treatment residuals, followed by capping; incinerating offsite 8,000 gallons of liquids and sludge from two remaining tanks, and disposing of the tanks offsite; providing an alternate water supply to residents with contaminated wells; pumping and onsite treatment of VOC-contaminated ground water.

  12. Memorability of commands learned as keywords or function keys: A parallel to voice recognition interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sorn, K.; Schultz, E.E. Jr.

    1987-09-15

    Voice recognition interfaces require users to input keywords to access and control functions. An experiment was conducted to compare user's memory for keywords relative to names of equivalent function keys. Thirty-five subjects attempted to learn word processing functions as keywords or in terms of the names of function keys which allowed access to and control of these functions. Keyword learning produced a significantly higher proportion of correct recalls and fewer intrusions (false recalls) after both an immediate retention test and an unexpected second test two weeks later. Superior keyword memorability is an important potential advantage of voice recognition interfaces.

  13. A 100-kV, 100-A/cm2 Electron Optical System for the EB-X3 X-Ray Mask Writer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kenichi; Kato, Junichi; Matsuda, Tadahito; Nakayama, Yoshinori

    2000-12-01

    In order to increase the throughput of the EB-X3 variably shaped electron beam writing system, a method of increasing the current density with a zoom lens was introduced into the electron optical system. The electron optical characteristics were measured at current densities of 50 and 100 A/cm2 under various zoom-lens conditions, and the results show that this method can increase the current density to 100 A/cm2 without any change in the major electron optical characteristics. At this current density, the patterning resolution was estimated to be 55 nm, and no melting of the first shaping aperture and no microdischarges in the 100-kV electron gun were observed. This confirms that the current density of the EB-X3 can in fact be extended to 100 A/cm2 for the fabrication of X-ray masks with a minimum feature size of 100 nm and below.

  14. Twelve-fold increase in the number of usable ThO molecules for the ACME electron electric dipole measurement through STIRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, C. D.; O'Leary, B. R.; Lasner, Z.; Petrik, E. S.; West, A. D.; Demille, D.; Doyle, J. M.; Gabrielse, G.

    2016-05-01

    The ACME Collaboration recently reported an order of magnitude improved limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM), setting more stringent constraints on many time reversal (T) violating extensions to the Standard Model. The experiment was performed using spin precession measurements in a molecular beam of thorium oxide. We report here on a new method of preparing the coherent spin superposition state that serves as the initial state of the spin precession measurement using STImulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP). We demonstrate a transfer efficiency of 75 % , giving a twelve-fold increase in signal. We discuss the particularities of implementing STIRAP in the ACME measurement and the methods we have used to overcome various challenges. This work was performed as part of the ACME Collaboration, to whom we are grateful for its contributions, and was supported by the NSF.

  15. CLIC-ACM: generic modular rad-hard data acquisition system based on CERN GBT versatile link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielawski, B.; Locci, F.; Magnoni, S.

    2015-01-01

    CLIC is a world-wide collaboration to study the next ``terascale'' lepton collider, relying upon a very innovative concept of two-beam-acceleration. This accelerator, currently under study, will be composed of the subsequence of 21000 two-beam-modules. Each module requires more than 300 analogue and digital signals which need to be acquired and controlled in a synchronous way. CLIC-ACM (Acquisition and Control Module) is the 'generic' control and acquisition module developed to accommodate the controls of all these signals for various sub-systems and related specification in term of data bandwidth, triggering and timing synchronization. This paper describes the system architecture with respect to its radiation-tolerance, power consumption and scalability.

  16. Epidemiologic research topics in Germany: a keyword network analysis of 2014 DGEpi conference presentations.

    PubMed

    Peter, Raphael Simon; Brehme, Torben; Völzke, Henry; Muche, Rainer; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Büchele, Gisela

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of epidemiologic research topics as well as trends is useful for scientific societies, researchers and funding agencies. In recent years researchers recognized the usefulness of keyword network analysis for visualizing and analyzing scientific research topics. Therefore, we applied keyword network analysis to present an overview of current epidemiologic research topics in Germany. Accepted submissions to the 9th annual congress of the German Society for Epidemiology (DGEpi) in 2014 were used as data source. Submitters had to choose one of 19 subject areas, and were ask to provide a title, structured abstract, names of authors along with their affiliations, and a list of freely selectable keywords. Keywords had been provided for 262 (82 %) submissions, 1030 keywords in total. Overall the most common keywords were: "migration" (18 times), "prevention" (15 times), followed by "children", "cohort study", "physical activity", and "secondary data analysis" (11 times each). Some keywords showed a certain concentration under one specific subject area, e.g. "migration" with 8 of 18 in social epidemiology or "breast cancer" with 4 of 7 in cancer epidemiology. While others like "physical activity" were equally distributed over multiple subject areas (cardiovascular & metabolic diseases, ageing, methods, paediatrics, prevention & health service research). This keyword network analysis demonstrated the high diversity of epidemiologic research topics with a large number of distinct keywords as presented at the annual conference of the DGEpi. PMID:26994764

  17. Annual evaporite deposition at the acme of the Messinian salinity crisis: evidence for solar-lunar climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzi, Vinicio; Gennari, Rocco; Lugli, Stefano; Roveri, Marco; Scafetta, Nicola; Schreiber, B. Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    We studied two evaporite successions (one halite and the other gypsum) consisting of annual varves in order to reconstruct the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions existing during the acme of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC; ≈5.5 Ma), when huge volumes of evaporites accumulated on the floor of the Mediterranean basin. The spectral analyses of these varved evaporitic successions reveal significant peaks in periodicity at around 3-5, 9, 11-13, 20-27 and 50-100 yr. The deposition of varved sedimentary deposits is usually controlled by climate conditions. A comparison with modern precipitation data in the western Mediterranean shows that during the acme of the MSC the climate was not in a permanent evaporitic stage, but in a dynamic state where evaporite deposition was controlled by quasi-periodic climate oscillations similar to modern analogs including Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation, and decadal to secular lunar- and solar-induced cycles. Particularly, we found a significant quasi-decadal oscillation with a prominent 9-year peak that is also common in modern temperature records and is present in both the contemporary Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. These cyclical patterns are common to both ancient and modern climate records because they can be associated with solar and solar-lunar tidal cycles. During the Messinian, the Mediterranean basin as well as the global ocean, were characterized by somewhat different continent distribution, ocean size, geography, hydrological connections, and ice-sheet volume with respect to the modern configuration. The recognition of modern-style climate oscillations during the Messinian, however, suggests that, although local geographic factors acted as pre-conditioning factors turning the Mediterranean Sea into a giant brine pool, external climate forcing, regulated by solar-lunar cycles and largely independent of those local geographic

  18. Extremely high current density over 1000 A/cm2 operation in M-GaN LEDs on bulk GaN substrates with low-efficiency droop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokogawa, Toshiya; Inoue, Akira

    2014-02-01

    A high current density over 1000 A/cm2 operation in small chip size m-plane GaN-LED has been successfully demonstrated. The LED with chip size 450 × 450 μm2 has emitted 1353 mW in light output power and 39.2% in external quantum efficiency (EQE) at 1000 A/cm2 (1134 mA). The m-plane GaN-LED has showed asymmetric radiation characteristics. The radiation patterns are controlled by the surface of LED package, the height of LED chip, and striped texture on top m-plane surface.

  19. Keyword Thesaurus. A List of Terms and Codes to Identify Areas of Interest for Research and Other Types of Sponsored Programs. Keyword Thesaurus Project Update for New Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, John A.

    This list of program types and keywords (with codes) was prepared for program officers at the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Institute of Education, and the National Science Foundation to use when preparing program announcements and requests for proposals. Staff persons responsible for screening such documents at colleges and…

  20. Classification Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Children, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The interview presents opinions of Nicholas Hobbs on the classification of exceptional children, including topics such as ecologically oriented classification systems, the role of parents, and need for revision of teacher preparation programs. (IM)

  1. Keyword/Boolean Searching on an Online Public Access Catalog: Patrons and Their Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Pat

    This report presents the results of a study which explored how patron perceptions and demographics related to keyword/Boolean searching on Indiana State University's (ISU) Library User Information System (LUIS), the online public access catalog (OPAC). Two general theses guide the study: (1) whether the use or non-use of keyword searching on LUIS…

  2. Mnemotechnics: Some Limitations of the Mnemonic Keyword Method for the Study of Foreign Language Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effectiveness of the mnemonic keyword method was examined in four experiments with college students learning lists of pairs of Spanish nouns and their English equivalents. Implications for the further study and application of the keyword method are discussed. (Author/GK)

  3. Quantitative analysis of the evolution of novelty in cinema through crowdsourced keywords.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Sameet

    2013-01-01

    The generation of novelty is central to any creative endeavor. Novelty generation and the relationship between novelty and individual hedonic value have long been subjects of study in social psychology. However, few studies have utilized large-scale datasets to quantitatively investigate these issues. Here we consider the domain of American cinema and explore these questions using a database of films spanning a 70 year period. We use crowdsourced keywords from the Internet Movie Database as a window into the contents of films, and prescribe novelty scores for each film based on occurrence probabilities of individual keywords and keyword-pairs. These scores provide revealing insights into the dynamics of novelty in cinema. We investigate how novelty influences the revenue generated by a film, and find a relationship that resembles the Wundt-Berlyne curve. We also study the statistics of keyword occurrence and the aggregate distribution of keywords over a 100 year period. PMID:24067890

  4. Quantitative analysis of the evolution of novelty in cinema through crowdsourced keywords

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Sameet

    2013-01-01

    The generation of novelty is central to any creative endeavor. Novelty generation and the relationship between novelty and individual hedonic value have long been subjects of study in social psychology. However, few studies have utilized large-scale datasets to quantitatively investigate these issues. Here we consider the domain of American cinema and explore these questions using a database of films spanning a 70 year period. We use crowdsourced keywords from the Internet Movie Database as a window into the contents of films, and prescribe novelty scores for each film based on occurrence probabilities of individual keywords and keyword-pairs. These scores provide revealing insights into the dynamics of novelty in cinema. We investigate how novelty influences the revenue generated by a film, and find a relationship that resembles the Wundt-Berlyne curve. We also study the statistics of keyword occurrence and the aggregate distribution of keywords over a 100 year period. PMID:24067890

  5. Proceeding of the ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (1st, Roanoke, Virginia, June 24-28, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY.

    Papers in this Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (Roanoke, Virginia, June 24-28, 2001) discuss: automatic genre analysis; text categorization; automated name authority control; automatic event generation; linked active content; designing e-books for legal research; metadata harvesting; mapping the…

  6. Generating keywords improves metacomprehension and self-regulation in elementary and middle school children.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Anique B H; Thiede, Keith W; Camp, Gino; Redford, Joshua

    2011-07-01

    The ability to monitor understanding of texts, usually referred to as metacomprehension accuracy, is typically quite poor in adult learners; however, recently interventions have been developed to improve accuracy. In two experiments, we evaluated whether generating delayed keywords prior to judging comprehension improved metacomprehension accuracy for children. For sixth and seventh graders, metacomprehension accuracy was greater when generating keywords. By contrast, for fourth graders, metacomprehension accuracy did not differ across conditions. Improved metacomprehension accuracy led to improved regulation of study. The delayed keyword effect in children reported here is discussed in terms of situation model activation. PMID:21397251

  7. Annual variation in Internet keyword searches: Linking dieting interest to obesity and negative health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Markey, Patrick M; Markey, Charlotte N

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the annual variation in Internet searches regarding dieting. Time-series analysis was first used to examine the annual trends of Google keyword searches during the past 7 years for topics related to dieting within the United States. The results indicated that keyword searches for dieting fit a consistent 12-month linear model, peaking in January (following New Year's Eve) and then linearly decreasing until surging again the following January. Additional state-level analyses revealed that the size of the December-January dieting-related keyword surge was predictive of both obesity and mortality rates due to diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. PMID:22992586

  8. On the modeling of a single-stage, entrained-flow gasifier using Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM)

    SciTech Connect

    Kasule, J.; Turton, R.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired gasifiers are the centerpiece of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. The gasifier produces synthesis gas that is subsequently converted into electricity through combustion in a gas turbine. Several mathematical models have been developed to study the physical and chemical processes taking place inside the gasifier. Such models range from simple one-dimensional (1D) steady-state models to sophisticated dynamic 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that incorporate turbulence effects in the reactor. The practical operation of the gasifier is dynamic in nature but most 1D and some higher-dimensional models are often steady state. On the other hand, many higher order CFD-based models are dynamic in nature, but are too computationally expensive to be used directly in operability and controllability dynamic studies. They are also difficult to incorporate in the framework of process simulation software such as Aspen Plus Dynamics. Thus lower-dimensional dynamic models are still useful in these types of studies. In the current study, a 1D dynamic model for a single-stage, downward-firing, entrained-flow GE-type gasifier is developed using Aspen Custom Modeler{reg_sign} (ACM), which is a commercial equation-based simulator for creating, editing, and re-using models of process units. The gasifier model is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances for the solid and gas phases. The physical and chemical reactions considered in the model are drying, devolatilization/pyrolysis, gasification, combustion, and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. The dynamic gasifier model is being developed for use in a plant-wide dynamic model of an IGCC power plant. For dynamic simulation, the resulting highly nonlinear system of partial differential algebraic equations (PDAE) is solved in ACM using the well-known Method of Lines (MoL) approach. The MoL discretizes the space domain and leaves the time domain continuous, thereby converting the PDAE to

  9. Where am I? Location archetype keyword extraction from urban mobility patterns.

    PubMed

    Kostakos, Vassilis; Juntunen, Tomi; Goncalves, Jorge; Hosio, Simo; Ojala, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Can online behaviour be used as a proxy for studying urban mobility? The increasing availability of digital mobility traces has provided new insights into collective human behaviour. Mobility datasets have been shown to be an accurate proxy for daily behaviour and social patterns, and behavioural data from Twitter has been used to predict real world phenomena such as cinema ticket sale volumes, stock prices, and disease outbreaks. In this paper we correlate city-scale urban traffic patterns with online search trends to uncover keywords describing the pedestrian traffic location. By analysing a 3-year mobility dataset we show that our approach, called Location Archetype Keyword Extraction (LAKE), is capable of uncovering semantically relevant keywords for describing a location. Our findings demonstrate an overarching relationship between online and offline collective behaviour, and allow for advancing analysis of community-level behaviour by using online search keywords as a practical behaviour proxy. PMID:23704964

  10. Efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search for EMRs in cloud storage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lifeng; Yau, Wei-Chuen

    2015-02-01

    Searchable encryption is an important cryptographic primitive that enables privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted electronic medical records (EMRs) in cloud storage. Efficiency of such searchable encryption in a medical cloud storage system is very crucial as it involves client platforms such as smartphones or tablets that only have constrained computing power and resources. In this paper, we propose an efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search (SCF-PEKS) scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. We show that our SCF-PEKS scheme is not only secure against chosen keyword and ciphertext attacks (IND-SCF-CKCA), but also secure against keyword guessing attacks (IND-KGA). Furthermore, our proposed scheme is more efficient than other recent SCF-PEKS schemes in the literature. PMID:25634700

  11. Where Am I? Location Archetype Keyword Extraction from Urban Mobility Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kostakos, Vassilis; Juntunen, Tomi; Goncalves, Jorge; Hosio, Simo; Ojala, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Can online behaviour be used as a proxy for studying urban mobility? The increasing availability of digital mobility traces has provided new insights into collective human behaviour. Mobility datasets have been shown to be an accurate proxy for daily behaviour and social patterns, and behavioural data from Twitter has been used to predict real world phenomena such as cinema ticket sale volumes, stock prices, and disease outbreaks. In this paper we correlate city-scale urban traffic patterns with online search trends to uncover keywords describing the pedestrian traffic location. By analysing a 3-year mobility dataset we show that our approach, called Location Archetype Keyword Extraction (LAKE), is capable of uncovering semantically relevant keywords for describing a location. Our findings demonstrate an overarching relationship between online and offline collective behaviour, and allow for advancing analysis of community-level behaviour by using online search keywords as a practical behaviour proxy. PMID:23704964

  12. Hydrologic effects of phreatophyte control, Acme-Artesia reach of the Pecos River, New Mexico, 1967-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welder, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation began a phreatophyte clearing and control program in the bottom land of the Acme-Artesia reach of the Pecos River in March 1967. The initial cutting of 19,000 acres of saltcedar trees, the dominant phreatophyte in the area, was completed in May 1969. Saltcedar regrowth continued each year until July 1975, when root plowing eradicated most of the regrowth. The major objective of the clearing and control program was to salvage water that could be put to beneficial use. Measurements of changes in the water table in the bottom land and changes in the base flow of the Pecos River were made in order to determine the hydrologic effects of the program. Some salvage of water was indicated, but it is not readily recognized as an increase in base flow. The quantity of salvage probably is less than the average annual base-flow gain of 19 ,110 acre-ft in the reach during 1967-82. (Author 's abstract)

  13. Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2003-11-10

    Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

  14. Assessment of Two Planetary Boundary Layer Schemes (ACM2 and YSU) within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J.; Harrold, M.; Xu, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is a highly configurable numerical weather prediction system used in both research and operational forecasting applications. Rigorously testing select configurations and evaluating the performance for specific applications is necessary due to the flexibility offered by the system. The Developmental Testbed Center (DTC) performed extensive testing and evaluation with the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamic core for two physics suite configurations with a goal of assessing the impact that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme had on the final forecast performance. The baseline configuration was run with the Air Force Weather Agency's physics suite, which includes the Yonsei University PBL scheme, while the second configuration was substituted with the Asymmetric Convective Model (ACM2) PBL scheme. This presentation will focus on assessing the forecast performance of the two configurations; both configurations were run over the same set of cases, allowing for a direct comparison of performance. The evaluation was performed over a 15 km CONUS domain for a testing period from September 2013 through August 2014. Simulations were initialized every 36 hours and run out to 48 hours; a 6-hour "warm start" spin-up, including data assimilation using the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation system preceded each simulation. The extensive testing period allows for robust results as well as the ability to investigate seasonal and regional differences between the two configurations. Results will focus on the evaluation of traditional verification metrics for surface and upper air variables, along with an assessment of statistical and practical significance.

  15. Prescriptions for ACME's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felch, William Campbell

    1991-01-01

    Five prescriptions for the future agenda of the Alliance for Continuing Medical Education are (1) a core curriculum; (2) informatics; (3) remedial continuing medical education (CME); (4) focus on the individual learner; and (5) practice-oriented CME. (SK)

  16. Endodontic classification.

    PubMed

    Morse, D R; Seltzer, S; Sinai, I; Biron, G

    1977-04-01

    Clinical and histopathologic findings are mixed in current endodontic classifications. A new system, based on symptomatology, may be more useful in clincial practice. The classifications are vital asymptomatic, hypersensitive dentin, inflamed-reversible, inflamed/dengenerating without area-irreversible, inflamed/degenerating with area-irreversible, necrotic without area, and necrotic with area. PMID:265327

  17. A computer program for creating keyword indexes to textual data files

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, David W.

    1972-01-01

    A keyword-in-context (KWIC) or out-of-context (KWOC) index is a convenient means of organizing information. This keyword index program can be used to create either KWIC or KWOC indexes of bibliographic references or other types of information punched on. cards, typed on optical scanner sheets, or retrieved from various Department of Interior data bases using the Generalized Information Processing System (GIPSY). The index consists of a 'bibliographic' section and a keyword-section based on the permutation of. document titles, project titles, environmental impact statement titles, maps, etc. or lists of descriptors. The program can also create a back-of-the-book index to documents from a list of descriptors. By providing the user with a wide range of input and output options, the program provides the researcher, manager, or librarian with a means of-maintaining a list and index to documents in. a small library, reprint collection, or office file.

  18. EasyKSORD: A Platform of Keyword Search Over Relational Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhaohui; Li, Jing; Wang, Shan

    Keyword Search Over Relational Databases (KSORD) enables casual users to use keyword queries (a set of keywords) to search relational databases just like searching the Web, without any knowledge of the database schema or any need of writing SQL queries. Based on our previous work, we design and implement a novel KSORD platform named EasyKSORD for users and system administrators to use and manage different KSORD systems in a novel and simple manner. EasyKSORD supports advanced queries, efficient data-graph-based search engines, multiform result presentations, and system logging and analysis. Through EasyKSORD, users can search relational databases easily and read search results conveniently, and system administrators can easily monitor and analyze the operations of KSORD and manage KSORD systems much better.

  19. WTP Calculation Sheet: Determining the LAW Glass Former Constituents and Amounts for G2 and Acm Models. 24590-LAW-M4C-LFP-00002, Rev. B

    SciTech Connect

    Gimpel, Rodney F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-12-16

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the LAW glass former recipe and additives with their respective amounts. The methodology and equations contained herein are to be used in the G2 and ACM models until better information is supplied by R&T efforts. This revision includes calculations that determines the mass and volume of the bulk chemicals/minerals needed per batch. Plus, it contains calculations (for the G2 model) to help prevent overflow in LAW Feed Preparation Vessel.

  20. Fostering Learners' Metacognitive Skills of Keyword Reformulation in Image Seeking by Location-Based Hierarchical Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ming-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Kinshuk; Wen, Dunwei

    2013-01-01

    It is critical that students learn how to retrieve useful information in hypermedia environments, a task that is often especially difficult when it comes to image retrieval, as little text feedback is given that allows them to reformulate keywords they need to use. This situation may make students feel disorientated while attempting image…

  1. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Munisamy, Shyamala Devi; Chokkalingam, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider's premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization. PMID:26380364

  2. The Fractal Patterns of Words in a Text: A Method for Automatic Keyword Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Elham; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2015-01-01

    A text can be considered as a one dimensional array of words. The locations of each word type in this array form a fractal pattern with certain fractal dimension. We observe that important words responsible for conveying the meaning of a text have dimensions considerably different from one, while the fractal dimensions of unimportant words are close to one. We introduce an index quantifying the importance of the words in a given text using their fractal dimensions and then ranking them according to their importance. This index measures the difference between the fractal pattern of a word in the original text relative to a shuffled version. Because the shuffled text is meaningless (i.e., words have no importance), the difference between the original and shuffled text can be used to ascertain degree of fractality. The degree of fractality may be used for automatic keyword detection. Words with the degree of fractality higher than a threshold value are assumed to be the retrieved keywords of the text. We measure the efficiency of our method for keywords extraction, making a comparison between our proposed method and two other well-known methods of automatic keyword extraction. PMID:26091207

  3. School Applications of the Mnemonic Keyword Method as a Study Strategy by Eighth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beau F.; Hall, James W.

    The keyword method, originally developed as an instructional technique in foreign language acquisition, was tested for its application in other school learning tasks and as a self-initiated study strategy. Two classes containing a total of 40 eighth grade students served as the experimental and control groups. The tasks were learning to pair…

  4. A Comparison of Keyword Subject Searching on Six British University OPACs Online Public Access Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aanonson, John

    1987-01-01

    Compares features of online public access catalogs (OPACs) at six British universities: (1) Cambridge; (2) Hull; (3) Newcastle; (4) Surrey; (5) Sussex; and (6) York. Results of keyword subject searches on two topics performed on each of the OPACs are reported and compared. Six references are listed. (MES)

  5. Models of Index Searching and Retrieval Effectiveness of Keyword-In-Context Indexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerkey, A. Neil

    1973-01-01

    The retrieval effectiveness of Keywork-In-Context (KWIC) indexing is sought using a simple search simulation which constrains the user to approach a KWIC index with subject keywords and references dictated by a conventional index. A comparison of several KWIC index studies, using various methodologies, shows retrievability ratios of 35 percent -…

  6. Using Mnemonic Keywords in General Music Classes: Music History Meets Cognitive Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Frederick J.; Brigham, Michele M.

    1998-01-01

    Sixth graders received music history instruction regarding musical periods and composers over two weeks. They were taught in alternating weeks using either interactive illustrations of mnemonic keywords or realistic line drawing portraits of the composers as recall aids. The mnemonic illustrations produced substantially higher scores on students'…

  7. Enriched Title-Based Keyword Index Generation Using dBase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, P. P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of a database management system (DBMS)--dBaseII--to create an enriched title-based keyword index for a collection of news items at the Renewable Energy Resources Information Center of the Asian Institute of Technology. The use of DBMSs in libraries in developing countries is emphasized. (Author/LRW)

  8. Effect of Reading Ability and Internet Experience on Keyword-Based Image Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Pei-Lan; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Image searches are now crucial for obtaining information, constructing knowledge, and building successful educational outcomes. We investigated how reading ability and Internet experience influence keyword-based image search behaviors and performance. We categorized 58 junior-high-school students into four groups of high/low reading ability and…

  9. Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM methods of text analysis, modeling, and relevance-ranking. QUORUM keyword search retrieves ASRS incident narratives that contain one or more user-specified keywords in typical or selected contexts, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the keywords in context. QUORUM phrase search retrieves narratives that contain one or more user-specified phrases, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the phrases. QUORUM phrase generation produces a list of phrases from the ASRS database that contain a user-specified word or phrase. QUORUM phrase discovery finds phrases that are related to topics of interest. Phrase generation and phrase discovery are particularly useful for finding query phrases for input to QUORUM phrase search. The presentation of the new QUORUM methods includes: a brief review of the underlying core QUORUM methods; an overview of the new methods; numerous, concrete examples of ASRS database searches using the new methods; discussion of related methods; and, in the appendices, detailed descriptions of the new methods.

