Science.gov

Sample records for acm classification keywords

  1. Keywords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doecke, Brenton; Howie, Mark; Sawyer, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Borrowing the title of Raymond Williams' famous study, the following reflections--sometimes collective and sometimes individual--are based on a series of "Keywords", specifically: "fear", "community" and "creativity". By reflecting on the meanings these words have for us today, we attempt to capture their dialogical character, posing them as sites…

  2. Categorization of Computing Education Resources into the ACM Computing Classification System

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yinlin; Bogen, Paul Logasa; Fox, Dr. Edward A.; Hsieh, Dr. Haowei; Cassel, Dr. Lillian N.

    2012-01-01

    The Ensemble Portal harvests resources from multiple heterogonous federated collections. Managing these dynamically increasing collections requires an automatic mechanism to categorize records in to corresponding topics. We propose an approach to use existing ACM DL metadata to build classifiers for harvested resources in the Ensemble project. We also present our experience on utilizing the Amazon Mechanical Turk platform to build ground truth training data sets from Ensemble collections.

  3. Extending the Dewey Decimal Classification via Keyword Clustering: The Science Library Catalog Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Jason B.; Borgman, Christine L.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the Science Library Catalog, an online catalog intended for use by children at the Los Angeles Public Library, and describes the process of reorganizing the MARC-based database by using clustering algorithms to extend the Dewey Decimal Classification. Examples of screen displays are included. (18 references) (LRW)

  4. Keyword: Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The practical goal of graduate education is placement of graduates. But what does "placement" mean? Academics use the word without thinking much about it. "Placement" is a great keyword for the graduate-school enterprise. For one thing, its meaning certainly gives a purpose to graduate education. Furthermore, the word is a portal into the way of…

  5. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  6. Micro-Stirling Active Cooling Module (MS/ACM) for DoD Electronics Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Micro- Stirling Active Cooling Module (MS/ACM) for DoD Electronics Systems Douglas S. Beck Beck Engineering , Inc. 1490 Lumsden Road, Port Orchard...refrigerator. We are developing for DARPA a cm-scale Micro- Stirling Active Cooling Module (MS/ACM) micro- refrigerator to benefit the DoD systems. Under...a DARPA contract, we are designing, building, and demonstrating a breadboard MS/ACM. Keywords: Stirling ; cooler; active cooling module; micro

  7. The Keck keyword layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, A. R.; Lupton, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Each Keck instrument presents a consistent software view to the user interface programmer. The view consists of a small library of functions, which are identical for all instruments, and a large set of keywords, that vary from instrument to instrument. All knowledge of the underlying task structure is hidden from the application programmer by the keyword layer. Image capture software uses the same function library to collect data for the image header. Because the image capture software and the instrument control software are built on top of the same keyword layer, a given observation can be 'replayed' by extracting keyword-value pairs from the image header and passing them back to the control system. The keyword layer features non-blocking as well as blocking I/O. A non-blocking keyword write operation (such as setting a filter position) specifies a callback to be invoked when the operation is complete. A non-blocking keyword read operation specifies a callback to be invoked whenever the keyword changes state. The keyword-callback style meshes well with the widget-callback style commonly used in X window programs. The first keyword library was built for the two Keck optical instruments. More recently, keyword libraries have been developed for the infrared instruments and for telescope control. Although the underlying mechanisms used for inter-process communication by each of these systems vary widely (Lick MUSIC, Sun RPC, and direct socket I/O, respectively), a basic user interface has been written that can be used with any of these systems. Since the keyword libraries are bound to user interface programs dynamically at run time, only a single set of user interface executables is needed. For example, the same program, 'xshow', can be used to display continuously the telescope's position, the time left in an instrument's exposure, or both values simultaneously. Less generic tools that operate on specific keywords, for example an X display that controls optical

  8. ACME-III and ACME-IV Final Campaign Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s third and fourth Airborne Carbon Measurements (ACME) field campaigns, ACME-III and ACME-IV, are: 1) to measure and model the exchange of CO2, water vapor, and other greenhouse gases by the natural, agricultural, and industrial ecosystems of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region; 2) to develop quantitative approaches to relate these local fluxes to the concentration of greenhouse gases measured at the Central Facility tower and in the atmospheric column above the ARM SGP Central Facility, 3) to develop and test bottom-up measurement and modeling approaches to estimate regional scale carbon balances, and 4) to develop and test inverse modeling approaches to estimate regional scale carbon balance and anthropogenic sources over continental regions. Regular soundings of the atmosphere from near the surface into the mid-troposphere are essential for this research.

  9. The Keck Keyword Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, A. R.; Lupton, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    Each Keck instrument presents a consistent software view to the applications programmer. A set of ``plug compatible'' applications has been developed that can be used with any instrument. Because image capture software uses the same keyword library to collect data for the image header, a given observation can be ``replayed'' by extracting keyword-value pairs from the image header and passing them back to the control system.

  10. Abstract and keywords.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2008-09-01

    The abstract of a scientific paper represents a concise, accurate and factual mini-version of the paper contents. Abstract format may vary according to the individual journal. For original articles, a structured abstract usually consists of the following headings: aims (or objectives), materials and methods, results and conclusion. A few keywords that capture the main topics of the paper help indexing in the medical literature.

  11. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  12. Asbestos-Containing Materials (ACM) and Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are specific federal regulatory requirements that require the identification of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in many of the residential buildings that are being demolished or renovated by a municipality.

  13. Quark ACM with topologically generated gluon mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Ishita Dutta; Lahiri, Amitabha

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the effect of a small, gauge-invariant mass of the gluon on the anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM) of quarks by perturbative calculations at one-loop level. The mass of the gluon is taken to have been generated via a topological mass generation mechanism, in which the gluon acquires a mass through its interaction with an antisymmetric tensor field Bμν. For a small gluon mass ( < 10 MeV), we calculate the ACM at momentum transfer q2 = -M Z2. We compare those with the ACM calculated for the gluon mass arising from a Proca mass term. We find that the ACM of up, down, strange and charm quarks vary significantly with the gluon mass, while the ACM of top and bottom quarks show negligible gluon mass dependence. The mechanism of gluon mass generation is most important for the strange quarks ACM, but not so much for the other quarks. We also show the results at q2 = -m t2. We find that the dependence on gluon mass at q2 = -m t2 is much less than at q2 = -M Z2 for all quarks.

  14. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project is developing technology to build structures on planetary surfaces using in-situ resources. The project focuses on the construction of both 2D (landing pads, roads, and structure foundations) and 3D (habitats, garages, radiation shelters, and other structures) infrastructure needs for planetary surface missions. The ACME project seeks to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of two components needed for planetary surface habitation and exploration: 3D additive construction (e.g., contour crafting), and excavation and handling technologies (to effectively and continuously produce in-situ feedstock). Additionally, the ACME project supports the research and development of new materials for planetary surface construction, with the goal of reducing the amount of material to be launched from Earth.

  15. A keyword spotting model using perceptually significant energy features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umakanthan, Padmalochini

    The task of a keyword recognition system is to detect the presence of certain words in a conversation based on the linguistic information present in human speech. Such keyword spotting systems have applications in homeland security, telephone surveillance and human-computer interfacing. General procedure of a keyword spotting system involves feature generation and matching. In this work, new set of features that are based on the psycho-acoustic masking nature of human speech are proposed. After developing these features a time aligned pattern matching process was implemented to locate the words in a set of unknown words. A word boundary detection technique based on frame classification using the nonlinear characteristics of speech is also addressed in this work. Validation of this keyword spotting model was done using widely acclaimed Cepstral features. The experimental results indicate the viability of using these perceptually significant features as an augmented feature set in keyword spotting.

  16. Porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM): protein expression, mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Walid A; Chen, Jun; Haig, Jennifer; Antoon, Roula; Litman, Jessica; Sherman, Christopher; Derwin, Kathleen; Yeger, Herman

    2008-06-01

    Experimentally, porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM) that mimics extracellular matrix has excellent potential as a bladder substitute. Herein we investigated the spatial localization and expression of different key cellular and extracellular proteins in the ACM; furthermore, we evaluated the inherent mechanical properties of the resultant ACM prior to implantation. Using a proprietary decellularization method, the DNA contents in both ACM and normal bladder were measured; in addition we used immunohistochemistry and western blots to quantify and localize the different cellular and extracellular components, and finally the mechanical testing was performed using a uniaxial mechanical testing machine. The mean DNA content in the ACM was significantly lower in the ACM compared to the bladder. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical and western blot analyses showed that collagen I and IV were preserved in the ACM, but possibly denatured collagen III in the ACM. Furthermore, elastin, laminin and fibronectin were mildly reduced in the ACM. Although the ACM did not exhibit nucleated cells, residual cellular components (actin, myosin, vimentin and others) were still present. There was, on the other hand, no significant difference in the mean stiffness between the ACM and the bladder. Although our decellularization method is effective in removing nuclear material from the bladder while maintaining its inherent mechanical properties, further work is mandatory to determine whether these residual DNA and cellular remnants would lead to any immune reaction, or if the mechanical properties of the ACM are preserved upon implantation and cellularization.

  17. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    DOE PAGES

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  18. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  19. Porosity of porcine bladder acellular matrix: impact of ACM thickness.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Walid; Chen, Jun; Erdeljan, Petar; Shemtov, Oren; Courtman, David; Khoury, Antoine; Yeger, Herman

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to examine the porosity of bladder acellular matrix (ACM) using deionized (DI) water as the model fluid and dextran as the indicator macromolecule, and to correlate the porosity to the ACM thickness. Porcine urinary bladders from pigs weighing 20-50 kg were sequentially extracted in detergent containing solutions, and to modify the ACM thickness, stretched bladders were acellularized in the same manner. Luminal and abluminal ACM specimens were subjected to fixed static DI water pressure (10 cm); and water passing through the specimens was collected at specific time interval. While for the macromolecule porosity testing, the diffusion rate and direction of 10,000 MW fluoroescein-labeled dextrans across the ACM specimens mounted in Ussing's chambers were measured. Both experiments were repeated on the thin stretched ACM. In both ACM types, the fluid porosity in both directions did not decrease with increased test duration (3 h); in addition, the abluminal surface was more porous to fluid than the luminal surface. On the other hand, when comparing thin to thick ACM, the porosity in either direction was higher in the thick ACM. Macromolecule porosity, as measured by absorbance, was higher for the abluminal thick ACM than the luminal side, but this characteristic was reversed in the thin ACM. Comparing thin to thick ACM, the luminal side in the thin ACM was more porous to dextran than in the thick ACM, but this characteristic was reversed for the abluminal side. The porcine bladder ACM possesses directional porosity and acellularizing stretched urinary bladders may increase structural density and alter fluid and macromolecule porosity.

  20. How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-04-11

    The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos, the pipe and/or the metal frameworks. Safe disposal of ACM at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, likewise, requires large disposal volumes in landfills for non-radioactive ACM and large disposal volumes in radioactive burial grounds for radioactive and suspect contaminated ACM. The availability of regulated disposal sites is rapidly diminishing causing recycle to be a more attractive option. Asbestos adhering to metal (e.g., pipes) can be recycled by safely removing the asbestos from the metal in a patented hot caustic bath which prevents airborne contamination /inhalation of asbestos fibers. The dissolution residue (caustic and asbestos) can be wet slurry fed to a melter and vitrified into a glass or glass-ceramic. Palex glasses, which are commercially manufactured, are shown to be preferred over conventional borosilicate glasses. The Palex glasses are alkali magnesium silicate glasses derived by substituting MgO for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in borosilicate type glasses. Palex glasses are very tolerant of the high MgO and high CaO content of the fillers used in forming asbestos coverings for pipes and found in boiler lashing, e.g., hydromagnesite (3MgCO{sub 3} Mg(OH){sub 2} 3H{sub 2}O) and plaster of paris, gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}). The high temperate of the vitrification process destroys the asbestos fibers and renders the asbestos non-hazardous, e.g., a glass or glass-ceramic. In this manner the glass or glass-ceramic produced can be recycled, e.g., glassphalt or glasscrete, as can the clean metal pipe or metal framework.

  1. Extraction of Protein-Protein Interaction from Scientific Articles by Predicting Dominant Keywords.

    PubMed

    Koyabu, Shun; Phan, Thi Thanh Thuy; Ohkawa, Takenao

    2015-01-01

    For the automatic extraction of protein-protein interaction information from scientific articles, a machine learning approach is useful. The classifier is generated from training data represented using several features to decide whether a protein pair in each sentence has an interaction. Such a specific keyword that is directly related to interaction as "bind" or "interact" plays an important role for training classifiers. We call it a dominant keyword that affects the capability of the classifier. Although it is important to identify the dominant keywords, whether a keyword is dominant depends on the context in which it occurs. Therefore, we propose a method for predicting whether a keyword is dominant for each instance. In this method, a keyword that derives imbalanced classification results is tentatively assumed to be a dominant keyword initially. Then the classifiers are separately trained from the instance with and without the assumed dominant keywords. The validity of the assumed dominant keyword is evaluated based on the classification results of the generated classifiers. The assumption is updated by the evaluation result. Repeating this process increases the prediction accuracy of the dominant keyword. Our experimental results using five corpora show the effectiveness of our proposed method with dominant keyword prediction.

  2. Precision and Recall in Title Keyword Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McJunkin, Monica Cahill

    This study examines precision and recall for title and keyword searches performed in the "FirstSearch" WorldCat database when keywords are used with and without adjacency of terms specified. A random sample of 68 titles in economics were searched in the OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) Online Union Catalog in order to obtain their…

  3. Acme Foundry, Inc. - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Acme Foundry, Inc., for alleged violations at its facility located at 1502 South Spruce Street, Coffeyville, Kansas 67337

  4. Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  5. Keyword Extraction from Arabic Legal Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammal, Mahmoud; Bahsoun, Zeinab; Al Achkar Jabbour, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to apply local grammar (LG) to develop an indexing system which automatically extracts keywords from titles of Lebanese official journals. Design/methodology/approach: To build LG for our system, the first word that plays the determinant role in understanding the meaning of a title is analyzed and grouped as…

  6. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Stuart J [Richland, WA; Cowley,; E, Wendy [Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Cramer, Nicholas O [Richland, WA

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  7. Classification.

    PubMed

    Tuxhorn, Ingrid; Kotagal, Prakash

    2008-07-01

    In this article, we review the practical approach and diagnostic relevance of current seizure and epilepsy classification concepts and principles as a basic framework for good management of patients with epileptic seizures and epilepsy. Inaccurate generalizations about terminology, diagnosis, and treatment may be the single most important factor, next to an inadequately obtained history, that determines the misdiagnosis and mismanagement of patients with epilepsy. A stepwise signs and symptoms approach for diagnosis, evaluation, and management along the guidelines of the International League Against Epilepsy and definitions of epileptic seizures and epilepsy syndromes offers a state-of-the-art clinical approach to managing patients with epilepsy.

  8. Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2011-01-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. In supervised learning, a set of training examples---examples with known output values---is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate's measurements. This chapter discusses methods to perform machine learning, with examples involving astronomy.

  9. Prevalence and genetic diversity of arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) in clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci: identification of ACME type I variants in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Mayumi; Urushibara, Noriko; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Ghosh, Souvik; Shinagawa, Masaaki; Watanabe, Naoki; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2013-12-01

    Arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), a genomic island consisting of the arc and/or opp3 gene clusters found in staphylococcal species, is related to increased bacterial adaptability to hosts. Staphylococcus epidermidis is considered a major ACME reservoir; however, prevalence and genetic diversity of ACME in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have not yet been well characterized for clinical isolates in Japan. A total of 271 clinical isolates of CNS in a Japanese hospital were investigated for the presence and genotype of ACME and SCCmec. The prevalence of ACME-arcA was significantly higher (p<0.001) in S. epidermidis (45.8%) than in other CNS species (3.7%). ACME in S. epidermidis isolates (n=87) were differentiated into type I (n=33), variant forms of type I (ΔI, n=26) newly identified in this study, type II (n=6), and type ΔII (n=19). ACME-type ΔI, which were further classified into three subtypes, lacked some genetic components between the arc and opp3 clusters in archetypal type I, whereas the arc and opp3 clusters were intact. The arc cluster exhibited high sequence identity (95.8-100%) to that of type I ACME; in contrast, the opp3 cluster was highly diverse, and showed relatively lower identities (94.8-98.7%) to the identical regions in type I ACME. Twenty-one isolates of ΔI ACME-carrying S. epidermidis possessed SCCmec IVa and belonged to ST5 (clonal complex 2). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that isolates harboring ACME ΔI in this study clustered with previously reported S. epidermidis strains with other lineges, suggesting that S. epidermidis originally had some genetic variations in the opp3 cluster. In summary, ACME type ΔI, a truncated variant of ACME-I, was first identified in S. epidermidis, and revealed to be prevalent in ST5 MRSE clinical isolates with SCCmec IVa.

  10. Statistical keyword detection in literary corpora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, J. P.; Pury, P. A.

    2008-05-01

    Understanding the complexity of human language requires an appropriate analysis of the statistical distribution of words in texts. We consider the information retrieval problem of detecting and ranking the relevant words of a text by means of statistical information referring to the spatial use of the words. Shannon's entropy of information is used as a tool for automatic keyword extraction. By using The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin as a representative text sample, we show the performance of our detector and compare it with another proposals in the literature. The random shuffled text receives special attention as a tool for calibrating the ranking indices.

  11. Robust keyword retrieval method for OCRed text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yusaku; Takebe, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hotta, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    Document management systems have become important because of the growing popularity of electronic filing of documents and scanning of books, magazines, manuals, etc., through a scanner or a digital camera, for storage or reading on a PC or an electronic book. Text information acquired by optical character recognition (OCR) is usually added to the electronic documents for document retrieval. Since texts generated by OCR generally include character recognition errors, robust retrieval methods have been introduced to overcome this problem. In this paper, we propose a retrieval method that is robust against both character segmentation and recognition errors. In the proposed method, the insertion of noise characters and dropping of characters in the keyword retrieval enables robustness against character segmentation errors, and character substitution in the keyword of the recognition candidate for each character in OCR or any other character enables robustness against character recognition errors. The recall rate of the proposed method was 15% higher than that of the conventional method. However, the precision rate was 64% lower.

  12. Sealing Force Increasing of ACM Gasket through Electron Beam Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, D. J.; Batalha, G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Rubber is an engineering material largely used as sealing parts, in form of O-rings, solid gaskets and liquid gaskets, materials applied in liquid state with posterior vulcanization and sealing. Stress relaxation is a rubber characteristic which impacts negatively in such industrial applications (rings and solid gaskets). This work has the purpose to investigate the use of electron beam radiation (EB) as a technology able to decrease the stress relaxation in acrylic rubber (ACM), consequently increasing the sealing capability of this material. ACM samples were irradiated with dose of 100 kGy and 250 kGy, its behavior was comparatively investigated using, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and compression stress relaxation (CSR) experiments. The results obtained by DMA shown an increase of Tg and changes in dynamic mechanical behavior.

  13. ACME, a GIS tool for Automated Cirque Metric Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, Matteo; Pellitero, Ramon; Barr, Iestyn D.; Ely, Jeremy C.; Pellicer, Xavier M.; Rea, Brice R.

    2017-02-01

    Regional scale studies of glacial cirque metrics provide key insights on the (palaeo) environment related to the formation of these erosional landforms. The growing availability of high resolution terrain models means that more glacial cirques can be identified and mapped in the future. However, the extraction of their metrics still largely relies on time consuming manual techniques or the combination of, more or less obsolete, GIS tools. In this paper, a newly coded toolbox is provided for the automated, and comparatively quick, extraction of 16 key glacial cirque metrics; including length, width, circularity, planar and 3D area, elevation, slope, aspect, plan closure and hypsometry. The set of tools, named ACME (Automated Cirque Metric Extraction), is coded in Python, runs in one of the most commonly used GIS packages (ArcGIS) and has a user friendly interface. A polygon layer of mapped cirques is required for all metrics, while a Digital Terrain Model and a point layer of cirque threshold midpoints are needed to run some of the tools. Results from ACME are comparable to those from other techniques and can be obtained rapidly, allowing large cirque datasets to be analysed and potentially important regional trends highlighted.

  14. Method of determining of keywords in English texts based on the DKPro Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisikalo, Oleg V.; Wójcik, Waldemar; Yahimovich, Olexand V.; Smailova, Saule

    2016-09-01

    The new method of the keywords determining based on finding the connections between word forms of the English text with the instrumental capabilities of package DKPro Core is suggested in this article. The method, which is illustrated with examples of analysis, aimed at solving problems of efficient processing of text documents - indexing, abstracting, clustering and classification. As a result of theoretical and experimental studies it is found that the developed method found more keywords, specified by the author of the text, compared to analogues and had better quality characteristics. The proposed method of determining of the keywords differs from existing in that it uses additional information about the complex relationships between members of an English sentence.

  15. Towards an Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) with Reflex Autonomicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Hinchey, Mike; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of providing a fault-tolerant environment and achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications. However, the task of manually managing and configuring a cluster quickly becomes daunting as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing, with its vision to provide self-management, can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management and its evolution to include reflex reactions via pulse monitoring.

  16. Air Traffic Complexity Measurement Environment (ACME): Software User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A user's guide for the Air Traffic Complexity Measurement Environment (ACME) software is presented. The ACME consists of two major components, a complexity analysis tool and user interface. The Complexity Analysis Tool (CAT) analyzes complexity off-line, producing data files which may be examined interactively via the Complexity Data Analysis Tool (CDAT). The Complexity Analysis Tool is composed of three independently executing processes that communicate via PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) and Unix sockets. The Runtime Data Management and Control process (RUNDMC) extracts flight plan and track information from a SAR input file, and sends the information to GARP (Generate Aircraft Routes Process) and CAT (Complexity Analysis Task). GARP in turn generates aircraft trajectories, which are utilized by CAT to calculate sector complexity. CAT writes flight plan, track and complexity data to an output file, which can be examined interactively. The Complexity Data Analysis Tool (CDAT) provides an interactive graphic environment for examining the complexity data produced by the Complexity Analysis Tool (CAT). CDAT can also play back track data extracted from System Analysis Recording (SAR) tapes. The CDAT user interface consists of a primary window, a controls window, and miscellaneous pop-ups. Aircraft track and position data is displayed in the main viewing area of the primary window. The controls window contains miscellaneous control and display items. Complexity data is displayed in pop-up windows. CDAT plays back sector complexity and aircraft track and position data as a function of time. Controls are provided to start and stop playback, adjust the playback rate, and reposition the display to a specified time.

  17. Contribution of the collagen adhesin Acm to pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in experimental endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2008-09-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant opportunist causing difficult-to-treat nosocomial infections, including endocarditis, but there are no reports experimentally demonstrating E. faecium virulence determinants. Our previous studies showed that some clinical E. faecium isolates produce a cell wall-anchored collagen adhesin, Acm, and that an isogenic acm deletion mutant of the endocarditis-derived strain TX0082 lost collagen adherence. In this study, we show with a rat endocarditis model that TX0082 Deltaacm::cat is highly attenuated versus wild-type TX0082, both in established (72 h) vegetations (P < 0.0001) and for valve colonization 1 and 3 hours after infection (P Acm the first factor shown to be important for E. faecium pathogenesis. In contrast, no mortality differences were observed in a mouse peritonitis model. While 5 of 17 endocarditis isolates were Acm nonproducers and failed to adhere to collagen in vitro, all had an intact, highly conserved acm locus. Highly reduced acm mRNA levels (>or=50-fold reduction relative to an Acm producer) were found in three of these five nonadherent isolates, including the sequenced strain TX0016, by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, indicating that acm transcription is downregulated in vitro in these isolates. However, examination of TX0016 cells obtained directly from infected rat vegetations by flow cytometry showed that Acm was present on 40% of cells grown during infection. Finally, we demonstrated a significant reduction in E. faecium collagen adherence by affinity-purified anti-Acm antibodies from E. faecium endocarditis patient sera, suggesting that Acm may be a potential immunotarget for strategies to control this emerging pathogen.

  18. Validation of the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM): evidence from exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S; Yeo, Lay See

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the development and initial validation of scores obtained from the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM), a scale which assesses concerns of Asian adolescent students. In Study 1, findings from exploratory factor analysis using 619 adolescents suggested a 24-item scale with four correlated factors--Family Concerns (9 items), Peer Concerns (5 items), Personal Concerns (6 items), and School Concerns (4 items). Initial estimates of convergent validity for ACM scores were also reported. The four-factor structure of ACM scores derived from Study 1 was confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis in Study 2 using a two-fold cross-validation procedure with a separate sample of 811 adolescents. Support was found for both the multidimensional and hierarchical models of adolescent concerns using the ACM. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates were adequate for research purposes. ACM scores show promise as a reliable and potentially valid measure of Asian adolescents' concerns.

  19. On the characteristics-based ACM for incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yong; Huang, Xiaoyang

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, the revised characteristics-based (CB) method for incompressible flows recently derived by Neofytou [P. Neofytou, Revision of the characteristic-based scheme for incompressible flows, J. Comput. Phys. 222 (2007) 475-484] has been further investigated. We have derived all the formulas for pressure and velocities from this revised CB method, which is based on the artificial compressibility method (ACM) [A.J. Chorin, A numerical solution for solving incompressible viscous flow problems, J. Comput. Phys. 2 (1967) 12]. Then we analyze the formulations of the original CB method [D. Drikakis, P.A. Govatsos, D.E. Papatonis, A characteristic based method for incompressible flows, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 19 (1994) 667-685; E. Shapiro, D. Drikakis, Non-conservative and conservative formulations of characteristics numerical reconstructions for incompressible flows, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng. 66 (2006) 1466-1482; D. Drikakis, P.K. Smolarkiewicz, On spurious vortical structures, J. Comput. Phys. 172 (2001) 309-325; F. Mallinger, D. Drikakis, Instability in three-dimensional, unsteady stenotic flows, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 23 (2002) 657-663; E. Shapiro, D. Drikakis, Artificial compressibility, characteristics-based schemes for variable density, incompressible, multi-species flows. Parts I. Derivation of different formulations and constant density limit, J. Comput. Phys. 210 (2005) 584-607; Y. Zhao, B. Zhang, A high-order characteristics upwind FV method for incompressible flow and heat transfer simulation on unstructured grids, Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng. 190 (5-7) (2000) 733-756] to investigate their consistency with the governing flow equations after convergence has been achieved. Furthermore we have implemented both formulations in an unstructured-grid finite volume solver [Y. Zhao, B. Zhang, A high-order characteristics upwind FV method for incompressible flow and heat transfer simulation on unstructured grids, Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng. 190 (5

  20. Keyword Search in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dingyi; Yu, Yong

    Keyword search is a preliminary application for peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. It is important for users to find relevant resources in the highly dynamic system. Many factors affect the results of keyword search, including the underlying structure of peer-to-peer network, the dynamics of peers, the distribution of resources, etc.

  1. Attribute-based proxy re-encryption with keyword search.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiqiang; Han, Zhen; Zheng, Qingji; Zhang, Rui; Qiu, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Keyword search on encrypted data allows one to issue the search token and conduct search operations on encrypted data while still preserving keyword privacy. In the present paper, we consider the keyword search problem further and introduce a novel notion called attribute-based proxy re-encryption with keyword search (ABRKS), which introduces a promising feature: In addition to supporting keyword search on encrypted data, it enables data owners to delegate the keyword search capability to some other data users complying with the specific access control policy. To be specific, ABRKS allows (i) the data owner to outsource his encrypted data to the cloud and then ask the cloud to conduct keyword search on outsourced encrypted data with the given search token, and (ii) the data owner to delegate other data users keyword search capability in the fine-grained access control manner through allowing the cloud to re-encrypted stored encrypted data with a re-encrypted data (embedding with some form of access control policy). We formalize the syntax and security definitions for ABRKS, and propose two concrete constructions for ABRKS: key-policy ABRKS and ciphertext-policy ABRKS. In the nutshell, our constructions can be treated as the integration of technologies in the fields of attribute-based cryptography and proxy re-encryption cryptography.

  2. Attribute-Based Proxy Re-Encryption with Keyword Search

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiqiang; Han, Zhen; Zheng, Qingji; Zhang, Rui; Qiu, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Keyword search on encrypted data allows one to issue the search token and conduct search operations on encrypted data while still preserving keyword privacy. In the present paper, we consider the keyword search problem further and introduce a novel notion called attribute-based proxy re-encryption with keyword search (), which introduces a promising feature: In addition to supporting keyword search on encrypted data, it enables data owners to delegate the keyword search capability to some other data users complying with the specific access control policy. To be specific, allows (i) the data owner to outsource his encrypted data to the cloud and then ask the cloud to conduct keyword search on outsourced encrypted data with the given search token, and (ii) the data owner to delegate other data users keyword search capability in the fine-grained access control manner through allowing the cloud to re-encrypted stored encrypted data with a re-encrypted data (embedding with some form of access control policy). We formalize the syntax and security definitions for , and propose two concrete constructions for : key-policy and ciphertext-policy . In the nutshell, our constructions can be treated as the integration of technologies in the fields of attribute-based cryptography and proxy re-encryption cryptography. PMID:25549257

  3. [Efficacy of the keyword mnemonic method in adults].

    PubMed

    Campos, Alfredo; Pérez-Fabello, María José; Camino, Estefanía

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments were used to assess the efficacy of the keyword mnemonic method in adults. In Experiment 1, immediate and delayed recall (at a one-day interval) were assessed by comparing the results obtained by a group of adults using the keyword mnemonic method in contrast to a group using the repetition method. The mean age of the sample under study was 59.35 years. Subjects were required to learn a list of 16 words translated from Latin into Spanish. Participants who used keyword mnemonics that had been devised by other experimental participants of the same characteristics, obtained significantly higher immediate and delayed recall scores than participants in the repetition method. In Experiment 2, other participants had to learn a list of 24 Latin words translated into Spanish by using the keyword mnemonic method reinforced with pictures. Immediate and delayed recall were significantly greater in the keyword mnemonic method group than in the repetition method group.

  4. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements VI (ACME VI) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S

    2015-12-01

    From October 1 through September 30, 2016, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility will deploy the Cessna 206 aircraft over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, collecting observations of trace-gas mixing ratios over the ARM’s SGP facility. The aircraft payload includes two Atmospheric Observing Systems, Inc., analyzers for continuous measurements of CO2 and a 12-flask sampler for analysis of carbon cycle gases (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, 13CO2, 14CO2, carbonyl sulfide, and trace hydrocarbon species, including ethane). The aircraft payload also includes instrumentation for solar/infrared radiation measurements. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s ARM Climate Research Facility and Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Program and builds upon previous ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) missions. The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange at the SGP site, 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative forcing, convective processes and CO2 concentrations over the SGP site, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  5. In-situ Data Analysis Framework for ACME Land Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Yao, C.; Jia, Y.; Steed, C.; Atchley, S.

    2015-12-01

    The realistic representation of key biogeophysical and biogeochemical functions is the fundamental of process-based ecosystem models. Investigating the behavior of those ecosystem functions within real-time model simulation can be a very challenging due to the complex of both model and software structure of an environmental model, such as the Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) Land Model (ALM). In this research, author will describe the urgent needs and challenges for in-situ data analysis for ALM simulations, and layouts our methods/strategies to meet these challenges. Specifically, an in-situ data analysis framework is designed to allow users interactively observe the biogeophyical and biogeochemical process during ALM simulation. There are two key components in this framework, automatically instrumented ecosystem simulation, in-situ data communication and large-scale data exploratory toolkit. This effort is developed by leveraging several active projects, including scientific unit testing platform, common communication interface and extreme-scale data exploratory toolkit. Authors believe that, based on advanced computing technologies, such as compiler-based software system analysis, automatic code instrumentation, and in-memory data transport, this software system provides not only much needed capability for real-time observation and in-situ data analytics for environmental model simulation, but also the potentials for in-situ model behavior adjustment via simulation steering.

  6. Boolean Burritos: How the Faculty Ate Up Keyword Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Sherry

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity that librarians can use to acquaint teachers with keyword searching and Boolean operators to more successfully use the library's online catalog. Uses food ingredients to represent various possible combinations. (LRW)

  7. EPA Metadata Style Guide Keywords and EPA Organization Names

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following keywords and EPA organization names listed below, along with EPA’s Metadata Style Guide, are intended to provide suggestions and guidance to assist with the standardization of metadata records.

  8. Inhibition of Enterococcus faecium adherence to collagen by antibodies against high-affinity binding subdomains of Acm.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Sillanpää, Jouko; Ganesh, Vannakambadi K; Höök, Magnus; Murray, Barbara E

    2007-06-01

    Strains of Enterococcus faecium express a cell wall-anchored protein, Acm, which mediates adherence to collagen. Here, we (i) identify the minimal and high-affinity binding subsegments of Acm and (ii) show that anti-Acm immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) purified against these subsegments reduced E. faecium TX2535 strain collagen adherence up to 73 and 50%, respectively, significantly more than the total IgGs against the full-length Acm A domain (28%) (P < 0.0001). Blocking Acm adherence with functional subsegment-specific antibodies raises the possibility of their use as therapeutic or prophylactic agents.

  9. Comparative study of numerical schemes of TVD3, UNO3-ACM and optimized compact scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Duck-Joo; Hwang, Chang-Jeon; Ko, Duck-Kon; Kim, Jae-Wook

    1995-01-01

    Three different schemes are employed to solve the benchmark problem. The first one is a conventional TVD-MUSCL (Monotone Upwind Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme. The second scheme is a UNO3-ACM (Uniformly Non-Oscillatory Artificial Compression Method) scheme. The third scheme is an optimized compact finite difference scheme modified by us: the 4th order Runge Kutta time stepping, the 4th order pentadiagonal compact spatial discretization with the maximum resolution characteristics. The problems of category 1 are solved by using the second (UNO3-ACM) and third (Optimized Compact) schemes. The problems of category 2 are solved by using the first (TVD3) and second (UNO3-ACM) schemes. The problem of category 5 is solved by using the first (TVD3) scheme. It can be concluded from the present calculations that the Optimized Compact scheme and the UN03-ACM show good resolutions for category 1 and category 2 respectively.

  10. The acellular matrix (ACM) for bladder tissue engineering: A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hai-Ling Margaret; Loai, Yasir; Beaumont, Marine; Farhat, Walid A

    2010-08-01

    Bladder acellular matrices (ACMs) derived from natural tissue are gaining increasing attention for their role in tissue engineering and regeneration. Unlike conventional scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers or gels, ACMs possess native biomechanical and many acquired biologic properties. Efforts to optimize ACM-based scaffolds are ongoing and would be greatly assisted by a noninvasive means to characterize scaffold properties and monitor interaction with cells. MRI is well suited to this role, but research with MRI for scaffold characterization has been limited. This study presents initial results from quantitative MRI measurements for bladder ACM characterization and investigates the effects of incorporating hyaluronic acid, a natural biomaterial useful in tissue-engineering and regeneration. Measured MR relaxation times (T(1), T(2)) and diffusion coefficient were consistent with increased water uptake and glycosaminoglycan content observed on biochemistry in hyaluronic acid ACMs. Multicomponent MRI provided greater specificity, with diffusion data showing an acellular environment and T(2) components distinguishing the separate effects of increased glycosaminoglycans and hydration. These results suggest that quantitative MRI may provide useful information on matrix composition and structure, which is valuable in guiding further development using bladder ACMs for organ regeneration and in strategies involving the use of hyaluronic acid.

