Acne Keloidalis Nuchae; NdYag Laser; AKN; Acne Keloidalis; AK; Dermatitis Papillaris Capillitii; Folliculitis Keloidalis Nuchae; Sycosis Nuchae; Acne Keloid; Keloidal Folliculitis; Lichen Keloidalis Nuchae; Folliculitis Nuchae Scleroticans; Sycosis Framboesiformis
Goh, Michelle S Y; Magee, Jill; Chong, Alvin H
A 27-year-old man presented with a 10-year history of scarring alopecia on the vertex of the scalp associated with follicular crusting and pustule formation, and a papular eruption on the posterior neck. Additionally, there was keratosis pilaris on the cheeks, eyebrows and thighs. Histology from the vertex showed scarring with a mixed perifollicular inflammatory infiltrate and foci of acute suppurative folliculitis. With clinical correlation, the diagnosis of keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans and concurrent acne keloidalis nuchae was made. The association of keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans with acne keloidalis nuchae has not previously been described. The patient responded to treatment with oral isotretinoin 20 mg (0.25 mg/kg) daily for 12 months.
Bajaj, V; Langtry, J A A
Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) is a chronic scarring folliculitis that presents clinically as follicular papules and pustules. These can coalesce into firm hypertrophic plaques and nodules on the nape of the neck, most commonly affecting young adult men. Treatment includes topical steroids/antibiotics and oral antibiotics, but often has disappointing results. Surgical approaches include excision with primary closure or skin grafting, and hair-removal lasers. Another surgical approach is excision with secondary intention healing. This can result in good cosmesis with little or no recurrence. We report two men with AKN where treatment by excision with secondary intention was successful.
Janjua, Shahbaz A; Iftikhar, Nadia; Pastar, Zrinjka; Hosler, Gregory A
Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans is a rare, X-linked disorder characterized by scarring alopecia of the scalp and eyebrows in the setting of widespread keratosis pilaris. Less frequent associations are ocular abnormalities and palmoplantar keratoderma. Acne keloidalis nuchae has previously been described in one patient with keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans. We report another case of keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans with acne keloidalis nuchae and tufted hair folliculitis, thus further establishing this association.
Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) also known as folliculitis keloidalis nuchae (FKN) is a chronic form of scarring folliculitis seen mostly in men of African descent. The term AKN is commonly used even though the condition is not a keloid, and the affected individuals do not have a tendency to develop keloids in other areas of the body. It is seen in post pubertal men and is rare after the age of 55 years. A few cases have been reported in females. which has been classified as a primary cicatricial alopecia since the exact cause of acne keloidalis (AK) remains unknown. However, a few inciting agents have been suggested which include androgens, inflammation, infection, trauma, genetics, and ingrowing hairs. AK shares some similar features with other forms of cicatricial alopecia and may occur together. Papules, pustules, and sometimes tumorous masses in the nuchal or occipital regions of the scalp hence the name “bumps” evolved in the environment. Despite its common occurrence, only a few seek help in hospital when lesions start to unsightly affect the individual’s quality of life. The presences of the keloidal lesions are more stressful compared to the resulting alopecia. Various attempts to reduce the bumps with corrosives, acids, and car engine oils lead to larger lesions or unsightly scars. Active lesions produce bleeding during haircuts. This is worrisome as a couple of individuals with active AK share shaving instruments at the barber shop and are at risk of acquiring or transmitting blood-borne infections. There is an urgent need to encourage safe shaving habits and treatment of lesions at onset so as to prevent unsightly lesions. PMID:28008278
Okoye, G.A.; Rainer, B.M.; Leung, S.G.; Suh, H.S.; Kim, J.H.; Nelson, A.M.; Garza, L.A.; Chien, A.L.; Kang, S.
Background Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) is a chronic scarring folliculitis with fibrotic papules on the occipital scalp. Its treatment is limited and unsatisfactory. Objectives To determine if targeted ultraviolet B (tUVB) phototherapy will (1) improve the clinical appearance of AKN and (2) induce extracellular matrix remodeling in affected lesions. Methods Eleven patients with AKN were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, split-scalp comparison study. One randomly selected side of the scalp was treated with tUVB up to three times weekly for eight weeks. After week 8, both sides were treated for eight additional weeks. Assessment included lesion counts in two 3×3 cm regions of interest (ROI), one on each side of the scalp (ROI-1: tUVB week 0–16, ROI-2: tUVB week 9–16), patient self-assessment, and analysis of MMP-1, MMP-9, TGF-β1, and Col1a1 mRNA expression by qRT-PCR. Results Before treatment, the mean lesion count was similar between tUVB-treated and untreated sides (14.8 vs. 15.0). After eight weeks of tUVB, the mean lesion count decreased significantly to 9.4±1.2 (P=0.03), with no change on the untreated side. With continued treatment, the mean lesion count in ROI-1 decreased further to 7±1.5 (P=0.04) after 16 weeks of tUVB. Conclusion Targeted UVB significantly improved clinical appearance of AKN, led to patient satisfaction, and was well tolerated. PMID:24863570
Alexis, Andrew; Heath, Candrice R; Halder, Rebat M
Pseudofolliculitis barbae and folliculitis keloidalis nuchae are chronic follicular disorders disproportionately affecting men of African ancestry. This article explores the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention strategies of these conditions. Effective treatment and prevention of these disorders involves pharmacologic and procedural interventions as well as behavioral modifications.
... Home Body Looking and feeling your best Acne Acne Whether you call them pimples, zits, or acne, ... treatments? What doesn’t cause acne? What causes acne? top Acne happens when your pores get clogged ...
... Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Home Diseases and Conditions Acne Acne Condition Family HealthKids and Teens Share Acne Table of Contents1. Overview2. Causes3. Treatment4. Complications5. Questions ...
Acne is a common skin disease that causes pimples. Pimples form when hair follicles under your skin ... neck, back, chest, and shoulders. Anyone can get acne, but it is common in teenagers and young ...
... products may contain benzoyl peroxide, sulfur, resorcinol, or salicylic acid. They work by killing bacteria, drying up skin ... Prescription formulas of benzoyl peroxide, sulfur, resorcinol, or salicylic acid Topical azelaic acid For women whose acne is ...
... peroxide (say: BEN-zoil peh - ROK - side) or salicylic (say: sal-uh-SIL - ick) acid in them ... it also can reduce swelling (puffiness) of pimples. Salicylic acid is another acne-fighting ingredient. It causes ...
... with your doctor about your treatment plan. Can birth control pills help treat acne? For women who break out mainly around their menstrual cycle, some birth control pills can help. Research shows that these pills ...
Whiting, D A
The cause of acne is still obscure, but genetic predisposition, sebaceous overactivity, overgrowth of bacterial flora and exposure to comedogenic substances are all significant factors. Acne lesions occur mainly in sebaceous follicles, which are characterized by deep follicular canals and large sebaceous glands. The associated seborrhea is not due to a circulatory excess of androgens but may be caused by a local amplification of androgenic activity. This, in turn, may be due to large numbers of androgen receptors and a high concentration of enzymes such as 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, within the sebaceous gland itself. Hyperkeratosis of the retention type in the pilary infrainfundibulum obstructs the outflow of sebum and keratin flakes. This favors the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes which may initiate inflammation in microcomedos and lead to formation of pustules, papules or nodules. Topical therapy with tretinoin, benzoyl peroxide and antibiotics such as clindamycin is widely used today. Oral tetracyclines and other chemotherapeutic agents remain necessary in severe cases.
Whiting, David A.
The cause of acne is still obscure, but genetic predisposition, sebaceous overactivity, overgrowth of bacterial flora and exposure to comedogenic substances are all significant factors. Acne lesions occur mainly in sebaceous follicles, which are characterized by deep follicular canals and large sebaceous glands. The associated seborrhea is not due to a circulatory excess of androgens but may be caused by a local amplification of androgenic activity. This, in turn, may be due to large numbers of androgen receptors and a high concentration of enzymes such as 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, within the sebaceous gland itself. Hyperkeratosis of the retention type in the pilary infrainfundibulum obstructs the outflow of sebum and keratin flakes. This favors the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes which may initiate inflammation in microcomedos and lead to formation of pustules, papules or nodules. Topical therapy with tretinoin, benzoyl peroxide and antibiotics such as clindamycin is widely used today. Oral tetracyclines and other chemotherapeutic agents remain necessary in severe cases. PMID:161830
Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Pirmez, Rodrigo
This paper reviews the recent literature on the diseases of the hair and pilosebaceous unit that may cause a red face. We discuss the epidemiology, clinicals, pathogenesis, and therapy of lichen planopilaris with its variants, discoid lupus erythematosus, folliculitis decalvans, dissecting folliculitis, acne keloidalis nuchae, pseudofolliculitis barbae, tinea capitis, tinea barbae, folliculitis of diverse causative factors and inflammatory follicular keratotic syndromes, ulerythema ophryogenes, atrophoderma vermiculatum, keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans, and folliculitis spinulosa decalvans.
Jansen, T; Janßen, O E; Plewig, G
Acne is one of the most common skin diseases in the general population, especially among adolescents. Acne tarda (adult acne) is defined as acne that develops (late-onset acne) or continues (persistent acne) after 25 years of age. The disease is more common in women. The clinical features are quite specific: inflammatory acne in the lower facial region or macrocomedones (microcysts) spread over the face. Involvement of the trunk is much more common in men. The etiology of acne tarda is still controversial, as cosmetics, drugs, smoking, stress, diet, and endocrine abnormalities have been implicated. Women with acne tarda and other symptoms of hyperandrogenism have a high probability of endocrine abnormalities such as polycystic ovary syndrome. Treatment is similar to that of acne in adolescence. Long-term treatment over years or decades may be required.
... How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Acne Scars Treatment Options Learn more about treatment options ... and flawless as the original skin. Why treat acne scarring Physical, emotional and social reasons for treating ...
Acne, the most prevalent skin disorder of youth, requires the concomitant management of multiple factors. Clinical and therapeutic aspects of the acne problem are presented. Traditional topical and systemic measures are melded with the current effective antibiotic treatment. A positive informed approach will enable the physician to achieve success with his acne patients. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:20468974
Wilson, B B
Acne vulgaris is a disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects nearly all persons to some degree during the teenage years. It is a disease that should be treated because of the anxiety and disfigurement it causes in the affected patient. Acne therapy is directed against the three probable pathogenic processes in acne: (1) abnormal keratinization of the sebaceous follicle, (2) excessive production of sebum, and (3) proliferation of bacteria in the follicle. Superficial acne consisting of comedones and small papulopustules will frequently respond to topical therapy such as retinoic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and topical antibiotics. Deeper lesions require systemic antibiotics of which tetracycline is the drug of choice. Severe, recalcitrant cystic acne usually responds well to the oral retinoid, isotretinoin. The severe teratogenic effects of isotretinoin on a developing fetus make this a risky drug to prescribe for women with childbearing potential. In such cases the greatest precautions should be taken to avoid pregnancy during a course of isotretinoin. Such precautions include pregnancy testing, contraceptive counseling, and the use of at least two effective forms of birth control in sexually active women.
Robertson, Kevin M
Acne vulgaris is a common inflammatory skin condition that presents management difficulties to cosmetic surgeons. Acute management and treatment focuses on early diagnosis as well as treatment with topical agents, oral antibiotics, hormonal therapy,and nonablative chemical peel and laser applications. The treatment of postinflammatory scarring must be individualized to address potential macular dyschromia, cystic lesions,epithelial bridges, or deep pitted scars. A review of interventional options is presented to apply to the spectrum of acne scarring as well as a review of the literature to address objectively published reports on efficacy.
Dilworth, G. R.
Acne surgery consists of comedone extraction of non-inflamed lesions, triamcinolone acetate injections of some inflamed lesions, and extraction of milia. Prevention is a very important part of comedone treatment, especially avoidance of picking, moisturizers and harsh soaps. Instruments are also very important: even the finest may be too thick and may have to be filed down. Acne surgery is only an adjunct of good medical therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:21283373
... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? Print ... en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...
... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? A ... en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Can Acne Scars Be Removed? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can Acne ... eliminar las cicatrices del acné? Different Types of Acne Scars from acne can seem like double punishment — ...
Mills, O H; Klingman, A M
Popular brands of soaps and shampoos were assayed for comedogenicity in the rabbit ear. Only a small number produced hyperkeratosis when applied at a 25% concentration. Bacteriostatic substances, especially hexachlorophene, were mildly comedogenic. Conventional soaps include salts of fatty acids; the latter are known comedogens. The obsessive use of soaps by patients with acne vulgaris may aggravate the disease and result in its extension to unusual locations.
Jansen, T; Grabbe, S; Plewig, G
Acne is a very common dermatosis with characteristic clinical features. It is a polymorphic disease. The clinical expression ranges from non-inflammatory closed and open comedones to inflammatory papules, pustules, and nodules. Most patients have a mixture of non-inflammatory and inflammatory lesions, although some have predominantly one or the other. Acne varies in severity from a very distressing, socially disabling disorder to a state that has been regarded as physiological by some authors. The most severe forms of acne are acne fulminans and acne inversa. Although acne may occur in all age groups, it is most prevalent during adolescence. It is not known why acne subsides in most patients but persists into adulthood in some. Certain medications may be associated with provocation, perpetuation, or exacerbation of pre-existing acne or with acneiform eruptions. Acne-like disorders include rosacea, pseudofolliculitis barbae, and other conditions that share clinical features with acne.
Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit
The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin.
Lolis, Margarita S; Bowe, Whitney P; Shalita, Alan R
Acne is the most common disease of the skin. It affects 85% of teenagers, 42.5% of men, and 50.9% of women between the ages of 20 and 30 years.96,97 The role of hormones, particularly as a trigger of sebum production and sebaceous growth and differentiation, is well known. Excess production of hormones, specifically androgens, GH, IGF-1, insulin, CRH, and glucocorticoids, is associated with increased rates of acne development. Acne may be a feature in many endocrine disorders, including polycystic ovary disease, Cushing syndrome, CAH, androgen-secreting tumors, and acromegaly. Other nonendocrine diseases associated with acne include Apert syndrome, SAPHO syndrome, Behçet syndrome and PAPA syndrome. Acne medicamentosa is the development of acne vulgaris or an acneiform eruption with the use of certain medications. These medications include testosterone, progesterone,steroids, lithium, phenytoin, isoniazid, vitamins B2, B6, and B12, halogens, and epidermal growth factor inhibitors. Management of acne medicamentosa includes standard acne therapy. Discontinuation of the offending drug may be necessary in recalcitrant cases. Basic therapeutic interventions for acne include topical therapy, systemic antibiotics,hormonal agents, isotretinoin, and physical treatments. Generally, the severity of acne lesions determines the type of acne regimen necessary. The emergence of drug-resistant P acnes and adverse side effects are current limitations to effective acne management.
Liu, Pei-Feng; Hsieh, Yao-Dung; Lin, Ya-Ching; Two, Aimee; Shu, Chih-Wen; Huang, Chun-Ming
Acne vulgaris, a multi-factorial disease, is one of the most common skin diseases, affecting an estimated 80% of Americans at some point during their lives. The gram-positive and anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacterium has been implicated in acne inflammation and pathogenesis. Therapies for acne vulgaris using antibiotics generally lack bacterial specificity, promote the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, and cause adverse effects. Immunotherapy against P. acnes or its antigens (sialidase and CAMP factor) has been demonstrated to be effective in mice, attenuating P. acnes-induced inflammation; thus, this method may be applied to develop a potential vaccine targeting P. acnes for acne vulgaris treatment. This review summarizes reports describing the role of P. acnes in the pathogenesis of acne and various immunotherapy-based approaches targeting P. acnes, suggesting the potential effectiveness of immunotherapy for acne vulgaris as well as P. acnes-associated diseases.
Halder, Rebat M; Brooks, Howard L; Callender, Valerie D
Acne is the most common disorder observed in ethnic skin. Clinical presentation is different than in white skin. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is a common sequelae of acne in darker skin. The management of acne in ethnic skin is based largely on the prevention and treatment of hyperpigmentation.
Androgens stimulate sebum production which is necessary for the development of acne. Acne in women may thus be considered as a manifestation of cutaneous androgenization. Most of acnes may be related to an idiopathic skin hyperandrogenism due to in situ enzyme activity and androgen receptor hypersensitivity, as also noted in idiopathic hirsutism. Some acne may correspond to elevated ovarian or adrenal androgen secretion. The presence of acne in women may lead to a diagnosis of functional hyperandrogenism, either polycysticovary syndrome or nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Plasma level assays for testosterone, delta 4 androstenedione and 17-OH progesterone and ovarian echography are necessary to determine the possibility for an ovarian or adrenal hyperandrogenism, but not to better treat acne. The goal of hormonal therapy in acne is to oppose the effects of androgens on the sebaceous gland. Hormones may be used in female acne in the absence of endocrine abnormalities. Antiandrogens (cyproterone acetate or aldactone) may be useful in severe acne, hormonal contraceptives with cyproterone acetate or non androgenic progestins in mild or common acne often in association with other anti-acneic drugs. Glucocorticoids have to be administered in acne fulminans and other forms of acute, severe, inflammatory acne, for their anti-inflammatory properties.
Dekkers, O M; Thio, B H; Romijn, J A; Smit, J W A
Androgens play an important part in the development of acne vulgaris. Androgen levels in patients with acne are higher than those in controls and people with the androgen insensitivity syndrome do not develop acne. Local factors other than androgen plasma levels, also play a part in the development of acne. The skin contains enzymes that convert precursor hormones to the more potent androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Androgen synthesis can therefore be regulated locally. The effects of androgens on the skin are the result of circulating androgens and enzyme activity in local tissues and androgen receptors. Acne is a clinical manifestation of some endocrine diseases. The polycystic ovary syndrome has the highest prevalence. In women with acne that persists after puberty, in 10-200% of cases polycystic ovary syndrome is later diagnosed. The mechanism of hormonal anti-acne therapy may work by blocking the androgen-production (oestrogens) or by blocking the androgen receptor (cyproterone, spironolactone).
Ochsendorf, F R; Degitz, K
Acne is treated according to the clinical picture and the pathophysiologically relevant mechanisms, such as seborrhea, follicular hyperkeratosis, P. acnes colonisation,and inflammation. In mild forms of acne, topical therapy is most appropriate. Comedonal acne can be treated with topical retinoids; papulopustular acne with a combination of retinoids and topical antimicrobial substances (benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, or azelaic acid). Moderate forms or those with extrafacial involvement can be treated with oral antibiotics combined with topical retinoids or benzoyl peroxide. Acne conglobata and other severe manifestations are treated with oral isotretinoin. Women are also treated with oral contraceptives containing anti-androgenic progestins. If inflammation is prominent, initial short term treatment with oral glucocorticoids is helpful. Second-line agents include oral zinc or dapsone. Following successful treatment, topical retinoids are suitable for maintenance therapy.
Greenwood, R; Fenwick, P B; Cunliffe, W J
The severity of acne and rate of excretion of sebum were assessed in 243 patients with epilepsy taking various anticonvulsants who were in hospital long term and in matched controls derived from a normal population of 2176 people. Neither the prevalence of acne nor the sebum excretion rate significantly increased in the patients compared with the controls or in patients taking phenytoin compared with those not. It is concluded that anticonvulsant treatment does not cause acne. PMID:6227369
Acne is a disfiguring disease, occurring mainly in adolescence. It is a common disorder, affecting above 80% of adolescents in some degree. 50% wish to have treatment for the condition. Acne appears in many forms; from the more common comedonal and papulopustular types to the often devastating cystic and fulminant acne. Some patients develop disfiguring scarring and keloidal reactions, which persist for the rest of their lives. With the treatment facilities available in modern medicine, acne problems can be eliminated through topical and/or systemic treatment options.
Delanoë, P; de Prost, Y
The treatment of acne is based upon simple pathogenic arguments, but needs to be adapted to the type of acne. Patients must always be informed that it is long and difficult and that no significant response will be expected before 2 to 3 months of regular treatment. The authors present the different therapeutic agents and strategies. Isotretinoin should be used only in severe acne after failure of at least 3 months of a well conducted classical treatment and in nodulo-cystic acne; because of its major side effect of teratogenicity its use in adolescent girl's requires pregnancy testings before and during treatment and an effective contraception.
Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.
O'Donoghue, M N
Current therapy of acne vulgaris is very effective. It consists of a combination of topical comedolytic agents, antibacterial agents, and combinations of both. The use of systemic therapy with antibiotics, isotretinoin, and hormones is necessary for cystic acne. The management of patients with the various combinations of topical and systemic medications is discussed.
Olsen, T G
Today acne vulgaris is a disease which can be well controlled using a combination of topical, systemic, and physical therapeutic modalities. However, successful acne management depends to a large extent on physician interest and the ability of the physician to apply therapy to the evolutionary stage of the disease and to the disturbed pathogenetic mechanisms. It is this author's opinion that grades I and II comedonal and papulopustular acne can be effectively treated solely with topical preparations, particularly the concurrent use of tretinoin with benzoyl peroxide or topical antibiotics. The majority of patients with grades III and IV inflammatory disease require oral antibiotics in addition to aggressive topical treatments. Intralesional steroids can be effective in all grades of acne when lesions develop an inflammatory nodulocystic quality. The physician should consider the use of estrogen (in females) or oral vitamin A in the small group of patients with grades III and IV inflammatory-cystic acne that has been unresponsive to conventional therapy. Combined systemic therapies of high-dose antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, and sulfones clearly take precedence over topical preparations in conglobate acne and acne fulminans. Finally, oral isotretinoin, alone and perhaps in combination with more conventional modalities, should play an important role in the future management of severe inflammatory-cystic acne.
Bahmer, F A; Bahmer, J A
In his autobiography, Charles Bukowski (1920-1994) describes his severe acne conglobata, his experience with therapy, family conflicts and emotional tension. Despite the stigmatization by his acne scars, Bukowski became a philobatic writer and a true chronist of the American way of life in the second half of the 20th century, writing in a coarse and obscene language.
Picardo, Mauro; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Tan, Jerry
Acne, one of the most common skin diseases, affects approximately 85% of the adolescent population, and occurs most prominently at skin sites with a high density of sebaceous glands such as the face, back, and chest. Although often considered a disease of teenagers, acne is occurring at an increasingly early age. Rosacea is a chronic facial inflammatory dermatosis characterized by flushing (or transient facial erythema), persistent central facial erythema, inflammatory papules/pustules, and telangiectasia. Both acne and rosacea have a multifactorial pathology that is incompletely understood. Increased sebum production, keratinocyte hyper-proliferation, inflammation, and altered bacterial colonization with Propionibacterium acnes are considered to be the underlying disease mechanisms in acne, while the multifactorial pathology of rosacea is thought to involve both vasoactive and neurocutaneous mechanisms. Several advances have taken place in the past decade in the research field of acne and rosacea, encompassing pathogenesis and epidemiology, as well as the development of new therapeutic interventions. In this article, we provide an overview of current perspectives on the pathogenesis and treatment of acne and rosacea, including a summary of findings from recent landmark pathophysiology studies considered to have important implications for future clinical practice. The advancement of our knowledge of the different pathways and regulatory mechanisms underlying acne and rosacea is thought to lead to further advances in the therapeutic pipeline for both conditions, ultimately providing a greater array of treatments to address gaps in current management practices.
Chularojanamontri, Leena; Tuchinda, Papapit; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai
Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects almost all teenagers. Different treatments offer different modes of action, but aim to target acne pathology. Topical therapies, such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics with alcohol-based preparations, and salicylic acid, can cause skin irritation resulting in a lack of patient adherence. Some physicians recommend patients use moisturizers as adjunctive treatment of acne, especially when either topical benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid is prescribed. Furthermore, some evidence shows that moisturizers can contribute independently to improve signs and symptoms of acne. Moisturizers contain three main properties, which are occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Currently, many moisturizers claim to be suitable for acne treatment. This article aims to provide a review of the active ingredients and properties of those moisturizers. Fifty-two moisturizers for acne were included for analysis. Most of the products (92%) have anti-inflammatory properties apart from occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Anti-acne medications, including salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and retinol, were found respectively in 35, 10, and 8 percent of the moisturizer products containing anti-inflammatory properties. More than half of the products contain dimethicone and/or glycerin for its moisturizer property. Aloe vera and witch hazel are botanical anti-inflammatories that were commonly found in this study. Scientific data regarding some ingredients are discussed to provide a guide for physicians in selecting moisturizers for acne patients. PMID:24847408
James, Kirk A; Burkhart, Craig N; Morrell, Dean S
Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that affects most individuals at some point in their lives. It may result in significant morbidity, including cutaneous scarring and psychological impairment. Current treatments include topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, topical and systemic antibiotics, and systemic isotretinoin. There are growing concerns of rising antibiotic resistance, significant side effects of isotretinoin therapy, and lack of safe and effective treatment for pregnant females. Recent advances in the pathogenesis of acne have led to a greater understanding of the underlying inflammatory mechanisms and the role the Propionibacterium acnes and biofilms. This has led to the development of new therapeutic targets. This article reviews emerging treatments of acne, including topical picolinic acid, topical antibiotic dapsone, systemic zinc salts, oral antibiotic lymecycline, new formulations of and synergistic combinations of benzoyl peroxide, photodynamic therapy with topical photosensitizers and potential acne vaccines.
Toyoda, M; Morohashi, M
Acne vulgaris is a skin disorder of the sebaceous follicles that commonly occurs in adolescence and in young adulthood. The major pathogenic factors involved are hyperkeratinization, obstruction of sebaceous follicles resulting from abnormal keratinization of the infundibular epithelium, stimulation of sebaceous gland secretion by androgens, and microbial colonization of pilosebaceous units by Propionibacterium acnes, which promotes perifollicular inflammation. The clinical presentation of acne can range from a mild comedonal form to severe inflammatory cystic acne of the face, chest, and back. At the ultrastructural level, follicular keratinocytes in comedones can be seen to possess increased numbers of desmosomes and tonofilaments, which result in ductal hypercornification. The increased activity of sebaceous glands elicited by androgen causes proliferation of P. acnes, an anaerobe present within the retained sebum in the pilosebaceous ducts. The organism possesses a ribosome-rich cytoplasm and a relatively thick cell wall, and produces several biologically active mediators that may contribute to inflammation, for instance, by promoting leukocyte migration and follicular rupture. In inflamed lesions, numerous neutrophils and macrophages infiltrate around hair follicles and sometimes phagocytose P. acnes. To examine the participation of neurogenic factors in the pathogenesis of acne, we quantitatively assessed the effects of neuropeptides on the morphology of sebaceous glands in vitro using electron microscopy. Substance P, which can be elicited by stress, promoted the development of cytoplasmic organelles in sebaceous cells, stimulated sebaceous germinative cells, and induced significant increases in the area of sebaceous glands. It also increased the size of individual sebaceous cells and the number of sebum vacuoles for each differentiated sebaceous cell, all of which suggests that substance P promotes both the proliferation and the differentiation of sebaceous
Ju, Qiang; Tao, Tao; Hu, Tingting; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap; Al-Khuzaei, Safaa; Chen, WenChieh
The skin is an endocrine organ with the expression of metabolizing enzymes and hormone receptors for diverse hormones. The sebaceous gland is the main site of hormone biosynthesis, especially for androgens, and acne is the classical androgen-mediated dermatosis. In sebocytes, conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone directly to dihydrotestosterone bypassing testosterone has been demonstrated, while type II 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase can inactivate the action of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The androgen receptor-dependent genomic effect of dihydrotestosterone on sebocytes is confirmed. Further evidence supports the PI3 K/Akt/FoxO1/mTOR signaling in the involvement of the interplay between androgens, insulin, insulin-like growth factor, and hyperglycemic diet in acne. Androgens not only regulate embryology and lipogenesis/sebum synthesis in sebocytes but also influence inflammation in acne. Genetic studies indicate that regulation of the androgen receptor is an important factor in severe acne. Further studies are required to understand the effect of estrogen and progesterone on sebaceous gland and comedogenesis, considering the change of acne in pregnancy and postmenopausal acne. Special attention should be paid to nonobese patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome and hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome. In spite of extensive gynecologic experience in the use of combined oral contraceptives for acne, evidence based on dermatologic observation should be intensified.
Capitanio, Bruno; Ottaviani, M; Bordignon, V; Amantea, A; Picardo, M
Background. Post-adolescent acne is an inflammatory disorder, whose cause is unknown. Contrasting data are available on correlation between acne and smoking habit. Objectives. To verify the frequency of clinically non-inflammatory (atypical) post-adolescent acne (APAA) among women, a possible correlation with cigarette smoking, possible differences in sebum composition in a group of female smokers with acne compared to healthy smokers and non-smokers. Method and results. 1046 randomly selected women (25–50-years-old) participated at the study. In 60 selected female subjects we analyzed sebum composition for α-tocopherol, squalene and squalene monohydroperoxide. We found a high prevalence of APAA among women (74.6%), a strong correlation with smoking habit (p < 0.0001), as well as an increase in the grade of sebum peroxidation (p < 0.05) with a reduction in vitamin E (p = 0.02), in the subjects with acne compared to the controls. Conclusions. Clinical evidence and experimental data showed a straight correlation between smoking habit and post-pubertal acne in which the clinically non-inflammatory type—APAA—is the most frequent. In the more severe cases we could consider APAA as a new entity (smoker’s acne). PMID:20436880
Ross, E Victor
Light-based treatments for acne are becoming increasingly commonplace in dermatology. This article reviews various light approaches in acne therapy. Methods are discussed from an anatomical and a functional perspective. The emphasis is on the practicality of treatment as well as the pros and cons of various devices. Also, a review of the recent literature is presented. The article is intended to give the reader a panoramic view of this still-young and developing area. Most likely, light-based acne treatment will receive more popularity as dermatologists learn how to integrate this type of therapy within the context of more established drug agents.
... week What's the best way to treat pregnancy acne? Answers from Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Pregnancy acne can be treated with self-care and medication. Pregnancy acne isn't a special form of acne. Some ...
Chandrashekar, Bs; Nandini, As
Subcision is a simple and safe office surgery procedure for treatment of depressed acne scars. It can easily be combined with other treatments such as laser, dermaroller and scar revisions for maximum efficacy.