  10. Successful Keyword Searching: Initiating Research on Popular Topics Using Electronic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Randall M.; MacDonald, Susan Priest

    Students are using electronic resources more than ever before to locate information for assignments. Without the proper search terms, results are incomplete, and students are frustrated. Using the keywords, key people, organizations, and Web sites provided in this book and compiled from the most commonly used databases, students will be able to…

  11. Generating Keywords Improves Metacomprehension and Self-Regulation in Elementary and Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Thiede, Keith W.; Camp, Gino; Redford, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The ability to monitor understanding of texts, usually referred to as metacomprehension accuracy, is typically quite poor in adult learners; however, recently interventions have been developed to improve accuracy. In two experiments, we evaluated whether generating delayed keywords prior to judging comprehension improved metacomprehension accuracy…

  12. Re-examining the "Limitations" of the Mnemonic Keyword Method. Working Paper No. 329.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; And Others

    A series of four experiments explored a discrepancy in the findings of research regarding the use of the keyword method for learning vocabulary, specifically whether the presentation method (paced vs. unpaced) or the treatment administration (subjects in groups vs. subjects as individuals) determines its effectiveness. Two experiments involved…

  13. Grapho-Phonemic Enrichment Strengthens Keyword Analogy Instruction for Struggling Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehri, Linnea C.; Satlow, Eric; Gaskins, Irene

    2009-01-01

    First, second, and third graders (N = 102) who had completed from 1 to 3 years of literacy instruction in other schools and had experienced failure entered a private school for struggling readers and received instruction in either of 2 types of systematic phonics programs over a 4-year period. One group received a keyword analogy method (KEY) that…

  14. Implementing Keyword and Question Generation Approaches in Teaching EFL Summary Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2012-01-01

    Summary writing has been considered an important aspect of academic writing. However, writing summaries can be a challenging task for the majority of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Research into teaching summary writing has focused on different processes to teach EFL learners. The present study adopted two methods--keyword and…

  15. The Use of Keywords for Delivering Immediate Performance Feedback on Teacher Competence Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coninx, Nele; Kreijns, Karel; Jochems, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that feedback that is specific, immediate and goal-oriented is effective on (pre-service) teachers' performance. Synchronous coaching gives this kind of feedback. Due to immediateness of feedback, pre-service teachers can suffer from cognitive load. We propose a set of standardised keywords through which this performance…

  16. The Keyword Method and Children's Vocabulary Learning: An Interaction with Vocabulary Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Julie E.; Levin, Joel R.

    A study explored a potential aptitude-by-treatment interaction associated with the keyword method of vocabulary acquisition. This method is a two-stage mnemonic process whereby an unfamiliar term is first transformed into a familiar concrete stimulus and then a thematic relationship is created between the transformed stimulus and the information…

  17. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud.

    PubMed

    Munisamy, Shyamala Devi; Chokkalingam, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider's premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization. PMID:26380364

  18. The Effect of Keyword Method on Vocabulary Retention of Senior High School EFL Learners in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoudi, Mohammad; Yousefi, Dina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of keyword method, as one of the mnemonic strategies, on vocabulary retention of Iranian senior high school EFL learners. Following a quasi-experimental design, the study used thirty eight (n = 38) female senior high school students in grade four from two intact classes at a public high school. The…

  19. The Mnemonic Keyword Method: Effects on the Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siriganjanavong, Vanlee

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to introduce the technique called "Mnemonic Keyword Method" ("MKM") to low proficiency English learners, and to explore the effectiveness of the method in terms of short-term and long-term retention. The sample was purposefully drawn from one intact class consisting of 44 students. They were…

  20. Interest in Anesthesia as Reflected by Keyword Searches using Common Search Engines

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renyu; García, Paul S.; Fleisher, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Since current general interest in anesthesia is unknown, we analyzed internet keyword searches to gauge general interest in anesthesia in comparison with surgery and pain. Methods The trend of keyword searches from 2004 to 2010 related to anesthesia and anaesthesia was investigated using Google Insights for Search. The trend of number of peer reviewed articles on anesthesia cited on PubMed and Medline from 2004 to 2010 was investigated. The average cost on advertising on anesthesia, surgery and pain was estimated using Google AdWords. Searching results in other common search engines were also analyzed. Correlation between year and relative number of searches was determined with p< 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results Searches for the keyword “anesthesia” or “anaesthesia” diminished since 2004 reflected by Google Insights for Search (p< 0.05). The search for “anesthesia side effects” is trending up over the same time period while the search for “anesthesia and safety” is trending down. The search phrase “before anesthesia” is searched more frequently than “preanesthesia” and the search for “before anesthesia” is trending up. Using “pain” as a keyword is steadily increasing over the years indicated. While different search engines may provide different total number of searching results (available posts), the ratios of searching results between some common keywords related to perioperative care are comparable, indicating similar trend. The peer reviewed manuscripts on “anesthesia” and the proportion of papers on “anesthesia and outcome” are trending up. Estimates for spending of advertising dollars are less for anesthesia-related terms when compared to that for pain or surgery due to relative smaller number of searching traffic. Conclusions General interest in anesthesia (anaesthesia) as measured by internet searches appears to be decreasing. Pain, preanesthesia evaluation, anesthesia and outcome and side

  1. Keyword Extraction from a Document using Word Co-occurrence Statistical Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Yutaka; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    We present a new keyword extraction algorithm that applies to a single document without using a large corpus. Frequent terms are extracted first, then a set of co-occurrence between each term and the frequent terms, i.e., occurrences in the same sentences, is generated. The distribution of co-occurrence shows the importance of a term in the document as follows. If the probability distribution of co-occurrence between term a and the frequent terms is biased to a particular subset of the frequent terms, then term a is likely to be a keyword. The degree of the biases of the distribution is measured by χ²-measure. We show our algorithm performs well for indexing technical papers.

  2. Using Keyword-Based Approaches to Adaptively Predict Interest in Museum Exhibits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnert, Fabian; Zukerman, Ingrid

    Advances in mobile computing and user modelling have enabled technologies that help museum visitors select personally interesting exhibits to view. This is done by generating personalised exhibit recommendations on the basis of non-intrusive observations of visitors' behaviour in the physical museum space. We describe a simple methodology for manually annotating museum exhibits with bags of keywords (viewed as item features), and present two personalised keyword-based models for predicting a visitor's viewing times of unseen exhibits from his/her viewing times at visited exhibits (viewing time is indicative of interest). Our models were evaluated with a real-world dataset of visitor pathways collected by tracking visitors in a museum. Both models achieve a higher predictive accuracy than a non-personalised baseline, and perform at least as well as a nearest-neighbour collaborative filter.

  3. Functional gene clustering via gene annotation sentences, MeSH and GO keywords from biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Jeyakumar; Ganapathy, Jawahar

    2007-01-01

    Gene function annotation remains a key challenge in modern biology. This is especially true for high-throughput techniques such as gene expression experiments. Vital information about genes is available electronically from biomedical literature in the form of full texts and abstracts. In addition, various publicly available databases (such as GenBank, Gene Ontology and Entrez) provide access to gene-related information at different levels of biological organization, granularity and data format. This information is being used to assess and interpret the results from high-throughput experiments. To improve keyword extraction for annotational clustering and other types of analyses, we have developed a novel text mining approach, which is based on keywords identified at the level of gene annotation sentences (in particular sentences characterizing biological function) instead of entire abstracts. Further, to improve the expressiveness and usefulness of gene annotation terms, we investigated the combination of sentence-level keywords with terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Gene Ontology (GO) resources. We find that sentence-level keywords combined with MeSH terms outperforms the typical ‘baseline’ set-up (term frequencies at the level of abstracts) by a significant margin, whereas the addition of GO terms improves matters only marginally. We validated our approach on the basis of a manually annotated corpus of 200 abstracts generated on the basis of 2 cancer categories and 10 genes per category. We applied the method in the context of three sets of differentially expressed genes obtained from pediatric brain tumor samples. This analysis suggests novel interpretations of discovered gene expression patterns. PMID:18305827

  4. Metadata Effectiveness in Internet Discovery: An Analysis of Digital Collection Metadata Elements and Internet Search Engine Keywords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Le

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed digital item metadata and keywords from Internet search engines to learn what metadata elements actually facilitate discovery of digital collections through Internet keyword searching and how significantly each metadata element affects the discovery of items in a digital repository. The study found that keywords from Internet…

  5. Form classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. V. Umamaheswara; Govindaraju, Venu

    2008-01-01

    The problem of form classification is to assign a single-page form image to one of a set of predefined form types or classes. We classify the form images using low level pixel density information from the binary images of the documents. In this paper, we solve the form classification problem with a classifier based on the k-means algorithm, supported by adaptive boosting. Our classification method is tested on the NIST scanned tax forms data bases (special forms databases 2 and 6) which include machine-typed and handwritten documents. Our method improves the performance over published results on the same databases, while still using a simple set of image features.

  6. Statistics of co-occurring keywords in confined text messages on Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathiesen, J.; Angheluta, L.; Jensen, M. H.

    2014-09-01

    Online social media such as the micro-blogging site Twitter has become a rich source of real-time data on online human behaviors. Here we analyze the occurrence and co-occurrence frequency of keywords in user posts on Twitter. From the occurrence rate of major international brand names, we provide examples of predictions of brand-user behaviors. From the co-occurrence rates, we further analyze the user-perceived relationships between international brand names and construct the corresponding relationship networks. In general the user activity on Twitter is highly intermittent and we show that the occurrence rate of brand names forms a highly correlated time signal.

  7. A User-Friendly, Keyword-Searchable Database of Geoscientific References Through 2007 for Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Sipeki, Julianna; Scofield, M.L. Sco

    2008-01-01

    This report includes a document and accompanying Microsoft Access 2003 database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. The reference compilation is part of a larger joint study of Afghanistan?s energy, mineral, and water resources, and geologic hazards currently underway by the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Geological Survey, and the Afghanistan Geological Survey. The database includes both published (n = 2,489) and unpublished (n = 176) references compiled through calendar year 2007. The references comprise two separate tables in the Access database. The reference database includes a user-friendly, keyword-searchable interface and only minimum knowledge of the use of Microsoft Access is required.

  8. Experimental determination of the partitioning coefficient and volatility of important BVOC oxidation products using the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) coupled to a PTR-ToF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G.; Hohaus, T.; Tillmann, R.; Schmitt, S. H.; Yu, Z.; Schlag, P.; Wegener, R.; Kaminski, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol can alter the Earth's radiative budget and global climate but can also affect human health. A dominant contributor to the submicrometer particulate matter (PM) is organic aerosol (OA). OA can be either directly emitted through e.g. combustion processes (primary OA) or formed through the oxidation of organic gases (secondary organic aerosol, SOA). A detailed understanding of SOA formation is of importance as it constitutes a major contribution to the total OA. The partitioning between the gas and particle phase as well as the volatility of individual components of SOA is yet poorly understood adding uncertainties and thus complicating climate modelling. In this work, a new experimental methodology was used for compound-specific analysis of organic aerosol. The Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) is a newly developed instrument that deploys an aerodynamic lens to separate the gas and particle phase of an aerosol. The particle phase is directed to a cooled sampling surface. After collection particles are thermally desorbed and transferred to a detector for further analysis. In the present work, the ACM was coupled to a Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) to detect and quantify organic compounds partitioning between the gas and particle phase. This experimental approach was used in a set of experiments at the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR to investigate SOA formation. Ozone oxidation with subsequent photochemical aging of β-pinene, limonene and real plant emissions from Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) were studied. Simultaneous measurement of the gas and particle phase using the ACM-PTR-ToF-MS allows to report partitioning coefficients of important BVOC oxidation products. Additionally, volatility trends and changes of the SOA with photochemical aging are investigated and compared for all systems studied.

  9. Spectral classification with the International Ultraviolet Explorer: An atlas of B-type spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rountree, Janet; Sonneborn, George

    1993-01-01

    New criteria for the spectral classification of B stars in the ultraviolet show that photospheric absorption lines in the 1200-1900A wavelength region can be used to classify the spectra of B-type dwarfs, subgiants, and giants on a 2-D system consistent with the optical MK system. This atlas illustrates a large number of such spectra at the scale used for classification. These spectra provide a dense matrix of standard stars, and also show the effects of rapid stellar rotation and stellar winds on the spectra and their classification. The observational material consists of high-dispersion spectra from the International Ultraviolet Explorer archives, resampled to a resolution of 0.25 A, uniformly normalized, and plotted at 10 A/cm. The atlas should be useful for the classification of other IUE high-dispersion spectra, especially for stars that have not been observed in the optical.

  10. Hybrid Ontology for Semantic Information Retrieval Model Using Keyword Matching Indexing System

    PubMed Central

    Uthayan, K. R.; Anandha Mala, G. S.

    2015-01-01

    Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology. PMID:25922851

  11. Hybrid ontology for semantic information retrieval model using keyword matching indexing system.

    PubMed

    Uthayan, K R; Mala, G S Anandha

    2015-01-01

    Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology. PMID:25922851

  12. Classifying Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novakowski, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the experience of a group of first-grade teachers as they tackled the science process of classification, a targeted learning objective for the first grade. While the two-year process was not easy and required teachers to teach in a new, more investigation-oriented way, the benefits were great. The project helped teachers and…

  13. Forecasting U.S. Home Foreclosures with an Index of Internet Keyword Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. Kent

    Finding data to feed into financial and risk management models can be challenging. Many analysts attribute a lack of data or quality information as a contributing factor to the worldwide financial crises that seems to have begun in the U.S. subprime mortgage market. In this paper, a new source of data, key word search statistics recently available from Google, are applied in a experiment to develop a short-term forecasting model for the number of foreclosures in the U.S. housing market. The keyword search data significantly improves forecast of foreclosures, suggesting that this data can be useful for financial risk management. More generally, the new data source shows promise for a variety of financial and market analyses.

  14. A Study of Practical Proxy Reencryption with a Keyword Search Scheme considering Cloud Storage Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Im-Yeong

    2014-01-01

    Data outsourcing services have emerged with the increasing use of digital information. They can be used to store data from various devices via networks that are easy to access. Unlike existing removable storage systems, storage outsourcing is available to many users because it has no storage limit and does not require a local storage medium. However, the reliability of storage outsourcing has become an important topic because many users employ it to store large volumes of data. To protect against unethical administrators and attackers, a variety of cryptography systems are used, such as searchable encryption and proxy reencryption. However, existing searchable encryption technology is inconvenient for use in storage outsourcing environments where users upload their data to be shared with others as necessary. In addition, some existing schemes are vulnerable to collusion attacks and have computing cost inefficiencies. In this paper, we analyze existing proxy re-encryption with keyword search. PMID:24693240

  15. MAC/GMC 4.0 User's Manual: Keywords Manual. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    This document is the second volume in the three volume set of User's Manuals for the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells Version 4.0 (MAC/GMC 4.0). Volume 1 is the Theory Manual, this document is the Keywords Manual, and Volume 3 is the Example Problem Manual. MAC/GMC 4.0 is a composite material and laminate analysis software program developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It is based on the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics theory, which provides access to the local stress and strain fields in the composite material. This access grants GMC the ability to accommodate arbitrary local models for inelastic material behavior and various types of damage and failure analysis. MAC/GMC 4.0 has been built around GMC to provide the theory with a user-friendly framework, along with a library of local inelastic, damage, and failure models. Further, applications of simulated thermo-mechanical loading, generation of output results, and selection of architectures to represent the composite material have been automated in MAC/GMC 4.0. Finally, classical lamination theory has been implemented within MAC/GMC 4.0 wherein GMC is used to model the composite material response of each ply. Consequently, the full range of GMC composite material capabilities is available for analysis of arbitrary laminate configurations as well. This volume describes the basic information required to use the MAC/GMC 4.0 software, including a 'Getting Started' section, and an in-depth description of each of the 22 keywords used in the input file to control the execution of the code.

  16. Click-words: learning to predict document keywords from a user perspective

    PubMed Central

    Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Lu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Recognizing words that are key to a document is important for ranking relevant scientific documents. Traditionally, important words in a document are either nominated subjectively by authors and indexers or selected objectively by some statistical measures. As an alternative, we propose to use documents' words popularity in user queries to identify click-words, a set of prominent words from the users' perspective. Although they often overlap, click-words differ significantly from other document keywords. Results: We developed a machine learning approach to learn the unique characteristics of click-words. Each word was represented by a set of features that included different types of information, such as semantic type, part of speech tag, term frequency–inverse document frequency (TF–IDF) weight and location in the abstract. We identified the most important features and evaluated our model using 6 months of PubMed click-through logs. Our results suggest that, in addition to carrying high TF–IDF weight, click-words tend to be biomedical entities, to exist in article titles, and to occur repeatedly in article abstracts. Given the abstract and title of a document, we are able to accurately predict the words likely to appear in user queries that lead to document clicks. Contact: luzh@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20810602

  17. Chemical evolution and the origin of life: cumulative keyword subject index 1970-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, A. C.; Powers, J. V.; Rummel, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    This cumulative subject index encompasses the subject indexes of the bibliographies on Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life that were first published in 1970 and have continued through publication of the 1986 bibliography supplement. Early bibliographies focused on experimental and theoretical material dealing directly with the concepts of chemical evolution and the origin of life, excluding the broader areas of exobiology, biological evolution, and geochemistry. In recent years, these broader subject areas have also been incorporated as they appear in literature searches relating to chemical evolution and the origin of life, although direct attempts have not been made to compile all of the citations in these broad areas. The keyword subject indexes have also undergone an analogous change in scope. Compilers of earlier bibliographies used the most specific term available in producing the subject index. Compilers of recent bibliographies have used a number of broad terms relating to the overall subject content of each citation and specific terms where appropriate. The subject indexes of these 17 bibliographies have, in general, been cumulatively compiled exactly as they originally appeared. However, some changes have been made in an attempt to correct errors, combine terms, and provide more meaningful terms.

  18. Enterococcus faecium biofilm formation: identification of major autolysin AtlAEfm, associated Acm surface localization, and AtlAEfm-independent extracellular DNA Release.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; Willems, Rob J L; Jansen, Pamela; Hendrickx, Antoni; Zhang, Xinglin; Bonten, Marc J M; Leavis, Helen L

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm-mediated infections in patients with medical devices. Insight into E. faecium biofilm pathogenesis is pivotal for the development of new strategies to prevent and treat these infections. In several bacteria, a major autolysin is essential for extracellular DNA (eDNA) release in the biofilm matrix, contributing to biofilm attachment and stability. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized the major autolysin of E. faecium E1162 by a bioinformatic genome screen followed by insertional gene disruption of six putative autolysin genes. Insertional inactivation of locus tag EfmE1162_2692 resulted in resistance to lysis, reduced eDNA release, deficient cell attachment, decreased biofilm, decreased cell wall hydrolysis, and significant chaining compared to that of the wild type. Therefore, locus tag EfmE1162_2692 was considered the major autolysin in E. faecium and renamed atlAEfm. In addition, AtlAEfm was implicated in cell surface exposure of Acm, a virulence factor in E. faecium, and thereby facilitates binding to collagen types I and IV. This is a novel feature of enterococcal autolysins not described previously. Furthermore, we identified (and localized) autolysin-independent DNA release in E. faecium that contributes to cell-cell interactions in the atlAEfm mutant and is important for cell separation. In conclusion, AtlAEfm is the major autolysin in E. faecium and contributes to biofilm stability and Acm localization, making AtlAEfm a promising target for treatment of E. faecium biofilm-mediated infections. IMPORTANCE Nosocomial infections caused by Enterococcus faecium have rapidly increased, and treatment options have become more limited. This is due not only to increasing resistance to antibiotics but also to biofilm-associated infections. DNA is released in biofilm matrix via cell lysis, caused by autolysin, and acts as a matrix stabilizer. In this study

  19. Selective invocation of shape priors for deformable segmentation and morphologic classification of prostate cancer tissue microarrays.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sahirzeeshan; Veltri, Robert; Epstein, Jonathan I; Christudass, Christhunesa; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-04-01

    Shape based active contours have emerged as a natural solution to overlap resolution. However, most of these shape-based methods are computationally expensive. There are instances in an image where no overlapping objects are present and applying these schemes results in significant computational overhead without any accompanying, additional benefit. In this paper we present a novel adaptive active contour scheme (AdACM) that combines boundary and region based energy terms with a shape prior in a multi level set formulation. To reduce the computational overhead, the shape prior term in the variational formulation is only invoked for those instances in the image where overlaps between objects are identified; these overlaps being identified via a contour concavity detection scheme. By not having to invoke all three terms (shape, boundary, region) for segmenting every object in the scene, the computational expense of the integrated active contour model is dramatically reduced, a particularly relevant consideration when multiple objects have to be segmented on very large histopathological images. The AdACM was employed for the task of segmenting nuclei on 80 prostate cancer tissue microarray images from 40 patient studies. Nuclear shape based, architectural and textural features extracted from these segmentations were extracted and found to able to discriminate different Gleason grade patterns with a classification accuracy of 86% via a quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) classifier. On average the AdACM model provided 60% savings in computational times compared to a non-optimized hybrid active contour model involving a shape prior. PMID:25466771

  20. Selective Invocation of Shape Priors for Deformable Segmentation and Morphologic Classification of Prostate Cancer Tissue Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Sahirzeeshan; Veltri, Robert; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Christudass, Christhunesa; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Shape based active contours have emerged as a natural solution to overlap resolution. However, most of these shape-based methods are computationally expensive. There are instances in an image where no overlapping objects are present and applying these schemes results in significant computational overhead without any accompanying, additional benefit. In this paper we present a novel adaptive active contour scheme (AdACM) that combines boundary and region based energy terms with a shape prior in a multi level set formulation. To reduce the computational overhead, the shape prior term in the variational formulation is only invoked for those instances in the image where overlaps between objects are identified; these overlaps being identified via a contour concavity detection scheme. By not having to invoke all 3 terms (shape, boundary, region) for segmenting every object in the scene, the computational expense of the integrated active contour model is dramatically reduced, a particularly relevant consideration when multiple objects have to be segmented on very large histopathological images. The AdACM was employed for the task of segmenting nuclei on 80 prostate cancer tissue microarray images from 40 patient studies. Nuclear shape based, architectural and textural features extracted from these segmentations were extracted and found to able to discriminate different Gleason grade patterns with a classification accuracy of 86% via a quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) classifier. On average the AdACM model provided 60% savings in computational times compared to a non-optimized hybrid active contour model involving a shape prior. PMID:25466771

  1. The Mnemonic Keyword Method: The Effects of Bidirectional Retrieval Training and of Ability to Image on Foreign Language Vocabulary Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyra, Mirella; Lawson, Michael J.; Hungi, Njora

    2007-01-01

    The mnemonic keyword method is an effective technique for vocabulary acquisition. This study examines the effects on recall of word-meaning pairs of (a) training in use of the keyword procedure at the time of retrieval; and (b) the influence of the self-rated ability to image. The performance of students trained in bidirectional retrieval using…

  2. Teaching a Large Russian Language Vocabulary by the Mnemonic Keyword Method. Psychology and Education Series, Technical Report No. 256.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raugh, Michael R.; And Others

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a mnemonic procedure, called the keyword method, for teaching a large Russian language vocabulary to college students. The method divides the study of a vocabulary item into two stages. The first stage requires the student to associate the spoken Russian word to an English word (the keyword) that sounds…

  3. Enterococcus faecium Biofilm Formation: Identification of Major Autolysin AtlAEfm, Associated Acm Surface Localization, and AtlAEfm-Independent Extracellular DNA Release

    PubMed Central

    Paganelli, Fernanda L.; Willems, Rob J. L.; Jansen, Pamela; Hendrickx, Antoni; Zhang, Xinglin; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Leavis, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterococcus faecium is an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm-mediated infections in patients with medical devices. Insight into E. faecium biofilm pathogenesis is pivotal for the development of new strategies to prevent and treat these infections. In several bacteria, a major autolysin is essential for extracellular DNA (eDNA) release in the biofilm matrix, contributing to biofilm attachment and stability. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized the major autolysin of E. faecium E1162 by a bioinformatic genome screen followed by insertional gene disruption of six putative autolysin genes. Insertional inactivation of locus tag EfmE1162_2692 resulted in resistance to lysis, reduced eDNA release, deficient cell attachment, decreased biofilm, decreased cell wall hydrolysis, and significant chaining compared to that of the wild type. Therefore, locus tag EfmE1162_2692 was considered the major autolysin in E. faecium and renamed atlAEfm. In addition, AtlAEfm was implicated in cell surface exposure of Acm, a virulence factor in E. faecium, and thereby facilitates binding to collagen types I and IV. This is a novel feature of enterococcal autolysins not described previously. Furthermore, we identified (and localized) autolysin-independent DNA release in E. faecium that contributes to cell-cell interactions in the atlAEfm mutant and is important for cell separation. In conclusion, AtlAEfm is the major autolysin in E. faecium and contributes to biofilm stability and Acm localization, making AtlAEfm a promising target for treatment of E. faecium biofilm-mediated infections. PMID:23592262

  4. Classification in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  5. Monitoring caustic injuries from emergency department databases using automatic keyword recognition software

    PubMed Central

    Vignally, P.; Fondi, G.; Taggi, F.; Pitidis, A.; National Injury Database and National Information System on Accidents in the Home Surveillance Groups

    2011-01-01

    Summary In Italy the European Union Injury Database reports the involvement of chemical products in 0.9% of home and leisure accidents. The Emergency Department registry on domestic accidents in Italy and the Poison Control Centres record that 90% of cases of exposure to toxic substances occur in the home. It is not rare for the effects of chemical agents to be observed in hospitals, with a high potential risk of damage - the rate of this cause of hospital admission is double the domestic injury average. The aim of this study was to monitor the effects of injuries caused by caustic agents in Italy using automatic free-text recognition in Emergency Department medical databases. We created a Stata software program to automatically identify caustic or corrosive injury cases using an agent-specific list of keywords. We focused attention on the procedure’s sensitivity and specificity. Ten hospitals in six regions of Italy participated in the study. The program identified 112 cases of injury by caustic or corrosive agents. Checking the cases by quality controls (based on manual reading of ED reports), we assessed 99 cases as true positive, i.e. 88.4% of the patients were automatically recognized by the software as being affected by caustic substances (99% CI: 80.6%- 96.2%), that is to say 0.59% (99% CI: 0.45%-0.76%) of the whole sample of home injuries, a value almost three times as high as that expected (p < 0.0001) from European codified information. False positives were 11.6% of the recognized cases (99% CI: 5.1%- 21.5%). Our automatic procedure for caustic agent identification proved to have excellent product recognition capacity with an acceptable level of excess sensitivity. Contrary to our a priori hypothesis, the automatic recognition system provided a level of identification of agents possessing caustic effects that was significantly much greater than was predictable on the basis of the values from current codifications reported in the European Database. PMID

  6. Classification and knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Automated procedures to classify objects are discussed. The classification problem is reviewed, and the relation of epistemology and classification is considered. The classification of stellar spectra and of resolved images of galaxies is addressed.