  11. Pairwise Document Classification for Relevance Feedback

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    Pairwise Document Classification for Relevance Feedback Jonathan L. Elsas, Pinar Donmez, Jamie Callan, Jaime G. Carbonell Language Technologies...Collins-Thompson and J. Callan. Query expansion using random walk models. In CIKM ’05, page 711. ACM, 2005. [5] P. Donmez and J. Carbonell . Paired

  12. Development of a taxonomy of keywords for engineering education research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finelli, Cynthia J.; Borrego, Maura; Rasoulifar, Golnoosh

    2016-05-01

    The diversity of engineering education research provides an opportunity for cross-fertilisation of ideas and creativity, but it also can result in fragmentation of the field and duplication of effort. One solution is to establish a standardised taxonomy of engineering education terms to map the field and communicate and connect research initiatives. This report describes the process for developing such a taxonomy, the EER Taxonomy. Although the taxonomy focuses on engineering education research in the United States, inclusive efforts have engaged 266 individuals from 149 cities in 30 countries during one multiday workshop, 7 conference sessions, and several other virtual and in-person activities. The resulting taxonomy comprises 455 terms arranged in 14 branches and 6 levels. This taxonomy was found to satisfy four criteria for validity and reliability: (1) keywords assigned to a set of abstracts were reproducible by multiple researchers, (2) the taxonomy comprised terms that could be selected as keywords to fully describe 243 articles in 3 journals, (3) the keywords for those 243 articles were evenly distributed across the branches of the taxonomy, and (4) the authors of 31 conference papers agreed with 90% of researcher-assigned keywords. This report also describes guidelines developed to help authors consistently assign keywords for their articles by encouraging them to choose terms from three categories: (1) context/focus/topic, (2) purpose/target/motivation, and (3) research approach.

  13. Collocations of High Frequency Noun Keywords in Prescribed Science Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Sujatha; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the discourse of science through the study of collocational patterns of high frequency noun keywords in science textbooks used by upper secondary students in Malaysia. Research has shown that one of the areas of difficulty in science discourse concerns lexis, especially that of collocations. This paper describes a corpus-based…

  14. Understanding the Delayed-Keyword Effect on Metacomprehension Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiede, Keith W.; Dunlosky, John; Griffin, Thomas D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The typical finding from research on metacomprehension is that accuracy is quite low. However, recent studies have shown robust accuracy improvements when judgments follow certain generation tasks (summarizing or keyword listing) but only when these tasks are performed at a delay rather than immediately after reading (K. W. Thiede & M. C. M.…

  15. Using the Keyword Mnemonics Method among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Alfredo; Camino, Estefania; Perez-Fabello, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of word image vividness on the immediate and long-term recall (one-day interval) of words using either the rote repetition learning method or the keyword mnemonics method in a sample of adults aged 55 to 70 years. Subjects learned a list of concrete and abstract words using either rote…

  16. Understanding the delayed-keyword effect on metacomprehension accuracy.

    PubMed

    Thiede, Keith W; Dunlosky, John; Griffin, Thomas D; Wiley, Jennifer

    2005-11-01

    The typical finding from research on metacomprehension is that accuracy is quite low. However, recent studies have shown robust accuracy improvements when judgments follow certain generation tasks (summarizing or keyword listing) but only when these tasks are performed at a delay rather than immediately after reading (K. W. Thiede & M. C. M. Anderson, 2003; K. W. Thiede, M. C. M. Anderson, & D. Therriault, 2003). The delayed and immediate conditions in these studies confounded the delay between reading and generation tasks with other task lags, including the lag between multiple generation tasks and the lag between generation tasks and judgments. The first 2 experiments disentangle these confounded manipulations and provide clear evidence that the delay between reading and keyword generation is the only lag critical to improving metacomprehension accuracy. The 3rd and 4th experiments show that not all delayed tasks produce improvements and suggest that delayed generative tasks provide necessary diagnostic cues about comprehension for improving metacomprehension accuracy.

  17. Visualization as Seen through its Research Paper Keywords.

    PubMed

    Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias; Sedlmair, Michael; Chen, Jian; Moller, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive multi-pass analysis of visualization paper keywords supplied by authors for their papers published in the IEEE Visualization conference series (now called IEEE VIS) between 1990-2015. From this analysis we derived a set of visualization topics that we discuss in the context of the current taxonomy that is used to categorize papers and assign reviewers in the IEEE VIS reviewing process. We point out missing and overemphasized topics in the current taxonomy and start a discussion on the importance of establishing common visualization terminology. Our analysis of research topics in visualization can, thus, serve as a starting point to (a) help create a common vocabulary to improve communication among different visualization sub-groups, (b) facilitate the process of understanding differences and commonalities of the various research sub-fields in visualization, (c) provide an understanding of emerging new research trends, (d) facilitate the crucial step of finding the right reviewers for research submissions, and (e) it can eventually lead to a comprehensive taxonomy of visualization research. One additional tangible outcome of our work is an online query tool (http://keyvis.org/) that allows visualization researchers to easily browse the 3952 keywords used for IEEE VIS papers since 1990 to find related work or make informed keyword choices.

  18. CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through upregulating L-type calcium channel activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-09-01

    A specialized culture medium termed ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) allows investigators to assess the peripheral effects of CNTF-induced activated astrocytes upon cultured neurons. CNTF-ACM has been shown to upregulate neuronal L-type calcium channel current activity, which has been previously linked to changes in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons. Cortical neurons, CNTF-ACM, and untreated control astrocyte-conditioned medium (UC-ACM) were prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat cortical tissue. Neurons were cultured in either CNTF-ACM or UC-ACM for a 48-h period. Changes in the following parameters before and after treatment with the L-type calcium channel blocker isradipine were assessed: (i) intracellular calcium levels, (ii) mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), (iii) oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation, (iv) intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, (v) mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and (vi) susceptibility to the mitochondrial complex I toxin rotenone. CNTF-ACM neurons displayed the following significant changes relative to UC-ACM neurons: (i) increased intracellular calcium levels (p < 0.05), (ii) elevation in ΔΨm (p < 0.05), (iii) increased OCR and ATP formation (p < 0.05), (iv) increased intracellular NO levels (p < 0.05), (v) increased mitochondrial ROS production (p < 0.05), and (vi) increased susceptibility to rotenone (p < 0.05). Treatment with isradipine was able to partially rescue these negative effects of CNTF-ACM (p < 0.05). CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through elevating L-type calcium channel activity.

  19. 76 FR 64943 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... AGENCY Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located in..., Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed... portions of Operable Unit 1 of the Site, and to pay $1,050,000.00 to the Hazardous Substance Superfund...

  20. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT, PHASE I - IMMEDIATE ASSESSMENT, ACME SOLVENTS SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a site assessment and feasibility study of incineration alternatives at the ACME Solvents Site at Rockford, Illinois. The document contains laboratory results that are reported to simulate incineration conditions but no details on test methods were provided. The d...

  1. Validation of the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM): Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Yeo, Lay See

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the development and initial validation of scores obtained from the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM), a scale which assesses concerns of Asian adolescent students. In Study 1, findings from exploratory factor analysis using 619 adolescents suggested a 24-item scale with four correlated factors--Family Concerns (9 items), Peer…

  2. An audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework for health communication campaigns.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-07-01

    Recent reviews of the literature have indicated that a number of health communication campaigns continue to fail to adhere to principles of effective campaign design. The lack of an integrated, organizing framework for the design, implementation, and evaluation of health communication campaigns may contribute to this state of affairs. The current article introduces an audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework that organizes the major principles of health campaign design, implementation, and evaluation. ACME also explicates the relationships and linkages between the varying principles. Insights from ACME include the following: The choice of audience segment(s) to focus on in a campaign affects all other campaign design choices, including message strategy and channel/component options. Although channel selection influences options for message design, choice of message design also influences channel options. Evaluation should not be thought of as a separate activity, but rather should be infused and integrated throughout the campaign design and implementation process, including formative, process, and outcome evaluation activities. Overall, health communication campaigns that adhere to this integrated set of principles of effective campaign design will have a greater chance of success than those using principles idiosyncratically. These design, implementation, and evaluation principles are embodied in the ACME framework.

  3. On-resin conversion of Cys(Acm)-containing peptides to their corresponding Cys(Scm) congeners.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Daniel G; Weigel, Benjamin; Barany, George; Distefano, Mark D

    2010-05-01

    The Acm protecting group for the thiol functionality of cysteine is removed under conditions (Hg(2+)) that are orthogonal to the acidic milieu used for global deprotection in Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis. This use of a toxic heavy metal for deprotection has limited the usefulness of Acm in peptide synthesis. The Acm group may be converted to the Scm derivative that can then be used as a reactive intermediate for unsymmetrical disulfide formation. It may also be removed by mild reductive conditions to generate unprotected cysteine. Conversion of Cys(Acm)-containing peptides to their corresponding Cys(Scm) derivatives in solution is often problematic because the sulfenyl chloride reagent used for this conversion may react with the sensitive amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan. In this protocol, we report a method for on-resin Acm to Scm conversion that allows the preparation of Cys(Scm)-containing peptides under conditions that do not modify other amino acids.

  4. Keywords image retrieval in historical handwritten Arabic documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saabni, Raid; El-Sana, Jihad

    2013-01-01

    A system is presented for spotting and searching keywords in handwritten Arabic documents. A slightly modified dynamic time warping algorithm is used to measure similarities between words. Two sets of features are generated from the outer contour of the words/word-parts. The first set is based on the angles between nodes on the contour and the second set is based on the shape context features taken from the outer contour. To recognize a given word, the segmentation-free approach is partially adopted, i.e., continuous word parts are used as the basic alphabet, instead of individual characters or complete words. Additional strokes, such as dots and detached short segments, are classified and used in a postprocessing step to determine the final comparison decision. The search for a keyword is performed by the search for its word parts given in the correct order. The performance of the presented system was very encouraging in terms of efficiency and match rates. To evaluate the presented system its performance is compared to three different systems. Unfortunately, there are no publicly available standard datasets with ground truth for testing Arabic key word searching systems. Therefore, a private set of images partially taken from Juma'a Al-Majid Center in Dubai for evaluation is used, while using a slightly modified version of the IFN/ENIT database for training.

  5. Management of information for mission operations using automated keyword referencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Roger A.; Curran, Patrick S.

    1993-01-01

    Although millions of dollars have helped to improve the operability and technology of ground data systems for mission operations, almost all mission documentation remains bound in printed volumes. This form of documentation is difficult and timeconsuming to use, may be out-of-date, and is usually not cross-referenced with other related volumes of mission documentation. A more effective, automated method of mission information access is needed. A new method of information management for mission operations using automated keyword referencing is proposed. We expound on the justification for and the objectives of this concept. The results of a prototype tool for mission information access that uses a hypertextlike user interface and existing mission documentation are shared. Finally, the future directions and benefits of our proposed work are described.

  6. Effects of activated ACM on expression of signal transducers in cerebral cortical neurons of rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojing; Li, Zhengli; Zhu, Changgeng; Li, Zhongyu

    2007-06-01

    To explore the roles of astrocytes in the epileptogenesis, astrocytes and neurons were isolated, purified and cultured in vitro from cerebral cortex of rats. The astrocytes were activated by ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and astrocytic conditioned medium (ACM) was collected to treat neurons for 4, 8 and 12 h. By using Western blot, the expression of calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and adenylate cyclase (AC) was detected in neurons. The results showed that the expression of CaMK II, iNOS and AC was increased significantly in the neurons treated with ACM from 4 h to 12 h (P<0.05), and that of iNOS and AC peaked at 8 h and 12 h respectively. It was suggested that there might be some epileptogenic factors in the ACM and such signal pathways as NOS-NO-cGMP, Ca2+/CaM-CaMK II and AC-cAMP-PKA might take part in the signal transduction of epileptogenesis.

  7. Clouds and Precipitation Simulated by the US DOE Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, S.; Lin, W.; Yoon, J. H.; Ma, P. L.; Rasch, P. J.; Ghan, S.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Bogenschutz, P.; Gettelman, A.; Larson, V. E.; Neale, R. B.; Park, S.; Zhang, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new US Department of Energy (DOE) climate modeling effort is to develop an Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) to accelerate the development and application of fully coupled, state-of-the-art Earth system models for scientific and energy application. ACME is a high-resolution climate model with a 0.25 degree in horizontal and more than 60 levels in the vertical. It starts from the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with notable changes to its physical parameterizations and other components. This presentation provides an overview on the ACME model's capability in simulating clouds and precipitation and its sensitivity to convection schemes. Results with using several state-of-the-art cumulus convection schemes, including those unified parameterizations that are being developed in the climate community, will be presented. These convection schemes are evaluated in a multi-scale framework including both short-range hindcasts and free-running climate simulations with both satellite data and ground-based measurements. Running climate model in short-range hindcasts has been proven to be an efficient way to understand model deficiencies. The analysis is focused on those systematic errors in clouds and precipitation simulations that are shared in many climate models. The goal is to understand what model deficiencies might be primarily responsible for these systematic errors.

  8. Model Diagnostics for the Department of Energy's Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B.

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, eight Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, four academic institutions, one company, and the National Centre for Atmospheric Research combined forces in a project called Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) with the goal to speed Earth system model development for climate and energy. Over the planned 10-year span, the project will conduct simulations and modeling on DOE's most powerful high-performance computing systems at Oak Ridge, Argonne, and Lawrence Berkeley Leadership Compute Facilities. A key component of the ACME project is the development of an interactive test bed for the advanced Earth system model. Its execution infrastructure will accelerate model development and testing cycles. The ACME Workflow Group is leading the efforts to automate labor-intensive tasks, provide intelligent support for complex tasks and reduce duplication of effort through collaboration support. As part of this new workflow environment, we have created a diagnostic, metric, and intercomparison Python framework, called UVCMetrics, to aid in the testing-to-production execution of the ACME model. The framework exploits similarities among different diagnostics to compactly support diagnosis of new models. It presently focuses on atmosphere and land but is designed to support ocean and sea ice model components as well. This framework is built on top of the existing open-source software framework known as the Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT). Because of its flexible framework design, scientists and modelers now can generate thousands of possible diagnostic outputs. These diagnostics can compare model runs, compare model vs. observation, or simply verify a model is physically realistic. Additional diagnostics are easily integrated into the framework, and our users have already added several. Diagnostics can be generated, viewed, and manipulated from the UV-CDAT graphical user interface, Python command line scripts and programs

  9. A Step Beyond Simple Keyword Searches: Services Enabled by a Full Content Digital Journal Archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    The problems of managing and searching large archives of scientific journal articles can potentially be addressed through data mining and statistical techniques matured primarily for quantitative scientific data analysis. A journal paper could be represented by a multivariate descriptor, e.g., the occurrence counts of a number key technical terms or phrases (keywords), perhaps derived from a controlled vocabulary ( e . g . , the American Meteorological Society's Glossary of Meteorology) or bootstrapped from the journal archive itself. With this technique, conventional statistical classification tools can be leveraged to address challenges faced by both scientists and professional societies in knowledge management. For example, cluster analyses can be used to find bundles of "most-related" papers, and address the issue of journal bifurcation (when is a new journal necessary, and what topics should it encompass). Similarly, neural networks can be trained to predict the optimal journal (within a society's collection) in which a newly submitted paper should be published. Comparable techniques could enable very powerful end-user tools for journal searches, all premised on the view of a paper as a data point in a multidimensional descriptor space, e.g.: "find papers most similar to the one I am reading", "build a personalized subscription service, based on the content of the papers I am interested in, rather than preselected keywords", "find suitable reviewers, based on the content of their own published works", etc. Such services may represent the next "quantum leap" beyond the rudimentary search interfaces currently provided to end-users, as well as a compelling value-added component needed to bridge the print-to-digital-medium gap, and help stabilize professional societies' revenue stream during the print-to-digital transition.

  10. A step beyond simple keyword searches: Services enabled by a full content digital journal archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccippio, D. J.

    2003-12-01

    The problems of managing and searching large archives of scientific journal articles can potentially be addressed through data mining and statistical techniques matured primarily for quantitative scientific data analysis. A journal paper could be represented by a multivariate descriptor, e.g., the occurrence counts of a number key technical terms or phrases (keywords), perhaps derived from a controlled vocabulary (e.g., the American Meteorological Society's Glossary of Meteorology) or bootstrapped from the journal archive itself. With this technique, conventional statistical classification tools can be leveraged to address challenges faced by both scientists and professional societies in knowledge management. For example, cluster analyses can be used to find bundles of "most-related" papers, and address the issue of journal bifurcation (when is a new journal necessary, and what topics should it encompass). Similarly, neural networks can be trained to predict the optimal journal (within a society's collection) in which a newly submitted paper should be published. Comparable techniques could enable very powerful end-user tools, all premised on the view of a paper as a data point in a multidimensional descriptor space, e.g.: "find papers most similar to the one I am reading", "build a personalized subscription service, based on the content of the papers I am interested in, rather than preselected keywords", "find suitable reviewers, based on the content of their own published works", etc. Such services may represent the next "quantum leap" beyond the rudimentary search interfaces currently provided to end-users, as well as a compelling value-added component needed to help bridge the print-to-digital-medium gap, and help stabilize professional societies' revenue stream during the print-to-digital transition.

  11. Evolutionary features of academic articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence network: Based on two-mode affiliation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajiao; An, Haizhong; Wang, Yue; Huang, Jiachen; Gao, Xiangyun

    2016-05-01

    Keeping abreast of trends in the articles and rapidly grasping a body of article's key points and relationship from a holistic perspective is a new challenge in both literature research and text mining. As the important component, keywords can present the core idea of the academic article. Usually, articles on a single theme or area could share one or some same keywords, and we can analyze topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword networks and keywords co-occurrence networks to realize the in-depth analysis of the articles. This paper seeks to integrate statistics, text mining, complex networks and visualization to analyze all of the academic articles on one given theme, complex network(s). All 5944 "complex networks" articles that were published between 1990 and 2013 and are available on the Web of Science are extracted. Based on the two-mode affiliation network theory, a new frontier of complex networks, we constructed two different networks, one taking the articles as nodes, the co-keyword relationships as edges and the quantity of co-keywords as the weight to construct articles co-keyword network, and another taking the articles' keywords as nodes, the co-occurrence relationships as edges and the quantity of simultaneous co-occurrences as the weight to construct keyword co-occurrence network. An integrated method for analyzing the topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence networks is proposed, and we also defined a new function to measure the innovation coefficient of the articles in annual level. This paper provides a useful tool and process for successfully achieving in-depth analysis and rapid understanding of the trends and relationships of articles in a holistic perspective.

  12. Improving Throughput of the ACME Climate Model by Parallel Splitting Atmospheric Physics and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, P.; Taylor, M.

    2015-12-01

    If fluid dynamics and atmospheric physics parameterizations were computed in parallel, they could be calculated simultaneously on separate cores of a supercomputer. This would greatly increase model throughput for high-resolution simulations. Additionally, because atmospheric physics is embarrassingly parallel, more sophisticated physics parameterizations could be used without slowing simulations down by simply increasing the number of cores used. The downside to this approach is that it increases time-truncation error. In this presentation, we demonstrate that parallel splitting the ACME model and using a smaller timestep for physics results in faster, more accurate solutions.

  13. Repulsive-SVDD Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-22

    Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia dat.tran@canberra.edu.au Abstract. Support vector data description (SVDD) is a well-known ker- nel method that constructs a...for the proposed method . Keywords: Repulsive SVDD · Support vector data description · Sup- port vector machine · Classification 1 Introduction...estimate the support of a high-dimensional distribution. Although this method uses a maximal-margin hyperplane instead of a hypersphere to separate the

  14. Community Involvement in Enhancing the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Controlled Vocabularies (Keywords)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, T.; Ritz, S.; Aleman, A.; Genazzio, M.; Morahan, M.; Wharton, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) develops and expands a hierarchical set of controlled vocabularies (keywords) covering the Earth sciences and associated information (data centers, projects, platforms, instruments, etc.). The purpose of the keywords is to describe Earth science data and services in a consistent and comprehensive manner, allowing for the precise searching of metadata and subsequent retrieval of data and services. The keywords are accessible in a standardized SKOSRDFOWL representation and are used as an authoritative taxonomy, as a source for developing ontologies, and to search and access Earth Science data within online metadata catalogues. The keyword development approach involves: (1) receiving community suggestions, (2) triaging community suggestions, (3) evaluating the keywords against a set of criteria coordinated by the NASA ESDIS Standards Office, and (4) publication/notification of the keyword changes. This approach emphasizes community input, which helps ensure a high quality, normalized, and relevant keyword structure that will evolve with users changing needs. The Keyword Community Forum, which promotes a responsive, open, and transparent processes, is an area where users can discuss keyword topics and make suggestions for new keywords. The formalized approach could potentially be used as a model for keyword development.

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Acme Solvents, Morristown, Illinois, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-27

    The Acme Solvents Reclaiming, Inc. facility is located approximately five miles south of Rockford, Illinois. From 1960 until 1973, the facility served as a disposal site for paints, oils and still bottoms from the solvent reclamation plant located in Rockford. In addition, empty drums were stored onsite. Wastes were dumped into depressions created from either previous quarrying activities or by scraping overburden from the near surface bedrock to form berms. In September 1972, the Illinois Pollution Control Board (IPCB) ordered Acme to remove all drums and wastes from the facility and to backfill the lagoons. Follow-up inspections revealed that wastes and crushed drums were being left onsite and merely covered with soil. Sampling of the site revealed high concentrations of chlorinated organics in the drinking water. The major source of hazardous substances at the facility are the waste disposal mounds. These mounds contain volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds and concentrations of PCBs up to several hundred mg/kg. The selected remedial action is included.

  16. Clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium exhibit strain-specific collagen binding mediated by Acm, a new member of the MSCRAMM family.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Weinstock, George M; Murray, Barbara E

    2003-03-01

    A collagen-binding adhesin of Enterococcus faecium, Acm, was identified. Acm shows 62% similarity to the Staphylococcus aureus collagen adhesin Cna over the entire protein and is more similar to Cna (60% and 75% similarity with Cna A and B domains respectively) than to the Enterococcus faecalis collagen-binding adhesin, Ace, which shares homology with Acm only in the A domain. Despite the detection of acm in 32 out of 32 E. faecium isolates, only 11 of these (all clinical isolates, including four vancomycin-resistant endocarditis isolates and seven other isolates) exhibited binding to collagen type I (CI). Although acm from three CI-binding vancomycin-resistant E. faecium clinical isolates showed 100% identity, analysis of acm genes and their promoter regions from six non-CI-binding strains identified deletions or mutations that introduced stop codons and/or IS elements within the gene or the promoter region in five out of six strains, suggesting that the presence of an intact functional acm gene is necessary for binding of E. faecium strains to CI. Recombinant Acm A domain showed specific and concentration-dependent binding to collagen, and this protein competed with E. faecium binding to immobilized CI. Consistent with the adherence phenotype and sequence data, probing with Acm-specific IgGs purified from anti-recombinant Acm A polyclonal rabbit serum confirmed the surface expression of Acm in three out of three collagen-binding clinical isolates of E. faecium tested, but in none of the strains with a non-functional pseudo acm gene. Introduction of a functional acm gene into two non-CI-binding natural acm mutant strains conferred a CI-binding phenotype, further confirming that native Acm is sufficient for the binding of E. faecium to CI. These results demonstrate that acm, which encodes a potential virulence factor, is functional only in certain infection-derived clinical isolates of E. faecium, and suggest that Acm is the primary adhesin responsible for the

  17. An Experiment in Automatic Hierarchical Document Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Kathleen

    1983-01-01

    Describes method of automatic document classification in which documents classed as QA by Library of Congress classification system were clustered at six thresholds by keyword using single link technique. Automatically generated clusters were compared to Library of Congress subclasses, and partial classified hierarchy was formed. Twelve references…

  18. AcmB Is an S-Layer-Associated β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase and Functional Autolysin in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brant R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autolysins, also known as peptidoglycan hydrolases, are enzymes that hydrolyze specific bonds within bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan during cell division and daughter cell separation. Within the genome of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, there are 11 genes encoding proteins with peptidoglycan hydrolase catalytic domains, 9 of which are predicted to be functional. Notably, 5 of the 9 putative autolysins in L. acidophilus NCFM are S-layer-associated proteins (SLAPs) noncovalently colocalized along with the surface (S)-layer at the cell surface. One of these SLAPs, AcmB, a β-N-acetylglucosaminidase encoded by the gene lba0176 (acmB), was selected for functional analysis. In silico analysis revealed that acmB orthologs are found exclusively in S-layer- forming species of Lactobacillus. Chromosomal deletion of acmB resulted in aberrant cell division, autolysis, and autoaggregation. Complementation of acmB in the ΔacmB mutant restored the wild-type phenotype, confirming the role of this SLAP in cell division. The absence of AcmB within the exoproteome had a pleiotropic effect on the extracellular proteins covalently and noncovalently bound to the peptidoglycan, which likely led to the observed decrease in the binding capacity of the ΔacmB strain for mucin and extracellular matrices fibronectin, laminin, and collagen in vitro. These data suggest a functional association between the S-layer and the multiple autolysins noncovalently colocalized at the cell surface of L. acidophilus NCFM and other S-layer-producing Lactobacillus species. IMPORTANCE Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of the most widely used probiotic microbes incorporated in many dairy foods and dietary supplements. This organism produces a surface (S)-layer, which is a self-assembling crystalline array found as the outermost layer of the cell wall. The S-layer, along with colocalized associated proteins, is an important mediator of probiotic activity through intestinal adhesion and modulation of

  19. Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS): A Demonstration of Autonomic Principles at Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldassari, James D.; Kopec, Christopher L.; Leshay, Eric S.; Truszkowski, Walt; Finkel, David

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications, while simultaneously affording the ability to. increase that capability simply by adding more (inexpensive) processors. However, the task of manually managing and con.guring a cluster quickly becomes impossible as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing is a relatively new approach to managing complex systems that can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Automatic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management.

  20. Epidemiologic research topics in Germany: a keyword network analysis of 2014 DGEpi conference presentations.

    PubMed

    Peter, Raphael Simon; Brehme, Torben; Völzke, Henry; Muche, Rainer; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Büchele, Gisela

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of epidemiologic research topics as well as trends is useful for scientific societies, researchers and funding agencies. In recent years researchers recognized the usefulness of keyword network analysis for visualizing and analyzing scientific research topics. Therefore, we applied keyword network analysis to present an overview of current epidemiologic research topics in Germany. Accepted submissions to the 9th annual congress of the German Society for Epidemiology (DGEpi) in 2014 were used as data source. Submitters had to choose one of 19 subject areas, and were ask to provide a title, structured abstract, names of authors along with their affiliations, and a list of freely selectable keywords. Keywords had been provided for 262 (82 %) submissions, 1030 keywords in total. Overall the most common keywords were: "migration" (18 times), "prevention" (15 times), followed by "children", "cohort study", "physical activity", and "secondary data analysis" (11 times each). Some keywords showed a certain concentration under one specific subject area, e.g. "migration" with 8 of 18 in social epidemiology or "breast cancer" with 4 of 7 in cancer epidemiology. While others like "physical activity" were equally distributed over multiple subject areas (cardiovascular & metabolic diseases, ageing, methods, paediatrics, prevention & health service research). This keyword network analysis demonstrated the high diversity of epidemiologic research topics with a large number of distinct keywords as presented at the annual conference of the DGEpi.

  1. Sparse Polynomial Chaos Surrogate for ACME Land Model via Iterative Bayesian Compressive Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, K.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Safta, C.; Debusschere, B.; Najm, H. N.; Thornton, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    For computationally expensive climate models, Monte-Carlo approaches of exploring the input parameter space are often prohibitive due to slow convergence with respect to ensemble size. To alleviate this, we build inexpensive surrogates using uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods employing Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansions that approximate the input-output relationships using as few model evaluations as possible. However, when many uncertain input parameters are present, such UQ studies suffer from the curse of dimensionality. In particular, for 50-100 input parameters non-adaptive PC representations have infeasible numbers of basis terms. To this end, we develop and employ Weighted Iterative Bayesian Compressive Sensing to learn the most important input parameter relationships for efficient, sparse PC surrogate construction with posterior uncertainty quantified due to insufficient data. Besides drastic dimensionality reduction, the uncertain surrogate can efficiently replace the model in computationally intensive studies such as forward uncertainty propagation and variance-based sensitivity analysis, as well as design optimization and parameter estimation using observational data. We applied the surrogate construction and variance-based uncertainty decomposition to Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) Land Model for several output QoIs at nearly 100 FLUXNET sites covering multiple plant functional types and climates, varying 65 input parameters over broad ranges of possible values. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research, Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) project. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. ACME: automated cell morphology extractor for comprehensive reconstruction of cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Mosaliganti, Kishore R; Noche, Ramil R; Xiong, Fengzhu; Swinburne, Ian A; Megason, Sean G

    2012-01-01

    The quantification of cell shape, cell migration, and cell rearrangements is important for addressing classical questions in developmental biology such as patterning and tissue morphogenesis. Time-lapse microscopic imaging of transgenic embryos expressing fluorescent reporters is the method of choice for tracking morphogenetic changes and establishing cell lineages and fate maps in vivo. However, the manual steps involved in curating thousands of putative cell segmentations have been a major bottleneck in the application of these technologies especially for cell membranes. Segmentation of cell membranes while more difficult than nuclear segmentation is necessary for quantifying the relations between changes in cell morphology and morphogenesis. We present a novel and fully automated method to first reconstruct membrane signals and then segment out cells from 3D membrane images even in dense tissues. The approach has three stages: 1) detection of local membrane planes, 2) voting to fill structural gaps, and 3) region segmentation. We demonstrate the superior performance of the algorithms quantitatively on time-lapse confocal and two-photon images of zebrafish neuroectoderm and paraxial mesoderm by comparing its results with those derived from human inspection. We also compared with synthetic microscopic images generated by simulating the process of imaging with fluorescent reporters under varying conditions of noise. Both the over-segmentation and under-segmentation percentages of our method are around 5%. The volume overlap of individual cells, compared to expert manual segmentation, is consistently over 84%. By using our software (ACME) to study somite formation, we were able to segment touching cells with high accuracy and reliably quantify changes in morphogenetic parameters such as cell shape and size, and the arrangement of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Our software has been developed and tested on Windows, Mac, and Linux platforms and is available

  3. Keyword/Boolean Searching on an Online Public Access Catalog: Patrons and Their Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Pat

    This report presents the results of a study which explored how patron perceptions and demographics related to keyword/Boolean searching on Indiana State University's (ISU) Library User Information System (LUIS), the online public access catalog (OPAC). Two general theses guide the study: (1) whether the use or non-use of keyword searching on LUIS…

  4. Quantitative analysis of the evolution of novelty in cinema through crowdsourced keywords

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Sameet

    2013-01-01

    The generation of novelty is central to any creative endeavor. Novelty generation and the relationship between novelty and individual hedonic value have long been subjects of study in social psychology. However, few studies have utilized large-scale datasets to quantitatively investigate these issues. Here we consider the domain of American cinema and explore these questions using a database of films spanning a 70 year period. We use crowdsourced keywords from the Internet Movie Database as a window into the contents of films, and prescribe novelty scores for each film based on occurrence probabilities of individual keywords and keyword-pairs. These scores provide revealing insights into the dynamics of novelty in cinema. We investigate how novelty influences the revenue generated by a film, and find a relationship that resembles the Wundt-Berlyne curve. We also study the statistics of keyword occurrence and the aggregate distribution of keywords over a 100 year period. PMID:24067890

  5. Keyword Thesaurus. A List of Terms and Codes to Identify Areas of Interest for Research and Other Types of Sponsored Programs. Keyword Thesaurus Project Update for New Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, John A.

    This list of program types and keywords (with codes) was prepared for program officers at the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Institute of Education, and the National Science Foundation to use when preparing program announcements and requests for proposals. Staff persons responsible for screening such documents at colleges and…

  6. Random Drift versus Selection in Academic Vocabulary: An Evolutionary Analysis of Published Keywords

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of vocabulary in academic publishing is characterized via keyword frequencies recorded in the ISI Web of Science citations database. In four distinct case-studies, evolutionary analysis of keyword frequency change through time is compared to a model of random copying used as the null hypothesis, such that selection may be identified against it. The case studies from the physical sciences indicate greater selection in keyword choice than in the social sciences. Similar evolutionary analyses can be applied to a wide range of phenomena; wherever the popularity of multiple items through time has been recorded, as with web searches, or sales of popular music and books, for example. PMID:18728786

  7. Annual variation in Internet keyword searches: Linking dieting interest to obesity and negative health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Markey, Patrick M; Markey, Charlotte N

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the annual variation in Internet searches regarding dieting. Time-series analysis was first used to examine the annual trends of Google keyword searches during the past 7 years for topics related to dieting within the United States. The results indicated that keyword searches for dieting fit a consistent 12-month linear model, peaking in January (following New Year's Eve) and then linearly decreasing until surging again the following January. Additional state-level analyses revealed that the size of the December-January dieting-related keyword surge was predictive of both obesity and mortality rates due to diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

  8. Generating keywords improves metacomprehension and self-regulation in elementary and middle school children.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Anique B H; Thiede, Keith W; Camp, Gino; Redford, Joshua

    2011-07-01

    The ability to monitor understanding of texts, usually referred to as metacomprehension accuracy, is typically quite poor in adult learners; however, recently interventions have been developed to improve accuracy. In two experiments, we evaluated whether generating delayed keywords prior to judging comprehension improved metacomprehension accuracy for children. For sixth and seventh graders, metacomprehension accuracy was greater when generating keywords. By contrast, for fourth graders, metacomprehension accuracy did not differ across conditions. Improved metacomprehension accuracy led to improved regulation of study. The delayed keyword effect in children reported here is discussed in terms of situation model activation.

  9. Asteroids, comets, Kuiper Belt objects, meteors: the ACM (AKM) 2002 perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binzel, Richard P.

    2002-11-01

    An impressionistic overview is given on the state of science of Asteroider, Kometer, Meteorer (AKM), where the Swedish spelling is adopted in recognition of the origin of the ACM conference series. Asteroider (asteroids) are a field that has come of age to the point of asking sophisticated geological and geophysical questions based on dedicated spacecraft missions. Kometer (comets) are coming of age with a strong international emphasis toward new comet missions and ever increasing sophistication of Earth-based observations. K also stands for Kuiper belt objects, a field that wasn't invented when our conference series began but whose inclusion we embrace and recognize as being integral to our science. (Hence the recommendation that we adopt the moniker AKM to proclaim fully our inclusivity) KBOs are an emerging field, perhaps analogous to a fast growing child. The presently known number of KBOs is comparable to the number of known main-belt asteroids in 1900, suggesting that we are just beginning to learn about this region. Meteorer (meteors) is a rejuvenated field that has enjoyed spectacular recent successes in detailed predictions of the Leonid shower and in just recently recording the fall and recovering the Neuschwanstein meteorite. The future outlook portends the greatest advancement in K (kometer and KBOs) with broad interdisciplinary implications.

  10. Preliminary survey report: control technology for the ceramic industry at Acme Brick Company, Malvern, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Godbey, F.W.

    1983-06-01

    Health-hazard control methods, work processes, and existing control technologies used in the manufacture of brick were surveyed at Acme Brick Company, Malvern, Arkansas in June, 1983. The company employed about 32 workers to produce structural brick from alluvial clay, free clay, shale, and aggregate. A potential hazard existed from silica exposure since the clays contained about 20% quartz. Raw materials were transported in a cab-enclosed front-end loader to feeders that delivered the materials to a crusher. Blended coarsely crushed material was moved by conveyor to a hammer mill for fine crushing. Production-size product was transported by overhead conveyor to storage silos in the production building. The entire material particle-size reduction process was completely automated. The clay-preparation building and raw-material storage area were isolated from the production building, and only two workers performed the crushing and grinding operations. Material transfer points had removable covers, and a water-mist spray was used on one conveyor of each line. The operation was monitored from a totally enclosed air-conditioned control room. Head and eye protection were required. The author does not recommend an in-depth study of control technologies of the company.

  11. Where am I? Location archetype keyword extraction from urban mobility patterns.

    PubMed

    Kostakos, Vassilis; Juntunen, Tomi; Goncalves, Jorge; Hosio, Simo; Ojala, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Can online behaviour be used as a proxy for studying urban mobility? The increasing availability of digital mobility traces has provided new insights into collective human behaviour. Mobility datasets have been shown to be an accurate proxy for daily behaviour and social patterns, and behavioural data from Twitter has been used to predict real world phenomena such as cinema ticket sale volumes, stock prices, and disease outbreaks. In this paper we correlate city-scale urban traffic patterns with online search trends to uncover keywords describing the pedestrian traffic location. By analysing a 3-year mobility dataset we show that our approach, called Location Archetype Keyword Extraction (LAKE), is capable of uncovering semantically relevant keywords for describing a location. Our findings demonstrate an overarching relationship between online and offline collective behaviour, and allow for advancing analysis of community-level behaviour by using online search keywords as a practical behaviour proxy.