Chandrashekar, BS; Nandini, AS
Subcision is a simple and safe office surgery procedure for treatment of depressed acne scars. It can easily be combined with other treatments such as laser, dermaroller and scar revisions for maximum efficacy. PMID:21031076
Brüggemann, Holger; Lood, Rolf
Viruses specifically infecting bacteria, or bacteriophages, are the most common biological entity in the biosphere. As such, they greatly influence bacteria, both in terms of enhancing their virulence and in terms of killing them. Since the first identification of bacteriophages in the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been fascinated by these microorganisms and their ability to eradicate bacteria. In this review, we will cover the history of the Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage research and point out how bacteriophage research has been an important part of the research on P. acnes itself. We will further discuss recent findings from phage genome sequencing and the identification of phage sequence signatures in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Finally, the potential to use P. acnes bacteriophages as a therapeutic strategy to combat P. acnes-associated diseases will be discussed.
... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Teens and Acne Treatment Ages & Stages Listen Español ...
Ottaviani, Monica; Camera, Emanuela; Picardo, Mauro
Multiple factors are involved in acne pathogenesis, and sebum secretion is one of the main ones. The role sebum plays in acne development has not been completely elucidated yet; however, increasing amounts of data seem to confirm the presence of alterations in sebum from acne patients. Altered ratio between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids has been indicated as an important feature to be considered in addition to the altered amount of specific fatty acids such as linoleic acid. Furthermore, particular attention has been focused on squalene peroxide that seems to be able to induce an inflammatory response beyond cytotoxicity and comedones formation. Moreover, recent data suggest that lipid mediators are able to interfere with sebocytes differentiation and sebogenesis through the activation of pathways related to peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors. Understanding the factors and mechanisms that regulate sebum production is needed in order to identify novel therapeutic strategies for acne treatment. PMID:20871834
Pochi, P E
Acne is dependent for its development on several factors, one of which is hormonal. The principal and possibly sole mechanistic link between hormones and acne is sebum, the secretory product of the sebaceous glands which is highly androgen-sensitive. Some but not all, patients with acne can be shown to have systemic androgen abnormalities. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that androgens are metabolized abnormally in the skin, possibly resulting in excessive sebaceous gland secretion. Systemic endocrine therapy of acne is designed to reduce the androgenic stimulation of the sebaceous gland. Such treatment includes the peroral cyclic administration of estrogen for ovarian inhibition and the use of low-dosage glucocorticoid for adrenocortical androgen suppression. Combined estrogen-glucocorticoid treatment induces the most telling effect in reducing sebaceous gland activity.
Conklin, R J; Taunton, J E
In brief: The treatment of acne is basically the same for athletes and nonathletes. However, certain aspects of sports can affect acne adversely, and in some cases treating athletes may require a cautious approach. The best treatments are topical tretinoin for comedonal acne, benzoyl peroxide or topical antibiotics and tretinoin for comedonal and mild pustular acne, and a combination of oral antibiotics and long-term benzoyl peroxide or topical antibiotics (with the eventual aim of stopping the oral antibiotics in three to five months) for moderate to severe pustular acne. For severe cystic/nodular acne, highdose oral antibiotics and intralesional steroid injections or oral isotretinoin should be considered.
Shalita, Alan R
Acne vulgaris, the most common disease of the skin, can be manifested in a wide variety of clinical presentations. As a result of this clinical variation, there are almost as many classifications of acne as there are clinicians with particular interest in the disease. Thus acne has been classified as types I-IV, inflammatory versus noninflammatory, comedonal, comedopapular, papular, papulopustular, pustular, and "cystic" or nodular (even nodular-cystic). For those who are enamored of classification, there are subdivisions of the various categories, including "sandpaper comedones" and microcysts. There is even disagreement as to what constitutes a papule versus a nodule. The classic textbook definition of a nodule refers to lesions 1 cm or larger, but the early investigators of oral isotretinoin defined nodules as 4 mm or larger, and this definition has creeped into many texts, recently clarified by Bologna.(1)
Preneau, S; Dreno, B
Above all, acne is considered an adolescent affection. However, in literature as in daily life, female acne is becoming more and more common. According to the articles that cover this subject, the prevalence is estimated from 40% to 50%. The objective of our work was to make an overview of new data about female acne at the clinical and epidemiological level to be precise if female acne has to be considered as a subtype of acne different from teenager acne. This review shows that the most frequently recognized age when speaking about female acne is 25 years old. Most commonly it is a light to moderate acne that mainly affects the face. Two clinical forms can be identified: an inflammatory form, the most frequent, made up of papulo-pustules and nodules on the lower part of the face and a retentional form made up of blackheads and micro cysts with hyperseborrhoea. Concerning its evolution, it is characterized by three subtypes of which two are predominant: the most frequent form called 'continue acne' from adolescence to adult age and the less frequent form called 'late onset acne' that starts after 25 years of age. On a physiopathological level two main hypotheses can be proposed. Specific global assessment and therapeutic algorithm would be necessary for female acne, which in addition, in future would have to be considered separately from teenagers for the evaluation of a new drug.
Serna-Tamayo, Cristian; Janniger, Camila K; Micali, Giuseppe; Schwartz, Robert A
Acne may present in neonates, infants, and small children. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris are not considered to be rare. The presentation of acne in this patient population sometimes represents virilization and may portend later development of severe adolescent acne. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris must be distinguished from other cutaneous disorders seen in newborns and infants. Infantile acne tends to be more pleomorphic and inflammatory, thus requiring more vigorous therapy than neonatal acne.
Cosmetic products contribute to the efficacy of anti-acneic treatment. Cleaning bars without soap and lotions are to be preferred to soaps. Morning application of moisturizing creams compensate for dryness and irritation induced by topical treatment. Some of these cosmetic products may have a limited efficacy of the shiny appearance and/or acne lesions. Scrubs, abrasive sponges, masks and patches have a very limited usefulness. Make up and camouflage techniques are authorized, provided that the products have been tested non comedogenic and non acne-genic.
Korting, H C; Borelli, C; Schöllmann, C
Appropriate cosmetics for skin cleansing are capable of contributing to a reduction of especially inflammatory lesions in acne-prone patients and to support pharmacological intervention in patients with manifest acne. Cleansing of acne-prone skin should employ acidified synthetic cleansers with a pH of 5.5 rather than soap. Furthermore, the ingredients of certain skin care products, i.e. nicotinamide, lactic acid, triethyl acetate/ethyllineolate, and prebiotic plant extracts, affect different mechanisms of acne pathogenesis and therefore may contribute to a decrease in acne lesions. At least some of these ingredients underscore the concept of evidence-based cosmetics. In contrast, the problem of acne lesions caused by comedogenic ingredients in cosmetics today is negligible.
Yeo, Lindsey; Ormerod, Anthony D
Acne is a common skin condition in adolescents. It is not uncommon in childhood and it persists into adulthood. A broad range of acne treatments are available and have been shown to be safe and effective in adolescents and adults. However, there is limited literature regarding acne treatment in childhood and its available therapeutic options. It seems reasonable to extrapolate findings of the various studies reported on treatment of acne in the adolescent and adult age group, with the exclusion of the use of tetracycline derivatives. As clinicians, we must be more familiar with the clinical presentation of acne and available treatment options in our younger patients. Early recognition of acne with prompt and appropriate initiation of therapy in childhood will help prevent severe scarring in children.
Becker, Markus; Wild, Thomas; Zouboulis, Christos C
A precise and reliable assessment of acne severity is unarguably the most essential clinical method when it comes to monitoring and choosing optimal treatment in the daily practice. Since the early 1960s, different severity assessment systems have been described in the literature. The two commonly used concepts are global gradings and lesion counting. Both systems have been controversially discussed as to which is more reliable and providing an objective outcome measurement tool; however, both have some subjectivity involved. More objective methods for assessing the severity of acne vulgaris include photography, fluorescence photography, polarized light photography, video microscopy, and multispectral imaging. Such techniques have limitations such as high cost, complex and sophisticated apparatus, and a sometimes time-consuming imaging process. There are newly developed technologies that could avoid the problems of inter- and intrarater subjectivity.
Kontochristopoulos, Georgios; Platsidaki, Eftychia
Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars. It causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. The most frequently used peeling agents are salicylic acid, glycolic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid, Jessner solution, trichloroacetic acid, and phenol. The appropriate peel is chosen based on the patient's skin type, acne activity, and type of acne scars. Combination peels minimize side effects. In acne scars, chemical peels may be combined with other procedures to achieve better clinical results. A series of chemical peels can lead to significant improvement over a short period, leading to patient satisfaction and maintenance of clinical results. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Higaki, S; Kitagawa, T; Kagoura, M; Morohashi, M; Yamagishi, T
We examined the possible correlation between biotypes of Propionibacterium acnes, lipase activity, and rash degree in acne patients. Among 5 P. acnes biotypes, P. acnes biotype 3 (B3) was the most common, followed by P. acnes biotypes 1, 2 and 4; P. acnes biotype 5 was not found. P. acnes B3 was isolated from more severe skin rashes than those of the other biotypes. Production of propionic acid (PA) and butyric acid (BA) by P. acnes B3 was higher than those by the other P. acnes biotypes. As the rash degree in acne patients was more severe, the production of PA and BA elevated. Although only a few P. acnes strains were examined in the present study, P. acnes B3 had the highest lipase activity and might have the greatest influence on skin rash in acne patients.
Chuan, Sandy S; Chang, R Jeffrey
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. It is typically characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS often experience dermatologic manifestations of hyperandrogenism, including hirsutism, acne vulgaris, and androgenic alopecia. This article will review the treatments for acne due to androgen excess in PCOS women.
Barth, Julian H; Clark, Sheila
Acne and body hair are both cutaneous responses to androgenic stimulation. They are normal events in adolescent girls. There is considerable variation in the evolution of the two conditions. The sebaceous gland is exquisitely sensitive to androgens, and acne appears with the onset of puberty, peaks in prevalence in the teenage years and gradually improves thereafter. Hair growth on the face, trunk and limbs develops more slowly and generally peaks in the 20s. Indications for endocrine investigation include very severe acne, onset of acne and hirsuties in the very early stage of puberty (Tanner stage 3) and systemic virilism. Treatment for acne and hirsuties can be either topical or systemic. The choice of therapy is based on the severity of the disease rather than the results of endocrine investigation. Further, since PCO is related to impaired glucose tolerance, advice relating to lifestyle changes should be offered to prevent the development of diabetes.
developed in the tropical acne patients were clinically and histopathologically identical to those seen in severe pustular, cystic acne patients. The...Observations were made on the clinical, biochemical, histopathological and microbiological parameters of eleven ’tropical acne patients.’ All...tropical acne patients in the study had a previous history of mild to moderate acne vulgaris prior to their tour in Vietnam. The type of lesions which
Draelos, Z D
Cosmetics that are appropriate for use in patients with rosacea and acne must be noncomedogenic, nonacnegenic, nonirritating, and hypoallergenic. This requires a basic understanding of cosmetic fromulation and the selection of products that meet guidelines for sensitive skin.
Kashat, Maria; Caretti, Katherine; Kado, Jessica
Tumor necrosis factor α antagonists are potent biologics used to treat a variety of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn disease, psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis. These medications are known to have many side effects (eg, infusion reactions, cytopenia, risk for infection, heart failure); however, only a few cases of acne vulgaris have been associated with the use of these biologics, particularly infliximab and adalimumab. We report a rare case of etanercept-induced cystic acne.
Neely, Gregory M; Hein, Michael S
Acne Fulminans (AF) is a severe form of cystic acne primarily affecting Caucasian adolescent males. The systemic clinical manifestations of the disease make it likely that the patient will present to his or her primary care provider rather than to a dermatologist. Promptly recognizing this disorder will aid in appropriate management, avoiding costly and invasive diagnostic procedures, multiple consultations, unnecessary pharmacologic treatments, and residual scarring of the skin. We report a case and a brief review of the literature regarding this enigmatic disorder.
Wozniacka, Anna; Kruk, Małgorzata; Robak, Ewa; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna
Acne rosacea is a common skin disorder which affects adults, usually women. Erythema, papules, pustules and telangiectases, the main clinical manifestations of the disease are located on the face. Currently opinions dealing with pathogenesis and clinical forms of rosacea are presented. As the clinical picture might be confusing, similar to other illnesses, differential diagnosis with other dermatoses like acne vulgaris, erysipelas, seborrhoeic and contact eczema as well as systemic diseases like lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, scleroderma, sarcoidosis and leukemia were discussed.
Stolman, Lewis P.
Acne is a metabolic disorder of the pilosebaceous appendage in which microorganisms, hormones, inflammatory cells and fatty acids seem to contribute to the pathologic process. Through education and judicious use of therapeutic agents including benzoyl peroxide, vitamin A acid, topical and systemic antibiotics and 13 cis retinoic acid, most patients with acne can enjoy good control of their disease. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21286149
Ershova, Ekaterina Y.; Karimova, Lubov N.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzmin, Sergey G.; Loschenov, Victor B.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was tested for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Patients with acne were treated with ALA plus red light. Ten percent water solution of ALA was applied with 1,5-2 h occlusion and then 18-45 J/cm2 630 nm light was given. Bacterial endogenous porphyrins fluorescence also was used for acne therapy. Treatment control and diagnostics was realized by fluorescence spectra and fluorescence image. Light sources and diagnostic systems were used: semiconductor laser (λ=630 nm, Pmax=1W), (LPhT-630-01-BIOSPEC); LED system for PDT and diagnostics with fluorescent imager (λ=635 nm, P=2W, p=50 mW/cm2), (UFPh-630-01-BIOSPEC); high sensitivity CCD video camera with narrow-band wavelength filter (central wavelength 630 nm); laser electronic spectrum analyzer for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy monitoring (LESA-01-BIOSPEC). Protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) and endogenous porphyrins concentrations were measured by fluorescence at wavelength, correspondingly, 700 nm and 650 nm. It was shown that topical ALA is converted into PP IX in hair follicles, sebaceous glands and acne scars. The amount of resulting PP IX is sufficient for effective PDT. There was good clinical response and considerable clearance of acne lesion. ALA-PDT also had good cosmetic effect in treatment acne scars. PDT with ALA and red light assist in opening corked pores, destroying Propionibacterium acnes and decreasing sebum secretion. PDT treatment associated with several adverse effects: oedema and/or erytema for 3-5 days after PDT, epidermal exfoliation from 5th to 10th day and slight pigmentation during 1 month after PDT. ALA-PDT is effective for acne and can be used despite several side effects.
Hazarika, Neirita; Archana, M
Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Females (56%), 15–20 year olds (61%), facial lesions (60%), and Grade II acne (70%) were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10) interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) found were as follows: Physical symptoms with grade of acne; embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment. PMID:27688440
Chien, Anna L; Qi, Ji; Rainer, Barbara; Sachs, Dana L; Helfrich, Yolanda R
Acne vulgaris is a common disease of the pilosebaceous unit and affects adolescents and adults. Because high-quality guidelines regarding treatment of acne in pregnancy are scarce, management of this condition can be challenging. We describe the safety profile of common therapies and outline approaches based on available evidence. Topical azelaic acid or benzoyl peroxide can be recommended as baseline therapy. A combination of topical erythromycin or clindamycin with benzoyl peroxide is recommended for inflammatory acne. Oral erythromycin or cephalexin is generally considered safe for moderate to severe inflammatory acne when used for a few weeks. A short course of oral prednisolone may be useful for treating fulminant nodular cystic acne after the first trimester. In general, topical and oral antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy, but combined with topical benzoyl peroxide to decrease bacterial resistance. Oral retinoids are teratogenic and absolutely contraindicated for women who are pregnant or considering pregnancy. Although some complementary therapies including micronutrients and nonpharmacologic treatments seem to be well tolerated, limited data exist regarding their safety and efficacy, and they are not currently recommended during pregnancy. The risk-to-benefit ratio, efficacy, acceptability, and costs are considerations when choosing a treatment for acne in pregnancy.
Bayerl, Christiane; Degitz, Klaus; Meigel, Eva; Kerscher, Martina
Adjuvant dermato-cosmetic therapy in acne is an essential part of the concept of treating acne after initiation and during maintenance therapy. Those are mechanical peeling, chemical peeling and its combination. It needs supervision by an experienced dermatologist.
Acne frequently occurs on the back. Here, there are 2 to 6 millimeter wide erythematous (red) pustules ... Permanent scarring may follow a severe case of acne. Men are more often affected on their shoulders ...
The face is the most common location of acne. Here, there are 4 to 6 millimeter red ( ... scars and fistulous tract formation (connecting passages). Severe acne may have a profound psychological impact and may ...
Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona
Background: Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. Patients and Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenient sampling, in a dermatology clinic in Ardabil, Iran. They were randomly allocated into two trial arms. Those in the control group were asked to stop eating sunflower seeds if they did before. In the intervention group, they consumed 25 g sunflower-containing food daily for seven days. The primary outcome of interest was 10% increase/decrease in the baseline acne severity index (ASI), sustained to the end of the follow-up period on day 14. Results: The mean ASI did not change significantly through the study period in the control group, but it increased in the sunflower group from 62 at the baseline to 86.8 after two weeks (P < 0.001). The ASI mean change was 24.8 in the sunflower group compared to 4.9 in the control group (P < 0.001). The global acne grading score (GAGS) did not significantly change in any of the groups and the difference in the change of GAGS was not significant between the groups (2.4 in the sunflower group versus 1.6 in the control group). Twenty two subjects (88%) in the sunflower group versus 9 (36%) in the control group had at least 10% increment in ASI throughout the follow-up period (P < 0.001). The relative risk of developing the primary outcome in taking the sunflower seed intervention was 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4 - 4.2). The observed risk difference was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.29 - 0.75). Conclusions: Sunflower seed intake appears to aggravate acne vulgaris; however, further evidence is needed to ban sunflower seed intake in patients with acne. Considering the
Chen, W; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Hong, J-B; Melnik, B C; Yamasaki, O; Dessinioti, C; Ju, Q; Liakou, A I; Al-Khuzaei, S; Katsambas, A; Ring, J; Zouboulis, C C
Acne, one of the most common skin disorders, is also a cardinal component of many systemic diseases or syndromes. Their association illustrates the nature of these diseases and is indicative of the pathogenesis of acne. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and seborrhoea-acne-hirsutism-androgenetic alopecia (SAHA) syndrome highlight the role of androgen steroids, while polycystic ovary (PCO) and hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans (HAIR-AN) syndromes indicate insulin resistance in acne. Apert syndrome with increased fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) signalling results in follicular hyperkeratinization and sebaceous gland hypertrophy in acne. Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) and pyogenic arthritis-pyoderma gangrenosum-acne (PAPA) syndromes highlight the attributes of inflammation to acne formation. Advances in the understanding of the manifestation and molecular mechanisms of these syndromes will help to clarify acne pathogenesis and develop novel therapeutic modalities.
Handog, Evangeline B; Datuin, Maria Suzanne L; Singzon, Ivan A
Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars, but there are very few studies on Asian populations who are more prone to develop hyper pigmentation. This article aims to summarize and evaluate the existing studies on the role of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars among Asians. An online search was conducted to identify prospective studies published in English that evaluated the use of chemical peels in active acne and acne scars in Asian populations. There were six studies for acne and eight studies for acne scars that were identified using our search parameters. Most were single-centre, open label and with small sample sizes. Acne severity was not uniformly reported and the objective outcome measures of some studies were not explicitly reported as well. The general trend of the results of the studies support the safety and efficacy of chemical peels for acne and acne scars including those of darker skin types. The existing studies support the use of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars in Asians. Further clinical trials with better study design and more subjects are needed to further establish the role of chemical peels in Asian acne patients. PMID:23378705
Zouboulis, Christos C
Acne is the most common skin disorder. In the majority of cases, acne is a disease that changes its skin distribution and severity over time; moreover, it can be a physically (scar development) and psychologically damaging condition that lasts for years. According to its clinical characteristics, it can be defined as a chronic disease according to the World Health Organization criteria. Acne is also a cardinal component of many systemic diseases or syndromes, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, seborrhea-acne-hirsutism-androgenetic alopecia syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome, Apert syndrome, synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis syndrome, and pyogenic arthritis-pyoderma gangrenosum-acne syndrome. Recent studies on the Ache hunter gatherers of Paraguay detected the lack of acne in association with markedly lower rates of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, a finding that indicates either a nutritional or a genetic background of this impressive concomitance.
Puhvel, S M; Amirian, D; Weintraub, J; Reisner, R M
Patients with severe nodulo-cystic acne are known to have elevated serum antibody levels and increased immediate hypersensitivity reactions to Propionibacterium acnes. This organism is the predominant bacterium in normal pilosebaceous follicles of human skin, and can be consistently isolated from pustular lesions in acne. Previously it had been observed that delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to P. acnes were negative in patients with acne. The present study investigated the proliferative response of lymphocytes from patients with nodulo-cystic acne to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and P. acnes antigen stimulation. The response to PHA stimulation was within normal limits. The response to P. acnes antigen showed a significant increase over control values obtained by testing lymphocytes from acne-free subjects. Thus cell mediated immunity to P. acnes may be present in subjects with severe inflammatory acne. These findings raise the possibility that reactions to P. acnes may contribute to intensifying the inflammatory response in acne lesions.
Marynick, S P; Chakmakjian, Z H; McCaffree, D L; Herndon, J H
We measured hormone levels in 59 women and 32 men with longstanding cystic acne resistant to conventional therapy. Affected women had higher serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone and lower levels of sex-hormone-binding globulin than controls. Affected men had higher levels of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 17-hydroxyprogesterone and lower levels of sex-hormone-binding globulin than controls. To lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dexamethasone was given to men, and dexamethasone or an oral contraceptive pill, Demulen (or both), was given to women. Of the patients treated for six months, 97 per cent of the women and 81 per cent of the men had resolution or marked improvement in their acne. The dose of dexamethasone required to reduce dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels was low, rarely exceeding the equivalent of 20 mg of hydrocortisone per day. We conclude that most patients with therapeutically resistant cystic acne have androgen excess and that lowering elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate results in improvement or remission of acne in most instances.
Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Annunziata, M. C.; D'Arco, V.; De Vita, V.; Lodi, G.; Mauriello, M. C.; Pastore, F.; Monfrecola, G.
Acne has a prevalence of over 90% among adolescents and persists into adulthood in approximately 12%–14% of cases with psychological and social implications. Possible outcomes of the inflammatory acne lesions are acne scars which, although they can be treated in a number of ways, may have a negative psychological impact on social life and relationships. The main types of acne scars are atrophic and hypertrophic scars. The pathogenesis of acne scarring is still not fully understood, but several hypotheses have been proposed. There are numerous treatments: chemical peels, dermabrasion/microdermabrasion, laser treatment, punch techniques, dermal grafting, needling and combined therapies for atrophic scars: silicone gels, intralesional steroid therapy, cryotherapy, and surgery for hypertrophic and keloidal lesions. This paper summarizes acne scar pathogenesis, classification and treatment options. PMID:20981308
Webster, G F
Acne vulgaris, commonly termed acne, is an extremely common disease. It can be found in nearly all teenagers to some degree as well as in women in their 30s. Regardless of severity, acne often has a greater psychologic effect than cutaneous effect. Indeed, most patients overestimate the severity of their disease, while most physicians underestimate its impact on their patients. Studies have shown that people with severe acne as teens are less employable as adults and that self-esteem is low. When combined with other adolescent tensions, acne can be a difficult disease to treat. Rosacea, which usually starts in the late 20s, may affect the eyes as well as the skin. This article describes the pathogenesis of acne and rosacea and treatment approaches the primary care physician can use.
Davis, Erica C.
Acne vulgaris is one of the most common conditions for which all patients, including those with skin of color (Fitzpatrick skin types IV–VI), seek dermatological care. The multifactorial pathogenesis of acne appears to be the same in ethnic patients as in Caucasians. However, there is controversy over whether certain skin biology characteristics, such as sebum production, differ in ethnic patients. Clinically, acne lesions can appear the same as those seen in Caucasians; however, histologically, all types of acne lesions in African Americans can be associated with intense inflammation including comedones, which can also have some degree of inflammation. It is the sequelae of the disease that are the distinguishing characteristics of acne in skin of color, namely postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and keloidal or hypertrophic scarring. Although the medical and surgical treatment options are the same, it is these features that should be kept in mind when designing a treatment regimen for acne in skin of color. PMID:20725545
Perry, Alexandra; Lambert, Peter
Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that forms part of the normal flora of the skin, oral cavity, large intestine, the conjunctiva and the external ear canal. Although primarily recognized for its role in acne, P. acnes is an opportunistic pathogen, causing a range of postoperative and device-related infections. These include infections of the bones and joints, mouth, eye and brain. Device-related infections include those of joint prostheses, shunts and prosthetic heart valves. P. acnes may play a role in other conditions, including inflammation of the prostate leading to cancer, SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis) syndrome, sarcoidosis and sciatica. If an active role in these conditions is established there are major implications for diagnosis, treatment and protection. Genome sequencing of the organism has provided an insight into the pathogenic potential and virulence of P. acnes.
Tan, J K; Degreef, H
Oral contraceptives (OCs) can reduce acne by lowering the production of adrenal and ovarian androgens, by inhibiting 5-alpha-reductase, which in turn, reduces the levels of dihydrotestosterone, and by stimulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thus reducing the levels of free testosterone. In newer OCs, such as Tricyclen and Diane-35, the progestin component is minimally androgenic and anti-androgenic respectively, thereby enhancing the favorable profile of these products in the treatment of hyperandrogenic disorders, including acne. The efficacy of these agents and their long-term safety profile supports their use in various grades of acne in females: * As adjunctive therapy to topical agents for women with mild non-scarring acne desiring oral contraception * As primary therapy for patients with moderate non-scarring acne in combination with topical therapy and systemic antibiotics * As one of two preferred methods of contraception in patients with scarring and severe inflammatory acne being treated with systemic isotretinoin.
Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Żaczek, Maciej; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Łusiak-Szelchowska, Marzanna; Górski, Andrzej
Propionibacterium acnes is associated with purulent skin infections, and it poses a global problem for both patients and doctors. Acne vulgaris (acne) remains a problem due to its chronic character and difficulty of treatment, as well as its large impact on patients' quality of life. Due to the chronic course of the disease, treatment is long lasting, and often ineffective. Currently there are data regarding isolation of P. acnes phages, and there have been numerous studies on phage killing of P. acnes, but no data are available on phage application specifically in acne treatment. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge on the phages active against P. acnes described so far and their potential application in the treatment of acne associated with P. acnes. The treatment of acne with phages may be important in order to reduce the overuse of antibiotics, which are currently the main acne treatment. However, more detailed studies are first needed to understand phage functioning in the skin microbiome and the possibility to use phages to combat P. acnes. PMID:28228751
Kul'chitskaia, D B; Orekhova, E M; Vasil'eva, E S
Laser Doppler flowmetry discovered microcirculatory disorders in acne patients. Affected are arterioles as well as capillaries and venules. Combination of magnetotherapy with medication improves microcirculation in acne patients. More marked positive changes occurred in the microcirculatory system due to combined treatment compared to medication therapy only. Thus, laser Doppler flowmetry is a new, noninvasive method of assessing microcirculation in acne patients and can serve an objective criterion of treatment efficacy.
Horneff, John G; Hsu, Jason E; Huffman, G Russell
Perioperative shoulder infections involving Propionibacterium acnes can be difficult to identify in a patient who presents with little more than pain and stiffness in the postoperative period. Although indolent in its growth and presentation, infection of the shoulder with P acnes can have devastating effects, including failure of the surgical intervention. This article reviews the importance of a comprehensive physical, radiologic, and laboratory evaluation, and discusses appropriate preventive and treatment strategies for P acnes infections of the shoulder.
Jalian, H Ray; Levin, Yakir; Wanner, Molly
Physical modalities provide an important adjunct to medical treatment of acne and rosacea. In patients who cannot tolerate or fail medical treatments, physical modalities offer an alternative approach. For cases of acne scarring, phymatous changes of rosacea, and rosacea-associated telangiectasia, physical modalities such as laser and light treatments represent the treatment of choice. We will review the use of laser and light treatments, photodynamic therapy, and other physical modalities such as targeted therapies for the treatment of acne and rosacea.
Watson, Kendra D; Miest, Rachel Y; Tollefson, Megha M
Isotretinoin is a revolutionary medicine for the treatment of acne vulgaris, with new studies showing evidence of excellent clinical outcomes in treating rosacea. After 30 years of clinical experience, new insights are being gained into dosing strategies, recurrence prevention, and dose-related side effects. Previous controversial associations with inflammatory bowel diseases and mood disorders have hampered the use of this medication in some clinical situations, with new evidence disproving these claims. The teratogenicity of this medication mandates iPLEDGE compliance with government regulations. Clinicians should be knowledgeable about this medication including its side effects, teratogenicity, and its controversies in order to adequately counsel patients, dissuade fears, and obtain the best clinical outcome when treating acne and rosacea.
Kadler, Benjamin K.; Mehta, Saurabh S.; Funk, Lennard
Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated as a cause of infection following shoulder surgery, may occur up to 2 years after the index operation and has been shown to be responsible for up to 56% of shoulder infections after orthopedic implant. Male patients within the population undergoing shoulder surgery are particularly at risk, especially if their shoulder surgery involved prosthesis or was posttraumatic. P. acnes infection can be difficult to diagnose clinically and laboratory techniques require prolonged and specialized cultures. Usual inflammatory markers are not raised in infection with this low virulence organism. Delayed diagnosis with P. acnes infection can result in significant morbidity prior to prosthesis failure. Early diagnosis of P. acnes infection and appropriate treatment can improve clinical outcomes. It is important to be aware of P. acnes infection in shoulder surgery, to evaluate risk factors, to recognize the signs of P. acnes infection, and to promptly initiate treatment. The signs and symptoms of P. acnes infection are described and discussed. Data were collected from PubMed™, Web of Science, and the NICE Evidence Healthcare Databases - AMED (Ovid), BNI (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO), Embase (Ovid), HMIC: DH-Data and Kings Fund (Ovid), Medline (Ovid), and PsycINFO (Ovid). The search terms used were “P. acnes,” “infection,” “shoulder,” and “surgery.” In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the prevention and management of P. acnes infection following shoulder surgery. PMID:26622132
Goischke, H K; Ochsendorf, F R
We report 2 patients with the association of Crohn's disease and acne inversa (= hidradenitis suppurativa). A 50-year-old woman with a 10-year-history of Crohn's disease developed suppurative nodules and abscesses in the genitoanal region. Over several years these lesions were hidden from everybody including the family physician. In a 42-year-old female patient abscesses appeared in the axilla 4 years after the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. During the next years these draining lesions also developed in both groins and the perineum. The differential diagnosis included cutaneous manifestations of Crohn's disease in both cases. The clinical picture with draining abscesses and sinuses with communicating channels, cystic nodules, hypertrophic scars and foul-smelling discharge were typical findings of acne inversa. In the last years this entity was reported several times in patients with Crohn's disease. Acne inversa starts with a compact hyperkeratosis of the infundibulum in terminal hair follicles, followed by a segmental rupture of the follicular epithelium and a spreading inflammatory reaction. As pathogenic factors genetic disposition and smoking were discussed. The only curative therapy is excision of the affected area. The reported association should be known in order to recognize the disease and institute the right therapy.