  7. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  8. The Effects of Visual Imagery and Keyword Cues on Third-Grade Readers' Memory, Comprehension, and Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, Heather Rogers

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that nearly 70% of high school students in the United States need some form of reading remediation, with the most common need being the ability to comprehend the content and significance of the text (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004). Research findings support the use of visual imagery and keyword cues as effective comprehension…

  9. Reading the World's Classics Critically: A Keyword-Based Approach to Literary Analysis in Foreign Language Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Nuria Alonso; Caplan, Alison

    2014-01-01

    While there are a number of important critical pedagogies being proposed in the field of foreign language study, more attention should be given to providing concrete examples of how to apply these ideas in the classroom. This article offers a new approach to the textual analysis of literary classics through the keyword-based methodology originally…

  10. The Effects of Keyword Cues and 3R Strategy on Children's e-Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, T.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have found that electronic books (e-books) promote learning, but few works have examined the use of e-books along with an adaptive reading strategy for children. The current study implemented a method to extract keyword cues from e-books to support e-book reading with the read, recite and review (3R) strategy, and then examined the…

  11. Digitizing Some Keywords.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanham, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Traces the early history of the electronic digital computer and the viewpoints held concerning the computer from its inception to its present status. Highlights three key words ("mimesis,""topic," and "decorum") to develop the rhetoricality of the personal computer as a communications device. (KEH)

  12. New Classification of Headache

    PubMed Central

    Gawel, Marek J.

    1992-01-01

    The Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society has developed a new classification system for headache, cranial neuralgia, and facial pain. The value of the classification for the practising clinician is that it forces him or her to take a more careful history in order to determine the nature of the headache. This article reviews the classification system and gives examples of case histories and subsequent diagnoses. PMID:21221276

  13. Classification of articulators.

    PubMed

    Rihani, A

    1980-03-01

    A simple classification in familiar terms with definite, clear characteristics can be adopted. This classification system is based on the number of records used and the adjustments necessary for the articulator to accept these records. The classification divides the articulators into nonadjustable, semiadjustable, and fully adjustable articulators (Table I). PMID:6928204

  14. Government Classification: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen M.

    Classification of government documents (confidential, secret, top secret) is a system used by the executive branch to, in part, protect national security and foreign policy interests. The systematic use of classification markings with precise definitions was established during World War I, and since 1936 major changes in classification have…

  15. Classification: Something to Think About.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Joan P.; Jacobs, Judith E.

    1981-01-01

    Advocates the use of classification activities in the elementary school curriculum as a means of developing thinking skills in children. Critical preclassification skills, classification activities (including simple and multiple classification), and classification tasks and materials are discussed. (Author/RH)

  16. Recursive heuristic classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, David C.

    1994-01-01

    The author will describe a new problem-solving approach called recursive heuristic classification, whereby a subproblem of heuristic classification is itself formulated and solved by heuristic classification. This allows the construction of more knowledge-intensive classification programs in a way that yields a clean organization. Further, standard knowledge acquisition and learning techniques for heuristic classification can be used to create, refine, and maintain the knowledge base associated with the recursively called classification expert system. The method of recursive heuristic classification was used in the Minerva blackboard shell for heuristic classification. Minerva recursively calls itself every problem-solving cycle to solve the important blackboard scheduler task, which involves assigning a desirability rating to alternative problem-solving actions. Knowing these ratings is critical to the use of an expert system as a component of a critiquing or apprenticeship tutoring system. One innovation of this research is a method called dynamic heuristic classification, which allows selection among dynamically generated classification categories instead of requiring them to be prenumerated.

  17. Security classification of information

    SciTech Connect

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  18. Keywords to Recruit Spanish- and English-Speaking Participants: Evidence From an Online Postpartum Depression Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, Alex R; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the advantages of Internet-based research is the ability to efficiently recruit large, diverse samples of international participants. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the behind-the-scenes process to setting up successful online recruitment tools. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the comparative impact of Spanish- and English-language keywords for a Google AdWords campaign to recruit pregnant women to an Internet intervention and to describe the characteristics of those who enrolled in the trial. Methods Spanish- and English-language Google AdWords campaigns were created to advertise and recruit pregnant women to a Web-based randomized controlled trial for the prevention of postpartum depression, the Mothers and Babies/Mamás y Bebés Internet Project. Search engine users who clicked on the ads in response to keyword queries (eg, pregnancy, depression and pregnancy) were directed to the fully automated study website. Data on the performance of keywords associated with each Google ad reflect Web user queries from February 2009 to June 2012. Demographic information, self-reported depression symptom scores, major depressive episode status, and Internet use data were collected from enrolled participants before randomization in the intervention study. Results The Google ads received high exposure (12,983,196 impressions) and interest (176,295 clicks) from a global sample of Web users; 6745 pregnant women consented to participate and 2575 completed enrollment in the intervention study. Keywords that were descriptive of pregnancy and distress or pregnancy and health resulted in higher consent and enrollment rates (ie, high-performing ads). In both languages, broad keywords (eg, pregnancy) had the highest exposure, more consented participants, and greatest cost per consent (up to US $25.77 per consent). The online ads recruited a predominantly Spanish-speaking sample from Latin America of Mestizo racial identity. The

  19. Classification images: A review.

    PubMed

    Murray, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    Classification images have recently become a widely used tool in visual psychophysics. Here, I review the development of classification image methods over the past fifteen years. I provide some historical background, describing how classification images and related methods grew out of established statistical and mathematical frameworks and became common tools for studying biological systems. I describe key developments in classification image methods: use of optimal weighted sums based on the linear observer model, formulation of classification images in terms of the generalized linear model, development of statistical tests, use of priors to reduce dimensionality, methods for experiments with more than two response alternatives, a variant using multiplicative noise, and related methods for examining nonlinearities in visual processing, including second-order Volterra kernels and principal component analysis. I conclude with a selective review of how classification image methods have led to substantive findings in three representative areas of vision research, namely, spatial vision, perceptual organization, and visual search. PMID:21536726

  20. Classification of Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Oudiz, Ronald J

    2016-08-01

    The classification of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an attempt to define subtypes of PH based on clinical presentation, underlying physiology, and treatment implications. Five groups of PH have been defined, and the classification scheme has been refined over the years to guide clinicians in the diagnosis and management of PH. Understanding the classification of PH is paramount before embarking on a work-up of patients with PH or suspected PH because treatment and outcome can vary greatly. PMID:27443133

  1. Classiology and soil classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    Classiology can be defined as a science studying the principles and rules of classification of objects of any nature. The development of the theory of classification and the particular methods for classifying objects are the main challenges of classiology; to a certain extent, they are close to the challenges of pattern recognition. The methodology of classiology integrates a wide range of methods and approaches: from expert judgment to formal logic, multivariate statistics, and informatics. Soil classification assumes generalization of available data and practical experience, formalization of our notions about soils, and their representation in the form of an information system. As an information system, soil classification is designed to predict the maximum number of a soil's properties from the position of this soil in the classification space. The existing soil classification systems do not completely satisfy the principles of classiology. The violation of logical basis, poor structuring, low integrity, and inadequate level of formalization make these systems verbal schemes rather than classification systems sensu stricto. The concept of classification as listing (enumeration) of objects makes it possible to introduce the notion of the information base of classification. For soil objects, this is the database of soil indices (properties) that might be applied for generating target-oriented soil classification system. Mathematical methods enlarge the prognostic capacity of classification systems; they can be applied to assess the quality of these systems and to recognize new soil objects to be included in the existing systems. The application of particular principles and rules of classiology for soil classification purposes is discussed in this paper.

  2. Classification of Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    How does a scientist approach the problem of trying to understand countless billions of objects? One of the first steps is to organize the data and set up a classification scheme which can provide the best insights into the nature of the objects. Perception and insight are the main purposes of classification. In astronomy, where there are `billions and billions' of stars, classification is an ong...

  3. [Nursing classification systems and their application in care: an integrative literature review].

    PubMed

    Furuya, Rejane Kiyomi; Nakamura, Flávia Regina Yoshida; Gastaldi, Andréia Bendine; Rossi, Lídia Aparecida

    2011-03-01

    This study sought for scientific evidences on the use of nursing classification systems in care through an integrative literature review. The following databases were used LILACS and PubMed. The keywords used were classification, nursing, standardized language, system. Thirty-eight articles were selected. Five major classification systems, implemented in the services, were found: nursing diagnosis (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International), nursing interventions (Nursing Interventions Classification), nursing outcomes (Nursing Outcomes Classification), the International Classificationfor Nursing Practice and the International Classificationfor NursingPractice in Colletive Health. The articles covered aspects related to implementation, assessment continuing education and validation of terms related to classification systems. The use of nursing classification systems provides benefits for care, improving it, the quality of information and service organization. PMID:21888218

  4. Classification of Itch.

    PubMed

    Ständer, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pruritus has diverse forms of presentation and can appear not only on normal skin [International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI) classification group II], but also in the company of dermatoses (IFSI classification group I). Scratching, a natural reflex, begins in response to itch. Enough damage can be done to the skin by scratching to cause changes in the primary clinical picture, often leading to a clinical picture predominated by the development of chronic scratch lesions (IFSI classification group III). An internationally recognized, standardized classification system was created by the IFSI to not only aid in clarifying terms and definitions, but also to harmonize the global nomenclature for itch. PMID:27578063

  5. Library Classification 2020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  6. Linear Classification Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.; Smith, Jerry D.

    Linear classification functions (LCFs) arise in a predictive discriminant analysis for the purpose of classifying experimental units into criterion groups. The relative contribution of the response variables to classification accuracy may be based on LCF-variable correlations for each group. It is proved that, if the raw response measures are…

  7. Improving classification of psychoses.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Stephen M; O'Donovan, Michael C; Saks, Elyn; Burns, Tom; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2016-04-01

    Psychosis has been recognised as an abnormal state in need of care throughout history and by diverse cultures. Present classifications of psychotic disorder remain based on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms, relative to affective and other symptoms, and their sequence and duration. Although extant diagnostic classifications have restricted validity, they have proven reliability and most clinicians and some patients find them useful. Moreover, these classifications have yet to be replaced by anything better. We propose that an expansion of the subgrouping approach inherent to classification will provide incremental improvement to present diagnostic constructs-as has worked in the rest of medicine. We also propose that subgroups could be created both within and across present diagnostic classifications, taking into consideration the potential value of continuous measures (eg, duration of psychotic symptoms and intelligence quotient). Health-care workers also need to work with service users and carers to develop and adapt approaches to diagnosis that are seen as helpful. PMID:27063387

  8. 2-Stage Classification Modeling

    1994-11-01

    CIRCUIT2.4 is used to design optimum two-stage classification configurations and operating conditions for energy conservation. It permits simulation of five basic grinding-classification circuits, including one single-stage and four two-stage classification arrangements. Hydrocyclones, spiral classifiers, and sieve band screens can be simulated, and the user may choose the combination of devices for the flowsheet simulation. In addition, the user may select from four classification modeling methods to achieve the goals of a simulation project using themore » most familiar concepts. Circuit performance is modeled based on classification parameters or equipment operating conditions. A modular approach was taken in designing the program, which allows future addition of other models with relatively minor changes.« less

  9. [Health Communication: Preventing the Spread of Ebola Virus Disease in the Portuguese Spoken African Countries--Methodology KISS & KEYWORDS].

    PubMed

    Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards. PMID:26061502

  10. ["Crisis"--oscillating between keyword and buzzword. On the discourse about a "crisis of medicine" in the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Geiger, Karin

    2010-01-01

    The buzzword "crisis" has not only become omnipresent since the recent financial crisis. The term that originated in Ancient Greece underwent several different usages--quantitatively as well as qualitatively; especially in the Weimar Republic, the time period that has long been considered as the crisis era par excellence. Using the discourse about the "crisis of medicine" in the 1920s and the early 1930s as an example, the article attempts to provide a critical reflection on the concept of "crisis". The focus of this article is on the idea's construction, the different semantic usages of "crisis" and the motives of the different authors for their respective rhetorical applications of this term. The analysis of the examined publications on the "crisis of medicine", how they influenced other periods and the reconstruction of their origin show that the semantics of the word "crisis" went far beyond a simply negative connotation, and with regard to its rhetorical usage have oscillated between keyword and a meaningless but catchy buzzword. PMID:21328922

  11. Classification of acoustic emission signals using wavelets and Random Forests : Application to localized corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morizet, N.; Godin, N.; Tang, J.; Maillet, E.; Fregonese, M.; Normand, B.

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to propose a novel approach to classify acoustic emission (AE) signals deriving from corrosion experiments, even if embedded into a noisy environment. To validate this new methodology, synthetic data are first used throughout an in-depth analysis, comparing Random Forests (RF) to the k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) algorithm. Moreover, a new evaluation tool called the alter-class matrix (ACM) is introduced to simulate different degrees of uncertainty on labeled data for supervised classification. Then, tests on real cases involving noise and crevice corrosion are conducted, by preprocessing the waveforms including wavelet denoising and extracting a rich set of features as input of the RF algorithm. To this end, a software called RF-CAM has been developed. Results show that this approach is very efficient on ground truth data and is also very promising on real data, especially for its reliability, performance and speed, which are serious criteria for the chemical industry.

  12. Telecommunication Support System Using Keywords and Their Relevant Information in Videoconferencing — Presentation Method for Keeping Audience's Concentration at Distance Lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Kikuo; Kondo, Kimio; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Saito, Fumihiko

    We developed a prototype system to support telecommunication by using keywords selected by the speaker in a videoconference. In the traditional presentation style, a speaker talks and uses audiovisual materials, and the audience at remote sites looks at these materials. Unfortunately, the audience often loses concentration and attention during the talk. To overcome this problem, we investigate a keyword presentation style, in which the speaker holds keyword cards that enable the audience to see additional information. Although keyword captions were originally intended for use in video materials for learning foreign languages, they can also be used to improve the quality of distance lectures in videoconferences. Our prototype system recognizes printed keywords in a video image at a server, and transfers the data to clients as multimedia functions such as language translation, three-dimensional (3D) model visualization, and audio reproduction. The additional information is collocated to the keyword cards in the display window, thus forming a spatial relationship between them. We conducted an experiment to investigate the properties of the keyword presentation style for an audience. The results suggest the potential of the keyword presentation style for improving the audience's concentration and attention in distance lectures by providing an environment that facilitates eye contact during videoconferencing.

  13. An Application of the Mnemonic Keyword Method to the Acquisition of a Russian Vocabulary. Psychology and Education Series, Technical Report No. 237.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Richard C.; Raugh, Michael R.

    An experiment is reported evaluating the effectiveness of a mnemonic procedure, called the keyword method, for learning a foreign language vocabulary. The method divides the study of a vocabulary item into two stages. The first stage requires S to associate the spoken foreign word to an English word (the keyword) that sounds like some part of the…

  14. Does Teaching Mnemonics for Vocabulary Learning Make a Difference? Putting the Keyword Method and the Word Part Technique to the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The present research tested the effectiveness of the word part technique in comparison with the keyword method and self-strategy learning. One hundred and twenty-one Chinese year-one university students were randomly assigned to one of the three learning conditions: word part, keyword or self-strategy learning condition. Half of the target words…

  15. Delaware Alternative Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the species designation and taxonomies of Delaware and Algonkian and presents eight classifications of taxa by form, habitat, color, movement, sound, use, relationship, and appearance. Relevant research is also reviewed. (CLK)

  16. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  17. [Considerations on the guilt feelings towards mother and maternal separation using the Japanese keywords "sumu-akirameru" and "sumanai"].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, K

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, I use the Japanese keywords "Sumanai" and "Sumu-Akirameru" to discuss the guilt feelings towards mother and maternal separation. "Sumanai" is an everyday Japanese expression signifying both a regretful apology and an obsessive compulsive feeling. The Japanese frequently say "Sumanai" to express their guilt feeling towards a dependent object. Clinical observation has shown me that "Sumanai" implies not only pathological guilt but also a more healthy contrite feeling, two sides of "Sumanai" which correspond to the persecutory guilt and depressive guilt described by L. Grinberg. In therapy, patients passing through the depressive position experience a kind of protective harmonious space. This experience of space associated with object loss is similar to potential space (D.W. Winnicott) or philobatism (M. Balint), and can be expressed by the Japanese term "Sumu-Akirameru". "Sumu" means clean, pure and "to take root". "Akirameru" means both "to abandon" and "to see calmly". "Sumanai" is the negative of "Sumu" and its pathological guilt feeling implies a sense of impurity. I have discovered close resemblances between "Sumu-Akirameru" and philobatism (M. Balint): 1) both are observed in the therapeutic depressive position; 2) both have an affinity for friendly expanses while simultaneously tending to avoid the external object; 3) both have a visual attribute and insight; 4) both have the special qualities of "submerging in" and "taking root", allowing patients to awaken their sense of self in this protective harmonious space; 5) both imply that the time is ripe for psychological change; 6) both involve a kind of complexity constituted of a regressive element and adaptability contrary to reality. As described above, "Sumu-Akirameru" as a psychotherapeutic phenomenon has many universal characteristics. On the other hand, there are several differences between "Sumu-Akirameru" and philobatism, differences deeply rooted in Japanese culture: 1) "Sumu

  18. SCOR: Structural classification of RNA, Version 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Makio; Hendrix, Donna K.; Klosterman, Peter

    2003-10-03

    SCOR (http://scor.lbl.gov), the Structural Classification of RNA, is a database designed to provide a comprehensive perspective and understanding of RNA motif three-dimensional structure, function, tertiary interactions, and their relationships. SCOR 2.0 represents a major expansion and introduces a wholly new classification system. The new version represents the classification as a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), which allows a classification node to have multiple parents, in contrast to the strictly hierarchical classification used in SCOR 1.2. SCOR 2.0 supports three types of query terms in the updated search engine: PDB or NDB identifier, nucleotide sequence, and keyword. We also provide parseable XML files for all information. This new release contains 511RNA entries from the PDB as of 15 May 2003. A total of 5,880 secondary structural elements are classified; 2,104 hairpin loops and 3,776 internal loops. RNA motifs reported in the literature, such as ''Kinkturn'' and ''GNRA loops,'' are now incorporated into the structural classification along with definitions and descriptions.

  19. Concepts of Classification and Taxonomy Phylogenetic Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraix-Burnet, D.

    2016-05-01

    Phylogenetic approaches to classification have been heavily developed in biology by bioinformaticians. But these techniques have applications in other fields, in particular in linguistics. Their main characteristics is to search for relationships between the objects or species in study, instead of grouping them by similarity. They are thus rather well suited for any kind of evolutionary objects. For nearly fifteen years, astrocladistics has explored the use of Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) for astronomical objects like galaxies or globular clusters. In this lesson we will learn how it works.

  20. d-Alanyl Ester Depletion of Teichoic Acids in Lactobacillus plantarum Results in a Major Modification of Lipoteichoic Acid Composition and Cell Wall Perforations at the Septum Mediated by the Acm2 Autolysin

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Emmanuelle; Deghorain, Marie; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Geyer, Armin; Hartung, Thomas; Morath, Siegfried; Hols, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The insertional inactivation of the dlt operon from Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB8826 had a strong impact on lipoteichoic acid (LTA) composition, resulting in a major reduction in d-alanyl ester content. Unexpectedly, mutant LTA showed high levels of glucosylation and were threefold longer than wild-type LTA. The dlt mutation resulted in a reduced growth rate and increased cell lysis during the exponential and stationary growth phases. Microscopy analysis revealed increased cell length, damaged dividing cells, and perforations of the envelope in the septal region. The observed defects in the separation process, cell envelope perforation, and autolysis of the dlt mutant could be partially attributed to the L. plantarum Acm2 peptidoglycan hydrolase. PMID:16672624

  1. Vertebral fracture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, Paola C.; Tankó, László B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-03-01

    A novel method for classification and quantification of vertebral fractures from X-ray images is presented. Using pairwise conditional shape models trained on a set of healthy spines, the most likely unfractured shape is estimated for each of the vertebrae in the image. The difference between the true shape and the reconstructed normal shape is an indicator for the shape abnormality. A statistical classification scheme with the two shapes as features is applied to detect, classify, and grade various types of deformities. In contrast with the current (semi-)quantitative grading strategies this method takes the full shape into account, it uses a patient-specific reference by combining population-based information on biological variation in vertebra shape and vertebra interrelations, and it provides a continuous measure of deformity. Good agreement with manual classification and grading is demonstrated on 204 lateral spine radiographs with in total 89 fractures.

  2. Commission 45: Spectral Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giridhar, Sunetra; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Eyer, Laurent; Irwin, Michael J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Majewski, Steven; Minniti, Dante; Nordström, Birgitta

    This report gives an update of developments (since the last General Assembly at Prague) in the areas that are of relevance to the commission. In addition to numerous papers, a new monograph entitled Stellar Spectral Classification with Richard Gray and Chris Corbally as leading authors will be published by Princeton University Press as part of their Princeton Series in Astrophysics in April 2009. This book is an up-to-date and encyclopedic review of stellar spectral classification across the H-R diagram, including the traditional MK system in the blue-violet, recent extensions into the ultraviolet and infrared, the newly defined L-type and T-type spectral classes, as well as spectral classification of carbon stars, S-type stars, white dwarfs, novae, supernovae and Wolf-Rayet stars.

  3. Classification images with uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Tjan, Bosco S.; Nandy, Anirvan S.

    2009-01-01

    Classification image and other similar noise-driven linear methods have found increasingly wider applications in revealing psychophysical receptive field structures or perceptual templates. These techniques are relatively easy to deploy, and the results are simple to interpret. However, being a linear technique, the utility of the classification-image method is believed to be limited. Uncertainty about the target stimuli on the part of an observer will result in a classification image that is the superposition of all possible templates for all the possible signals. In the context of a well-established uncertainty model, which pools the outputs of a large set of linear frontends with a max operator, we show analytically, in simulations, and with human experiments that the effect of intrinsic uncertainty can be limited or even eliminated by presenting a signal at a relatively high contrast in a classification-image experiment. We further argue that the subimages from different stimulus-response categories should not be combined, as is conventionally done. We show that when the signal contrast is high, the subimages from the error trials contain a clear high-contrast image that is negatively correlated with the perceptual template associated with the presented signal, relatively unaffected by uncertainty. The subimages also contain a “haze” that is of a much lower contrast and is positively correlated with the superposition of all the templates associated with the erroneous response. In the case of spatial uncertainty, we show that the spatial extent of the uncertainty can be estimated from the classification subimages. We link intrinsic uncertainty to invariance and suggest that this signal-clamped classification-image method will find general applications in uncovering the underlying representations of high-level neural and psychophysical mechanisms. PMID:16889477

  4. Trichromatic opponent color classification.

    PubMed

    Chichilnisky, E J; Wandell, B A

    1999-10-01

    Stimuli varying in intensity and chromaticity, presented on numerous backgrounds, were classified into red/green, blue/yellow and white/black opponent color categories. These measurements revealed the shapes of the boundaries that separate opponent colors in three-dimensional color space. Opponent color classification boundaries were generally not planar, but their shapes could be summarized by a piecewise linear model in which increment and decrement color signals are combined with different weights at two stages to produce opponent color sensations. The effect of background light on classification was largely explained by separate gain changes in increment and decrement cone signals. PMID:10615508

  5. Classification of syringomyelia.

    PubMed

    Milhorat, T H

    2000-01-01

    Syringomyelia poses special challenges for the clinician because of its complex symptomatology, uncertain pathogenesis, and multiple options of treatment. The purpose of this study was to classify intramedullary cavities according to their most salient pathological and clinical features. Pathological findings obtained in 175 individuals with tubular cavitations of the spinal cord were correlated with clinical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a database of 927 patients. A classification system was developed in which the morbid anatomy, cause, and pathogenesis of these lesions are emphasized. The use of a disease-based classification of syringomyelia facilitates diagnosis and the interpretation of MR imaging findings and provides a guide to treatment. PMID:16676921

  6. Soil Classification and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This instructional unit was designed to enable students, primarily at the secondary level, to (1) classify soils according to current capability classifications of the Soil Conservation Service, (2) select treatments needed for a given soil class according to current recommendations provided by the Soil Conservation Service, and (3) interpret a…

  7. The Biglan Classification Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoecker, Judith L.

    This study replicated previous research that tested the validity of A. Biglan's classification scheme, a theoretical framework for empirically examining the differences among academic disciplines and classifying them according to three dimensions (hard-soft, pure-applied, life-nonlife). In addition, new data were used to attempt continued…

  8. The Classification Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    Argues against the five-kingdom scheme of classification as using inconsistent criteria, ending up with divisions that are forced, not natural. Advocates an approach using cell type/complexity and modification of the metabolic machinery, recommending the five-kingdom scheme as starting point for class discussion on taxonomy and its conceptual…

  9. Homographs: Classification and Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacak, M.; Henisz, Bozena

    1968-01-01

    Homographs are defined in this study as sets of word forms which are spelled alike but which have entirely or partially different meanings and which may have different syntactic functions (that is, they belong to more than one form class or to more than one subclass of a form class). This report deals with the classification and identification of…

  10. Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

  11. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  12. Revisiting Classification and Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Barbara K.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses issues of classification and identification, while evaluating some of the continuing controversies about learning disabilities (LD) related to those topics. The author suggests that many problems have to do with confusion between the two. Despite years of effort and an extraordinary increase in the number of individuals…

  13. Shark Teeth Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Creel, Sally; Lee, Velda

    2009-01-01

    On a recent autumn afternoon at Harmony Leland Elementary in Mableton, Georgia, students in a fifth-grade science class investigated the essential process of classification--the act of putting things into groups according to some common characteristics or attributes. While they may have honed these skills earlier in the week by grouping their own…

  14. [Classification of primary bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Dominok, G W; Frege, J

    1986-01-01

    An expanded classification for bone tumors is presented based on the well known international classification as well as earlier systems. The current status and future trends in this area are discussed. PMID:3461626

  15. ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION ISSUES AND RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purposes and need for ecological classification will be discussed. Some brief examples will highlight regional and watershed approaches, general issues of extrapolation and classification helpful to monitoring/assessment design for larger aquatic systems, and some specific concep...