  12. Efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search for EMRs in cloud storage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lifeng; Yau, Wei-Chuen

    2015-02-01

    Searchable encryption is an important cryptographic primitive that enables privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted electronic medical records (EMRs) in cloud storage. Efficiency of such searchable encryption in a medical cloud storage system is very crucial as it involves client platforms such as smartphones or tablets that only have constrained computing power and resources. In this paper, we propose an efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search (SCF-PEKS) scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. We show that our SCF-PEKS scheme is not only secure against chosen keyword and ciphertext attacks (IND-SCF-CKCA), but also secure against keyword guessing attacks (IND-KGA). Furthermore, our proposed scheme is more efficient than other recent SCF-PEKS schemes in the literature.

  13. Where Am I? Location Archetype Keyword Extraction from Urban Mobility Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kostakos, Vassilis; Juntunen, Tomi; Goncalves, Jorge; Hosio, Simo; Ojala, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Can online behaviour be used as a proxy for studying urban mobility? The increasing availability of digital mobility traces has provided new insights into collective human behaviour. Mobility datasets have been shown to be an accurate proxy for daily behaviour and social patterns, and behavioural data from Twitter has been used to predict real world phenomena such as cinema ticket sale volumes, stock prices, and disease outbreaks. In this paper we correlate city-scale urban traffic patterns with online search trends to uncover keywords describing the pedestrian traffic location. By analysing a 3-year mobility dataset we show that our approach, called Location Archetype Keyword Extraction (LAKE), is capable of uncovering semantically relevant keywords for describing a location. Our findings demonstrate an overarching relationship between online and offline collective behaviour, and allow for advancing analysis of community-level behaviour by using online search keywords as a practical behaviour proxy. PMID:23704964

  14. Comparing the Hierarchy of Keywords in On-Line News Portals

    PubMed Central

    Tibély, Gergely; Sousa-Rodrigues, David; Pollner, Péter; Palla, Gergely

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical organization is prevalent in networks representing a wide range of systems in nature and society. An important example is given by the tag hierarchies extracted from large on-line data repositories such as scientific publication archives, file sharing portals, blogs, on-line news portals, etc. The tagging of the stored objects with informative keywords in such repositories has become very common, and in most cases the tags on a given item are free words chosen by the authors independently. Therefore, the relations among keywords appearing in an on-line data repository are unknown in general. However, in most cases the topics and concepts described by these keywords are forming a latent hierarchy, with the more general topics and categories at the top, and more specialized ones at the bottom. There are several algorithms available for deducing this hierarchy from the statistical features of the keywords. In the present work we apply a recent, co-occurrence-based tag hierarchy extraction method to sets of keywords obtained from four different on-line news portals. The resulting hierarchies show substantial differences not just in the topics rendered as important (being at the top of the hierarchy) or of less interest (categorized low in the hierarchy), but also in the underlying network structure. This reveals discrepancies between the plausible keyword association frameworks in the studied news portals. PMID:27802319

  15. Selective desulfurization of cysteine in the presence of Cys(Acm) in polypeptides obtained by native chemical ligation.

    PubMed

    Pentelute, Brad L; Kent, Stephen B H

    2007-02-15

    Increased versatility for the synthesis of proteins and peptides by native chemical ligation requires the ability to ligate at positions other than Cys. Here, we report that Raney nickel can be used under standard conditions for the selective desulfurization of Cys in the presence of Cys(Acm). This simple and practical tactic enables the more common Xaa-Ala junctions to be used as ligation sites for the chemical synthesis of Cys-containing peptides and proteins. [reaction: see text].

  16. Geologic, geotechnical, and geophysical properties of core from the Acme Fire-Pit-1 drill hole, Sheridan County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Donley S.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary core study from the Acme Fire-Pit-1 drill hole, Sheridan County, Wyoming, revealed that the upper portion of the core had been baked by a fire confined to the underlying Monarch coal bed. The baked (clinkered) sediment above the Monarch coal bed was determined to have higher point-load strength values (greater than 2 MPa) than the sediment under the burned coal

  17. Segmentation of solid subregion of high grade gliomas in MRI images based on active contour model (ACM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seow, P.; Win, M. T.; Wong, J. H. D.; Abdullah, N. A.; Ramli, N.

    2016-03-01

    Gliomas are tumours arising from the interstitial tissue of the brain which are heterogeneous, infiltrative and possess ill-defined borders. Tumour subregions (e.g. solid enhancing part, edema and necrosis) are often used for tumour characterisation. Tumour demarcation into substructures facilitates glioma staging and provides essential information. Manual segmentation had several drawbacks that include laborious, time consuming, subjected to intra and inter-rater variability and hindered by diversity in the appearance of tumour tissues. In this work, active contour model (ACM) was used to segment the solid enhancing subregion of the tumour. 2D brain image acquisition data using 3T MRI fast spoiled gradient echo sequence in post gadolinium of four histologically proven high-grade glioma patients were obtained. Preprocessing of the images which includes subtraction and skull stripping were performed and then followed by ACM segmentation. The results of the automatic segmentation method were compared against the manual delineation of the tumour by a trainee radiologist. Both results were further validated by an experienced neuroradiologist and a brief quantitative evaluations (pixel area and difference ratio) were performed. Preliminary results of the clinical data showed the potential of ACM model in the application of fast and large scale tumour segmentation in medical imaging.

  18. A Prediction of the Damping Properties of Hindered Phenol AO-60/polyacrylate Rubber (AO-60/ACM) Composites through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Da-Wei; Zhao, Xiu-Ying; Zhang, Geng; Li, Qiang-Guo; Wu, Si-Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Molecule dynamics (MD) simulation, a molecular-level method, was applied to predict the damping properties of AO-60/polyacrylate rubber (AO-60/ACM) composites before experimental measures were performed. MD simulation results revealed that two types of hydrogen bond, namely, type A (AO-60) -OH•••O=C- (ACM), type B (AO-60) - OH•••O=C- (AO-60) were formed. Then, the AO-60/ACM composites were fabricated and tested to verify the accuracy of the MD simulation through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). DMTA results showed that the introduction of AO-60 could remarkably improve the damping properties of the composites, including the increase of glass transition temperature (Tg) alongside with the loss factor (tan δ), also indicating the AO-60/ACM(98/100) had the best damping performance amongst the composites which verified by the experimental.

  19. A functional collagen adhesin gene, acm, in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium correlates with the recent success of this emerging nosocomial pathogen.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Singh, Kavindra V; Okhuysen, Pablo C; Murray, Barbara E

    2008-09-01

    Enterococcus faecium recently evolved from a generally avirulent commensal into a multidrug-resistant health care-associated pathogen causing difficult-to-treat infections, but little is known about the factors responsible for this change. We previously showed that some E. faecium strains express a cell wall-anchored collagen adhesin, Acm. Here we analyzed 90 E. faecium isolates (99% acm(+)) and found that the Acm protein was detected predominantly in clinically derived isolates, while the acm gene was present as a transposon-interrupted pseudogene in 12 of 47 isolates of nonclinical origin. A highly significant association between clinical (versus fecal or food) origin and collagen adherence (P Acm detected by whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry. Thirty-seven of 41 sera from patients with E. faecium infections showed reactivity with recombinant Acm, while only 4 of 30 community and hospitalized patient control group sera reacted (P Acm were present in all 14 E. faecium endocarditis patient sera. Although pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that multiple strains expressed collagen adherence, multilocus sequence typing demonstrated that the majority of collagen-adhering isolates, as well as 16 of 17 endocarditis isolates, are part of the hospital-associated E. faecium genogroup referred to as clonal complex 17 (CC17), which has emerged globally. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that Acm has contributed to the emergence of E. faecium and CC17 in nosocomial infections.

  20. A computer program for creating keyword indexes to textual data files

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, David W.

    1972-01-01

    A keyword-in-context (KWIC) or out-of-context (KWOC) index is a convenient means of organizing information. This keyword index program can be used to create either KWIC or KWOC indexes of bibliographic references or other types of information punched on. cards, typed on optical scanner sheets, or retrieved from various Department of Interior data bases using the Generalized Information Processing System (GIPSY). The index consists of a 'bibliographic' section and a keyword-section based on the permutation of. document titles, project titles, environmental impact statement titles, maps, etc. or lists of descriptors. The program can also create a back-of-the-book index to documents from a list of descriptors. By providing the user with a wide range of input and output options, the program provides the researcher, manager, or librarian with a means of-maintaining a list and index to documents in. a small library, reprint collection, or office file.

  1. Keyword Extraction from Multiple Words for Report Recommendations in Media Wiki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elakiya, K.; Sahayadhas, Arun

    2017-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of multiple words search, with the goal of using these multiple word search to retrieve, relevant wiki page which will be recommended to end user. However, the existing system provides a link to wiki page for only a single keyword only which is available in Wikipedia. Therefore it is difficult to get the correct result when search input has multiple keywords or a sentence. We have introduced a ‘FastStringSearch’ technique which will provide option for efficient search with multiple key words and which will increase the flexibility for the end user to get his expected content easily.

  2. Metadata Effectiveness in Internet Discovery: An Analysis of Digital Collection Metadata Elements and Internet Search Engine Keywords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Le

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed digital item metadata and keywords from Internet search engines to learn what metadata elements actually facilitate discovery of digital collections through Internet keyword searching and how significantly each metadata element affects the discovery of items in a digital repository. The study found that keywords from Internet…

  3. The Fractal Patterns of Words in a Text: A Method for Automatic Keyword Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Elham; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2015-01-01

    A text can be considered as a one dimensional array of words. The locations of each word type in this array form a fractal pattern with certain fractal dimension. We observe that important words responsible for conveying the meaning of a text have dimensions considerably different from one, while the fractal dimensions of unimportant words are close to one. We introduce an index quantifying the importance of the words in a given text using their fractal dimensions and then ranking them according to their importance. This index measures the difference between the fractal pattern of a word in the original text relative to a shuffled version. Because the shuffled text is meaningless (i.e., words have no importance), the difference between the original and shuffled text can be used to ascertain degree of fractality. The degree of fractality may be used for automatic keyword detection. Words with the degree of fractality higher than a threshold value are assumed to be the retrieved keywords of the text. We measure the efficiency of our method for keywords extraction, making a comparison between our proposed method and two other well-known methods of automatic keyword extraction. PMID:26091207

  4. Orwellian Doublethink: Keywords in Luxembourgish and European Language-in-Education Policy Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jean-Jacques; Horner, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how language-in-education policies in European Union member-states have been influenced by EU policies, and how an identical cluster of keywords--which includes in particular diversity, social cohesion, integration, as well as exclusion as their negative counterpart--emerges from and informs language-in-education policies both…

  5. A Comparison of Keyword Subject Searching on Six British University OPACs Online Public Access Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aanonson, John

    1987-01-01

    Compares features of online public access catalogs (OPACs) at six British universities: (1) Cambridge; (2) Hull; (3) Newcastle; (4) Surrey; (5) Sussex; and (6) York. Results of keyword subject searches on two topics performed on each of the OPACs are reported and compared. Six references are listed. (MES)

  6. The Mnemonic Keyword Method: Effects on the Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siriganjanavong, Vanlee

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to introduce the technique called "Mnemonic Keyword Method" ("MKM") to low proficiency English learners, and to explore the effectiveness of the method in terms of short-term and long-term retention. The sample was purposefully drawn from one intact class consisting of 44 students. They were…

  7. Implementing Keyword and Question Generation Approaches in Teaching EFL Summary Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2012-01-01

    Summary writing has been considered an important aspect of academic writing. However, writing summaries can be a challenging task for the majority of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Research into teaching summary writing has focused on different processes to teach EFL learners. The present study adopted two methods--keyword and…

  8. Effect of Reading Ability and Internet Experience on Keyword-Based Image Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Pei-Lan; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Image searches are now crucial for obtaining information, constructing knowledge, and building successful educational outcomes. We investigated how reading ability and Internet experience influence keyword-based image search behaviors and performance. We categorized 58 junior-high-school students into four groups of high/low reading ability and…

  9. Generating Keywords Improves Metacomprehension and Self-Regulation in Elementary and Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Thiede, Keith W.; Camp, Gino; Redford, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The ability to monitor understanding of texts, usually referred to as metacomprehension accuracy, is typically quite poor in adult learners; however, recently interventions have been developed to improve accuracy. In two experiments, we evaluated whether generating delayed keywords prior to judging comprehension improved metacomprehension accuracy…

  10. The Use of Keywords for Delivering Immediate Performance Feedback on Teacher Competence Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coninx, Nele; Kreijns, Karel; Jochems, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that feedback that is specific, immediate and goal-oriented is effective on (pre-service) teachers' performance. Synchronous coaching gives this kind of feedback. Due to immediateness of feedback, pre-service teachers can suffer from cognitive load. We propose a set of standardised keywords through which this performance feedback…

  11. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud.

    PubMed

    Munisamy, Shyamala Devi; Chokkalingam, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider's premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization.

  12. Enriched Title-Based Keyword Index Generation Using dBase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, P. P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of a database management system (DBMS)--dBaseII--to create an enriched title-based keyword index for a collection of news items at the Renewable Energy Resources Information Center of the Asian Institute of Technology. The use of DBMSs in libraries in developing countries is emphasized. (Author/LRW)

  13. Successful Keyword Searching: Initiating Research on Popular Topics Using Electronic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Randall M.; MacDonald, Susan Priest

    Students are using electronic resources more than ever before to locate information for assignments. Without the proper search terms, results are incomplete, and students are frustrated. Using the keywords, key people, organizations, and Web sites provided in this book and compiled from the most commonly used databases, students will be able to…

  14. Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM methods of text analysis, modeling, and relevance-ranking. QUORUM keyword search retrieves ASRS incident narratives that contain one or more user-specified keywords in typical or selected contexts, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the keywords in context. QUORUM phrase search retrieves narratives that contain one or more user-specified phrases, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the phrases. QUORUM phrase generation produces a list of phrases from the ASRS database that contain a user-specified word or phrase. QUORUM phrase discovery finds phrases that are related to topics of interest. Phrase generation and phrase discovery are particularly useful for finding query phrases for input to QUORUM phrase search. The presentation of the new QUORUM methods includes: a brief review of the underlying core QUORUM methods; an overview of the new methods; numerous, concrete examples of ASRS database searches using the new methods; discussion of related methods; and, in the appendices, detailed descriptions of the new methods.

  15. The Effect of Keyword Method on Vocabulary Retention of Senior High School EFL Learners in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoudi, Mohammad; Yousefi, Dina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of keyword method, as one of the mnemonic strategies, on vocabulary retention of Iranian senior high school EFL learners. Following a quasi-experimental design, the study used thirty eight (n = 38) female senior high school students in grade four from two intact classes at a public high school. The…

  16. The Fractal Patterns of Words in a Text: A Method for Automatic Keyword Extraction.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Elham; Darooneh, Amir H

    2015-01-01

    A text can be considered as a one dimensional array of words. The locations of each word type in this array form a fractal pattern with certain fractal dimension. We observe that important words responsible for conveying the meaning of a text have dimensions considerably different from one, while the fractal dimensions of unimportant words are close to one. We introduce an index quantifying the importance of the words in a given text using their fractal dimensions and then ranking them according to their importance. This index measures the difference between the fractal pattern of a word in the original text relative to a shuffled version. Because the shuffled text is meaningless (i.e., words have no importance), the difference between the original and shuffled text can be used to ascertain degree of fractality. The degree of fractality may be used for automatic keyword detection. Words with the degree of fractality higher than a threshold value are assumed to be the retrieved keywords of the text. We measure the efficiency of our method for keywords extraction, making a comparison between our proposed method and two other well-known methods of automatic keyword extraction.

  17. Fostering Learners' Metacognitive Skills of Keyword Reformulation in Image Seeking by Location-Based Hierarchical Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ming-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Kinshuk; Wen, Dunwei

    2013-01-01

    It is critical that students learn how to retrieve useful information in hypermedia environments, a task that is often especially difficult when it comes to image retrieval, as little text feedback is given that allows them to reformulate keywords they need to use. This situation may make students feel disorientated while attempting image…

  18. Coming to Terms with the Keyword Method in Introductory Psychology: A "Neuromnemonic" Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a series of simple mnemonic exercises for memorizing terminology related to the central nervous system. The exercise chooses a keyword for a set of specific functions ("medal" for "medulla") and then constructs an imaginary situation, expressed in one or two sentences, illustrating some of those functions. (MJP)

  19. Interest in Anesthesia as Reflected by Keyword Searches using Common Search Engines

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renyu; García, Paul S.; Fleisher, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Since current general interest in anesthesia is unknown, we analyzed internet keyword searches to gauge general interest in anesthesia in comparison with surgery and pain. Methods The trend of keyword searches from 2004 to 2010 related to anesthesia and anaesthesia was investigated using Google Insights for Search. The trend of number of peer reviewed articles on anesthesia cited on PubMed and Medline from 2004 to 2010 was investigated. The average cost on advertising on anesthesia, surgery and pain was estimated using Google AdWords. Searching results in other common search engines were also analyzed. Correlation between year and relative number of searches was determined with p< 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results Searches for the keyword “anesthesia” or “anaesthesia” diminished since 2004 reflected by Google Insights for Search (p< 0.05). The search for “anesthesia side effects” is trending up over the same time period while the search for “anesthesia and safety” is trending down. The search phrase “before anesthesia” is searched more frequently than “preanesthesia” and the search for “before anesthesia” is trending up. Using “pain” as a keyword is steadily increasing over the years indicated. While different search engines may provide different total number of searching results (available posts), the ratios of searching results between some common keywords related to perioperative care are comparable, indicating similar trend. The peer reviewed manuscripts on “anesthesia” and the proportion of papers on “anesthesia and outcome” are trending up. Estimates for spending of advertising dollars are less for anesthesia-related terms when compared to that for pain or surgery due to relative smaller number of searching traffic. Conclusions General interest in anesthesia (anaesthesia) as measured by internet searches appears to be decreasing. Pain, preanesthesia evaluation, anesthesia and outcome and side

  20. Facilitation of receptive and productive foreign vocabulary learning using the keyword method: the role of image quality.

    PubMed

    Beaton, Alan A; Gruneberg, Michael M; Hyde, Christopher; Shufflebottom, Alex; Sykes, Robert N

    2005-07-01

    Ellis and Beaton (1993a) reported that the keyword method of learning enhanced memory of foreign vocabulary items when receptive learning was measured. However, for productive learning, rote repetition was superior to the keyword method. The first two experiments reported here show that, in comparison with rote repetition, both receptive and productive learning can be enhanced by the keyword method, provided that the quality of the keyword images is adequate. In a third experiment using a subset of words from Ellis and Beaton (1993a), the finding they reported, that for productive learning rote repetition was superior to the keyword method, was reversed. The quality of keyword images will vary from study to study and any generalisation regarding the efficacy of the keyword method must take this into account.

  1. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Acme Solvent Reclaiming, Winnebago County, IL. (Second remedial action), December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The 20-acre Acme Solvent Reclaiming site is a former industrial disposal site in Winnebago County, Illinois. Land use in the area is mixed agricultural and residential. From 1960 to 1973, Acme Solvent Reclaiming disposed of paints, oils, and still bottoms onsite from its solvent reclamation plant. Wastes were dumped into depressions created from previous quarrying and landscaping operations, and empty drums also were stored onsite. State investigations in 1981 identified elevated levels of chlorinated organic compounds in ground water. A 1985 Record of Decision (ROD) provided for excavation and onsite incineration of 26,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil and sludge, supplying home carbon treatment units to affected residences, and further study of ground water and bedrock. During illegal removal actions taken by PRPs in 1986, 40,000 tons of soil and sludge were removed from the site. The selected remedial action for the site includes excavating and treating 6,000 tons of soil and sludge from two waste areas, using low-temperature thermal stripping; treating residuals using solidification, if necessary, followed by onsite or offsite disposal; treating the remaining contaminated soil and possibly bedrock using soil/bedrock vapor extraction; consolidating the remaining contaminated soil onsite with any treatment residuals, followed by capping; incinerating offsite 8,000 gallons of liquids and sludge from two remaining tanks, and disposing of the tanks offsite; providing an alternate water supply to residents with contaminated wells; pumping and onsite treatment of VOC-contaminated ground water.

  2. Insights into Degron Recognition by APC/C Coactivators from the Structure of an Acm1-Cdh1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun; Chao, William C.H.; Zhang, Ziguo; Yang, Jing; Cronin, Nora; Barford, David

    2013-01-01

    Summary The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) regulates sister chromatid segregation and the exit from mitosis. Selection of most APC/C substrates is controlled by coactivator subunits (either Cdc20 or Cdh1) that interact with substrate destruction motifs—predominantly the destruction (D) box and KEN box degrons. How coactivators recognize D box degrons and how this is inhibited by APC/C regulatory proteins is not defined at the atomic level. Here, from the crystal structure of S. cerevisiae Cdh1 in complex with its specific inhibitor Acm1, which incorporates D and KEN box pseudosubstrate motifs, we describe the molecular basis for D box recognition. Additional interactions between Acm1 and Cdh1 identify a third protein-binding site on Cdh1 that is likely to confer coactivator-specific protein functions including substrate association. We provide a structural rationalization for D box and KEN box recognition by coactivators and demonstrate that many noncanonical APC/C degrons bind APC/C coactivators at the D box coreceptor. PMID:23707760

  3. A Model for Personalized Keyword Extraction from Web Pages using Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuppusamy, K. S.; Aghila, G.

    2012-03-01

    The World Wide Web caters to the needs of billions of users in heterogeneous groups. Each user accessing the World Wide Web might have his / her own specific interest and would expect the web to respond to the specific requirements. The process of making the web to react in a customized manner is achieved through personalization. This paper proposes a novel model for extracting keywords from a web page with personalization being incorporated into it. The keyword extraction problem is approached with the help of web page segmentation which facilitates in making the problem simpler and solving it effectively. The proposed model is implemented as a prototype and the experiments conducted on it empirically validate the model's efficiency.

  4. Phonetic spelling filter for keyword selection in drug mention mining from social media.

    PubMed

    Pimpalkhute, Pranoti; Patki, Apurv; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Social media postings are rich in information that often remain hidden and inaccessible for automatic extraction due to inherent limitations of the site's APIs, which mostly limit access via specific keyword-based searches (and limit both the number of keywords and the number of postings that are returned). When mining social media for drug mentions, one of the first problems to solve is how to derive a list of variants of the drug name (common misspellings) that can capture a sufficient number of postings. We present here an approach that filters the potential variants based on the intuition that, faced with the task of writing an unfamiliar, complex word (the drug name), users will tend to revert to phonetic spelling, and we thus give preference to variants that reflect the phonemes of the correct spelling. The algorithm allowed us to capture 50.4 - 56.0 % of the user comments using only about 18% of the variants.

  5. ACM-based automatic liver segmentation from 3-D CT images by combining multiple atlases and improved mean-shift techniques.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongwei; He, Jiangping; Yang, Xin; Deklerck, Rudi; Cornelis, Jan

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present an autocontext model(ACM)-based automatic liver segmentation algorithm, which combines ACM, multiatlases, and mean-shift techniques to segment liver from 3-D CT images. Our algorithm is a learning-based method and can be divided into two stages. At the first stage, i.e., the training stage, ACM is performed to learn a sequence of classifiers in each atlas space (based on each atlas and other aligned atlases). With the use of multiple atlases, multiple sequences of ACM-based classifiers are obtained. At the second stage, i.e., the segmentation stage, the test image will be segmented in each atlas space by applying each sequence of ACM-based classifiers. The final segmentation result will be obtained by fusing segmentation results from all atlas spaces via a multiclassifier fusion technique. Specially, in order to speed up segmentation, given a test image, we first use an improved mean-shift algorithm to perform over-segmentation and then implement the region-based image labeling instead of the original inefficient pixel-based image labeling. The proposed method is evaluated on the datasets of MICCAI 2007 liver segmentation challenge. The experimental results show that the average volume overlap error and the average surface distance achieved by our method are 8.3% and 1.5 m, respectively, which are comparable to the results reported in the existing state-of-the-art work on liver segmentation.

  6. CLIC-ACM: generic modular rad-hard data acquisition system based on CERN GBT versatile link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielawski, B.; Locci, F.; Magnoni, S.

    2015-01-01

    CLIC is a world-wide collaboration to study the next ``terascale'' lepton collider, relying upon a very innovative concept of two-beam-acceleration. This accelerator, currently under study, will be composed of the subsequence of 21000 two-beam-modules. Each module requires more than 300 analogue and digital signals which need to be acquired and controlled in a synchronous way. CLIC-ACM (Acquisition and Control Module) is the 'generic' control and acquisition module developed to accommodate the controls of all these signals for various sub-systems and related specification in term of data bandwidth, triggering and timing synchronization. This paper describes the system architecture with respect to its radiation-tolerance, power consumption and scalability.

  7. Novel keyword co-occurrence network-based methods to foster systematic reviews of scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Jacqueline A.

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of scientific literature are important for mapping the existing state of research and highlighting further growth channels in a field of study, but systematic reviews are inherently tedious, time consuming, and manual in nature. In recent years, keyword co-occurrence networks (KCNs) are exploited for knowledge mapping. In a KCN, each keyword is represented as a node and each co-occurrence of a pair of words is represented as a link. The number of times that a pair of words co-occurs in multiple articles constitutes the weight of the link connecting the pair. The network constructed in this manner represents cumulative knowledge of a domain and helps to uncover meaningful knowledge components and insights based on the patterns and strength of links between keywords that appear in the literature. In this work, we propose a KCN-based approach that can be implemented prior to undertaking a systematic review to guide and accelerate the review process. The novelty of this method lies in the new metrics used for statistical analysis of a KCN that differ from those typically used for KCN analysis. The approach is demonstrated through its application to nano-related Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) risk literature. The KCN approach identified the knowledge components, knowledge structure, and research trends that match with those discovered through a traditional systematic review of the nanoEHS field. Because KCN-based analyses can be conducted more quickly to explore a vast amount of literature, this method can provide a knowledge map and insights prior to undertaking a rigorous traditional systematic review. This two-step approach can significantly reduce the effort and time required for a traditional systematic literature review. The proposed KCN-based pre-systematic review method is universal. It can be applied to any scientific field of study to prepare a knowledge map. PMID:28328983

  8. Statistics of co-occurring keywords in confined text messages on Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathiesen, J.; Angheluta, L.; Jensen, M. H.

    2014-09-01

    Online social media such as the micro-blogging site Twitter has become a rich source of real-time data on online human behaviors. Here we analyze the occurrence and co-occurrence frequency of keywords in user posts on Twitter. From the occurrence rate of major international brand names, we provide examples of predictions of brand-user behaviors. From the co-occurrence rates, we further analyze the user-perceived relationships between international brand names and construct the corresponding relationship networks. In general the user activity on Twitter is highly intermittent and we show that the occurrence rate of brand names forms a highly correlated time signal.

  9. Subject keywords index for the Carbon Dioxide Information Center's Bibliographic Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Millemann, R.E.; Cushman, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Keywords (descriptors) are listed that are used to retrieve records from the Carbon Dioxide Information Center's Bibliographic Information System, which is a computerized data base of about 8,600 records on the carbon cycle, effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on vegetation, climatology (especially as affected by carbon dioxide), and effects of climated on sea level and natural resources (e.g., agriculture, water resources, forestry, ecology, fisheries, and human health). The list of keyworks may be expanded in the future as additional descriptors are needed.

  10. A User-Friendly, Keyword-Searchable Database of Geoscientific References Through 2007 for Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Sipeki, Julianna; Scofield, M.L. Sco

    2008-01-01

    This report includes a document and accompanying Microsoft Access 2003 database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. The reference compilation is part of a larger joint study of Afghanistan?s energy, mineral, and water resources, and geologic hazards currently underway by the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Geological Survey, and the Afghanistan Geological Survey. The database includes both published (n = 2,489) and unpublished (n = 176) references compiled through calendar year 2007. The references comprise two separate tables in the Access database. The reference database includes a user-friendly, keyword-searchable interface and only minimum knowledge of the use of Microsoft Access is required.

  11. Annual evaporite deposition at the acme of the Messinian salinity crisis: evidence for solar-lunar climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzi, Vinicio; Gennari, Rocco; Lugli, Stefano; Roveri, Marco; Scafetta, Nicola; Schreiber, B. Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    We studied two evaporite successions (one halite and the other gypsum) consisting of annual varves in order to reconstruct the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions existing during the acme of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC; ≈5.5 Ma), when huge volumes of evaporites accumulated on the floor of the Mediterranean basin. The spectral analyses of these varved evaporitic successions reveal significant peaks in periodicity at around 3-5, 9, 11-13, 20-27 and 50-100 yr. The deposition of varved sedimentary deposits is usually controlled by climate conditions. A comparison with modern precipitation data in the western Mediterranean shows that during the acme of the MSC the climate was not in a permanent evaporitic stage, but in a dynamic state where evaporite deposition was controlled by quasi-periodic climate oscillations similar to modern analogs including Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation, and decadal to secular lunar- and solar-induced cycles. Particularly, we found a significant quasi-decadal oscillation with a prominent 9-year peak that is also common in modern temperature records and is present in both the contemporary Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. These cyclical patterns are common to both ancient and modern climate records because they can be associated with solar and solar-lunar tidal cycles. During the Messinian, the Mediterranean basin as well as the global ocean, were characterized by somewhat different continent distribution, ocean size, geography, hydrological connections, and ice-sheet volume with respect to the modern configuration. The recognition of modern-style climate oscillations during the Messinian, however, suggests that, although local geographic factors acted as pre-conditioning factors turning the Mediterranean Sea into a giant brine pool, external climate forcing, regulated by solar-lunar cycles and largely independent of those local geographic

  12. Characterization of PVL/ACME-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (genotypes ST8-MRSA-IV and ST5-MRSA-II) isolated from a university hospital in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Urushibara, Noriko; Yamamoto, Dai; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Shinagawa, Masaaki; Watanabe, Naoki; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2013-02-01

    The ST8 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IVa, known as USA300, is a prevalent community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) clone in the United States and has been spreading worldwide. The USA300 characteristically harbors Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes and the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME, type I). Prevalence and molecular characteristics of PVL(+) and/or ACME(+) S. aureus were investigated in a university hospital located in northern Japan, for 1,366 S. aureus isolates, including 601 MRSA strains derived from clinical specimens collected from 2008 to 2010. The PVL gene was identified in three MRSA strains with SCCmec IV, which belonged to ST8, spa type t008, coagulase type III, and agr type I. Two PVL-positive MRSA strains had also type I ACME, and were isolated from skin abscess of outpatients who have not travelled abroad recently. One of these PVL(+)/ACME(+) strains carried tet(K), msrA, and aph(3')-IIIa, showing resistance to kanamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin, suggesting acquisition of more resistance than ST8 CA-MRSA reported in Japan previously. In contrast, another PVL(+)/ACME(+) strain and a PVL(+)/ACME(-) strain were susceptible to more antimicrobials and had less virulence factors than PVL(-)/ACME(+) MRSA strains. Besides the two PVL(+) MRSA strains, ACME (type-ΔII) was identified into seven MRSA strains with SCCmec II belonging to ST5, one of the three spa types (t002, t067, and t071), coagulase type II, and agr type II. These PVL(-)/ACME(+) MRSA strains showed multiple drug resistance and harbored various toxin genes as observed for ST5 PVL(-)/ACME(-) MRSA-II. The present study suggested the spread of ST8-MRSA-IV in northern Japan, and a potential significance of ACME-positive ST5-MRSA-II as an emerging MRSA clone in a hospital.

  13. Hybrid ontology for semantic information retrieval model using keyword matching indexing system.

    PubMed

    Uthayan, K R; Mala, G S Anandha

    2015-01-01

    Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology.

  14. Improving statistical keyword detection in short texts: Entropic and clustering approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretero-Campos, C.; Bernaola-Galván, P.; Coronado, A. V.; Carpena, P.

    2013-03-01

    In the last years, two successful approaches have been introduced to tackle the problem of statistical keyword detection in a text without the use of external information: (i) The entropic approach, where Shannon’s entropy of information is used to quantify the information content of the sequence of occurrences of each word in the text; and (ii) The clustering approach, which links the heterogeneity of the spatial distribution of a word in the text (clustering) with its relevance. In this paper, first we present some modifications to both techniques which improve their results. Then, we propose new metrics to evaluate the performance of keyword detectors based specifically on the needs of a typical user, and we employ them to find out which approach performs better. Although both approaches work well in long texts, we obtain in general that measures based on word-clustering perform at least as well as the entropic measure, which needs a convenient partition of the text to be applied, such as chapters of a book. In the latter approach we also show that the partition of the text chosen affects strongly its results. Finally, we focus on short texts, a case of high practical importance, such as short reports, web pages, scientific articles, etc. We show that the performance of word-clustering measures is also good in generic short texts since these measures are able to discriminate better the degree of relevance of low frequency words than the entropic approach.

  15. Proceeding of the ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (1st, Roanoke, Virginia, June 24-28, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY.

    Papers in this Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (Roanoke, Virginia, June 24-28, 2001) discuss: automatic genre analysis; text categorization; automated name authority control; automatic event generation; linked active content; designing e-books for legal research; metadata harvesting; mapping the…

  16. Forecasting U.S. Home Foreclosures with an Index of Internet Keyword Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. Kent

    Finding data to feed into financial and risk management models can be challenging. Many analysts attribute a lack of data or quality information as a contributing factor to the worldwide financial crises that seems to have begun in the U.S. subprime mortgage market. In this paper, a new source of data, key word search statistics recently available from Google, are applied in a experiment to develop a short-term forecasting model for the number of foreclosures in the U.S. housing market. The keyword search data significantly improves forecast of foreclosures, suggesting that this data can be useful for financial risk management. More generally, the new data source shows promise for a variety of financial and market analyses.

  17. A study of practical proxy reencryption with a keyword search scheme considering cloud storage structure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Ho; Lee, Im-Yeong

    2014-01-01

    Data outsourcing services have emerged with the increasing use of digital information. They can be used to store data from various devices via networks that are easy to access. Unlike existing removable storage systems, storage outsourcing is available to many users because it has no storage limit and does not require a local storage medium. However, the reliability of storage outsourcing has become an important topic because many users employ it to store large volumes of data. To protect against unethical administrators and attackers, a variety of cryptography systems are used, such as searchable encryption and proxy reencryption. However, existing searchable encryption technology is inconvenient for use in storage outsourcing environments where users upload their data to be shared with others as necessary. In addition, some existing schemes are vulnerable to collusion attacks and have computing cost inefficiencies. In this paper, we analyze existing proxy re-encryption with keyword search.

  18. A Study of Practical Proxy Reencryption with a Keyword Search Scheme considering Cloud Storage Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Im-Yeong

    2014-01-01

    Data outsourcing services have emerged with the increasing use of digital information. They can be used to store data from various devices via networks that are easy to access. Unlike existing removable storage systems, storage outsourcing is available to many users because it has no storage limit and does not require a local storage medium. However, the reliability of storage outsourcing has become an important topic because many users employ it to store large volumes of data. To protect against unethical administrators and attackers, a variety of cryptography systems are used, such as searchable encryption and proxy reencryption. However, existing searchable encryption technology is inconvenient for use in storage outsourcing environments where users upload their data to be shared with others as necessary. In addition, some existing schemes are vulnerable to collusion attacks and have computing cost inefficiencies. In this paper, we analyze existing proxy re-encryption with keyword search. PMID:24693240

  19. MAC/GMC 4.0 User's Manual: Keywords Manual. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    This document is the second volume in the three volume set of User's Manuals for the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells Version 4.0 (MAC/GMC 4.0). Volume 1 is the Theory Manual, this document is the Keywords Manual, and Volume 3 is the Example Problem Manual. MAC/GMC 4.0 is a composite material and laminate analysis software program developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It is based on the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics theory, which provides access to the local stress and strain fields in the composite material. This access grants GMC the ability to accommodate arbitrary local models for inelastic material behavior and various types of damage and failure analysis. MAC/GMC 4.0 has been built around GMC to provide the theory with a user-friendly framework, along with a library of local inelastic, damage, and failure models. Further, applications of simulated thermo-mechanical loading, generation of output results, and selection of architectures to represent the composite material have been automated in MAC/GMC 4.0. Finally, classical lamination theory has been implemented within MAC/GMC 4.0 wherein GMC is used to model the composite material response of each ply. Consequently, the full range of GMC composite material capabilities is available for analysis of arbitrary laminate configurations as well. This volume describes the basic information required to use the MAC/GMC 4.0 software, including a 'Getting Started' section, and an in-depth description of each of the 22 keywords used in the input file to control the execution of the code.