Graber, Emmy M.
Acne is a common dermatological disorder that most frequently affects adolescents; however, individuals may be affected at all ages. Many people who suffer from acne seek treatment from both prescription and over-the-counter acne medications. Due to convenience, lower cost, and difficulty getting an appointment with a dermatologist, the use of over-the-counter acne treatments is on the rise. As the plethora of over-the-counter acne treatment options can be overwhelming, it is important that dermatologists are well-versed on this subject to provide appropriate information about treatment regimens and potential drug interactions and that their patients see them as well-informed. This article reviews the efficacy of various over-the-counter acne treatments based on the current literature. A thorough literature review revealed there are many types of over-the-counter acne treatments and each are designed to target at least one of the pathogenic pathways that are reported to be involved in the development of acne lesions. Many of the key over-the-counter ingredients are incorporated in different formulations to broaden the spectrum and consumer appeal of available products. Unfortunately, many over-the-counter products are not well-supported by clinical studies, with a conspicuous absence of double-blind or investigator-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled studies. Most studies that do exist on over-the-counter acne products are often funded by the manufacturer. Use of over-the-counter acne treatments is a mainstay in our society and it is important that dermatologists are knowledgeable about the different options, including potential benefits and limitations. Overall, over-the-counter acne therapies can be classified into the following five major groups: cleansers, leave-on products, mechanical treatments, essential oils, and vitamins. PMID:22808307
Vexiau, P; Chivot, M
Acne is a problem of the pilo-sebaceous follicle caused by the conjunction of three factors: seborrhea, follicle obstruction, and follicle inflammation. The key element, seborrhea, is under androgenic control. Acne in women is also influenced by developments and modifications in genital life, as well as by hormonal contraceptive and replacement therapies. Acne is rare prior to puberty, when it may indicate endocrine disease. At puberty, acne is quasi-physiological, because of the relative hyperandrogenism induced by the andrenarche preceding pubarche, as well as by the relative shortage of estrogens and progesterone during the first menstrual cycles. Other signs of hyperandrogenism, such as menstrual cycle difficulties and excess weight, which favor a hormonal origin, must be sought in cases of persistent or late-onset acne in adults. There is a mirror image of puberty during the peri-menopausal period, but with decreased seborrhea, so acne is rare. Finally, a tumoral origin must be sought in the rare cases of acne occurring after menopause. Hormonal investigation of acne should not be systematic, but is justified during prepuberty when other symptoms are associated with acne that resists well-conducted dermatological treatment. The therapeutic approach should be primarily dermatological, but hormone-oriented treatment should be considered when such therapy fails, or in the presence of other signs of hyperandrogenism. Sometimes the association of isotretinoin and an anti-androgen treatment are necessary to effectively treat such acne. Finally, particular attention must be paid to contraceptive therapies and hormone treatments, which can induce or aggravate acne, especially during the peri-menopausal period.
Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Kao, Mandy C.; Fang, Jia-You; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Zhang, Liangfang; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming
The strong bactericidal properties of lauric acid (C12:0), a middle chain-free fatty acid commonly found in natural products, have been shown in a number of studies. However, it has not been demonstrated whether lauric acid can be used for acne treatment as a natural antibiotic against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), which promotes follicular inflammation (inflammatory acne). This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of lauric acid against P. acnes both in vitro and in vivo. Incubation of the skin bacteria P. acnes, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) with lauric acid yielded minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against the bacterial growth over 15 times lower than those of benzoyl peroxide (BPO). The lower MIC values of lauric acid indicate stronger antimicrobial properties than that of BPO. The detected values of half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of lauric acid on P. acnes, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis growth indicate that P. acnes is the most sensitive to lauric acid among these bacteria. In addition, lauric acid did not induce cytotoxicity to human sebocytes. Notably, both intradermal injection and epicutaneous application of lauric acid effectively decreased the number of P. acnes colonized with mouse ears, thereby relieving P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. The obtained data highlight the potential of using lauric acid as an alternative treatment for antibiotic therapy of acne vulgaris. PMID:19387482
Hong, J-B; Prucha, H; Melnik, B; Ziai, M; Ring, J; Chen, W
Acne is an intriguing model for the study of interactions between hormones, innate immunity, inflammation and wound healing (scarring). The manifestations and involvement of acne in different systemic diseases and some rare syndromes demonstrate its multifaceted nature. Synovitis-Acne-Pustulosis-Hyperostosis-Osteitis (SAPHO) and Pyogenic Arthritis-Pyoderma gangrenosum-Acne (PAPA) syndromes, both regarded as autoinflammatory diseases, highlight the attributes of inflammation in acne. While SAPHO syndrome can be used to explore the pathogenic role of Propionibacterium acnes in acne, PAPA syndrome and Apert syndrome can help understand the genetic influence on acne. The genetic defects in the gain-of-function of FGFR2 mutations in Apert syndrome and acne nevus of Munro lend further support to the hypothesis that the interaction of forkhead box class O (FoxOs)-mediated transcriptional regulation with androgen receptor transactivation and insulin/insulin like growth factor-1(IGF-1)-signaling is crucial in acne pathogenesis. Novel biologics, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers and IL-1 inhibitors, appear promising in opposing the inflammation associated with SAPHO and PAPA syndromes, but it remains to seen if they can also improve severe acne particularly in the long term.
Chularojanamontri, Leena; Tuchinda, Papapit; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Pongparit, Kamolwan
Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects almost all teenagers. Different treatments offer different modes of action, but aim to target acne pathology. Topical therapies, such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics with alcohol-based preparations, and salicylic acid, can cause skin irritation resulting in a lack of patient adherence. Some physicians recommend patients use moisturizers as adjunctive treatment of acne, especially when either topical benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid is prescribed. Furthermore, some evidence shows that moisturizers can contribute independently to improve signs and symptoms of acne. Moisturizers contain three main properties, which are occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Currently, many moisturizers claim to be suitable for acne treatment. This article aims to provide a review of the active ingredients and properties of those moisturizers. Fifty-two moisturizers for acne were included for analysis. Most of the products (92%) have anti-inflammatory properties apart from occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Anti-acne medications, including salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and retinol, were found respectively in 35, 10, and 8 percent of the moisturizer products containing anti-inflammatory properties. More than half of the products contain dimethicone and/or glycerin for its moisturizer property. Aloe vera and witch hazel are botanical anti-inflammatories that were commonly found in this study. Scientific data regarding some ingredients are discussed to provide a guide for physicians in selecting moisturizers for acne patients.
Describes five types of acne and stresses the importance of appropriate treatment. Some dermatologists believe diet is critical in improving acne. Other treatments include the use of drying lotions and soaps, astringents, abrasive cleansers, prescription drugs, face peels, and dermabrasion. (SM)
Bergler-Czop, Beata; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia
Common acne is steatorrhoeic chronic disease, to which specific is, among others, the presence of blackheads, papulopustular eruptions, purulent cysts and cicatrices. Such hormonal factors belong to elements inherent in etiology of the affection. Sebaceous glands have cell receptors on their surface for androgens. In etiopathogenesis of common/simple acne, a decisive role is played by a derivative of testosterone, i.e. 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). However, some experts are of opinion that there is no correlation between the increased intensity of common acne and other symptoms of hyperandrogenism. Numerous authors assume, however, that common acne-affected patients may be sometimes subjected to intense reactions caused by sebaceous glands against physiological androgens concentrations. Naturally, estrogens can inhibit release of such androgens. Under physiological conditions, natural progesterone does not conduct to intensification of the seborrhea, but the activity of sebum secretion may be triggered off by its synthetic counterparts. Hormonal etiology can be very distinctly visible in the steroid, androgenic, premenstrual, menopausal acne, as well as in juvenile acne and acne neonatorum. In case of females affected by acne, hormonal therapy should be persistently supported and consulted with dermatologists, endocrinologists and gynecologists. Antiandrogenic preparations are applied, such as: cyproterone acetate concurrently administered with estrogens and, as well as not so frequently with chlormadinone acetate (independently or during estrogenic therapy).
Sheehan-Dare, R A; Hughes, B R; Cunliffe, W J
Androgenic stimulation of sebaceous glands is necessary for development of acne. If hyperandrogenaemia were a major determinant of acne in women, the frequency of other clinical markers of androgenicity should increase with acne severity. To investigate this, 268 female subjects (aged 12-44 years) were studied. Subjects were divided into groups on the basis of acne severity: physiological, moderate, and severe. With exclusion of women taking oral contraceptives or anti-androgen therapy, subjects in each group were similar with respect to age at menarche and incidence of menstrual irregularity of amenorrhoea. Reports of excessive body hair, and clinical hirsutes on examination were few and there were no significant differences between acne severity groups. No correlation was observed between acne and hirsutes grades in all subjects (rank correlation coefficient = 0.096). Mild male pattern androgenic alopecia occurred in similar proportions of subjects in the three groups. Female pattern androgenic alopecia was observed in only two subjects. We have shown no correlation between acne severity and clinical markers of androgenicity in women. This suggests that in most cases factors other than hyperandrogenaemia are necessary for the development of acne.
Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda
Introduction Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous gland disease that usually affects people from puberty to young adulthood. It is seen especially on the face, neck, trunk and arms. Its severity differs from patient to patient and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. The main pathogenic factors of acne are high sebaceous gland secretion, follicular hyperproliferation, high androgen effects, propionibacterium acnes colonization and inflammation. Diet is always thought a probable reason for acne and many studies are done about acne and diet. Aim To determine the effect of insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris. Material and methods Two hundred and forty-three acne vulgaris patients and 156 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. The blood levels of insulin and glucose were measured. Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) Index was calculated. The values were compared with the control group. Results All of the patients were in the severe acne group according to their scores on the global acne scoring scale. While fasting blood glucose levels were not different between the groups (p > 0.05, 82.91 ±9.76 vs. 80.26 ±8.33), the fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (p < 0.001, 14.01 ±11.94 vs. 9.12 ±3.53). Additionally, there was a highly significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of HOMA values (p < 0.001, 2.87 ±2.56 vs. 1.63 ±0.65). Conclusions These results suggest that insulin resistance may have a role in the pathogenesis of acne. PMID:26366152
Hassoun, Lauren A; Ornelas, Jennifer N; Sivamani, Raja K
Acne vulgaris is a widely prevalent chronic skin disease. Although multiple treatments are available, acne can sometimes be refractory to these treatments. The use of alternative medical therapies has increased within dermatology and for acne. This case report describes a patient in whom the addition of cedarwood oil was helpful in controlling acne.
Rathi, Sanjay K
Acne Vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders which dermatologists have to treat. It mainly affect adolescent, though may present at any age. In recent years, due to better understanding of the pathogenesis of acne, new therapeutic modalities and various permutation and combinations have been designed. In topical agents; benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, etc are the mainstay of treatment; can be given in combinations. While systemic therapy includes oral antibiotics, hormonal therapy, and isotretinoin, depending upon the need of patients it has to be selected. Physical treatment in the form of lesion removal, photo-therapy is also helpful in few of them. Since various old and new topical and systemic agents are available to treat acne, it sometime confuse treating dermatologist. To overcome this, panel of physicians and researchers worked together as a global alliance and task force to improve outcomes in acne treatment. They have tried to give consensus recommendation for the treatment of acne. Successful management of acne needs careful selection of anti-acne agents according to clinical presentation and individual patient needs. PMID:21572783
Zouboulis, Christos C; Piquero-Martin, Jaime
Systemic treatment is required in patients with moderate-to-severe acne, especially when acne scars start to occur. Antibiotics with anti-inflammatory properties, such as tetracyclines (oxytetracycline, tetracycline chloride, doxycycline, minocycline and limecycline) and macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin and azithromycin) are the agents of choice for papulopustular acne, even though the emerging resistant bacterial strains are minimizing their effect, especially regarding erythromycin. Systemic antibiotics should be administered during a period of 8-12 weeks. In severe papulopustular and in nodulocystic/conglobate acne, oral isotretinoin is the treatment of choice. Hormonal treatment represents an alternative regimen in female acne, whereas it is mandatory in resistant, severe pubertal or post-adolescent forms of the disease. Compounds with anti-androgenic properties include estrogens combined with progestins, such as ethinyl estradiol with cyproterone acetate, chlormadinone acetate, desogestrel, drospirenone, levonogestrel, norethindrone acetate, norgestimate, and other anti-androgens directly blocking the androgen receptor (flutamide) or inhibiting androgen activity at various levels, corticosteroids, spironolactone, cimetidine, and ketoconazole. After 3 months of treatment control of seborrhea and acne can be obtained. Low-dose corticosteroids (prednisone, prednisolone, or dexamethasone) are indicated in patients with adrenal hyperandrogenism or acne fulminans. New developments and future trends represent low-dose long-term isotretinoin regimens, new isotretinoin formulations (micronized isotretinoin), isotretinoin metabolites, combination treatments to reduce toxicity, insulin-sensitizing agents, 5alpha-reductase type 1 inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotide molecules, and, especially, new anti-inflammatory agents, such as lipoxygenase inhibitors.
Iqbal, Marvi; Kolodney, Michael S
Acne fulminans is a syndrome of sudden onset hemorrhagic and ulcerative acne involving the back, chest, and face combined with systemic symptoms. It can be the dermatologic manifestation of the synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome. Current therapy for acne fulminans consists of wound care, topical and systemic corticosteroids, isotretinoin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Infliximab, a recently developed monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor-alfa, has shown efficacy in the treatment of psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis both of which share clinical similarities to the SAPHO syndrome. We report the case of a patient with the SAPHO syndrome and acne fulminans who was treated with infliximab. Ten months after initiating therapy with infliximab, the area of the patient's ulcerative lesions was reduced by 70%. Infliximab might be considered as a treatment option for patients with acne fulminans unresponsive to conventional therapies.
Abas, Fazly Salleh; Kaffenberger, Benjamin; Bikowski, Joseph; Gurcan, Metin N.
Acne is a common skin condition present predominantly in the adolescent population, but may continue into adulthood. Scarring occurs commonly as a sequel to severe inflammatory acne. The presence of acne and resultant scars are more than cosmetic, with a significant potential to alter quality of life and even job prospects. The psychosocial effects of acne and scars can be disturbing and may be a risk factor for serious psychological concerns. Treatment efficacy is generally determined based on an invalidated gestalt by the physician and patient. However, the validated assessment of acne can be challenging and time consuming. Acne can be classified into several morphologies including closed comedones (whiteheads), open comedones (blackheads), papules, pustules, cysts (nodules) and scars. For a validated assessment, the different morphologies need to be counted independently, a method that is far too time consuming considering the limited time available for a consultation. However, it is practical to record and analyze images since dermatologists can validate the severity of acne within seconds after uploading an image. This paper covers the processes of region-ofinterest determination using entropy-based filtering and thresholding as well acne lesion feature extraction. Feature extraction methods using discrete wavelet frames and gray-level co-occurence matrix were presented and their effectiveness in separating the six major acne lesion classes were discussed. Several classifiers were used to test the extracted features. Correct classification accuracy as high as 85.5% was achieved using the binary classification tree with fourteen principle components used as descriptors. Further studies are underway to further improve the algorithm performance and validate it on a larger database.
Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Giovannucci, Edward; Isaacs, William B; Willett, Walter C; Platz, Elizabeth A
In a recent study, prostatectomy specimens from which Propionibacterium acnes was cultured were more likely to have inflammation than culture-negative specimens or specimens positive for other bacteria, leading the authors to hypothesize that P. acnes-mediated inflammation may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. To indirectly explore associations between P. acnes and prostate cancer, we investigated severe acne, as measured by tetracycline use for 4 or more years, in relation to incident prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. On the 1992 follow-up questionnaire, participants were asked whether they had ever used "tetracycline for at least 2 months at a time (e.g., for acne or other reason)" and their duration of use. Prostate cancer diagnoses were ascertained on each subsequent biennial questionnaire and confirmed by medical record review. Between 1992 and 2002, 2,147 cases of prostate cancer were reported among 34,629 eligible participants. Men who used tetracycline for 4 or more years had a significantly higher risk of prostate cancer (16 cases, 1,569 person-years) than men who did not use tetracycline (2,071 cases, 304,822 person-years, multivariable-adjusted RR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.03-2.80). Although intriguing, this finding should be viewed cautiously because of the small number of exposed cases, indirect assessment of severe acne, and complex etiology of acne, which is not limited to P. acnes infection. Therefore, additional biologic and epidemiologic studies are necessary to determine and elucidate the possible role of P. acnes infection in prostate carcinogenesis.
Elsaie, Mohamed L
Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661
Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Tomida, Shuta; Chiu, Bor-Han; Nguyen, Lin; Du, Christine; Liu, Minghsun; Elashoff, David; Erfe, Marie C; Loncaric, Anya; Kim, Jenny; Modlin, Robert L; Miller, Jeff F; Sodergren, Erica; Craft, Noah; Weinstock, George M; Li, Huiying
The human skin microbiome has important roles in skin health and disease. However, bacterial population structure and diversity at the strain level is poorly understood. We compared the skin microbiome at the strain level and genome level of Propionibacterium acnes, a dominant skin commensal, between 49 acne patients and 52 healthy individuals by sampling the pilosebaceous units on their noses. Metagenomic analysis demonstrated that although the relative abundances of P. acnes were similar, the strain population structures were significantly different in the two cohorts. Certain strains were highly associated with acne, and other strains were enriched in healthy skin. By sequencing 66 previously unreported P. acnes strains and comparing 71 P. acnes genomes, we identified potential genetic determinants of various P. acnes strains in association with acne or health. Our analysis suggests that acquired DNA sequences and bacterial immune elements may have roles in determining virulence properties of P. acnes strains, and some could be future targets for therapeutic interventions. This study demonstrates a previously unreported paradigm of commensal strain populations that could explain the pathogenesis of human diseases. It underscores the importance of strain-level analysis of the human microbiome to define the role of commensals in health and disease.
The treatment of acne and acne scarring with lasers and light-based and energy-based technologies has become an integral component of our therapeutic arsenal. Lasers including infrared wavelengths and pulsed dye lasers; light devices including blue light, red light, and broadband light; and photodynamic therapy with aminolevulinic acid and methylaminolevulinic acid have been shown to be effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris. The optimal outcomes are achieved with photodynamic therapy combined with medical therapy. Acne scarring has been best treated with lasers, including nonablative infrared lasers, fractional nonablative and ablative laser resurfacing, and most recently needle-based radiofrequency devices.
Ali, Faisal R; Kirk, Michael; Madan, Vishal
Background: Scarring following acne vulgaris is common and can be of profound psychosocial consequence. Aims and Objectives: We have clinically noted a variant of acne scarring, overlooked by previous categorisation schemes, which we have denominated as papular acne scars of the nose and chin. We sought to characterise these novel entities further. Materials and Methods: Initially, we identified 14 patients with papular acne scars of the nose and chin in a cosmetic dermatology clinic, of whom two were female and rest were male. We then prospectively evaluated 100 consecutive patients attending our tertiary referral acne isotretinoin clinic and 49 patients attending a general dermatology clinic. Results: Amongst 149 patients, from a general dermatology and tertiary acne clinic, soft papular scars were noted in four patients, distributed on the nose and chin. Three of the four patients were male, three patients had additional acne scars and the median age was 23.5. Conclusions: We have identified 18 patients with papular acne scars of the nose and chin and propose that this new category should be added to acne scarring classification schemes. Future work should be directed at corroborating the epidemiology of such lesions and describing effective treatment modalities. PMID:28163455
Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.
Zaenglein, Andrea L
Early acne can be defined as the occurrence of acne at its onset, primarily in preteens, or as acne at its earliest severity (ie, mild to moderate). Although the majority of patients with acne are treated by dermatologists, most, particularly mild to moderate cases, could be successfully managed by primary care physicians. Therefore, it is important for physicians to understand the benefits of treating all types of acne, not just the most severe. Awareness of the emotional impact of acne, particularly in adolescence, as well as recognition of possible scarring are important considerations. To achieve optimal results, physicians should be familiar with classification and severity grading of acne. Also, in-depth knowledge of available acne medications will streamline and optimize treatment regimens. Recognizing, treating, and monitoring the progress of early acne may lead to quicker, better clinical outcomes and improved quality of life.
... be helpful in reducing acne inflammation and breakouts: Tea tree oil. Gels containing 5 percent tea tree oil may be as effective as are lotions containing 5 percent benzoyl peroxide, although tea tree oil might work more slowly. Possible side ...
Acne and rosacea are common conditions seen every day by dermatologists. This review will discuss the most recent therapeutic options for patients with these conditions. Specifically, for acne, there will be a discussion of the use of isotretinoin at higher cumulative doses as well as a new formulation of isotretinoin, isotretinoin-lidose. Adult women with acne represent a growing population of patients who present for treatment of acne; the use of hormonal therapies as well as topical dapsone gel will be reviewed for these patients. For rosacea patients, the new topical agents - brimonidine gel and ivermectin cream - will be reviewed, with a discussion on possible rebound phenomenon from brimonidine. Finally, future treatments in the pipeline will be discussed.
Mays, Rana Majd; Gordon, Rachel A; Wilson, Janice M; Silapunt, Sirunya
Acne and rosacea compromise a substantial portion of the dermatology clinical practice. Over the past century, many treatment modalities have been introduced with antibiotics playing a major role. Today, both oral and topical antibiotics are used in the management of acne and rosacea, with several novel formulations and/or combination regimens recently introduced. The latest studies suggest anti-inflammatory actions to be the most likely mechanism of antibiotics in acne and rosacea, shifting the focus to subantimicrobial-dose oral antibiotics and/or topical antibiotic regimens as the preferred first-line agents. Here we will discuss the most recent oral and topical antibiotic therapies available for treatment of acne and rosacea, with special focus on efficacy data, indication, dosing, and mechanism of action.
Suh, D H; Kwon, H H
There are four central factors that contribute to acne physiopathology: the inflammatory response, colonization with Propionibacterium acnes, increased sebum production and hypercornification of the pilosebaceous duct. In addition, research in the areas of diet and nutrition, genetics and oxidative stress is also yielding some interesting insights into the development of acne. In this paper we review some of the most recent research and novel concepts revealed in this work, which has been published by researchers from diverse academic disciplines including dermatology, immunology, microbiology and endocrinology. We discuss the implications of their findings (particularly in terms of opportunities to develop new therapies), highlight interrelationships between these novel factors that could contribute to the pathology of acne, and indicate where gaps in our understanding still exist.
Bikowski, Joseph B
Acne vulgaris and rosacea present therapeutic challenges due to their chronicity, potential for disfigurement, and psychosocial impact. Although pathophysiologically distinct, both conditions have major inflammatory components. Consequently, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents are routinely prescribed for extended periods. Emergence of resistant strains of Propionibacterium acnes, adverse events, and compliance issues associated with chronic systemic tetracycline use have led to new treatment approaches. At subantimicrobial doses, tetracyclines reduce inflammation via anticollagenolytic, antimatrix-degrading metalloproteinase, and cytokine down-regulating properties. Subantimicrobial dose (SD) doxycycline (Periostat 20 mg) has clinical utility in periodontitis and has been investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in the treatment of moderate facial acne as well as in an open label study in the treatment of rosacea. The results of subantimicrobial dose doxycycline treatment in early trials support its benefits and further investigation in acne and rosacea.
Gloor, M; Habedank, W D
Stickl's method of oral treatment of acne vulgaris with antigens has been carried out on 26 test persons. During the treatment the number of comedones increased significantly and the number of papules decreased significantly. Biochemically, a significant increase of the free fatty acids and a significant decrease of the triglycerides could be demonstrated in the skin surface lipids, the total amount remaining unchanged. The following important conclusions for the pathogenesis of acne may be drawn: 1. The living conditions for Corynebacterium acnes on the surface of the skin or in the ducts of sebaceous glands respectively are influenced by the immunological system of the host. 2. The free fatty acids have a comedogenic effect in vivo. 3. The free fatty acids are not responsible for the development of inflammatory acne efflorescences.
Brown, Adolph M.
Dermabrasion offers cosmetic improvement of acne pits and scars, but only well-adjusted patients should be selected for this esthetic improvement. In the dermabrasion operation the deep cup-shaped pits are made shallow by saucerization, for the deep sharp shadows are eliminated as the pits are shallowed. It is the elimination of the shadow effect which is so gratifying to the patient. Although dermabrasion is a superficial skin operation, it involves dangerous instruments and thousands of minute incisions. The procedure is a surgical operation, whether done in an office or in a hospital. The author performs the operation entirely as a hospital procedure, using pentothal anesthesia with meperidine added in small increments during the operation. Thus the operation may be unhurriedly and meticulously performed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:13561125
... can lead to the development of scars or dark blotches. Shave Carefully Test both electric and safety ... people learn more about clinical trials, why they matter, and how to participate. Visitors to the website ...
Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming
Background Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. Selection criteria We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Data collection and analysis Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. Main results We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four
Que, Syril Keena T; Whitaker-Worth, Diane L; Chang, Mary Wu
Acne vulgaris is a common inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles that affects patients of all ages, from neonates to adults. We have compared and contrasted the clinical presentation of acne in neonates, infants, children, teenagers, and young adults and review the scenarios in which further systemic endocrine or hormonal tests are indicated. We also discuss age-dependent treatment considerations, including appropriate oral antimicrobial regimens and the proper dosing of isotretinoin in young children versus teenagers and adults.
Greenberg, R D
A case of a young woman in whom nodulocystic acne developed while being treated for endometriosis with danazol, an antigonadotropic drug, is described herein. Although this agent, a derivative of 17 alpha-ethinyl testosterone, has been noted to possess weak androgenic properties, it has not been widely appreciated that danazol's androgenic side effects, particularly acne and seborrhea, occur frequently and may require prompt treatment.
Barakat, Manal; Awad, Sherif; Medhat, Walid; El-Fakahany, Hasan; Farag, Hanna
Objective: Treatment of acne scarring is always a challenge. Microneedling therapy or percutaneous collagen induction is a new addition to the treatment modalities for such scars and has been reported to be simple and effective in atrophic acne scar treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effect and objectively quantify the histological changes of acne scarring in response to skin microneedling. Design: A prospective clinical study. Participants: Ten patients with different types of atrophic acne scars were subjected to three months of skin microneedling treatment (six sessions at two-week intervals). Measurements: Patients were photographed, and skin biopsies were obtained at baseline as well as one and three months from the start of treatment. Histometry for epidermal thickness and quantitative evaluation of total elastin; newly synthesized tropoelastin; collagen types I, III, and VII; and newly synthesized collagen were performed for all biopsies. Results: Compared to the baseline, patients’ evaluations revealed noticeable clinical improvement in atrophic post-acne scars in response to skin microneedling. There was a statistically significant increase (p<0.05) in the mean of collagen types I, III, and VII and newly synthesized collagen, while total elastin was significantly decreased (p<0.05) after the end of treatment. Conclusions: Multiple minimally invasive sessions of skin microneedling are an effective treatment for post-acne atrophic scars as it stimulates the repair processes with the advantage of being a relatively risk-free, in-office procedure with minimal patient recovery time. PMID:26203319
Atrophic scarring is often an unfortunate and permanent complication of acne vulgaris. It has high prevalence, significant impact on quality of life, and therapeutic challenge for dermatologists. The treatment of atrophic acne scars varies depending on the types of acne scars and the limitations of the treatment modalities in their ability to improve scars. Therefore, many options are available for the treatment of acne scarring, including chemical peeling, dermabrasion, laser treatment, punch techniques, fat transplantation, other tissue augmenting agents, needling, subcision, and combined therapy. Various modalities have been used to treat scars, but limited efficacy and problematic side effects have restricted their application. In order to optimally treat a patient’s scar, we need to consider which treatment offers the most satisfactory result. There are also promising procedures in the future, such as stem cell therapy. In this article, the authors review the different treatment options of atrophic acne scars. This may be useful for selecting the best therapeutic strategy, whether it be single or combined therapy, in the treatment of atrophic acne scars while reducing or avoiding the side effects and complications. PMID:26029333
Arican, Ozer; Belge Kurutas, Ergul; Sasmaz, Sezai
Acne vulgaris is one of the common dermatological diseases and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of oxidative stress in acne vulgaris. Forty-three consecutive acne patients and 46 controls were enrolled. The parameters of oxidative stress such as catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the venous blood of cases were measured spectrophotometrically. The values compared with control group, the relation between the severity and distribution of acne, and the correlation of each enzyme level were researched. CAT and G6PD levels in patients were found to be statistically decreased, and SOD and MDA levels were found to be statistically increased (P < .001). However, any statistical difference and correlation could not be found between the severity and distribution of lesions and the mean levels of enzymes. In addition, we found that each enzyme is correlated with one another. Our findings show that oxidative stress exists in the acne patients. It will be useful to apply at least one antioxidant featured drug along with the combined acne treatment. PMID:16489259
Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos
It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.
Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease that affects over 40 million people in the United States alone. The main cause of acne vulgaris is Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), resides deep in the pores and follicles of the skin in order to feed on oil produced by the sebaceous glands. The liposome is a lipid based nanoparticle with numerous advantages over free drug molecules as an acne treatment alternative. Bare liposomes loaded with lauric acid (LipoLA) were found to show strong antimicrobial activity against P. acnes while generating minimal toxicity. However, the platform is limited by the spontaneous tendency of liposomes to fuse with each other. Attaching nanoparticles to the surface of liposomes can overcome this challenge by providing steric repulsion and reduce surface tension. Thus, carboxyl-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuC) were attached to the surface of liposomes (AuC-liposomes) loaded with doxycycline, a general tetracycline antibiotic. These particles were found to have a diameter of 120 nm and a zeta potential of 20.0 mV. Both fluorescent and antimicrobial studies demonstrated that based on electrostatic interaction, negatively charged AuC attached to the liposome's positively charged surface and stabilized liposomes in a neutral pH environment (pH = 7.4). Upon entering the skin's acidic environment (pH = 4), AuC detached from the liposome's surface and liposomes could fuse with P. acnes residing in the pores. Furthermore, toxicity studies showed that AuC-liposomes did not induce any significant toxicity, while two of the leading over-the-counter therapies, benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid, generated substantial skin irritation.