  16. Efficient Fingercode Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong-Wei; Law, Kwok-Yan; Gollmann, Dieter; Chung, Siu-Leung; Li, Jian-Bin; Sun, Jia-Guang

    In this paper, we present an efficient fingerprint classification algorithm which is an essential component in many critical security application systems e. g. systems in the e-government and e-finance domains. Fingerprint identification is one of the most important security requirements in homeland security systems such as personnel screening and anti-money laundering. The problem of fingerprint identification involves searching (matching) the fingerprint of a person against each of the fingerprints of all registered persons. To enhance performance and reliability, a common approach is to reduce the search space by firstly classifying the fingerprints and then performing the search in the respective class. Jain et al. proposed a fingerprint classification algorithm based on a two-stage classifier, which uses a K-nearest neighbor classifier in its first stage. The fingerprint classification algorithm is based on the fingercode representation which is an encoding of fingerprints that has been demonstrated to be an effective fingerprint biometric scheme because of its ability to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint image. We enhance this approach by improving the efficiency of the K-nearest neighbor classifier for fingercode-based fingerprint classification. Our research firstly investigates the various fast search algorithms in vector quantization (VQ) and the potential application in fingerprint classification, and then proposes two efficient algorithms based on the pyramid-based search algorithms in VQ. Experimental results on DB1 of FVC 2004 demonstrate that our algorithms can outperform the full search algorithm and the original pyramid-based search algorithms in terms of computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy.

  17. PSE: A tool for browsing a large amount of MEDLINE/PubMed abstracts with gene names and common words as the keywords

    PubMed Central

    Yoneya, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Background MEDLINE/PubMed (hereinafter called PubMed) is one of the most important literature databases for the biological and medical sciences, but it is impossible to read all related records due to the sheer size of the repository. We usually have to repeatedly enter keywords in a trial-and-error manner to extract useful records. Software which can reduce such a laborious task is therefore required. Results We developed a web-based software, the PubMed Sentence Extractor (PSE), which parses large number of PubMed abstracts, extracts and displays the co-occurrence sentences of gene names and other keywords, and some information from EntrezGene records. The result links to whole abstracts and other resources such as the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Men and Reference Sequence. While PSE executes at the sentence-level when evaluating the existence of keywords, the popular PubMed operates at the record-level. Therefore, the relationship between the two keywords, a gene name and a common word, is more accurately captured by PSE than PubMed. In addition, PSE shows the list of keywords and considers the synonyms and variations on gene names. Through these functions, PSE would reduce the task of searching through records for gene information. Conclusion We developed PSE in order to extract useful records efficiently from PubMed. This system has four advantages over a simple PubMed search; the reduction in the amount of collected literatures, the showing of keyword lists, the consideration for synonyms and variations on gene names, and the links to external databases. We believe PSE is helpful in collecting necessary literatures efficiently in order to find research targets. PSE is freely available under the GPL licence as additional files to this manuscript. PMID:16336692

  18. Automated Defect Classification (ADC)

    1998-01-01

    The ADC Software System is designed to provide semiconductor defect feature analysis and defect classification capabilities. Defect classification is an important software method used by semiconductor wafer manufacturers to automate the analysis of defect data collected by a wide range of microscopy techniques in semiconductor wafer manufacturing today. These microscopies (e.g., optical bright and dark field, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, etc.) generate images of anomalies that are induced or otherwise appear on wafermore » surfaces as a result of errant manufacturing processes or simple atmospheric contamination (e.g., airborne particles). This software provides methods for analyzing these images, extracting statistical features from the anomalous regions, and applying supervised classifiers to label the anomalies into user-defined categories.« less

  19. Tree Classification Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

  20. Granular loess classification based

    SciTech Connect

    Browzin, B.S.

    1985-05-01

    This paper discusses how loess might be identified by two index properties: the granulometric composition and the dry unit weight. These two indices are necessary but not always sufficient for identification of loess. On the basis of analyses of samples from three continents, it was concluded that the 0.01-0.5-mm fraction deserves the name loessial fraction. Based on the loessial fraction concept, a granulometric classification of loess is proposed. A triangular chart is used to classify loess.

  1. The Effectiveness of Keyword-Based Instruction in Enhancing English Vocabulary Achievement and Retention of Intermediate Stage Pupils with Different Working Memory Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zahrani, Mona Abdullah Bakheet

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of keyword-based instruction in enhancing English vocabulary achievement and retention of intermediate stage pupils with different working memory capacities. The study adopted a quasi experimental design employing two groups (experimental and control). The design included an independent…

  2. Histologic classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arie; Wesseling, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and are traditionally classified based on histologic type and malignancy grade. Most gliomas, the diffuse gliomas, show extensive infiltration in the CNS parenchyma. Diffuse gliomas can be further typed as astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or rare mixed oligodendroglial-astrocytic of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), III (anaplastic), or IV (glioblastoma). Other gliomas generally have a more circumscribed growth pattern, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I) and ependymal tumors (WHO grade I, II, or III) as the most frequent representatives. This chapter provides an overview of the histology of all glial neoplasms listed in the WHO 2016 classification, including the less frequent "nondiffuse" gliomas and mixed neuronal-glial tumors. For multiple decades the histologic diagnosis of these tumors formed a useful basis for assessment of prognosis and therapeutic management. However, it is now fully clear that information on the molecular underpinnings often allows for a more robust classification of (glial) neoplasms. Indeed, in the WHO 2016 classification, histologic and molecular findings are integrated in the definition of several gliomas. As such, this chapter and Chapter 6 are highly interrelated and neither should be considered in isolation. PMID:26948349

  3. Classification of mental disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, E.

    1959-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in devising a classification of mental disorders is the lack of agreement among psychiatrists regarding the concepts upon which it should be based: diagnoses can rarely be verified objectively and the same or similar conditions are described under a confusing variety of names. This situation militates against the ready exchange of ideas and experiences and hampers progress. As a first step towards remedying this state of affairs, the author of the article below has undertaken a critical survey of existing classifications. He shows how some of the difficulties created by lack of knowledge regarding pathology and etiology may be overcome by the use of “operational definitions” and outlines the basic principles on which he believes a generally acceptable international classification might be constructed. If this can be done it should lead to a greater measure of agreement regarding the value of specific treatments for mental disorders and greatly facilitate a broad epidemiological approach to psychiatric research. PMID:13834299

  4. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  5. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  6. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  7. Survey of Keyword Adjustment of Published Articles Medical Subject Headings in Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (2009-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Kabirzadeh, Azar; Abadi, Ebrahim Bagherian Farah; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Introduction Keywords are the most important tools for Information retrieval. They are usually used for retrieval of articles based on contents of information reserved from printed and electronic resources. Retrieval of appropriate keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can impact with exact, correctness and short time on information retrieval. Regarding the above mentioned matters, this study was done to compare the Latin keywords was in the articles published in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Method This is a descriptive study. The data were extracted from the key words of Englsih abstracts of articles published in the years 2009–2010 in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences by census method. Checklist of data collection is designed, based on research objectives and literature review which has face validity. Compliance rate in this study was to determine if the keywords cited in this article as a full subject of the main subject headings in a MeSH (Bold and the selected word) is a perfect adjustment. If keywords were cited in the article but the main heading is not discussed in the following main topics to be discussed with reference to See and See related it has considered has partial adjustment. Results Out of 148 articles published in 12 issues in proposed time of studying, 72 research papers were analyzed. The average numbers of authors in each article were 4 ± 1. Results showed that most of specialty papers 42 (58. 4%), belonging to the (Department of Clinical Sciences) School of Medicine, 11 (15.3%) Basic Science, 6(8.4%) Pharmacy, Nursing and Midwifery 5(6.9%), 4(5.5%) Health, paramedical Sciences 3(4.2%), and non medical article 1(1.3%) school of medicine. In general, results showed that 80 (30%) of key words have been used to complete the adjustment. Also, only 1(1.4%) had complete adjustment with all the MeSH key words and in 8 articles(11.4%) key words of had no

  8. On the Classification of Psychology in General Library Classification Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudek, Miluse

    1980-01-01

    Holds that traditional library classification systems are inadequate to handle psychological literature, and advocates the establishment of new theoretical approaches to bibliographic organization. (FM)

  9. Remote Sensing Classification Uncertainty: Validating Probabilistic Pixel Level Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrettas, Michail; Cornford, Dan; Bastin, Lucy; Pons, Xavier; Sevillano, Eva; Moré, Gerard; Serra, Pere; Ninyerola, Miquel

    2013-04-01

    There already exists an extensive literature on classification of remotely sensed imagery, and indeed classification more widely, that considers a wide range of probabilistic and non-probabilistic classification methodologies. Although for many probabilistic classification methodologies posterior class probabilities are produced per pixel (observation) these are often not communicated at the pixel level, and typically not validated at the pixel level. Most often the probabilistic classification in converted into a hard classification (of the most probable class) and the accuracy of the resulting classification is reported in terms of a global confusion matrix, or some score derived from this. For applications where classification accuracy is spatially variable and where pixel level estimates of uncertainty can be meaningfully exploited in workflows that propagate uncertainty validating and communicating the pixel level uncertainty opens opportunities for more refined and accountable modelling. In this work we describe our recent work applying and validation of a range of probabilistic classifiers. Using a multi-temporal Landsat data set of the Ebro Delta in Catalonia, which has been carefully radiometrically and geometrically corrected, we present a range of Bayesian classifiers from simple Bayesian linear discriminant analysis to a complex variational Gaussian process based classifier. Field study derived labelled data, classified into 8 classes, which primarily consider land use and the degree of flooding in what is a rice growing region, are used to train the pixel level classifiers. Our focus is not so much on the classification accuracy, but rather the validation of the probabilistic classification made by all methods. We present a range of validation plots and scores, many of which are used for probabilistic weather forecast verification, but are new to remote sensing classification including of course the standard measures of misclassification, but also

  10. Interactive Classification Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBessonet, Cary

    2000-01-01

    The investigators upgraded a knowledge representation language called SL (Symbolic Language) and an automated reasoning system called SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) to enable the more effective use of the technologies in automated reasoning and interactive classification systems. The overall goals of the project were: 1) the enhancement of the representation language SL to accommodate a wider range of meaning; 2) the development of a default inference scheme to operate over SL notation as it is encoded; and 3) the development of an interpreter for SL that would handle representations of some basic cognitive acts and perspectives.

  11. Learning classification trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

  12. Evaluating LANDSAT wildland classification accuracies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures to evaluate the accuracy of LANDSAT derived wildland cover classifications are described. The evaluation procedures include: (1) implementing a stratified random sample for obtaining unbiased verification data; (2) performing area by area comparisons between verification and LANDSAT data for both heterogeneous and homogeneous fields; (3) providing overall and individual classification accuracies with confidence limits; (4) displaying results within contingency tables for analysis of confusion between classes; and (5) quantifying the amount of information (bits/square kilometer) conveyed in the LANDSAT classification.

  13. Simplified classification of spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, D I

    1978-01-01

    A simple classification of products of conception aborted in early pregnancy is described. This classification bears a closer relation to the aetiology of the abortions and the timing of the teratological insult in those conceptuses with morphological abnormalities than have previous classifications. It is hoped it may be of value in counselling patients who abort recurrently and also in the assessment of some environmental hazards purported to cause early pregnancy wastage and congenital malformations. Images PMID:564967

  14. Mapping the Knowledge Structure of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Over the Past Decade: A Co-word Analysis Based on Keywords.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jichong; Tang, Jun; Qu, Yi; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Yan; Bao, Shan; Mu, Dezhi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the knowledge structure and report the evolution of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy research over the past decade based on co-word analysis. Scientific publications focusing on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were searched from the Web of Science database (January 2005 to December 2014). The keywords from these articles were extracted, and a knowledge network based on these keywords was built using Ucinet6.212 and NetDraw2.084 software. A total of 1892 papers were included, and 39 high-frequency keywords were defined. "HIE" and "neonate" located at the center of the knowledge network. Etiology and pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, and therapy were researched more widely in the network than other aspects of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This co-word analysis provides an overview of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy research and suggests that the etiology, clinical manifestation, and therapy of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy have become research cores over the past decade. PMID:26661482

  15. Classification of Liver Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Rizoli, Sandro B.; Brenneman, Frederick D.; Hanna, Sherif S.; Kahnamoui, Kamyar

    1996-01-01

    The classification of liver injuries is important for clinical practice, clinical research and quality assurance activities. The Organ Injury Scaling (OIS) Committee of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma proposed the OIS for liver trauma in 1989. The purpose ofthe present study was to apply this scale to a cohort ofliver trauma patients managed at a single Canadian trauma centre from January 1987 to June 1992.170 study patients were identified and reviewed. The mean age was 30, with 69% male and a mean ISS of 33.90% had a blunt mechanism ofinjury. The 170 patients were categorized into the 60IS grades ofliver injury. The number of units of blood transfused, the magnitude of the operative treatment required, the liver-related complications and the liver-related mortality correlated well with the OIS grade. The OIS grade was unable to predict the need for laparotomy or the length of stay in hospital. We conclude that the OIS is a useful, practical and important tool for the categorization of liver injuries, and it may prove to be the universally accepted classification scheme in liver trauma. PMID:8809585

  16. "Interactive Classification Technology"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBessonet, Cary

    1999-01-01

    The investigators are upgrading a knowledge representation language called SL (Symbolic Language) and an automated reasoning system called SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) to enable the technologies to be used in automated reasoning and interactive classification systems. The overall goals of the project are: a) the enhancement of the representation language SL to accommodate multiple perspectives and a wider range of meaning; b) the development of a sufficient set of operators to enable the interpreter of SL to handle representations of basic cognitive acts; and c) the development of a default inference scheme to operate over SL notation as it is encoded. As to particular goals the first-year work plan focused on inferencing and.representation issues, including: 1) the development of higher level cognitive/ classification functions and conceptual models for use in inferencing and decision making; 2) the specification of a more detailed scheme of defaults and the enrichment of SL notation to accommodate the scheme; and 3) the adoption of additional perspectives for inferencing.

  17. Holistic facial expression classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, John; McDonald, J.

    2005-06-01

    This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.

  18. Waste classification sampling plan

    SciTech Connect

    Landsman, S.D.

    1998-05-27

    The purpose of this sampling is to explain the method used to collect and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream so that the correct waste classification for the waste stream can be made, and to collect samples for studies of decontamination methods that could be used to remove fixed contamination present on the waste. The scope of this plan is to establish the technical basis for collecting samples and compiling quantitative data on the radioactive constituents present in waste generated during deactivation activities in B-Cell. Sampling and radioisotopic analysis will be performed on the fixed layers of contamination present on structural material and internal surfaces of process piping and tanks. In addition, dose rate measurements on existing waste material will be performed to determine the fraction of dose rate attributable to both removable and fixed contamination. Samples will also be collected to support studies of decontamination methods that are effective in removing the fixed contamination present on the waste. Sampling performed under this plan will meet criteria established in BNF-2596, Data Quality Objectives for the B-Cell Waste Stream Classification Sampling, J. M. Barnett, May 1998.

  19. PSC: protein surface classification

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yan Yuan; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    We recently proposed to classify proteins by their functional surfaces. Using the structural attributes of functional surfaces, we inferred the pairwise relationships of proteins and constructed an expandable database of protein surface classification (PSC). As the functional surface(s) of a protein is the local region where the protein performs its function, our classification may reflect the functional relationships among proteins. Currently, PSC contains a library of 1974 surface types that include 25 857 functional surfaces identified from 24 170 bound structures. The search tool in PSC empowers users to explore related surfaces that share similar local structures and core functions. Each functional surface is characterized by structural attributes, which are geometric, physicochemical or evolutionary features. The attributes have been normalized as descriptors and integrated to produce a profile for each functional surface in PSC. In addition, binding ligands are recorded for comparisons among homologs. PSC allows users to exploit related binding surfaces to reveal the changes in functionally important residues on homologs that have led to functional divergence during evolution. The substitutions at the key residues of a spatial pattern may determine the functional evolution of a protein. In PSC (http://pocket.uchicago.edu/psc/), a pool of changes in residues on similar functional surfaces is provided. PMID:22669905

  20. The Transporter Classification Database

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.; Reddy, Vamsee S.; Tamang, Dorjee G.; Västermark, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; http://www.tcdb.org) serves as a common reference point for transport protein research. The database contains more than 10 000 non-redundant proteins that represent all currently recognized families of transmembrane molecular transport systems. Proteins in TCDB are organized in a five level hierarchical system, where the first two levels are the class and subclass, the second two are the family and subfamily, and the last one is the transport system. Superfamilies that contain multiple families are included as hyperlinks to the five tier TC hierarchy. TCDB includes proteins from all types of living organisms and is the only transporter classification system that is both universal and recognized by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It has been expanded by manual curation, contains extensive text descriptions providing structural, functional, mechanistic and evolutionary information, is supported by unique software and is interconnected to many other relevant databases. TCDB is of increasing usefulness to the international scientific community and can serve as a model for the expansion of database technologies. This manuscript describes an update of the database descriptions previously featured in NAR database issues. PMID:24225317

  1. Molecular classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Masui, Kenta; Mischel, Paul S; Reifenberger, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The identification of distinct genetic and epigenetic profiles in different types of gliomas has revealed novel diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive molecular biomarkers for refinement of glioma classification and improved prediction of therapy response and outcome. Therefore, the new (2016) World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system breaks with the traditional principle of diagnosis based on histologic criteria only and incorporates molecular markers. This will involve a multilayered approach combining histologic features and molecular information in an "integrated diagnosis". We review the current state of diagnostic molecular markers for gliomas, focusing on isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/IDH2) gene mutation, α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) gene mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation in adult tumors, as well as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) and H3 histone family 3A (H3F3A) aberrations in pediatric gliomas. We also outline prognostic and predictive molecular markers, including O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, and discuss the potential clinical relevance of biologic glioblastoma subtypes defined by integration of multiomics data. Commonly used methods for individual marker detection as well as novel large-scale DNA methylation profiling and next-generation sequencing approaches are discussed. Finally, we illustrate how advances in molecular diagnostics affect novel strategies of targeted therapy, thereby raising new challenges and identifying new leads for personalized treatment of glioma patients. PMID:26948350

  2. 7 CFR 27.34 - Classification procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification procedure. 27.34 Section 27.34... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.34 Classification procedure. Classification shall proceed as rapidly as possible, but...

  3. 5 CFR 9901.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Classification Classification Process § 9901.221 Classification... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9901.221... jobs as he or she considers necessary for the purpose of this section. (d) A classification action...

  4. 14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings... classification decisions: (b) Verify the information's current level of classification so far as...

  5. ALHAMBRA survey: morphological classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pović, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Aguerri, J. A. López; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey is a photometric survey designed to study systematically cosmic evolution and cosmic variance (Moles et al. 2008). It employs 20 continuous medium-band filters (3500 - 9700 Å), plus JHK near-infrared (NIR) bands, which enable measurements of photometric redshifts with good accuracy. ALHAMBRA covers > 4 deg2 in eight discontinuous regions (~ 0.5 deg2 per region), of theseseven fields overlap with other extragalactic, multiwavelength surveys (DEEP2, SDSS, COSMOS, HDF-N, Groth, ELAIS-N1). We detect > 600.000 sources, reaching the depth of R(AB) ~ 25.0, and photometric accuracy of 2-4% (Husillos et al., in prep.). Photometric redshifts are measured using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code (Benítez et al. 2000), reaching one of the best accuracies up to date of δz/z <= 1.2% (Molino et al., in prep.). To deal with the morphological classification of galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey (Pović et al., in prep.), we used the galaxy Support Vector Machine code (galSVM; Huertas-Company 2008, 2009), one of the new non-parametric methods for morphological classification, specially useful when dealing with low resolution and high-redshift data. To test the accuracy of our morphological classification we used a sample of 3000 local, visually classified galaxies (Nair & Abraham 2010), moving them to conditions typical of our ALHAMBRA data (taking into account the background, redshift and magnitude distributions, etc.), and measuring their morphology using galSVM. Finally, we measured the morphology of ALHAMBRA galaxies, obtaining for each source seven morphological parameters (two concentration indexes, asymmetry, Gini, M20 moment of light, smoothness, and elongation), probability if the source belongs to early- or late-type, and its error. Comparing ALHAMBRA morph COSMOS/ACS morphology (obtained with the same method) we expect to have qualitative separation in two main morphological

  6. A Functional Classification of Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinlay, Donald Bruce

    The need for more and better manpower information is hampered by the lack of adequate occupational data classification systems. The diversity of interests in occupations probably accounts for the absence of consensus regarding either the general outlines or the specific details of a standardized occupational classification system which would…

  7. A New Classification of Sandstone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Roger Clay; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Introduced is a sandstone classification scheme intended for use with thin-sections and hand specimens. Detailed is a step-by-step classification scheme. A graphic presentation of the scheme is presented. This method is compared with other existing schemes. (CW)

  8. Predictive Classification Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugosz, Stephan; Müller-Funk, Ulrich

    CART (Breiman et al., Classification and Regression Trees, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1984) and (exhaustive) CHAID (Kass, Appl Stat 29:119-127, 1980) figure prominently among the procedures actually used in data based management, etc. CART is a well-established procedure that produces binary trees. CHAID, in contrast, admits multiple splittings, a feature that allows to exploit the splitting variable more extensively. On the other hand, that procedure depends on premises that are questionable in practical applications. This can be put down to the fact that CHAID relies on simultaneous Chi-Square- resp. F-tests. The null-distribution of the second test statistic, for instance, relies on the normality assumption that is not plausible in a data mining context. Moreover, none of these procedures - as implemented in SPSS, for instance - take ordinal dependent variables into account. In the paper we suggest an alternative tree-algorithm that: Requires explanatory categorical variables

  9. Classification-based reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Fernando; Segami, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    A representation formalism for N-ary relations, quantification, and definition of concepts is described. Three types of conditions are associated with the concepts: (1) necessary and sufficient properties, (2) contingent properties, and (3) necessary properties. Also explained is how complex chains of inferences can be accomplished by representing existentially quantified sentences, and concepts denoted by restrictive relative clauses as classification hierarchies. The representation structures that make possible the inferences are explained first, followed by the reasoning algorithms that draw the inferences from the knowledge structures. All the ideas explained have been implemented and are part of the information retrieval component of a program called Snowy. An appendix contains a brief session with the program.

  10. Bayesian classification theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Robin; Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass system searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit or share model parameters though a class hierarchy. We summarize the mathematical foundations of AutoClass.

  11. Classification of personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, P; Alexander, J

    1979-08-01

    An interview schedule was used to record the personality traits of 130 psychiatric patients, 65 with a primary clinical diagnosis of personality disorder and 65 with other diagnoses. The results were analysed by factor analysis and three types of cluster analysis. Factor analysis showed a similar structure of personality variables in both groups of patients, supporting the notion that personality disorders differ only in degree from the personalities of other psychiatric patients. Cluster analysis revealed five discrete categories; sociopathic, passive-dependent, anankastic, schizoid and a non-personality-disordered group. Of all the personality-disordered patients 63 per cent fell into the passive-dependent or sociopathic category. The results suggest that the current classification of personality disorder could be simplified. PMID:497619

  12. Robust Vertex Classification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Shen, Cencheng; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Priebe, Carey E

    2016-03-01

    For random graphs distributed according to stochastic blockmodels, a special case of latent position graphs, adjacency spectral embedding followed by appropriate vertex classification is asymptotically Bayes optimal; but this approach requires knowledge of and critically depends on the model dimension. In this paper, we propose a sparse representation vertex classifier which does not require information about the model dimension. This classifier represents a test vertex as a sparse combination of the vertices in the training set and uses the recovered coefficients to classify the test vertex. We prove consistency of our proposed classifier for stochastic blockmodels, and demonstrate that the sparse representation classifier can predict vertex labels with higher accuracy than adjacency spectral embedding approaches via both simulation studies and real data experiments. Our results demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of our proposed vertex classifier when the model dimension is unknown. PMID:26340770

  13. Unsupervised hyperspectral image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xiaoli; Chang, Chein-I.

    2007-09-01

    Two major issues encountered in unsupervised hyperspectral image classification are (1) how to determine the number of spectral classes in the image and (2) how to find training samples that well represent each of spectral classes without prior knowledge. A recently developed concept, Virtual dimensionality (VD) is used to estimate the number of spectral classes of interest in the image data. This paper proposes an effective algorithm to generate an appropriate training set via a recently developed Prioritized Independent Component Analysis (PICA). Two sets of hyperspectral data, Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Cuprite data and HYperspectral Digital Image Collection Experiment (HYDICE) data are used for experiments and performance analysis for the proposed method.

  14. Robotic Rock Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Martial

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a three-month research program undertook jointly by the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and Ames Research Center as part of the Ames' Joint Research Initiative (JRI.) The work was conducted at the Ames Research Center by Mr. Liam Pedersen, a graduate student in the CMU Ph.D. program in Robotics under the supervision Dr. Ted Roush at the Space Science Division of the Ames Research Center from May 15 1999 to August 15, 1999. Dr. Martial Hebert is Mr. Pedersen's research adviser at CMU and is Principal Investigator of this Grant. The goal of this project is to investigate and implement methods suitable for a robotic rover to autonomously identify rocks and minerals in its vicinity, and to statistically characterize the local geological environment. Although primary sensors for these tasks are a reflection spectrometer and color camera, the goal is to create a framework under which data from multiple sensors, and multiple readings on the same object, can be combined in a principled manner. Furthermore, it is envisioned that knowledge of the local area, either a priori or gathered by the robot, will be used to improve classification accuracy. The key results obtained during this project are: The continuation of the development of a rock classifier; development of theoretical statistical methods; development of methods for evaluating and selecting sensors; and experimentation with data mining techniques on the Ames spectral library. The results of this work are being applied at CMU, in particular in the context of the Winter 99 Antarctica expedition in which the classification techniques will be used on the Nomad robot. Conversely, the software developed based on those techniques will continue to be made available to NASA Ames and the data collected from the Nomad experiments will also be made available.