  20. Mechanisms of stochastic focusing and defocusing in biological reaction networks: insight from accurate chemical master equation (ACME) solutions.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, Gamze; Terebus, Anna; Youfang Cao; Jie Liang

    2016-08-01

    Stochasticity plays important roles in regulation of biochemical reaction networks when the copy numbers of molecular species are small. Studies based on Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA) has shown that a basic reaction system can display stochastic focusing (SF) by increasing the sensitivity of the network as a result of the signal noise. Although SSA has been widely used to study stochastic networks, it is ineffective in examining rare events and this becomes a significant issue when the tails of probability distributions are relevant as is the case of SF. Here we use the ACME method to solve the exact solution of the discrete Chemical Master Equations and to study a network where SF was reported. We showed that the level of SF depends on the degree of the fluctuations of signal molecule. We discovered that signaling noise under certain conditions in the same reaction network can lead to a decrease in the system sensitivities, thus the network can experience stochastic defocusing. These results highlight the fundamental role of stochasticity in biological reaction networks and the need for exact computation of probability landscape of the molecules in the system.

  1. Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2003-11-10

    Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

  2. Hydrologic effects of phreatophyte control, Acme-Artesia reach of the Pecos River, New Mexico, 1967-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welder, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation began a phreatophyte clearing and control program in the bottom land of the Acme-Artesia reach of the Pecos River in March 1967. The initial cutting of 19,000 acres of saltcedar trees, the dominant phreatophyte in the area, was completed in May 1969. Saltcedar regrowth continued each year until July 1975, when root plowing eradicated most of the regrowth. The major objective of the clearing and control program was to salvage water that could be put to beneficial use. Measurements of changes in the water table in the bottom land and changes in the base flow of the Pecos River were made in order to determine the hydrologic effects of the program. Some salvage of water was indicated, but it is not readily recognized as an increase in base flow. The quantity of salvage probably is less than the average annual base-flow gain of 19 ,110 acre-ft in the reach during 1967-82. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Human factors in computing systems: focus on patient-centered health communication at the ACM SIGCHI conference.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Lauren; Patel, Rupa; Chen, Yunan; Shachak, Aviv

    2013-12-01

    Health Information Technologies, such as electronic health records (EHR) and secure messaging, have already transformed interactions among patients and clinicians. In addition, technologies supporting asynchronous communication outside of clinical encounters, such as email, SMS, and patient portals, are being increasingly used for follow-up, education, and data reporting. Meanwhile, patients are increasingly adopting personal tools to track various aspects of health status and therapeutic progress, wishing to review these data with clinicians during consultations. These issues have drawn increasing interest from the human-computer interaction (HCI) community, with special focus on critical challenges in patient-centered interactions and design opportunities that can address these challenges. We saw this community presenting and interacting at the ACM SIGCHI 2013, Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, (also known as CHI), held April 27-May 2nd, 2013 at the Palais de Congrès de Paris in France. CHI 2013 featured many formal avenues to pursue patient-centered health communication: a well-attended workshop, tracks of original research, and a lively panel discussion. In this report, we highlight these events and the main themes we identified. We hope that it will help bring the health care communication and the HCI communities closer together.

  4. A multicopper oxidase is essential for manganese oxidation and laccase-like activity in Pedomicrobium sp. ACM 3067.

    PubMed

    Ridge, Justin P; Lin, Marianne; Larsen, Eloise I; Fegan, Mark; McEwan, Alastair G; Sly, Lindsay I

    2007-04-01

    Pedomicrobium sp. ACM 3067 is a budding-hyphal bacterium belonging to the alpha-Proteobacteria which is able to oxidize soluble Mn2+ to insoluble manganese oxide. A cosmid, from a whole-genome library, containing the putative genes responsible for manganese oxidation was identified and a primer-walking approach yielded 4350 bp of novel sequence. Analysis of this sequence showed the presence of a predicted three-gene operon, moxCBA. The moxA gene product showed homology to multicopper oxidases (MCOs) and contained the characteristic four copper-binding motifs (A, B, C and D) common to MCOs. An insertion mutation of moxA showed that this gene was essential for both manganese oxidation and laccase-like activity. The moxB gene product showed homology to a family of outer membrane proteins which are essential for Type I secretion in Gram-negative bacteria. moxBA has not been observed in other manganese-oxidizing bacteria but homologues were identified in the genomes of several bacteria including Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. These results suggest that moxBA and its homologues constitute a family of genes encoding an MCO and a predicted component of the Type I secretion system.

  5. Classification Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Geoffrey H.

    Sorting things into groups is a basic intellectual task that allows people to simplify with minimal reduction in information. Classification techniques, which include both clustering and discrimination, provide step-by-step computer-based procedures for sorting things based on notions of generalized similarity and on the "class description"…

  6. Chemical evolution and the origin of life: cumulative keyword subject index 1970-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, A. C.; Powers, J. V.; Rummel, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    This cumulative subject index encompasses the subject indexes of the bibliographies on Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life that were first published in 1970 and have continued through publication of the 1986 bibliography supplement. Early bibliographies focused on experimental and theoretical material dealing directly with the concepts of chemical evolution and the origin of life, excluding the broader areas of exobiology, biological evolution, and geochemistry. In recent years, these broader subject areas have also been incorporated as they appear in literature searches relating to chemical evolution and the origin of life, although direct attempts have not been made to compile all of the citations in these broad areas. The keyword subject indexes have also undergone an analogous change in scope. Compilers of earlier bibliographies used the most specific term available in producing the subject index. Compilers of recent bibliographies have used a number of broad terms relating to the overall subject content of each citation and specific terms where appropriate. The subject indexes of these 17 bibliographies have, in general, been cumulatively compiled exactly as they originally appeared. However, some changes have been made in an attempt to correct errors, combine terms, and provide more meaningful terms.

  7. Spectral classification with the International Ultraviolet Explorer: An atlas of B-type spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rountree, Janet; Sonneborn, George

    1993-01-01

    New criteria for the spectral classification of B stars in the ultraviolet show that photospheric absorption lines in the 1200-1900A wavelength region can be used to classify the spectra of B-type dwarfs, subgiants, and giants on a 2-D system consistent with the optical MK system. This atlas illustrates a large number of such spectra at the scale used for classification. These spectra provide a dense matrix of standard stars, and also show the effects of rapid stellar rotation and stellar winds on the spectra and their classification. The observational material consists of high-dispersion spectra from the International Ultraviolet Explorer archives, resampled to a resolution of 0.25 A, uniformly normalized, and plotted at 10 A/cm. The atlas should be useful for the classification of other IUE high-dispersion spectra, especially for stars that have not been observed in the optical.

  8. WTP Calculation Sheet: Determining the LAW Glass Former Constituents and Amounts for G2 and Acm Models. 24590-LAW-M4C-LFP-00002, Rev. B

    SciTech Connect

    Gimpel, Rodney F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-12-16

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the LAW glass former recipe and additives with their respective amounts. The methodology and equations contained herein are to be used in the G2 and ACM models until better information is supplied by R&T efforts. This revision includes calculations that determines the mass and volume of the bulk chemicals/minerals needed per batch. Plus, it contains calculations (for the G2 model) to help prevent overflow in LAW Feed Preparation Vessel.

  9. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified maize expressing Cry1Ac-M protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; He, Xiaoyun; Chen, Delong; Luo, Yunbo; Cao, Sishuo; Song, Huan; Liu, Ting; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2012-09-01

    The cry1Ac-M gene, coding one of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal proteins, was introduced into maize H99 × Hi IIB genome to produce insect-resistant GM maize BT-38. The food safety assessment of the BT-38 maize was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats by a 90-days feeding study. We incorporated maize grains from BT-38 and H99 × Hi IIB into rodent diets at three concentrations (12.5%, 25%, 50%) and administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10/sex/group) for 90 days. A commercialized rodent diet was fed to an additional group as control group. Body weight, feed consumption and toxicological response variables were measured, and gross as well as microscopic pathology were examined. Moreover, detection of residual Cry1Ac-M protein in the serum of rats fed with GM maize was conducted. No death or adverse effects were observed in the current feeding study. No adverse differences in the values of the response variables were observed between rats that consumed diets containing GM maize BT-38 and non-GM maize H99 × Hi IIB. No detectable Cry1Ac-M protein was found in the serum of rats after feeding diets containing GM maize for 3 months. The results demonstrated that BT-38 maize is as safe as conventional non-GM maize.

  10. Acme Landfill Expansion. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    existing operation area; plus use of a portion of the 178-acre southern parcel, sloping away from the existing hills. (Areas A and B) 3. Use of existing...acre parcel, less 40 acres for dredge spoil, and plus use of a portion of the 178-acre southern parcel, sloping away from the existing hills. (Areas...acre southern parcel filling against the existing hills. (Areas A, B, C, and D) 6. Use of existing operation area; plus use of the full 200-acre

  11. Analysis of semantic search within the domains of uncertainty: using Keyword Effectiveness Indexing as an evaluation tool.

    PubMed

    Lorence, Daniel; Abraham, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    Medical and health-related searches pose a special case of risk when using the web as an information resource. Uninsured consumers, lacking access to a trained provider, will often rely on information from the internet for self-diagnosis and treatment. In areas where treatments are uncertain or controversial, most consumers lack the knowledge to make an informed decision. This exploratory technology assessment examines the use of Keyword Effectiveness Indexing (KEI) analysis as a potential tool for profiling information search and keyword retrieval patterns. Results demonstrate that the KEI methodology can be useful in identifying e-health search patterns, but is limited by semantic or text-based web environments.

  12. Selective invocation of shape priors for deformable segmentation and morphologic classification of prostate cancer tissue microarrays.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sahirzeeshan; Veltri, Robert; Epstein, Jonathan I; Christudass, Christhunesa; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-04-01

    Shape based active contours have emerged as a natural solution to overlap resolution. However, most of these shape-based methods are computationally expensive. There are instances in an image where no overlapping objects are present and applying these schemes results in significant computational overhead without any accompanying, additional benefit. In this paper we present a novel adaptive active contour scheme (AdACM) that combines boundary and region based energy terms with a shape prior in a multi level set formulation. To reduce the computational overhead, the shape prior term in the variational formulation is only invoked for those instances in the image where overlaps between objects are identified; these overlaps being identified via a contour concavity detection scheme. By not having to invoke all three terms (shape, boundary, region) for segmenting every object in the scene, the computational expense of the integrated active contour model is dramatically reduced, a particularly relevant consideration when multiple objects have to be segmented on very large histopathological images. The AdACM was employed for the task of segmenting nuclei on 80 prostate cancer tissue microarray images from 40 patient studies. Nuclear shape based, architectural and textural features extracted from these segmentations were extracted and found to able to discriminate different Gleason grade patterns with a classification accuracy of 86% via a quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) classifier. On average the AdACM model provided 60% savings in computational times compared to a non-optimized hybrid active contour model involving a shape prior.

  13. The Effects of Keyword Cues and 3R Strategy on Children's e-Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, T.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have found that electronic books (e-books) promote learning, but few works have examined the use of e-books along with an adaptive reading strategy for children. The current study implemented a method to extract keyword cues from e-books to support e-book reading with the read, recite and review (3R) strategy, and then examined the…

  14. Reading the World's Classics Critically: A Keyword-Based Approach to Literary Analysis in Foreign Language Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Nuria Alonso; Caplan, Alison

    2014-01-01

    While there are a number of important critical pedagogies being proposed in the field of foreign language study, more attention should be given to providing concrete examples of how to apply these ideas in the classroom. This article offers a new approach to the textual analysis of literary classics through the keyword-based methodology originally…

  15. The Effects of Visual Imagery and Keyword Cues on Third-Grade Readers' Memory, Comprehension, and Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, Heather Rogers

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that nearly 70% of high school students in the United States need some form of reading remediation, with the most common need being the ability to comprehend the content and significance of the text (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004). Research findings support the use of visual imagery and keyword cues as effective comprehension…

  16. Detection of mitotic nuclei in breast histopathology images using localized ACM and Random Kitchen Sink based classifier.

    PubMed

    Beevi, K Sabeena; Nair, Madhu S; Bindu, G R

    2016-08-01

    The exact measure of mitotic nuclei is a crucial parameter in breast cancer grading and prognosis. This can be achieved by improving the mitotic detection accuracy by careful design of segmentation and classification techniques. In this paper, segmentation of nuclei from breast histopathology images are carried out by Localized Active Contour Model (LACM) utilizing bio-inspired optimization techniques in the detection stage, in order to handle diffused intensities present along object boundaries. Further, the application of a new optimal machine learning algorithm capable of classifying strong non-linear data such as Random Kitchen Sink (RKS), shows improved classification performance. The proposed method has been tested on Mitosis detection in breast cancer histological images (MITOS) dataset provided for MITOS-ATYPIA CONTEST 2014. The proposed framework achieved 95% recall, 98% precision and 96% F-score.

  17. Fast rule-based bioactivity prediction using associative classification mining

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Relating chemical features to bioactivities is critical in molecular design and is used extensively in the lead discovery and optimization process. A variety of techniques from statistics, data mining and machine learning have been applied to this process. In this study, we utilize a collection of methods, called associative classification mining (ACM), which are popular in the data mining community, but so far have not been applied widely in cheminformatics. More specifically, classification based on predictive association rules (CPAR), classification based on multiple association rules (CMAR) and classification based on association rules (CBA) are employed on three datasets using various descriptor sets. Experimental evaluations on anti-tuberculosis (antiTB), mutagenicity and hERG (the human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene) blocker datasets show that these three methods are computationally scalable and appropriate for high speed mining. Additionally, they provide comparable accuracy and efficiency to the commonly used Bayesian and support vector machines (SVM) methods, and produce highly interpretable models. PMID:23176548

  18. Experimental determination of the partitioning coefficient and volatility of important BVOC oxidation products using the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) coupled to a PTR-ToF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G.; Hohaus, T.; Tillmann, R.; Schmitt, S. H.; Yu, Z.; Schlag, P.; Wegener, R.; Kaminski, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol can alter the Earth's radiative budget and global climate but can also affect human health. A dominant contributor to the submicrometer particulate matter (PM) is organic aerosol (OA). OA can be either directly emitted through e.g. combustion processes (primary OA) or formed through the oxidation of organic gases (secondary organic aerosol, SOA). A detailed understanding of SOA formation is of importance as it constitutes a major contribution to the total OA. The partitioning between the gas and particle phase as well as the volatility of individual components of SOA is yet poorly understood adding uncertainties and thus complicating climate modelling. In this work, a new experimental methodology was used for compound-specific analysis of organic aerosol. The Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) is a newly developed instrument that deploys an aerodynamic lens to separate the gas and particle phase of an aerosol. The particle phase is directed to a cooled sampling surface. After collection particles are thermally desorbed and transferred to a detector for further analysis. In the present work, the ACM was coupled to a Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) to detect and quantify organic compounds partitioning between the gas and particle phase. This experimental approach was used in a set of experiments at the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR to investigate SOA formation. Ozone oxidation with subsequent photochemical aging of β-pinene, limonene and real plant emissions from Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) were studied. Simultaneous measurement of the gas and particle phase using the ACM-PTR-ToF-MS allows to report partitioning coefficients of important BVOC oxidation products. Additionally, volatility trends and changes of the SOA with photochemical aging are investigated and compared for all systems studied.

  19. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  20. Classification and knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Automated procedures to classify objects are discussed. The classification problem is reviewed, and the relation of epistemology and classification is considered. The classification of stellar spectra and of resolved images of galaxies is addressed.

  1. Fabryq: Using Phones as Smart Proxies to Control Wearable Devices from the Web

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-12

    distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Wearable ubiquitous computing devices are often size- and power-constrained, which...shuvo.roy@ucsf.edu 3Stanford CS 353 Serra Mall Stanford, CA wmcgrath@stanford.edu ABSTRACT Wearable ubiquitous computing devices are often size- and...exclusively with fabryq. Author Keywords Toolkits; ubiquitous computing; swarm devices; prototyping. ACM Classification Keywords Human-centered computing

  2. m(2)-ABKS: Attribute-Based Multi-Keyword Search over Encrypted Personal Health Records in Multi-Owner Setting.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yinbin; Ma, Jianfeng; Liu, Ximeng; Wei, Fushan; Liu, Zhiquan; Wang, Xu An

    2016-11-01

    Online personal health record (PHR) is more inclined to shift data storage and search operations to cloud server so as to enjoy the elastic resources and lessen computational burden in cloud storage. As multiple patients' data is always stored in the cloud server simultaneously, it is a challenge to guarantee the confidentiality of PHR data and allow data users to search encrypted data in an efficient and privacy-preserving way. To this end, we design a secure cryptographic primitive called as attribute-based multi-keyword search over encrypted personal health records in multi-owner setting to support both fine-grained access control and multi-keyword search via Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption. Formal security analysis proves our scheme is selectively secure against chosen-keyword attack. As a further contribution, we conduct empirical experiments over real-world dataset to show its feasibility and practicality in a broad range of actual scenarios without incurring additional computational burden.

  3. Design of ET(B) receptor agonists: NMR spectroscopic and conformational studies of ET7-21[Leu7, Aib11, Cys(Acm)15].

    PubMed

    Hewage, Chandralal M; Jiang, Lu; Parkinson, John A; Ramage, Robert; Sadler, Ian H

    2002-03-01

    In a previous report we have shown that the endothelin-B receptor-selective linear endothelin peptide, ET-1[Cys (Acm)1,15, Ala3, Leu7, Aib11], folds into an alpha-helical conformation in a methanol-d3/water co-solvent [Hewage et al. (1998) FEBS Lett., 425, 234-238]. To study the requirements for the structure-activity relationships, truncated analogues of this peptide were subjected to further studies. Here we report the solution conformation of ET7-21[Leu7, Aib11, Cys(Acm)15], in a methanol-d3/water co-solvent at pH 3.6, by NMR spectroscopic and molecular modelling studies. Further truncation of this short peptide results in it displaying poor agonist activity. The modelled structure shows that the peptide folds into an alpha-helical conformation between residues Lys9-His16, whereas the C-terminus prefers no fixed conformation. This truncated linear endothelin analogue is pivotal for designing endothelin-B receptor agonists.

  4. Evidence for heterogeneity of astrocyte de-differentiation in vitro: astrocytes transform into intermediate precursor cells following induction of ACM from scratch-insulted astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Qian, Xin-Hong; Cong, Rui; Li, Jing-wen; Yao, Qin; Jiao, Xi-Ying; Ju, Gong; You, Si-Wei

    2010-04-01

    Our previous study definitely demonstrated that the mature astrocytes could undergo a de-differentiation process and further transform into pluripotential neural stem cells (NSCs), which might well arise from the effect of diffusible factors released from scratch-insulted astrocytes. However, these neurospheres passaged from one neurosphere-derived from de-differentiated astrocytes possessed a completely distinct characteristic in the differentiation behavior, namely heterogeneity of differentiation. The heterogeneity in cell differentiation has become a crucial but elusive issue. In this study, we show that purified astrocytes could de-differentiate into intermediate precursor cells (IPCs) with addition of scratch-insulted astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) to the culture, which can express NG2 and A2B5, the IPCs markers. Apart from the number of NG2(+) and A2B5(+) cells, the percentage of proliferative cells as labeled with BrdU progressively increased with prolonged culture period ranging from 1 to 10 days. Meanwhile, the protein level of A2B5 in cells also increased significantly. These results revealed that not all astrocytes could de-differentiate fully into NSCs directly when induced by ACM, rather they generated intermediate or more restricted precursor cells that might undergo progressive de-differentiation to generate NSCs.

  5. Enterococcus faecium biofilm formation: identification of major autolysin AtlAEfm, associated Acm surface localization, and AtlAEfm-independent extracellular DNA Release.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; Willems, Rob J L; Jansen, Pamela; Hendrickx, Antoni; Zhang, Xinglin; Bonten, Marc J M; Leavis, Helen L

    2013-04-16

    Enterococcus faecium is an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm-mediated infections in patients with medical devices. Insight into E. faecium biofilm pathogenesis is pivotal for the development of new strategies to prevent and treat these infections. In several bacteria, a major autolysin is essential for extracellular DNA (eDNA) release in the biofilm matrix, contributing to biofilm attachment and stability. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized the major autolysin of E. faecium E1162 by a bioinformatic genome screen followed by insertional gene disruption of six putative autolysin genes. Insertional inactivation of locus tag EfmE1162_2692 resulted in resistance to lysis, reduced eDNA release, deficient cell attachment, decreased biofilm, decreased cell wall hydrolysis, and significant chaining compared to that of the wild type. Therefore, locus tag EfmE1162_2692 was considered the major autolysin in E. faecium and renamed atlAEfm. In addition, AtlAEfm was implicated in cell surface exposure of Acm, a virulence factor in E. faecium, and thereby facilitates binding to collagen types I and IV. This is a novel feature of enterococcal autolysins not described previously. Furthermore, we identified (and localized) autolysin-independent DNA release in E. faecium that contributes to cell-cell interactions in the atlAEfm mutant and is important for cell separation. In conclusion, AtlAEfm is the major autolysin in E. faecium and contributes to biofilm stability and Acm localization, making AtlAEfm a promising target for treatment of E. faecium biofilm-mediated infections. IMPORTANCE Nosocomial infections caused by Enterococcus faecium have rapidly increased, and treatment options have become more limited. This is due not only to increasing resistance to antibiotics but also to biofilm-associated infections. DNA is released in biofilm matrix via cell lysis, caused by autolysin, and acts as a matrix stabilizer. In this study

  6. Does Teaching Mnemonics for Vocabulary Learning Make a Difference? Putting the Keyword Method and the Word Part Technique to the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The present research tested the effectiveness of the word part technique in comparison with the keyword method and self-strategy learning. One hundred and twenty-one Chinese year-one university students were randomly assigned to one of the three learning conditions: word part, keyword or self-strategy learning condition. Half of the target words…

  7. Telecommunication Support System Using Keywords and Their Relevant Information in Videoconferencing — Presentation Method for Keeping Audience's Concentration at Distance Lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Kikuo; Kondo, Kimio; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Saito, Fumihiko

    We developed a prototype system to support telecommunication by using keywords selected by the speaker in a videoconference. In the traditional presentation style, a speaker talks and uses audiovisual materials, and the audience at remote sites looks at these materials. Unfortunately, the audience often loses concentration and attention during the talk. To overcome this problem, we investigate a keyword presentation style, in which the speaker holds keyword cards that enable the audience to see additional information. Although keyword captions were originally intended for use in video materials for learning foreign languages, they can also be used to improve the quality of distance lectures in videoconferences. Our prototype system recognizes printed keywords in a video image at a server, and transfers the data to clients as multimedia functions such as language translation, three-dimensional (3D) model visualization, and audio reproduction. The additional information is collocated to the keyword cards in the display window, thus forming a spatial relationship between them. We conducted an experiment to investigate the properties of the keyword presentation style for an audience. The results suggest the potential of the keyword presentation style for improving the audience's concentration and attention in distance lectures by providing an environment that facilitates eye contact during videoconferencing.

  8. Keywords to Recruit Spanish- and English-Speaking Participants: Evidence From an Online Postpartum Depression Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, Alex R; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the advantages of Internet-based research is the ability to efficiently recruit large, diverse samples of international participants. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the behind-the-scenes process to setting up successful online recruitment tools. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the comparative impact of Spanish- and English-language keywords for a Google AdWords campaign to recruit pregnant women to an Internet intervention and to describe the characteristics of those who enrolled in the trial. Methods Spanish- and English-language Google AdWords campaigns were created to advertise and recruit pregnant women to a Web-based randomized controlled trial for the prevention of postpartum depression, the Mothers and Babies/Mamás y Bebés Internet Project. Search engine users who clicked on the ads in response to keyword queries (eg, pregnancy, depression and pregnancy) were directed to the fully automated study website. Data on the performance of keywords associated with each Google ad reflect Web user queries from February 2009 to June 2012. Demographic information, self-reported depression symptom scores, major depressive episode status, and Internet use data were collected from enrolled participants before randomization in the intervention study. Results The Google ads received high exposure (12,983,196 impressions) and interest (176,295 clicks) from a global sample of Web users; 6745 pregnant women consented to participate and 2575 completed enrollment in the intervention study. Keywords that were descriptive of pregnancy and distress or pregnancy and health resulted in higher consent and enrollment rates (ie, high-performing ads). In both languages, broad keywords (eg, pregnancy) had the highest exposure, more consented participants, and greatest cost per consent (up to US $25.77 per consent). The online ads recruited a predominantly Spanish-speaking sample from Latin America of Mestizo racial identity. The

  9. Classification Shell Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etzold, Carol

    1983-01-01

    Discusses shell classification exercises. Through keying students advanced from the "I know what a shell looks like" stage to become involved in the classification process: observing, labeling, making decisions about categories, and identifying marine animals. (Author/JN)

  10. Security classification of information

    SciTech Connect

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  11. Recursive heuristic classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, David C.

    1994-01-01

    The author will describe a new problem-solving approach called recursive heuristic classification, whereby a subproblem of heuristic classification is itself formulated and solved by heuristic classification. This allows the construction of more knowledge-intensive classification programs in a way that yields a clean organization. Further, standard knowledge acquisition and learning techniques for heuristic classification can be used to create, refine, and maintain the knowledge base associated with the recursively called classification expert system. The method of recursive heuristic classification was used in the Minerva blackboard shell for heuristic classification. Minerva recursively calls itself every problem-solving cycle to solve the important blackboard scheduler task, which involves assigning a desirability rating to alternative problem-solving actions. Knowing these ratings is critical to the use of an expert system as a component of a critiquing or apprenticeship tutoring system. One innovation of this research is a method called dynamic heuristic classification, which allows selection among dynamically generated classification categories instead of requiring them to be prenumerated.

  12. SCOR: Structural classification of RNA, Version 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Makio; Hendrix, Donna K.; Klosterman, Peter

    2003-10-03

    SCOR (http://scor.lbl.gov), the Structural Classification of RNA, is a database designed to provide a comprehensive perspective and understanding of RNA motif three-dimensional structure, function, tertiary interactions, and their relationships. SCOR 2.0 represents a major expansion and introduces a wholly new classification system. The new version represents the classification as a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), which allows a classification node to have multiple parents, in contrast to the strictly hierarchical classification used in SCOR 1.2. SCOR 2.0 supports three types of query terms in the updated search engine: PDB or NDB identifier, nucleotide sequence, and keyword. We also provide parseable XML files for all information. This new release contains 511RNA entries from the PDB as of 15 May 2003. A total of 5,880 secondary structural elements are classified; 2,104 hairpin loops and 3,776 internal loops. RNA motifs reported in the literature, such as ''Kinkturn'' and ''GNRA loops,'' are now incorporated into the structural classification along with definitions and descriptions.

  13. [Health Communication: Preventing the Spread of Ebola Virus Disease in the Portuguese Spoken African Countries--Methodology KISS & KEYWORDS].

    PubMed

    Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards.

  14. An Efficient Searchable Encryption Against Keyword Guessing Attacks for Sharable Electronic Medical Records in Cloud-based System.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yilun; Lu, Xicheng; Su, Jinshu; Chen, Peixin

    2016-12-01

    Preserving the privacy of electronic medical records (EMRs) is extremely important especially when medical systems adopt cloud services to store patients' electronic medical records. Considering both the privacy and the utilization of EMRs, some medical systems apply searchable encryption to encrypt EMRs and enable authorized users to search over these encrypted records. Since individuals would like to share their EMRs with multiple persons, how to design an efficient searchable encryption for sharable EMRs is still a very challenge work. In this paper, we propose a cost-efficient secure channel free searchable encryption (SCF-PEKS) scheme for sharable EMRs. Comparing with existing SCF-PEKS solutions, our scheme reduces the storage overhead and achieves better computation performance. Moreover, our scheme can guard against keyword guessing attack, which is neglected by most of the existing schemes. Finally, we implement both our scheme and a latest medical-based scheme to evaluate the performance. The evaluation results show that our scheme performs much better performance than the latest one for sharable EMRs.

  15. Classification of Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    How does a scientist approach the problem of trying to understand countless billions of objects? One of the first steps is to organize the data and set up a classification scheme which can provide the best insights into the nature of the objects. Perception and insight are the main purposes of classification. In astronomy, where there are `billions and billions' of stars, classification is an ong...

  16. Classiology and soil classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    Classiology can be defined as a science studying the principles and rules of classification of objects of any nature. The development of the theory of classification and the particular methods for classifying objects are the main challenges of classiology; to a certain extent, they are close to the challenges of pattern recognition. The methodology of classiology integrates a wide range of methods and approaches: from expert judgment to formal logic, multivariate statistics, and informatics. Soil classification assumes generalization of available data and practical experience, formalization of our notions about soils, and their representation in the form of an information system. As an information system, soil classification is designed to predict the maximum number of a soil's properties from the position of this soil in the classification space. The existing soil classification systems do not completely satisfy the principles of classiology. The violation of logical basis, poor structuring, low integrity, and inadequate level of formalization make these systems verbal schemes rather than classification systems sensu stricto. The concept of classification as listing (enumeration) of objects makes it possible to introduce the notion of the information base of classification. For soil objects, this is the database of soil indices (properties) that might be applied for generating target-oriented soil classification system. Mathematical methods enlarge the prognostic capacity of classification systems; they can be applied to assess the quality of these systems and to recognize new soil objects to be included in the existing systems. The application of particular principles and rules of classiology for soil classification purposes is discussed in this paper.

  17. Construction of improved temperature-sensitive and mobilizable vectors and their use for constructing mutations in the adhesin-encoding acm gene of poorly transformable clinical Enterococcus faecium strains.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2006-01-01

    Inactivation by allelic exchange in clinical isolates of the emerging nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium has been hindered by lack of efficient tools, and, in this study, transformation of clinical isolates was found to be particularly problematic. For this reason, a vector for allelic replacement (pTEX5500ts) was constructed that includes (i) the pWV01-based gram-positive repAts replication region, which is known to confer a high degree of temperature intolerance, (ii) Escherichia coli oriR from pUC18, (iii) two extended multiple-cloning sites located upstream and downstream of one of the marker genes for efficient cloning of flanking regions for double-crossover mutagenesis, (iv) transcriptional terminator sites to terminate undesired readthrough, and (v) a synthetic extended promoter region containing the cat gene for allelic exchange and a high-level gentamicin resistance gene, aph(2'')-Id, to distinguish double-crossover recombination, both of which are functional in gram-positive and gram-negative backgrounds. To demonstrate the functionality of this vector, the vector was used to construct an acm (encoding an adhesin to collagen from E. faecium) deletion mutant of a poorly transformable multidrug-resistant E. faecium endocarditis isolate, TX0082. The acm-deleted strain, TX6051 (TX0082Deltaacm), was shown to lack Acm on its surface, which resulted in the abolishment of the collagen adherence phenotype observed in TX0082. A mobilizable derivative (pTEX5501ts) that contains oriT of Tn916 to facilitate conjugative transfer from the transformable E. faecalis strain JH2Sm::Tn916 to E. faecium was also constructed. Using this vector, the acm gene of a nonelectroporable E. faecium wound isolate was successfully interrupted. Thus, pTEX5500ts and its mobilizable derivative demonstrated their roles as important tools by helping to create the first reported allelic replacement in E. faecium; the constructed this acm deletion mutant will be useful for assessing the

  18. Multilayer Perceptrons for Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    retention/ separation rates fu, input to force projection models. The second application concerns the classification of Armor Piercing Incendiary (API...Air Force pilot reten- tion/ separation rates for input to force projection models. The second application concerns the classification of Armor...methodologies for predicting pilot retention/ separation rates for input to personnel inventory projection models were e::plored. Specifically, the multilayer

  19. Challenges in prosthesis classification.

    PubMed

    Robertsson, Otto; Mendenhall, Stan; Paxton, Elizabeth W; Inacio, Maria C S; Graves, Stephen

    2011-12-21

    Accurate prosthesis classification is critical for total joint arthroplasty surveillance and assessment of comparative effectiveness. Historically, prosthesis classification was based solely on the names of the prosthesis manufacturers. As a result, prosthesis designs changed without corresponding name changes, and other prostheses' names changed over time without substantial design modifications. As the number of prostheses used in total joint arthroplasty on the market increased, catalog and lot numbers associated with prosthesis descriptions were introduced by manufacturers. Currently, these catalog and lot numbers are not standardized, and there is no consensus on categorization of these numbers into brands or subbrands. Classification of the attributes of a prosthesis also varies, limiting comparisons of prostheses across studies and reports. The development of a universal prosthesis classification system would standardize prosthesis classification and enhance total joint arthroplasty research collaboration worldwide. This is a current area of focus for the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries (ICOR).

  20. DOE LLW classification rationale

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, A.Y.

    1991-09-16

    This report was about the rationale which the US Department of Energy had with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) classification. It is based on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s classification system. DOE site operators met to review the qualifications and characteristics of the classification systems. They evaluated performance objectives, developed waste classification tables, and compiled dose limits on the waste. A goal of the LLW classification system was to allow each disposal site the freedom to develop limits to radionuclide inventories and concentrations according to its own site-specific characteristics. This goal was achieved with the adoption of a performance objectives system based on a performance assessment, with site-specific environmental conditions and engineered disposal systems.

  1. DOE LLW classification rationale

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, A.Y.

    1991-09-16

    This report was about the rationale which the US Department of Energy had with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) classification. It is based on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's classification system. DOE site operators met to review the qualifications and characteristics of the classification systems. They evaluated performance objectives, developed waste classification tables, and compiled dose limits on the waste. A goal of the LLW classification system was to allow each disposal site the freedom to develop limits to radionuclide inventories and concentrations according to its own site-specific characteristics. This goal was achieved with the adoption of a performance objectives system based on a performance assessment, with site-specific environmental conditions and engineered disposal systems.

  2. Classification of acoustic emission signals using wavelets and Random Forests : Application to localized corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morizet, N.; Godin, N.; Tang, J.; Maillet, E.; Fregonese, M.; Normand, B.

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to propose a novel approach to classify acoustic emission (AE) signals deriving from corrosion experiments, even if embedded into a noisy environment. To validate this new methodology, synthetic data are first used throughout an in-depth analysis, comparing Random Forests (RF) to the k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) algorithm. Moreover, a new evaluation tool called the alter-class matrix (ACM) is introduced to simulate different degrees of uncertainty on labeled data for supervised classification. Then, tests on real cases involving noise and crevice corrosion are conducted, by preprocessing the waveforms including wavelet denoising and extracting a rich set of features as input of the RF algorithm. To this end, a software called RF-CAM has been developed. Results show that this approach is very efficient on ground truth data and is also very promising on real data, especially for its reliability, performance and speed, which are serious criteria for the chemical industry.

  3. [Classification of cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Asakura, Masanori; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a group of cardiovascular diseases with poor prognosis. Some patients with dilated cardiomyopathy need heart transplantations due to severe heart failure. Some patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy die unexpectedly due to malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Various phenotypes of cardiomyopathies are due to the heterogeneous group of diseases. The classification of cardiomyopathies is important and indispensable in the clinical situation. However, their classification has not been established, because the causes of cardiomyopathies have not been fully elucidated. We usually use definition and classification offered by WHO/ISFC task force in 1995. Recently, several new definitions and classifications of the cardiomyopathies have been published by American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology and Japanese Circulation Society.