Rostami Mogaddam, Majid; Safavi Ardabili, Nastaran; Maleki, Nasrollah; Soflaee, Maedeh
Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and acne vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the serum zinc level in patients with acne vulgaris and compare it with healthy controls. One hundred patients with acne vulgaris and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. Acne severity was classified according to Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. Mean serum level of zinc in acne patients and controls was 81.31 ± 17.63 μg/dl and 82.63 ± 17.49 μg/dl, respectively. Although the mean serum zinc level was lower in acne group, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.598). There was a correlation between serum zinc levels with severity and type of acne lesions. The results of our study suggest that zinc levels may be related to the severity and type of acne lesions in patients with acne vulgaris. Relative decrease of serum zinc level in acne patients suggests a role for zinc in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.
Higaki, S; Kitagawa, T; Kagoura, M; Morohashi, M; Yamagishi, T
We examined the relationship between Propionibacterium acnes biotypes and Jumi-haidoku-to (JHT). In all the P. acnes strains tested, the production of propionic acid (PA) and butyric acid (BA) was suppressed in a medium containing 1 mg/ml JHT compared with the control medium without JHT. There were no significant differences in the rates of decreased PA and BA production between P. acnes biotype 3 (B3) and the other biotypes or between isolates from mild skin rash and more severe skin rash. P. acnes B3 was the most commonly identified biotype. The clinical effects on acne due to the anti-P. acnes lipase activity of JHT did not seem to be influenced by the degree of acne rash or the P. acnes biotype.
Johnsen, Stefanie; Liu, Jue-Chen; Eisinger, Magdalena
A pilot study was conducted to compare lipid components of sebum from unaffected and acne-affected individuals. Nine males, 15–20 years old, with no acne, or with moderate to severe acne, were recruited. Facial images were taken with regular, polarized and fluorescent lights for each subject. Skin surface lipids were analyzed following collection of sebum using sebutapes. As expected, the subjects with acne had more (59%) sebum than the control subjects. Free fatty acids were the only lipid group that was reduced in the sebum of acne subjects. The specific lipid that differed the most between the two groups was squalene, which was upregulated in acne subjects by 2.2-fold on a quantitative basis. Squalene also represented a significantly greater proportion of the total sebaceous lipids in acne patients compared to controls (20% vs. 15%). The increase in the amount of squalene could represent a lipid marker for acne prone skin. PMID:20436883
Ju, Qiang; Zouboulis, Christos C; Xia, Longqing
Environmental pollutants can result in a variant of acne called 'chloracne'. Chloracne is caused by systemic exposure to certain halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons 'chloracnegens', and is considered to be one of the most sensitive indicators of systemic poisoning by these compounds. Dioxin is the most potent environmental chloracnegen. Most cases of chloracne have resulted from occupational and non-occupational exposures, non-occupational chloracne mainly resulted from contaminated industrial wastes and contaminated food products. Non-inflammatory comedones and straw-colored cysts are the primary clinical manifestation of chloracne. Increasing of cysts in number is a signal of aggravation of chloracne. Generalized lesions can appear on the face, neck, trunk, exterimities, genitalia, axillary and other areas. Course of chloracne is chronic. Severity of chloracne is related to dosage of exposed chloracnegens, chloracnegenic potency and individual susceptibility. Histopathology of chloracne is characterized mainly by hyperplasia of epidermal cell, while follicular and sebaceous gland are taken placed by keratinized epidermal cell. The pathogenesis of chloracne maybe related to the imbalance of epidermal stem cell. Chloracne appears to be resistant to all tested forms of treatment. The only way to control chloracne is to prevent exposure to chloracnegens.
Baldwin, Hillary E.; Cook-Bolden, Fran E.; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Friedlander, Sheila F.; Rodriguez, David A.
Acne vulgaris (acne) is a common affliction in adolescence and is a growing problem in adult women. Despite an increasing awareness of acne in the adult female population, there is a lack of good prospective studies assessing the severity, distribution, and differential response to treatment in this group. The long-held dogma that acne in adult women develops on the lower one-third of the face has been recently challenged, and here the authors critically review data from available literature. Moreover, while adult female acne has traditionally been defined as disease in women over age 25, it is the authors’ experience that this group is subdivided into women ages 25 to 44 years, separate from perimenopausal patients, ages 45 years and up. While there is no data specifically comparing these two groups, the authors will review the existing data and provide practical recommendations based on our experience in treating these groups of patients. Finally, while there is a lack of data on this subject, it is the group’s opinion that adherence to medication regimens is likely higher in women than men, which influences therapeutic outcomes. PMID:28210380
Pugashetti, Rupa; Shinkai, Kanade
The management of acne vulgaris in the setting of pregnancy raises important clinical considerations regarding the efficacy and safety of acne treatments in this special patient population. Particular challenges include the absence of safety data, discrepancy in safety data between different safety rating systems, and lack of evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of acne during pregnancy. Nonetheless, many therapeutic options exist, and the treatment of acne in pregnant women can be safely and often effectively accomplished. For mild or moderate disease, patients can be treated with topical antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, as well as glycolic and salicylic acid. Several topical agents, notably benzoyl peroxide, previously viewed as potentially dangerous are cited by many sources as being considered safe. When necessary, systemic therapies that can be safely added include penicillins, amoxicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracyclines or sulfonamides, depending on the stage of fetal development. Adjunct therapy may include phototherapy or laser treatments. Physicians should work with this often highly motivated, safety-conscious patient population to tailor an individualized treatment regimen. This treatment regimen will likely shift throughout the different stages of fetal development, as distinct safety considerations are raised prior to conception as well as during each of the trimesters of pregnancy. Important considerations regarding acne management in breast-feeding mothers is also discussed.
Koenig, Karsten; Teschke, M.; Eick, Stephen G.; Pfister, W.; Meyer, Herbert; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen
We report on photodynamically induced inactivation of the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) using endogenous as well as exogenous photosensitizers and red light sources. P. acnes is involved in the pathogenesis of the skin disease acne vulgaris. The skin bacterium is able to synthesize the metal-free fluorescent porphyrins protoporphyrin IX (PP) and coproporphyrin (CP) as shown by in situ spectrally-resolved detection of natural autofluorescence of human skin and bacteria colonies. These naturally occurring intracellular porphyrins act as efficient endogenous photosensitizers. Inactivation of P. acnes suspensions was achieved by irradiation with He-Ne laser light in the red spectral region (632.8 nm). We monitored the photodynamically-induced death of single bacteria using a fluorescent viability kit in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, the photo-induced inactivation was calculated by CFU (colony forming units) determination. We found 633 nm-induced inactivation (60 mW, 0.12 cm2 exposure area, 1 hour irradiation) of 72% in the case of non-incubated bacteria based on the destructive effect of singlet oxygen produced by red light excited endogenous porphyrins and subsequent energy transfer to molecular oxygen. In order to achieve a nearly complete inactivation within one exposure procedure, the exogenous photosensitizer Methylene Blue (Mb) was added. Far red exposure of Mb-labeled bacteria using a krypton ion laser at 647 nm and 676 nm resulted in 99% inactivation.
Kimball, Alexa B
Acne vulgaris affects most people at some time in their life. This common condition can have devastating effects on a person's quality of life and may leave permanent scars. Treatment options, which are designed to disrupt one or more of the pathogenic features that characterize acne, include topical therapies (e.g., antibiotics, retinoids, benzoyl peroxide and combination products), systemic treatments (e.g., oral antibiotics, hormonal therapies and oral retinoids, which are indicated for severe recalcitrant nodulocystic acne), and, to a lesser extent, light-based and physical treatments. Combination oral contraceptives (COCs) represent one type of hormonal treatment. Their mode of action is to reduce the availability of free testosterone, which stimulates the sebaceous glands to produce sebum. Most COCs used in the United States contain progestins derived from 19-nortestosterone, giving them at least some degree of androgenic activity. Of the 3 COCs with an FDA indication for the treatment of moderate acne, only YAZ contains drospirenone, a progestin that combines no androgenic activity with antiandrogenic activity. This drospirenone-containing COC has been shown to be effective in reducing both inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesions.
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of acne drug products. 333.350 Section... Acne Drug Products § 333.350 Labeling of acne drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of acne drug products. 333.350 Section... Acne Drug Products § 333.350 Labeling of acne drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an...
Krug, Andreas; Wendisch, Volker F; Bott, Michael
In Corynebacterium glutamicum, the activity of aconitase is 2.5-4-fold higher on propionate, citrate, or acetate than on glucose. Here we show that this variation is caused by transcriptional regulation. In search for putative regulators, a gene (acnR) encoding a TetR-type transcriptional regulator was found to be encoded immediately downstream of the aconitase gene (acn) in C. glutamicum. Deletion of the acnR gene led to a 5-fold increased acn-mRNA level and a 5-fold increased aconitase activity, suggesting that AcnR functions as repressor of acn expression. DNA microarray analyses indicated that acn is the primary target gene of AcnR in the C. glutamicum genome. Purified AcnR was shown to be a homodimer, which binds to the acn promoter in the region from -11 to -28 relative to the transcription start. It thus presumably acts by interfering with the binding of RNA polymerase. The acn-acnR organization is conserved in all corynebacteria and mycobacteria with known genome sequence and a putative AcnR consensus binding motif (CAGNACnnncGTACTG) was identified in the corresponding acn upstream regions. Mutations within this motif inhibited AcnR binding. Because the activities of citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were previously reported not to be increased during growth on acetate, our data indicate that aconitase is a major control point of tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in C. glutamicum, and they identify AcnR as the first transcriptional regulator of a tricarboxylic acid cycle gene in the Corynebacterianeae.
Rao, Babar K.; Khokher, Sairah
Acne scars can be improved with various treatments such as topical creams, chemical peels, dermal fillers, microdermabrasion, laser, and radiofrequency devices. Some of these treatments especially lasers and deep chemical peels can have significant side effects such as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in darker skin types. Fraxelated RF Laser devices have been reported to have lower incidence of side effects in all skin phototypes. Nine patients between ages 18 and 35 of various skin phototypes were selected from a private practice and treated with a RF fraxelated device (E-matrix) for acne scars. Outcomes were measured by physician observation, subjective feedback received by patients, and comparison of before and after photographs. In this small group of patients with various skin phototypes, fraxelated radiofrequency device improved acne scars with minimal side effects and downtime.
Criscito, Maressa C.; Schlesinger, Todd E.; Verdicchio, Robert; Szoke, Ernest
Objective: Comparatively little attention has been paid to the role of free radical oxidation in acne vulgaris. Here, using the traditional abnormalities cited for acne, the authors address the role of free radical oxidation throughout the pathogenesis by detailing the chemistry that may contribute to clinical changes. To probe the effects of free radical oxidation and test an antioxidant, they conducted a preliminary study of topically applied vitamin E. Methods: Seventeen patients with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated over an eight-week period in two private dermatology practices in this open-label study. All patients enrolled were on the same baseline regimen of salicylic acid and benzoyl peroxide. This regimen was then supplemented with topical vitamin E in sunflower seed oil. Results: At the end of the eight-week period, all patients demonstrated clinical improvement, as indicated by a reduction in the number of lesions and global mean difference. A statistically significant reduction was noted as early as Week 2. Enrolled patients also expressed a positive experience due to good tolerability and easy application. Conclusion: Although the exact pathogenesis of acne vulgaris remains unknown, the presence of excessive reactive oxygen species can be implicated in each of the major abnormalities involved. This presence, along with the positive results of the authors’ preliminary study, demonstrates the need for more exploration on the use of topical antioxidants in limiting free radical oxidation in the acne model. This paper is designed to stimulate academic discussion regarding a new way of thinking about the disease state of acne. PMID:26962389
STEWART, W D; MADDIN, S; NELSON, A J; DANTO, J L
A total of 120 consecutive patients with pustular and cystic acne vulgaris were selected for study. Patients were assigned a placebo and a tetracycline medication in a random method. Of the 53 patients who were given tetracycline, 45 showed some response, which was fair in 19 and excellent in 26. Of the 55 patients who received placebo, 24 showed no response while 31 showed some improvement. No side effects were reported. The difference in response between the two groups is statistically significant. It is concluded that administration of 250 mg. tetracycline four times daily, even for periods as short as two weeks, enhances the likelihood of improvement of cystic or pustular acne vulgaris.
Mills, O H; Kligman, A M
The therapeutic value of various ultraviolet treatments was assessed in patients with moderately severe papulopustular acne. The results did not verify the common belief that ultraviolet radiation is highly beneficial. In no instance was the comedo count appreciably reduced. Modest improvement was observed with sunburn rays (UV-B) and slightly more with the combination of long ultraviolet radiation (UV-A) and UV-B. UV-A alone had the least effect. Photosensitization with coal tar and UV-A greatly aggravated acne and was notably comedogenic. Photosensitization with methoxsalen (8-methoxypsoralen) applied topically was neither harmful nor helpful.
Karvonen, S L; Vaalasti, A; Kautiainen, H; Reunala, T
Prednisolone combined with erythromycin was given to 6 patients with cystic acne. The treatment responses were compared to those in 6 patients with cystic acne receiving isotretinoin and erythromycin and also to those in 3 patients with acne fulminans treated with prednisolone and erythromycin. During the first 4 weeks cystic acne showed a clear improvement in 5 out of 6 patients in both treatment groups. A similar improvement occurred in all 3 patients with acne fulminans. When corticosteroid was stopped, 2 out of 5 patients with cystic acne had a relapse and needed isotretinoin for complete control. In the isotretinoin-treated group, one patient with cystic acne needed prednisolone because the acne worsened to an ulcerative form. Slightly elevated liver enzymes, possibly due to erythromycin treatment, were observed in 2 patients with cystic acne and in one patient with acne fulminans. The present results show that prednisolone combined with erythromycin is an effective treatment during the early stages of cystic and febrile acne, but isotretinoin is needed for long-term control.
Ericson, Marica B.; Horfelt, Camilla; Cheng, Elaine; Larsson, Frida; Larko, Olle; Wennberg, Ann-Marie
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive alternative treatment for patients with acne because of its efficiency and few side effects. Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) are bacteria present in the skin, which produce endogenous porphyrins that act as photosensitisers. In addition, application of aminolaevulinic acid or its methyl ester (mALA) results in increased accumulation of porphyrins in the pilosebaceous units. This makes it possible to treat acne with PDT. This initial study investigates the possibility of fluorescence imaging as assessment tool in adjunct to PDT of patients with acne. Twenty-four patients with acne on the cheeks have been treated with PDT with and without mALA. Fluorescence images have been obtained before and after treatment. The clinical acne score was assessed as base line before PDT, and at every follow up visit. Additionally the amount of P.acnes was determined. The clinical evaluation showed a general improvement of acne, even though no difference between treatment with and without mALA was observed. By performing texture analysis and multivariate data analsysis on the fluorescence images, the extracted texture features were found to correlate with the corresponding clinical assessment (67%) and amount of P.acnes (72%). The analysis showed that features describing the highly fluorescent pores could be related to the clinical assessment. This result suggests that fluorescence imaging can be used as an objective assessment of acne, but further improvement of the technique is possible, for example by including colour images.
Elsaie, Mohamed L; Choudhary, Sonal
Acne, one of the most common dermatological diseases, is characterized by inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions that may progress to scars. Starting from pubertal age groups, it can affect adults in the age group 35-40 or more. The conventional therapies for treatment of acne are facing roadblocks because of the antibiotic resistance developing against Propionibacterium acnes. This has led to trying new therapies, of which photodynamic therapy (PDT) seems to be the one under intensive study. Promising results have been observed with PDT use in acne treatment, but it still has some more way to go to acquire the FDA approval for use in acne treatment. This is a review of the literature of use of PDT in treatment of acne, providing a starting point for dermatologists seeking to treat their patients with acne safely and effectively with this new method.
Szmurło, Agnieszka; Sińska, Beata
The relationship between diet and acne is highly controversial. Several studies during the last decade have led dermatologists to reflect on a potential link between diet and acne. This article presents the latest findings on a potential impact that diet can have on pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The association between diet and acne can no longer be dismissed. Compelling evidence shows that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, antioxidants, vitamin A, zinc and iodine remain to be elucidated. The question of what the impact of diet is on the course of acne vulgaris still remains unclear. PMID:27279815
Fu, Lisa W; Vender, Ronald B
Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease involving the pilosebaceous unit. Its pathophysiology is multifactorial and complex, including obstruction of the pilosebaceous unit due to increased sebum production, abnormal keratinization, proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), and inflammation. Topical agents are the most commonly used therapy for acne. First generation topicals mainly consist of single agent retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and antibacterials that target comedones, P. acnes, and inflammation. Novel topical therapies include combination products with advanced vehicle formulations that target multiple acne pathophysiologies and offer simplified treatment regimes. For example, the combination of clindamycin and tretinoin in a unique vehicle formulation allows for progressive follicle penetration and decreased irritation, resulting in increased efficacy. Furthermore, adapalene or clindamycin with BPO combinations target comedones, inflammation, and P. acnes synergistically. These newer combination products have the potential to increase both efficacy and patient adherence when compared with single agent treatment.
Kamangar, Faranak; Shinkai, Kanade
Acne vulgaris is a common reason why adult women present to dermatologists and can be a clinical challenge to treat. It may also be an important sign of an underlying endocrine disease such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Although standard acne therapies can be successfully used to treat acne in adult female patients, hormonal treatment is a safe and effective therapeutic option that may provide an opportunity to better target acne in this population, even when other systemic therapies have failed. In this article, a practical approach to the adult female patient with acne will be reviewed to enhance the dermatologist's ability to use hormonal acne therapies and to better identify and evaluate patients with acne in the setting of a possible endocrine disorder.
Agak, George W.; Qin, Min; Nobe, Jennifer; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Krutzik, Stephan R.; Tristan, Grogan R.; Elashoff, David; Garbán, Hermes J.; Kim, Jenny
Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disorder affecting millions of people worldwide and inflammation resulting from the immune response targeting Propionibacterium acnes plays a significant role in its pathogenesis. In this study, we have demonstrated that P. acnes is a potent inducer of Th17 and Th1, but not Th2 responses in human PBMCs. P. acnes stimulated expression of key Th17-related genes, including IL-17A, RORα, RORc, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, and triggered IL-17 secretion from CD4+, but not CD8+ T cells. Supernatants from P. acnes-stimulated PBMCs were sufficient to promote the differentiation of naïve CD4+CD45RA T cells into Th17 cells. Furthermore, we found that the combination of IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β neutralizing antibodies completely inhibited P. acnes-induced IL-17 production. Importantly, we showed that IL-17-expressing cells were present in skin biopsies from acne patients but not from normal donors. Finally, vitamin A (all-trans retinoic acid) and vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) inhibited P. acnes-induced Th17 differentiation. Together, our data demonstrate that IL-17 is induced by P. acnes and expressed in acne lesions and that both vitamin A and vitamin D could be effective tools to modulate Th17-mediated diseases such as acne. PMID:23924903
Systemic isotretinoin remains the most efficacious treatment for severe acne as well as many cases of more moderate disease that are unresponsive to other treatment modalities. The current chapter outlines the mechanisms behind the excellent efficacy, describes how to optimize treatment, reviews the recommended guidelines for monitoring and summarizes adverse effects. PMID:20436884
Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Alexander, Tiffany M; Nadkarni, Anish; Feldman, Steven R
Background Adherence to acne medication is poor and is a major reason why treatment plans are ineffective. Recognizing solutions to nonadherence is critical. Objective The purpose of this study is to describe the hurdles associated with acne nonadherence and to provide mechanisms on how to ameliorate them. Methods PubMed database was searched. Of the 419 search results, 29 articles were reviewed to identify hurdles to adherence and corresponding solutions. Results Hurdles to primary nonadherence where the medication is not even started, include lack of knowledge, confusion about usage, weak physician–patient relationship, fear of adverse reactions, and cost. Secondary nonadherence hurdles where the medication is started but is not taken as directed include lack of results, complex regimens, side effects, busy lifestyle, forgetfulness, inconvenience, and psychiatric comorbidity. Solutions to these hurdles include treatment simplification, technology, and dynamic education. Limitations Adherence is affected by numerous factors, but available literature analyzing acne adherence and interventions to improve adherence to treatment is limited. Conclusion There are several hurdles in adhering to acne treatment. Recognition of these hurdles and finding appropriate solutions may be as important to treatment outcomes as choosing the right medication to prescribe. PMID:27784999
Lucky, A W
Acne is a multifactorial disorder reflecting the role of infection, abnormal keratinization and immunologic reaction, as well as hormonal influences, on the pilosebaceous unit. Clinical studies have correlated elevated levels of androgens, originating in both the adrenal glands and ovaries, with acne. These include total and free testosterone, delta 4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, and low levels of sex hormone binding globulin. The pathogenesis of acne initiation in childhood has been linked to rising serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Hirsutism has been more directly correlated with increased levels of serum androgens, notably free testosterone. Underlying causes of elevated androgens in both disorders include very rare tumors, partial or late-onset forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, developmental adrenal abnormalities and, most commonly, polycystic ovary syndrome. Early acne treatment may include topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and tretinoin. More severe disease can be treated systemically (with antibiotics and/or isotretinoin). Very-low-dose corticosteroids can be used to eliminate the adrenal component of hyperandrogenism. Oral contraceptives, especially those that contain low-androgenic progestins, can reduce excessive androgens from any source and specifically suppress the ovary in polycystic ovary syndrome. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, with or without estrogen supplementation, and systemic or topical antiandrogens may play a more important role in the future.
Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Odoevskaya, Olga D.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.
The near-infrared (NIR) laser radiation due to its high penetration depth is widely used in phototherapy. In application to skin appendages a high selectivity of laser treatment is needed to prevent light action on surrounding tissues. Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye may provide a high selectivity of treatment due to effective ICG uploading by a target and its narrow band of considerable absorption just at the wavelength of the NIR diode laser. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of the NIR diode laser phototherapy in combination with topical application of ICG suggested for soft and thermal treatment of acne vulgaris. 28 volunteers with facile or back-located acne were enrolled. Skin sites of subjects were stained by ICG and irradiated by NIR laser-diode light (803 or 809 nm). Untreated, only stained and only light irradiated skin areas served as controls. For soft acne treatment, the low-intensity (803 nm, 10 - 50 mW/cm2, 5-10 min) or the medium-intensity (809 nm, 150 - 190 mW/cm2, 15 min) protocols were used. The single and multiple (up to 8-9) treatments were provided. The individual acne lesions were photothermally treated at 18 W/cm2 (803 nm, 0.5 sec) without skin surface cooling or at 200 W/cm2 (809 nm, 0.5 sec) with cooling. The results of the observations during 1-2 months after the completion of the treatment have shown that only in the case of the multiple-wise treatment a combined action of ICG and NIR irradiation reduces inflammation and improves skin state during a month without any side effects. At high power densities (up to 200 W/cm2) ICG stained acne inflammatory elements were destructed for light exposures of 0.5 sec. Based on the concept that hair follicle, especially sebaceous gland, can be intensively and selectively stained by ICG due to dye diffusion through pilosebaceous canal and its fast uptake by living microorganisms, by vital keratinocytes of epithelium of the canal and sebaceous duct, and by rapidly proliferating
Lee, Chia-Jung; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Liang, Wen-Li; Wang, Ching-Chiung
Acne is a common skin condition with sebum overproduction, hyperkeratosis, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and Staphylococcus aureus, and inflammation. Punica granatum (pomegranate) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects; however, few studies have discussed the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. In this study, we found that pomegranate extract (PG-E) significantly reduced P. acnes-induced edema in Wistar rat ears. Therefore, an evaluation platform using multiple pathogenic mechanisms of acne was established to explore the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. Results showed that PG-E inhibited bacterial growth and lipase activity. Through a bioguided-fractionation-isolation system, four hydrolysable tannins, punicalagin (1), punicalin (2), strictinin A (3), and granatin B (4), were isolated. Compounds 1 and 2 had greater anti-bacterial activities and anti-testosterone-induced HaCaT proliferative effects than the others. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 displayed lipase inhibitory effects. Compound 4 decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and downregulated prostaglandin E2 production in heat-killed P. acnes-treated RAW 246.7 cells. In conclusion, PG-E is abundant in hydrolysable tannins that display multiple anti-acne capacities, including anti-bacterial, anti-lipase, anti-keratinocyte proliferation, and anti-inflammatory actions. Hence, PG-E has great potential in the application of anti-acne and skin-care products, and punicalagin (1), the most effective component in PG-E, can be employed as a quality control marker. PMID:28085116
Isaacsson, Viviane Christina Siena; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins
BACKGROUND Acne vulgaris has high prevalence, disturbing quality of life during adolescence. OBJECTIVES To measure dissastifaction and acne in 18-year-old male individuals and its associated factors. METHODS A questionnaire was applied by trained interviewers to all boys during selection for the military service. Dissatisfaction and acne was evaluated using a self-administered face scale. Facial, prestrernal and dorsal acne were evaluated separately. RESULTS A total of 2,200 adolescents, aged 18 years, were interviewed. Among these, 1,678 had acne on the face and 974 (54.05%) showed some degree of dissatisfaction. Regarding the impact of acne located on the chest, 326 out of 686 adolescents (47.52%) reported dissatisfaction. For acne located on the back, 568 out of 1,103 affected individuals (51.50%) showed dissatisfaction. Facial / dorsal acne and dissatisfaction were statistically associated with lower income, lower education levels and with non-whites. Presternal acne and dissatisfaction were statistically asssociated with lower income and lower education levels. CONCLUSION This population-based study found a high prevalence of acne on the face, back and chest, with high rates of dissatisfaction. PMID:25054743
Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Tomida, Shuta; Li, Huiying
The human skin harbors a diverse community of bacteria, including the Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes. P. acnes has historically been linked to the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, a common skin disease affecting over 80% of all adolescents in the US. To gain insight into potential P. acnes pathogenic mechanisms, we previously sequenced the complete genome of a P. acnes strain HL096PA1 that is highly associated with acne. In this study, we compared its genome to the first published complete genome KPA171202. HL096PA1 harbors a linear plasmid, pIMPLE-HL096PA1. This is the first described P. acnes plasmid. We also observed a five-fold increase of pseudogenes in HL096PA1, several of which encode proteins in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In addition, our analysis revealed a few island-like genomic regions that are unique to HL096PA1 and a large genomic inversion spanning the ribosomal operons. Together, these findings offer a basis for understanding P. acnes virulent properties, host adaptation mechanisms, and its potential role in acne pathogenesis at the strain level. Furthermore, the plasmid identified in HL096PA1 may potentially provide a new opportunity for P. acnes genetic manipulation and targeted therapy against specific disease-associated strains. PMID:23762865
Vowels, B R; Yang, S; Leyden, J J
Although many cytokines have been implicated in the development and persistence of inflammatory immune responses, it is unknown if any of these are important in inflammatory acne. This study investigated the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) by human monocytic cell lines, ThP-1 and U937, and by freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from acne patients. Both Propionibacterium acnes and supernatants obtained from 72-h P. acnes cultures could induce significant concentrations of IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-8 by both cell lines and by peripheral blood mononuclear cells as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There was no significant difference between acne and non-acne subjects. Endotoxin quantification and addition of polymyxin B to assays indicated no lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination. P. acnes supernatant was fractionated into components with molecular weights of < 3,000, < 10,000, and < 30,000 and assayed for the ability to induce IL-8 and TNF production in ThP-1 cells. Nearly 90% of the original activity was found in the < 30,000-molecular-weight fraction, 50% was in the < 10,000-molecular-weight fraction, and only 15% remained in the < 3,000-molecular-weight fraction. The effluent from the < 3,000-molecular-weight fraction contained about 70% activity, indicating that the inducing factor was not retained in the membrane. Incubation of P. acnes supernatant with various concentrations of mutanolysin or lysozyme resulted in a loss of 60% of the original activity. The addition of jimson lectin, which binds peptidoglycan, resulted in a loss of 70% of the activity in a dose-response manner, whereas peanut lectin had little or no effect on the activity. Heating of the P. acnes supernatant to 65 degrees C also had no effect on the activity. Blocking of CD14, a receptor for both LPS and peptidoglycan, reduced cytokine production by > 50%, suggesting that
Rasheed, Arun; Shama, Shaik Neelufar; Joy, Jyothi Mulanjananiyil; Reddy, Bobbu Sravya; Roja, Chirra
The moisture content present in human skin makes it look young and the use of moisturizer results in fastening the moisture with a surface film of oil. Acne vulgaris is one of the most commonly seen diseases among the youth. The present study is focused on the use of herbs as moisturizer for acne treatment. The anti-acne moisturizer was formulated from herbal crude extracts and investigated the physico-chemical parameters as well as antibacterial activity of the formulation. The study revealed that ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ocimum sanctum, Azadiracta indica and Green tea possessed the potential for inhibiting acne. It was observed that the optimal formula of anti-acne moisturizer was satisfactorily effective to control acne inducing bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus epidermis and Propionibacterium. The physico-chemical parameters of the formulation were also optimal with no signs of irritation.
Eady, E. Anne; Layton, Alison M.; Cove, Jonathan H.
Today, as 40 years ago, we still rely on a limited number of antibiotics and benzoyl peroxide to treat inflammatory acne. An alternative way of suppressing the growth of Propionibacterium acnes is to target the environment in which it thrives. We conjecture that P. acnes colonises a relatively “extreme” habitat especially in relation to the availability of water and possibly related factors such as ionic strength and osmolarity. We hypothesise that the limiting “nutrient” within pilosebaceous follicles is water since native sebum as secreted by the sebaceous gland contains none. An aqueous component must be available within colonised follicles, and water may be a major factor determining which follicles can sustain microbial populations. One way of preventing microbial growth is to reduce the water activity (aw) of this component with a biocompatible solute of very high water solubility. For the method to work effectively, the solute must be small, easily diffusible, and minimally soluble in sebaceous lipids. Xylose and sucrose, which fulfil these criteria, are nonfermentable by P. acnes and have been used to reduce water activity and hence bacterial colonisation of wounds. A new follicularly targeted topical treatment for acne based on this approach should be well tolerated and highly effective. PMID:23762853
Kaur, Sarabjit; Verma, Poonam; Sangwan, Ankita; Dayal, Surabhi; Jain, Vijay Kumar
Acne vulgaris is usually considered as a skin disorder that primarily affects adolescents reaching a peak at the age of 14–17 years in females and 16–19 years in males. However, recent epidemiologic studies have shown that a significant number of female patients aged >25 years experience acne. As it is regarded as a disease of teenagers, adults are more apprehensive and experience social anxiety. Hence, adult onset acne has become a matter of concern. PMID:27512185
Chivot, M; Midoun, H
A study was carried out involving 172 patients with acne which warranted treatment with isotretinoin. Patients were followed up for between 12 and 41 months after discontinuation of treatment and the number of relapses was assessed. 37 patients (21%) relapsed. These relapses were correlated with patients' age, length of disease progression prior to treatment, total dose received, daily dose, duration of treatment and severity of acne. It appeared that only young age and severity of acne influenced the percentage of relapse.