  15. Classification of Rainbows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, J. L.; Peter, A. L.; Barckicke, J.

    2015-12-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF RAINBOWS Jean Louis Ricard,1,2,* Peter Adams ,2 and Jean Barckicke 2,3 1CNRM, Météo-France,42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse, France 2CEPAL, 148 Himley Road, Dudley, West Midlands DY1 2QH, United Kingdom 3DP/Compas,Météo-France,42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse, France *Corresponding author: Dr_Jean_Ricard@yahoo,co,ukRainbows are the most beautiful and most spectacular optical atmospheric phenomenon. Humphreys (1964) pointedly noted that "the "explanations" generally given of the rainbow [ in textbooks] may well be said to explain beautifully that which does not occur, and to leave unexplained which does" . . . "The records of close observations of rainbows soon show that not even the colors are always the same". Textbooks stress that the main factor affecting the aspect of the rainbow is the radius of the water droplets. In his well-known textbook entitled "the nature of light & colour in the open air", Minnaert (1954) gives the chief features of the rainbow depending on the diameter of the drops producing it. For this study, we have gathered hundreds of pictures of primary bows. We sort out the pictures into classes. The classes are defined in a such way that rainbows belonging to the same class look similar. Our results are surprising and do not confirm Minnaert's classification. In practice, the size of the water droplets is only a minor factor controlling the overall aspect of the rainbow. The main factor appears to be the height of the sun above the horizon. At sunset, the width of the red band increases, while the width of the other bands of colours decreases. The orange, the violet, the blue and the green bands disappear completely in this order. At the end, the primary bow is mainly red and slightly yellow. Picture = Contrast-enhanced photograph of a primary bow picture (prepared by Andrew Dunn).

  16. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  17. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification means that the information is in substance the same information that is currently classified, usually...

  18. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification means that the information is in substance the same information that is currently classified, usually...

  19. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification means that the information is in substance the same information that is currently classified, usually...

  20. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification means that the information is in substance the same information that is currently classified, usually...

  1. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification means that the information is in substance the same information that is currently classified, usually...

  2. The comparison of classification analyses on the public opinion focus of biofuels based on twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shianghau; Guo, Jiannjong

    2016-02-01

    The study combined with the text mining and classification methodology to investigate the biofuels related tweets on the social network so as to understand the general public opinion focus. The contribution of the study enclosed the subsequent two points. First, the study utilized the text mining method to explore the content of biofuels connected tweets on the famed social network "twitter" and found the main keywords consistent with their frequencies. Second, the study applied the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPN), random forests model and two sorts of hybrid algorithmclassification analyses to compare the classification results.

  3. Clinical and Radiological Classification of the Jawbone Anatomy in Endosseous Dental Implant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Marius

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of present article was to review the classifications suggested for assessment of the jawbone anatomy, to evaluate the diagnostic possibilities of mandibular canal identification and risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury, aesthetic considerations in aesthetic zone, as well as to suggest new classification system of the jawbone anatomy in endosseous dental implant treatment. Material and Methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandible; mandibular canal; alveolar nerve, inferior; anatomy, cross-sectional; dental implants; classification. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1972 to March 2013. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy and oral surgery books were performed. The publications there selected by including clinical and human anatomy studies. Results In total 109 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The classifications suggested for assessment of the jawbone anatomy, diagnostic possibilities of mandibular canal identification and risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury, aesthetic considerations in aesthetic zone were discussed. New classification system of the jawbone anatomy in endosseous dental implant treatment based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results was suggested. Conclusions The classification system proposed here based on anatomical and radiological jawbone quantity and quality evaluation is a helpful tool for planning of treatment strategy and collaboration among specialists. Further clinical studies should be conducted for new classification validation and reliability evaluation. PMID:24422030

  4. Automatic Classification of Marine Mammals with Speaker Classification Methods.

    PubMed

    Kreimeyer, Roman; Ludwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals based on human speaker classification methods as an element of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool. This work is part of the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project under the framework of the European Defense Agency (EDA) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and Kiel University. The automatic classification should support sonar operators in the risk mitigation process before and during sonar exercises with a reliable automatic classification result. PMID:26611006

  5. Target Decomposition Techniques & Role of Classification Methods for Landcover Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dharmendra; Mittal, Gunjan

    Target decomposition techniques aims at analyzing the received scattering matrix from polari-metric data to extract information about the scattering processes. Incoherent techniques have been modeled in recent years for providing more general approach for decomposition of natural targets. Therefore, there is a need to study and critically analyze the developing models for their suitability in classification of land covers. Moreover, the classification methods used for the segmentation of various landcovers from the decomposition techniques need to be examined as the appropriate selection of these methods affect the performance of the decomposition tech-niques for landcover classification. Therefore in the present paper, it is attempted to check the performance of various model based and an eigen vector based decomposition techniques for decomposition of Polarimetric PALSAR (Phased array type L band SAR) data. Few generic supervised classifiers were used for classification of decomposed images into three broad classes of water, urban and agriculture lands. For the purpose, algorithms had been applied twice on pre-processed PALSAR raw data once on spatial averaged (mean filtering on 33 window) data and the other on data, multilooked in azimuth direction by six looks and then filtered using Wishart Gamma MAP on 55 window. Classification of the decomposed images from each of the methods had been done using four supervised classifiers (parallelepiped, minimum distance, Mahalanobis and maximum likelihood). Ground truth data generated with the help of ground survey points, topographic sheet and google earth was used for the computation of classification accuracy. Parallelepiped classifier gave better classification accuracy of water class for all the models excluding H/A/Alpha. Minimum distance classifier gave better classification results for urban class. Maximum likelihood classifier performed well as compared to other classifiers for classification of vegetation class

  6. Towards Automatic Classification of Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Armañanzas, Rubén; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2015-01-01

    The classification of neurons into types has been much debated since the inception of modern neuroscience. Recent experimental advances are accelerating the pace of data collection. The resulting information growth of morphological, physiological, and molecular properties encourages efforts to automate neuronal classification by powerful machine learning techniques. We review state-of-the-art analysis approaches and availability of suitable data and resources, highlighting prominent challenges and opportunities. The effective solution of the neuronal classification problem will require continuous development of computational methods, high-throughput data production, and systematic metadata organization to enable cross-lab integration. PMID:25765323

  7. CASP9 Target Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kinch, Lisa N.; Shi, Shuoyong; Cheng, Hua; Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Mariani, Valerio; Schwede, Torsten; Grishin, Nick V.

    2011-01-01

    The Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction round 9 (CASP9) aimed to evaluate predictions for 129 experimentally determined protein structures. To assess tertiary structure predictions, these target structures were divided into domain-based evaluation units that were then classified into two assessment categories: template based modeling (TBM) and template free modeling (FM). CASP9 targets were split into domains of structurally compact evolutionary modules. For the targets with more than one defined domain, the decision to split structures into domains for evaluation was based on server performance. Target domains were categorized based on their evolutionary relatedness to existing templates as well as their difficulty levels indicated by server performance. Those target domains with sequence-related templates and high server prediction performance were classified as TMB, while those targets without identifiable templates and low server performance were classified as FM. However, using these generalizations for classification resulted in a blurred boundary between CASP9 assessment categories. Thus, the FM category included those domains without sequence detectable templates (25 target domains) as well as some domains with difficult to detect templates whose predictions were as poor as those without templates (5 target domains). Several interesting examples are discussed, including targets with sequence related templates that exhibit unusual structural differences, targets with homologous or analogous structure templates that are not detectable by sequence, and targets with new folds. PMID:21997778

  8. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  9. Classification of Rainbows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Peter; Ricard, Jean; Barckicke, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Rainbows are the most beautiful and most spectacular optical atmospheric phenomenon. Humphreys (1964) pointedly noted that "the "explanations" generally given of the rainbow [ in textbooks] may well be said to explain beautifully that which does not occur, and to leave unexplained which does" . . . "The records of close observations of rainbows soon show that not even the colors are always the same". Textbooks stress that the main factor affecting the aspect of the rainbow is the radius of the water droplets. In his well-known textbook entitled "the nature of light & colour in the open air", Minnaert (1954) gives the chief features of the rainbow depending on the diameter of the drops producing it. For this study, we have gathered hundreds of pictures of primary bows. We sort out the pictures into classes. The classes are defined in a such way that rainbows belonging to the same class look similar. Our results are surprising and do not confirm Minnaert's classification. In practice, the size of the water droplets is only a minor factor controlling the overall aspect of the rainbow. The main factor appears to be the height of the sun above the horizon. At sunset, the width of the red band increases, while the width of the other bands of colours decreases. The orange, the violet, the blue and the green bands disappear completely in this order. At the end, the primary bow is mainly red and slightly yellow. Picture = taken from the CNRM in Toulouse after a summer storm (Jean Ricard)

  10. Spectroscopic classification of supernova candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkin, S. T.; Hall, A.; Fraser, M.; Campbell, H.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Pietro, N.

    2014-09-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of four supernovae at the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph and the R300V grating (3500-8000 Ang; ~6 Ang resolution).

  11. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for Coastal Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...

  12. Classification Schemes: Developments and Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocock, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the growth, survival and future of library classification schemes. Concludes that to survive, a scheme must constantly update its policies, and readily adapt itself to accommodate growing disciplines and changing terminology. (AEF)

  13. A new classification of necrophilia.

    PubMed

    Aggrawal, Anil

    2009-08-01

    Necrophilia is a paraphilia whereby the perpetrator gets sexual pleasure in having sex with the dead. Most jurisdictions and nations have laws against this practice. Necrophilia exists in many variations, and some authors have attempted to classify necrophilia. However many related terms such as pseudonecrophilia continue being used differently by different authors, necessitating the introduction of a new classification system. The classification system suggested by the author attempts to put all different shades of necrophilia under 10 classes. PMID:19573840

  14. Multisensor classification of sedimentary rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane

    1988-01-01

    A comparison is made between linear discriminant analysis and supervised classification results based on signatures from the Landsat TM, the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and airborne SAR, alone and combined into extended spectral signatures for seven sedimentary rock units exposed on the margin of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. Results from a linear discriminant analysis showed that training-area classification accuracies based on the multisensor data were improved an average of 15 percent over TM alone, 24 percent over TIMS alone, and 46 percent over SAR alone, with similar improvement resulting when supervised multisensor classification maps were compared to supervised, individual sensor classification maps. When training area signatures were used to map spectrally similar materials in an adjacent area, the average classification accuracy improved 19 percent using the multisensor data over TM alone, 2 percent over TIMS alone, and 11 percent over SAR alone. It is concluded that certain sedimentary lithologies may be accurately mapped using a single sensor, but classification of a variety of rock types can be improved using multisensor data sets that are sensitive to different characteristics such as mineralogy and surface roughness.

  15. Classification of the acanthocephala.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M

    2013-09-01

    In 1985, Amin presented a new system for the classification of the Acanthocephala in Crompton and Nickol's (1985) book 'Biology of the Acanthocephala' and recognized the concepts of Meyer (1931, 1932, 1933) and Van Cleave (1936, 1941, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1952). This system became the standard for the taxonomy of this group and remains so to date. Many changes have taken place and many new genera and species, as well as higher taxa, have been described since. An updated version of the 1985 scheme incorporating new concepts in molecular taxonomy, gene sequencing and phylogenetic studies is presented. The hierarchy has undergone a total face lift with Amin's (1987) addition of a new class, Polyacanthocephala (and a new order and family) to remove inconsistencies in the class Palaeacanthocephala. Amin and Ha (2008) added a third order (and a new family) to the Palaeacanthocephala, Heteramorphida, which combines features from the palaeacanthocephalan families Polymorphidae and Heteracanthocephalidae. Other families and subfamilies have been added but some have been eliminated, e.g. the three subfamilies of Arythmacanthidae: Arhythmacanthinae Yamaguti, 1935; Neoacanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1960; and Paracanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1969. Amin (1985) listed 22 families, 122 genera and 903 species (4, 4 and 14 families; 13, 28 and 81 genera; 167, 167 and 569 species in Archiacanthocephala, Eoacanthocephala and Palaeacanthocephala, respectively). The number of taxa listed in the present treatment is 26 families (18% increase), 157 genera (29%), and 1298 species (44%) (4, 4 and 16; 18, 29 and 106; 189, 255 and 845, in the same order), which also includes 1 family, 1 genus and 4 species in the class Polyacanthocephala Amin, 1987, and 3 genera and 5 species in the fossil family Zhijinitidae. PMID:24261131

  16. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification schedules. 2.85 Section 2.85 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.85 Classification schedules. (a) International classification system....

  17. 12 CFR 1777.20 - Capital classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Capital classifications. 1777.20 Section 1777... DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Capital Classifications and Orders Under Section 1366 of the 1992 Act § 1777.20 Capital classifications. (a) Capital classifications after the...

  18. 10 CFR 1045.17 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 1045.17 Section 1045.17 Energy... Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Information § 1045.17 Classification levels. (a) Restricted Data. The Director of Classification shall assign one of the following classification levels to...

  19. 5 CFR 9901.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of time following the effective date of the position classification action. For classification... of the reason for the reclassification, the right to appeal the classification decision, and the time... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification requirements....

  20. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a) Inmate... the objectives and principles of pay classification as a part of the routine orientation of new...

  1. 12 CFR 1777.20 - Capital classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital classifications. 1777.20 Section 1777... DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Capital Classifications and Orders Under Section 1366 of the 1992 Act § 1777.20 Capital classifications. (a) Capital classifications after the...

  2. 32 CFR 2700.22 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2700.22 Section 2700.22... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Derivative Classification § 2700.22 Classification guides. OMSN shall issue classification guides pursuant to section 2-2 of E.O. 12065. These guides, which shall be used...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2284 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.2284 Section 51.2284... Size classification. The following classifications are provided to describe the size of any lot... shall conform to the requirements of the specified classification as defined below: (a) Halves....

  4. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one...

  5. 32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification standards. 2001.10 Section 2001... Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying or describing damage to the national security. Section 1.1(a) of the Order specifies the conditions that must be met when making classification...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2836 - Size classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classifications. 51.2836 Section 51.2836...) Size Classifications § 51.2836 Size classifications. The size of onions may be specified in accordance with one of the following classifications. Size designation Minimum diameter Inches Millimeters...

  7. 49 CFR 8.17 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification challenges. 8.17 Section 8.17 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CLASSIFIED INFORMATION: CLASSIFICATION/DECLASSIFICATION/ACCESS Classification/Declassification of Information § 8.17 Classification challenges. (a)...

  8. 32 CFR 2400.9 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification requirements. 2400.9 Section 2400... PROGRAM Original Classification § 2400.9 Classification requirements. (a) Information may be classified... below, and an official having original classification authority determines that its...

  9. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) International classification system. Section 6.1 of this chapter sets forth the international system of classification for goods and services, which applies for all statutory purposes to: (1... international classification pursuant to § 2.85(e)(3). (b) Prior United States classification system. Section...

  10. Classification of wheat: Badhwar profile similarity technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Badwar profile similarity classification technique used successfully for classification of corn was applied to spring wheat classifications. The software programs and the procedures used to generate full-scene classifications are presented, and numerical results of the acreage estimations are given.

  11. 43 CFR 2461.4 - Changing classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changing classifications. 2461.4 Section 2461.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Multiple-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.4 Changing classifications. Classifications may be...

  12. 43 CFR 2461.4 - Changing classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changing classifications. 2461.4 Section 2461.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Multiple-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.4 Changing classifications. Classifications may be...

  13. 43 CFR 2461.4 - Changing classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changing classifications. 2461.4 Section 2461.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Multiple-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.4 Changing classifications. Classifications may be...

  14. 43 CFR 2461.4 - Changing classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changing classifications. 2461.4 Section 2461.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Multiple-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.4 Changing classifications. Classifications may be...

  15. 32 CFR 2700.22 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Derivative Classification § 2700.22 Classification guides. OMSN shall... direct derivative classification, shall identify the information to be protected in specific and uniform terms so that the information involved can be readily identified. The classification guides shall...

  16. 32 CFR 2700.22 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Derivative Classification § 2700.22 Classification guides. OMSN shall... direct derivative classification, shall identify the information to be protected in specific and uniform terms so that the information involved can be readily identified. The classification guides shall...

  17. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming; Letiner, Thomas K; Korber, Bette T

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our

  18. 7 CFR 27.80 - Fees; review classification, futures classification and supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fees; review classification, futures classification... COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Costs of Classification and Micronaire § 27.80 Fees; review classification,...

  19. 7 CFR 27.80 - Fees; review classification, futures classification and supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fees; review classification, futures classification... COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Costs of Classification and Micronaire § 27.80 Fees; review classification,...

  20. Satellite image classification using convolutional learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thao; Han, Jiho; Park, Dong-Chul

    2013-10-01

    A satellite image classification method using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture is proposed in this paper. As a special case of deep learning, CNN classifies classes of images without any feature extraction step while other existing classification methods utilize rather complex feature extraction processes. Experiments on a set of satellite image data and the preliminary results show that the proposed classification method can be a promising alternative over existing feature extraction-based schemes in terms of classification accuracy and classification speed.

  1. Featureless classification of light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kügler, S. D.; Gianniotis, N.; Polsterer, K. L.

    2015-08-01

    In the era of rapidly increasing amounts of time series data, classification of variable objects has become the main objective of time-domain astronomy. Classification of irregularly sampled time series is particularly difficult because the data cannot be represented naturally as a vector which can be directly fed into a classifier. In the literature, various statistical features serve as vector representations. In this work, we represent time series by a density model. The density model captures all the information available, including measurement errors. Hence, we view this model as a generalization to the static features which directly can be derived, e.g. as moments from the density. Similarity between each pair of time series is quantified by the distance between their respective models. Classification is performed on the obtained distance matrix. In the numerical experiments, we use data from the OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) and ASAS (All Sky Automated Survey) surveys and demonstrate that the proposed representation performs up to par with the best currently used feature-based approaches. The density representation preserves all static information present in the observational data, in contrast to a less-complete description by features. The density representation is an upper boundary in terms of information made available to the classifier. Consequently, the predictive power of the proposed classification depends on the choice of similarity measure and classifier, only. Due to its principled nature, we advocate that this new approach of representing time series has potential in tasks beyond classification, e.g. unsupervised learning.

  2. A Dynamic Classification Approach for Nursing

    PubMed Central

    Hardiker, Nicholas R.; Kim, Tae Youn; Coenen, Amy M.; Jansen, Kay R.

    2011-01-01

    Nursing has a long tradition of classification, stretching back at least 150 years. The introduction of computers into health care towards the end of the 20th Century helped to focus efforts, culminating in the development of a range of standardized classifications. Many of these classifications are still in use today and, while content is periodically updated, the underlying classification structures remain relatively static. In this paper an approach to classification that is relatively new to nursing is presented; an approach that uses formal Web Ontology Language definitions for classes, and computer-based reasoning on those classes, to determine automatically classification structures that more flexibly meet the needs of users. A new proposed classification structure for the International Classification for Nursing Practice is derived under the new approach to provide a new view on the next release of the classification and to contribute to broader quality improvement processes. PMID:22195109

  3. The revised classification of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair. G.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matt; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; leGall, Line; Lynn, Denis H.; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E.; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W.

    2012-01-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. (2005), retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information. PMID:23020233

  4. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  5. Galaxy Classification without Feature Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsterer, K. L.; Gieseke, F.; Kramer, O.

    2012-09-01

    The automatic classification of galaxies according to the different Hubble types is a widely studied problem in the field of astronomy. The complexity of this task led to projects like Galaxy Zoo which try to obtain labeled data based on visual inspection by humans. Many automatic classification frameworks are based on artificial neural networks (ANN) in combination with a feature extraction step in the pre-processing phase. These approaches rely on labeled catalogs for training the models. The small size of the typically used training sets, however, limits the generalization performance of the resulting models. In this work, we present a straightforward application of support vector machines (SVM) for this type of classification tasks. The conducted experiments indicate that using a sufficient number of labeled objects provided by the EFIGI catalog leads to high-quality models. In contrast to standard approaches no additional feature extraction is required.

  6. Classification systems for stalking behavior.

    PubMed

    Racine, Christopher; Billick, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Stalking is a complex behavioral phenomenon that is unique in that it necessarily involves a prolonged dyadic relationship between both a perpetrator and a victim. Since criminalization of stalking behavior in the 1990s, different conceptual typologies have attempted to classify this behavior to assess risk and aid in management decisions. The authors reviewed the current literature regarding the most recent and accepted stalking classification systems. The three predominant stalker typologies currently in use include Zona's stalker-victim types, Mullen's stalker typology, and the RECON stalker typology. Of these, the RECON classification system alone was developed in an attempt to separate stalkers into groups based on previously known risk factors for behaviorally based phenomenon such as propensity for violence. Understanding and simplifying these classification systems may enhance the potential that new research will lead to evidence-based management and treatment strategies in the stalking situation. PMID:23980606

  7. Machine learning in soil classification.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, B; Solomatine, D P

    2006-03-01

    In a number of engineering problems, e.g. in geotechnics, petroleum engineering, etc. intervals of measured series data (signals) are to be attributed a class maintaining the constraint of contiguity and standard classification methods could be inadequate. Classification in this case needs involvement of an expert who observes the magnitude and trends of the signals in addition to any a priori information that might be available. In this paper, an approach for automating this classification procedure is presented. Firstly, a segmentation algorithm is developed and applied to segment the measured signals. Secondly, the salient features of these segments are extracted using boundary energy method. Based on the measured data and extracted features to assign classes to the segments classifiers are built; they employ Decision Trees, ANN and Support Vector Machines. The methodology was tested in classifying sub-surface soil using measured data from Cone Penetration Testing and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:16530382

  8. Classification of hyperlipidaemias and hyperlipoproteinaemias*

    PubMed Central

    1970-01-01

    Many studies of atherosclerosis have indicated hyperlipidaemia as a predisposing factor to vascular disease. The relationship holds even for mild degrees of hyperlipidaemia, a fact that underlines the importance of this category of disorders. Both primary and secondary hyperlipidaemias represent such a variety of abnormalities that an internationally acceptable provisional classification is highly desirable in order to facilitate communication between scientists with different backgrounds. The present memorandum presents such a classification; it briefly describes the criteria for diagnosis of the main types of hyperlipidaemia as well as the methods of their determination. Because lipoproteins offer more information than analysis of plasma lipids (most of the plasma lipids being bound to various proteins), the classification is based on lipoprotein analyses by electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. Simpler methods, however, such as the observation of plasma and measurements of cholesterol and triglycerides, are used to the fullest possible extent in determining the lipoprotein patterns. PMID:4930042

  9. [Classification of periprosthetic shoulder fractures].

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, C; Kirchhoff, S; Biberthaler, P

    2016-04-01

    The key targets in the treatment of periprosthetic humeral fractures (PHF) are the preservation of bone, successful bony consolidation and provision of a stable anchoring of the prosthesis with the major goal of restoring the shoulder-arm function. A substantial problem of periprosthetic shoulder fractures is the fact that treatment is determined not only by the fracture itself but also by the implanted prosthesis and its function. Consequently, the exact preoperative shoulder function and, in the case of an implanted anatomical prosthesis, the status and function of the rotator cuff need to be assessed in order to clarify the possibility of a secondarily occurring malfunction. Of equal importance in this context is the type of implanted prosthesis. The existing classification systems of Wright and Cofield, Campbell et al., Groh et al. and Worland et al. have several drawbacks from a shoulder surgeon's point of view, such as a missing reference to the great variability of the available prostheses and the lack of an evaluation of rotator cuff function. The presented 6‑stage classification for the evaluation of periprosthetic fractures of the shoulder can be considered just as simple or complex to understand as the classification of the working group for osteosynthesis problems (AO, Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen), depending on the viewpoint. From our point of view the classification presented here encompasses the essential points of the existing classification systems and also covers the otherwise missing points, which should be considered in the assessment of such periprosthetic fractures. The classification presented here should provide helpful assistance in the daily routine to find the most convenient form of therapy. PMID:26992712

  10. Semantic classification of business images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Berna; Hull, Jonathan J.

    2006-01-01

    Digital cameras are becoming increasingly common for capturing information in business settings. In this paper, we describe a novel method for classifying images into the following semantic classes: document, whiteboard, business card, slide, and regular images. Our method is based on combining low-level image features, such as text color, layout, and handwriting features with high-level OCR output analysis. Several Support Vector Machine Classifiers are combined for multi-class classification of input images. The system yields 95% accuracy in classification.

  11. Deep learning for image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoppin, Ryan; Rizki, Mateen

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of deep learning and introduces the several subfields of deep learning including a specific tutorial of convolutional neural networks. Traditional methods for learning image features are compared to deep learning techniques. In addition, we present our preliminary classification results, our basic implementation of a convolutional restricted Boltzmann machine on the Mixed National Institute of Standards and Technology database (MNIST), and we explain how to use deep learning networks to assist in our development of a robust gender classification system.

  12. Automated Classification of Pathology Reports.

    PubMed

    Oleynik, Michel; Finger, Marcelo; Patrão, Diogo F C

    2015-01-01

    This work develops an automated classifier of pathology reports which infers the topography and the morphology classes of a tumor using codes from the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O). Data from 94,980 patients of the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center was used for training and validation of Naive Bayes classifiers, evaluated by the F1-score. Measures greater than 74% in the topographic group and 61% in the morphologic group are reported. Our work provides a successful baseline for future research for the classification of medical documents written in Portuguese and in other domains. PMID:26262339

  13. A classification of ecological boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strayer, D.L.; Power, M.E.; Fagan, W.F.; Pickett, S.T.A.; Belnap, J.

    2003-01-01

    Ecologists use the term boundary to refer to a wide range of real and conceptual structures. Because imprecise terminology may impede the search for general patterns and theories about ecological boundaries, we present a classification of the attributes of ecological boundaries to aid in communication and theory development. Ecological boundaries may differ in their origin and maintenance, their spatial structure, their function, and their temporal dynamics. A classification system based on these attributes should help ecologists determine whether boundaries are truly comparable. This system can be applied when comparing empirical studies, comparing theories, and testing theoretical predictions against empirical results.

  14. Supervised ensemble classification of Kepler variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, G.; Borne, K.

    2016-07-01

    Variable star analysis and classification is an important task in the understanding of stellar features and processes. While historically classifications have been done manually by highly skilled experts, the recent and rapid expansion in the quantity and quality of data has demanded new techniques, most notably automatic classification through supervised machine learning. We present an expansion of existing work on the field by analysing variable stars in the Kepler field using an ensemble approach, combining multiple characterization and classification techniques to produce improved classification rates. Classifications for each of the roughly 150 000 stars observed by Kepler are produced separating the stars into one of 14 variable star classes.