  4. Delaware Alternative Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the species designation and taxonomies of Delaware and Algonkian and presents eight classifications of taxa by form, habitat, color, movement, sound, use, relationship, and appearance. Relevant research is also reviewed. (CLK)

  5. Postprocessing classification images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, E. P.

    1979-01-01

    Program cleans up remote-sensing maps. It can be used with existing image-processing software. Remapped images closely resemble familiar resource information maps and can replace or supplement classification images not postprocessed by this program.

  6. Adaptive Gaussian Pattern Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    redundant model of the data to be used in classification . There are two classes of learning, or adaptation schemes. The first, unsupervised learning...37, No. 3, pp. 242-247, 1983. [2] E. F. Codd, Cellular Automata , Academic Press, 1968. [31 H. Everett, G. Gilbreath, S. Alderson, D. J. Marchette...Na al Oca aytm aete !JTI FL E COPY AD-A 199 030 Technical Document 1335 August 1988 Adaptive Gaussian Pattern Classif ication C. E. Priebe D. J

  7. The Effectiveness of Keyword-Based Instruction in Enhancing English Vocabulary Achievement and Retention of Intermediate Stage Pupils with Different Working Memory Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zahrani, Mona Abdullah Bakheet

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of keyword-based instruction in enhancing English vocabulary achievement and retention of intermediate stage pupils with different working memory capacities. The study adopted a quasi experimental design employing two groups (experimental and control). The design included an independent…

  8. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  9. Semantic analysis based forms information retrieval and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, Tanzila; Alqahtani, Fatimah Ayidh

    2013-09-01

    Data entry forms are employed in all types of enterprises to collect hundreds of customer's information on daily basis. The information is filled manually by the customers. Hence, it is laborious and time consuming to use human operator to transfer these customers information into computers manually. Additionally, it is expensive and human errors might cause serious flaws. The automatic interpretation of scanned forms has facilitated many real applications from speed and accuracy point of view such as keywords spotting, sorting of postal addresses, script matching and writer identification. This research deals with different strategies to extract customer's information from these scanned forms, interpretation and classification. Accordingly, extracted information is segmented into characters for their classification and finally stored in the forms of records in databases for their further processing. This paper presents a detailed discussion of these semantic based analysis strategies for forms processing. Finally, new directions are also recommended for future research. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. The comparison of classification analyses on the public opinion focus of biofuels based on twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shianghau; Guo, Jiannjong

    2016-02-01

    The study combined with the text mining and classification methodology to investigate the biofuels related tweets on the social network so as to understand the general public opinion focus. The contribution of the study enclosed the subsequent two points. First, the study utilized the text mining method to explore the content of biofuels connected tweets on the famed social network "twitter" and found the main keywords consistent with their frequencies. Second, the study applied the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPN), random forests model and two sorts of hybrid algorithmclassification analyses to compare the classification results.

  11. Performance Comparison of Feature Extraction Algorithms for Target Detection and Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Succi, D. Clapp, R. Gampert, and G. Prado, “ Footstep detection and tracking,” Unattended Ground Sensor Technologies and Applications III, vol. 4393... Detection and Classification⋆ Soheil Bahrampour1 Asok Ray2 Soumalya Sarkar2 Thyagaraju Damarla3 Nasser M. Nasrabadi3 Keywords: Feature Extraction...rithm, symbolic dynamic filtering (SDF), is investigated for target detection and classification by using unmanned ground sensors (UGS). In SDF, sensor

  12. Concepts of Classification and Taxonomy Phylogenetic Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraix-Burnet, D.

    2016-05-01

    Phylogenetic approaches to classification have been heavily developed in biology by bioinformaticians. But these techniques have applications in other fields, in particular in linguistics. Their main characteristics is to search for relationships between the objects or species in study, instead of grouping them by similarity. They are thus rather well suited for any kind of evolutionary objects. For nearly fifteen years, astrocladistics has explored the use of Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) for astronomical objects like galaxies or globular clusters. In this lesson we will learn how it works.

  13. Survey of Keyword Adjustment of Published Articles Medical Subject Headings in Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (2009-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Kabirzadeh, Azar; Abadi, Ebrahim Bagherian Farah; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Introduction Keywords are the most important tools for Information retrieval. They are usually used for retrieval of articles based on contents of information reserved from printed and electronic resources. Retrieval of appropriate keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can impact with exact, correctness and short time on information retrieval. Regarding the above mentioned matters, this study was done to compare the Latin keywords was in the articles published in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Method This is a descriptive study. The data were extracted from the key words of Englsih abstracts of articles published in the years 2009–2010 in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences by census method. Checklist of data collection is designed, based on research objectives and literature review which has face validity. Compliance rate in this study was to determine if the keywords cited in this article as a full subject of the main subject headings in a MeSH (Bold and the selected word) is a perfect adjustment. If keywords were cited in the article but the main heading is not discussed in the following main topics to be discussed with reference to See and See related it has considered has partial adjustment. Results Out of 148 articles published in 12 issues in proposed time of studying, 72 research papers were analyzed. The average numbers of authors in each article were 4 ± 1. Results showed that most of specialty papers 42 (58. 4%), belonging to the (Department of Clinical Sciences) School of Medicine, 11 (15.3%) Basic Science, 6(8.4%) Pharmacy, Nursing and Midwifery 5(6.9%), 4(5.5%) Health, paramedical Sciences 3(4.2%), and non medical article 1(1.3%) school of medicine. In general, results showed that 80 (30%) of key words have been used to complete the adjustment. Also, only 1(1.4%) had complete adjustment with all the MeSH key words and in 8 articles(11.4%) key words of had no

  14. Commission 45: Spectral Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giridhar, Sunetra; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Eyer, Laurent; Irwin, Michael J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Majewski, Steven; Minniti, Dante; Nordström, Birgitta

    This report gives an update of developments (since the last General Assembly at Prague) in the areas that are of relevance to the commission. In addition to numerous papers, a new monograph entitled Stellar Spectral Classification with Richard Gray and Chris Corbally as leading authors will be published by Princeton University Press as part of their Princeton Series in Astrophysics in April 2009. This book is an up-to-date and encyclopedic review of stellar spectral classification across the H-R diagram, including the traditional MK system in the blue-violet, recent extensions into the ultraviolet and infrared, the newly defined L-type and T-type spectral classes, as well as spectral classification of carbon stars, S-type stars, white dwarfs, novae, supernovae and Wolf-Rayet stars.

  15. Information gathering for CLP classification.

    PubMed

    Marcello, Ida; Giordano, Felice; Costamagna, Francesca Marina

    2011-01-01

    Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP). If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requirements of Annex I of the CLP Regulation. CLP appoints that the harmonised classification will be performed for carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction substances (CMR substances) and for respiratory sensitisers category 1 and for other hazard classes on a case-by-case basis. The first step of classification is the gathering of available and relevant information. This paper presents the procedure for gathering information and to obtain data. The data quality is also discussed.

  16. Robust Speech Processing & Recognition: Speaker ID, Language ID, Speech Recognition/Keyword Spotting, Diarization/Co-Channel/Environmental Characterization, Speaker State Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    insight into a low resource languages ,” Transactions on Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, 2(4), Aug. 2014, 115-126. [4] Q. Zheng, G. Liu...by a person is a rich and valuable piece of information for several applications such as health monitoring, second language learning or language ...ROBUST SPEECH PROCESSING & RECOGNITION: SPEAKER ID, LANGUAGE ID, SPEECH RECOGNITION/KEYWORD SPOTTING, DIARIZATION/CO- CHANNEL/ENVIRONMENTAL

  17. Hybrid Classification of Pulmonary Nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. L. A.; Kouzani, A. Z.; Hu, E. J.

    Automated classification of lung nodules is challenging because of the variation in shape and size of lung nodules, as well as their associated differences in their images. Ensemble based learners have demonstrated the potentialof good performance. Random forests are employed for pulmonary nodule classification where each tree in the forest produces a classification decision, and an integrated output is calculated. A classification aided by clustering approach is proposed to improve the lung nodule classification performance. Three experiments are performed using the LIDC lung image database of 32 cases. The classification performance and execution times are presented and discussed.

  18. Mapping the Knowledge Structure of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Over the Past Decade: A Co-word Analysis Based on Keywords.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jichong; Tang, Jun; Qu, Yi; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Yan; Bao, Shan; Mu, Dezhi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the knowledge structure and report the evolution of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy research over the past decade based on co-word analysis. Scientific publications focusing on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were searched from the Web of Science database (January 2005 to December 2014). The keywords from these articles were extracted, and a knowledge network based on these keywords was built using Ucinet6.212 and NetDraw2.084 software. A total of 1892 papers were included, and 39 high-frequency keywords were defined. "HIE" and "neonate" located at the center of the knowledge network. Etiology and pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, and therapy were researched more widely in the network than other aspects of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This co-word analysis provides an overview of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy research and suggests that the etiology, clinical manifestation, and therapy of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy have become research cores over the past decade.

  19. Flotation classification of ultrafine particles -- A novel classification approach

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Guanzhou; Luo Lin; Hu Yuehua; Xu Jin; Wang Dianzuo

    1995-12-31

    This paper introduces a novel classification approach named the flotation classification approach which works by controlling interactions between particles. It differs considerably from the conventional classification processes operating on mechanical forces. In the present test, the micro-bubble flotation technology is grafted onto hydro-classification. Selective aggregation and dispersion of ultrafine particles are achieved through governing the interactions in the classification process. A series of laboratory classification tests for {minus}44 gm kaolin have been conducted on a classification column. As a result, about 92% recovery for minus 2 {micro}m size fraction Kaolin in the final product is obtained. In addition, two criteria for the classification are set up. Finally, a principle of classifying and controlling the interactions between particles is discussed in terms of surface thermodynamics and hydrodynamics.

  20. Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

  1. Shark Teeth Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Creel, Sally; Lee, Velda

    2009-01-01

    On a recent autumn afternoon at Harmony Leland Elementary in Mableton, Georgia, students in a fifth-grade science class investigated the essential process of classification--the act of putting things into groups according to some common characteristics or attributes. While they may have honed these skills earlier in the week by grouping their own…

  2. The Classification Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    Argues against the five-kingdom scheme of classification as using inconsistent criteria, ending up with divisions that are forced, not natural. Advocates an approach using cell type/complexity and modification of the metabolic machinery, recommending the five-kingdom scheme as starting point for class discussion on taxonomy and its conceptual…

  3. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  4. Soil Classification and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This instructional unit was designed to enable students, primarily at the secondary level, to (1) classify soils according to current capability classifications of the Soil Conservation Service, (2) select treatments needed for a given soil class according to current recommendations provided by the Soil Conservation Service, and (3) interpret a…

  5. The Biglan Classification Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoecker, Judith L.

    This study replicated previous research that tested the validity of A. Biglan's classification scheme, a theoretical framework for empirically examining the differences among academic disciplines and classifying them according to three dimensions (hard-soft, pure-applied, life-nonlife). In addition, new data were used to attempt continued…

  6. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    PubMed Central

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and

  7. Efficient Fingercode Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong-Wei; Law, Kwok-Yan; Gollmann, Dieter; Chung, Siu-Leung; Li, Jian-Bin; Sun, Jia-Guang

    In this paper, we present an efficient fingerprint classification algorithm which is an essential component in many critical security application systems e. g. systems in the e-government and e-finance domains. Fingerprint identification is one of the most important security requirements in homeland security systems such as personnel screening and anti-money laundering. The problem of fingerprint identification involves searching (matching) the fingerprint of a person against each of the fingerprints of all registered persons. To enhance performance and reliability, a common approach is to reduce the search space by firstly classifying the fingerprints and then performing the search in the respective class. Jain et al. proposed a fingerprint classification algorithm based on a two-stage classifier, which uses a K-nearest neighbor classifier in its first stage. The fingerprint classification algorithm is based on the fingercode representation which is an encoding of fingerprints that has been demonstrated to be an effective fingerprint biometric scheme because of its ability to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint image. We enhance this approach by improving the efficiency of the K-nearest neighbor classifier for fingercode-based fingerprint classification. Our research firstly investigates the various fast search algorithms in vector quantization (VQ) and the potential application in fingerprint classification, and then proposes two efficient algorithms based on the pyramid-based search algorithms in VQ. Experimental results on DB1 of FVC 2004 demonstrate that our algorithms can outperform the full search algorithm and the original pyramid-based search algorithms in terms of computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy.

  8. [Classification of primary bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Dominok, G W; Frege, J

    1986-01-01

    An expanded classification for bone tumors is presented based on the well known international classification as well as earlier systems. The current status and future trends in this area are discussed.

  9. Automatic Classification in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsbergen, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Addresses the application of automatic classification methods to the problems associated with computerized document retrieval. Different kinds of classifications are described, and both document and term clustering methods are discussed. References and notes are provided. (Author/JD)

  10. Classification: Purposes, Principles, Progress, Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Robert R.

    1974-01-01

    Clustering and other new techniques have changed classificatory principles and practice in many sciences. Discussed are defintions, purposes of classification, principles of classification, and recent trends. (Author/RH)

  11. Reading List in Classification Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Phyllis A.

    The reading list contains 180 references and serves as an introduction to classification research literature. While the list includes major viewpoints on basic work in the field of classification as well as related areas, it excludes critical literature. The major divisions of the reading list are: (1) Definition: What is Classification, (2)…

  12. Clinical and Radiological Classification of the Jawbone Anatomy in Endosseous Dental Implant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Marius

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of present article was to review the classifications suggested for assessment of the jawbone anatomy, to evaluate the diagnostic possibilities of mandibular canal identification and risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury, aesthetic considerations in aesthetic zone, as well as to suggest new classification system of the jawbone anatomy in endosseous dental implant treatment. Material and Methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandible; mandibular canal; alveolar nerve, inferior; anatomy, cross-sectional; dental implants; classification. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1972 to March 2013. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy and oral surgery books were performed. The publications there selected by including clinical and human anatomy studies. Results In total 109 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The classifications suggested for assessment of the jawbone anatomy, diagnostic possibilities of mandibular canal identification and risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury, aesthetic considerations in aesthetic zone were discussed. New classification system of the jawbone anatomy in endosseous dental implant treatment based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results was suggested. Conclusions The classification system proposed here based on anatomical and radiological jawbone quantity and quality evaluation is a helpful tool for planning of treatment strategy and collaboration among specialists. Further clinical studies should be conducted for new classification validation and reliability evaluation. PMID:24422030

  13. Tree Classification Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

  14. Ectoparasites and classification.

    PubMed

    Hopla, C E; Durden, L A; Keirans, J E

    1994-12-01

    The authors present an introductory overview of the principal groups of ectoparasites (flukes, leeches, crustaceans, insects, arachnids, lampreys and vampire bats) associated with domestic animals. Currently-accepted higher-level classifications are outlined for these parasites. Almost all significant ectoparasites of domestic animals are invertebrates, the majority being arthropods (crustaceans, insects and arachnids). Some of these ectoparasites are of particular importance as vectors of pathogens. Many ectoparasite species are host-specific, and vector species typically transmit characteristic pathogens.

  15. Granular loess classification based

    SciTech Connect

    Browzin, B.S.

    1985-05-01

    This paper discusses how loess might be identified by two index properties: the granulometric composition and the dry unit weight. These two indices are necessary but not always sufficient for identification of loess. On the basis of analyses of samples from three continents, it was concluded that the 0.01-0.5-mm fraction deserves the name loessial fraction. Based on the loessial fraction concept, a granulometric classification of loess is proposed. A triangular chart is used to classify loess.

  16. Cautious Collective Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    topics ). c©2009 Luke K. McDowell, Kalyan Moy Gupta, and David W. Aha. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13 ...classification tasks, such 2779 MCDOWELL, GUPTA AND AHA as predicting the topic of a publication or the group membership of a person (Koller et al., 2007

  17. Classification of mental disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, E.

    1959-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in devising a classification of mental disorders is the lack of agreement among psychiatrists regarding the concepts upon which it should be based: diagnoses can rarely be verified objectively and the same or similar conditions are described under a confusing variety of names. This situation militates against the ready exchange of ideas and experiences and hampers progress. As a first step towards remedying this state of affairs, the author of the article below has undertaken a critical survey of existing classifications. He shows how some of the difficulties created by lack of knowledge regarding pathology and etiology may be overcome by the use of “operational definitions” and outlines the basic principles on which he believes a generally acceptable international classification might be constructed. If this can be done it should lead to a greater measure of agreement regarding the value of specific treatments for mental disorders and greatly facilitate a broad epidemiological approach to psychiatric research. PMID:13834299

  18. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  19. Histologic classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arie; Wesseling, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and are traditionally classified based on histologic type and malignancy grade. Most gliomas, the diffuse gliomas, show extensive infiltration in the CNS parenchyma. Diffuse gliomas can be further typed as astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or rare mixed oligodendroglial-astrocytic of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), III (anaplastic), or IV (glioblastoma). Other gliomas generally have a more circumscribed growth pattern, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I) and ependymal tumors (WHO grade I, II, or III) as the most frequent representatives. This chapter provides an overview of the histology of all glial neoplasms listed in the WHO 2016 classification, including the less frequent "nondiffuse" gliomas and mixed neuronal-glial tumors. For multiple decades the histologic diagnosis of these tumors formed a useful basis for assessment of prognosis and therapeutic management. However, it is now fully clear that information on the molecular underpinnings often allows for a more robust classification of (glial) neoplasms. Indeed, in the WHO 2016 classification, histologic and molecular findings are integrated in the definition of several gliomas. As such, this chapter and Chapter 6 are highly interrelated and neither should be considered in isolation.

  20. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  1. Algorithm for reaction classification.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Hans; Eiblmaier, Josef; Grethe, Guenter; Löw, Peter; Matuszczyk, Heinz; Saller, Heinz

    2013-11-25

    Reaction classification has important applications, and many approaches to classification have been applied. Our own algorithm tests all maximum common substructures (MCS) between all reactant and product molecules in order to find an atom mapping containing the minimum chemical distance (MCD). Recent publications have concluded that new MCS algorithms need to be compared with existing methods in a reproducible environment, preferably on a generalized test set, yet the number of test sets available is small, and they are not truly representative of the range of reactions that occur in real reaction databases. We have designed a challenging test set of reactions and are making it publicly available and usable with InfoChem's software or other classification algorithms. We supply a representative set of example reactions, grouped into different levels of difficulty, from a large number of reaction databases that chemists actually encounter in practice, in order to demonstrate the basic requirements for a mapping algorithm to detect the reaction centers in a consistent way. We invite the scientific community to contribute to the future extension and improvement of this data set, to achieve the goal of a common standard.

  2. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  3. ARC: automated resource classifier for agglomerative functional classification of prokaryotic proteins using annotation texts.

    PubMed

    Gnanamani, Muthiah; Kumar, Naveen; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2007-08-01

    Functional classification of proteins is central to comparative genomics. The need for algorithms tuned to enable integrative interpretation of analytical data is felt globally. The availability of a general,automated software with built-in flexibility will significantly aid this activity. We have prepared ARC (Automated Resource Classifier), which is an open source software meeting the user requirements of flexibility. The default classification scheme based on keyword match is agglomerative and directs entries into any of the 7 basic non-overlapping functional classes: Cell wall, Cell membrane and Transporters (C), Cell division (D), Information (I), Translocation (L), Metabolism (M), Stress(R), Signal and communication (S) and 2 ancillary classes: Others (O) and Hypothetical (H). The keyword library of ARC was built serially by first drawing keywords from Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli K12. In subsequent steps,this library was further enriched by collecting terms from archaeal representative Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Gene Ontology, and Gene Symbols. ARC is 94.04% successful on 6,75,663 annotated proteins from 348 prokaryotes. Three examples are provided to illuminate the current perspectives on mycobacterial physiology and costs of proteins in 333 prokaryotes. ARC is available at http://arc.igib.res.in.

  4. Learning classification trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

  5. Interactive Classification Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBessonet, Cary

    2000-01-01

    The investigators upgraded a knowledge representation language called SL (Symbolic Language) and an automated reasoning system called SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) to enable the more effective use of the technologies in automated reasoning and interactive classification systems. The overall goals of the project were: 1) the enhancement of the representation language SL to accommodate a wider range of meaning; 2) the development of a default inference scheme to operate over SL notation as it is encoded; and 3) the development of an interpreter for SL that would handle representations of some basic cognitive acts and perspectives.

  6. Classification of degenerative arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, N. S.; Cruess, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the former division of degenerative arthritis into idiopathic types and those secondary to some disease process is no longer valid. Recent studies have indicated that abnormal concentrations of force on cartilage lead to the development of this disease. A classification is presented that is based on the assumption that the process is initiated by abnormal concentrations of force on normal cartilage matrix, normal concentrations of force on abnormal cartilage matrix or normal concentrations of force on normal cartilage matrix that is supported by bone of abnormal consistency. PMID:907947

  7. Immature osteoblastic MG63 cells possess two calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor subtypes that respond differently to [Cys(Acm)(2,7)] calcitonin gene-related peptide and CGRP(8-37).

    PubMed

    Kawase, Tomoyuki; Okuda, Kazuhiro; Burns, Douglas M

    2005-10-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is clearly an anabolic factor in skeletal tissue, but the distribution of CGRP receptor (CGRPR) subtypes in osteoblastic cells is poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that the CGRPR expressed in osteoblastic MG63 cells does not match exactly the known characteristics of the classic subtype 1 receptor (CGRPR1). The aim of the present study was to further characterize the MG63 CGRPR using a selective agonist of the putative CGRPR2, [Cys(Acm)(2,7)]CGRP, and a relatively specific antagonist of CGRPR1, CGRP(8-37). [Cys(Acm)(2,7)]CGRP acted as a significant agonist only upon ERK dephosphorylation, whereas this analog effectively antagonized CGRP-induced cAMP production and phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and p38 MAPK. Although it had no agonistic action when used alone, CGRP(8-37) potently blocked CGRP actions on cAMP, CREB, and p38 MAPK but had less of an effect on ERK. Schild plot analysis of the latter data revealed that the apparent pA2 value for ERK is clearly distinguishable from those of the other three plots as judged using the 95% confidence intervals. Additional assays using 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or the PKA inhibitor N-(2-[p-bromocinnamylamino]ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide hydrochloride (H-89) indicated that the cAMP-dependent pathway was predominantly responsible for CREB phosphorylation, partially involved in ERK dephosphorylation, and not involved in p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Considering previous data from Scatchard analysis of [125I]CGRP binding in connection with these results, these findings suggest that MG63 cells possess two functionally distinct CGRPR subtypes that show almost identical affinity for CGRP but different sensitivity to CGRP analogs: one is best characterized as a variation of CGRPR1, and the second may be a novel variant of CGRPR2.

  8. Holistic facial expression classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, John; McDonald, J.

    2005-06-01

    This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.

  9. The Transporter Classification Database

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.; Reddy, Vamsee S.; Tamang, Dorjee G.; Västermark, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; http://www.tcdb.org) serves as a common reference point for transport protein research. The database contains more than 10 000 non-redundant proteins that represent all currently recognized families of transmembrane molecular transport systems. Proteins in TCDB are organized in a five level hierarchical system, where the first two levels are the class and subclass, the second two are the family and subfamily, and the last one is the transport system. Superfamilies that contain multiple families are included as hyperlinks to the five tier TC hierarchy. TCDB includes proteins from all types of living organisms and is the only transporter classification system that is both universal and recognized by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It has been expanded by manual curation, contains extensive text descriptions providing structural, functional, mechanistic and evolutionary information, is supported by unique software and is interconnected to many other relevant databases. TCDB is of increasing usefulness to the international scientific community and can serve as a model for the expansion of database technologies. This manuscript describes an update of the database descriptions previously featured in NAR database issues. PMID:24225317

  10. Supply chain planning classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  11. Molecular classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Masui, Kenta; Mischel, Paul S; Reifenberger, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The identification of distinct genetic and epigenetic profiles in different types of gliomas has revealed novel diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive molecular biomarkers for refinement of glioma classification and improved prediction of therapy response and outcome. Therefore, the new (2016) World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system breaks with the traditional principle of diagnosis based on histologic criteria only and incorporates molecular markers. This will involve a multilayered approach combining histologic features and molecular information in an "integrated diagnosis". We review the current state of diagnostic molecular markers for gliomas, focusing on isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/IDH2) gene mutation, α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) gene mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation in adult tumors, as well as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) and H3 histone family 3A (H3F3A) aberrations in pediatric gliomas. We also outline prognostic and predictive molecular markers, including O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, and discuss the potential clinical relevance of biologic glioblastoma subtypes defined by integration of multiomics data. Commonly used methods for individual marker detection as well as novel large-scale DNA methylation profiling and next-generation sequencing approaches are discussed. Finally, we illustrate how advances in molecular diagnostics affect novel strategies of targeted therapy, thereby raising new challenges and identifying new leads for personalized treatment of glioma patients.

  12. Classification of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P.; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C.; Cinar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise. PMID:26443291

  13. "Interactive Classification Technology"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBessonet, Cary

    1999-01-01

    The investigators are upgrading a knowledge representation language called SL (Symbolic Language) and an automated reasoning system called SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) to enable the technologies to be used in automated reasoning and interactive classification systems. The overall goals of the project are: a) the enhancement of the representation language SL to accommodate multiple perspectives and a wider range of meaning; b) the development of a sufficient set of operators to enable the interpreter of SL to handle representations of basic cognitive acts; and c) the development of a default inference scheme to operate over SL notation as it is encoded. As to particular goals the first-year work plan focused on inferencing and.representation issues, including: 1) the development of higher level cognitive/ classification functions and conceptual models for use in inferencing and decision making; 2) the specification of a more detailed scheme of defaults and the enrichment of SL notation to accommodate the scheme; and 3) the adoption of additional perspectives for inferencing.

  14. Waste classification sampling plan

    SciTech Connect

    Landsman, S.D.

    1998-05-27

    The purpose of this sampling is to explain the method used to collect and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream so that the correct waste classification for the waste stream can be made, and to collect samples for studies of decontamination methods that could be used to remove fixed contamination present on the waste. The scope of this plan is to establish the technical basis for collecting samples and compiling quantitative data on the radioactive constituents present in waste generated during deactivation activities in B-Cell. Sampling and radioisotopic analysis will be performed on the fixed layers of contamination present on structural material and internal surfaces of process piping and tanks. In addition, dose rate measurements on existing waste material will be performed to determine the fraction of dose rate attributable to both removable and fixed contamination. Samples will also be collected to support studies of decontamination methods that are effective in removing the fixed contamination present on the waste. Sampling performed under this plan will meet criteria established in BNF-2596, Data Quality Objectives for the B-Cell Waste Stream Classification Sampling, J. M. Barnett, May 1998.

  15. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct... classification guide, need not possess original classification authority. (a) If a person who applies...

  16. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section 503.55... Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order 12958... derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification includes the classification of information based...

  17. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct... classification guide, need not possess original classification authority. (a) If a person who applies...

  18. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Derivative classification. 1312.7 Section... Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification... another agency or classification authority. The application of derivative classification markings is...

  19. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is defined... classification guides. (c) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall observe...

  20. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct... classification guide, need not possess original classification authority. (a) If a person who applies...

  1. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is defined... classification guides. (c) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall observe...

  2. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section 503.55... Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order 13526... derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification includes the classification of information based...

  3. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is defined... classification guides. (c) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall observe...

  4. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is defined... classification guides. (c) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall observe...

  5. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section 503.55... Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order 13526... derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification includes the classification of information based...

  6. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 1312.7 Section... Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification... another agency or classification authority. The application of derivative classification markings is...

  7. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section 503.55... Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order 13526... derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification includes the classification of information based...

  8. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section 503.55... Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order 13526... derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification includes the classification of information based...

  9. Classification-based reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Fernando; Segami, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    A representation formalism for N-ary relations, quantification, and definition of concepts is described. Three types of conditions are associated with the concepts: (1) necessary and sufficient properties, (2) contingent properties, and (3) necessary properties. Also explained is how complex chains of inferences can be accomplished by representing existentially quantified sentences, and concepts denoted by restrictive relative clauses as classification hierarchies. The representation structures that make possible the inferences are explained first, followed by the reasoning algorithms that draw the inferences from the knowledge structures. All the ideas explained have been implemented and are part of the information retrieval component of a program called Snowy. An appendix contains a brief session with the program.

  10. Classification of extraterrestrial civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tong B.; Chang, Grace

    1991-06-01

    A scheme of classification of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) communities based on the scope of energy accessible to the civilization in question is proposed as an alternative to the Kardeshev (1964) scheme that includes three types of civilization, as determined by their levels of energy expenditure. The proposed scheme includes six classes: (1) a civilization that runs essentially on energy exerted by individual beings or by domesticated lower life forms, (2) harnessing of natural sources on planetary surface with artificial constructions, like water wheels and wind sails, (3) energy from fossils and fissionable isotopes, mined beneath the planet surface, (4) exploitation of nuclear fusion on a large scale, whether on the planet, in space, or from primary solar energy, (5) extensive use of antimatter for energy storage, and (6) energy from spacetime, perhaps via the action of naked singularities.

  11. Subspace ensembles for classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shiliang; Zhang, Changshui

    2007-11-01

    Ensemble learning constitutes one of the principal current directions in machine learning and data mining. In this paper, we explore subspace ensembles for classification by manipulating different feature subspaces. Commencing with the nature of ensemble efficacy, we probe into the microcosmic meaning of ensemble diversity, and propose to use region partitioning and region weighting to implement effective subspace ensembles. Individual classifiers possessing eminent performance on a partitioned region reflected by high neighborhood accuracies are deemed to contribute largely to this region, and are assigned large weights in determining the labels of instances in this area. A robust algorithm “Sena” that incarnates the mechanism is presented, which is insensitive to the number of nearest neighbors chosen to calculate neighborhood accuracies. The algorithm exhibits improved performance over the well-known ensembles of bagging, AdaBoost and random subspace. The difference of its effectivity with varying base classifiers is also investigated.

  12. Bayesian classification theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Robin; Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass system searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit or share model parameters though a class hierarchy. We summarize the mathematical foundations of AutoClass.

  13. [Classification of lymphedema].

    PubMed

    Lazareth, I

    2002-06-01

    Classification of lymphedema is debated, because authors don't agree with the disordered physiology. Kinmonth divided all cases into primary and secondary lymphedema. Three types of primary lymphedema have been recognized: congenital, precox and tarda. Secondary lymphedema develops as a consequence of disruption or obstruction of the lymphatic pathways. Iatrogenic lymphedema are caused by surgery and/or radiation therapy. Post-infectious lymphedema are mainly caused by filariasis in tropical areas, and by cellulitis in occidental areas. Neoplastic disease (breast, prostatic cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma) are a major cause of secondary lymphedema. Less frequent etiologies are rheumatoid lymphedema, pathomimic lymphedema, pretibial myxoedema. Reduced lymphatic drainage is associated with severe chronic venous insufficiency and contributes to the leg swelling and the risk of infection.

  14. Robotic Rock Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Martial

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a three-month research program undertook jointly by the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and Ames Research Center as part of the Ames' Joint Research Initiative (JRI.) The work was conducted at the Ames Research Center by Mr. Liam Pedersen, a graduate student in the CMU Ph.D. program in Robotics under the supervision Dr. Ted Roush at the Space Science Division of the Ames Research Center from May 15 1999 to August 15, 1999. Dr. Martial Hebert is Mr. Pedersen's research adviser at CMU and is Principal Investigator of this Grant. The goal of this project is to investigate and implement methods suitable for a robotic rover to autonomously identify rocks and minerals in its vicinity, and to statistically characterize the local geological environment. Although primary sensors for these tasks are a reflection spectrometer and color camera, the goal is to create a framework under which data from multiple sensors, and multiple readings on the same object, can be combined in a principled manner. Furthermore, it is envisioned that knowledge of the local area, either a priori or gathered by the robot, will be used to improve classification accuracy. The key results obtained during this project are: The continuation of the development of a rock classifier; development of theoretical statistical methods; development of methods for evaluating and selecting sensors; and experimentation with data mining techniques on the Ames spectral library. The results of this work are being applied at CMU, in particular in the context of the Winter 99 Antarctica expedition in which the classification techniques will be used on the Nomad robot. Conversely, the software developed based on those techniques will continue to be made available to NASA Ames and the data collected from the Nomad experiments will also be made available.

  15. Classification of Rainbows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, J. L.; Peter, A. L.; Barckicke, J.

    2015-12-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF RAINBOWS Jean Louis Ricard,1,2,* Peter Adams ,2 and Jean Barckicke 2,3 1CNRM, Météo-France,42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse, France 2CEPAL, 148 Himley Road, Dudley, West Midlands DY1 2QH, United Kingdom 3DP/Compas,Météo-France,42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse, France *Corresponding author: Dr_Jean_Ricard@yahoo,co,ukRainbows are the most beautiful and most spectacular optical atmospheric phenomenon. Humphreys (1964) pointedly noted that "the "explanations" generally given of the rainbow [ in textbooks] may well be said to explain beautifully that which does not occur, and to leave unexplained which does" . . . "The records of close observations of rainbows soon show that not even the colors are always the same". Textbooks stress that the main factor affecting the aspect of the rainbow is the radius of the water droplets. In his well-known textbook entitled "the nature of light & colour in the open air", Minnaert (1954) gives the chief features of the rainbow depending on the diameter of the drops producing it. For this study, we have gathered hundreds of pictures of primary bows. We sort out the pictures into classes. The classes are defined in a such way that rainbows belonging to the same class look similar. Our results are surprising and do not confirm Minnaert's classification. In practice, the size of the water droplets is only a minor factor controlling the overall aspect of the rainbow. The main factor appears to be the height of the sun above the horizon. At sunset, the width of the red band increases, while the width of the other bands of colours decreases. The orange, the violet, the blue and the green bands disappear completely in this order. At the end, the primary bow is mainly red and slightly yellow. Picture = Contrast-enhanced photograph of a primary bow picture (prepared by Andrew Dunn).

  16. Classification of seizures and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Riviello, James J

    2003-07-01

    The management of seizures and epilepsy begins with forming a differential diagnosis, making the diagnosis, and then classifying seizure type and epileptic syndrome. Classification guides treatment, including ancillary testing, management, prognosis, and if needed, selection of the appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED). Many AEDs are available, and certain seizure types or epilepsy syndromes respond to specific AEDs. The identification of the genetics, molecular basis, and pathophysiologic mechanisms of epilepsy has resulted from classification of specific epileptic syndromes. The classification system used by the International League Against Epilepsy is periodically revised. The proposed revision changes the classification emphasis from the anatomic origin of seizures (focal vs generalized) to seizure semiology (ie, the signs or clinical manifestations). Modified systems have been developed for specific circumstances (eg, neonatal seizures, infantile seizures, status epilepticus, and epilepsy surgery). This article reviews seizure and epilepsy classification, emphasizing new data.

  17. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  18. 45 CFR 601.2 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.2 Classification authority. The... a Foundation employee develops information that appears to warrant classification because of...

  19. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same...

  20. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same...

  1. 45 CFR 601.2 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.2 Classification authority. The... a Foundation employee develops information that appears to warrant classification because of...

  2. Automatic Classification of Marine Mammals with Speaker Classification Methods.

    PubMed

    Kreimeyer, Roman; Ludwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals based on human speaker classification methods as an element of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool. This work is part of the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project under the framework of the European Defense Agency (EDA) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and Kiel University. The automatic classification should support sonar operators in the risk mitigation process before and during sonar exercises with a reliable automatic classification result.