Tuchina, Elena S.; Tuchin, Valery V.
Acne is a genetic, hormonal disease characterized by overproduction of oil by the sebaceous glands, plugging of the sebaceous glands to form micro- and macro- comedons and, finally, action of skin bacteria on oil trapped underneath the skin to red inflammatory cystic lesions. It was shown, that Propionibacterium acnes, the bacteria responsible for acne, was rather subjected to action of red and infrared radiation. The effect of the given radiation amplified at this bacteria by various solutions of photosensitizes.
Hadasik, Karolina; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia
Acne inversa (hidradenitis suppurativa) is a potentially severe and chronic inflammatory disease with a significant negative influence on the quality of life. Usually, lesions are located in the areas of skin folds and it is characterized by the presence of painful nodules and fistulas with a tendency to tissue fibrosis. Currently, it is suggested that follicular occlusion by infundibular hyperkeratosis plays a crucial role in pathogenesis and an occupation of apocrine sweat glands is a secondary phenomenon. Most often, it refers to men after puberty. This article tries to present the latest theory concerning the etiology of inverted acne and methods of its treatment. It also describes the most common errors in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, which are mainly connected with repeated and long antibiotic therapy and not radical surgical treatment. PMID:26366155
There is no topical antiacne medication that acts against all four of the major pathophysiologic features of acne: hyperkeratinization, sebum production, bacterial proliferation, and inflammation. Topical azelaic acid cream helps both to normalize keratinization and to reduce the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, and has proven to be effective against both noninflammatory and inflammatory lesions. The results of a recent study now demonstrate that its efficacy can be enhanced, and patient ratings of overall impression improved, when it is used in combination with other topical medications such as benzoyl peroxide 4% gel, clindamycin 1% gel, tretinoin 0.025% cream, and erythromycin 3%/benzoyl peroxide 5% gel. Furthermore, another study has shown that azelaic acid plus benzoyl peroxide achieves greater efficacy and higher patient ratings of convenience than monotherapy with erythromycin-benzoyl peroxide gel.
Archer, Johanna S; Chang, R Jeffrey
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality affecting reproductive age women. Population-based studies estimate a prevalence of 5-10% [Obstet Gynecol 101 (2003) 995; Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 41 (2001) 202]. The clinical characteristics of PCOS include hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and infertility. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism and acne. Both these clinical symptoms are treated with similar drug therapies, including oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), topical medications or antiandrogens such as spironolactone, flutamide and finasteride, as well as topical medications. Recent studies have shown that lower doses of these medications are as efficacious as high doses and have the advantage of decreased cost and an improved side-effect profile. Although hirsutism and acne can be considered cosmetic in nature, they cause significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. Physicians should be sensitive to these issues and approach patients in a caring and sympathetic manner.
Moghetti, Paolo; Toscano, Vincenzo
Hirsutism and acne are common and highly distressing complaints in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Drugs are only partially effective on terminalized hairs, and removal of these hairs is usually required. Therefore, management of hirsutism is generally based upon a dual approach: a pharmacological therapy to reduce androgen secretion and/or androgen action, and removal of terminal hair already present. Ovarian suppression of androgen secretion with oral contraceptives is widely used in these women, but its efficacy appears limited. The most effective medical therapy for hirsutism is by anti-androgen drugs. Electrolysis and laser photothermolysis are considered the most effective cosmetic procedures, although the effects of these methods should not be considered permanent. Acne may be treated with different tools, according to the severity of the condition and other characteristics of the patient. These tools include topical and systemic retinoids and antibiotics, topical antibacterial agents, androgen suppression by oral contraceptives, and anti-androgen drugs.
Yang, Darren; Pornpattananangkul, Dissaya; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Chan, Michael; Carson, Dennis; Huang, Chun-Ming; Zhang, Liangfang
This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of lauric acid (LA) and its liposomal derivatives against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), the bacterium that promotes inflammatory acne. First, the antimicrobial study of three free fatty acids (lauric acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid) demonstrated that LA gives the strongest bactericidal activity against P. acnes. However, a setback of using LA as a potential treatment for inflammatory acne is its poor water solubility. Then the LA was incorporated into a liposome formulation to aid its delivery to P. acnes. It's demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of LA was not only well maintained in its liposomal derivatives but also enhanced at low LA concentration. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of LA-loaded liposomes (LipoLA) mainly depended on the LA loading concentration per single liposomes. Further study found that the LipoLA could fuse with the membranes of P. acnes and release the carried LA directly into the bacterial membranes, thereby killing the bacteria effectively. Since LA is a natural compound that is the main acid in coconut oil and also resides in human breast milk and liposomes have been successfully and widely applied as a drug delivery vehicle in the clinic, the LipoLA developed in this work holds great potential of becoming an innate, safe and effective therapeutic medication for acne vulgaris and other P. acnes associated diseases. PMID:19665786
Although acne is not usually considered to be a disorder that affects the elderly, the disorder occurs sufficiently often in mature individuals to be noteworthy. The variety known as 'persisting acne' is, as its name suggests, ordinary acne that continues into adult life. 'Chin acne' is a curious type that occurs premenstrually in mature women, while 'sporadic acne' describes the sudden development of significant acne in later life for no apparent reason. When acne develops in an individual outside the usual susceptible age group precipitating causes such as exposure to comedogenic substances or drugs must be excluded. Similarly, endocrine causes such as androgen-secreting tumors and the administration of anabolic steroids need to be considered. All inflammatory processes are decreased in the elderly and this may be one reason for the persistence and intransigence of acne lesions in older age groups. The principles of treatment of acne in the elderly do not differ from those in other age groups, although the emphasis during counseling needs to focus on explanation and reassurance rather than prognosis. Topical retinoids and benzoyl peroxide easily irritate elderly skin, so azelaic acid and even sulfur preparations are preferable. Low-dose systemic isotretinoin is reported to be helpful to patients in this age group and is certainly worth a trial.
Benzoyl peroxide is one of the most widely used topical agents for acne. It has potent antibacterial and mild anti-inflammatory and comedolytic effects. To treat mild to moderate acne, it can be used alone or in combination with topical antibiotics and topical retinoids. The combination of benzoyl peroxide with either erythromycin or clindamycin is synergistic and well-tolerated. In more severe acne, when oral antibiotics are required, benzoyl peroxide can contribute to suppressing the emergence of resistant strains of Propionibacterium acnes.
Acne is affecting an increasing number of adult females and so can no longer be considered as a disease of adolescence. The disease has a greater negative impact on the quality of life of adult females than their younger counterparts. Adult female acne may persist from adolescence or may have its first occurrence once adulthood has been reached. The clinical presentation and pathogenesis of adult female acne may be somewhat different to that of adolescent acne and this may require a different treatment approach. Genetic and hormonal factors are thought to play key roles in the pathogenesis of adult female acne and the disease is characterized by a chronic evolution with frequent relapses requiring long-term maintenance therapy. Fixed-dose retinoid/antimicrobial combinations may be of interest for the treatment of adult female acne given that subgroup analysis of clinical trials has indicated that they are effective against both inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions in these patients. These treatments may also be of interest, given the chronic course of the disease in adult females, the high likelihood of the presence of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes and the poor adherence of patients to other long-term therapies. Oral hormonal treatment or isotretinoin may be required in patients with severe acne or disease that is refractory to other treatments. Additional clinical studies of acne treatments specifically conducted in adult female patients are required to increase the evidence base on which future treatment recommendations can be based.
Rizer, R L; Sklar, J L; Whiting, D; Bucko, A; Shavin, J; Jarratt, M
A 12-week study compared Clindagel, a unique water-based gel formulation of clindamycin phosphate 1%, administered once daily, and Cleocin T, a slightly different gel formulation indicated for twice-daily use, in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Clindagel was safe and effective and equivalent to Cleocin T gel, albeit with a better tolerability profile. Clindagel is a viable alternative to Cleocin T gel.
Because of the potential for permanent physical and psychological sequelae, acne vulgaris should be regarded as a true disease—not the “normal” physiologic response one might infer from its near universal prevalence in adolescence. Effective therapy reduces pilosebaceous unit obstruction, minimizes secondary inflammation, and lessens the chance of significant scarring. This article reviews current therapeutic modalities, and suggests a sequence for implementation of specific agents. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:21289790
Friedman, Adam J
Many cases of acne are hormonal in nature, meaning that they occur in adolescent girls and women and are aggravated by hormonal fluctuations such as those that occur during the menstrual cycle or in the setting of underlying hormonal imbalances as seen in polycystic ovary syndrome. For these patients, antihormonal therapy such as spironolactone is a valid and efficacious option. Herein, initiation and utilization of this medication is reviewed.
Acne is a chronic disease which evolves under periodic eruptions. Resolution occurs around the late teens. Conventional treatment clears the lesions, but treatment by isotretinoin alone can achieve long remissions indeed definitive clearing. Indications are nodulo-cystic acne and resistant acne to a conventional treatment of at least 3 months duration. This drug is prescribed in cures, a cure is the period during which the patient receives a continuous treatment. The daily dose is computed according to the patient's weight and varies between 0.5 and 1 mg/kg. To prevent relapses, it is recommended to cumulate a dose between 100 and 150 mg/kg. No other topical or systemic treatment is needed. Side effects exist, among which teratogenicity is the most severe. Very strict contraception is necessary for women of child-bearing age. The most important mucocutaneous side effect is dryness and has to be counteracted by emollients. It is recommended that the drug be prescribed by doctors having a fair experience of oral retinoids and a perfect understanding of the teratogenic risk of the drug.
Nazzaro-Porro, M; Passi, S; Picardo, M; Breathnach, A S; Zina, G
This review is an update of the literature accumulated over the past 6 years following the original observation that topically applied azelaic acid, a non-toxic C9 dicarboxylic acid, has a beneficial therapeutic effect on acne vulgaris. These studies have shown that azelaic acid has a modulating influence on the process of keratinization, and that it acts as a keratolytic and anti-comedogenic agent. There is evidence that it inhibits mitochondrial and microsomal oxido-reductases, including 5-alpha-reductase, and that it may interfere with the process of sebogenesis. It has a spectrum of antimicrobial activity, both in vitro and in vivo, against aerobic microorganisms and is effective against the anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes. Extensive multi-centre clinical trials have established that topical azelaic acid (a 20% cream) is an effective treatment for all types of acne. It compares well with other agents, such as topical tretinoin or benzoyl-peroxide, or oral tetracycline. It is non-irritant, and does not give rise to allergic or photo-toxic reactions. Its use is not associated with teratogenicity, possible endocrine unbalance, or the disadvantages of antibiotic treatment. It can be applied for long periods, in recurrences, and as maintenance "spot" therapy against individual lesions.
Veraldi, Stefano; Barbareschi, Mauro; Benardon, Susanna; Schianchi, Rossana
The most frequent side effect of topical retinoids is irritant contact dermatitis. It occurs in approximately 85% of patients; the percentage can reach up to 95% in patients treated with tretinoin. Severity of this dermatitis is moderate to severe in approximately 20% of patients. However, 15% of patients stop the treatment with tretinoin because of skin irritation. The authors used tretinoin as short contact therapy (SCT) in mild to moderate acne, in order to try to reduce the incidence and severity of irritant contact dermatitis. They present the final results of a sponsor-free, pilot, open, multicenter study. Seventy-four patients were treated with 0.05% tretinoin cream. It was applied once daily for 30 min. Treatment duration ranged from 8 to 32 weeks (mean duration: 12 weeks). Acne severity and treatment efficacy were evaluated by means of the Global Acne Grading System. A significant clinical improvement (≥50% from baseline) was observed in 41 patients (55.4%). Thirteen patients (17.6%) developed a mild skin irritation. Four patients (5.4%) stopped the treatment because of severe skin irritation. Efficacy of tretinoin used as SCT seems to be superimposable to that of tretinoin used according to standard modality. Tolerability of SCT with tretinoin is very good. This tolerability allows a high adherence of patients to the treatment and it markedly improves compliance.
Scott, Christopher; Staughton, Richard C D; Bunker, Christopher J; Asboe, David
Immune reconstitution disease (IRD) has been widely reported following the commencement of antiretrovirals. We report a case series from a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients of whom four developed acne vulgaris and one developed acne rosacea after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Acne vulgaris, as part of IRD, has been reported only once in the literature, whereas acne rosacea has not, to our knowledge, previously been described. This serves as a reminder not to overlook dermatological manifestations of disease in patients with HIV infection after starting antiretrovirals.
Nakano, Toshiaki; Yoshino, Takashi; Fujimura, Takao; Arai, Satoru; Mukuno, Akira; Sato, Naoya; Katsuoka, Kensei
Dermcidin (DCD), an antimicrobial peptide with a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria such as Propionibacterum acnes, is expressed constitutively in sweat in the absence of stimulation due to injury or inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between DCD expression and acne vulgaris associated with P. acnes. The antimicrobial activity of recombinant full-length DCD (50 μg/ml) was 97% against Escherichia coli and 100% against Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial activity against P. acnes ranged from 68% at 50 μg/ml DCD to 83% at 270 μg/ml DCD. DCD concentration in sweat from patients with acne vulgaris (median 9.8 μg/ml, range 6.9-95.3 μg/ml) was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (median 136.7 μg/ml, range 45.4-201.6 μg/ml) (p = 0.001). DCD demonstrated concentration-dependent, but partial, microbicidal activity against P. acnes. These results suggest that reduced DCD concentration in sweat in patients with inflammatory acne may permit proliferation of P. acnes in pilosebaceous units, resulting in progression of inflammatory acne.
Sparavigna, Adele; Tenconi, Beatrice; De Ponti, Ileana; La Penna, Laura
Acne is characterized by primary lesions on the face, chest, and back, and by a variety of other signs and symptoms. In particular, acne inflammatory lesions result from Propionibacterium acnes colonization and are of particular relevance as they can cause permanent scarring. Acne also causes significant psychological morbidity in affected patients. Products currently available for the treatment of acne include systemic and topical treatments. As these products can cause severe side effects, new, innovative therapies are needed. Farmaka Acne Cream (FAC) is a novel, film-forming cream developed to treat mild and moderate acne. In vitro studies have demonstrated that FAC is as effective as 5% benzoyl peroxide in inhibiting growth of P. acnes. In 32 subjects with mild or moderate acne, FAC reduced all the major signs and symptoms of the disease. These included itching, erythema, and scaling, as well as reductions in the numbers of papules, pustules, and open and closed comedones. Acne severity improved in 38% of subjects, while none worsened. FAC was found to be effective in controlling sebum secretion, and was non-comedogenic. Most subjects (90%) reported tolerability as good or very good, while clinical efficacy and cosmetic acceptability were judged as good. For assessment of contact sensitization and photosensitization, FAC was applied daily to the backs of 29 subjects in two symmetric areas for 10 days. Using a solar stimulator, one minimal erythema dose was delivered to one side of the back from days 11 to 13. The four different subareas of treated/untreated and irradiated/nonirradiated and combinations thereof were compared. No cases of contact sensitization or photosensitization were observed, and FAC is considered safe for use in intense sunlight. In vitro and in vivo studies provide evidence for the safety and clinical benefits of FAC, a promising candidate for the treatment of mild and moderate acne.
Sparavigna, Adele; Tenconi, Beatrice; De Ponti, Ileana; La Penna, Laura
Acne is characterized by primary lesions on the face, chest, and back, and by a variety of other signs and symptoms. In particular, acne inflammatory lesions result from Propionibacterium acnes colonization and are of particular relevance as they can cause permanent scarring. Acne also causes significant psychological morbidity in affected patients. Products currently available for the treatment of acne include systemic and topical treatments. As these products can cause severe side effects, new, innovative therapies are needed. Farmaka Acne Cream (FAC) is a novel, film-forming cream developed to treat mild and moderate acne. In vitro studies have demonstrated that FAC is as effective as 5% benzoyl peroxide in inhibiting growth of P. acnes. In 32 subjects with mild or moderate acne, FAC reduced all the major signs and symptoms of the disease. These included itching, erythema, and scaling, as well as reductions in the numbers of papules, pustules, and open and closed comedones. Acne severity improved in 38% of subjects, while none worsened. FAC was found to be effective in controlling sebum secretion, and was non-comedogenic. Most subjects (90%) reported tolerability as good or very good, while clinical efficacy and cosmetic acceptability were judged as good. For assessment of contact sensitization and photosensitization, FAC was applied daily to the backs of 29 subjects in two symmetric areas for 10 days. Using a solar stimulator, one minimal erythema dose was delivered to one side of the back from days 11 to 13. The four different subareas of treated/untreated and irradiated/nonirradiated and combinations thereof were compared. No cases of contact sensitization or photosensitization were observed, and FAC is considered safe for use in intense sunlight. In vitro and in vivo studies provide evidence for the safety and clinical benefits of FAC, a promising candidate for the treatment of mild and moderate acne. PMID:25914552
Buckley, D; Rogers, S; Daly, P
The results of treatment of cystic and antibiotic-resistant acne vulgaris in 96 consecutive patients with the oral retinoid isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid; Roacentane) are reported retrospectively. The results show that the drug, while toxic in the short term, is highly effective in clearing acne.
Yuan, Ye; Zhou, Zezhu; Jiao, Yucheng; Zheng, Yuehuan; Lin, Yazhou; Xiao, Jiaqi
Purpose. Low-virulence anaerobic bacteria, especially the Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), have been thought to be a new pathogeny for a series of disc diseases. However, until now, there has been no histological evidence to confirm this link. The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of P. acnes in nonpyogenic intervertebral discs via histological observation. Method. Degenerated intervertebral discs were harvested from 76 patients with low back pain and/or sciatica but without any symptoms of discitis or spondylodiscitis. The samples were cultured under anaerobic conditions and then examined using 16S rDNA PCR to screen for P. acnes. Samples found to be positive for P. acnes were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and modified Brown-Brenn staining and observed under a microscope. Results. Here, 16 intervertebral discs were found to be positive for P. acnes via 16S rDNA PCR and the prevalence was 21.05% (16/76). Among them, 7 samples had visible microbes stained with HE and modified Brown-Brenn staining. Morphological examination showed the bacteria to be Gram-positive and rod-shaped, so they were considered P. acnes. Conclusion. P. acnes is capable of colonizing some degenerated intervertebral discs without causing discitis, and its presence could be further confirmed by histological evidence. Targeting these bacteria may be a promising therapy method for some disc diseases.
Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung
Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation.
Archer, C B; Cohen, S N; Baron, S E
This article discusses the effects of acne (sometimes referred to as acne vulgaris), how to diagnose it confidently and how to distinguish it from rosacea, and the options available for treatment, especially in primary care. We also suggest when referral to dermatology should be considered, and try to anticipate some frequently asked questions.
The conventional perspective of acne pathogenesis holds that Propionibacterium acnes colonizes the duct of the sebaceous follicle, causing an innate immune response and the progression from a so-called noninflammatory comedo to an inflammatory papule, pustule, or nodule. However, this viewpoint has come under increasing scrutiny over the last decade, as evidence has emerged supporting a role for inflammation at all stages of acne lesion development, perhaps subclinically even before comedo formation. The immunochemical pathways underlying the initiation and propagation of the inflammation in acne are complex and still being elucidated, but may involve Propionibacterium acnes as well as several inflammatory mediators and their target receptors, including cytokines, defensins, peptidases, sebum lipids, and neuropeptides. This review presents evidence to support the notion that acne is primarily an inflammatory disease, challenging the current nomenclature of noninflammatory versus inflammatory acne lesions and suggesting that the nomenclature is outdated and incorrect. The evidence in support of acne as an inflammatory disease also has clinical implications, in that anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat the disease can be expected to exert effects against all lesion stages, albeit via distinct mechanisms of anti-inflammation. PMID:24062871
Petrov, Andrej; Pljakovska, Vesna
BACKGROUND: Scars appear as a result of skin damage during the process of the skin healing. There are two types of acne scars, depending on whether there is a loss or accumulation of collagen: atrophic and hypertrophic. In 80-90% it comes to scars with loss of collagen compared to smaller number of hypertrophic scars and keloids. AIM: The aim of the study was to determine efficiency and safety of fractional carbon dioxide laser in the treatment of acne scars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in Acibadem Sistina Clinical Hospital, Skopje at the Department of Dermatovenerology, with a total of 40 patients treated with fractional carbon dioxide laser (Lutronic eCO2). The study included patients with residual acne scars of a different type. RESULTS: Comedogenic and papular acne in our material were proportionately presented in 50% of cases, while the other half were the more severe clinical forms of acne - pustular inflammatory acne and nodulocystic acne that leave residual lesions in the form of second, third and fourth grade of scars. CONCLUSION: The experiences of our work confirm the world experiences that the best result with this method is achieved in dotted ice pick or V-shaped acne scars. PMID:27275326
Aubin, G G; Portillo, M E; Trampuz, A; Corvec, S
Propionibacterium acnes colonizes the lipid-rich sebaceous glands of the skin. This preferential anaerobic bacterium is easily identified if cultures are prolonged. It is involved in the inflammation process of acne, but until recently, it was neglected in other clinical presentations. Despite a reported low virulence, the new genomic, transcriptomic, and phylogenetic studies have allowed better understanding of this pathogen's importance that causes many chronic and recurrent infections, including orthopedic and cardiac prosthetic, and breast or eye implant-infections. These infections, facilitated by the ability of P. acnes to produce a biofilm, require using anti-biofilm active antibiotics such as rifampicin. The antibiogram of P. acnes is not systematically performed in microbiology laboratories because of its susceptibility to a wide range of antibiotics. However, in the last 10 years, the rate of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has increased, especially for macrolides and tetracyclines. Recently, rpoB gene mutations conferring resistance to rifampicin have been also reported. Thus in case of a biofilm growth mode, the therapeutic strategy should be discussed, according to the resistance phylotype and phenotype so as to optimize the treatment of these severe infections.
Sophorolipids (SLs) are known to possess antimicrobial properties towards many species (particularly Gram-positive, or Gram+) of bacteria. However, they can only be exerted if the SLs can be introduced to the bacterial cells in an acceptable manner. Propionibacterium acnes is the common bacterial ...
Keri, Jonette; Shiman, Michael
Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that can affect individuals from childhood to adulthood, most often occurring in the teenage years. Acne can have a significant physical, emotional, and social impact on an individual. Many different treatment options are available for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Commonly used topical treatments include benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, sulfur and sodium sulfacetamide, azelaic acid, and retinoids. Systemic treatment is frequently used and includes the use of systemic antibiotics, oral contraceptives, antiandrogens, and retinoids. Other treatment modalities exist such as the use of superficial chemical peels as well as using laser and light devices for the treatment of acne. With the multitude of treatment options and the rapidly expanding newer technologies available to clinicians, it is important to review and be aware of the current literature and studies regarding the treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:21436973
Sinha, Mau; Sadhasivam, Suresh; Bhattacharyya, Anamika; Jain, Shilpi; Ghosh, Shamik; Arndt, Kenneth A; Dover, Jeffrey S; Sengupta, Shiladitya
Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogenic factor in the development of acne. Antibiotics are the first choice of treatment for mild-to-moderate, mixed, papular/pustular, and moderate nodular acne, and an alternative choice in severe, nodular/conglobate acne. The emergence of resistance to the currently available antibiotics poses a serious set-back to this algorithm, and the reduced arsenal can diminish efficacy of treatment. This emerging situation should catalyze innovations in dermatology; for example, newer drugs and technologies such as next-generation antibiotics with excellent potency and low propensity to develop resistance, rapid diagnostic platforms to select responders and nonresponders, and delivery technologies that target the bacteria. Such innovations can dramatically expand the arsenal for dermatologists in the management of acne.
Al-Natour, Sahar H.
INTRODUCTION: Although acne vulgaris is common in adolescents, information on their understanding of acne is minimal. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the perceptions and beliefs of Saudi youth on acne. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred twenty-nine male students (aged 13–22 years) from 6 secondary schools in the Eastern Saudi Arabia completed a self-reported questionnaire on knowledge, causation, exacerbating and relieving factors of acne. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15.0. Results of subjects with acne, a family history of acne, and parents' educational levels were compared. Differences between the analyzed groups were assessed by a Chi-square test; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Over half (58.9%) of the participants considered acne a transient condition not requiring therapy. Only 13.1% knew that the proper treatment of acne could take a long time, even several years. Over half (52%) thought acne can be treated from the first or after few visits to the doctor. Popular sources of information were television/radio (47.7%), friends (45.6%), and the internet (38%). Only 23.4% indicated school as a source of knowledge. Reported causal factors included scratching (88.5%) and squeezing (82.1%) of pimples, poor hygiene (83.9%), poor dietary habits (71.5%), and stress (54.1%). Ameliorating factors included frequent washing of the face (52.9%), exercise (41.1%), sunbathing (24.1%), and drinking of mineral water (21%). The correlations of these facts are discussed. CONCLUSION: Results of this study point out that misconceptions of acne are widespread among Saudi youth. A health education program is needed to improve the understanding of the condition. PMID:28163574
Patwardhan, Sachin V; Kaczvinsky, Joseph R; Joa, James F; Canfield, Douglas
Differentiating inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions and obtaining lesion counts is pivotal part of acne evaluation. Manual lesion counting has reliably demonstrated the clinical efficacy of anti-acne products for decades. However, maintaining assessment consistency within and across acne trials is an important consideration since lesion counting can be subjective to the individual evaluators, and the technique has not been rigorously standardized. VISIA-CR is a multi-spectral and multi-modal facial imaging system. It captures fluorescence images of Horn and Porphyrin, absorption images of Hemoglobin and Melanin, and skin texture and topography characterizing broad-spectrum polarized and non-polarized images. These images are analyzed for auto-classification of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesion, measurement of erythema, and post-acne pigmentation changes. In this work the accuracy of this acne lesion auto-classification technique is demonstrated by comparing the auto-detected lesions counts with those counted by expert physicians. The accuracy is further substantiated by comparing and confirming the facial location and type of every auto-identified acne lesion with those identified by the physicians. Our results indicate a strong correlation between manual and auto-classified lesion counts (correlation coefficient >0.9) for both inflammatory and non inflammatory lesions This technology has the potential to eliminate the tedium of manual lesion counting, and provide an accurate, reproducible, and clinically relevant evaluation of acne lesions. As an aid to physicians it will allow development of a standardized technique for evaluating acne in clinical research, as well as accurately choosing treatment options for their patients according to the severity of a specific lesion type in clinical practice
Zhu, Jiang-Ting; Xuan, Min; Zhang, Ya-Ni; Liu, Hong-Wei; Cai, Jin-Hui; Wu, Yan-Hong; Xiang, Xiao-Fei; Shan, Gui-Qiu; Cheng, Biao
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with erbium fractional laser therapy for facial acne or acne scars. PRP combined with erbium fractional laser therapy was used for the treatment of 22 patients, including 16 patients who suffered from facial acne scars and 6 patients who suffered from acne scars concomitant with acne. Whole blood (40 ml) was collected from each patient, and following differential centrifugation, PRP was harvested. After using an erbium fractional laser, we applied PRP to the entire face of every patient. Digital photos were taken before and after the treatment for evaluation by dermatologists and the patients rated the efficacy on a 5-point scale. The erythema was moderate or mild, while its total duration was <3 days; after receiving the treatment three times, 90.9% of the patients showed an improvement of >50%, and 91% of the patients were satisfied; no acne inflammation was observed after treatment. PRP combined with erbium fractional laser therapy is an effective and safe approach for treating acne scars or acne, with minimal side-effects, and it simultaneously enhanced the recovery of laser-damaged skin.
López-Estebaranz, J L; Herranz-Pinto, P; Dréno, B
Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease whose psychosocial effects can greatly impair quality of life. Various scales are used to classify the severity of acne, and several treatment algorithms are currently applied: no consensus on a common scale or treatment guidelines has been reached. A group of Spanish experts therefore met to identify a scale the majority could accept as the most appropriate for classifying severity and treating accordingly. The group chose the following classifications: comedonal acne, mild or moderate papulopustular acne, severe papulopustular acne, moderate nodular acne, and nodular-cystic acne (or acne tending to leave scars). Consensus was reached on first- and second-choice treatments for each type and on maintenance treatment. The experts also issued specific recommendations on antibiotic use (starting with mild or moderate papulopustular acne), always in combination with retinoids and/or benzoyl peroxide. The use of isotretinoin (starting at severe papulopustular or moderate nodular acne) was also covered.