  15. Supervised Ensemble Classification of Kepler Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, G.; Borne, K.

    2016-04-01

    Variable star analysis and classification is an important task in the understanding of stellar features and processes. While historically classifications have been done manually by highly skilled experts, the recent and rapid expansion in the quantity and quality of data has demanded new techniques, most notably automatic classification through supervised machine learning. We present an expansion of existing work on the field by analyzing variable stars in the Kepler field using an ensemble approach, combining multiple characterization and classification techniques to produce improved classification rates. Classifications for each of the roughly 150,000 stars observed by Kepler are produced separating the stars into one of 14 variable star classes.

  16. 32 CFR 2001.16 - Fundamental classification guidance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a minimum, the fundamental classification guidance review shall focus on: (1) Evaluation of content... recent classification decisions that focuses on ensuring that classification decisions reflect the...

  17. Santa Ana Forecasting and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolinski, T.; Eichhorn, D.; D'Agostino, B. J.; Vanderburg, S.; Means, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Southern California experiences wildfires every year, but under certain circumstances these fires grow into extremely large and destructive fires, such as the Cedar Fire of 2003 and the Witch Fire of 2007. The Cedar Fire burned over 1100 km2 , destroyed more than 2200 homes and killed 15 people; the Witch fire burned more than 800 km2, destroyed more than 1000 homes and killed 2 people. Fires can quickly become too large and dangerous to fight if they are accompanied by a very strong "Santa Ana" condition, which is a foehn-like wind that may bring strong winds and very low humidities. However there is an entire range of specific weather conditions that fall into the broad category of Santa Anas, from cold and blustery to hot with very little wind. All types are characterized by clear skies and low humidity. Since the potential for destructive fire is dependent on the characteristics of Santa Anas, as well as the level of fuel moisture, there exists a need for further classification, such as is done with tropical cyclones and after-the-fact with tornadoes. We use surface data and fuel moisture combined with reanalysis to diagnose those conditions that result in Santa Anas with the greatest potential for destructive fires. We use this data to produce a new classification system for Santa Anas. This classification system should be useful for informing the relevant agencies for mitigation and response planning. In the future this same classification may be made available to the general public.

  18. Terrain classification for a UGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwal, Alok; Baker, Chris; Rosenblum, Mark

    2005-05-01

    This work addresses the issue of Terrain Classification that can be applied for path planning for an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform. We are interested in classification of features such as rocks, bushes, trees and dirt roads. Currently, the data is acquired from a color camera mounted on the UGV as we can add range data from a second sensor in the future. The classification is accomplished by first, coarse segmenting a frame and then refining the initial segmentations through a convenient user interface. After the first frame, temporal information is exploited to improve the quality of the image segmentation and help classification adapt to changes due to ambient lighting, shadows, and scene changes as the platform moves. The Mean Shift Classifier algorithm provides segmentation of the current frame data. We have tested the above algorithms with four sequence of frames acquired in an environment with terrain representative of the type we expect to see in the field. A comparison of the results from this algorithm was done with accurate manually-segmented (ground-truth) data, for each frame in the sequence.

  19. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes polygons for GA, GAA, GAAs, GB, GC and other related ground water quality classes. Each polygon is assigned a ground water quality class, which is s...

  20. CONNECTICUT SURFACE WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Surface Water Quality Classifications for Connecticut. It is comprised of two 0Shapefiles with line and polygon features. Both Shapefiles must be used together with the Hydrography datalayer. The polygon Shapefile includes surface water qual...

  1. Classification of spatially unresolved objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Horwitz, H. M.; Hyde, P. D.; Morgenstern, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A proportion estimation technique for classification of multispectral scanner images is reported that uses data point averaging to extract and compute estimated proportions for a single average data point to classify spatial unresolved areas. Example extraction calculations of spectral signatures for bare soil, weeds, alfalfa, and barley prove quite accurate.

  2. A new classification of zoophilia.

    PubMed

    Aggrawal, Anil

    2011-02-01

    Zoophilia is a paraphilia whereby the perpetrator gets sexual pleasure in having sex with animals. Most jurisdictions and nations have laws against this practice. Zoophilia exists in many variations, and some authors have attempted to classify zoophilia previously. However unanimity does not exist among various classifications. In addition, sexual contact between humans and animals has been given several names such as zoophilia, zoophilism, bestiality, zooerasty and zoorasty. These terms continue to be used in different senses by different authors, creating some amount of confusion. A mathematical classification of zoophilia, which could group all shades of zoophilia under various numerical classes, could be a way to end this confusion. Recently a ten-tier classification of necrophilia has been proposed to bring an end to a similar confusion extant among various terms referring to necrophilia. It is our proposition that various shades of zoophilia exist on a similar continuum. Thus, each proposed class of zoophilia can be "mapped" to a similar class of necrophilia already proposed. This classification has an intuitive appeal, as it grades all shades of zoophilia from the least innocuous behavior to the most criminal. It is hoped that it would also bring an end to the existing confusion among several zoophilia related terms. In addition, since each proposed class of zoophilia can be exactly "mapped" to classes of another paraphilia (necrophilia), it may point to an "equivalence" among all paraphilias not yet explored fully. This area needs further exploration. PMID:21315301

  3. Nomenclature and classification, principles of

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nomenclature is critical for precise communications. Scientific names must be unique and attached to defined concepts. Classifications provide a means of encoding information into scientific nomenclature, so the use of scientific names provides the effective and efficient means for communicating abo...

  4. Gaming Simulation: A General Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecchini, Arnaldo; Frisenna, Adriana

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of classifying gaming techniques and suggests a heuristic approach as one solution. Definitions of simulation, models, role, and game and play are discussed to help develop a classification based on a technique called gaming simulation. (Author/LRW)

  5. AEDS Property Classification Code Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.

    The control and inventory of property items using data processing machines requires a form of numerical description or code which will allow a maximum of description in a minimum of space on the data card. An adaptation of a standard industrial classification system is given to cover any expendable warehouse item or non-expendable piece of…

  6. THE CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS OCCUPATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Hayhurst, E. R.

    1916-01-01

    In this paper Doctor Hayhurst describes the six classifications for hazardous occupations which were employed in a survey made in Ohio. He also explains, by text and diagram, the process of analyzing, upon a standard formula, the hazard of an individual case. PMID:18009453

  7. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  8. Optimal Infomation-based Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Baro

    Classification is the allocation of an object to an existing category among several based on uncertain measurements. Since information is used to quantify uncertainty, it is natural to consider classification and information as complementary subjects. This dissertation touches upon several topics that relate to the problem of classification, such as information, classification, and team classification. Motivated by the U.S. Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance missions, we investigate the aforementioned topics for classifiers that follow two models: classifiers with workload-independent and workload-dependent performance. We adopt workload-independence and dependence as "first-order" models to capture the features of machines and humans, respectively. We first investigate the relationship between information in the sense of Shannon and classification performance, which is defined as the probability of misclassification. We show that while there is a predominant congruence between them, there are cases when such congruence is violated. We show the phenomenon for both workload-independent and workload-dependent classifiers and investigate the cause of such phenomena analytically. One way of making classification decisions is by setting a threshold on a measured quantity. For instance, if a measurement falls on one side of the threshold, the object that provided the measurement is classified as one type, otherwise, it is of another type. Exploiting thresholding, we formalize a classifier with dichotomous decisions (i.e., with two options, such as true or false) given a single variable measurement. We further extend the formalization to classifiers with trichotomy (i.e., with three options, such as true, false or unknown) and with multivariate measurements. When a team of classifiers is considered, issues on how to exploit redundant numbers of classifiers arise. We analyze these classifiers under different architectures, such as parallel or nested

  9. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... classification guides with RD or FRD information topics. (d) Originators of classification guides with RD or FRD topics shall review such guides at least every five years and make revisions as necessary. (e)...

  10. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... classification guides with RD or FRD information topics. (d) Originators of classification guides with RD or FRD topics shall review such guides at least every five years and make revisions as necessary. (e)...

  11. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2500.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information....

  12. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Intellectual Property Organization, unless the International Bureau corrects the classification. Classes cannot... Intellectual Property Organization. (1) If international classification changes pursuant to the Nice Agreement... registered extensions of protection. (d) Section 66(a) applications and registered extensions of...

  13. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Intellectual Property Organization, unless the International Bureau corrects the classification. Classes cannot... Intellectual Property Organization. (1) If international classification changes pursuant to the Nice Agreement... registered extensions of protection. (d) Section 66(a) applications and registered extensions of...

  14. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Intellectual Property Organization, unless the International Bureau corrects the classification. Classes cannot... Intellectual Property Organization. (1) If international classification changes pursuant to the Nice Agreement... registered extensions of protection. (d) Section 66(a) applications and registered extensions of...

  15. An Expanded Classification of the Plant Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, B. S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an expanded classification of the plant kingdom, emphasizing major evolutionary steps and differences in levels of complexity. Describes subdivisions and suggests that this classification, reflecting unity and diversity, may be logical, understandable, and useful to students. (JN)

  16. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.6 Derivative...'s classified Web site....

  17. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.6 Derivative...'s classified Web site....

  18. Screening and classification of ceramic powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miwa, S.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is given of the classification technology of ceramic powders. Advantages and disadvantages of the wet and dry screening and classification methods are discussed. Improvements of wind force screening devices are described.

  19. Asiago spectroscopic classification of AT2016bry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochner, P.; Tinella, V.; Righetti, G. L.; Belligoli, R.; Castellani, F.; Pastorello, A.; Cappellaro, E.; Benetti, S.; Tomasella, L.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2016-05-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of AT2016bry, discovered by V. Tinella in UGC 11635, and preliminary photometric follow-up.

  20. Asiago spectroscopic classification of AT2016ajo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terreran, G.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Tartaglia, L.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.

    2016-03-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of AT2016ajo, discovered by Y. Ding, W. Gao and X. Gao in an anonymous galaxy near UGC 11344.

  1. 5 CFR 1312.3 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.3 Classification requirements. United States citizens must... security, certain official information must be subject to constraints on its dissemination or release....

  2. 5 CFR 1312.3 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.3 Classification requirements. United States citizens must... security, certain official information must be subject to constraints on its dissemination or release....

  3. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2500.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information....

  4. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O.; Vogel, Timothy M.; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-01-01

    Correctly identifying nearest “neighbors” of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned

  5. Discovery and Classification in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Three decades after Martin Harwit's pioneering Cosmic Discovery (1981), and following on the recent IAU Symposium "Accelerating the Rate of Astronomical Discovery,” we have revisited the problem of discovery in astronomy, emphasizing new classes of objects. 82 such classes have been identified and analyzed, including 22 in the realm of the planets, 36 in the realm of the stars, and 24 in the realm of the galaxies. We find an extended structure of discovery, consisting of detection, interpretation and understanding, each with its own nuances and a microstructure including conceptual, technological and social roles. This is true with a remarkable degree of consistency over the last 400 years of telescopic astronomy, ranging from Galileo's discovery of satellites, planetary rings and star clusters, to the discovery of quasars and pulsars. Telescopes have served as "engines of discovery” in several ways, ranging from telescope size and sensitivity (planetary nebulae and spiral galaxies), to specialized detectors (TNOs) and the opening of the electromagnetic spectrum for astronomy (pulsars, pulsar planets, and most active galaxies). A few classes (radiation belts, the solar wind and cosmic rays), were initially discovered without the telescope. Classification also plays an important role in discovery. While it might seem that classification marks the end of discovery, or a post-discovery phase, in fact it often marks the beginning, even a pre-discovery phase. Nowhere is this more clearly seen than in the classification of stellar spectra, long before dwarfs, giants and supergiants were known, or their evolutionary sequence recognized. Classification may also be part of a post-discovery phase, as in the MK system of stellar classification, constructed after the discovery of stellar luminosity classes. Some classes are declared rather than discovered, as in the case of gas and ice giant planets, and, infamously, Pluto as a dwarf planet.

  6. River Sinuosity Classification - The method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, J.; Székely, B.; Timár, G.

    2012-04-01

    We introduced a new evaluation method, the classification of multiple window-size based sinuosity spectrum. If the river is long enough for the analysis, the classification could be as useful, as the sinuosity spectrum, but sometimes it is more straightforward. Furthermore, for the classification, we did not need the main parameters of the river, e.g. the bankfull discharge. Each sinuosity calculation that was performed for a given window size, has been considered as one band (one channel) of a multichannel "image". Then, the sinuosity spectrums became multichannel images are of size 1 X N where N represents the length of the actual river in pixels. Using this multichannel input unsupervised ISOCLASS classification was carried out on these data, using ER Mapper software. The requested number of classes was set to 5. The results of the sinuosity calculations are scalars. Earlier, it was a subjective decision to divide the sinuosity values into the categories (low, medium-low, medium, medium-high, and high), while the new method provides integer numbers (1 to 5) itself. These numbers are calculated from the sinuosity values, but are not equal to them. Analysing the results of the classification, it is important to note that the method typically splits the river course into contiguous sections that belong to the same class. Boundaries of these classes can be considered as points of considerable change in the river course, because the method uses statistically relevant amount of data of the river course in a robust way to detect changes. Some specific classes or their boundaries seem to be correlated to tectonically active zones. The research is made in the frame of project OTKA-NK83400 (SourceSink Hungary). The European Union and the European Social Fund also have provided financial support to the project under the grant agreement no. TÁMOP 4.2.1./B-09/1/KMR-2010-0003.

  7. Interferometric SAR coherence classification utility assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, D.A.

    1998-03-01

    The classification utility of a dual-antenna interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) is explored by comparison of maximum likelihood classification results for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity images and IPSAR intensity and coherence images. The addition of IFSAR coherence improves the overall classification accuracy for classes of trees, water, and fields. A threshold intensity-coherence classifier is also compared to the intensity-only classification results.

  8. The Classification Ability with Naked Eyes According to the Understanding Level about Rocks of Pre-service Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Cho Kyu; Ho, Chung Duk; Pyo, Hong Deok; Kyeong Jin, Park

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the classification ability with naked eyes according to the understanding level about rocks of pre-service science teachers. We developed a questionnaire concerning misconception about minerals and rocks. The participant were 132 pre-service science teachers. Data were analyzed using Rasch model. Participants were divided into a master group and a novice group according to their understanding level. Seventeen rocks samples (6 igneous, 5 sedimentary, and 6 metamorphic rocks) were presented to pre-service science teachers to examine their classification ability, and they classified the rocks according to the criteria we provided. The study revealed three major findings. First, the pre-service science teachers mainly classified rocks according to textures, color, and grain size. Second, while they relatively easily classified igneous rocks, participants were confused when distinguishing sedimentary and metamorphic rocks from one another by using the same classification criteria. On the other hand, the understanding level of rocks has shown a statistically significant correlation with the classification ability in terms of the formation mechanism of rocks, whereas there was no statically significant relationship found with determination of correct name of rocks. However, this study found that there was a statistically significant relationship between the classification ability with regard the formation mechanism of rocks and the determination of correct name of rocks Keywords : Pre-service science teacher, Understanding level, Rock classification ability, Formation mechanism, Criterion of classification

  9. 15 CFR 4a.3 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification levels. 4a.3 Section 4a.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.3 Classification levels. Information may be classified as national security...

  10. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to originally classify information as Secret...

  11. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 154. (c) Classification procedures. (1) If the Agency determines that a product or one or... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164...

  12. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 154. (c) Classification procedures. (1) If the Agency determines that a product or one or... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164...

  13. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 154. (c) Classification procedures. (1) If the Agency determines that a product or one or... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164...

  14. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 154. (c) Classification procedures. (1) If the Agency determines that a product or one or... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2284 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Size classification. 51.2284 Section 51.2284... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Size Requirements § 51.2284 Size classification. The following classifications are provided to describe the size of any...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2284 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Size classification. 51.2284 Section 51.2284...) Size Requirements § 51.2284 Size classification. The following classifications are provided to describe the size of any lot: “Halves”, “Pieces and Halves”, “Pieces” or “Small Pieces”. The size of...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2284 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Size classification. 51.2284 Section 51.2284...) Size Requirements § 51.2284 Size classification. The following classifications are provided to describe the size of any lot: “Halves”, “Pieces and Halves”, “Pieces” or “Small Pieces”. The size of...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2284 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Size classification. 51.2284 Section 51.2284... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Size Requirements § 51.2284 Size classification. The following classifications are provided to describe the size of any...

  19. 7 CFR 1794.31 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification. 1794.31 Section 1794.31 Agriculture... Classification. (a) Electric and telecommunications programs. RUS will normally determine the proper environmental classification of projects based on its evaluation of the project description set forth in...

  20. 46 CFR 193.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Classification Type Size Soda-acid and water, gals. Foam, gals. Carbon dioxide, lbs. Dry chemical, lbs. A II 21/2... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Classification. 193.50-5 Section 193.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 193.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  1. 46 CFR 193.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Classification Type Size Soda-acid and water, gals. Foam, gals. Carbon dioxide, lbs. Dry chemical, lbs. A II 21/2... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Classification. 193.50-5 Section 193.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 193.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  2. 7 CFR 1794.31 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification. 1794.31 Section 1794.31 Agriculture... Classification. (a) Electric and telecommunications programs. RUS will normally determine the proper environmental classification of projects based on its evaluation of the project description set forth in...

  3. 7 CFR 1794.31 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Classification. 1794.31 Section 1794.31 Agriculture... Classification. (a) Electric and telecommunications programs. RUS will normally determine the proper environmental classification of projects based on its evaluation of the project description set forth in...

  4. 46 CFR 193.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Classification Type Size Soda-acid and water, gals. Foam, gals. Carbon dioxide, lbs. Dry chemical, lbs. A II 21/2... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Classification. 193.50-5 Section 193.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 193.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  5. 7 CFR 1794.31 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification. 1794.31 Section 1794.31 Agriculture... Classification. (a) Electric and telecommunications programs. RUS will normally determine the proper environmental classification of projects based on its evaluation of the project description set forth in...

  6. 5 CFR 1312.3 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification requirements. 1312.3 Section 1312.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION, DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information...

  7. 32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification standards. 2001.10 Section 2001.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying or describing damage to the national...

  8. 77 FR 47544 - Approval of Classification Societies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... procedures by which classification societies could apply for approval with the Coast Guard. See 69 FR 63548... ``Approval of Classification Societies'' (75 FR 21212), outlined the procedures and criteria we would use to... FR page 21215), we will ``annually reevaluate the records of approved classification societies...

  9. 5 CFR 1312.3 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification requirements. 1312.3 Section 1312.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION, DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information...

  10. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 154. (c) Classification procedures. (1) If the Agency determines that a product or one or... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164...

  11. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6... Original Classification § 2400.6 Classification levels. (a) National security information (hereinafter “classified information”) shall be classified at one of the following three levels: (1) “Top Secret” shall...

  12. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges....

  13. 32 CFR 2001.15 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.15 Classification guides....

  14. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges....

  15. 32 CFR 2001.15 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.15 Classification guides....

  16. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges....

  17. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges....

  18. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges....

  19. 32 CFR 2001.15 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.15 Classification guides....

  20. 32 CFR 2001.15 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.15 Classification guides....

  1. 32 CFR 2001.15 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.15 Classification guides....

  2. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  3. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  4. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  5. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  6. 10 CFR 110.122 - Classification assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification assistance. 110.122 Section 110.122 Energy... Procedures for Classified Information in Hearings § 110.122 Classification assistance. On the request of any... security classification of information and the protective requirements to be observed....

  7. 32 CFR 644.426 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Classification. 644.426 Section 644.426 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.426 Classification... required by the special acts, classification will be coordinated with the interested Federal agency....

  8. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of...

  9. 7 CFR 1951.885 - Loan classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Loan classifications. 1951.885 Section 1951.885... classifications. All loans to intermediaries in the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354... again whenever there is a change in the loan which would impact on the original classification. No...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1903 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.1903 Section 51.1903... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1903 Size classification. The following terms may be used for describing the size of the tomatoes in any...

  11. 17 CFR 200.505 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.505 Original classification. (a) No Commission Member or employee has...

  12. 10 CFR 2.904 - Classification assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification assistance. 2.904 Section 2.904 Energy... Security Information § 2.904 Classification assistance. On request of any party to a proceeding or of the... and the parties with respect to security classification of information and the safeguards to...

  13. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  14. 17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...

  15. 7 CFR 51.3198 - Size classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classifications. 51.3198 Section 51.3198... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Size Classifications § 51.3198 Size classifications. Size shall be specified in connection with the grade in terms of...

  16. 46 CFR 132.210 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 132.210 Section 132.210 Shipping COAST... Portable and Semiportable Fire Extinguishers § 132.210 Classification. (a) Each portable fire extinguisher... Classification Type Size Halon 1211, 1301, and 1211-1301 mixtures kgs. (lbs.) Foam, liters (gallons)...

  17. 32 CFR 2400.34 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification. 2400.34 Section 2400.34 National... Government Information § 2400.34 Classification. (a) Foreign government information classified by a foreign government or international organization of governments shall retain its original classification...

  18. 7 CFR 1794.31 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 1794.31 Section 1794.31 Agriculture... Classification. (a) Electric and telecommunications programs. RUS will normally determine the proper environmental classification of projects based on its evaluation of the project description set forth in...

  19. 14 CFR 298.3 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 298.3 Section 298.3... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General § 298.3 Classification. (a) There is hereby established a classification of air carriers, designated as “air taxi operators,”...

  20. 10 CFR 1045.13 - Classification prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification prohibitions. 1045.13 Section 1045.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Information § 1045.13 Classification...

  1. Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their parameters within each…

  2. 10 CFR 61.55 - Waste classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waste classification. 61.55 Section 61.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.55 Waste classification. (a) Classification of waste for...

  3. 46 CFR 95.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 95.50-5 Section 95.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 95.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing... extinguishing systems are set forth in Table 95.50-5(c). Table 95.50-5(c) Classification Type Size Soda-acid...

  4. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim...

  5. 32 CFR 1602.7 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification. 1602.7 Section 1602.7 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.7 Classification. Classification is the exercise of the power to determine claims or questions with respect...

  6. 32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001... Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General. Information classified derivatively on the basis of source documents or classification guides shall bear all markings prescribed...

  7. 46 CFR 76.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 76.50-5 Section 76.50-5 Shipping COAST... Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be... extinguishing systems are set forth in table 76.50-5(c). Table 76.50-5(c) Classification Type Size Soda acid...

  8. 46 CFR 193.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 193.50-5 Section 193.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 193.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire...) Classification Type Size Soda-acid and water, gals. Foam, gals. Carbon dioxide, lbs. Dry chemical, lbs. A II...

  9. Teaching Classification and Seriation to Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciancio, Dennis; Sadovsky, Adrienne; Malabonga, Valerie; Trueblood, Linda; Pasnak, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Studied use of games to teach simple classification and seriation constructs to 3-1/2-year-old children. Found substantial and maintained improvement on classification and seriation. Found that children generalized their new understanding of classification and seriation to different problems, and found that evidence for a more general cognitive…

  10. 10 CFR 1045.17 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Confidential classification are the amount of high explosives used in nuclear weapons, gaseous diffusion design... classification include designs for specific weapon components (not revealing critical features), key features of... classification include detailed technical descriptions of critical features of a nuclear explosive design...

  11. 22 CFR 9.4 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Original classification. 9.4 Section 9.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.4 Original classification. (a) Definition. Original classification is the initial determination that certain information requires protection against unauthorized...

  12. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification guides. 1045.37 Section 1045.37 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.37 Classification...

  13. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification guides. 1045.37 Section 1045.37 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.37 Classification...

  14. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification guides. 1045.37 Section 1045.37 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.37 Classification...

  15. The Classification of Romanian High-Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivan, Ion; Milodin, Daniel; Naie, Lucian

    2006-01-01

    The article tries to tackle the issue of high-schools classification from one city, district or from Romania. The classification criteria are presented. The National Database of Education is also presented and the application of criteria is illustrated. An algorithm for high-school multi-rang classification is proposed in order to build classes of…

  16. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  17. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classification symbols. 42.11 Section 42.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Classification and Foreign State Chargeability § 42.11 Classification symbols. A visa issued to an immigrant...

  18. The Road Ahead for Library Classification Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Joan S.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses knowledge organization tools in the context of seven challenges facing library classification systems. Highlights include revisions to the Dewey Decimal Classification, the Windows-based CD-ROM version of Dewey, support for machine-assisted classification, multilingual use of Dewey, use of Dewey as a general knowledge organization and…

  19. How To Survive a Classification Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, Shelley

    1998-01-01

    Examines job classification studies in public libraries, focusing on point-factor classification systems. Discusses job descriptions, job auditing biases, preparedness, what not to say to auditors, and the appeals process. Outlines typical factors in a job classification: decision-making, guidelines, education, experience, complexity, supervision,…

  20. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  1. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  2. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  4. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... developed material consistent with the classification markings that apply to the source information, is... markings prescribed by 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23 and shall otherwise conform to the requirements of 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23. (1) Classification authority. The authority for classification shall...