  3. The Classification Ability with Naked Eyes According to the Understanding Level about Rocks of Pre-service Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Cho Kyu; Ho, Chung Duk; Pyo, Hong Deok; Kyeong Jin, Park

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the classification ability with naked eyes according to the understanding level about rocks of pre-service science teachers. We developed a questionnaire concerning misconception about minerals and rocks. The participant were 132 pre-service science teachers. Data were analyzed using Rasch model. Participants were divided into a master group and a novice group according to their understanding level. Seventeen rocks samples (6 igneous, 5 sedimentary, and 6 metamorphic rocks) were presented to pre-service science teachers to examine their classification ability, and they classified the rocks according to the criteria we provided. The study revealed three major findings. First, the pre-service science teachers mainly classified rocks according to textures, color, and grain size. Second, while they relatively easily classified igneous rocks, participants were confused when distinguishing sedimentary and metamorphic rocks from one another by using the same classification criteria. On the other hand, the understanding level of rocks has shown a statistically significant correlation with the classification ability in terms of the formation mechanism of rocks, whereas there was no statically significant relationship found with determination of correct name of rocks. However, this study found that there was a statistically significant relationship between the classification ability with regard the formation mechanism of rocks and the determination of correct name of rocks Keywords : Pre-service science teacher, Understanding level, Rock classification ability, Formation mechanism, Criterion of classification

  4. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative...

  5. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative...

  6. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative...

  7. Mandibular Third Molar Impaction: Review of Literature and a Proposal of a Classification

    PubMed Central

    Daugela, Povilas

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of present article was to review impacted mandibular third molar aetiology, clinical anatomy, radiologic examination, surgical treatment and possible complications, as well as to create new mandibular third molar impaction and extraction difficulty degree classification based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results. Material and Methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandibular third molar, impacted mandibular third molar, inferior alveolar nerve injury third molar, lingual nerve injury third molar. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1976 to April 2013. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy and oral surgery journals and books was performed. The publications there selected by including clinical and human anatomy studies. Results In total 75 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Impacted mandibular third molar aetiology, clinical anatomy, radiographic examination, surgical extraction of and possible complications, classifications and risk factors were discussed. New mandibular third molar impaction and extraction difficulty degree classification based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results was proposed. Conclusions The classification proposed here based on anatomical and radiological impacted mandibular third molar features is promising to be a helpful tool for impacted tooth assessment as well as for planning for surgical operation. Further clinical studies should be conducted for new classification validation and reliability evaluation. PMID:24422029

  8. Classification of protein crystallization imagery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqing; Sun, Shaohua; Bern, Marshall

    2004-01-01

    We investigate automatic classification of protein crystallization imagery, and evaluate the performance of several modern mathematical tools when applied to the problem. For feature extraction, we try a combination of geometric and texture features; for classification algorithms, the support vector machine (SVM) is compared with an automatic decision-tree classifier. Experimental results from 520 images are presented for the binary classification problem: separating successful trials from failed attempts. The best false positive and false negative rates are at 14.6% and 9.6% respectively, achieved by feeding both sets of features to the decision-tree classifier with boosting.

  9. Towards Automatic Classification of Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Armañanzas, Rubén; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2015-01-01

    The classification of neurons into types has been much debated since the inception of modern neuroscience. Recent experimental advances are accelerating the pace of data collection. The resulting information growth of morphological, physiological, and molecular properties encourages efforts to automate neuronal classification by powerful machine learning techniques. We review state-of-the-art analysis approaches and availability of suitable data and resources, highlighting prominent challenges and opportunities. The effective solution of the neuronal classification problem will require continuous development of computational methods, high-throughput data production, and systematic metadata organization to enable cross-lab integration. PMID:25765323

  10. Music classification with MPEG-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crysandt, Holger; Wellhausen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Driven by increasing amount of music available electronically the need and possibility of automatic classification systems for music becomes more and more important. Currently most search engines for music are based on textual descriptions like artist or/and title. This paper presents a system for automatic music description, classification and visualization for a set of songs. The system is designed to extract significant features of a piece of music in order to find songs of similar genre or a similar sound characteristics. The description is done with the help of MPEG-7 only. The classification and visualization is done with the self organizing map algorithm.

  11. Absolute classification with unsupervised clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    An absolute classification algorithm is proposed in which the class definition through training samples or otherwise is required only for a particular class of interest. The absolute classification is considered as a problem of unsupervised clustering when one cluster is known initially. The definitions and statistics of the other classes are automatically developed through the weighted unsupervised clustering procedure, which is developed to keep the cluster corresponding to the class of interest from losing its identity as the class of interest. Once all the classes are developed, a conventional relative classifier such as the maximum-likelihood classifier is used in the classification.

  12. Classification of Rainbows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Peter; Ricard, Jean; Barckicke, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Rainbows are the most beautiful and most spectacular optical atmospheric phenomenon. Humphreys (1964) pointedly noted that "the "explanations" generally given of the rainbow [ in textbooks] may well be said to explain beautifully that which does not occur, and to leave unexplained which does" . . . "The records of close observations of rainbows soon show that not even the colors are always the same". Textbooks stress that the main factor affecting the aspect of the rainbow is the radius of the water droplets. In his well-known textbook entitled "the nature of light & colour in the open air", Minnaert (1954) gives the chief features of the rainbow depending on the diameter of the drops producing it. For this study, we have gathered hundreds of pictures of primary bows. We sort out the pictures into classes. The classes are defined in a such way that rainbows belonging to the same class look similar. Our results are surprising and do not confirm Minnaert's classification. In practice, the size of the water droplets is only a minor factor controlling the overall aspect of the rainbow. The main factor appears to be the height of the sun above the horizon. At sunset, the width of the red band increases, while the width of the other bands of colours decreases. The orange, the violet, the blue and the green bands disappear completely in this order. At the end, the primary bow is mainly red and slightly yellow. Picture = taken from the CNRM in Toulouse after a summer storm (Jean Ricard)

  13. Radar clutter classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehwien, Wolfgang

    1989-11-01

    The problem of classifying radar clutter as found on air traffic control radar systems is studied. An algorithm based on Bayes decision theory and the parametric maximum a posteriori probability classifier is developed to perform this classification automatically. This classifier employs a quadratic discriminant function and is optimum for feature vectors that are distributed according to the multivariate normal density. Separable clutter classes are most likely to arise from the analysis of the Doppler spectrum. Specifically, a feature set based on the complex reflection coefficients of the lattice prediction error filter is proposed. The classifier is tested using data recorded from L-band air traffic control radars. The Doppler spectra of these data are examined; the properties of the feature set computed using these data are studied in terms of both the marginal and multivariate statistics. Several strategies involving different numbers of features, class assignments, and data set pretesting according to Doppler frequency and signal to noise ratio were evaluated before settling on a workable algorithm. Final results are presented in terms of experimental misclassification rates and simulated and classified plane position indicator displays.

  14. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  15. Molecular Classification of Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    KIJIMA, Noriyuki; KANEMURA, Yonehiro

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is one of the most frequent malignant brain tumors in children. The current standard treatment regimen consists of surgical resection, craniospinal irradiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Although these treatments have the potential to increase the survival of 70–80% of patients with MB, they are also associated with serious treatment-induced morbidity. The current risk stratification of MB is based on clinical factors, including age at presentation, metastatic status, and the presence of residual tumor following resection. In addition, recent genomic studies indicate that MB consists of at least four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT, sonic hedgehog (SHH), Group 3, and Group 4. WNT and SHH MBs are characterized by aberrations in the WNT and SHH signaling pathways, respectively. WNT MB has the best prognosis compared to the other MBs, while SHH MB has an intermediate prognosis. The underlying signaling pathways associated with Group 3 and 4 MBs have not been identified. Group 3 MB is frequently associated with metastasis, resulting in a poor prognosis, while Group 4 is sometimes associated with metastasis and has an intermediate prognosis. Group 4 is the most frequent MB and represents 35% of all MBs. These findings suggest that MB is a heterogeneous disease, and that MB subgroups have distinct molecular, demographic, and clinical characteristics. The molecular classification of MBs is redefining the risk stratification of patients with MB, and has the potential to identify new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of MB. PMID:27238212

  16. Proposed classification for topographic patterns seen after penetrating keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Karabatsas, C.; Cook, S.; Sparrow, J.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To create a clinically useful classification for post-keratoplasty corneas based on corneal topography.
METHODS—A total of 360 topographic maps obtained with the TMS-1, from 95 eyes that had undergone penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), were reviewed independently by two examiners in a masked fashion, and were categorised according to a proposed classification scheme.
RESULTS—A high interobserver agreement (88% in the first categorisation) was achieved. At 12 months post-PKP, a regular astigmatic pattern was observed in 20/85 cases (24%). This was subclassified as oval in three cases (4%), oblate symmetric bow tie in six cases (7%), prolate asymmetric bow tie in six cases (7%), and oblate asymmetric bow tie in five cases (6%). An irregular astigmatic pattern was observed in 61/85 cases (72%), subclassified as prolate irregular in five cases (6%), oblate irregular in four cases (5%), mixed in seven cases (8%), steep/flat in 11 cases (13%), localised steepness in 16 cases (19%), and triple pattern in three cases (4%). Regular astigmatic patterns were associated with significantly higher astigmatism measurements. The surface asymmetry index was significantly lower in the regular astigmatic patterns.
CONCLUSIONS—In post-PKP corneas, the prevalence of irregular astigmatism is about double that of regular astigmatism, with a trend for increase of the irregular patterns over time.

 Keywords: keratoplasty; corneal topography; astigmatism PMID:10434860

  17. Classification of microphthalmos and coloboma.

    PubMed Central

    Warburg, M

    1993-01-01

    A new classification of microphthalmos and coloboma is proposed to bring order to the complexity of clinical and aetiological heterogeneity of these conditions. A phenotypic classification is presented which may help the clinician to give a systematic description of the anomalies. The phenotype does not predict the aetiology but a systematic description of ocular and systemic anomalies improves syndrome identification. There are two major classes, total and partial microphthalmos, and a subclassification which follows the embryology of the anomalies. The aetiological classification consists of three classes: (1) genetic (monogenic and chromosomal), (2) prenatally acquired (teratological agents and intrauterine deformations), and (3) associations. Genetic disorders give rise to malformations; prenatally acquired anomalies are disruptions or deformations. The aetiological classification can be applied to other congenital birth defects and improves counselling of families. Recurrence risks vary considerably between the classes. PMID:8411053

  18. Poisson Structures:. Towards a Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, J.; Marmo, G.; Perelomov, A. M.

    In the present note we give an explicit description of certain class of Poisson structures. The methods lead to a classification of Poisson structures in low dimensions and suggest a possible approach for higher dimensions.

  19. Classification of spacetimes with symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Jesse W.

    Spacetimes with symmetry play a critical role in Einstein's Theory of General Relativity. Missing from the literature is a correct, usable, and computer accessible classification of such spacetimes. This dissertation fills this gap; specifically, we. i) give a new and different approach to the classification of spacetimes with symmetry using modern methods and tools such as the Schmidt method and computer algebra systems, resulting in ninety-two spacetimes; ii) create digital databases of the classification for easy access and use for researchers; iii) create software to classify any spacetime metric with symmetry against the new database; iv) compare results of our classification with those of Petrov and find that Petrov missed six cases and incorrectly normalized a significant number of metrics; v) classify spacetimes with symmetry in the book Exact Solutions to Einstein's Field Equations Second Edition by Stephani, Kramer, Macallum, Hoenselaers, and Herlt and in Komrakov's paper Einstein-Maxwell equation on four-dimensional homogeneous spaces using the new software.

  20. Spectroscopic classification of supernova candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkin, S. T.; Hall, A.; Fraser, M.; Campbell, H.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Pietro, N.

    2014-09-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of four supernovae at the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph and the R300V grating (3500-8000 Ang; ~6 Ang resolution).

  1. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for Coastal Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...

  2. Critical Evaluation of Headache Classifications

    PubMed Central

    ÖZGE, Aynur

    2013-01-01

    Transforming a subjective sense like headache into an objective state and establishing a common language for this complaint which can be both a symptom and a disease all by itself have kept the investigators busy for years. Each recommendation proposed has brought along a set of patients who do not meet the criteria. While almost the most ideal and most comprehensive classification studies continued at this point, this time criticisims about withdrawing from daily practice came to the fore. In this article, the classification adventure of scientists who work in the area of headache will be summarized. More specifically, 2 classifications made by the International Headache Society (IHS) and the point reached in relation with the 3rd classification which is still being worked on will be discussed together with headache subtypes. It has been presented with the wish and belief that it will contribute to the readers and young investigators who are interested in this subject.

  3. Handwriting Classification in Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansell, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Considers systems for the classification of handwriting features, discusses computer storage of information about handwriting features, and summarizes recent studies that give an idea of the range of forensic handwriting research. (GT)

  4. Cholangiocarcinoma: increasing burden of classifications

    PubMed Central

    Cardinale, Vincenzo; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Carpino, Guido; Torrice, Alessia; Fraveto, Alice; Gentile, Raffaele; Pasqualino, Vincenzo; Melandro, Fabio; Aliberti, Camilla; Bastianelli, Carlo; Brunelli, Roberto; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a very heterogeneous cancer from any point of view, including epidemiology, risk factors, morphology, pathology, molecular pathology, modalities of growth and clinical features. Given this heterogeneity, a uniform classification respecting the epidemiologic, pathologic and clinical needs is currently lacking. In this manuscript we discussed the different proposed classifications of CCA in relation with recent advances in pathophysiology and biology of this cancer. PMID:24570958

  5. Integrated classification of inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Allenbach, Y; Benveniste, O; Goebel, H-H; Stenzel, W

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory myopathies comprise a multitude of diverse diseases, most often occurring in complex clinical settings. To ensure accurate diagnosis, multidisciplinary expertise is required. Here, we propose a comprehensive myositis classification that incorporates clinical, morphological and molecular data as well as autoantibody profile. This review focuses on recent advances in myositis research, in particular, the correlation between autoantibodies and morphological or clinical phenotypes that can be used as the basis for an 'integrated' classification system.

  6. Product Work Classification and Coding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    detail is much more useful in planning steel welding processes. In this regard remember that mild steel , HSLA steel , and high-yield steel (e.g. HY80 ...manufacturing facility. In Figure 2.3-2, a classification and coding system for steel parts is shown. This classification and coding system sorts steel parts...system would provide a shop which produced steel parts with a means of organizing parts. Rather than attempting to manage all of its parts as a single

  7. Classification of the acanthocephala.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M

    2013-09-01

    In 1985, Amin presented a new system for the classification of the Acanthocephala in Crompton and Nickol's (1985) book 'Biology of the Acanthocephala' and recognized the concepts of Meyer (1931, 1932, 1933) and Van Cleave (1936, 1941, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1952). This system became the standard for the taxonomy of this group and remains so to date. Many changes have taken place and many new genera and species, as well as higher taxa, have been described since. An updated version of the 1985 scheme incorporating new concepts in molecular taxonomy, gene sequencing and phylogenetic studies is presented. The hierarchy has undergone a total face lift with Amin's (1987) addition of a new class, Polyacanthocephala (and a new order and family) to remove inconsistencies in the class Palaeacanthocephala. Amin and Ha (2008) added a third order (and a new family) to the Palaeacanthocephala, Heteramorphida, which combines features from the palaeacanthocephalan families Polymorphidae and Heteracanthocephalidae. Other families and subfamilies have been added but some have been eliminated, e.g. the three subfamilies of Arythmacanthidae: Arhythmacanthinae Yamaguti, 1935; Neoacanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1960; and Paracanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1969. Amin (1985) listed 22 families, 122 genera and 903 species (4, 4 and 14 families; 13, 28 and 81 genera; 167, 167 and 569 species in Archiacanthocephala, Eoacanthocephala and Palaeacanthocephala, respectively). The number of taxa listed in the present treatment is 26 families (18% increase), 157 genera (29%), and 1298 species (44%) (4, 4 and 16; 18, 29 and 106; 189, 255 and 845, in the same order), which also includes 1 family, 1 genus and 4 species in the class Polyacanthocephala Amin, 1987, and 3 genera and 5 species in the fossil family Zhijinitidae.

  8. Multisensor classification of sedimentary rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane

    1988-01-01

    A comparison is made between linear discriminant analysis and supervised classification results based on signatures from the Landsat TM, the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and airborne SAR, alone and combined into extended spectral signatures for seven sedimentary rock units exposed on the margin of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. Results from a linear discriminant analysis showed that training-area classification accuracies based on the multisensor data were improved an average of 15 percent over TM alone, 24 percent over TIMS alone, and 46 percent over SAR alone, with similar improvement resulting when supervised multisensor classification maps were compared to supervised, individual sensor classification maps. When training area signatures were used to map spectrally similar materials in an adjacent area, the average classification accuracy improved 19 percent using the multisensor data over TM alone, 2 percent over TIMS alone, and 11 percent over SAR alone. It is concluded that certain sedimentary lithologies may be accurately mapped using a single sensor, but classification of a variety of rock types can be improved using multisensor data sets that are sensitive to different characteristics such as mineralogy and surface roughness.

  9. Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remains the current standard for reporting treated patients' outcomes. Many developments in molecular and genetic methods in the meantime have identified a number of new entities, and new findings for several of the well-established salivary malignancies need to be considered for inclusion in any new classification system. All clinicians involved in the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of patients with salivary gland neoplasms must understand and respect the need for the various classification systems, enabling them to work within a multidisciplinary clinical team environment.

  10. Cardiovascular, diabetes, and cancer strips: evidences, mechanisms, and classifications

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qing-Hua; Hu, Da-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To report and name firstly that there are cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancers (CDC) strips; and disclose their mechanisms, classifications, and clinical significances. Study design Narrative and systematic review study and interpretive analysis. Methods Data sources and study selection: to collect and present related evidences on CDC strips from evidence-based, open-access, both Chinese- and English-language literatures in recent 10 years on clinical trials from PubMed according to keywords “CVD, DM and cancers” as well as authors’ extensive clinical experience with the treatment of more than fifty thousands of patients with CVD, diabetes and cancers over the past decades, and analyze their related mechanisms and categories which based on authors’ previous works. Data extraction: data were mainly extracted from 48 articles which are listed in the reference section of this review. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed data were included, narratively and systematically reviewed. Results With several conceptual and technical breakthrough, authors present related evidences on CDC strips, these are, CVD and DM, DM and cancers, cancers and CVD linked, respectively; And “Bad SEED” +/– “bad soil” theory or doctrine may explain this phenomenon due to “internal environmental injure, abnormal or unbalance” in human body resulting from the role of risk factors (RFs) related multi-pathways and multi-targets, which including organ & tissue (e.g., vascular-specific), cell and gene-based mechanisms. Their classifications include main strips/type B, and Branches/type A as showed by tables and figures in this article. Conclusions There are CDC strips and related mechanisms and classifications. CDC strips may help us to understand, prevent, and control related common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) as well as these high risk strips. PMID:25276377

  11. Probability distribution of intersymbol distances in random symbolic sequences: Applications to improving detection of keywords in texts and of amino acid clustering in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpena, Pedro; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro A.; Carretero-Campos, Concepción; Coronado, Ana V.

    2016-11-01

    Symbolic sequences have been extensively investigated in the past few years within the framework of statistical physics. Paradigmatic examples of such sequences are written texts, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein sequences. In these examples, the spatial distribution of a given symbol (a word, a DNA motif, an amino acid) is a key property usually related to the symbol importance in the sequence: The more uneven and far from random the symbol distribution, the higher the relevance of the symbol to the sequence. Thus, many techniques of analysis measure in some way the deviation of the symbol spatial distribution with respect to the random expectation. The problem is then to know the spatial distribution corresponding to randomness, which is typically considered to be either the geometric or the exponential distribution. However, these distributions are only valid for very large symbolic sequences and for many occurrences of the analyzed symbol. Here, we obtain analytically the exact, randomly expected spatial distribution valid for any sequence length and any symbol frequency, and we study its main properties. The knowledge of the distribution allows us to define a measure able to properly quantify the deviation from randomness of the symbol distribution, especially for short sequences and low symbol frequency. We apply the measure to the problem of keyword detection in written texts and to study amino acid clustering in protein sequences. In texts, we show how the results improve with respect to previous methods when short texts are analyzed. In proteins, which are typically short, we show how the measure quantifies unambiguously the amino acid clustering and characterize its spatial distribution.

  12. Probability distribution of intersymbol distances in random symbolic sequences: Applications to improving detection of keywords in texts and of amino acid clustering in proteins.

    PubMed

    Carpena, Pedro; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro A; Carretero-Campos, Concepción; Coronado, Ana V

    2016-11-01

    Symbolic sequences have been extensively investigated in the past few years within the framework of statistical physics. Paradigmatic examples of such sequences are written texts, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein sequences. In these examples, the spatial distribution of a given symbol (a word, a DNA motif, an amino acid) is a key property usually related to the symbol importance in the sequence: The more uneven and far from random the symbol distribution, the higher the relevance of the symbol to the sequence. Thus, many techniques of analysis measure in some way the deviation of the symbol spatial distribution with respect to the random expectation. The problem is then to know the spatial distribution corresponding to randomness, which is typically considered to be either the geometric or the exponential distribution. However, these distributions are only valid for very large symbolic sequences and for many occurrences of the analyzed symbol. Here, we obtain analytically the exact, randomly expected spatial distribution valid for any sequence length and any symbol frequency, and we study its main properties. The knowledge of the distribution allows us to define a measure able to properly quantify the deviation from randomness of the symbol distribution, especially for short sequences and low symbol frequency. We apply the measure to the problem of keyword detection in written texts and to study amino acid clustering in protein sequences. In texts, we show how the results improve with respect to previous methods when short texts are analyzed. In proteins, which are typically short, we show how the measure quantifies unambiguously the amino acid clustering and characterize its spatial distribution.

  13. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... international classification pursuant to § 2.85(e)(3). (b) Prior United States classification system. Section 6... pursuant to § 2.85(e)(3); or (2) The registration was issued under a classification system prior to that... application. (e) Changes to Nice Agreement. The international classification system changes...

  14. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons... documents or classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

  15. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4... SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of derivative classification. (1) Unlike original classification which is an initial determination, derivative...

  16. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons... documents or classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

  17. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons... documents or classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

  18. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4... SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of derivative classification. (1) Unlike original classification which is an initial determination, derivative...

  19. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4... SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of derivative classification. (1) Unlike original classification which is an initial determination, derivative...

  20. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4... SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of derivative classification. (1) Unlike original classification which is an initial determination, derivative...

  1. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons... documents or classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

  2. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons... documents or classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

  3. Prototype Expert System for Climate Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Clay

    Many students find climate classification laborious and time-consuming, and through their lack of repetition fail to grasp the details of classification. This paper describes an expert system for climate classification that is being developed at Middle Tennessee State University. Topics include: (1) an introduction to the nature of classification,…

  4. Current terminology and diagnostic classification schemes.

    PubMed

    Okeson, J P

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the current terminology and classification schemes available for temporomandibular disorders. The origin of each term is presented, and the classification schemes that have been offered for temporomandibular disorders are briefly reviewed. Several important classifications are presented in more detail, with mention of advantages and disadvantages. Final recommendations are provided for future direction in the area of classification schemes.

  5. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders,...

  6. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders,...

  7. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders,...

  8. 32 CFR 2001.21 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Original classification. 2001.21 Section 2001.21... Markings § 2001.21 Original classification. (a) Primary markings. At the time of original classification... classification markings. See § 2001.24(j) for specific guidance. (e) Date of origin of document. The date...

  9. 32 CFR 2001.21 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Original classification. 2001.21 Section 2001.21... Markings § 2001.21 Original classification. (a) Primary markings. At the time of original classification... classification markings. See § 2001.24(j) for specific guidance. (e) Date of origin of document. The date...

  10. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders,...

  11. 32 CFR 2001.21 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Original classification. 2001.21 Section 2001.21... Markings § 2001.21 Original classification. (a) Primary markings. At the time of original classification... classification markings. See § 2001.24(j) for specific guidance. (e) Date of origin of document. The date...

  12. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders,...

  13. A robust region-based active contour model with point classification for ultrasound breast lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhihua; Zhang, Lidan; Ren, Haibing; Kim, Ji-Yeun

    2013-02-01

    Lesion segmentation is one of the key technologies for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. In this paper, we propose a robust region-based active contour model (ACM) with point classification to segment high-variant breast lesion in ultrasound images. First, a local signed pressure force (LSPF) function is proposed to classify the contour points into two classes: local low contrast class and local high contrast class. Secondly, we build a sub-model for each class. For low contrast class, the sub-model is built by combining global energy with local energy model to find a global optimal solution. For high contrast class, the sub-model is just the local energy model for its good level set initialization. Our final energy model is built by adding the two sub-models. Finally, the model is minimized and evolves the level set contour to get the segmentation result. We compare our method with other state-of-art methods on a very large ultrasound database and the result shows that our method can achieve better performance.

  14. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming; Letiner, Thomas K; Korber, Bette T

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our

  15. Magnetic classification of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, P.; Sagnotti, L.; Consolmagno, G.; Denise, M.; Folco, L.; Gattacceca, J.; Osete, M.; Pesonen, L.

    2003-04-01

    either a different type of meteorite or with even terrestrial rock. In the collections studied several percent of the specimens appeared misidentified. Moreover magnetic measurements can be performed directly on the field, by hand or by a robot, opening new possibility for screening meteorites on cold or hot desert surface. P. Rochette et al., Magnetic Classification of stony meteorites: 1. Ordinary chondrites. Met. Planet. Sci., in press.

  16. Semi-supervised classification of emotional pictures based on feature combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Zhang, Yu-Jin

    2011-02-01

    Can the abundant emotions reflected in pictures be classified automatically by computer? Only the visual features extracted from images are considered in the previous researches, which have the constrained capability to reveal various emotions. In addition, the training database utilized by previous methods is the subset of International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that has a relatively small scale, which exerts negative effects on the discrimination of emotion classifiers. To solve the above problems, this paper proposes a novel and practical emotional picture classification approach, using semi-supervised learning scheme with both visual feature and keyword tag information. Besides the IAPS with both emotion labels and keyword tags as part of the training dataset, nearly 2000 pictures with only keyword tags that are downloaded from the website Flickr form an auxiliary training dataset. The visual feature of the latent emotional semantic factors is extracted by probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA) model, while the text feature is described by binary vectors on the tag vocabulary. A first Linear Programming Boost (LPBoost) classifier which is trained on the samples from IAPS combines the above two features, and aims to label the other training samples from the internet. Then the second SVM classifier which is trained on all training images using only visual feature, focuses on the test images. In the experiment, the categorization performance of our approach is better than the latest methods.

  17. Pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tervaert, Thijs W Cohen; Mooyaart, Antien L; Amann, Kerstin; Cohen, Arthur H; Cook, H Terence; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Ferrario, Franco; Fogo, Agnes B; Haas, Mark; de Heer, Emile; Joh, Kensuke; Noël, Laure H; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Seshan, Surya V; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Bruijn, Jan A

    2010-04-01

    Although pathologic classifications exist for several renal diseases, including IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and lupus nephritis, a uniform classification for diabetic nephropathy is lacking. Our aim, commissioned by the Research Committee of the Renal Pathology Society, was to develop a consensus classification combining type1 and type 2 diabetic nephropathies. Such a classification should discriminate lesions by various degrees of severity that would be easy to use internationally in clinical practice. We divide diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions with a separate evaluation for degrees of interstitial and vascular involvement. Biopsies diagnosed as diabetic nephropathy are classified as follows: Class I, glomerular basement membrane thickening: isolated glomerular basement membrane thickening and only mild, nonspecific changes by light microscopy that do not meet the criteria of classes II through IV. Class II, mesangial expansion, mild (IIa) or severe (IIb): glomeruli classified as mild or severe mesangial expansion but without nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions) or global glomerulosclerosis in more than 50% of glomeruli. Class III, nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions): at least one glomerulus with nodular increase in mesangial matrix (Kimmelstiel-Wilson) without changes described in class IV. Class IV, advanced diabetic glomerulosclerosis: more than 50% global glomerulosclerosis with other clinical or pathologic evidence that sclerosis is attributable to diabetic nephropathy. A good interobserver reproducibility for the four classes of DN was shown (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84) in a test of this classification.

  18. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  19. The revised classification of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair. G.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matt; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; leGall, Line; Lynn, Denis H.; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E.; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W.

    2012-01-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. (2005), retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information. PMID:23020233

  20. Galaxy Classification without Feature Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsterer, K. L.; Gieseke, F.; Kramer, O.

    2012-09-01

    The automatic classification of galaxies according to the different Hubble types is a widely studied problem in the field of astronomy. The complexity of this task led to projects like Galaxy Zoo which try to obtain labeled data based on visual inspection by humans. Many automatic classification frameworks are based on artificial neural networks (ANN) in combination with a feature extraction step in the pre-processing phase. These approaches rely on labeled catalogs for training the models. The small size of the typically used training sets, however, limits the generalization performance of the resulting models. In this work, we present a straightforward application of support vector machines (SVM) for this type of classification tasks. The conducted experiments indicate that using a sufficient number of labeled objects provided by the EFIGI catalog leads to high-quality models. In contrast to standard approaches no additional feature extraction is required.

  1. Classification systems for stalking behavior.

    PubMed

    Racine, Christopher; Billick, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Stalking is a complex behavioral phenomenon that is unique in that it necessarily involves a prolonged dyadic relationship between both a perpetrator and a victim. Since criminalization of stalking behavior in the 1990s, different conceptual typologies have attempted to classify this behavior to assess risk and aid in management decisions. The authors reviewed the current literature regarding the most recent and accepted stalking classification systems. The three predominant stalker typologies currently in use include Zona's stalker-victim types, Mullen's stalker typology, and the RECON stalker typology. Of these, the RECON classification system alone was developed in an attempt to separate stalkers into groups based on previously known risk factors for behaviorally based phenomenon such as propensity for violence. Understanding and simplifying these classification systems may enhance the potential that new research will lead to evidence-based management and treatment strategies in the stalking situation.

  2. Hierarchical modeling for image classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likens, W.; Maw, K.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the California Integrated Remote Sensing System's (CIRSS) San Bernardino County Project, the use of data layers from a geographic information system (GIS) as an integral part of the Landsat image classification process was investigated. Through a hierarchical modeling technique, elevation, aspect, land use, vegetation, and growth management data from the project's data base were used to guide class labeling decisions in a 1976 Landsat MSS land cover classification. A similar model, incorporating 1976-1979 Landsat spectral change data in addition to other data base elements, was used in the classification of a 1979 Landsat image. The resultant Landsat products were integrated as additional layers into the data base for use in growth management, fire hazard, and hydrological modeling.

  3. Corpus Callosum MR Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, A.; Coenen, F.; Jiang, C.; García-Fiñana, M.; Sluming, V.

    An approach to classifying Magnetic Resonance (MR) image data is described. The specific application is the classification of MRI scan data according to the nature of the corpus callosum, however the approach has more general applicability. A variation of the “spectral segmentation with multi-scale graph decomposition” mechanism is introduced. The result of the segmentation is stored in a quad-tree data structure to which a weighted variation (also developed by the authors) of the gSpan algorithm is applied to identify frequent sub-trees. As a result the images are expressed as a set frequent sub-trees. There may be a great many of these and thus a decision tree based feature reduction technique is applied before classification takes place. The results show that the proposed approach performs both efficiently and effectively, obtaining a classification accuracy of over 95% in the case of the given application.

  4. Classification of hyperlipidaemias and hyperlipoproteinaemias*

    PubMed Central

    1970-01-01

    Many studies of atherosclerosis have indicated hyperlipidaemia as a predisposing factor to vascular disease. The relationship holds even for mild degrees of hyperlipidaemia, a fact that underlines the importance of this category of disorders. Both primary and secondary hyperlipidaemias represent such a variety of abnormalities that an internationally acceptable provisional classification is highly desirable in order to facilitate communication between scientists with different backgrounds. The present memorandum presents such a classification; it briefly describes the criteria for diagnosis of the main types of hyperlipidaemia as well as the methods of their determination. Because lipoproteins offer more information than analysis of plasma lipids (most of the plasma lipids being bound to various proteins), the classification is based on lipoprotein analyses by electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. Simpler methods, however, such as the observation of plasma and measurements of cholesterol and triglycerides, are used to the fullest possible extent in determining the lipoprotein patterns. PMID:4930042

  5. The revised classification of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Adl, Sina M; Simpson, Alastair G B; Lane, Christopher E; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S; Brown, Matthew W; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; Le Gall, Line; Lynn, Denis H; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A D; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E; Parfrey, Laura W; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Laura; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad L; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W

    2012-09-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. [J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 52 (2005) 399], retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information.

  6. Intelligent Pairing Assistant for Air Operation Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    center, intelligent user interface, reinforcement learning , pairing. ACM Classification Keywords H.4.1. Office Automation: Workflow management...took to learning how to adjust the weights associated with rules based on the user’s feedback falls into the category of reinforcement learning problems...Press, 93-100. 13. Sutton, R. and Barto, A, Reinforcement Learning : An Introduction. MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 1998. Figure 2. Annotation

  7. A classification of ecological boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strayer, D.L.; Power, M.E.; Fagan, W.F.; Pickett, S.T.A.; Belnap, J.

    2003-01-01

    Ecologists use the term boundary to refer to a wide range of real and conceptual structures. Because imprecise terminology may impede the search for general patterns and theories about ecological boundaries, we present a classification of the attributes of ecological boundaries to aid in communication and theory development. Ecological boundaries may differ in their origin and maintenance, their spatial structure, their function, and their temporal dynamics. A classification system based on these attributes should help ecologists determine whether boundaries are truly comparable. This system can be applied when comparing empirical studies, comparing theories, and testing theoretical predictions against empirical results.

  8. Deep learning for image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoppin, Ryan; Rizki, Mateen

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of deep learning and introduces the several subfields of deep learning including a specific tutorial of convolutional neural networks. Traditional methods for learning image features are compared to deep learning techniques. In addition, we present our preliminary classification results, our basic implementation of a convolutional restricted Boltzmann machine on the Mixed National Institute of Standards and Technology database (MNIST), and we explain how to use deep learning networks to assist in our development of a robust gender classification system.

  9. 78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... submitted for quality verification meet more restrictive quality requirements and age parameters set by ICE... ``registration'' by the U.S. cotton industry and the Intercontinental Exchange (ICE). In response to requests from the U.S. cotton industry and ICE, AMS proposes to offer a futures classification option...

  10. Supervised ensemble classification of Kepler variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, G.; Borne, K.

    2016-07-01

    Variable star analysis and classification is an important task in the understanding of stellar features and processes. While historically classifications have been done manually by highly skilled experts, the recent and rapid expansion in the quantity and quality of data has demanded new techniques, most notably automatic classification through supervised machine learning. We present an expansion of existing work on the field by analysing variable stars in the Kepler field using an ensemble approach, combining multiple characterization and classification techniques to produce improved classification rates. Classifications for each of the roughly 150 000 stars observed by Kepler are produced separating the stars into one of 14 variable star classes.

  11. Bio-geographic classification of the Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendereski, Forough; Vogt, Meike; Payne, Mark R.; Lachkar, Zouhair; Salman Mahini, AbdolRassoul; Hosseini, Seyyed Abbas; Gruber, Nicholas

    2013-04-01

    waters of the CS. Researchers can benefit applying the result for different purposes such as ecosystem conservation, sampling area selection and ecosystem modeling. Keywords: Ecosystem classification, Ecoregions, Self Organizing Maps, Surface pelagic, Caspian Sea

  12. Proposed Expansion of Acme Landfill Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    wastes from landfill effective January 1, 1983: PCB’s, cyanides, pesticides , toxic metals, halogenated organics, and non-halogenated organics. (Section...1983, the six substances slated for restrictive action are: PCB’s, pesticides , toxic metals, cyanide, halogenated organics, and non-haloqenated...regrading as needed. Expansive soils in the site areas for Alternitives A, B, and C would affect pavements and light structures they support. Moisture

  13. The ACM Periodical Bank: A Retrospective View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jack A.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluates a cooperative venture in interlibrary lending of periodicals planned and executed by ten midwestern colleges. The study traces the consortium's history from 1967 to the present, describing successes and problems. (RAA)

  14. The Acme of Skill: Nonkinetic Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    frontmatter.indd 6 7/29/08 12:15:43 PM Introduction The term nonkinetic warfare may seem to be an oxy- moron . How can warfare be described as...the hallmark of the previous two genera- tions of warfare. The authors attribute the evolution of warfare largely to the advancement in technology and

  15. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  16. Discriminant Analysis for Content Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John H., Jr.