Jiang, J; Xu, Y; Klaunig, J E
Chronic treatment with acrylonitrile (ACN) has been shown to produce a dose-related increase in glial cell tumors (astrocytomas) in rats. The mechanism(s) for ACN-induced carcinogenicity remains unclear. While ACN has been reported to induce DNA damage in a number of short-term systems, evidence for a genotoxic mechanism of tumor induction is the brain is not strong. Other toxic mechanisms appear to participate in the induction of tumor or induce the astrocytomas solely. In particular, nongenotoxic mechanisms of carcinogen induction have been implicated in this ACN-induced carcinogenic effect in the rat brain. One major pathway of ACN metabolism is through glutathione (GSH) conjugation. Extensive utilization and depletion of GSH, an important intracellular antioxidant, by ACN may lead to cellular oxidative stress. The present study examined the ability of ACN to induce oxidative stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were administered ACN at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 ppm in the drinking water and sampled after 14, 28, or 90 days of continuous treatment. Oxidative DNA damage indicated by the presence of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (OH8dG) and lipid peroxidation indicated by the presence of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation product, in rat brains and livers were examined. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also determined in different rat tissues. Both the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants (GSH, vitamin E) and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) in rat brains and livers were measured. Increased levels of OH8dG, MDA, and ROS were found in the brains of ACN-treated rats. Decreased levels of GSH and activities of catalase and SOD were also observed in the brains of ACN-treated rats compared to the control group. Interestingly, there were no changes of these indicators of oxidative stress in the livers of ACN-treated rats. Rat liver is not a target for ACN
Lemay, André; Poulin, Yves
Although acne is seldom associated with high serum levels of androgens, it has been shown that female acne patients have definite increases in ovarian and adrenal androgen levels when compared to appropriate controls. As shown in several pilot and in multiple open and comparative studies, oral contraceptives (OCs) are effective in causing a significant regression of mild to moderate acne. These results have been confirmed by multicentre randomized trials where low-dose OCs did not cause side effects different from those of the placebo-controlled group. The beneficial effect of OCs is related to a decrease in ovarian and adrenal androgen precursors; to an increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which limits free testosterone; and to a decrease in 3a-androstenediol glucuronide conjugate, the catabolite of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) formed in peripheral tissues. The estrogen-progestin combination containing cyproterone acetate (CPA) is particularly effective in treating acne, since this progestin also has a direct peripheral anti-androgenic action in blocking the androgen receptor. Only two open studies and one randomized study on small numbers of patients have reported some efficacy of spironolactone used alone or in combination with an OC in the treatment of acne. The new non-steroidal anti-androgens flutamide and finasteride are being evaluated for the treatment of hirsutism. Oral antibiotics are prescribed to patients with inflammatory lesions, where they are effective in decreasing the activity of microbes, the activity of microbial enzymes, and leukocyte chemotaxis. Concomitant intake of an OC and an antibiotic usually prescribed for acne does not impair the contraceptive efficacy of the OC. A second effective contraceptive method should be used whenever there would be decreased absorption or efficacy of the OC (digestive problems, breakthrough bleeding), lack of compliance and use of a type or dose of antibiotic different from that usually prescribed
Kircik, Leon H
Topiucal drug therapy is an intuitively sound approach to the management of skin diseases. Depositing medication at the site of disease involvement is potentially effective and reduces systemic exposure. Topical drugs are absorbed usually by passive diffusion. In clinical practice, the choice of an optimized formulation that will be effective and well tolerated is essential. Data confirm that patient adherence with therapy leads to better outcomes and lower long-term treatment costs, while poor adherence is directly linked to poor treatment outcomes and and patient dissatisfaction. Local cutaneous irritation, which may be linked to components of the formulation and/or to the active drug itself, is a common cause of non-adherence. Well-designed drugs are important in the management of acne vulgaris and acne rosacea. Formulators have sought to improve treatment efficacy and tolerability by several different techniques, such as delayed release of the active drug, fixed combinations of two different molecules, or incorporating ingredients into the formulation vehicle that improve epidermal barrier function and offset the irritating effects of the active drugs.
Saper, David; Capiro, Nina; Ma, Richard; Li, Xinning
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus commonly isolated from the flora of the face, chest, and axilla region. It has emerged as a major pathogen responsible for postoperative shoulder infections after both arthroscopy and arthroplasty procedures. Patients with P. acnes shoulder infection typically present with normal laboratory values (white blood cells (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP)) making diagnosis difficult. Several intraoperative tissue cultures should be obtained and cultured in both agar plate and broth in aerobic and anaerobic conditions for a minimum of 13 days to optimize the sensitivity and specificity to detect P. acnes. The utilization of intraoperative frozen sections to detect P. acnes infection is not reliable. Risk factors include male, cloudy synovial fluid, lucencies around the implant, and periprosthetic membrane formation. Managements include irrigation and debridement, single or two-staged revision, and intravenous antibiotics. Open biopsy prior to the final implantation (two-staged revision) may help detect persistent P. acnes infection. Penicillin and cephalosporins are effective against clinical P. acnes infection and biofilm in vitro. Combination antibiotic therapy with rifampin and daptomycin may further increase the clinical efficacy of treatment.
Kim, Sang Tae; Lee, Kang Hoon; Sim, Hyung Jun; Suh, Kee Suck; Jang, Min Soo
Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a novel radiofrequency technique that uses insulated microneedles to deliver energy to the deep dermis at the point of penetration without destruction of the epidermis. It has been used for the treatment of various dermatological conditions including wrinkles, atrophic scars and hypertrophic scars. There have been few studies evaluating the efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne, and none measuring objective parameters like the number of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions or sebum excretion levels. The safety and efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne vulgaris was investigated. In a prospective clinical trial, 25 patients with moderate to severe acne were treated with fractional radiofrequency microneedling. The procedure was carried out three times at 1-month intervals. Acne lesion count, subjective satisfaction score, sebum excretion level and adverse effects were assessed at baseline and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the first treatment as well as 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the last treatment. Number of acne lesions (inflammatory and non-inflammatory) decreased. Sebum excretion and subjective satisfaction were more favorable at every time point compared with the baseline values (P < 0.05). Inflammatory lesions responded better than non-inflammatory lesions (P < 0.05). Adverse effects such as pinpoint bleeding, pain and erythema were noted, but were transient and not severe enough to stop treatment. Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a safe and effective treatment for acne vulgaris.
Wright, Travis E.; Boyle, K. Keely; Duquin, Thomas R.; Crane, John K.
BACKGROUND Many studies have noted an increase in the number of recognized cases of invasive infections due to Propionibacterium acnes, especially after shoulder replacement surgery. The increase in the number of recognized cases of P. acnes, a nonspore-forming, anaerobic, Gram-positive organism, appears due to both an increase in the number of shoulder operations being performed and more specimens being sent for anaerobic cultures. Nevertheless, the optimal surgical and antibiotic management of P. acnes remains controversial. METHODS We tested the susceptibility of 106 P. acnes strains from sterile body sites collected at the Erie County Medical Center between 2012 and 2015, using Etest gradient antibiotic strips. RESULTS P. acnes is very susceptible to the penicillins and the first-generation cephalosporins. We noted an association between hemolytic phenotype on Brucella Blood Agar and clindamycin resistance. CONCLUSIONS Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of P. acnes should no longer just be confined to the research laboratory but expanded and incorporated into routine microbiological evaluation of P. acnes. This would improve patient care as well as help clarify the relationship between hemolysis and clindamycin resistance. PMID:27773990
Kapuścińska, Alicja; Nowak, Izabela
Acne is one of the most frequent skin disorders that occurs in puberty, but often adults also have acne. The most important factors responsible for acne are elevated production of sebum by hyperactive sebaceous glands and blockage of the follicle because of hyperkeratosis . The third etiopathogenic factor of acne is excessive microflora reproduction . The most significant bacterium that is responsible for formation of skin lesions is Propionibacterium acnes, a rod-shaped Gram-positive and aerotolerant anaerobic bacterium. It is estimated that P. acnes is responsible for acne in approximately 80% of people aged 11 to 30 [27,40]. Even healed skin lesions can often cause skin discolorations and scar formation . Exfoliating chemical substances that are commonly used in dermatology and cosmetology are organic acids. Exfoliating treatment using organic acids is called "chemical peeling" and consists of controlled application of those substances on the skin . The depth of exfoliation depends on organic acid concentration, type of substance and contact time with the skin . Using exfoliating agents seems to be helpful in excessive keratinization - one of several factors responsible for acne. Moreover, epidermis exfoliation is a popular method of removing skin discoloration . Considering chemical structure, exfoliating substances that are most often used in cosmetology contain alpha-hydroxyacids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid and citric acid), beta-hydroxyacids (salicylic acid) and other organic acids, such as trichloroacetic acid and pyruvic acid . In this article, a literature review of use of organic acids in acne and skin discoloration therapy is presented.
Yildizgören, Mustafa Turgut; Togral, Arzu Karatas
Objective: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease, and hormonal influences, follicular plugging and follicular hyperkeratinization, increased sebum secretion, Propionibacterium acnes colonization, and inflammation are involved in its pathogenesis. Recently, a significant body of evidence has accumulated that describes the comedolytic properties of vitamin D and its roles as a modulator of the immune system, a regulator of the proliferation and differentiation of sebocytes and keratinocytes, and as an antioxidant. In this study, we aimed to compare serum vitamin D levels in a group of patients with nodulocystic acne with vitamin D levels in a group of control subjects to determine whether there was any relationship between the vitamin D and acne. Methods: Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) were measured in 43 patients with newly diagnosed nodulocystic acne and in 46 healthy control subjects, and participants were grouped according to their 25[OH]D levels as follows: normal/sufficient (>20 ng/mL) or insufficient/deficient (<20 ng/mL). Serum concentrations of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured. Results: Forty-three patients and 46 control individuals, with mean ages of 23.13 (± 5.78) years and 25.23 (± 4.73) years, respectively, were included in this study. There were no significant differences between the groups in relation to their body mass indices and Ca, P, ALP, and PTH levels. However, the patients with nodulocystic acne had significantly lower 25[OH]D levels than the subjects in the control group (P< 0.05). Conclusion: The patients with nodulocystic acne had relatively low serum vitamin D levels compared with the subjects in the control group. The findings from this study suggest that there is a connection between low vitamin D levels and acne. Larger epidemiologic studies are needed to confirm the status of vitamin D levels in patients with acne. PMID:26413187
Del Prete, Michela; Mauriello, Maria Chiara; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Di Somma, Carolina; Monfrecola, Giuseppe; Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Colao, Annamaria
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between acne and insulin resistance as well as other metabolic impairment in young males. Acne is a skin disease that can be influenced by endocrine abnormalities. In females, it is associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, with peripheral insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, whereas few data are available in males. For investigating this, 22 young males with acne have been compared to 22 controls of comparable age and gender. Acne was scored using the global acne grading system score. Clinical as well as biochemical parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism, circulating levels of androgens, and IGF-1 were evaluated. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated. The results thus obtained are as follows, patients had higher BMI (p = 0.003), WC (p = 0.002), WHR (p = 0.02), SBP (p = 0.0001), DBP (p = 0.001), basal (p = 0.01) and 120 min. oGTT serum insulin concentrations (p = 0.002), basal glucose concentrations (p = 0.03), HOMA-IR (p = 0.016), and lower HDL-cholesterol than controls (p = 0.001). Among the subgroup of subjects with BMI <24.9, HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.05) and 120 min. oGTT serum insulin concentrations (p = 0.009) resulted to be independent predictors of acne at multivariate analysis. In conclusion, these findings highlight a metabolic imbalance in young males affected with acne. Insulin resistance seems to play the main role for the development of acne in these subjects. Insulin resistance could represent an effective target for therapy in male acne.
Kubota, Yasuo; Shirahige, Yoshie; Nakai, Kozo; Katsuura, Junko; Moriue, Tetsuya; Yoneda, Kozo
In this community-based cross-sectional study, 1443 Japanese adolescents aged 13-19 years participated from two schools in Kagawa Prefecture. Students completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess the prevalence of acne, knowledge about acne, self-management of acne and emotional well-being. A five-item version of the Mental Health Inventory (MHI) subscale of the Short Form 36 was used to assess psychological health and depression status. Among respondents, 859 (59.5%) said they had acne (51.6% of the boys and 64.8% of the girls). A majority (56.8%) of those who said they had acne also reported a family history of acne. Of the 555 female respondents with acne, 39.1% reported experiencing acne flares in temporal proximity to menstruation. Less than half (38.8%) of respondents with acne had sought or were seeking treatment. The three most common factors believed to trigger or exacerbate acne were stress, lack of sleep and sweat. The mean MHI score of 847 students with acne was significantly lower than 475 students without acne. The mean MHI score of female students with acne was significantly lower than male students with acne. Students with acne were also significantly more depressed than those without acne and female students were significantly more depressed than male students. Acne is a common problem for Japanese teenagers and causes personal and social difficulties. Our results suggest the necessity of educational programs in school or public to ensure that adolescents are aware of acne and to encourage young people to improve their mental health through better acne treatment.
Nakase, Keisuke; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Takenaka, Yuko; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Kawashima, Makoto; Noguchi, Norihisa
Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are normal skin inhabitants that are frequently isolated from lesions caused by acne, and these micro-organisms are considered to contribute to the inflammation of acne. In the present study, we examined the antimicrobial susceptibilities and resistance mechanisms of P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolated from patients with acne vulgaris in a university hospital in Japan from 2009 to 2010. Additionally, we analysed the relationship between the antimicrobial resistance of P. acnes and the severity of acne vulgaris. Some P. acnes strains (18.8 %; 13/69) were resistant to clindamycin. All strains had a mutation in the 23S rRNA gene, except for one strain that expressed erm(X) encoding a 23S rRNA methylase. Tetracycline-resistant P. acnes strains were found to represent 4.3 % (3/69) of the strains, and this resistance was caused by a mutation in the 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, three strains with reduced susceptibility to nadifloxacin (MIC = 16 µg ml(-1)) were detected. When analysing the correlation between the antimicrobial resistance of P. acnes and S. epidermidis, more than 80 % of the patients who carried clindamycin-resistant P. acnes also carried clindamycin-resistant S. epidermidis. However, no epidemic strain that exhibited antimicrobial resistance was detected in the P. acnes strains when analysed by PFGE. Therefore, our results suggest that the antimicrobial resistance of P. acnes is closely related to antimicrobial therapy. Additionally, those P. acnes strains tended to be frequently found in severe acne patients rather than in mild acne patients. Consequently, the data support a relationship between using antimicrobial agents and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.
Pigatto, P; Altomare, G F; Negri, M; Finzi, A F; Vigotti, G; Vergani, C
In severe cystic acne we found low levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A (Apo-A) in the presence of normal total lipids. In a larger number of patients, we always observed significantly lower levels of HDL-C and Apo-A than in either age-matched controls or subjects with acne vulgaris. Since lipoprotein lipase is one major determinant of HDL concentration, we assayed the lipase activity in liver and extra-hepatic tissues by the method of Krauss et al. There was highly significant less total and hepatic lipase activity than in age-matched controls. HDL distribution was examined by zonal ultracentrifugation and a decrease in the HDL2 subclass was discovered. Since HDL are inversely correlated to atherosclerosis, cystic acne is one risk factor for atherosclerosis. The linkage between low HDL levels and severe cystic acne should be further investigated.
Lee, W L; Shalita, A R; Suntharalingam, K; Fikrig, S M
The chemoattraction of Propionibacterium acnes lipase for neutrophils and the effect of lipase inhibitor and two antibiotic agents on the chemotaxis were evaluated. Of the various fractions tested, partially purified lipase (fraction 2c) was the most active cytotaxin produced by P. acnes. Serum mediators were not required for the generation of chemotaxis by lipase in vitro. Diisopropyl phosphofluoridate at low concentration (10(-4) mM) completely inhibited lipase activity as well as polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis generated by lipase. Tetracycline hydrochloride and erythromycin base at concentrations of 10(-1) mM and 1 mM, respectively, caused 100% inhibition of PMN migration toward lipase or zymosan-activated serum. The inhibiting activity of the antibiotics was directed against cells independently of any effect on lipase. Chemotaxis by P. acnes lipase suggests a wider role for this enzyme in the inflammatory process and the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Images PMID:7054130
Kroepfl, Lucija; Emer, Jason J
Acne is one of the most prevalent skin conditions seen by dermatologists. The cosmetic sequelae of severe acne, including scarring and pigmentation, have a profound psychological impact on those in icted. Topical (eg, retinoids, antibiotics, dapsone, hydroxyacids) and oral treatments (eg, antibiotics and/or spironolactone) are often bene cial to control acne or in the instance of oral isotretinoin use, rid the acne permanently; however, these treatments have very little affect on the ultimate cosmetic outcome of the acne scarring and skin texture that results. Given the variety of scar types that can form and the variability of responses seen in various skin types and textures, treatment options are vast without appropriate guidelines for pathways that dictate best timing, combinations, and options in given clinical scenarios. Current treatment options include solo or combina- tions of energy-based (eg, laser, radiofrequency), chemical-based (eg, peels, TCA cross), surgical-based options (eg, subcision, punch excision), microneedling, and llers and/or fat injections. Most recently, fractional radiofrequency-based treatments have been used to improve acne scarring with less reported downtime as compared to lasers or chemical peels and the ability to treat darker or sensitive skin types with less risk of scarring or hyperpigmentation. In severe cystic ares, scarring treatments are often postposed till the acne is under control and in many instances this can limit the dermatologists ability to affect future cosmetic treatments. Based on personal experience of various clinical scenarios in a busy laser practice that treats a signi cant number of patients with acne scarring, fractional radiofrequency is an excellent choice for treating all forms of acne scars with minimal risk to patients, even those on concurrent treatments such as isotretinoin. Additionally, fractional radiofrequency can be used in combination with all other treatment options to speed the time to
Nakamura, Teruko; Furukawa, Asuka; Uchida, Keisuke; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Tamura, Tomoki; Sakonishi, Daisuke; Wada, Yuriko; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Ishige, Yuki; Minami, Junko; Akashi, Takumi
Background Sarcoidosis is caused by Th1-type immune responses to unknown agents, and is linked to the infectious agent Propionibacterium acnes. Many strains of P. acnes isolated from sarcoid lesions cause intracellular infection and autophagy may contribute to the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. We examined whether P. acnes induces autophagy. Methods Three cell lines from macrophages (Raw264.7), mesenchymal cells (MEF), and epithelial cells (HeLa) were infected by viable or heat-killed P. acnes (clinical isolate from sarcoid lymph node) at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100 or 1000 for 1 h. Extracellular bacteria were killed by washing and culturing infected cells with antibiotics. Samples were examined by colony assay, electron-microscopy, and fluorescence-microscopy with anti-LC3 and anti-LAMP1 antibodies. Autophagy-deficient (Atg5-/-) MEF cells were also used. Results Small and large (≥5 μm in diameter) LC3-positive vacuoles containing few or many P. acnes cells (LC3-positive P. acnes) were frequently found in the three cell lines when infected by viable P. acnes at MOI 1000. LC3-positive large vacuoles were mostly LAMP1-positive. A few small LC3-positive/LAMP1-negative vacuoles were consistently observed in some infected cells for 24 h postinfection. The number of LC3-positive P. acnes was decreased at MOI 100 and completely abolished when heat-killed P. acnes was used. LC3-positive P. acnes was not found in autophagy-deficient Atg5-/- cells where the rate of infection was 25.3 and 17.6 times greater than that in wild-type Atg5+/+ cells at 48 h postinfection at MOI 100 and 1000, respectively. Electron-microscopic examination revealed bacterial cells surrounded mostly by a single-membrane including the large vacuoles and sometimes a double or multi-layered membrane, with occasional undigested bacterial cells in ruptured late endosomes or in the cytoplasm. Conclusion Autophagy was induced by intracellular P. acnes infection and contributed to intracellular
It is the purpose of this review to extend our understanding of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor-2b-signaling network in the pathogenesis of acne. A new concept of the role of FGFR2b-signaling in dermal-epithelial interaction for skin appendage formation, pilosebaceous follicle homeostasis, comedogenesis, sebaceous gland proliferation and lipogenesis is presented. The FGFR2-gain-of-function mutations in Apert syndrome and unilateral acneiform nevus are most helpful model diseases pointing the way to androgen-dependent dermalepithelial FGFR2-signaling in acne. Androgen-mediated upregulation of FGFR2b-signaling in acne-prone skin appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. In organotypic skin cultures, keratinocyte-derived interleukin-1α stimulated fibroblasts to secrete FGF7 which stimulated FGFR2b-mediated keratinocyte proliferation. Postnatal deletion of FGFR2b in mice resulted in severe sebaceous gland atrophy. The importance of FGFR2b in sebaceous gland physiology is further supported by the mode of action of anti-acne agents which have been proposed to attenuate FGFR2b-signaling. Downregulation of FGFR2b-signaling by isotretinoin explains its therapeutic effect in acne. Downregulation of FGFR2b-signaling during the first trimester of pregnancy disturbs branched morphogenesis and explains retinoid embryotoxicity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the mediator of growth hormone during puberty, intracts with androgen-dependent FGFR2b-signaling and links androgen- and FGF-mediated signal transduction important in sebaceous gland homeostasis. The search for a follicular defect in the dermalepithelial regulation of growth factor-signaling in acne-prone skin appears to be a most promising approach to clarify the pathogenesis of acne. PMID:20436882
Muhammad, Muneeza; Rosen, Ted
Administration of antibiotics, often for prolonged periods, has become the de facto standard of care for acne (and rosacea). However, the world is now facing a health crisis relating to widespread antibiotic resistance. The authors provide current evidence to suggest that dermatologists should consider a radical departure from standard operating procedure by severely curtailing, if not outright discontinuing, the routine and regular use of antibiotics for acne.
Rosamilia, Lorraine Larsen
Acne and rosacea are common inflammatory processes historically classified in the same disease category, but evolving understanding of their disparate pathophysiology and exacerbating factors have generated an enormous armamentarium of therapeutic possibilities. Patients seek over-the-counter therapies first when managing cutaneous disease; therefore, this review defines ingredients considered to be effective over-the-counter acne and rosacea products, their mechanisms, and safe formulations, including botanical components, oral supplements, and other anecdotal options in this vast skin care domain.
Lynn, Darren D; Umari, Tamara; Dunnick, Cory A; Dellavalle, Robert P
Importance Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15–19-year olds) remains lacking. Objective To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15–19-year olds) and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Design Database summary study. Setting Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Participants Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Main outcomes and measures Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons) associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Conclusion and relevance Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous opportunities for enhanced patient care. To that end, we highlight some of the effective and promising treatments currently available and address important factors, such as sex, nationality, genetics, pathophysiology, and diet, as they relate to acne vulgaris in late adolescence. PMID:26955297
Zaenglein, Andrea L; Pathy, Arun L; Schlosser, Bethanee J; Alikhan, Ali; Baldwin, Hilary E; Berson, Diane S; Bowe, Whitney P; Graber, Emmy M; Harper, Julie C; Kang, Sewon; Keri, Jonette E; Leyden, James J; Reynolds, Rachel V; Silverberg, Nanette B; Stein Gold, Linda F; Tollefson, Megha M; Weiss, Jonathan S; Dolan, Nancy C; Sagan, Andrew A; Stern, Mackenzie; Boyer, Kevin M; Bhushan, Reva
Acne is one of the most common disorders treated by dermatologists and other health care providers. While it most often affects adolescents, it is not uncommon in adults and can also be seen in children. This evidence-based guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in its management. Issues from grading of acne to the topical and systemic management of the disease are reviewed. Suggestions on use are provided based on available evidence.
Hartmann, D; Bollag, W
A number of investigations of the effects of vitamin A deficiency in animals and man and its treatment with natural products containing vitamin A were carried out in the twenties and thirties. In 1942, a clinical study in patients with acne treated with vitamin A yielded encouraging results. Further trials in the forties and fifties, trying to confirm the beneficial effect of oral vitamin A in acne, met with equivocal success. In the sixties, all-trans retinoic acid (tretinoin) became clinically available, and its topical efficacy in acne could be demonstrated. In 1971, oral tretinoin also was shown to be active in patients with acne. Coincidentally, the efficacy of oral 13-cis retinoic acid (isotretinoin) became evident in a series of unpublished studies in Europe. Then, in 1978, a trial carried out at the NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, yielded convincing evidence that isotretinoin is a potent new drug for the treatment of severe cystic acne. In 1982, isotretinoin was registered in the United States and one year later in Europe for the treatment of severe, recalcitrant, cystic acne. Since then, many thousands of patients suffering psychologically and physically from the severity of their disease have been treated successfully with this drug. However, the main concern of physicians prescribing isotretinoin has to focus on its potentially severe side effects, particularly its teratogenicity.
Hello, Muriel; Prey, Sorilla; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Khammari, Amir; Dreno, Brigitte; Stalder, Jean-François; Barbarot, Sébastien
Infantile acne is a rare and poorly understood disorder. The objective of this study was to improve our knowledge about the epidemiology and clinical course of infantile acne, and evaluate approaches to treatment. This two-center retrospective study covered the period between 1985 and 2007. Inclusion criteria were: (i) age less than 24 months when lesions appeared; (ii) presence of both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions; (iii) persistence of lesions for at least 2 months. The data were drawn from clinical and photographic records, followed by administration of a telephone questionnaire to parents. It was proposed that each case be reviewed on the basis of the child's appearance and score on an acne scar clinical grading scale. Sixteen children were included. Nine had a family history of severe adolescent acne. The average duration of disease was 22 months. Two patients had been effectively treated with oral isotretinoin. More than half of the patients exhibited scars. We re-examined five children (average acne scar clinical grading scale score = 12/540). On the basis of the frequency of scarring, and the severity and average duration of lesions, the use of oral retinoids in severe infantile acne warrants evaluation.
Vyas, Amber; Kumar Sonker, Avinesh
Approximately 95% of the population suffers at some point in their lifetime from acne vulgaris. Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit. This inflammatory skin disorder is most common in adolescents but also affects neonates, prepubescent children, and adults. Topical conventional systems are associated with various side effects. Novel drug delivery systems have been used to reduce the side effect of drugs commonly used in the topical treatment of acne. Topical treatment of acne with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) makes direct contact with the target site before entering the systemic circulation which reduces the systemic side effect of the parenteral or oral administration of drug. The objective of the present review is to discuss the conventional delivery systems available for acne, their drawbacks, and limitations. The advantages, disadvantages, and outcome of using various carrier-based delivery systems like liposomes, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and so forth, are explained. This paper emphasizes approaches to overcome the drawbacks and limitations associated with the conventional system and the advances and application that are poised to further enhance the efficacy of topical acne formulations, offering the possibility of simplified dosing regimen that may improve treatment outcomes using novel delivery system. PMID:24688376
Al-Salama, Zaina T; Deeks, Emma D
Dapsone 7.5% gel (Aczone(®)) is indicated for the once-daily topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients aged ≥12 years. Dapsone is a sulfone antibacterial with anti-inflammatory actions, which are thought to be largely responsible for its efficacy in treating acne vulgaris. In two phase III trials of 12 weeks' duration in patients aged ≥12 years with moderate acne vulgaris, once-daily dapsone 7.5% gel reduced acne severity (as per the Global Acne Assessment Score) and lesion counts versus vehicle. The benefits of dapsone 7.5% gel over vehicle were seen as early as week 2 for inflammatory lesion counts, and from week 4 or 8 for other outcomes. Dapsone 7.5% gel was well tolerated, with a low incidence of treatment-related adverse events, with the majority of adverse events being administration-site related and mild or moderate in severity. Thus, dapsone 7.5% gel is an effective and well tolerated option for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients aged ≥12 years, with the convenience of once-daily application.
Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Del Rosso, James Q; Mancini, Anthony J; Cook-Bolden, Fran; Stein Gold, Linda; Desai, Seemal; Weiss, Jonathan; Pariser, David; Zeichner, Joshua; Bhatia, Neal; Kircik, Leon
As the pathophysiology of acne is complex and multifactorial, the continued influx of new basic science and clinical information requires careful analysis before drawing conclusions about what truly contributes to the development and progression of this chronic disease. Our objective is to review the latest evidence and highlight a number of important perspectives on the pathophysiology of acne. An improved understanding of acne pathogenesis should lead to more rational therapy and a better understanding of the role of P acnes opens new perspectives for the development of new treatments and management. Further research may be directed at targeting receptors, adhesion molecules, cytokines, chemokines or other pro-inflammatory targets implicated in the activation of immune detection and response (i.e., toll-like receptors [TLRs], protease-activated receptors [PARs]) that appear to contribute to the pathophysiology of acne. Therapeutic options that reduce the need for topical and/or oral antibiotic therapy for acne are welcome as bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a clinically relevant concern both in the United States and globally.
Walton, S; Cunliffe, W J; Keczkes, K; Early, A S; McGarrigle, H H; Katz, M; Reese, R A
Androgenic stimulation of sebaceous glands is an important factor in the development of acne. We examined 36 females (aged 14-34 years), selected because none had received oral contraceptives, anti-androgen therapy, or systemic antibiotics during the previous year, or isotretinoin therapy, prior to their participation in the study. Subjects were divided into groups on the basis of acne severity, as follows: physiological, mild and moderate. Only two patients had polycystic ovaries on ultrasound examination. Seven patients had irregular menses; none had evidence of hirsutism. We found that the severity of acne, based on the acne grade, was highly correlated with the inflammatory lesion count, and less correlated with the sebum excretion rate. Either acne grade or inflammatory lesion count could be related to some of the five androgenic hormone determinants; free testosterone (TESTOS), delta 4 androstenedione (DELTA 4), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrostenedione sulphate (DHEAS) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Multiple linear regression analysis determined the best model for predicting ACNE scores as involving DELTA 4 and DHEAS (positive effects), and SHBG (negative effect), P < 0.005, R2 = 0.36). In none of the patients were the levels of DHEAS or SHBG outside the normal range. The findings in the two patients with polycystic ovaries did not differ significantly from those in the remainder of the patients.
Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Thiboutot, Diane; Shalita, Alan; Swinyer, Leonard; Tanghetti, Emil; Tschen, Eduardo; Parr, Lisa
Objective. To evaluate the clinical benefit in adolescents of a three-step acne system containing solubilized benzoyl peroxide. Design. Patients in this multicenter, investigator-blind trial were randomly assigned to receive 10 weeks of treatment with either the three-step acne system for normal-to-oily skin (proprietary 2% salicylic acid cleanser twice daily + proprietary 2% salicylic acid toner once daily + solubilized 5% benzoyl peroxide gel twice daily) or with control cleanser + 5% benzoyl peroxide/1% clindamycin gel twice daily. Setting. Patients seeking acne treatment from a dermatologist. Pediatric subgroup analysis from a larger trial. Participants. Eighty-two adolescents with mild-to-moderate facial acne vulgaris. Measurements. Noninflammatory and inflammatory lesion counts, erythema, dryness, peeling, burning/stinging, and itching. Results. The three-step acne system was significantly more effective than benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin in reducing the noninflammatory lesion count at Weeks 2 and 4. The antibiotic-free acne system was also comparably effective to benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin in reducing the inflammatory lesion count at all timepoints. Both regimens were generally well tolerated with mean levels of erythema, dryness, peeling, burning/stinging, and itching less than mild in both groups at all timepoints. Conclusions. The three-step acne system is an effective antibiotic-free acne treatment. Relative to benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin, its ability to achieve comparable reductions in inflammatory lesions, and significantly greater reductions in noninflammatory lesions in the early weeks of treatment is likely attributable to the solubilization of the benzoyl peroxide enhancing the bioavailability and intrafollicular penetration of the benzoyl peroxide.