  5. Mandibular Third Molar Impaction: Review of Literature and a Proposal of a Classification

    PubMed Central

    Daugela, Povilas

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of present article was to review impacted mandibular third molar aetiology, clinical anatomy, radiologic examination, surgical treatment and possible complications, as well as to create new mandibular third molar impaction and extraction difficulty degree classification based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results. Material and Methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandibular third molar, impacted mandibular third molar, inferior alveolar nerve injury third molar, lingual nerve injury third molar. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1976 to April 2013. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy and oral surgery journals and books was performed. The publications there selected by including clinical and human anatomy studies. Results In total 75 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Impacted mandibular third molar aetiology, clinical anatomy, radiographic examination, surgical extraction of and possible complications, classifications and risk factors were discussed. New mandibular third molar impaction and extraction difficulty degree classification based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results was proposed. Conclusions The classification proposed here based on anatomical and radiological impacted mandibular third molar features is promising to be a helpful tool for impacted tooth assessment as well as for planning for surgical operation. Further clinical studies should be conducted for new classification validation and reliability evaluation. PMID:24422029

  6. Automatic classification of animal vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemins, Patrick J.

    2005-11-01

    Bioacoustics, the study of animal vocalizations, has begun to use increasingly sophisticated analysis techniques in recent years. Some common tasks in bioacoustics are repertoire determination, call detection, individual identification, stress detection, and behavior correlation. Each research study, however, uses a wide variety of different measured variables, called features, and classification systems to accomplish these tasks. The well-established field of human speech processing has developed a number of different techniques to perform many of the aforementioned bioacoustics tasks. Melfrequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) coefficients are two popular feature sets. The hidden Markov model (HMM), a statistical model similar to a finite autonoma machine, is the most commonly used supervised classification model and is capable of modeling both temporal and spectral variations. This research designs a framework that applies models from human speech processing for bioacoustic analysis tasks. The development of the generalized perceptual linear prediction (gPLP) feature extraction model is one of the more important novel contributions of the framework. Perceptual information from the species under study can be incorporated into the gPLP feature extraction model to represent the vocalizations as the animals might perceive them. By including this perceptual information and modifying parameters of the HMM classification system, this framework can be applied to a wide range of species. The effectiveness of the framework is shown by analyzing African elephant and beluga whale vocalizations. The features extracted from the African elephant data are used as input to a supervised classification system and compared to results from traditional statistical tests. The gPLP features extracted from the beluga whale data are used in an unsupervised classification system and the results are compared to labels assigned by experts. The

  7. Classification of Lebanese catchments according to their structural and functional characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merheb, Mohammad; Abdallah, Chadi; Moussa, Roger; Baghdadi, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    structural and functional characteristics. Keywords:catchment classification, hydrologic indices, structural characteristics, functional characteristics, Lebanon.

  8. The minimum distance approach to classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    The work to advance the state-of-the-art of miminum distance classification is reportd. This is accomplished through a combination of theoretical and comprehensive experimental investigations based on multispectral scanner data. A survey of the literature for suitable distance measures was conducted and the results of this survey are presented. It is shown that minimum distance classification, using density estimators and Kullback-Leibler numbers as the distance measure, is equivalent to a form of maximum likelihood sample classification. It is also shown that for the parametric case, minimum distance classification is equivalent to nearest neighbor classification in the parameter space.

  9. The rationale behind Pierre Duhem's natural classification.

    PubMed

    Bhakthavatsalam, Sindhuja

    2015-06-01

    The central concern of this paper is the interpretation of Duhem's attitude towards physical theory. Based on his view that the classification of experimental laws yielded by theory progressively approaches a natural classification-a classification reflecting that of underlying realities-Duhem has been construed as a realist of sorts in recent literature. Here I argue that his positive attitude towards the theoretic classification of laws had rather to do with the pragmatic rationality of the physicist. Duhem's idea of natural classification was an intuitive idea in the mind of the physicist that had to be affirmed in order to justify the physicist's pursuit of theory. PMID:26227227

  10. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  11. Webbed penis: A new classification

    PubMed Central

    El-Koutby, Montasser; Mohamed Amin, El Gohary

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To introduce a new classification for the congenital anomaly of webbed penis and suggest an operative technique that can be planned according to the severity of webbing. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in two pediatric surgical units in Egypt and UAE on babies who were referred for circumcision. A preplanned written protocol was designed before commencing the study. Results: A total of 5,881 babies aged from 1 day to 6 months were seen in two pediatric surgical units. The webbed penis is broadly classified into primary and secondary types. The primary is further subdivided into simple and compound. Conclusions: We believe that the new classification will serve as a baseline for the anatomical variants and help to streamline the operative procedure accordingly. PMID:20975781

  12. Local fat treatments: classification proposal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    The poor understanding of the real, intimate action mechanisms behind any aesthetic procedures is a huge problem for many Aesthetic physicians. In addition, nomenclature of and regarding any procedure has become a true barrier when speaking about medical knowledge in the Aesthetic Medicine field since marketing and science often collide one another. Medical procedures for localized fat reduction are very different from each other and it is, at least, inaccurate to refer to all of them plainly as "fat reduction methods." A specific classification has become urgent and its categories should be able to imply what each method entails. For this classification proposal, "reversibility," "membrane disruption or inflammation," and "action selectivity," have been the selected criteria. PMID:27144093

  13. Classification of infantile nystagmus waveforms.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Maria; Clement, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Classification of infantile nystagmus waveforms is an important problem because the characteristic waveforms can be used to distinguish between infantile and acquired nystagmus. A clear description of the nystagmus is also a necessary first stage in understanding its origin. Currently infantile nystagmus waveforms are classified into at least 12 different types. In this study we analyse a database of nystagmus recordings in order to investigate if this classification can be simplified. Application of principal components analysis revealed that 96.9% of the variance of the waveforms is described by a linear sum of two component waveforms. The components consist of sawtooth and pseudocycloid waveforms that account for 78.7% and 18.2% of the variance respectively for the most common single cycle waveforms. This simplified description of infantile nystagmus highlights the importance of identifying the origin of the jerk component and its synchronisation with the pseudocycloid component for the characterisation and treatment of the nystagmus. PMID:27125578

  14. Cancer markers: integratively annotated classification.

    PubMed

    Orsini, M; Travaglione, A; Capobianco, E

    2013-11-10

    Translational cancer genomics research aims to ensure that experimental knowledge is subject to computational analysis, and integrated with a variety of records from omics and clinical sources. The data retrieval from such sources is not trivial, due to their redundancy and heterogeneity, and the presence of false evidence. In silico marker identification, therefore, remains a complex task that is mainly motivated by the impact that target identification from the elucidation of gene co-expression dynamics and regulation mechanisms, combined with the discovery of genotype-phenotype associations, may have for clinical validation. Based on the reuse of publicly available gene expression data, our aim is to propose cancer marker classification by integrating the prediction power of multiple annotation sources. In particular, with reference to the functional annotation for colorectal markers, we indicate a classification of markers into diagnostic and prognostic classes combined with susceptibility and risk factors. PMID:23928109

  15. Investigation of correlation classification techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    A two-step classification algorithm for processing multispectral scanner data was developed and tested. The first step is a single pass clustering algorithm that assigns each pixel, based on its spectral signature, to a particular cluster. The output of that step is a cluster tape in which a single integer is associated with each pixel. The cluster tape is used as the input to the second step, where ground truth information is used to classify each cluster using an iterative method of potentials. Once the clusters have been assigned to classes the cluster tape is read pixel-by-pixel and an output tape is produced in which each pixel is assigned to its proper class. In addition to the digital classification programs, a method of using correlation clustering to process multispectral scanner data in real time by means of an interactive color video display is also described.

  16. Local fat treatments: classification proposal

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The poor understanding of the real, intimate action mechanisms behind any aesthetic procedures is a huge problem for many Aesthetic physicians. In addition, nomenclature of and regarding any procedure has become a true barrier when speaking about medical knowledge in the Aesthetic Medicine field since marketing and science often collide one another. Medical procedures for localized fat reduction are very different from each other and it is, at least, inaccurate to refer to all of them plainly as “fat reduction methods.” A specific classification has become urgent and its categories should be able to imply what each method entails. For this classification proposal, “reversibility,” “membrane disruption or inflammation,” and “action selectivity,” have been the selected criteria. PMID:27144093

  17. Performance reproducibility index for classification

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Mohammadmahdi R.; Dougherty, Edward R.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: A common practice in biomarker discovery is to decide whether a large laboratory experiment should be carried out based on the results of a preliminary study on a small set of specimens. Consideration of the efficacy of this approach motivates the introduction of a probabilistic measure, for whether a classifier showing promising results in a small-sample preliminary study will perform similarly on a large independent sample. Given the error estimate from the preliminary study, if the probability of reproducible error is low, then there is really no purpose in substantially allocating more resources to a large follow-on study. Indeed, if the probability of the preliminary study providing likely reproducible results is small, then why even perform the preliminary study? Results: This article introduces a reproducibility index for classification, measuring the probability that a sufficiently small error estimate on a small sample will motivate a large follow-on study. We provide a simulation study based on synthetic distribution models that possess known intrinsic classification difficulties and emulate real-world scenarios. We also set up similar simulations on four real datasets to show the consistency of results. The reproducibility indices for different distributional models, real datasets and classification schemes are empirically calculated. The effects of reporting and multiple-rule biases on the reproducibility index are also analyzed. Availability: We have implemented in C code the synthetic data distribution model, classification rules, feature selection routine and error estimation methods. The source code is available at http://gsp.tamu.edu/Publications/supplementary/yousefi12a/. Supplementary simulation results are also included. Contact: edward@ece.tamu.edu Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22954625

  18. Synergistic combination technique for SAR image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Bhaskar

    1998-07-01

    Classification of earth terrain from satellite radar imagery represents an important and continually developing application of microwave remote sensing. The basic objective of this paper is to derive more information, through combining, than is present in any individual element of input data. Multispectral data has been used to provide complementary information so as to utilize a single SAR data for the purpose of land-cover classification. More recently neural networks have been applied to a number of image classification problems and have shown considerable success in exceeding the performance of conventional algorithms. In this work, a comparison study has been carried out between a conventional Maximum Likelihood (ML) classifier and a neural network (back-error-propagation) classifier in terms of classification accuracy. The results reveal that the combination of SAR and MSS data of the same scene produced better classification accuracy than either alone and the neural network classification has an edge over the conventional classification scheme.

  19. Classifications of Patterned Hair Loss: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mysore, Venkataram

    2016-01-01

    Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles. PMID:27081243

  20. Classifications of Patterned Hair Loss: A Review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mysore, Venkataram

    2016-01-01

    Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles. PMID:27081243

  1. Enhancement classification of galaxy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkinson, John

    With the advent of astronomical imaging technology developments, and the increased capacity of digital storage, the production of photographic atlases of the night sky have begun to generate volumes of data which need to be processed autonomously. As part of the Tonantzintla Digital Sky Survey construction, the present work involves software development for the digital image processing of astronomical images, in particular operations that preface feature extraction and classification. Recognition of galaxies in these images is the primary objective of the present work. Many galaxy images have poor resolution or contain faint galaxy features, resulting in the misclassification of galaxies. An enhancement of these images by the method of the Heap transform is proposed, and experimental results are provided which demonstrate the image enhancement to improve the presence of faint galaxy features thereby improving classification accuracy. The feature extraction was performed using morphological features that have been widely used in previous automated galaxy investigations. Principal component analysis was applied to the original and enhanced data sets for a performance comparison between the original and reduced features spaces. Classification was performed by the Support Vector Machine learning algorithm.

  2. Classification of anemia for gastroenterologists

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Chulilla, Jose Antonio; Romero Colás, Maria Soledad; Gutiérrez Martín, Martín

    2009-01-01

    Most anemia is related to the digestive system by dietary deficiency, malabsorption, or chronic bleeding. We review the World Health Organization definition of anemia, its morphological classification (microcytic, macrocytic and normocytic) and pathogenic classification (regenerative and hypo regenerative), and integration of these classifications. Interpretation of laboratory tests is included, from the simplest (blood count, routine biochemistry) to the more specific (iron metabolism, vitamin B12, folic acid, reticulocytes, erythropoietin, bone marrow examination and Schilling test). In the text and various algorithms, we propose a hierarchical and logical way to reach a diagnosis as quickly as possible, by properly managing the medical interview, physical examination, appropriate laboratory tests, bone marrow examination, and other complementary tests. The prevalence is emphasized in all sections so that the gastroenterologist can direct the diagnosis to the most common diseases, although the tables also include rare diseases. Digestive diseases potentially causing anemia have been studied in preference, but other causes of anemia have been included in the text and tables. Primitive hematological diseases that cause anemia are only listed, but are not discussed in depth. The last section is dedicated to simplifying all items discussed above, using practical rules to guide diagnosis and medical care with the greatest economy of resources and time. PMID:19787825

  3. A Classification Table for Achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chennaoui-Aoudjehane, H.; Larouci, N.; Jambon, A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    Classifying chondrites is relatively easy and the criteria are well documented. It is based on mineral compositions, textural characteristics and more recently, magnetic susceptibility. It can be more difficult to classify achondrites, especially those that are very similar to terrestrial igneous rocks, because mineralogical, textural and compositional properties can be quite variable. Achondrites contain essentially olivine, pyroxenes, plagioclases, oxides, sulphides and accessory minerals. Their origin is attributed to differentiated parents bodies: large asteroids (Vesta); planets (Mars); a satellite (the Moon); and numerous asteroids of unknown size. In most cases, achondrites are not eye witnessed falls and some do not have fusion crust. Because of the mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility similarity with terrestrial igneous rocks for some achondrites, it can be difficult for classifiers to confirm their extra-terrestrial origin. We -as classifiers of meteorites- are confronted with this problem with every suspected achondrite we receive for identification. We are developing a "grid" of classification to provide an easier approach for initial classification. We use simple but reproducible criteria based on mineralogical, petrological and geochemical studies. We presented the classes: acapulcoites, lodranites, winonaites and Martian meteorites (shergottite, chassignites, nakhlites). In this work we are completing the classification table by including the groups: angrites, aubrites, brachinites, ureilites, HED (howardites, eucrites, and diogenites), lunar meteorites, pallasites and mesosiderites. Iron meteorites are not presented in this abstract.

  4. Concretion morphology, classification and genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellés-Martínez, J.

    1996-11-01

    A discussion of the most relevant morphological features of concretionary bodies and the different classifications, and the criteria involved in these classifications is presented, together with suggestions for improvements to the various classification schemes. The meaning of syngenetic, diagenetic and epigenetic related to the relative timing and environment of growth of concretionary bodies is also reviewed and discussed. The replacement of mixed morphogenetic classifications, which lead to conflicting results, by classification categories based on textural features is proposed. Because the identification of the genetic environment of a concretionary body tells little about its history, I recommend defining growth patterns in which the successive steps associated with changes in composition and/or texture and the development of new structures are recorded. A new path is presented that accounts for the contradiction between textural and isotope features, which suggests respectively syngenetic and diagenetic (or even epigenetic) signatures. This new path is characterized by the preservation of large porosities over very long time spans and down to depths that are somewhat greater than expected, due to the inhibition of normal compaction caused by early overpressuring. This overpressuring is the result of the development of hydraulic seals since approximately the syngenetic phase times. The concepts of "force of crystallization" and "displacive growth" are also reviewed. It is being suggested to discard some controversial interpretations of their actual importance for true concretionary displacive growth under epigenetic conditions. In accordance with other authors, the conclusion is reached that displacive growth is only possible if the shear strength of the host is very low and the stress field within the host is almost hydrostatic. A new model (the Symcompactional Concretionary Growth Model) is proposed which explains how a concretionary body, generally a nodule

  5. Probabilistic drought classification using gamma mixture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallya, Ganeshchandra; Tripathi, Shivam; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2015-07-01

    Drought severity is commonly reported using drought classes obtained by assigning pre-defined thresholds on drought indices. Current drought classification methods ignore modeling uncertainties and provide discrete drought classification. However, the users of drought classification are often interested in knowing inherent uncertainties in classification so that they can make informed decisions. Recent studies have used hidden Markov models (HMM) for quantifying uncertainties in drought classification. The HMM method conceptualizes drought classes as distinct hydrological states that are not observed (hidden) but affect observed hydrological variables. The number of drought classes or hidden states in the model is pre-specified, which can sometimes result in model over-specification problem. This study proposes an alternate method for probabilistic drought classification where the number of states in the model is determined by the data. The proposed method adapts Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) methodology of drought classification by employing gamma mixture model (Gamma-MM) in a Bayesian framework. The method alleviates the problem of choosing a suitable distribution for fitting data in SPI analysis, quantifies modeling uncertainties, and propagates them for probabilistic drought classification. The method is tested on rainfall data over India. Comparison of the results with standard SPI show important differences particularly when SPI assumptions on data distribution are violated. Further, the new method is simpler and more parsimonious than HMM based drought classification method and can be a viable alternative for probabilistic drought classification.

  6. Cirrhosis Classification Based on Texture Classification of Random Features

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ying; Guo, Dongmei; Zheng, Yuanjie; Zhao, Zuowei; Qiu, Tianshuang

    2014-01-01

    Accurate staging of hepatic cirrhosis is important in investigating the cause and slowing down the effects of cirrhosis. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) can provide doctors with an alternative second opinion and assist them to make a specific treatment with accurate cirrhosis stage. MRI has many advantages, including high resolution for soft tissue, no radiation, and multiparameters imaging modalities. So in this paper, multisequences MRIs, including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, arterial, portal venous, and equilibrium phase, are applied. However, CAD does not meet the clinical needs of cirrhosis and few researchers are concerned with it at present. Cirrhosis is characterized by the presence of widespread fibrosis and regenerative nodules in the hepatic, leading to different texture patterns of different stages. So, extracting texture feature is the primary task. Compared with typical gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) features, texture classification from random features provides an effective way, and we adopt it and propose CCTCRF for triple classification (normal, early, and middle and advanced stage). CCTCRF does not need strong assumptions except the sparse character of image, contains sufficient texture information, includes concise and effective process, and makes case decision with high accuracy. Experimental results also illustrate the satisfying performance and they are also compared with typical NN with GLCM. PMID:24707317

  7. Classification and designation of emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, W. A.

    1981-08-01

    The world's community of frequency administrators has been able to reach agreement on a modern, useful method of designating emissions (transmissions) according to their necessary bandwidth and their classification. The method will become effective on January 1, 1982. With the new system 480 times as many emissions can be accurately classified than with the old. It is believed that now the optimum method has been found. The new method should be the easiest for all administrations to adopt, while providing the accuracy of designation needed in today's state of the technology.

  8. Software For Multivariate Bayesian Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saul, Ronald; Laird, Philip; Shelton, Robert

    1996-01-01

    PHD general-purpose classifier computer program. Uses Bayesian methods to classify vectors of real numbers, based on combination of statistical techniques that include multivariate density estimation, Parzen density kernels, and EM (Expectation Maximization) algorithm. By means of simple graphical interface, user trains classifier to recognize two or more classes of data and then use it to identify new data. Written in ANSI C for Unix systems and optimized for online classification applications. Embedded in another program, or runs by itself using simple graphical-user-interface. Online help files makes program easy to use.

  9. Protein Structure Comparison and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çamoǧlu, Orhan; Singh, Ambuj K.

    The success of genome projects has generated an enormous amount of sequence data. In order to realize the full value of the data, we need to understand its functional role and its evolutionary origin. Sequence comparison methods are incredibly valuable for this task. However, for sequences falling in the twilight zone (usually between 20 and 35% sequence similarity), we need to resort to structural alignment and comparison for a meaningful analysis. Such a structural approach can be used for classification of proteins, isolation of structural motifs, and discovery of drug targets.

  10. Landsat classification accuracy assessment procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mead, R. R.; Szajgin, John

    1982-01-01

    A working conference was held in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 12-14 November, 1980 dealing with Landsat classification Accuracy Assessment Procedures. Thirteen formal presentations were made on three general topics: (1) sampling procedures, (2) statistical analysis techniques, and (3) examples of projects which included accuracy assessment and the associated costs, logistical problems, and value of the accuracy data to the remote sensing specialist and the resource manager. Nearly twenty conference attendees participated in two discussion sessions addressing various issues associated with accuracy assessment. This paper presents an account of the accomplishments of the conference.

  11. A Context for Classification in Child Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Carrey, Normand; Gregson, John

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide a context for classification in child psychiatry over last 45 years including debate over different approaches. Method The context for classification of child psychiatric disorders has changed drastically since the introduction of categorical classification and the multi-axial formulation in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and the International Classification of Disease (ICD). The authors review some historical factors including the shift in psychiatry to a universal classification system spanning the lifespan. Results The adaptation of categorical and universal diagnosis has resulted in a series of child-adult lifespan continuities and discontinuities about how problems are conceptualized within the categorical, multi-axial system. Conclusion There is need for a more flexible classification system to incorporate emerging data from longitudinal and gene-environment (GxE) interaction studies within the framework of attachment, developmental and systems theory. PMID:18516306

  12. Gender classification under extended operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rude, Howard N.; Rizki, Mateen

    2014-06-01

    Gender classification is a critical component of a robust image security system. Many techniques exist to perform gender classification using facial features. In contrast, this paper explores gender classification using body features extracted from clothed subjects. Several of the most effective types of features for gender classification identified in literature were implemented and applied to the newly developed Seasonal Weather And Gender (SWAG) dataset. SWAG contains video clips of approximately 2000 samples of human subjects captured over a period of several months. The subjects are wearing casual business attire and outer garments appropriate for the specific weather conditions observed in the Midwest. The results from a series of experiments are presented that compare the classification accuracy of systems that incorporate various types and combinations of features applied to multiple looks at subjects at different image resolutions to determine a baseline performance for gender classification.

  13. Incremental E-Mail Classification and Rule Suggestion Using Simple Term Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzywicki, Alfred; Wobcke, Wayne

    In this paper, we present and use a method for e-mail categorization based on simple term statistics updated incrementally. We apply simple term statistics to two different tasks. The first task is to predict folders for classification of e-mails when large numbers of messages are required to remain unclassified. The second task is to support users who define rule bases for the same classification task, by suggesting suitable keywords for constructing Ripple Down Rule bases in this scenario. For both tasks, the results are compared with a number of standard machine learning algorithms. The comparison shows that the simple term statistics method achieves a higher level of accuracy than other machine learning methods when taking computation time into account.

  14. Analysis and classification of human error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.; Rouse, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    The literature on human error is reviewed with emphasis on theories of error and classification schemes. A methodology for analysis and classification of human error is then proposed which includes a general approach to classification. Identification of possible causes and factors that contribute to the occurrence of errors is also considered. An application of the methodology to the use of checklists in the aviation domain is presented for illustrative purposes.

  15. An Optimized NBC Approach in Text Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhao; Zhi-Min, Chen

    state-of-the-art text classification algorithms are good at categorizing the Web documents into a few categories. But such a classification method does not give very detailed topic-related class information for the user because the first two levels are often too coarse in Large-scale Text Hierarchies. In this paper, we propose a method named DNB which can improve the performance of classification effectively in experimental results.

  16. Classification of odontogenic cysts and tumors - Antecedents.

    PubMed

    Imran, Aesha; Jayanthi, P; Tanveer, Shahela; Gobu, Sreeja C

    2016-01-01

    Pierre Paul Broca produced a monograph on tumor classification which also included the classification of odontogenic tumors (OTs). The terminology used to describe malignant epithelial OTs has varied since the World Health Organization published the initial consensus on the taxonomy of OTs. Minor changes were introduced in the second edition. It is only in the very recent years that additional knowledge has accumulated and refined the classification. This review emphasizes on reasons for modification by each author and the recent acceptance. PMID:27601821

  17. Bio-geographic classification of the Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendereski, Forough; Vogt, Meike; Payne, Mark R.; Lachkar, Zouhair; Salman Mahini, AbdolRassoul; Hosseini, Seyyed Abbas; Gruber, Nicholas

    2013-04-01

    waters of the CS. Researchers can benefit applying the result for different purposes such as ecosystem conservation, sampling area selection and ecosystem modeling. Keywords: Ecosystem classification, Ecoregions, Self Organizing Maps, Surface pelagic, Caspian Sea

  18. 28 CFR 17.30 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DRC shall redact the identity of an individual challenging a classification under paragraph (a) of... Professional Responsibility, as appropriate. (g) Requests for review of classified material...

  19. Entanglement classification with matrix product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, M.; Egusquiza, I. L.; di Candia, R.; Saberi, H.; Lamata, L.; Solano, E.

    2016-07-01

    We propose an entanglement classification for symmetric quantum states based on their diagonal matrix-product-state (MPS) representation. The proposed classification, which preserves the stochastic local operation assisted with classical communication (SLOCC) criterion, relates entanglement families to the interaction length of Hamiltonians. In this manner, we establish a connection between entanglement classification and condensed matter models from a quantum information perspective. Moreover, we introduce a scalable nesting property for the proposed entanglement classification, in which the families for N parties carry over to the N + 1 case. Finally, using techniques from algebraic geometry, we prove that the minimal nontrivial interaction length n for any symmetric state is bounded by .

  20. Discriminant forest classification method and system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Barry Y.; Hanley, William G.; Lemmond, Tracy D.; Hiller, Lawrence J.; Knapp, David A.; Mugge, Marshall J.

    2012-11-06

    A hybrid machine learning methodology and system for classification that combines classical random forest (RF) methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique which uses feature measurements of an object to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Andersen-Bahadur linear discriminant technique (AB), is used to split the data at each node in each of its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

  1. Minimum distance classification in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The utilization of minimum distance classification methods in remote sensing problems, such as crop species identification, is considered. Literature concerning both minimum distance classification problems and distance measures is reviewed. Experimental results are presented for several examples. The objective of these examples is to: (a) compare the sample classification accuracy of a minimum distance classifier, with the vector classification accuracy of a maximum likelihood classifier, and (b) compare the accuracy of a parametric minimum distance classifier with that of a nonparametric one. Results show the minimum distance classifier performance is 5% to 10% better than that of the maximum likelihood classifier. The nonparametric classifier is only slightly better than the parametric version.

  2. Optimal ABC inventory classification using interval programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Jafar; Salimi, Negin

    2015-08-01

    Inventory classification is one of the most important activities in inventory management, whereby inventories are classified into three or more classes. Several inventory classifications have been proposed in the literature, almost all of which have two main shortcomings in common. That is, the previous methods mainly rely on an expert opinion to derive the importance of the classification criteria which results in subjective classification, and they need precise item parameters before implementing the classification. While the problem has been predominantly considered as a multi-criteria, we examine the problem from a different perspective, proposing a novel optimisation model for ABC inventory classification in the form of an interval programming problem. The proposed interval programming model has two important features compared to the existing methods: it provides optimal results instead of an expert-based classification and it does not require precise values of item parameters, which are not almost always available before classification. Finally, by illustrating the proposed classification model in the form of numerical example, conclusion and suggestions for future works are presented.

  3. 5 CFR 1312.3 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... classification if it concerns: (1) Military plans, weapons systems, or operations; (2) Foreign government...; (5) Scientific, technological, or economic matters relating to the national security; (6)...