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate the effectiveness and utility of automatically classifying documents through the use of multiple discriminant functions. Classification is accomplished by computing the distance from the mean vector of each category to the vector of observed frequencies of a document and assigning the document…

  17. Value of Personnel Classification Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abellera, James W.; And Others

    The study outlines the development of a methodology for meaningfully estimating the value of classification information used by the Air Force to make selection and job assignment decisions which lead to the satisfaction of first-term enlisted manpower requirements. The methodology, called the optimal allocation strategy, is employed to solve a…

  18. Classification from PRECIS: Some Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Phyllis A.

    1976-01-01

    The PREserved Context Index System (PRECIS) developed for subject indexing for the British National Bibliography is discussed as a basis for various studies relating to classification which could be made from its initial phrases, strings, entries, and back-up structure. (Author)

  19. Santa Ana Forecasting and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolinski, T.; Eichhorn, D.; D'Agostino, B. J.; Vanderburg, S.; Means, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Southern California experiences wildfires every year, but under certain circumstances these fires grow into extremely large and destructive fires, such as the Cedar Fire of 2003 and the Witch Fire of 2007. The Cedar Fire burned over 1100 km2 , destroyed more than 2200 homes and killed 15 people; the Witch fire burned more than 800 km2, destroyed more than 1000 homes and killed 2 people. Fires can quickly become too large and dangerous to fight if they are accompanied by a very strong "Santa Ana" condition, which is a foehn-like wind that may bring strong winds and very low humidities. However there is an entire range of specific weather conditions that fall into the broad category of Santa Anas, from cold and blustery to hot with very little wind. All types are characterized by clear skies and low humidity. Since the potential for destructive fire is dependent on the characteristics of Santa Anas, as well as the level of fuel moisture, there exists a need for further classification, such as is done with tropical cyclones and after-the-fact with tornadoes. We use surface data and fuel moisture combined with reanalysis to diagnose those conditions that result in Santa Anas with the greatest potential for destructive fires. We use this data to produce a new classification system for Santa Anas. This classification system should be useful for informing the relevant agencies for mitigation and response planning. In the future this same classification may be made available to the general public.

  20. AEDS Property Classification Code Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.

    The control and inventory of property items using data processing machines requires a form of numerical description or code which will allow a maximum of description in a minimum of space on the data card. An adaptation of a standard industrial classification system is given to cover any expendable warehouse item or non-expendable piece of…

  1. Classification of spatially unresolved objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Horwitz, H. M.; Hyde, P. D.; Morgenstern, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A proportion estimation technique for classification of multispectral scanner images is reported that uses data point averaging to extract and compute estimated proportions for a single average data point to classify spatial unresolved areas. Example extraction calculations of spectral signatures for bare soil, weeds, alfalfa, and barley prove quite accurate.

  2. The classification of orofacial pains.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Jeffrey P

    2008-05-01

    This article highlights the process of making the proper orofacial pain diagnosis. A classification is presented based on the clinical characteristics of the pain complaint and the structure by which it emanates. It is meant to serve as a road map for the clinician, which will help him or her establish the correct diagnosis, thereby allowing the selection of the proper treatment.

  3. The CHAT classification of stroke.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, E F; Browse, N L

    1989-02-01

    Current terminology for clinical episodes relating to stroke is inconsistent and unclear, does not permit inclusion of data regarding the location and magnitude of extracranial and intracerebral arterial disease, does not coincide with existing classifications in Europe, and characterizes a hemispheric entity only, as opposed to a global description including prior symptoms in both hemispheres. A new classification system (CHAT) has been designed to deal with these problems, including the current clinical presentation, historical clinical episodes, the site and pathologic type of arterial disease, and information regarding abnormalities of the brain. Using this system, a retrospective review of 480 consecutive carotid endarterectomies is presented, demonstrating the advantages of the CHAT classification. Data include a significant difference in the probability of survival after carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic stenosis in patients with prior symptoms on the opposite side, as well as a significant difference in the probability of stroke-free survival between patients with amaurosis fugax and those with prior carotid cortical symptoms (TIAs) as the presenting clinical condition. The CHAT classification is suggested as a significant advance in the reporting of all surgical cerebrovascular disease experience, and has particular implications for the current randomized trials between medical and surgical therapy for carotid artery disease.

  4. THE CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS OCCUPATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Hayhurst, E. R.

    1916-01-01

    In this paper Doctor Hayhurst describes the six classifications for hazardous occupations which were employed in a survey made in Ohio. He also explains, by text and diagram, the process of analyzing, upon a standard formula, the hazard of an individual case. PMID:18009453

  5. Optimizing Classification in Intelligence Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    ACC Classification Accuracy AUC Area Under the ROC Curve CI Competitive Intelligence COMINT Communications Intelligence DoD Department of...indispensible tool to support a national leader’s decision making process, competitive intelligence (CI) has emerged in recent decades as an environment meant...effectiveness for the intelligence product in competitive intelligence environment: accuracy, objectivity, usability, relevance, readiness, and timeliness

  6. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O; Vogel, Timothy M; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-08-01

    Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned with

  7. Discovery and Classification in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Three decades after Martin Harwit's pioneering Cosmic Discovery (1981), and following on the recent IAU Symposium "Accelerating the Rate of Astronomical Discovery,” we have revisited the problem of discovery in astronomy, emphasizing new classes of objects. 82 such classes have been identified and analyzed, including 22 in the realm of the planets, 36 in the realm of the stars, and 24 in the realm of the galaxies. We find an extended structure of discovery, consisting of detection, interpretation and understanding, each with its own nuances and a microstructure including conceptual, technological and social roles. This is true with a remarkable degree of consistency over the last 400 years of telescopic astronomy, ranging from Galileo's discovery of satellites, planetary rings and star clusters, to the discovery of quasars and pulsars. Telescopes have served as "engines of discovery” in several ways, ranging from telescope size and sensitivity (planetary nebulae and spiral galaxies), to specialized detectors (TNOs) and the opening of the electromagnetic spectrum for astronomy (pulsars, pulsar planets, and most active galaxies). A few classes (radiation belts, the solar wind and cosmic rays), were initially discovered without the telescope. Classification also plays an important role in discovery. While it might seem that classification marks the end of discovery, or a post-discovery phase, in fact it often marks the beginning, even a pre-discovery phase. Nowhere is this more clearly seen than in the classification of stellar spectra, long before dwarfs, giants and supergiants were known, or their evolutionary sequence recognized. Classification may also be part of a post-discovery phase, as in the MK system of stellar classification, constructed after the discovery of stellar luminosity classes. Some classes are declared rather than discovered, as in the case of gas and ice giant planets, and, infamously, Pluto as a dwarf planet.

  8. River Sinuosity Classification - The method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, J.; Székely, B.; Timár, G.

    2012-04-01

    We introduced a new evaluation method, the classification of multiple window-size based sinuosity spectrum. If the river is long enough for the analysis, the classification could be as useful, as the sinuosity spectrum, but sometimes it is more straightforward. Furthermore, for the classification, we did not need the main parameters of the river, e.g. the bankfull discharge. Each sinuosity calculation that was performed for a given window size, has been considered as one band (one channel) of a multichannel "image". Then, the sinuosity spectrums became multichannel images are of size 1 X N where N represents the length of the actual river in pixels. Using this multichannel input unsupervised ISOCLASS classification was carried out on these data, using ER Mapper software. The requested number of classes was set to 5. The results of the sinuosity calculations are scalars. Earlier, it was a subjective decision to divide the sinuosity values into the categories (low, medium-low, medium, medium-high, and high), while the new method provides integer numbers (1 to 5) itself. These numbers are calculated from the sinuosity values, but are not equal to them. Analysing the results of the classification, it is important to note that the method typically splits the river course into contiguous sections that belong to the same class. Boundaries of these classes can be considered as points of considerable change in the river course, because the method uses statistically relevant amount of data of the river course in a robust way to detect changes. Some specific classes or their boundaries seem to be correlated to tectonically active zones. The research is made in the frame of project OTKA-NK83400 (SourceSink Hungary). The European Union and the European Social Fund also have provided financial support to the project under the grant agreement no. TÁMOP 4.2.1./B-09/1/KMR-2010-0003.

  9. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... classification guides with RD or FRD information topics. (d) Originators of classification guides with RD or FRD topics shall review such guides at least every five years and make revisions as necessary. (e)...

  10. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... classification guides with RD or FRD information topics. (d) Originators of classification guides with RD or FRD topics shall review such guides at least every five years and make revisions as necessary. (e)...

  11. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... classification guides with RD or FRD information topics. (d) Originators of classification guides with RD or FRD topics shall review such guides at least every five years and make revisions as necessary. (e)...

  12. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2500.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information....

  13. TRACE spectroscopic classification of optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Childress, M.; Sullivan, M.; Kotak, R.; Maguire, K.; Young, D.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.; Mazzali, P.; Tonry, J.; Chambers, K.; Stalder, B.; Denneau, L.; Heinze, A.; Huber, M.; Weiland, H.; Rest, A.

    2017-03-01

    TRACE, the Transient RApid Classification Experiment (PI: Inserra, ATel #10055), reports the following supernova classifications. The targets were supplied by ATLAS survey, see Tonry et al. (2011, PASP, 123, 58) and Tonry et al. (ATel #8680).

  14. Screening and classification of ceramic powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miwa, S.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is given of the classification technology of ceramic powders. Advantages and disadvantages of the wet and dry screening and classification methods are discussed. Improvements of wind force screening devices are described.

  15. TRACE spectroscopic classification of optical transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Childress, M.; Sullivan, M.; Kotak, R.; Maguire, K.; Young, D.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.; Mazzali, P.; Tonry, J.; Chambers, K.; Stalder, B.; Huber, M.; Denneau, L.; Heinze, A.; Weiland, H.; Rest, A.

    2017-02-01

    TRACE, the Transient RApid Classification Experiment (PI: Inserra), reports the following supernova classification. The target was supplied by ATLAS survey, see Tonry et al. (2011, PASP, 123, 58) and Tonry et al. (ATel #8680).

  16. TRACE spectroscopic classification of optical transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Childress, M.; Sullivan, M.; Kotak, R.; Maguire, K.; Young, D.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.; Mazzali, P.; Tonry, J.; Chambers, K.; Stalder, B.; Denneau, L.; Heinze, A.; Huber, M.; Weiland, H.; Rest, A.

    2017-02-01

    TRACE, the Transient RApid Classification Experiment (PI: Inserra, ATel #10055), reports the following supernova classification. The target was supplied by ATLAS survey, see Tonry et al. (2011, PASP, 123, 58) and Tonry et al. (ATel #8680).

  17. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... classification guides with RD or FRD information topics. (d) Originators of classification guides with RD or FRD topics shall review such guides at least every five years and make revisions as necessary. (e)...

  18. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... classification guides with RD or FRD information topics. (d) Originators of classification guides with RD or FRD topics shall review such guides at least every five years and make revisions as necessary. (e)...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1402 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Size Classification § 51.1402 Size classification. Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1402 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Size Classification § 51.1402 Size classification. Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade in accordance with one of...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1402 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Size Classification § 51.1402 Size classification. Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1402 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Size Classification § 51.1402 Size classification. Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade in accordance with one of...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1402 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Size Classification § 51.1402 Size classification. Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade in accordance with one of...

  4. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2500.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information....

  5. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2500.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information....

  6. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2500.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information....

  7. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2500.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information....

  8. Between Traditional Classification and Coordinate Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghose, Amitabha; Dhawle, Anand S.

    1979-01-01

    Describes MANIS, an information system for retrieval of interdisciplinary information in management, which maintains traditional classification but allows the user to combine terms of his choice, where choice is restricted to terms belonging to the systems of traditional classification. (CWM)

  9. An Expanded Classification of the Plant Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, B. S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an expanded classification of the plant kingdom, emphasizing major evolutionary steps and differences in levels of complexity. Describes subdivisions and suggests that this classification, reflecting unity and diversity, may be logical, understandable, and useful to students. (JN)

  10. 5 CFR 1312.3 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.3 Classification requirements. United States citizens must...; (5) Scientific, technological, or economic matters relating to the national security; (6)...

  11. 45 CFR 601.2 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.2 Classification authority. The... national security character, the material will be afforded protection and sent to the Division...

  12. 45 CFR 601.2 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.2 Classification authority. The... national security character, the material will be afforded protection and sent to the Division...

  13. 45 CFR 601.2 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.2 Classification authority. The... national security character, the material will be afforded protection and sent to the Division...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2281 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.2281 Section 51.2281... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Color Requirements § 51.2281 Color classifications. The following classifications are provided to describe the color of any...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification... describing the color as an indication of the stage of ripeness of any lot of mature tomatoes of a red...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification. (a) The following terms may be used, when specified in connection...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2281 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.2281 Section 51.2281... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Color Requirements § 51.2281 Color classifications. The following classifications are provided to describe the color of any...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2281 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.2281 Section 51.2281...) Color Requirements § 51.2281 Color classifications. The following classifications are provided to describe the color of any lot: “Extra Light”, “Light”, “Light Amber” or “Amber”. The portions of kernels...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2281 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.2281 Section 51.2281... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Color Requirements § 51.2281 Color classifications. The following classifications are provided to describe the color of any...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2281 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.2281 Section 51.2281...) Color Requirements § 51.2281 Color classifications. The following classifications are provided to describe the color of any lot: “Extra Light”, “Light”, “Light Amber” or “Amber”. The portions of kernels...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification. (a) The following terms may be used, when specified in connection...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification... describing the color as an indication of the stage of ripeness of any lot of mature tomatoes of a red...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification... describing the color as an indication of the stage of ripeness of any lot of mature tomatoes of a red...

  9. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164 Classification... and classify products at any time, if it determines that a restriction on the use of a...

  10. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164 Classification... and classify products at any time, if it determines that a restriction on the use of a...

  11. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164 Classification... and classify products at any time, if it determines that a restriction on the use of a...

  12. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164 Classification... and classify products at any time, if it determines that a restriction on the use of a...

  13. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164 Classification... and classify products at any time, if it determines that a restriction on the use of a...

  14. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  15. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  16. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  17. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  18. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  19. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  20. 12 CFR 1777.20 - Capital classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... notice of proposed capital classification, holds core capital equaling or exceeding the minimum capital... classification, holds core capital equaling or exceeding the minimum capital level. (3) Significantly... the date specified in the notice of proposed capital classification, holds core capital less than...

  1. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.6 Derivative classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  2. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.6 Derivative classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  3. 18 CFR 1301.65 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Derivative... PROCEDURES Protection of National Security Classified Information § 1301.65 Derivative classification. (a) In... apply to the source information, is derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification...

  4. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.6 Derivative classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  5. 18 CFR 1301.65 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Derivative... PROCEDURES Protection of National Security Classified Information § 1301.65 Derivative classification. (a) In... apply to the source information, is derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification...

  6. 18 CFR 1301.65 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Derivative... PROCEDURES Protection of National Security Classified Information § 1301.65 Derivative classification. (a) In... apply to the source information, is derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification...

  7. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one...

  8. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one...

  9. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one...

  10. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one...

  11. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  13. How To Survive a Classification Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, Shelley

    1998-01-01

    Examines job classification studies in public libraries, focusing on point-factor classification systems. Discusses job descriptions, job auditing biases, preparedness, what not to say to auditors, and the appeals process. Outlines typical factors in a job classification: decision-making, guidelines, education, experience, complexity, supervision,…

  14. 76 FR 47531 - Approval of Classification Societies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 2 RIN 1625-AB35 Approval of Classification Societies AGENCY: Coast Guard... comment period before issuing a final rule regarding the Approval of Classification Societies (USCG- 2007... and performance standards that classification societies must meet in order to obtain approval by...

  15. 32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification standards. 2001.10 Section 2001.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying or describing damage to the national...

  16. 32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification standards. 2001.10 Section 2001.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying or describing damage to the national...

  17. 32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification standards. 2001.10 Section 2001.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying or describing damage to the national...

  18. 32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification standards. 2001.10 Section 2001.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying or describing damage to the national...

  19. 32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification standards. 2001.10 Section 2001.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying or describing damage to the national...

  20. The Classification of Romanian High-Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivan, Ion; Milodin, Daniel; Naie, Lucian

    2006-01-01

    The article tries to tackle the issue of high-schools classification from one city, district or from Romania. The classification criteria are presented. The National Database of Education is also presented and the application of criteria is illustrated. An algorithm for high-school multi-rang classification is proposed in order to build classes of…

  1. 75 FR 39710 - Postal Classification Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... Postal Classification Change AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request concerning two classification changes to... filed a notice pursuant to 39 CFR 3020.90 and 3020.91 concerning two classification changes to...

  2. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  3. Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their…

  4. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim...

  5. 32 CFR 1602.7 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification. 1602.7 Section 1602.7 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.7 Classification. Classification is the exercise of the power to determine claims or questions with respect...

  6. [Classification of altitude decompression sickness].

    PubMed

    Katuntsev, V P

    2000-01-01

    The article is devoted to the discussion of principles of and approaches to classification of altitude decompression sickness (DCS), one of the most methodically formidable aspects of the problem. Based on his own multiyear experience in altitude DCS investigations and critical review of literature, the author reasons his concept of clinical classification of altitude DCS. The author's concept places emphasis on obligatory consideration of three stages in DCS development: A--pre-disease (the premorbid syndrome), B--uncomplicated (light) and C--complicated (severe) forms. The objective sign of the premorbid state is "silent" gas bubbles in organism detectable by ultrasonic devices. Signs of uncomplicated altitude DCS are musculoarticular pains, local edema and skin itching. Complicated altitude DCS is diagnosed by systemic (respiratory, neurological and cardiovascular) disorders.

  7. Investigation of correlation classification techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    A two-step classification algorithm for processing multispectral scanner data was developed and tested. The first step is a single pass clustering algorithm that assigns each pixel, based on its spectral signature, to a particular cluster. The output of that step is a cluster tape in which a single integer is associated with each pixel. The cluster tape is used as the input to the second step, where ground truth information is used to classify each cluster using an iterative method of potentials. Once the clusters have been assigned to classes the cluster tape is read pixel-by-pixel and an output tape is produced in which each pixel is assigned to its proper class. In addition to the digital classification programs, a method of using correlation clustering to process multispectral scanner data in real time by means of an interactive color video display is also described.

  8. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  9. Local fat treatments: classification proposal

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The poor understanding of the real, intimate action mechanisms behind any aesthetic procedures is a huge problem for many Aesthetic physicians. In addition, nomenclature of and regarding any procedure has become a true barrier when speaking about medical knowledge in the Aesthetic Medicine field since marketing and science often collide one another. Medical procedures for localized fat reduction are very different from each other and it is, at least, inaccurate to refer to all of them plainly as “fat reduction methods.” A specific classification has become urgent and its categories should be able to imply what each method entails. For this classification proposal, “reversibility,” “membrane disruption or inflammation,” and “action selectivity,” have been the selected criteria. PMID:27144093

  10. Classification of Health Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Matthias; von Jan, Ute; Framke, Theodor; Albrecht, Urs-Vito

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a large number of health related apps available in the stores of the major mobile platforms, the stores do not really offer clear definitions of what health related apps are and how they can be categorized. A similar picture is found in literature. Here, many proposals covering different app related aspects have been published, but often, these only cover a narrow field. There is no common terminology describing what health apps are and neither is there a common classification. In order to alleviate the situation, we developed a proposal for categorization that can be used as a basis for discussing aspects related to health applications and for describing the unclear situation on the market. In this paper, the function related aspects are covered, although the scheme itself covers many other aspects related to users of health apps, technical aspects and so on. This initial classification was applied to a sample of health apps available for iOS and Android.

  11. French perspectives on psychiatric classification.

    PubMed

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11.

  12. Ectodermal dysplasias: a new clinical-genetic classification

    PubMed Central

    Priolo, M.; Lagana, C.

    2001-01-01

    The ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a large and complex nosological group of diseases, first described by Thurnam in 1848. In the last 10 years more than 170 different pathological clinical conditions have been recognised and defined as EDs, all sharing in common anomalies of the hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands. Many are associated with anomalies in other organs and systems and, in some conditions, with mental retardation.
The anomalies affecting the epidermis and epidermal appendages are extremely variable and clinical overlap is present among the majority of EDs. Most EDs are defined by particular clinical signs (for example, eyelid adhesion in AEC syndrome, ectrodactyly in EEC). To date, few causative genes have been identified for these diseases.
We recently reviewed genes known to be responsible for EDs in light of their molecular and biological function and proposed a new approach to EDs, integrating both molecular-genetic data and corresponding clinical findings. Based on our previous report, we now propose a clinical-genetic classification of EDs, expand it to other entities in which no causative genes have been identified based on the phenotype, and speculate on possible candidate genes suggested by associated "non-ectodermal" features.


Keywords: ectodermal dysplasia; clinical-functional correlation; epithelial-mesenchymal interaction; ectodermal structural proteins PMID:11546825

  13. The rationale behind Pierre Duhem's natural classification.

    PubMed

    Bhakthavatsalam, Sindhuja

    2015-06-01

    The central concern of this paper is the interpretation of Duhem's attitude towards physical theory. Based on his view that the classification of experimental laws yielded by theory progressively approaches a natural classification-a classification reflecting that of underlying realities-Duhem has been construed as a realist of sorts in recent literature. Here I argue that his positive attitude towards the theoretic classification of laws had rather to do with the pragmatic rationality of the physicist. Duhem's idea of natural classification was an intuitive idea in the mind of the physicist that had to be affirmed in order to justify the physicist's pursuit of theory.

  14. Classification and nomenclature of retrotransposable elements.

    PubMed

    Capy, P

    2005-01-01

    The classification and nomenclature of retrotransposable elements is reviewed. A comparison is made between the initial classification summarized in Capy et al. (1997b), and the more recent proposal based on the classification of the viruses (Hull, 2001). Several problems, mainly relating to the position of elements belonging to the DIRS-like or Bel-like groups, are discussed. The first classification is now out of date, and must be revisited to take account of the discovery of new elements, however the second cannot be extended to the DNA elements. There is therefore, clear evidence of the need to adopt a general and a common classification.

  15. The minimum distance approach to classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    The work to advance the state-of-the-art of miminum distance classification is reportd. This is accomplished through a combination of theoretical and comprehensive experimental investigations based on multispectral scanner data. A survey of the literature for suitable distance measures was conducted and the results of this survey are presented. It is shown that minimum distance classification, using density estimators and Kullback-Leibler numbers as the distance measure, is equivalent to a form of maximum likelihood sample classification. It is also shown that for the parametric case, minimum distance classification is equivalent to nearest neighbor classification in the parameter space.

  16. Texture classification using autoregressive filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, W. M.; Lee, M.

    1984-01-01

    A general theory of image texture models is proposed and its applicability to the problem of scene segmentation using texture classification is discussed. An algorithm, based on half-plane autoregressive filtering, which optimally utilizes second order statistics to discriminate between texture classes represented by arbitrary wide sense stationary random fields is described. Empirical results of applying this algorithm to natural and sysnthesized scenes are presented and future research is outlined.

  17. Enhancement classification of galaxy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkinson, John

    With the advent of astronomical imaging technology developments, and the increased capacity of digital storage, the production of photographic atlases of the night sky have begun to generate volumes of data which need to be processed autonomously. As part of the Tonantzintla Digital Sky Survey construction, the present work involves software development for the digital image processing of astronomical images, in particular operations that preface feature extraction and classification. Recognition of galaxies in these images is the primary objective of the present work. Many galaxy images have poor resolution or contain faint galaxy features, resulting in the misclassification of galaxies. An enhancement of these images by the method of the Heap transform is proposed, and experimental results are provided which demonstrate the image enhancement to improve the presence of faint galaxy features thereby improving classification accuracy. The feature extraction was performed using morphological features that have been widely used in previous automated galaxy investigations. Principal component analysis was applied to the original and enhanced data sets for a performance comparison between the original and reduced features spaces. Classification was performed by the Support Vector Machine learning algorithm.

  18. A Classification Table for Achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chennaoui-Aoudjehane, H.; Larouci, N.; Jambon, A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    Classifying chondrites is relatively easy and the criteria are well documented. It is based on mineral compositions, textural characteristics and more recently, magnetic susceptibility. It can be more difficult to classify achondrites, especially those that are very similar to terrestrial igneous rocks, because mineralogical, textural and compositional properties can be quite variable. Achondrites contain essentially olivine, pyroxenes, plagioclases, oxides, sulphides and accessory minerals. Their origin is attributed to differentiated parents bodies: large asteroids (Vesta); planets (Mars); a satellite (the Moon); and numerous asteroids of unknown size. In most cases, achondrites are not eye witnessed falls and some do not have fusion crust. Because of the mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility similarity with terrestrial igneous rocks for some achondrites, it can be difficult for classifiers to confirm their extra-terrestrial origin. We -as classifiers of meteorites- are confronted with this problem with every suspected achondrite we receive for identification. We are developing a "grid" of classification to provide an easier approach for initial classification. We use simple but reproducible criteria based on mineralogical, petrological and geochemical studies. We presented the classes: acapulcoites, lodranites, winonaites and Martian meteorites (shergottite, chassignites, nakhlites). In this work we are completing the classification table by including the groups: angrites, aubrites, brachinites, ureilites, HED (howardites, eucrites, and diogenites), lunar meteorites, pallasites and mesosiderites. Iron meteorites are not presented in this abstract.

  19. Classification of anemia for gastroenterologists

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Chulilla, Jose Antonio; Romero Colás, Maria Soledad; Gutiérrez Martín, Martín

    2009-01-01

    Most anemia is related to the digestive system by dietary deficiency, malabsorption, or chronic bleeding. We review the World Health Organization definition of anemia, its morphological classification (microcytic, macrocytic and normocytic) and pathogenic classification (regenerative and hypo regenerative), and integration of these classifications. Interpretation of laboratory tests is included, from the simplest (blood count, routine biochemistry) to the more specific (iron metabolism, vitamin B12, folic acid, reticulocytes, erythropoietin, bone marrow examination and Schilling test). In the text and various algorithms, we propose a hierarchical and logical way to reach a diagnosis as quickly as possible, by properly managing the medical interview, physical examination, appropriate laboratory tests, bone marrow examination, and other complementary tests. The prevalence is emphasized in all sections so that the gastroenterologist can direct the diagnosis to the most common diseases, although the tables also include rare diseases. Digestive diseases potentially causing anemia have been studied in preference, but other causes of anemia have been included in the text and tables. Primitive hematological diseases that cause anemia are only listed, but are not discussed in depth. The last section is dedicated to simplifying all items discussed above, using practical rules to guide diagnosis and medical care with the greatest economy of resources and time. PMID:19787825

  20. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  1. An edit script for taxonomic classifications

    PubMed Central

    Page, Roderic DM; Valiente, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Background The NCBI taxonomy provides one of the most powerful ways to navigate sequence data bases but currently users are forced to formulate queries according to a single taxonomic classification. Given that there is not universal agreement on the classification of organisms, providing a single classification places constraints on the questions biologists can ask. However, maintaining multiple classifications is burdensome in the face of a constantly growing NCBI classification. Results In this paper, we present a solution to the problem of generating modifications of the NCBI taxonomy, based on the computation of an edit script that summarises the differences between two classification trees. Our algorithms find the shortest possible edit script based on the identification of all shared subtrees, and only take time quasi linear in the size of the trees because classification trees have unique node labels. Conclusion These algorithms have been recently implemented, and the software is freely available for download from . PMID:16122379

  2. Molecular classification of urothelial carcinoma: global mRNA classification versus tumour-cell phenotype classification.

    PubMed

    Sjödahl, Gottfrid; Eriksson, Pontus; Liedberg, Fredrik; Höglund, Mattias

    2017-02-13

    Global mRNA expression analysis is efficient for phenotypic profiling of tumours and has been used to define molecular subtypes for almost every major tumour type. A key limitation is that most tumours are communities of both tumour and non-tumour cells. This problem is particularly pertinent when analysing advanced invasive tumours, known to induce major changes and responses in both the tumour and the surrounding tissue. To identify bladder cancer tumour-cell phenotypes and compare classification by tumour-cell phenotype with classification by global gene expression analysis, we analysed 307 advanced bladder cancers (cystectomised) both by genome gene expression analysis and by immunohistochemistry using antibodies for 28 proteins. By systematic analysis of gene and protein expression data, focusing on key molecular processes, we describe five tumour-cell phenotypes of advanced urothelial carcinoma; Urothelial-like, Genomically Unstable, Basal/SCC-like, Mesenchymal-like, and Small cell/Neuroendocrine like. We provide molecular pathological definitions for each subtype. Tumours expressing urothelial differentiation factors show inconsistent and abnormal protein expression of terminal differentiation markers, suggesting pseudo-differentiation. Cancers with different tumour-cell phenotypes may co-cluster (converge), and cases with identical tumour-cell phenotypes may cluster apart (diverge) in global mRNA analyses. This divergence/convergence suggests that broad global commonalities related to the invasive process may exist between muscle-invasive tumours regardless of specific tumour-cell phenotype. Hence, there is a systematic disagreement in subtype classification determined by global mRNA profiling and by IHC profiling at the tumour-cell level. We suggest that a combination of molecular pathology (tumour cell phenotype) and global mRNA profiling (context) is required for adequate subtype classification of muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

  3. Lesion classification using clinical and visual data fusion by multiple kernel learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisilev, Pavel; Hashoul, Sharbell; Walach, Eugene; Tzadok, Asaf

    2014-03-01

    To overcome operator dependency and to increase diagnosis accuracy in breast ultrasound (US), a lot of effort has been devoted to developing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for breast cancer detection and classification. Unfortunately, the efficacy of such CAD systems is limited since they rely on correct automatic lesions detection and localization, and on robustness of features computed based on the detected areas. In this paper we propose a new approach to boost the performance of a Machine Learning based CAD system, by combining visual and clinical data from patient files. We compute a set of visual features from breast ultrasound images, and construct the textual descriptor of patients by extracting relevant keywords from patients' clinical data files. We then use the Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) framework to train SVM based classifier to discriminate between benign and malignant cases. We investigate different types of data fusion methods, namely, early, late, and intermediate (MKL-based) fusion. Our database consists of 408 patient cases, each containing US images, textual description of complaints and symptoms filled by physicians, and confirmed diagnoses. We show experimentally that the proposed MKL-based approach is superior to other classification methods. Even though the clinical data is very sparse and noisy, its MKL-based fusion with visual features yields significant improvement of the classification accuracy, as compared to the image features only based classifier.

  4. Classification and prioritization of biomedical literature for the comparative toxicogenomics database.

    PubMed

    Vishnyakova, Dina; Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to perform biomedical documents classification and prioritization for the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). This approach is motivated by needs such as literature curation, in particular applied to the human health environment domain. The unique integration of chemical, genes/proteins and disease data in the biomedical literature may advance the identification of exposure and disease biomarkers, mechanisms of chemical actions, and the complex aetiologies of chronic diseases. Our approach aims to assist biomedical researchers when searching for relevant articles for CTD. The task is functionally defined as a binary classification task, where selected articles must also be ranked by order of relevance. We design a SVM classifier, which combines three main feature sets: an information retrieval system (EAGLi), a biomedical named-entity recognizer (MeSH term extraction), a gene normalization (GN) service (NormaGene) and an ad-hoc keyword recognizer for diseases and chemicals. The evaluation of the gene identification module was done on BioCreativeIII test data. Disease normalization is achieved with 95% precision and 93% of recall. The evaluation of the classification was done on the corpus provided by BioCreative organizers in 2012. The approach showed promising performance on the test data.

  5. Evaluation of supervised classification by class and classification characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Antoine; Ducrot, Danielle; Marthon, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    As acquisition technology progresses, remote sensing data contains an ever increasing amount of information: optical and radar images, low, high and very high-resolution, multitemporal hyperspectral images, derived images, and physical or ancillary data (databases, Digital Elevation Model (D.E.M), Geographical Information System (G.I.S.)). Future projects in remote sensing will give high repeatability of acquisition like Venμs (CNES) which may provide data every 2 days with a resolution of 5.3 meters on 12 bands (420nm-900nm) and Sentinel-2 (ESA) 13 bands, 10-60m resolution and 5 days. With such data, supervised classification gives excellent results in term of accuracy indices (like Overall Accuracy, Kappa coefficient). In this paper, we present advantages and disadvantages of existing indices and propose a new index to evaluate supervised classification using all the information available from the confusion matrix. In addition to accuracy, a new feature is introduced in this index: fidelity. For example, a class could have a high accuracy (low omission error) but could be over-represented with other classes (high commission error). The new index reflects accuracy and correct representation of classes (fidelity) using commission and omission errors. Environment applications are in land cover and land use and the goal is to have the best classification for all classes, whether the biggest (corn, trees) or the lightest (rivers, hedges). The tests are performed on Formosat-2 images (every 2 days, 8 meters resolution on 4 bands) in the area of Toulouse, France). Tests used to validate the new index by demonstrating benefits of its use through various thematical studies.

  6. Cirrhosis classification based on texture classification of random features.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Shao, Ying; Guo, Dongmei; Zheng, Yuanjie; Zhao, Zuowei; Qiu, Tianshuang

    2014-01-01

    Accurate staging of hepatic cirrhosis is important in investigating the cause and slowing down the effects of cirrhosis. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) can provide doctors with an alternative second opinion and assist them to make a specific treatment with accurate cirrhosis stage. MRI has many advantages, including high resolution for soft tissue, no radiation, and multiparameters imaging modalities. So in this paper, multisequences MRIs, including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, arterial, portal venous, and equilibrium phase, are applied. However, CAD does not meet the clinical needs of cirrhosis and few researchers are concerned with it at present. Cirrhosis is characterized by the presence of widespread fibrosis and regenerative nodules in the hepatic, leading to different texture patterns of different stages. So, extracting texture feature is the primary task. Compared with typical gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) features, texture classification from random features provides an effective way, and we adopt it and propose CCTCRF for triple classification (normal, early, and middle and advanced stage). CCTCRF does not need strong assumptions except the sparse character of image, contains sufficient texture information, includes concise and effective process, and makes case decision with high accuracy. Experimental results also illustrate the satisfying performance and they are also compared with typical NN with GLCM.

  7. Temporal context in floristic classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R. W.; Lees, B. G.

    1996-11-01

    Multi-temporal remote sensing data present a number of significant problems for the statistical and spatial competence of a classifier. Ideally, a classifier of multi-temporal data should be temporally invariant. It must have the capacity to account for the variations in season, growth cycle, radiometric, and atmospheric conditions at any point in time when classifying the land cover. This paper tests two methods of creating a temporally invariant classifier based on the pattern recognition capabilities of a neural network. A suite of twelve multi-temporal datasets spread over 5 yr along with a comprehensive mix of environmental variables are fused into floristic classification images by the neural network. Uncertainties in the classifications are addressed explicitly with a confidence mask generated from the fuzzy membership value's output by the neural network. These confidence masks are used to produce constrained classification images. The overall accuracy percentage achieved from a study site containing highly disturbed undulating terrain averages 60%. The first method of training, sequential learning of temporal context, is tested by an examination of the step-by-step evolution of the sequential training process. This reveals that the sequential classifier may not have learned about time, because time was constant during each network training session. It also suggests that there are optimal times during the annual cycle to train the classifier for particular floristic classes. The second method of training the classifier is randomised exposure to the entire temporal training suite. Time was now a fluctuating input variable during the network training process. This method produced the best spatially accurate results. The performance of this classifier as a temporally invariant classifier is tested amongst four multi-temporal datasets with encouraging results. The classifier consistently achieved an overall accuracy percentage of 60%. The pairwise predicted

  8. Biopharmaceutic classification of drugs revisited.

    PubMed

    Daousani, Chrysa; Macheras, Panos

    2016-12-01

    The biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) was based on the tube model of the intestinal lumen. This model considers constant drug permeability along the intestines, a plug flow fluid with the suspended drug particles moving with the fluid, and dissolution in the small particle limit. Since then the research work focusing on drug gastrointestinal (GI) absorption phenomena and processes rely on the classical laws of transport, diffusion and kinetics; however, the homogeneous assumptions associated with the well-stirred Euclidean media, where the classical laws of diffusion and kinetics apply, have been questioned in the past. In this work we explore the biopharmaceutic classification of drugs using a heterogeneous pseudo steady-state model of oral drug absorption. The fraction of dose absorbed (Fabs) was expressed as a function of two time-dependent processes where time dependent coefficients govern drug absorption and non-absorption processes. Fundamental drug properties like the absorption potential are correlated with Fabs and allow the biopharmaceutic classification of drugs taking into account the heterogeneous aspects of oral drug absorption. This analysis reveals that for Class I drugs no time dependency is expected for both absorption and non absorption processes since the gastric emptying is controlling the absorption of Class I drugs while the completion of absorption (Fabs>90%) is terminated along the first part of the jejunum. Due to the biopharmaceutical properties of Class II, III and IV drugs, these drugs travel throughout the GI tract and therefore both absorption and non absorption processes will exhibit time dependency. Thus, the calculation of Fabs (<90%) for Class II, III and IV is dependent on the estimates of the time exponents of time dependent coefficients controlling drug absorption e.g. dissolution, uptake or non absorption e.g. precipitation.

  9. Structured sparse models for classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrodad, Alexey

    The main focus of this thesis is the modeling and classification of high dimensional data using structured sparsity. Sparse models, where data is assumed to be well represented as a linear combination of a few elements from a dictionary, have gained considerable attention in recent years, and its use has led to state-of-the-art results in many signal and image processing tasks. The success of sparse modeling is highly due to its ability to efficiently use the redundancy of the data and find its underlying structure. On a classification setting, we capitalize on this advantage to properly model and separate the structure of the classes. We design and validate modeling solutions to challenging problems arising in computer vision and remote sensing. We propose both supervised and unsupervised schemes for the modeling of human actions from motion imagery under a wide variety of acquisition condi- tions. In the supervised case, the main goal is to classify the human actions in the video given a predefined set of actions to learn from. In the unsupervised case, the main goal is to an- alyze the spatio-temporal dynamics of the individuals in the scene without having any prior information on the actions themselves. We also propose a model for remotely sensed hysper- spectral imagery, where the main goal is to perform automatic spectral source separation and mapping at the subpixel level. Finally, we present a sparse model for sensor fusion to exploit the common structure and enforce collaboration of hyperspectral with LiDAR data for better mapping capabilities. In all these scenarios, we demonstrate that these data can be expressed as a combination of atoms from a class-structured dictionary. These data representation becomes essentially a "mixture of classes," and by directly exploiting the sparse codes, one can attain highly accurate classification performance with relatively unsophisticated classifiers.

  10. Automated Classification of Power Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    the classification code of the n th event. Boolean EVC [n] The ‘Event file created?’ Boolean is set to 1 if the event has had an event file created...indicate the type of event. int EVC [MAX_EVENTS]; // Boolean to indicate whether an event has had an .evt file created int local_det=0...i; // CLEAN THE EVENT TEXT DATA. for (i=0;i<MAX_EVENTS;i++) { Class[i]="Empty." Class_ID[i]=0; EVC [i]=FALSE; event_class_status[i

  11. Classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, A J

    1995-05-01

    The development of classification schemes for RA in the last 40 years has followed the increasingly precise understanding of the nature of the clinical disease and the recognition of the different requirements of classification methods in clinic and population settings. In published studies of RA in clinic patients the most widely used criteria sets have been the 1958 ARA (ACR) criteria and its 1961 adaptation (the Rome (active) criteria). These sets classified disease as 'classical', 'definite', 'probable' and 'possible' RA based on criteria comprising clinical, serological, radiological and histological features (the latter were dropped from the Rome criteria set because of their impracticality). More recently, a new criteria set (the 1987 ARA criteria) has been developed using statistical techniques. This set was derived using RA cases and controls attending hospital clinics. It is based on the earlier criteria sets but accommodates the characteristic pattern of joint involvement in RA more precisely. The criteria recognize only the single disease category of 'rheumatoid arthritis'. In validation studies, the 1987 criteria set has been found to have enhanced specificity over earlier schemes in clinic-based studies of RA. The sensitivity may, however, be reduced, in particular in studies of early disease. The application of classification criteria for case recognition in the population and family studies of RA has proved more problematic. In these settings, there is the additional requirement to recognize individuals with remitted and inactive disease as RA cases. The 1966 New York criteria were developed for this specific purpose, however their format proved cumbersome and they have not been widely adopted. The 1987 criteria set is insufficiently sensitive to recognize inactive disease if the criteria are applied exactly as they have been defined. The sensitivity of the 1987 criteria set is, however, substantially enhanced if the criteria are adapted to

  12. Software For Multivariate Bayesian Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saul, Ronald; Laird, Philip; Shelton, Robert

    1996-01-01

    PHD general-purpose classifier computer program. Uses Bayesian methods to classify vectors of real numbers, based on combination of statistical techniques that include multivariate density estimation, Parzen density kernels, and EM (Expectation Maximization) algorithm. By means of simple graphical interface, user trains classifier to recognize two or more classes of data and then use it to identify new data. Written in ANSI C for Unix systems and optimized for online classification applications. Embedded in another program, or runs by itself using simple graphical-user-interface. Online help files makes program easy to use.

  13. Protein Structure Comparison and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çamoǧlu, Orhan; Singh, Ambuj K.

    The success of genome projects has generated an enormous amount of sequence data. In order to realize the full value of the data, we need to understand its functional role and its evolutionary origin. Sequence comparison methods are incredibly valuable for this task. However, for sequences falling in the twilight zone (usually between 20 and 35% sequence similarity), we need to resort to structural alignment and comparison for a meaningful analysis. Such a structural approach can be used for classification of proteins, isolation of structural motifs, and discovery of drug targets.

  14. Morphological Galaxy Classification with Shapelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrae, René; Melchior, Peter

    2008-12-01

    We present an unsupervised classification algorithm, that identifies natural classes of galaxy morphologies. Working on SDSS G-band imaging data, we encode the morphologies by shapelet decomposition. The algorithm employs a model-based soft clustering analysis to find groupings of similar data points. We demonstrate that the algorithm is able to clearly identify and distinguish groups of elliptical, face-on and edge-on spiral galaxies in a training data set. Based on the soft clustering results, we set up a soft classifier for a data set containing 1602 SDSS galaxies.

  15. Improving TMD classification using the Delphi technique.

    PubMed

    John, M T

    2010-10-01

    The classification of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is still controversial. Consensus methods such as the Delphi technique, a method that polls experts' anonymous opinion in an iterative process with controlled feedback and statistical aggregation of group response, could be valuable to improve this challenging topic. The article illustrates the application of the Delphi technique for deciding whether the terms myalgia or myofascial pain should be used in a TMD classification system and discusses the technique's potential for TMD classification in general. In three Delphi rounds, 14 TMD experts from the Division of TMD and Orofacial Pain of the University of Minnesota reached a consensus about which TMD diagnoses should be included in a TMD classification system. They preferred the term myofascial pain over myalgia. The Delphi technique has the potential to provide answers to complex questions in TMD classification, e.g., TMD nomenclature and range as well as scope of conditions included in a future TMD classification system.

  16. [Wetland landscape ecological classification: research progress].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Mo, Li-jiang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wen-mei

    2009-12-01

    Wetland landscape ecological classification, as a basis for the studies of wetland landscape ecology, directly affects the precision and effectiveness of wetland-related research. Based on the history, current status, and latest progress in the studies on the theories, indicators, and methods of wetland landscape classification, some scientific wetland classification systems, e.g., NWI, Ramsar, and HGM, were introduced and discussed in this paper. It was suggested that a comprehensive classification method based on HGM and on the integral consideration of wetlands spatial structure, ecological function, ecological process, topography, soil, vegetation, hydrology, and human disturbance intensity should be the major future direction in this research field. Furthermore, the integration of 3S technologies, quantitative mathematics, landscape modeling, knowledge engineering, and artificial intelligence to enhance the automatization and precision of wetland landscape ecological classification would be the key issues and difficult topics in the studies of wetland landscape ecological classification.

  17. Bayesian classification criterion for forensic multivariate data.

    PubMed

    Bozza, S; Broséus, J; Esseiva, P; Taroni, F

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a classification criteria for two-class Cannabis seedlings. As the cultivation of drug type cannabis is forbidden in Switzerland, law enforcement authorities regularly ask laboratories to determine cannabis plant's chemotype from seized material in order to ascertain that the plantation is legal or not. In this study, the classification analysis is based on data obtained from the relative proportion of three major leaf compounds measured by gas-chromatography interfaced with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The aim is to discriminate between drug type (illegal) and fiber type (legal) cannabis at an early stage of the growth. A Bayesian procedure is proposed: a Bayes factor is computed and classification is performed on the basis of the decision maker specifications (i.e. prior probability distributions on cannabis type and consequences of classification measured by losses). Classification rates are computed with two statistical models and results are compared. Sensitivity analysis is then performed to analyze the robustness of classification criteria.

  18. Sparse Representation for Time-Series Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-08

    February 8, 2015 16:49 World Scientific Review Volume - 9in x 6in ” time - series classification” page 1 Chapter 1 Sparse Representation for Time - Series ...studies the problem of time - series classification and presents an overview of recent developments in the area of feature extraction and information...problem of target classification, and more generally time - series classification, in two main directions, feature extraction and information fusion. 1

  19. Analysis and classification of human error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.; Rouse, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    The literature on human error is reviewed with emphasis on theories of error and classification schemes. A methodology for analysis and classification of human error is then proposed which includes a general approach to classification. Identification of possible causes and factors that contribute to the occurrence of errors is also considered. An application of the methodology to the use of checklists in the aviation domain is presented for illustrative purposes.

  20. 22 CFR 41.12 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Classification symbols. 41.12 Section 41.12... AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Classification of Nonimmigrants § 41.12 Classification symbols. A visa... Child of J1 101(a)(15)(J). K1 Fiance(e) of United States Citizen 101(a)(15)(K)(i). K2 Child of...

  1. Genomic Classification of Cutaneous Melanoma.

    PubMed

    2015-06-18

    We describe the landscape of genomic alterations in cutaneous melanomas through DNA, RNA, and protein-based analysis of 333 primary and/or metastatic melanomas from 331 patients. We establish a framework for genomic classification into one of four subtypes based on the pattern of the most prevalent significantly mutated genes: mutant BRAF, mutant RAS, mutant NF1, and Triple-WT (wild-type). Integrative analysis reveals enrichment of KIT mutations and focal amplifications and complex structural rearrangements as a feature of the Triple-WT subtype. We found no significant outcome correlation with genomic classification, but samples assigned a transcriptomic subclass enriched for immune gene expression associated with lymphocyte infiltrate on pathology review and high LCK protein expression, a T cell marker, were associated with improved patient survival. This clinicopathological and multi-dimensional analysis suggests that the prognosis of melanoma patients with regional metastases is influenced by tumor stroma immunobiology, offering insights to further personalize therapeutic decision-making.

  2. Classification of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Game, Frances

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the relative importance of factors involved in the development of diabetic foot problems can vary in both their presence and severity between patients and lesions. This may be one of the reasons why outcomes seem to vary centre to centre and why some treatments may seem more effective in some people than others. There is a need therefore to classify and describe lesions of the foot in patients with diabetes in a manner that is agreed across all communities but is simple to use in clinical practice. No single system is currently in widespread use, although a number have been published. Not all are well validated outside the system from which they were derived, and it has not always been made clear the clinical purposes to which such classifications should be put to use, whether that be for research, clinical description in routine clinical care or audit. Here the currently published classification systems, their validation in clinical practice, whether they were designed for research, audit or clinical care, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are explored.

  3. Multisensor Target Detection And Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Mills, James P.; Kabrisky, Matthew

    1988-08-01

    In this paper a new approach to the detection and classification of tactical targets using a multifunction laser radar sensor is developed. Targets of interest are tanks, jeeps, trucks, and other vehicles. Doppler images are segmented by developing a new technique which compensates for spurious doppler returns. Relative range images are segmented using an approach based on range gradients. The resultant shapes in the segmented images are then classified using Zernike moment invariants as shape descriptors. Two classification decision rules are implemented: a classical statistical nearest-neighbor approach and a multilayer perceptron architecture. The doppler segmentation algorithm was applied to a set of 180 real sensor images. An accurate segmentation was obtained for 89 percent of the images. The new doppler segmentation proved to be a robust method, and the moment invariants were effective in discriminating the tactical targets. Tanks were classified correctly 86 percent of the time. The most important result of this research is the demonstration of the use of a new information processing architecture for image processing applications.

  4. French perspectives on psychiatric classification

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11. PMID:25987863

  5. Authenticity detection in image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nova, Luis C.; Passos, Emmanuel P. L.

    1992-09-01

    Famous artists' paintings, in general, allow for a large number of forgeries. In the work of a great Brazilian painter, Candido Portinari, we try to detect fake works through their image. To reach classifying results we must extract from digitalized images features that distinguish Portinari's original paintings from the false ones. So, it has been noted that the degree of variation of gray tones in a brush stroke reflects each painter's particular style on the painting. It is a feature that can be easily detected by the power spectrum of the detail image. However, as power spectra have large amounts of data, we use just some significant values of them for the classification. These selected pixels of the spectrum image are in a line which is perpendicular to the direction the brush passed, i.e., they indicate the variation of gray tones in the brush stroke. The data described previously are used as input for further classification by a backpropagation neural network. This neural net was exhaustively trained and has topology and parameters appropriate to the problem. Two output units indicate the major result: original or false.

  6. Classification of current anticancer immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vacchelli, Erika; Bravo-San Pedro, José-Manuel; Buqué, Aitziber; Senovilla, Laura; Baracco, Elisa Elena; Bloy, Norma; Castoldi, Francesca; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Agostinis, Patrizia; Apte, Ron N; Aranda, Fernando; Ayyoub, Maha; Beckhove, Philipp; Blay, Jean-Yves; Bracci, Laura; Caignard, Anne; Castelli, Chiara; Cavallo, Federica; Celis, Estaban; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Clayton, Aled; Colombo, Mario P; Coussens, Lisa; Dhodapkar, Madhav V; Eggermont, Alexander M; Fearon, Douglas T; Fridman, Wolf H; Fučíková, Jitka; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I; Galon, Jérôme; Garg, Abhishek; Ghiringhelli, François; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Gilboa, Eli; Gnjatic, Sacha; Hoos, Axel; Hosmalin, Anne; Jäger, Dirk; Kalinski, Pawel; Kärre, Klas; Kepp, Oliver; Kiessling, Rolf; Kirkwood, John M; Klein, Eva; Knuth, Alexander; Lewis, Claire E; Liblau, Roland; Lotze, Michael T; Lugli, Enrico; Mach, Jean-Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Mavilio, Domenico; Melero, Ignacio; Melief, Cornelis J; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Moretta, Lorenzo; Odunsi, Adekunke; Okada, Hideho; Palucka, Anna Karolina; Peter, Marcus E; Pienta, Kenneth J; Porgador, Angel; Prendergast, George C; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rizvi, Naiyer; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Schreiber, Hans; Seliger, Barbara; Shiku, Hiroshi; Silva-Santos, Bruno; Smyth, Mark J; Speiser, Daniel E; Spisek, Radek; Srivastava, Pramod K; Talmadge, James E; Tartour, Eric; Van Der Burg, Sjoerd H; Van Den Eynde, Benoît J; Vile, Richard; Wagner, Hermann; Weber, Jeffrey S; Whiteside, Theresa L; Wolchok, Jedd D; Zitvogel, Laurence; Zou, Weiping; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-12-30

    During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into "passive" and "active" based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches.

  7. Classification of current anticancer immunotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Pedro, José-Manuel Bravo-San; Buqué, Aitziber; Senovilla, Laura; Baracco, Elisa Elena; Bloy, Norma; Castoldi, Francesca; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Agostinis, Patrizia; Apte, Ron N.; Aranda, Fernando; Ayyoub, Maha; Beckhove, Philipp; Blay, Jean-Yves; Bracci, Laura; Caignard, Anne; Castelli, Chiara; Cavallo, Federica; Celis, Estaban; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Clayton, Aled; Colombo, Mario P.; Coussens, Lisa; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Eggermont, Alexander M.; Fearon, Douglas T.; Fridman, Wolf H.; Fučíková, Jitka; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.; Galon, Jérôme; Garg, Abhishek; Ghiringhelli, François; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Gilboa, Eli; Gnjatic, Sacha; Hoos, Axel; Hosmalin, Anne; Jäger, Dirk; Kalinski, Pawel; Kärre, Klas; Kepp, Oliver; Kiessling, Rolf; Kirkwood, John M.; Klein, Eva; Knuth, Alexander; Lewis, Claire E.; Liblau, Roland; Lotze, Michael T.; Lugli, Enrico; Mach, Jean-Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Mavilio, Domenico; Melero, Ignacio; Melief, Cornelis J.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Moretta, Lorenzo; Odunsi, Adekunke; Okada, Hideho; Palucka, Anna Karolina; Peter, Marcus E.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Porgador, Angel; Prendergast, George C.; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Rizvi, Naiyer; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Schreiber, Hans; Seliger, Barbara; Shiku, Hiroshi; Silva-Santos, Bruno; Smyth, Mark J.; Speiser, Daniel E.; Spisek, Radek; Srivastava, Pramod K.; Talmadge, James E.; Tartour, Eric; Van Der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Van Den Eynde, Benoît J.; Vile, Richard; Wagner, Hermann; Weber, Jeffrey S.; Whiteside, Theresa L.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Zitvogel, Laurence; Zou, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into “passive” and “active” based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches. PMID:25537519

  8. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions.

  9. Type I Error Control for Tree Classification

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sin-Ho; Chen, Yong; Ahn, Hongshik

    2014-01-01

    Binary tree classification has been useful for classifying the whole population based on the levels of outcome variable that is associated with chosen predictors. Often we start a classification with a large number of candidate predictors, and each predictor takes a number of different cutoff values. Because of these types of multiplicity, binary tree classification method is subject to severe type I error probability. Nonetheless, there have not been many publications to address this issue. In this paper, we propose a binary tree classification method to control the probability to accept a predictor below certain level, say 5%. PMID:25452689

  10. 46 CFR 164.018-3 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (b) Type II—Weather resistant material used on continuously exposed rigid surfaces. ... Classification. The following types of retroreflective material are approved under this specification: (a) Type...

  11. Spectroscopic Classifications of Optical Transients with SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, R. J.; Hounsell, R. A.; Downing, S.; Pan, Y.-C.; Scolnic, D.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    We report the following classifications of optical transients from spectroscopic observations with the Goodman spectrograph (wavelength range 3100 - 7100) on the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope.

  12. On-board multispectral classification study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewalt, D.

    1979-01-01

    The factors relating to onboard multispectral classification were investigated. The functions implemented in ground-based processing systems for current Earth observation sensors were reviewed. The Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, Return Beam Vidicon, and Heat Capacity Mapper were studied. The concept of classification was reviewed and extended from the ground-based image processing functions to an onboard system capable of multispectral classification. Eight different onboard configurations, each with varying amounts of ground-spacecraft interaction, were evaluated. Each configuration was evaluated in terms of turnaround time, onboard processing and storage requirements, geometric and classification accuracy, onboard complexity, and ancillary data required from the ground.

  13. Discriminant forest classification method and system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Barry Y.; Hanley, William G.; Lemmond, Tracy D.; Hiller, Lawrence J.; Knapp, David A.; Mugge, Marshall J.

    2012-11-06

    A hybrid machine learning methodology and system for classification that combines classical random forest (RF) methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique which uses feature measurements of an object to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Andersen-Bahadur linear discriminant technique (AB), is used to split the data at each node in each of its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

  14. Minimum distance classification in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The utilization of minimum distance classification methods in remote sensing problems, such as crop species identification, is considered. Literature concerning both minimum distance classification problems and distance measures is reviewed. Experimental results are presented for several examples. The objective of these examples is to: (a) compare the sample classification accuracy of a minimum distance classifier, with the vector classification accuracy of a maximum likelihood classifier, and (b) compare the accuracy of a parametric minimum distance classifier with that of a nonparametric one. Results show the minimum distance classifier performance is 5% to 10% better than that of the maximum likelihood classifier. The nonparametric classifier is only slightly better than the parametric version.

  15. Gaussian maximum likelihood and contextual classification algorithms for multicrop classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Zenzo, Silvano; Bernstein, Ralph; Kolsky, Harwood G.; Degloria, Stephen D.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reviews some of the ways in which context has been handled in the remote-sensing literature, and additional possibilities are introduced. The problem of computing exhaustive and normalized class-membership probabilities from the likelihoods provided by the Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier (to be used as initial probability estimates to start relaxation) is discussed. An efficient implementation of probabilistic relaxation is proposed, suiting the needs of actual remote-sensing applications. A modified fuzzy-relaxation algorithm using generalized operations between fuzzy sets is presented. Combined use of the two relaxation algorithms is proposed to exploit context in multispectral classification of remotely sensed data. Results on both one artificially created image and one MSS data set are reported.

  16. Advancing Towards a Universal Soil Classification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Phillip R.; Hempel, Jon; Micheli, Erika; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Within the variability of soils across the globe, there are common soil attributes that pedologists have used to group soil within taxonomic classifications. Classification systems are necessary for the communication of information about soils. There are many national classification systems used within designated countries and two classification systems used globally, the US Soil Taxonomy and the World Reference Base. There is a great need for soil scientists to develop one common language or taxonomic system to communicate information within soil science as well as to other scientists in other disciplines. The International Union of Soil Sciences Working Group for Universal Soil Classification was officially established by an IUSS Council decision in August of 2010 at the World Congress of Soil Science in Brisbane, Australia. The charge for the Working Group includes development of common standards for methods and terminology in soil observations and investigations and the development of a universal soil classification system. The Universal Soil Classification Working Group was established and the initial meeting was held at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana USA. The Working Group has evaluated the current national systems and the two international systems to identify gaps in knowledge. Currently, it was determined that gaps in knowledge exists in cold soil, hydromorphic, salt affected, anthropengic, and tropical soil groups. Additionally, several members of the Working Group have utilized taxonomic distance calculations from large databases to determine the clusters of similar taxonomic groupings utilizing the classification. Additionally, the databases are being used to make allocations into logical groups to recognize "Great Soil Groups". The great soil groups will be equivalent to great groups level from Soil Taxonomy along with similar levels in the World Reference Base, Australian Soil Classification and other defined soil classification systems

  17. Probabilisitc Geobiological Classification Using Elemental Abundance Distributions and Lossless Image Compression in Recent and Modern Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    Last year we presented techniques for the detection of fossils during robotic missions to Mars using both structural and chemical signatures[Storrie-Lombardi and Hoover, 2004]. Analyses included lossless compression of photographic images to estimate the relative complexity of a putative fossil compared to the rock matrix [Corsetti and Storrie-Lombardi, 2003] and elemental abundance distributions to provide mineralogical classification of the rock matrix [Storrie-Lombardi and Fisk, 2004]. We presented a classification strategy employing two exploratory classification algorithms (Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and non-linear stochastic neural network to produce a Bayesian estimate of classification accuracy. We now present an extension of our previous experiments exploring putative fossil forms morphologically resembling cyanobacteria discovered in the Orgueil meteorite. Elemental abundances (C6, N7, O8, Na11, Mg12, Ai13, Si14, P15, S16, Cl17, K19, Ca20, Fe26) obtained for both extant cyanobacteria and fossil trilobites produce signatures readily distinguishing them from meteorite targets. When compared to elemental abundance signatures for extant cyanobacteria Orgueil structures exhibit decreased abundances for C6, N7, Na11, All3, P15, Cl17, K19, Ca20 and increases in Mg12, S16, Fe26. Diatoms and silicified portions of cyanobacterial sheaths exhibiting high levels of silicon and correspondingly low levels of carbon cluster more closely with terrestrial fossils than with extant cyanobacteria. Compression indices verify that variations in random and redundant textural patterns between perceived forms and the background matrix contribute significantly to morphological visual identification. The results provide a quantitative probabilistic methodology for discriminating putatitive fossils from the surrounding rock matrix and &om extant organisms using both structural and chemical information. The techniques described appear applicable

  18. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of cotton. For purposes of subsection 15b (f) of The Act, classification...

  19. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of cotton. For purposes of subsection 15b (f) of The Act, classification...

  20. 7 CFR 27.61 - One review of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false One review of classification. 27.61 Section 27.61... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification Reviews and Micronaire Determinations § 27.61 One review of classification. One review only of the classification of...

  1. 7 CFR 27.61 - One review of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One review of classification. 27.61 Section 27.61... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification Reviews and Micronaire Determinations § 27.61 One review of classification. One review only of the classification of...

  2. Megaureter: classification, pathophysiology, and management.

    PubMed

    Simoni, F; Vino, L; Pizzini, C; Benini, D; Fanos, V

    2000-01-01

    The term megaureter does not define a specific pathological condition, because it can be due to different underlying abnormalities. The most used classification includes three groups: refluxing megaureter, associated with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR); obstructive megaureter, associated with urine flow impairment at the vesicoureteral junction; non-refluxing non-obstructive megaureter, if neither obstruction nor reflux can be identified. Each group can be divided into two subgroups: primary megaureter; secondary megaureter. With the advent of antenatal ultrasound an increased number of cases are identified prior to the onset of symptoms. The common used investigation are: urinary tract ultrasound, voiding cystourethrography, urography, serial diuretic renography and pressure-perfusion studies (Whitaker test). The advent of prenatal and neonatal echography has modified the natural history of megaureter. Nowadays non operative management is preferred. Operative intervention is indicated only in these cases: significant impairment to urine flow; worsening renal function during the observation time; recurrent UTI in spite of adequate antibiotic prophylaxis.

  3. Land use classification in Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockmann, C. E.; Brooner, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    The Bolivian LANDSAT Program is an integrated, multidisciplinary project designed to provide thematic analysis of LANDSAT, Skylab, and other remotely sensed data for natural resource management and development in Bolivia, is discussed. Among the first requirements in the program is the development of a legend, and appropriate methodologies, for the analysis and classification of present land use based on landscape cover. The land use legend for Bolivia consists of approximately 80 categories in a hierarchical organization which may be collapsed for generalization, or expanded for greater detail. The categories, and their definitions, provide for both a graphic and textual description of the complex and diverse landscapes found in Bolivia, and are designed for analysis from LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data at scales of 1:1,000,000 and 1:250,000. Procedures and example products developed are described and illustrated, for the systematic analysis and mapping of present land use for all of Bolivia.

  4. Blount's disease: classification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Laville, J M; Chau, E; Willemen, L; Kohler, R; Garin, C

    1999-01-01

    Forty-three tibia vara in 27 patients were analyzed retrospectively in two centers. The criteria for diagnosis of the child form are discussed. A simple classification is suggested to facilitate the choice of treatment. In stage 0 (possible Blount's disease), the patient is younger than 2 1/2 years, and an observation period is indicated for gathering data. In stage 1 (confirmed Blount's disease and absence of medial metaphyseal bony bridge), known as physis+, a valgization osteotomy is proposed. In stage 2 (evidence of a medial metaphysoepiphyseal bony bridge) known as physis-, valgization osteotomy with lateral epiphysiodesis and treatment of the lower limb discrepancy is proposed. For stages 1 and 2, there are two possibilities: normal medial tibial plateau or sloping of the medial tibial plateau, indicating a transphyseal elevation osteotomy. When one-step correction is proposed for stage 2 disorder, external fixators such as Orthofix or Ilizarov devices are useful.

  5. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  6. Acoustic Event Detection and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temko, Andrey; Nadeu, Climent; Macho, Dušan; Malkin, Robert; Zieger, Christian; Omologo, Maurizio

    The human activity that takes place in meeting rooms or classrooms is reflected in a rich variety of acoustic events (AE), produced either by the human body or by objects handled by humans, so the determination of both the identity of sounds and their position in time may help to detect and describe that human activity. Indeed, speech is usually the most informative sound, but other kinds of AEs may also carry useful information, for example, clapping or laughing inside a speech, a strong yawn in the middle of a lecture, a chair moving or a door slam when the meeting has just started. Additionally, detection and classification of sounds other than speech may be useful to enhance the robustness of speech technologies like automatic speech recognition.

  7. Resource Classification for Medical Questions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E.; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for manually and automatically classifying the resource type of medical questions. Three types of resources are considered: patient-specific, general knowledge, and research. Using this approach, an automatic question answering system could select the best type of resource from which to consider answers. We first describe our methodology for manually annotating resource type on four different question corpora totaling over 5,000 questions. We then describe our approach for automatically identifying the appropriate type of resource. A supervised machine learning approach is used with lexical, syntactic, semantic, and topic-based feature types. This approach is able to achieve accuracies in the range of 80.9% to 92.8% across four datasets. Finally, we discuss the difficulties encountered in both manual and automatic classification of this challenging task. PMID:28269901

  8. Refining G-structure classifications

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Conamhna, Oisin A.P.

    2004-11-15

    Using G-structure language, a systematic, iterative formalism for computing necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of N arbitrary linearly independent Killing spinors, in any supergravity, is presented. The key organizational tool is the common isotropy group of the Killing spinors. The formalism is illustrated for configurations in gauged SU(2) supergravity in seven dimensions admitting at least one null Killing spinor, and the possible isotropy groups are shown to be [SU(2)xR{sup 4}]xR, SU(2), R{sup 5}, or the identity. The constraints associated with the existence of certain additional Killing spinors are computed and used to derive numerous solutions. A discussion of the relevance of the formalism to the complete classification of all supersymmetric configurations in d=11 is given.

  9. Textural features for image classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M.; Dinstein, I.; Shanmugam, K.

    1973-01-01

    Description of some easily computable textural features based on gray-tone spatial dependances, and illustration of their application in category-identification tasks of three different kinds of image data - namely, photomicrographs of five kinds of sandstones, 1:20,000 panchromatic aerial photographs of eight land-use categories, and ERTS multispectral imagery containing several land-use categories. Two kinds of decision rules are used - one for which the decision regions are convex polyhedra (a piecewise-linear decision rule), and one for which the decision regions are rectangular parallelpipeds (a min-max decision rule). In each experiment the data set was divided into two parts, a training set and a test set. Test set identification accuracy is 89% for the photomicrographs, 82% for the aerial photographic imagery, and 83% for the satellite imagery. These results indicate that the easily computable textural features probably have a general applicability for a wide variety of image-classification applications.

  10. Resource Classification for Medical Questions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for manually and automatically classifying the resource type of medical questions. Three types of resources are considered: patient-specific, general knowledge, and research. Using this approach, an automatic question answering system could select the best type of resource from which to consider answers. We first describe our methodology for manually annotating resource type on four different question corpora totaling over 5,000 questions. We then describe our approach for automatically identifying the appropriate type of resource. A supervised machine learning approach is used with lexical, syntactic, semantic, and topic-based feature types. This approach is able to achieve accuracies in the range of 80.9% to 92.8% across four datasets. Finally, we discuss the difficulties encountered in both manual and automatic classification of this challenging task.

  11. Petrov Classification in Numerical Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Robert

    2010-02-01

    The algebraic classification system of Petrov, Pirani, and Penrose provides a method to unambiguously characterize the gravitational degrees of freedom point-by-point throughout a spacetime. It is tempting to apply this system to the numerically-generated spacetimes that have recently proliferated, and some work has already gone in this direction. However, spacetimes of current physical interest --- such as binary black hole mergers --- raise subtleties in that they are generically, strictly speaking, Type I, but approximately, in some sense, Type D. To make any such claims about ``approximate Petrov class'' meaningful, one must introduce a ``degeneracy measure'' on the space of null rays. In this talk, I will describe some of the difficulties in this undertaking, and present results applying such degeneracy measures to binary black hole simulations from the Caltech/Cornell/CITA group. )

  12. Sources of variation in hydrological classifications: Time scale, flow series origin and classification procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñas, Francisco J.; Barquín, José; Álvarez, César

    2016-07-01

    Classification of flow regimes in water management and hydroecological research has grown significantly in recent years. However, depending on available data and the procedures applied, there may be several credible classifications for a specific catchment. In this study, three inductive classifications derived from different initial flow data and one expert-driven classification were defined. The hydrological interpretation, statistical performance and spatial correspondence of these classifications were compared. Daily Gauged Classification (DC) was derived from daily flow data while Monthly Gauged Classification (MC) and Monthly Modeled Classification (MMC) were derived from monthly flow series, using gauged and modeled flow data, respectively. Expert-Driven Classification (EDC) was based on a Spanish nationwide hydrological classification, which is being used in the current River Basin Management Plans. The results showed that MC accounted for much of the critical hydrological information variability comprised within the DC. However, it also presented limitations regarding the inability to represent important hydroecological attributes, especially those related to droughts and high flow events. In addition, DC and MC presented an equivalent performance more than 60% of the time and obtained a mean ARI value of 0.4, indicating a similar classification structure. DC and MC outperformed MMC 100% and more than 50% of the times when they were compared by means of the classification strength and ANOVA, respectively. MMC also showed low correspondence with these classifications (ARI = 0.20). Thus, the use of modeled flow series should be limited to poorly gauged areas. Finally, the significantly reduced performance and the uneven distribution of classes found in EDC questions its application for different management objectives. This study shows that the selection of the most suitable approach according to the available data has significant implications for the

  13. [On reform of the international patent classification ].

    PubMed

    Nenakhov, G S; Bril', E M; Shpikalov, A M

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the data on reformed IPC are presented. In IPC the core and advanced levels of classification system are used. It is shown that the goal of the IPC reform is to make possible complete search using a single classification edition for all documents, regardless of their publication date.

  14. Webpage Segments Classification with Incremental Knowledge Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Kim, Yang Sok; Kang, Byeong Ho

    This paper suggests an incremental information extraction method for social network analysis of web publications. For this purpose, we employed an incremental knowledge acquisition method, called MCRDR (Multiple Classification Ripple-Down Rules), to classify web page segments. Our experimental results show that our MCRDR-based web page segments classification system successfully supports easy acquisition and maintenance of information extraction rules.

  15. Asiago spectroscopic classification of two SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; OAPd, M. Turatto (INAF

    2016-09-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of two transients. The targets are supplied by the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNOvae (ASAS-SN) and the TNS (https://wis-tns.weizmann.ac.il).

  16. Classification issues related to neuropathic trigeminal pain.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M

    2004-01-01

    The goal of a classification system of medical conditions is to facilitate accurate communication, to ensure that each condition is described uniformly and universally and that all data banks for the storage and retrieval of research and clinical data related to the conditions are consistent. Classification entails deciding which kinds of diagnostic entities should be recognized and how to order them in a meaningful way. Currently there are 3 major pain classification systems of relevance to orofacial pain: The International Association for the Study of Pain classification system, the International Headache Society classification system, and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). All use different methodologies, and only the RDC/TMD take into account social and psychologic factors in the classification of conditions. Classification systems need to be reliable, valid, comprehensive, generalizable, and flexible, and they need to be tested using consensus views of experts as well as the available literature. There is an urgent need for a robust classification system for neuropathic trigeminal pain.

  17. 7 CFR 1794.31 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... environmental classification of projects based on its evaluation of the project description set forth in the... financial assistance. Each project must be sufficiently described to ensure its proper classification. RUS may require the applicant to provide additional information on a project where appropriate. (b)...

  18. 14 CFR 298.3 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 298.3 Section 298.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General § 298.3 Classification....

  19. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  20. 76 FR 47614 - Mail Classification Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Mail Classification Change AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Rides Free'' program. The change increases the qualifying First-Class mail letter weight. This notice... Reply Rides Free program.\\1\\ The classification change increases the qualifying First-Class Mail...