  4. On-board multispectral classification study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewalt, D.

    1979-01-01

    The factors relating to onboard multispectral classification were investigated. The functions implemented in ground-based processing systems for current Earth observation sensors were reviewed. The Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, Return Beam Vidicon, and Heat Capacity Mapper were studied. The concept of classification was reviewed and extended from the ground-based image processing functions to an onboard system capable of multispectral classification. Eight different onboard configurations, each with varying amounts of ground-spacecraft interaction, were evaluated. Each configuration was evaluated in terms of turnaround time, onboard processing and storage requirements, geometric and classification accuracy, onboard complexity, and ancillary data required from the ground.

  5. Wetland classification in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Wetland is part of a continuum of land types between deep water and dryland. Only one wetland classification was available for the United States prior to preparation of the new system described here, but numerous regional and special-purpose classifications are in use. The new classification is hierarchical, progressing from five systems (marine, estuarine, lacustrine, riverine, and palustrine) at the most general level to dominance types based on plant or animal communities at the most specific level . The system is currently in use for prototype maps of wetlands of the United States. It is hoped that it may be incorporated into a classification of all land.

  6. Classification of current anticancer immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vacchelli, Erika; Bravo-San Pedro, José-Manuel; Buqué, Aitziber; Senovilla, Laura; Baracco, Elisa Elena; Bloy, Norma; Castoldi, Francesca; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Agostinis, Patrizia; Apte, Ron N; Aranda, Fernando; Ayyoub, Maha; Beckhove, Philipp; Blay, Jean-Yves; Bracci, Laura; Caignard, Anne; Castelli, Chiara; Cavallo, Federica; Celis, Estaban; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Clayton, Aled; Colombo, Mario P; Coussens, Lisa; Dhodapkar, Madhav V; Eggermont, Alexander M; Fearon, Douglas T; Fridman, Wolf H; Fučíková, Jitka; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I; Galon, Jérôme; Garg, Abhishek; Ghiringhelli, François; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Gilboa, Eli; Gnjatic, Sacha; Hoos, Axel; Hosmalin, Anne; Jäger, Dirk; Kalinski, Pawel; Kärre, Klas; Kepp, Oliver; Kiessling, Rolf; Kirkwood, John M; Klein, Eva; Knuth, Alexander; Lewis, Claire E; Liblau, Roland; Lotze, Michael T; Lugli, Enrico; Mach, Jean-Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Mavilio, Domenico; Melero, Ignacio; Melief, Cornelis J; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Moretta, Lorenzo; Odunsi, Adekunke; Okada, Hideho; Palucka, Anna Karolina; Peter, Marcus E; Pienta, Kenneth J; Porgador, Angel; Prendergast, George C; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rizvi, Naiyer; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Schreiber, Hans; Seliger, Barbara; Shiku, Hiroshi; Silva-Santos, Bruno; Smyth, Mark J; Speiser, Daniel E; Spisek, Radek; Srivastava, Pramod K; Talmadge, James E; Tartour, Eric; Van Der Burg, Sjoerd H; Van Den Eynde, Benoît J; Vile, Richard; Wagner, Hermann; Weber, Jeffrey S; Whiteside, Theresa L; Wolchok, Jedd D; Zitvogel, Laurence; Zou, Weiping; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-12-30

    During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into "passive" and "active" based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches. PMID:25537519

  7. [[CARDIORENAL SYNDROMES : DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION].

    PubMed

    Moulin, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    Cardiorenal syndromes refer to clinical and metabolic consequences of acute and chronic heart failure or kidney disease on other organ. Recent studies have further clarified the pathophysiological mechanisms behind the different types of cardiorenal syndromes and propose a new classification. The cardiorenal syndrome type 1 corresponds to an acute heart failure (cardiogenic shock, acute decompensated congestive heart failure) which induces acute renal dysfunction. In the cardiorenal syndrome type 2 heart failure is chronic (congestive heart failure) and induces chronic kidney damages in the long-term. Whereas the renocardiac syndrome type 3 (acute) or 4 (chronic) corresponds to either acute renal failure situation (acute renal failure with tubular necrosis secondary to acute collapsus...) responsible for acute heart failure (left ventricular failure and pulmonary edema) or chronic (chronic glomerulonephritis, polycystic...) leading to chronic heart alteration (left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, arrhythmias). Finally, the failure of both organs can be simultaneous and secondary to a systemic or a metabolic disease (amyloidosis, diabetes) and corresponds to cardiorenal syndrome type 5. Epidemiological studies highlight the high incidence of cardiorenal syndromes type 1 and 2 and particularly the deleterious impact of renal impairment on the short and medium-term prognosis of heart failure. This classification is of essential interest for better identification of patients and help for the development of therapeutic studies. PMID:27538311

  8. Hierarchical classification of glycoside hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Naumoff, D G

    2011-06-01

    This review deals with structural and functional features of glycoside hydrolases, a widespread group of enzymes present in almost all living organisms. Their catalytic domains are grouped into 120 amino acid sequence-based families in the international classification of the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy database). At a higher hierarchical level some of these families are combined in 14 clans. Enzymes of the same clan have common evolutionary origin of their genes and share the most important functional characteristics such as composition of the active center, anomeric configuration of cleaved glycosidic bonds, and molecular mechanism of the catalyzed reaction (either inverting, or retaining). There are now extensive data in the literature concerning the relationship between glycoside hydrolase families belonging to different clans and/or included in none of them, as well as information on phylogenetic protein relationship within particular families. Summarizing these data allows us to propose a multilevel hierarchical classification of glycoside hydrolases and their homologs. It is shown that almost the whole variety of the enzyme catalytic domains can be brought into six main folds, large groups of proteins having the same three-dimensional structure and the supposed common evolutionary origin. PMID:21639842

  9. French perspectives on psychiatric classification

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11. PMID:25987863

  10. Authenticity detection in image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nova, Luis C.; Passos, Emmanuel P. L.

    1992-09-01

    Famous artists' paintings, in general, allow for a large number of forgeries. In the work of a great Brazilian painter, Candido Portinari, we try to detect fake works through their image. To reach classifying results we must extract from digitalized images features that distinguish Portinari's original paintings from the false ones. So, it has been noted that the degree of variation of gray tones in a brush stroke reflects each painter's particular style on the painting. It is a feature that can be easily detected by the power spectrum of the detail image. However, as power spectra have large amounts of data, we use just some significant values of them for the classification. These selected pixels of the spectrum image are in a line which is perpendicular to the direction the brush passed, i.e., they indicate the variation of gray tones in the brush stroke. The data described previously are used as input for further classification by a backpropagation neural network. This neural net was exhaustively trained and has topology and parameters appropriate to the problem. Two output units indicate the major result: original or false.

  11. Classification of Health Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Matthias; von Jan, Ute; Framke, Theodor; Albrecht, Urs-Vito

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a large number of health related apps available in the stores of the major mobile platforms, the stores do not really offer clear definitions of what health related apps are and how they can be categorized. A similar picture is found in literature. Here, many proposals covering different app related aspects have been published, but often, these only cover a narrow field. There is no common terminology describing what health apps are and neither is there a common classification. In order to alleviate the situation, we developed a proposal for categorization that can be used as a basis for discussing aspects related to health applications and for describing the unclear situation on the market. In this paper, the function related aspects are covered, although the scheme itself covers many other aspects related to users of health apps, technical aspects and so on. This initial classification was applied to a sample of health apps available for iOS and Android. PMID:27350487

  12. Helicopter detection and classification demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Koersel, Antonius C.

    2000-07-01

    A technology demonstrator that detects and classifies different helicopter types automatically, was developed at TNO-FEL. The demonstrator is based on a PC, which receives its acoustic input from an all-weather microphone. The demonstrator uses commercial off-the-shelf hardware to digitize the acoustic signal. The user-interface and the signal processing software are written in MatLabTM. The demonstrator detects the noise from helicopters; the classification is performed using a database with helicopter-specific features. The demonstrator currently contains information of 11 different helicopter types, but can easily be expanded to include additional types of helicopters. The input signal is analyzed in real time, the result is a classification ranging from `no target' to `helicopter type x', e.g. Lynx Mk2. If the helicopter is classified, its relative speed is estimated as well. The algorithm was developed and tested using a database of different helicopters (hovering and moving) recorded at distances ranging from 90 meter up to 8 kilometer. The sensitivity to noise was investigated using jet, tank, artillery and environmental (wind and turbulence) noise as input.

  13. Classification of current anticancer immunotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Pedro, José-Manuel Bravo-San; Buqué, Aitziber; Senovilla, Laura; Baracco, Elisa Elena; Bloy, Norma; Castoldi, Francesca; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Agostinis, Patrizia; Apte, Ron N.; Aranda, Fernando; Ayyoub, Maha; Beckhove, Philipp; Blay, Jean-Yves; Bracci, Laura; Caignard, Anne; Castelli, Chiara; Cavallo, Federica; Celis, Estaban; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Clayton, Aled; Colombo, Mario P.; Coussens, Lisa; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Eggermont, Alexander M.; Fearon, Douglas T.; Fridman, Wolf H.; Fučíková, Jitka; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.; Galon, Jérôme; Garg, Abhishek; Ghiringhelli, François; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Gilboa, Eli; Gnjatic, Sacha; Hoos, Axel; Hosmalin, Anne; Jäger, Dirk; Kalinski, Pawel; Kärre, Klas; Kepp, Oliver; Kiessling, Rolf; Kirkwood, John M.; Klein, Eva; Knuth, Alexander; Lewis, Claire E.; Liblau, Roland; Lotze, Michael T.; Lugli, Enrico; Mach, Jean-Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Mavilio, Domenico; Melero, Ignacio; Melief, Cornelis J.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Moretta, Lorenzo; Odunsi, Adekunke; Okada, Hideho; Palucka, Anna Karolina; Peter, Marcus E.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Porgador, Angel; Prendergast, George C.; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Rizvi, Naiyer; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Schreiber, Hans; Seliger, Barbara; Shiku, Hiroshi; Silva-Santos, Bruno; Smyth, Mark J.; Speiser, Daniel E.; Spisek, Radek; Srivastava, Pramod K.; Talmadge, James E.; Tartour, Eric; Van Der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Van Den Eynde, Benoît J.; Vile, Richard; Wagner, Hermann; Weber, Jeffrey S.; Whiteside, Theresa L.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Zitvogel, Laurence; Zou, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into “passive” and “active” based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches. PMID:25537519

  14. Genomic Classification of Cutaneous Melanoma.

    PubMed

    2015-06-18

    We describe the landscape of genomic alterations in cutaneous melanomas through DNA, RNA, and protein-based analysis of 333 primary and/or metastatic melanomas from 331 patients. We establish a framework for genomic classification into one of four subtypes based on the pattern of the most prevalent significantly mutated genes: mutant BRAF, mutant RAS, mutant NF1, and Triple-WT (wild-type). Integrative analysis reveals enrichment of KIT mutations and focal amplifications and complex structural rearrangements as a feature of the Triple-WT subtype. We found no significant outcome correlation with genomic classification, but samples assigned a transcriptomic subclass enriched for immune gene expression associated with lymphocyte infiltrate on pathology review and high LCK protein expression, a T cell marker, were associated with improved patient survival. This clinicopathological and multi-dimensional analysis suggests that the prognosis of melanoma patients with regional metastases is influenced by tumor stroma immunobiology, offering insights to further personalize therapeutic decision-making. PMID:26091043

  15. Circular backpropagation networks for classification.

    PubMed

    Ridella, S; Rovetta, S; Zunino, R

    1997-01-01

    The class of mapping networks is a general family of tools to perform a wide variety of tasks. This paper presents a standardized, uniform representation for this class of networks, and introduces a simple modification of the multilayer perceptron with interesting practical properties, especially well suited to cope with pattern classification tasks. The proposed model unifies the two main representation paradigms found in the class of mapping networks for classification, namely, the surface-based and the prototype-based schemes, while retaining the advantage of being trainable by backpropagation. The enhancement in the representation properties and the generalization performance are assessed through results about the worst-case requirement in terms of hidden units and about the Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension and cover capacity. The theoretical properties of the network also suggest that the proposed modification to the multilayer perceptron is in many senses optimal. A number of experimental verifications also confirm theoretical results about the model's increased performances, as compared with the multilayer perceptron and the Gaussian radial basis functions network. PMID:18255613

  16. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions. PMID:25647463

  17. [Automatic classification method of star spectrum data based on classification pattern tree].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu-Jun; Cai, Jiang-Hui; Zhang, Ji-Fu; Yang, Hai-Feng; Ma, Yang

    2013-10-01

    Frequent pattern, frequently appearing in the data set, plays an important role in data mining. For the stellar spectrum classification tasks, a classification rule mining method based on classification pattern tree is presented on the basis of frequent pattern. The procedures can be shown as follows. Firstly, a new tree structure, i. e., classification pattern tree, is introduced based on the different frequencies of stellar spectral attributes in data base and its different importance used for classification. The related concepts and the construction method of classification pattern tree are also described in this paper. Then, the characteristics of the stellar spectrum are mapped to the classification pattern tree. Two modes of top-to-down and bottom-to-up are used to traverse the classification pattern tree and extract the classification rules. Meanwhile, the concept of pattern capability is introduced to adjust the number of classification rules and improve the construction efficiency of the classification pattern tree. Finally, the SDSS (the Sloan Digital Sky Survey) stellar spectral data provided by the National Astronomical Observatory are used to verify the accuracy of the method. The results show that a higher classification accuracy has been got. PMID:24409754

  18. Classification Laboratory: A Computer Program Using Clip Art To Demonstrate Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Charles I.; French, Donald P.; Huss, Jeanine; Mundis, Matthew

    1999-01-01

    Describes an interactive computer program that provides students with a means for learning classification concepts in the psychology classroom; if computers are not available, clip art can be utilized to study classification. Maintains that the program encourages students to see the importance of modifying any classification system as new data…

  19. Gaussian maximum likelihood and contextual classification algorithms for multicrop classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Zenzo, Silvano; Bernstein, Ralph; Kolsky, Harwood G.; Degloria, Stephen D.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reviews some of the ways in which context has been handled in the remote-sensing literature, and additional possibilities are introduced. The problem of computing exhaustive and normalized class-membership probabilities from the likelihoods provided by the Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier (to be used as initial probability estimates to start relaxation) is discussed. An efficient implementation of probabilistic relaxation is proposed, suiting the needs of actual remote-sensing applications. A modified fuzzy-relaxation algorithm using generalized operations between fuzzy sets is presented. Combined use of the two relaxation algorithms is proposed to exploit context in multispectral classification of remotely sensed data. Results on both one artificially created image and one MSS data set are reported.

  20. 32 CFR 2103.12 - Level of original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Level of original classification. 2103.12... DECLASSIFIED Original Classification § 2103.12 Level of original classification. Unnecessary classification, and classification at a level higher than is necessary, shall be avoided. If there is reasonable...

  1. 5 CFR 9901.222 - Review of classification decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review of classification decisions. 9901... NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Classification Classification Process § 9901.222 Review of classification decisions. (a) An individual employee may request that DoD or OPM review the classification...

  2. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of cotton. For purposes of subsection 15b (f) of The Act, classification...

  3. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of cotton. For purposes of subsection 15b (f) of The Act, classification...

  4. 32 CFR 2103.13 - Duration of original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of original classification. 2103.13... DECLASSIFIED Original Classification § 2103.13 Duration of original classification. Original classification may be extended beyond six years only by officials with Top Secret classification authority....

  5. Advancing Towards a Universal Soil Classification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Phillip R.; Hempel, Jon; Micheli, Erika; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Within the variability of soils across the globe, there are common soil attributes that pedologists have used to group soil within taxonomic classifications. Classification systems are necessary for the communication of information about soils. There are many national classification systems used within designated countries and two classification systems used globally, the US Soil Taxonomy and the World Reference Base. There is a great need for soil scientists to develop one common language or taxonomic system to communicate information within soil science as well as to other scientists in other disciplines. The International Union of Soil Sciences Working Group for Universal Soil Classification was officially established by an IUSS Council decision in August of 2010 at the World Congress of Soil Science in Brisbane, Australia. The charge for the Working Group includes development of common standards for methods and terminology in soil observations and investigations and the development of a universal soil classification system. The Universal Soil Classification Working Group was established and the initial meeting was held at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana USA. The Working Group has evaluated the current national systems and the two international systems to identify gaps in knowledge. Currently, it was determined that gaps in knowledge exists in cold soil, hydromorphic, salt affected, anthropengic, and tropical soil groups. Additionally, several members of the Working Group have utilized taxonomic distance calculations from large databases to determine the clusters of similar taxonomic groupings utilizing the classification. Additionally, the databases are being used to make allocations into logical groups to recognize "Great Soil Groups". The great soil groups will be equivalent to great groups level from Soil Taxonomy along with similar levels in the World Reference Base, Australian Soil Classification and other defined soil classification systems

  6. Sources of variation in hydrological classifications: Time scale, flow series origin and classification procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñas, Francisco J.; Barquín, José; Álvarez, César

    2016-07-01

    Classification of flow regimes in water management and hydroecological research has grown significantly in recent years. However, depending on available data and the procedures applied, there may be several credible classifications for a specific catchment. In this study, three inductive classifications derived from different initial flow data and one expert-driven classification were defined. The hydrological interpretation, statistical performance and spatial correspondence of these classifications were compared. Daily Gauged Classification (DC) was derived from daily flow data while Monthly Gauged Classification (MC) and Monthly Modeled Classification (MMC) were derived from monthly flow series, using gauged and modeled flow data, respectively. Expert-Driven Classification (EDC) was based on a Spanish nationwide hydrological classification, which is being used in the current River Basin Management Plans. The results showed that MC accounted for much of the critical hydrological information variability comprised within the DC. However, it also presented limitations regarding the inability to represent important hydroecological attributes, especially those related to droughts and high flow events. In addition, DC and MC presented an equivalent performance more than 60% of the time and obtained a mean ARI value of 0.4, indicating a similar classification structure. DC and MC outperformed MMC 100% and more than 50% of the times when they were compared by means of the classification strength and ANOVA, respectively. MMC also showed low correspondence with these classifications (ARI = 0.20). Thus, the use of modeled flow series should be limited to poorly gauged areas. Finally, the significantly reduced performance and the uneven distribution of classes found in EDC questions its application for different management objectives. This study shows that the selection of the most suitable approach according to the available data has significant implications for the

  7. Urban land cover classification using hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, G.; Ahamed, J. Mohammed; Hebbar, R.; Raj, U.

    2014-11-01

    Urban land cover classification using remote sensing data is quite challenging due to spectrally and spatially complex urban features. The present study describes the potential use of hyperspectral data for urban land cover classification and its comparison with multispectral data. EO-1 Hyperion data of October 05, 2012 covering parts of Bengaluru city was analyzed for land cover classification. The hyperspectral data was initially corrected for atmospheric effects using MODTRAN based FLAASH module and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) transformation was applied to reduce data dimensionality. The threshold Eigen value of 1.76 in VNIR region and 1.68 in the SWIR region was used for selection of 145 stable bands. Advanced per pixel classifiers viz., Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used for general urban land cover classification. Accuracy assessment of the classified data revealed that SVM was quite superior (82.4 per cent) for urban land cover classification as compared to SAM (67.1 per cent). Selecting training samples using end members significantly improved the classification accuracy by 20.1 per cent in SVM. The land cover classification using multispectral LISS-III data using SVM showed lower accuracy mainly due to limitation of spectral resolution. The study indicated the requirement of additional narrow bands for achieving reasonable classification accuracy of urban land cover. Future research is focused on generating hyperspectral library for different urban features.

  8. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  9. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  10. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  11. Asiago spectroscopic classification of AT 2016cvm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasella, L.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of AT 2016cvm (also known as PTSS-16hxs), discovered 20160613.771 by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS) The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82 m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm).

  12. 46 CFR 132.210 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Classification. 132.210 Section 132.210 Shipping COAST... Portable and Semiportable Fire Extinguishers § 132.210 Classification. (a) Each portable fire extinguisher... the quenching and cooling effect of quantities of either water or solutions containing...

  13. 46 CFR 95.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Classification. 95.50-5 Section 95.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 95.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing... materials where the quenching and cooling effects of quantities of water, or solutions containing...

  14. 46 CFR 132.210 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Classification. 132.210 Section 132.210 Shipping COAST... Portable and Semiportable Fire Extinguishers § 132.210 Classification. (a) Each portable fire extinguisher... the quenching and cooling effect of quantities of either water or solutions containing...

  15. 46 CFR 132.210 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Classification. 132.210 Section 132.210 Shipping COAST... Portable and Semiportable Fire Extinguishers § 132.210 Classification. (a) Each portable fire extinguisher... the quenching and cooling effect of quantities of either water or solutions containing...

  16. 18 CFR 367.26 - Departmental classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Departmental classification. 367.26 Section 367.26 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT General Instructions § 367.26 Departmental classification. Salaries and wages and all other...

  17. 46 CFR 95.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Classification. 95.50-5 Section 95.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 95.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing... materials where the quenching and cooling effects of quantities of water, or solutions containing...

  18. 18 CFR 367.26 - Departmental classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Departmental classification. 367.26 Section 367.26 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT General Instructions § 367.26 Departmental classification. Salaries and wages and all other...

  19. 18 CFR 367.26 - Departmental classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Departmental classification. 367.26 Section 367.26 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT General Instructions § 367.26 Departmental classification. Salaries and wages and all other...

  20. 46 CFR 95.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Classification. 95.50-5 Section 95.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 95.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing... materials where the quenching and cooling effects of quantities of water, or solutions containing...

  1. 46 CFR 76.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Classification. 76.50-5 Section 76.50-5 Shipping COAST... Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be... quenching and cooling effects of quantities of water, or solutions containing large percentages of...

  2. 18 CFR 367.26 - Departmental classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Departmental classification. 367.26 Section 367.26 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT General Instructions § 367.26 Departmental classification. Salaries and wages and all other...

  3. 46 CFR 132.210 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Classification. 132.210 Section 132.210 Shipping COAST... Portable and Semiportable Fire Extinguishers § 132.210 Classification. (a) Each portable fire extinguisher... the quenching and cooling effect of quantities of either water or solutions containing...

  4. 32 CFR 2400.15 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM... be used to direct derivative classification. (b) The classification guides shall be approved,...

  5. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  6. Outline History of Classification: An Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocran, Emanuel Benjamin

    According to this author, library classification should be viewed in its broader context of the classification of knowledge--the orderly arrangement of thoughts and things for convenient reference. This has been an activity of man since his earliest days, when primitive man first classified animals and plants in the interest of food. Philosophers,…

  7. 14 CFR 1203.412 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of the classification designations (i.e., Top Secret, Secret or Confidential) apply to the identified... writing by an official with original Top Secret classification authority; the identity of the official..., all guides will be approved by the Chairperson, NASA Information Security Program Committee,...

  8. 14 CFR 1203.412 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the classification designations (i.e., Top Secret, Secret or Confidential) apply to the identified... writing by an official with original Top Secret classification authority; the identity of the official..., all guides will be approved by the Chairperson, NASA Information Security Program Committee,...

  9. 14 CFR 1203.412 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of the classification designations (i.e., Top Secret, Secret or Confidential) apply to the identified... writing by an official with original Top Secret classification authority; the identity of the official..., all guides will be approved by the Chairperson, NASA Information Security Program Committee,...

  10. 14 CFR 1203.412 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the classification designations (i.e., Top Secret, Secret or Confidential) apply to the identified... writing by an official with original Top Secret classification authority; the identity of the official..., all guides will be approved by the Chairperson, NASA Information Security Program Committee,...

  11. Asiago spectroscopic classification of four SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, A.; Tartaglia, L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classifications of PS15cym in GALEXASC J011024.12+232124.1, CSS151130:014258+273410 in an anonymous galaxy, PSN J05225991-0008174 in UGC 3301 and ASASSN-15tj in SDSS J075527.63+520911.1 (ATel #8358).

  12. Asiago spectroscopic classification of three SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias-Rosa, N.; Cappellaro, E.; Benetti, S.; Milan, M.; Miluzio, M.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.; Morales-Garoffolo, A.; Huang, F.

    2014-10-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of two SNe. The observations were performed with the Asiago 1.82 m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.2 nm).

  13. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  14. Classification systems for natural resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    Resource managers employ various types of resource classification systems in their management activities such as inventory, mapping, and data analysis. Classification is the ordering or arranging of objects into groups or sets on the basis of their relationships, and as such, provide the resource managers with a structure for organizing their needed information. In addition of conforming to certain logical principles, resource classifications should be flexible, widely applicable to a variety of environmental conditions, and useable with minimal training. The process of classification may be approached from the bottom up (aggregation) or the top down (subdivision) or a combination of both, depending on the purpose of the classification. Most resource classification systems in use today focus on a single resource and are used for a single, limited purpose. However, resource managers now must employ the concept of multiple use in their management activities. What they need is an integrated, ecologically based approach to resource classification which would fulfill multiple-use mandates. In an effort to achieve resource-data compatibility and data sharing among Federal agencies, and interagency agreement has been signed by five Federal agencies to coordinate and cooperate in the area of resource classification and inventory.

  15. International Standard Classification of Education. Abridged Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Statistics on Education.

    The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) has been designed as an instrument suitable for assembling, compiling, and presenting statistics of education both within individual countries and internationally. The classification is designed for assembling data on current educational phenomena such as enrollment, teaching staff and…

  16. 32 CFR 2400.9 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification requirements. 2400.9 Section 2400.9 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Original Classification §...

  17. Security Classification Reform: The Waiting Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of security classification reform for consideration by the Clinton administration and the 103rd Congress. Historical background and current issues related to the security classification of information, personnel security clearances, and industrial safeguarding of classified information are discussed. A checklist of basic…

  18. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION..., or who only apply classification markings derived from source material or as directed by...

  19. 46 CFR 162.039-2 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 162.039-2 Section 162.039-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Classification. (a) Every semiportable fire extinguisher shall be classified as to type and size as specified...

  20. 46 CFR 164.018-3 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 164.018-3 Section 164.018-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Classification. The following types of retroreflective material are approved under this specification: (a) Type...