Wang, Yanhan; Kuo, Sherwin; Shu, Muya; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Dai, Ashley; Two, Aimee; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming
Increasing evidence demonstrates that commensal microorganisms in the human skin microbiome help fight pathogens and maintain homeostasis of the microbiome. However, it is unclear how these microorganisms maintain biological balance when one of them overgrows. The overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a commensal skin bacterium, has been associated with the progression of acne vulgaris. Our results demonstrate that skin microorganisms can mediate fermentation of glycerol, which is naturally produced in skin, to enhance their inhibitory effects on P. acnes growth. The skin microorganisms, most of which have been identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), in the microbiome of human fingerprints can ferment glycerol and create inhibition zones to repel a colony of overgrown P. acnes. Succinic acid, one of four short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) detected in fermented media by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, effectively inhibits the growth of P. acnes in vitro and in vivo. Both intralesional injection and topical application of succinic acid to P. acnes-induced lesions markedly suppress the P. acnes-induced inflammation in mice. We demonstrate for the first time that bacterial members in the skin microbiome can undergo fermentation to rein in the overgrowth of P. acnes. The concept of bacterial interference between P. acnes and S. epidermidis via fermentation can be applied to develop probiotics against acne vulgaris and other skin diseases. In addition, it will open up an entirely new area of study for the biological function of the skin microbiome in promoting human health.
Wang, Yanhan; Kao, Ming-Shan; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Marito, Shinta; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming
Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis, but not P. acnes. A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes. The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid) were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes, mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis, holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne. PMID:27834859
Puhvel, S M; Warnick, M A; Sternberg, T H
Sera from 23 patients with acne vulgaris of varying degrees and sera from 15 patients with skin diseases other than acne were tested for antibody levels to Staphylococcus epidermidis by use of bacterial agglutination and agar-gel immunodiffusion. Antibody levels to S epidermidis varied from 0 to 1:160 in both the patients with acne and in the control groups. There was no correlation between the antibody level to S epidermidis and the degree of acne. In a previous investigation it was found that antibody levels to Corynebacterium acnes are significantly increased in serum from patients with papulopustular and cystic acne. Both S epidermidis and C acnes can frequently be isolated from lesions in acne. The fact that antibody levels are increased to C acnes but not to S epidermidis may indicate that the mere presence of an organism in the acne lesion is not sufficient stimulation for antibody formation. The increase of antibody to C acnes which was demonstrated previously in patients with severe acne vulgaris may therefore reflect a direct involvement of the organism in the acne process.
Wang, Yanhan; Kao, Ming-Shan; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Marito, Shinta; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming
Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis, but not P. acnes. A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes. The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid) were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes, mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis, holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne.
The diagnosis of acne is usually easy, but there are some pitfalls to be avoided. 'Keloid acne of the neck' and beard folliculitis are not acnes in the usual sense: both are inflammatory and fibrous reactions of the hair follicles and frizzy hair; no retentional lesions, blackheads and microcysts--are visible. Gram negative folliculitis classically occurs in acneic male subjects who have undergone extensive treatment with general antibiotics or local antiseptics, but 'de novo' cases do exist. On black skin, this condition is not exceptional, it occurs in both sexes and usually takes the nodular form. The diagnosis should be considered if there is any aggravation of acne which is resistant to classic treatment, with painful nodules on the cheeks. Treatment is based on appropriate antibiotherapy for several weeks and possibly, in a second phase, on Isotretinoin. Pityrosporum folliculitis occurs mainly on the trunk. More frequent in men than in women, it is chiefly observed in subjects living in a hot, humid climate. Demodicidosis is manifested by outbreaks of papular or papulopustular lesions of the face. On black skin the principal differential diagnosis is acne. The presence of numerous parasites is necessary for diagnosis. Clinically speaking, an important sign is when the eyelids are affected. Ivermectin is effective. Acneiform dermatitis may be induced by depigmenting preparations containing powerful dermocorticoids. It is therefore important, in cases of very inflammatory acne, to look for the other clinical signs of voluntary depigmentation. In countries where it is endemic, lepromatous leprosy should be considered. Other common dermatitis may simulate acne or else be associated with it, such as eruptive hidradenoma or molluscum contagiosum. Analysis of the different elementary lesions and the absence of retentional lesions generally enable a diagnosis to be established.
... Could probiotics be the next big thing in acne and rosacea treatments SCHAUMBURG, Ill. (Feb. 3, 2014) — ... link between probiotic use and clearer skin in acne and rosacea patients OVERVIEW: In recent years, probiotics ...
Katsambas, Andreas D; Dessinioti, Clio
Standard systemic therapeutic agents used in acne include oral antimicrobials, isotretinoin, and hormonal agents. Appropriate patient selection is the key to decide when to use hormonal agents as first-line therapy as well as to achieve optimal results. Indications of hormonal therapy in acne in girls and women include proven ovarian or adrenal hyperandrogenism, recalcitrant acne, acne not responding to repeated courses of oral isotretinoin, acne tarda, polycystic ovary syndrome, or the presence of clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as androgenic alopecia or the presence of the seborrhea, acne, hirsutism, alopecia syndrome. We describe the hormonal agents currently available for acne treatment, discuss their indications and contraindications, and address the question of whether they may be used as a first-line therapy in acne.
The ACNS provides a focal point for the national neutron user community to strengthen ties within this diverse group, while at the same time promoting neutron research among colleagues in related disciplines identified as “would-be” neutron users. The American Conference on Neutron Scattering thus serves a dual role as a national user meeting and a scientific meeting. As a venue for scientific exchange, the ACNS showcases recent results and provides forums for scientific discussion of neutron research in diverse fields such as hard and soft condensed matter, liquids, biology, magnetism, engineering materials, chemical spectroscopy, crystal structure, and elementary excitations, fundamental physics and development of neutron instrumentation through a combination of invited talks, contributed talks and poster sessions. As a “super-user” meeting, the ACNS fulfills the main objectives of users' meetings previously held periodically at individual national neutron facilities, with the advantage of a larger and more diverse audience. To this end, each of the major national neutron facilities (NIST, LANSCE, HFIR and SNS) have an opportunity to exchange information and update users, and potential users, of their facility. This is also an appropriate forum for users to raise issues that relate to the facilities. For many of the national facilities, this super-user meeting should obviate the need for separate user meetings that tax the time, energy and budgets of facility staff and the users alike, at least in years when the ACNS is held. We rely upon strong participation from the national facilities. The NSSA intends that the American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) will occur approximately every two years, but not in years that coincide with the International or European Conferences on Neutron Scattering. The ACNS is to be held in association with one of the national neutron centers in a rotating sequence, with the host facility providing local organization
Bayston, Roger; Vera, Litza; Ashraf, Waheed
Shunt infection is a major complication affecting approximately 10% of procedures. Propionibacterium acnes, an anaerobic skin bacterium, is increasingly recognized as a shunt pathogen, causing up to 14% of infections. Though susceptible to penicillin and cephalosporins, P. acnes shunt infections are not preventable by means of perioperative prophylaxis, due to poor cerebrospinal fluid penetration. Antimicrobial shunts with activity against staphylococci are available, but their activity against P. acnes is unknown, and the study was designed to determine this. Three methods of evaluation were used in order to determine the emergence of resistance when exposure is to high inocula for long periods, the time taken to kill 100% of the bacteria attached to the shunt, and the duration of activity under constant flow conditions with repeated bacterial challenge. Despite repeated exposure to high bacterial inocula over 70 days, no resistance was seen. The time taken to kill all attached bacteria, 96 h, was twice that taken to kill attached staphylococci. Nevertheless, under constant flow conditions with repeated challenges, the antimicrobial catheters resisted colonization by P. acnes for 56 days. Using tests that were designed to be clinically predictive when done together, the results suggest that the antimicrobial catheters will be able to prevent colonization of hydrocephalus shunts by P. acnes.
Kittredge, Marina Canepa; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Sokol, Melissa S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Sennet, Laura M.
One of the most commonly used ingredients in over-the-counter acne treatments in cream, gel, and wash form is benzoyl peroxide. It is an anti-bacterial agent that kills the bacterium ("Propionibacterium acne") involved in the formation of acne. The formulation of these products is extremely difficult owing to the instability of benzoyl peroxide.…
Brüggemann, Holger; Lomholt, Hans B.; Tettelin, Hervé; Kilian, Mogens
Propionibacterium acnes is a skin commensal that occasionally acts as an opportunistic pathogen. The population structure of this species shows three main lineages (I–III). While type I strains are mainly associated with sebaceous follicles of human skin and inflammatory acne, types II and III strains are more often associated with deep tissue infections. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in P. acnes, assessed their immunological memory, and addressed the question if such a system could account for type-specific properties of the species. A collection of 108 clinical isolates covering all known phylotypes of P. acnes was screened for the existence of CRISPR/cas loci. We found that CRISPR loci are restricted to type II P. acnes strains. Sequence analyses of the CRISPR spacers revealed that the system confers immunity to P. acnes-specific phages and to two mobile genetic elements. These elements are found almost exclusively in type I P. acnes strains. Genome sequencing of a type I P. acnes isolate revealed that one element, 54 kb in size, encodes a putative secretion/tight adherence (TAD) system. Thus, CRISPR/cas loci in P. acnes recorded the exposure of type II strains to mobile genetic elements of type I strains. The CRISPR/cas locus is deleted in type I strains, which conceivably accounts for their ability to horizontally acquire fitness or virulence traits and might indicate that type I strains constitute a younger subpopulation of P. acnes. PMID:22479553
Min, Seonguk; Park, Seon Yong; Yoon, Ji Young; Suh, Dae Hun
Fractional microneedling radiofrequency (FMR) is one of the promising methods in acne treatment. Moreover, bipolar radiofrequency (BR) generates heat thereby which induces neocollagenosis. FMR may have the potential to be a safe and effective treatment for the patients both with acne and acne scar. This study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of FMR and BR in acne and acne scar treatment. Furthermore, mechanism of the FMR treatment was investigated through skin tissues obtained from subjects. Twenty subjects with mild-to-moderate acne and acne scars were treated in a split-face manner with FMR and BR. Two sessions of treatment was done 4 weeks apart in a total 12-week prospective single-blind, randomized clinical trial. Clinical assessment and sebum measurement were carried out for the evaluation of efficacy and safety. Skin tissues were acquired for investigation of molecular changes. FMR was more effective for acne scar especially in icepick and boxcar scar compared to BR. Both inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions decreased by 80 and 65 % in the FMR-treated side at the final visit of 12 weeks, respectively. FMR treatment resulted in significant reduction of sebum excretion. Both treatments showed no severe adverse effects other than erythema. The FMR showed superior efficacy in acne and acne scar compared with BR. Increased expression of TGFβ and collagen I and decreased expression of NF-κB, IL-8 are suggested to involve in the improvement of acne scar and acne lesion by FMR.
Ghosh, Sangita; Chaudhuri, Soumik; Jain, Vijay Kumar; Aggarwal, Kamal
Acne vulgaris is the most common condition treated by physicians worldwide. Though most acne patients remit spontaneously, for the ones that do not or are unresponsive to conventional therapy or have obvious cutaneous signs of hyperandrogenism, hormonal therapy is the next option in the therapeutic ladder. It is not strictly indicated for only those patients who have cutaneous or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism, but can be used even without any evidence of hyperandrogenism, for therapy-resistant acne. It can be prescribed as monotherapy, but when used in combination with other conventional therapies, it may prove to be more beneficial. Hormonal evaluation is a prerequisite for hormonal therapy, to identify the cause behind hyperandrogenism, which may be ovarian or adrenal. This article reviews guidelines for patient selection and the various available hormonal therapeutic options, their side-effect profile, indications and contraindications, and various other practical aspects, to encourage dermatologists to become comfortable prescribing them. PMID:24700926
Fleischer, Alan B
Rosacea and acne are chronic inflammatory skin conditions that share an inflammatory pathogenesis, but clinically remain quite distinct. Although many have long assumed that these conditions are primarily infectious, emerging evidence suggests that inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Part of the innate immune system, the antimicrobial and proinflammatory cathelicidins, may be downregulated by both azelaic acid and sub antimicrobial doxycycline. In acne, the creation of papules, pustules and nodules is clearly mediated through immune mechanisms, and the antiinflammatory effects of retinoids play a key role in management. Recent observations help us understand in greater detail the role that inflammation plays in these two diseases, and the mechanisms by which commonly used medications exert their effect by modulating inflammatory processes. This review will present and synthesize recently acquired information as it relates to inflammatory acne and rosacea pathogenesis and clinical management.
Akyol, Melih; Ozçelik, Sedat
Systemic isotretinoin has been used to treat severe acne vulgaris for 20 years. However, isotretinoin also represents a potentially useful choice of drugs in many dermatologic diseases other than acne vulgaris. Diseases such as psoriasis, pityriasis rubra pilaris, condylomata acuminata, skin cancers, rosacea, hidradenitis suppurativa, granuloma annulare, lupus erythematosus and lichen planus have been shown to respond to the immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities of the drug. Isotretinoin also helps prevent skin cancers such as basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. A combination of systemic isotretinoin and interferon-alpha-2a may provide a more potent effect than isotretinoin alone in the prevention and treatment of skin cancers.Systemic isotretinoin may be considered as an alternative drug in some dermatologic diseases unresponsive to conventional treatment modalities. However, randomized clinical trials aimed at determining the role of systemic isotretinoin therapy in dermatologic diseases other than acne vulgaris are required.
Kossard, S; Collins, A; McCrossin, I
Skin biopsy specimens from four patients who had recurrent bouts of lesions conforming to the clinical description of acne necrotica were studied. The pathologic findings were dominated by lymphocytic inflammation around centrally placed follicles evolving to follicular necrosis that extended to the perifollicular epidermis and dermis. Early lesions showed the development of multiple individual necrotic keratinocytes within the follicular sheath and adjacent epidermis with lymphocytic exocytosis. Later lesions showed more intense necrosis and scale crust obscuring the central target but were still dominated by a peripheral lymphocytic infiltrate. The early pathologic findings of acne necrotica (varioliformis) are represented by a necrotizing lymphocytic folliculitis and differ from the pattern seen in association with nonspecific excoriations, acute bacterial folliculitis, classic comedogenic acne, or acnitis.
Koulianos, G T
Combination oral contraceptives (OCs) (those that contain estrogen and progestin) are widely used in the treatment of acne because they modify an excessively androgenic hormonal environment and can decrease lesions. Dermatologists' knowledge of the most appropriate OC may be hampered by an incomplete understanding of these agents, misleading promotion, and confusion surrounding the new generation of OCs. Despite reports attributing significance to the degree of androgenicity of the progestin components of OCs, in vitro and animal bioassays of androgenicity have little clinical relevance. Because all of today's low-dose combination OCs are estrogen dominant, they are equally beneficial in women with androgenic conditions such as acne. Use of the OC containing the lowest dose of each hormone, consistent with the patient's needs, can enhance compliance by preventing or limiting common early-cycle side effects (e.g., nausea/vomiting, breast tenderness, weight gain, headache), while providing acne improvement.
Friedlander, Sheila Fallon; Baldwin, Hilary E; Mancini, Anthony J; Yan, Albert C; Eichenfield, Lawrence F
Acne vulgaris is classically considered a disease of adolescence. Although it most commonly occurs and has been best studied in that age group, it can develop at any time during childhood. It is important that health care practitioners recognize the manifestations of neonatal, infantile and childhood acne, as well as the differential diagnosis and best therapeutic approach in the younger child. Acneiform eruptions in infants and toddlers can occasionally be associated with scarring or with other significant disorders that may be life-threatening. In this article, the authors draw on their own clinical experience as well as the available literature to suggest an age-based approach to managing acne in children from the neonatal period through age 11 years.
Facklam, D P; Gardner, J S; Neidert, G L; Westland, M M
After the Food and Drug Administration approved a topical antibiotic for the treatment of acne, we began a postmarketing surveillance study to measure the frequency of antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhea in acne patients treated with topical antibiotics and low doses of oral antibiotics. Pharmacists recruited 13,465 patients who presented a prescription for an acne medication, and we obtained detailed information on the use of the medications, perceived acceptability, and the occurrence of new health events from 6,453 with computer-assisted telephone interviews. Three cases (less than 0.1%) of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and one case (less than 0.1%) of antibiotic-associated colitis were confirmed. We conclude that this methodology can provide further information about the safety of a drug once it is in customary use, at a fraction of the cost of Phase III clinical trials. PMID:2136713
Kelhälä, Hanna-Leena; Palatsi, Riitta; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Lehtimäki, Sari; Väyrynen, Juha P.; Kallioinen, Matti; Kubin, Minna E.; Greco, Dario; Tasanen, Kaisa; Alenius, Harri; Bertino, Beatrice; Carlavan, Isabelle; Mehul, Bruno; Déret, Sophie; Reiniche, Pascale; Martel, Philippe; Marty, Carine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Voegel, Johannes J.; Lauerma, Antti
The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19) were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20), Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ), T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β) and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18) were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy. PMID:25153527
da Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga; Batista, Anna Luiza Fonseca; Macedo, Marzia Silva; Machado Filho, Carlos D’Aparecida Santos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso
Objective The aim of this study was to establish the lipid profile of female patients with acne in the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic in order to observe the prevalence of dyslipidemia in those patients. Methods This is a retrospective transversal study that evaluated the medical records of 416 patients who attended at the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic, at the Dermatology Department, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2012. Relevant data included age and clinical classification of acne. The lipid profile was analyzed according to the results of laboratory tests ordered during outpatient visits, which included total and fractionated cholesterol levels and triglycerides. Results The epidemiological study sample was of 219 patients, with ages ranging from 21 to 61 years (mean of 32.23 years). The predominant clinical grade was papule-pustule acne (grade II) with 156 patients (71%). Regarding the lipid profile of the patients, there was a high increase in total cholesterol levels in 17.35% of the cases. High-density lipoprotein levels were low in 11.42% of the patients, with normal prevalence in 194 subjects. Low-density lipoprotein levels were normal in most patients (60.27%). Very-low-density lipoprotein values were normal in almost all patients (94.06%) and increased in only 13 patients (5.94%). Only 18 patients presented high levels of triglycerides (8.22%). Conclusion The conclusion was that patients with grades II and III acne are more likely to have total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein altered. A correct and early diagnosis can be an important measure for the prevention of the metabolic syndrome in these patients. PMID:26316790
Ingram, J R; Grindlay, D J C; Williams, H C
This review summarizes clinically important findings from 3 systematic reviews, 1 updated guideline and a selection from the 62 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between February 2007 and January 2009 on the topic of acne vulgaris. Low glycaemic-load diets might reduce acne severity but this remains unproven. Written patient information leaflets have not been surpassed by other communication methods. New combination topical treatments have not shown convincing advantages over current combination products such as clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide. Topical dapsone is superior to placebo but has yet to be compared with standard topical treatments. Long-term topical tretinoin to prevent nonmelanoma skin cancer in elderly men was associated with higher all-cause mortality, but there is currently no evidence of increased mortality for topical retinoid use when treating acne. All oral tetracyclines have similar efficacy, yet minocycline is the most costly. Oral isotretinoin monotherapy remains the gold-standard treatment for severe acne. Flutamide plus the oral contraceptive pill is beneficial for acne associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Photodynamic therapy, phototherapy and laser therapy cannot be recommended universally for acne until minimal postinflammatory pigmentation and longer-term benefit can be shown, especially with current high costs. Development of non-antibiotic therapies is preferable to minimize the risk of community antibiotic resistance. Future trials should use active comparators at optimum doses and avoid noninferiority comparisons unless appropriately powered. Trials need to shift from using multiple, unvalidated outcome measures to including patient-reported and quality-of-life outcomes, and all trials should be registered on a public clinical-trials database.
Danby, F W
The recent innovative interventions in the acnes (acne vulgaris, acne rosacea and acne inversa) have not occurred in their management; rather the major changes are occurring in how the disorders and the individual lesions are seen to originate and develop. To finalize the optimal management of each of the acnes will ultimately require that every step in the aetiopathogenesis described and postulated here will need to be tested, validated, and then appropriately countered with environmental and lifestyle adjustments that will lead ultimately to prevention of 'the blight of youth' and its variants.
Takenaka, Yuko; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Takeda, Mikiko; Ashikaga, Sayaka; Kawashima, Makoto
Glycolic acid chemical peeling is effective for treating comedones, and some clinical data show that it also improves inflammatory eruptions. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanism of glycolic acid chemical peeling to improve inflammatory acne. To assess growth inhibitory and bactericidal effects of glycolic acid on Propionibacterium acnes in vitro, we used an agar diffusion method and a time-kill method. To reveal bactericidal effects in vivo, we established an agar-attached method which correlated well with the ordinary swab-wash method, and we used the agar-attached method to compare the numbers of propionibacteria on the cheek treated with glycolic acid chemical peeling. Our results show that 30% glycolic acid (at pH 1.5, 3.5 and 5.5) formed growth inhibitory circles in the agar diffusion method, but the diameters of those circles were smaller than with 1% nadifloxacin lotion or 1% clindamycin gel. In the time-kill method, 30% glycolic acid (at pH 1.5 and 3.5) or 1% nadifloxacin lotion reduced the number of P. acnes to less than 100 CFU/mL within 5 min. In contrast, in 30% glycolic acid (at pH 5.5) or in 1% clindamycin gel, P. acnes survived for more than 4 h. Chemical peeling with 35% glycolic acid (at pH 1.2) decreased the number of propionibacteria on the cheeks of patients compared with untreated controls (P < 0.01). Our results demonstrate that glycolic acid has moderate growth inhibitory and bactericidal effects on P. acnes, and that chemical peeling with glycolic acid works on inflammatory acne via those effects.
Chandrashekar, BS; Ashwini, KR; Vasanth, Vani; Navale, Shreya
Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA) is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA) is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoic acid and GA (RAGA) combination remains unexplored. Aim: The aim of this study remains to retrospectively assess the efficacy of RAGA combination on acne scars in patients previously treated for active acne. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment of 35 patients using topical RAGA combination on acne scars was done. The subjects were 17-34 years old and previously treated for active acne. Case records and photographs of each patient were assessed and the acne scars were graded as per Goodman and Baron's global scarring grading system (GSGS), before the start and after 12 weeks of RAGA treatment. The differences in the scar grades were noted to assess the improvement. Results: At the end of 12 weeks, significant improvement in acne scars was noticed in 91.4% of the patients. Conclusion: The RAGA combination shows efficacy in treating acne scars in the majority of patients, minimizing the need of procedural treatment for acne scars. PMID:25821727
Bez, Yasin; Yesilova, Yavuz; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Sir, Aytekin
Acne is an easily recognizable abnormality which may cause some adverse psychosocial consequences. We aimed to determine the social phobia frequency, social anxiety level, and disease related disability in a group of acne vulgaris patients. One-hundred and forty acne vulgaris patients and 98 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Acne severity was determined by the Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). A psychiatrist interviewed each participant and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) was administered to all participants, who also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Social phobia was diagnosed in 45.7% of acne vulgaris patients and in 18.4% of control subjects. Acne vulgaris patients demonstrated higher performance avoidance and total avoidance scores in LSAS than controls. Acne vulgaris patients without social phobia had higher scores in HADS and LSAS than the acne vulgaris patients with social phobia. They were more disabled in their occupational, social, and familial lives. Social phobia diagnosis predicted disability at work, whereas education level predicted the disability in family life of acne vulgaris patients. Social phobia seems to be a common psychiatric comorbidity which may give rise to some additional disability among acne vulgaris patients.
Rottboell, Louise; de Foenss, Sarah; Thomsen, Kenneth; Christiansen, Helle; Andersen, Stine M.; Dam, Tomas N.; Rosada, Cecilia
Acne is a common skin disease involving colonization with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), hyperproliferation of the follicular epithelium and inflammatory events. Valrubicin is a second-generation anthracycline, non-toxic upon contact, and available in a topical formulation. Valrubicin’s predecessor doxorubicin possesses antibacterial effects and previously we demonstrated that valrubicin inhibits keratinocyte proliferation and skin inflammation suggesting beneficial topical treatment of acne with valrubicin. This study aims to investigate valrubicin’s possible use in acne treatment by testing valrubicin’s antibacterial effects against P. acnes and P. acnes-induced skin inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Valrubicin was demonstrated not to possess antibacterial effects against P. acnes. Additionally, valrubicin was demonstrated not to reduce mRNA and protein expression levels of the inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in vitro in human keratinocytes co-cultured with P. acnes. Moreover, in vivo, valrubicin, applied both topically and intra-dermally, was not able to reduce signs of inflammation in mouse ears intra-dermally injected with P. acnes. Taken together, this study does not support beneficial antibacterial and anti inflammatory effects of topical valrubicin treatment of acne. PMID:26734122
Wang, Peiru; Wang, Hongwei; Ding, Huilin; Lv, Ting; Miao, Fei; Li, Jingjing; Shi, Lei; Wang, Xiuli
Acne is one complex skin disorders, which can lead to adverse psychological effects. Multiple factors are correlated with risk of acne and several treatments have been explored. The prevalence and risk factors are suspected to be varied in different populations with different genetic backgrounds and lifestyle. Therefore, this study investigated the risk factors, psychological impacts and current treatments of acne in Shanghai area of China by a retrospective questionnaire study. This study showed that the subjects with family history (especially paternal history) were prone to develop severe acne (p<0.001). Besides, patients with severe acne might exhibit more severe psychological disorders (p<0.001). The most frequently used methods were pharmacological treatments. These results indicate that acne is prone to induce severe psychological disorders, and could be affected by multiple factors. Furthermore, these results provide valuable reference for exploring the preventive measures and treatments of acne in Shanghai area of China.
Fabbrocini, G; Saint Aroman, M
Recent evidence suggests that acne vulgaris begins as an inflammation in and around the sebaceous gland and alterations in the lipid content of sebum, which drive hyperproliferation and increased desquamation of keratinocytes within sebaceous follicles. This prevents sebum drainage, causing the formation of microcomedones, which spontaneously regress or become acne lesions when the pilosebaceous unit is further blocked by the accumulation of corneocytes. These conditions are favourable for the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, which further aggravates acne by enhancing abnormal desquamation, sebum production and inflammation. Also, skin fragility due to inflammation or irritation by anti-comedogenic agents can worsen the situation. Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract (Pierre Fabre Dermo Cosmetique) soothes and restores fragile skin in acne by reducing inflammation and inhibits bacterial adhesion of Propionibacterium acnes. Cosmeceuticals combining Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract and hydro-compensating actives, which are available with or without anti-comedogenic hydroxy acids, provide a balanced, multifaceted approach for acne patients.
Grando, Luciana Rosa; Horn, Roberta; Cunha, Vivian Trein; Cestari, Tania Ferreira
BACKGROUND The Cardiff Acne Disability Index was originally developed in English for measuring quality of life of acne patients. Considering the psychosocial impact of this disease, it is important to have instruments culturally and linguistically validated for use in Brazilian adolescents. OBJECTIVE To translate the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese, culturally adapt it, and verify its reliability and validity in adolescent patients with acne. METHODS In the first step, the Cardiff Acne Disability Index was translated and validated linguistically to Brazilian Portuguese in accordance with international guidelines published. In the second step, the validation of the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese instrument was performed, when patients aged from 12 to 20 years with acne were selected. The participants were interviewed to collect demographic data, submitted to the classification of acne by the Global Acne Grading System and invited to respond the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version and DLQI (>16 years) or CDLQI (≤16 years). The internal consistency of Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and concurrent validity was measured by the Spearman correlation coefficient and Student ‘s t-test for paired samples. RESULTS The study included 100 adolescents. The Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version showed good reliability and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.73). The concurrent validity of the scale was supported by a strong and significant correlation with CDLQI / DLQI instruments (rs=0.802;p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version is a reliable, valid and valuable tool to measure the impact of acne on quality of life in adolescent patients. PMID:27192517
Vary, Jay C
This article reviewed some of the more common diseases of the skin appendages that are encountered in medicine: hyperhidrosis, acne, AA, FPHL, AGA, and TE. The pathophysiology behind the conditions and their treatments were discussed so that the clinician can make logical therapeutic choices for their affected patients.
Kipper, M.S.; Taylor, A.; Ashburn, W.L.
A case of increased Ga-67 uptake in a patient with active acne vulgaris is reported. The scan was requested in a search for metastatic testicular carcinoma or bleomycin pulmonary toxicity. Careful clinical evaluation including physical examination was necessary in order to avoid an erroneous scan interpretation.
Saklamaz, A; Uyar, B; Yalcin, M; Cengiz, H
Background: Isotretinoin (Iso) in acne treatment may cause dyslipidemia and increase in liver enzymes. Moreover, its effect on lipid and glucose metabolism may induce atherosclerotic complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), osteopontin (OPN), lipid, high sensitive C-reaktive protein (hs-CRP) levels, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in acne patients before and after Iso treatment. Materials: Twenty-one acne patients were treated with Iso (0.5-0.8 mg/kg) for four months. Blood tests for lipid profile, fasting glucose, liver enzymes, OPN, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP and CIMT measurements were performed before and after Iso treatment. Serum levels of OPN and, hs-CRP were measured by ELISA and particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay respectively. Results: Iso treatment significantly increased lipid levels, CIMT (0.60-0.74 mm; p ˂0.001); whereas it non-significantly increased HOMA-IR (0.91-1.87; p =0.70), OPN (4.32-5.44 ng/ml; p =0.27), and hs-CRP (0.08-0.09 mg/dl; p =0.88) levels. There was no correlation between OPN and CIMT (p =0.77). Conclusion: Isotretinoin treatment for four months significantly increased CIMT in acne patients. Hippokratia 2016, 20(1): 14-18 PMID:27895437
Asseray, Nathalie; Papin, Christophe; Touchais, Sophie; Bemer, Pascale; Lambert, Chantal; Boutoille, David; Tequi, Brigitte; Gouin, François; Raffi, François; Passuti, Norbert; Potel, Gilles
The identification of Propionibacterium acnes in cultures of bone and joint samples is always difficult to interpret because of the ubiquity of this microorganism. The aim of this study was to propose a diagnostic strategy to distinguish infections from contaminations. This was a retrospective analysis of all patient charts of those patients with >or=1 deep samples culture-positive for P. acnes. Every criterion was tested for sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio, and then the diagnostic probability of combinations of criteria was calculated. Among 65 patients, 52 (80%) were considered truly infected with P. acnes, a diagnosis based on a multidisciplinary process. The most valuable diagnostic criteria were: >or=2 positive deep samples, peri-operative findings (necrosis, hardware loosening, etc.), and >or=2 surgical procedures. However, no single criterion was sufficient to ascertain the diagnosis. The following combinations of criteria had a diagnostic probability of >90%: >or=2 positive cultures + 1 criterion among: peri-operative findings, local signs of infection, >or=2 previous operations, orthopaedic devices; 1 positive culture + 3 criteria among: peri-operative findings, local signs of infection, >or=2 previous surgical operations, orthopaedic devices, inflammatory syndrome. The diagnosis of P. acnes osteomyelitis was greatly improved by combining different criteria, allowing differentiation between infection and contamination.
Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.
The near-infrared (NIR) laser radiation due to its high penetration depth is widely used in phototherapy and photothermolysis. In application to skin appendages a high selectivity of laser treatment is needed to prevent light action on surrounding tissues. Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye may provide a high selectivity of treatment due to effective ICG uploading by a target and its narrow band of considerable absorption just at the wavelength of the NIR diode laser. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of the NIR diode laser photothermolysis in combination with topical application of ICG suggested for treatment of acne vulgaris. Two volunteers with back-located acne were enrolled. Skin sites of subjects were stained by ICG and irradiated by NIR laser-diode light (803 or 809 nm). The individual acne lesions were photothermally treated at 18 W/cm2 (803 nm, 0.5 sec) without skin surface cooling or at 200 W/cm2 (809 nm, 0.5 sec) with cooling. The results of the observations during a month after the treatment have shown that ICG stained acne inflammatory elements were destructed for light exposures of 0.5 sec.
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of acne drug products. 333.350 Section 333.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of acne drug products. 333.350 Section 333.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of acne drug products. 333.350 Section 333.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE...
da Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Machado, Carlos D Aparecida S
Acne in adult women is a hard-to-manage frequent disease with many relapse cases. It mostly interferes with quality of life and causes major social and metabolic losses for patients. This is a transversal retrospective study and the aim was to standardize the research on circulating androgenic hormone levels and to detect hyperandrogenic states early, showing the frequency and the pattern of the altered hormones, useful resources to correctly evaluate each patient. In this study 835 women above 15 years of age, with acne or aggravation cases, were analyzed. The aim was to verify the percentage of androgen examinations with levels above normal. The levels of the hormones dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydrotestosterone, androstenedione and total testosterone were measured in all patients. The evaluation of the hormone profile showed that 54.56% of the patients had hyperandrogenism, and the levels of DHEA were most frequently elevated. Therefore, in the face of the importance of hyperandrogenism in the pathogenesis of acne, standardizing the research of the hormone profile is paramount for the treatment and control of relapses in case of a surge of acne breakouts during a woman's adult life.
Borovaya, Alena; Olisova, Olga; Ruzicka, Thomas; Sárdy, Miklós
Cosmetic defects in acne may provoke a wide range of mental disorders (depressive, social-phobic, etc.). Isotretinoin is a very effective acne treatment; hence, it usually resolves the associated mental disorders. However, more available data show the possible association of taking isotretinoin and the onset of a depressive syndrome that includes frank depression and even suicidal ideation. The frequency of depressive disorders during isotretinoin treatment varies from 1% to 11% in different studies, and it is unclear whether this is a consequence of isotretinoin therapy. Since it crosses the blood-brain barrier, isotretinoin affects the expression of a broad spectrum of genes in the limbic structures, thus affecting the function of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic neurons involved in the regulation of mood and emotion. It was suggested that isotretinoin in high concentrations inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis and induces apoptosis of hippocampal cells. However, some studies do not confirm this pathogenic role, and isotretinoin was even reported to have a therapeutic effect in acne-associated depression. In this review, we highlight epidemiological data, the underlying molecular pathogenesis, and the aspects of prevention concerning retinoid-induced depression in acne from the practical point of view of a dermatologist.
Melnik, Bodo C
Acne vulgaris, an epidemic inflammatory skin disease of adolescence, is closely related to Western diet. Three major food classes that promote acne are: 1) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, 2) milk and dairy products, 3) saturated fats including trans-fats and deficient ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Diet-induced insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)-signaling is superimposed on elevated IGF-1 levels during puberty, thereby unmasking the impact of aberrant nutrigenomics on sebaceous gland homeostasis. Western diet provides abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), glutamine, and palmitic acid. Insulin and IGF-1 suppress the activity of the metabolic transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1). Insulin, IGF-1, BCAAs, glutamine, and palmitate activate the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), the key regulator of anabolism and lipogenesis. FoxO1 is a negative coregulator of androgen receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), liver X receptor-α, and sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), crucial transcription factors of sebaceous lipogenesis. mTORC1 stimulates the expression of PPARγ and SREBP-1c, promoting sebum production. SREBP-1c upregulates stearoyl-CoA- and Δ6-desaturase, enhancing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids in sebum triglycerides. Diet-mediated aberrations in sebum quantity (hyperseborrhea) and composition (dysseborrhea) promote Propionibacterium acnes overgrowth and biofilm formation with overexpression of the virulence factor triglyceride lipase increasing follicular levels of free palmitate and oleate. Free palmitate functions as a “danger signal,” stimulating toll-like receptor-2-mediated inflammasome activation with interleukin-1β release, Th17 differentiation, and interleukin-17-mediated keratinocyte proliferation. Oleate stimulates P. acnes adhesion, keratinocyte proliferation, and comedogenesis via interleukin-1α release. Thus, diet
Reynolds, Rebecca C; Lee, Stephen; Choi, James Y J; Atkinson, Fiona S; Stockmann, Karola S; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C
Acne vulgaris may be improved by dietary factors that increase insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a low-glycemic index diet would improve facial acne severity and insulin sensitivity. Fifty-eight adolescent males (mean age ± standard deviation 16.5 ± 1.0 y and body mass index 23.1 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)) were alternately allocated to high or low glycemic index diets. Severity of inflammatory lesions on the face, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis modeling assessment of insulin resistance), androgens and insulin-like growth factor-1 and its binding proteins were assessed at baseline and at eight weeks, a period corresponding to the school term. Forty-three subjects (n = 23 low glycemic index and n = 20 high glycemic index) completed the study. Diets differed significantly in glycemic index (mean ± standard error of the mean, low glycemic index 51 ± 1 vs. high glycemic index 61 ± 2, p = 0.0002), but not in macronutrient distribution or fiber content. Facial acne improved on both diets (low glycemic index -26 ± 6%, p = 0.0004 and high glycemic index -16 ± 7%, p = 0.01), but differences between diets did not reach significance. Change in insulin sensitivity was not different between diets (low glycemic index 0.2 ± 0.1 and high glycemic index 0.1 ± 0.1, p = 0.60) and did not correlate with change in acne severity (Pearson correlation r = -0.196, p = 0.244). Longer time frames, greater reductions in glycemic load or/and weight loss may be necessary to detect improvements in acne among adolescent boys.
Levrier, M; Degrelle, H; Bestaux, Y; Bourry-Moreno, M; Brun, J P; Sailly, F
The authors conducted a comparative study of the effect of two oral contraceptives Varnoline and Diane in the treatment of androgenic manifestations: acne and hirsutism. The two products tested seem to have a similar efficacy on this type of clinical manifestations.
Hazarika, Neirita; Rajaprabha, Radha K
Background and Aims: Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of adolescents, often extending into adulthood. Psychosocial impact of acne on health-related quality of life (QoL) has been identified, but it remains under-evaluated, especially in Indian patients. This study was aimed to assess the impact of acne and its sequelae on the QoL. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based, prospective, cross-sectional study done between June and November 2014 on 114 consenting patients above 15 years of age with acne vulgaris. Acne vulgaris and its sequelae were graded, and QoL was assessed by using Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Most cases (64%) were between 15 and 20 years. Females (57%) outnumbered males. Facial lesions (61.4%) and grade II acne were most common. Mean DLQI score was 7.22. DLQI scores were statistically influenced by the age of the patient, duration and grade of acne, acne scar, and postacne hyperpigmentation. Conclusion: This study showed significant impairment of QoL in acne patients. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris are important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment. PMID:27057015
Iio, Kouji; Iio, Tomoe Ueno; Okui, Yuhei; Ichikawa, Hirohisa; Tanimoto, Yasushi; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Kanehiro, Arihiko; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Nakata, Yasunari; Kataoka, Mikio
Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated as an etiologic agent of sarcoidosis since the isolation of this bacterium from sarcoid lesions. We experimentally produced a murine pulmonary granuloma model using P. acnes with several features that simulate sarcoidosis. Mice were sensitized with heat-killed P. acnes and complete Freund's adjuvant and were subsequently challenged with heat-killed P. acnes at 2-week intervals. P. acnes-challenged mice developed epitheloid cell granulomas in the lungs. These mice showed a pulmonary immune response characterized by an increased number of T-lymphocytes, especially CD4+ cells, and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid also increased. Furthermore, significant elevations in both angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) serum levels and antibody titers against P. acnes were observed. Mice sensitized with P. acnes without complete Freund's adjuvant were capable of forming pulmonary granulomas, which appeared to be caused by indigenous P. acnes. The genome of P. acnes was found in the lungs, BAL cells, hilar lymph nodes, liver, and spleen in non-sensitized mice, which were thought to be germ-free. These results suggest that the immune response against indigenous P. acnes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of granuloma formation in a murine model.
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Propionibacterium acnes is the only microorganism that has been isolated from sarcoid lesions. Many P. acnes have been detected in sarcoid lymph nodes using quantitative PCR and in sarcoid granulomas by in situ hybridization. P. acnes trigger factor protein causes a cellular immune response only in sarcoid patients and induces pulmonary granulomas in mice sensitized with the protein and adjuvant, but only those with latent P. acnes infection in their lungs. Eradication of P. acnes by antibiotics prevents the development of granulomas in this experimental model. Although P. acnes is the most common commensal bacterium in the lungs and lymph nodes, P. acnes-specific antibody detected the bacterium within sarcoid granulomas of these organs. P. acnes can cause latent infection in the lung and lymph node and persist in a cell-wall-deficient form. The dormant form is activated endogenously under certain conditions and proliferates at the site of latent infection. In patients with P. acnes hypersensitivity, granulomatous inflammation is triggered by intracellular proliferation of the bacterium. Proliferating bacteria may escape granulomatous isolation, spreading to other organs. Latent P. acnes infection in systemic organs can be reactivated by another triggering event, leading to systemic sarcoidosis.
Al-Shobaili, Hani A
Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder with a multifactorial pathogenesis. Oxidative status has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several skin diseases, including acne. This study was aimed to investigate the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in acne vulgaris patients with varying severities. The study involved 156 patients with acne and 46 healthy human controls. Based on clinical examination, patients were grouped into 3 subgroups as follows: mild, moderate, and severe acne. Oxidative stress was examined by measuring plasma levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Plasma levels of MDA in acne patients were significantly higher as compared with that of the controls, whereas activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT were lower. Moreover, TAC was also low in acne patients as compared with that of the controls. Higher MDA levels in the severe acne subgroup as compared with that of the mild and moderate subgroups were also observed. Furthermore, in the severe acne subgroup, a significant negative correlation was observed between MDA and CAT levels. The data suggests that oxidative stress plays a key role in acne progress and may be employed as a biomarker index to assess the disease's activity and to monitor its treatment.
Ruzicka, Filip; Schmitz, Jonathan E.; James, Garth A.; Machackova, Tana; Jancalek, Radim; Smrcka, Martin; Lipina, Radim; Ahmed, Fahad S.; Alamin, Todd F.; Anand, Neel; Baird, John C.; Bhatia, Nitin; Demir-Deviren, Sibel; Eastlack, Robert K.; Fisher, Steve; Garfin, Steven R.; Gogia, Jaspaul S.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Kuo, Calvin C.; Lee, Yu-Po; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Michu, Elleni; Noskova, Hana; Raz, Assaf; Sana, Jiri; Shamie, A. Nick; Stewart, Philip S.; Stonemetz, Jerry L.; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Witham, Timothy F.; Coscia, Michael F.; Birkenmaier, Christof; Fischetti, Vincent A.; Slaby, Ondrej
Background In previous studies, Propionibacterium acnes was cultured from intervertebral disc tissue of ~25% of patients undergoing microdiscectomy, suggesting a possible link between chronic bacterial infection and disc degeneration. However, given the prominence of P. acnes as a skin commensal, such analyses often struggled to exclude the alternate possibility that these organisms represent perioperative microbiologic contamination. This investigation seeks to validate P. acnes prevalence in resected disc cultures, while providing microscopic evidence of P. acnes biofilm in the intervertebral discs. Methods Specimens from 368 patients undergoing microdiscectomy for disc herniation were divided into several fragments, one being homogenized, subjected to quantitative anaerobic culture, and assessed for bacterial growth, and a second fragment frozen for additional analyses. Colonies were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and P. acnes phylotyping was conducted by multiplex PCR. For a sub-set of specimens, bacteria localization within the disc was assessed by microscopy using confocal laser scanning and FISH. Results Bacteria were cultured from 162 discs (44%), including 119 cases (32.3%) with P. acnes. In 89 cases, P. acnes was cultured exclusively; in 30 cases, it was isolated in combination with other bacteria (primarily coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp.) Among positive specimens, the median P. acnes bacterial burden was 350 CFU/g (12 - ~20,000 CFU/g). Thirty-eight P. acnes isolates were subjected to molecular sub-typing, identifying 4 of 6 defined phylogroups: IA1, IB, IC, and II. Eight culture-positive specimens were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and revealed P. acnes in situ. Notably, these bacteria demonstrated a biofilm distribution within the disc matrix. P. acnes bacteria were more prevalent in males than females (39% vs. 23%, p = 0.0013). Conclusions This study confirms that P. acnes is prevalent in herniated disc tissue. Moreover, it
Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease treated by physicians. Current topical and oral treatments may have short- and long-term negative consequences. Since radiofrequency (RF) energy has been shown to reduce sebum production and 410-nm blue light has been shown to kill Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) cells, these modalities in combination should be a highly effective treatment of acne vulgaris with little or no downtime or risk. This case report describes the efficacy and safety of RF energy (Accent, Alma Lasers Inc, Buffalo Grove, IL) and blue light (BLU-U, Dusa Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Wilmington, MA) used in combination to treat grade 4 cystic acne and acne scars in an Asian woman of skin type IV. The results were considered excellent by both investigators and the patient, with improvement in the skin tone as an added cosmetic benefit.
Farrah, Georgia; Tan, Ernest
Although acne is not an infectious disease, oral antibiotics have remained a mainstay of treatment over the last 40 years. The anti-inflammatory properties of oral antibiotics, particularly the tetracyclines, are efficacious in treating inflammatory acne lesions. Common prescribing practices in Dermatology exert significant selection pressure on bacteria, contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic use for acne not only promotes resistance in Propionibacterium acnes, but also affects other host bacteria with pathogenic potential. This review will summarize the commonly used treatments for acne vulgaris, and how they should be combined as rational treatment. The indications for using oral antibiotics in acne will be highlighted. Strategies described in the literature to conserve the utility of oral antibiotics will be summarized. These include limiting the duration of antibiotic therapy, concomitant use of a topical non-antibiotic agent, use of subantimicrobial dose doxycycline, and the introduction of topical dapsone.
Weinberg, Jeffrey M
Available for more than 5 decades, benzoyl peroxide has been a "workhorse" of acne therapy. The benefits of this agent include reduction in Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) with decrease in inflammatory lesions, efficacy as both "leave on" and cleanser formulations and reduced emergence of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes strains. As the effect of benzoyl peroxide on P. acnes is a direct toxic effect rather than as a "true" antibiotic, resistance to benzoyl peroxide does not occur and has never been reported. Benzoyl peroxide in hydrophase base (Brevoxyl Creamy Washes and Gels) has shown significant efficacy in the treatment of acne, with lower irritancy than other benzoyl peroxide preparations. It is felt that the low irritancy of this product is related to a unique delivery vehicle containing dimethyl isosorbide, which dissolves benzoyl peroxide crystals on the skin. Clinical studies demonstrating the efficacy and safety of benzoyl peroxide in hydrophase base will be reviewed.
Choi, Uk-Han; Nam, Eun Sook; Ahmad, Rather Irfan; Park, Yong-Ha
Acne vulgaris is the most common skin diseases that people experience during their lives. Thirteen rhizosphere isolates were screened against Propionibacterium acnes. The bacterium exhibited the highest activity against P. acnes was identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus YML008 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the changes in morphology of P. acnes. Preliminary studies on the antimicrobial substance demonstrated the hydrophilic nature of compound with MIC of 0.17mg/ml and MBC of 0.3mg/ml. The cytotoxic effect of the extract was least (80% survival) as compared to benzyperoxide (40% survival). These results suggest YML008 as a promising bioresource and may be useful as a lead bacterium to develop a new type of anti-acne skin care prep to cure or prevent acne. Further, mechanism of action and proper clinical trials may be promising for this research.
Kasparis, Christos; Loffeld, Annette
A 3-year-old boy was referred to the dermatology department with a 12-month history of facial erythema associated with a papular-pustular facial eruption consistent with childhood acne. He had been diagnosed with XYY syndrome identified during genetic analysis for cardiac anomalies at birth. XYY syndrome is an aneuploidy of the sex chromosomes which affects 1 in 1000 male births. It is often asymptomatic and identified incidentally following genetic analysis for other conditions. The syndrome can be associated with an increased risk of learning difficulties and delayed language skills. Early diagnosis could alert physicians to the possibility of subtle developmental and learning abnormalities and result in prompt management. Our case highlights the fact that the presence of childhood acne could aid in the early detection of XYY syndrome.
Kasparis, Christos; Loffeld, Annette
A 3-year-old boy was referred to the dermatology department with a 12-month history of facial erythema associated with a papular-pustular facial eruption consistent with childhood acne. He had been diagnosed with XYY syndrome identified during genetic analysis for cardiac anomalies at birth. XYY syndrome is an aneuploidy of the sex chromosomes which affects 1 in 1000 male births. It is often asymptomatic and identified incidentally following genetic analysis for other conditions. The syndrome can be associated with an increased risk of learning difficulties and delayed language skills. Early diagnosis could alert physicians to the possibility of subtle developmental and learning abnormalities and result in prompt management. Our case highlights the fact that the presence of childhood acne could aid in the early detection of XYY syndrome. PMID:24395875
Weaber, K.; Freedman, R.; Eudy, W. W.
A lipase which hydrolyzes triglycerides (tricaprylin and trilaurin) and naphthyl laurate was obtained from the broth of Corynebacterium acnes cultures by ammonium sulfate fractionation. Ca2+ and sodium taurocholate stimulated activity of the enzyme. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) did not inhibit activity of the Ca2+-activated enzyme, but lipolytic activity was inhibited by EDTA in the absence of Ca2+. Tetracycline (10−4m) produced a slight inhibition of the lipase activity with 5 × 10−5m or less showing no effect on the lipase activity. However, complete inhibition by tetracycline at 10−4m was observed for Ca2+-activated enzyme. Tetracycline inhibition of the C. acnes lipase could be demonstrated at concentrations as low as 10−6m. PMID:4252558
Szychta, Paweł; Stępniewski, Sławomir; Mackiewicz-Wysocka, Małgorzata; Czyżewska-Majchrzak, Łucja; Wasilewska, Agnieszka
Acne inversa (AI, hidradenitis suppurativa, Velpeau’s disease, Verneuil’s disease) is a severe, chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology, detected on the basis of clinical symptoms more frequently in women than in men. Purulent lesions in the form of nodules and inflammatory tumors, fistulas and scars are present in the areas with hair follicles and apocrine glands, most commonly on the armpits, groin, around the anus and pubic region. Acne inversa can lead to physical and mental disorders. Unfortunately, it is often misdiagnosed and ineffectively treated. The paper presents a case of a 46-year-old patient who was successfully treated surgically for AI around the anus and buttocks by excision of the changes and closure of the wound with local flaps and split-thickness skin grafts, taken with dermatome from the rear surface of the thighs. Surgical treatment is the method of choice in the treatment of severe AI. PMID:24278084
Faure, M; Drapier-Faure, E
Acne, androgenogenetic alopecia, hyperseborrhea and hirsutism may result from hyperandrogenism in women. This may be peripheral "idiopathic" hyperandrogenism due to cutaneous metabolism of steroids, but in some cases hyperandrogenism is due to abnormal production or input of steroids with androgenic activity (hyperplasia, endocrine tumors, cysts, consumption of progestogens or other hormones with androgenic activity, menopause...). An assessment is useful only in cases of acne or alopecia if they are accompanied by other signs of peripheral hyperandrogenism and/or disturbed menstruation. The treatment is based on the administration of an anti-androgen (in France, usually cyproterone acetate), combined with other local or systemic treatments for the problem, depending on the age, dermatological signs and context.
Charakida, Aikaterini; Seaton, Edward D; Charakida, Marietta; Mouser, Paul; Avgerinos, Antonias; Chu, Antony C
Acne vulgaris is a common dermatosis affecting 80% of the population. To date, different treatments have been used to manage this condition. Antibacterials and retinoids are currently the mainstay of treatment for acne, but their success rate varies. Phototherapy is emerging as an alternative option to treat acne vulgaris. Studies examining the role of different wavelengths and methods of light treatment have shown that phototherapy with visible light, specifically blue light, has a marked effect on inflammatory acne lesions and seems sufficient for the treatment of acne. In addition, the combination of blue-red light radiation seems to be superior to blue light alone, with minimal adverse effects. Photodynamic therapy has also been used, even in nodular and cystic acne, and had excellent therapeutic outcomes, although with significant adverse effects. Recently, low energy pulsed dye laser therapy has been used, and seems to be a promising alternative that would allow the simultaneous treatment of active acne and acne scarring. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of phototherapy as a monotherapy or an adjuvant treatment in the current management of acne vulgaris.
Adalatkhah, Hassan; Sadeghi Bazargani, Homayoun
Background Although, melasma is most prevalent among Asian young women, and also darkly pigmented individuals are particularly prone to developing post inflammatory hyperpigmentation, to the best of our knowledge, there are rare or no studies about the association of melasma and Post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate how likely is a melasma patient to developed post inflammatory hyperpigmentation when compared to patients with inflammatory acne lesions who do not have melasma. Patients and Methods This comparative study was conducted on 400 participants, 200 subjects involved with pigmented lesions of melasma and inflammatory acne lesions and200 involved only with inflammatory Acne lesions without melasma. Melasma, acne and post inflammatory hyper pigmentation, if existed, were assessed by a dermatologist, and pigmentation depth was assessed by wood's lamp. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suitable for study design was used to assess the association between melasma and post-acne pigmentation. Results We found out that 24.1% of patients without melasma had post-acne pigmentation compared to 66.8% in melasma group (P < 0.001). The likelihood of observing post-acne pigmentation was found to be nearly six times more in melasma patients versus those without melasma. Association existed after controlling for possible confounders such as melanin score and time length of self-reported sun exposure, and acne severity score. Conclusions Melasma appears to increase the likelihood of post-acne pigmentation. PMID:24349727
Saising, Jongkon; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan
Propionibacterium acnes have been recognized as one of the main causative agents in pathogenesis of acne. Twenty one isolates of P. acnes isolated from acne lesions were screened for lipase and protease activity which are reported to be associated in acne and inflammation. Interestingly, all P. acnes isolates demonstrated lipase activity. Similarly, 90% of test P. acnes produced protease enzyme. Antibacterial activity of the ethanol extract of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaves and rhodomyrtone, its principle compound were tested against P. acnes using broth macrodilution method. The MIC(90) values of the ethanol extract and rhodomyrtone were 32 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively. The numbers of the bacterial cells were reduced at least 99% after treatment with the ethanol extract and rhodomyrtone within 72 and 24 h, respectively. Cytotoxicity test of the extract and rhodomyrtone was performed on human normal fibroblast. The IC(50) values of the ethanol extract and rhodomyrtone were 476 and more than 200 μg/mL, approximately 15 and 400 folds higher than the MIC(90) values indicating that both substances were very low cytotoxic which could be applied as topical therapeutic anti-acne agents.
Leheste, Joerg R; Ruvolo, Kathryn E; Chrostowski, Joanna E; Rivera, Kristin; Husko, Christopher; Miceli, Alyssa; Selig, Martin K; Brüggemann, Holger; Torres, German
This review discusses the biology and behavior of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a dominant bacterium species of the skin biogeography thought to be associated with transmission, recurrence and severity of disease. More specifically, we discuss the ability of P. acnes to invade and persist in epithelial cells and circulating macrophages to subsequently induce bouts of sarcoidosis, low-grade inflammation and metastatic cell growth in the prostate gland. Finally, we discuss the possibility of P. acnes infiltrating the brain parenchyma to indirectly contribute to pathogenic processes in neurodegenerative disorders such as those observed in Parkinson's disease (PD).
Leheste, Joerg R.; Ruvolo, Kathryn E.; Chrostowski, Joanna E.; Rivera, Kristin; Husko, Christopher; Miceli, Alyssa; Selig, Martin K.; Brüggemann, Holger; Torres, German
This review discusses the biology and behavior of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a dominant bacterium species of the skin biogeography thought to be associated with transmission, recurrence and severity of disease. More specifically, we discuss the ability of P. acnes to invade and persist in epithelial cells and circulating macrophages to subsequently induce bouts of sarcoidosis, low-grade inflammation and metastatic cell growth in the prostate gland. Finally, we discuss the possibility of P. acnes infiltrating the brain parenchyma to indirectly contribute to pathogenic processes in neurodegenerative disorders such as those observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). PMID:28352613
Sieck, E A; Enzenauer, R W; Cornell, F M; Butler, C
K-Sol is a widely used corneal preservation medium. It has an excellent record for corneal storage and no previous report of contamination. During September 1988, on five of our K-Sol-stored donor rims Propionibacterium acnes grew. Cultures of unopened K-Sol also yielded P acnes. This report reviews previous contaminations of corneal storage media and the special characteristics of P acnes that enabled it to survive precautions taken against infection. The detection of P acnes was not obvious, and we emphasize the need for appropriate culturing of all donors, both aerobically and anaerobically, and close scrutiny of delayed inflammation in postoperative patients.
Layton, Alison M
Acne represents the most common inflammatory dermatosis seen worldwide and is the leading reason for seeing a dermatologist. This article provides some tips for managing acne in a safe and effective manner to minimize the physical and psychological scars that can result from acne. Tips include how to optimize available treatment regimens according to the evidence base and target therapy to pathophysiologic factors, while also tailoring treatments to patient expectation and needs. Attention is given to minimizing the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in acne patients and beyond.
Harper, Julie C
Acne vulgaris may be effectively treated with combination oral contraceptive pills (COCs) in women. COCs may be useful in any woman with acne in the absence of known contraindications. When prescribing a COC to a woman who also desires contraception, the risks of the COC are compared with the risks associated with pregnancy. When prescribing a COC to a woman who does not desire contraception, the risks of the COC must be weighed against the risks associated with acne. COCs may take 3 cycles of use to show an effect in acne lesion count reductions.
Acne vulgaris alters the normal skin physiology, impairing stratum corneum and transepidermal water loss. A male's normal skin physiologic state is different than a female's and may have implications when choosing treatment when the skin is altered in a disease state. Transepidermal water loss, pH, and sebum production are different between the sexes. Several underlying conditions present in male acne patients at several ages that may require a more in-depth evaluation. As knowledge of the pathogenesis of acne expands, the differences in skin physiology between the sexes may alter the manner in which male patients with acne medications are approached.
Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko
To clarify the relationship between major cutaneous microorganisms (Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus and Malassezia spp.) and acne vulgaris (acne), we examined the microbiota quantitatively in the follicular contents of inflammatory acne and on the facial skin of patients with acne. Fifteen Japanese untreated acne outpatients were studied. The follicular contents from inflammatory acne lesions of the face were collected using a comedo extractor. The skin surface samples were obtained by the swab method from 10 cm(2) of facial skin. The microbiota was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. The microbiota in follicular contents was similar to that on the skin surface, namely, there were large populations of Propionibacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Malassezia spp. Moreover, the number of Malassezia spp. on the skin surface was correlated with that of inflammatory acne and that in follicular contents. This study clarified that there are large populations of Propionibacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Malassezia spp. in follicular contents. These results suggest the possibility that not only Propionibacterium acnes but also other cutaneous resident microorganisms are related to acne. Particularly, we considered that Malassezia spp. is closely related.
Woźniak, Magdalena; Kaczmarek-Skamira, Elżbieta; Zegarska, Barbara
Acne in adults is a chronic, increasingly common disease, especially among women. It differs in pathogenesis and clinical presentation from adolescent acne. Acne in adults is associated with Western diet, defined as high consumption of milk, high glycemic load and high calorie intake. Metabolic signals of this diet result in a significant increase in insulin/insulin growth factor 1 serum level and consequently in the molecular interplay of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 kinase (mTORC1)/forkhead box protein 1 (FoxO1) mediated nutrient signaling, leading to increased proliferation of keratinocytes, increased lipogenesis and sebum production and finally to aggravation of acne. PMID:28035217
Trompezinski, Sandra; Weber, Sophie; Cadars, Benoît; Larue, Florence; Ardiet, Nathalie; Chavagnac-Bonneville, Marlène; Sayag, Michèle; Jourdan, Eric
Introduction Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit triggered by Propionibacterium acnes. A bakuchiol, Ginkgo biloba extract, and mannitol (BGM) complex has been developed to provide patients with acne with a specific dermocosmetic to be used adjunctively with conventional treatments. Objective The aim of these studies was to assess the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative potential of BGM complex and its individual compounds as well as its impact on sebum composition. Methods The antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative potential of BGM complex and its compounds was assessed through in vitro, ex vivo, and clinical studies. The clinical benefit of BGM complex formulated in a cream was assessed in subjects prone to acne through sebum composition analysis and photometric assessments. Results Results from the studies showed that the BGM complex has significant antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties. At similar concentrations, bakuchiol has up to twice the antioxidative potential than vitamin E. In subjects, BGM complex regulated the sebum composition in acne patients by increasing the level of sapienic and linolenic acid and reducing the level of oleic acid. The reduced number of porphyrins on the skin surface showed that it is also effective against P. acnes. Conclusion BGM complex provides a complete adjunctive care in patients with acne by targeting etiopathogenic factors of acne: dysseborrhea, inflammation, and P. acnes proliferation. PMID:27621660
Torrelo, Antonio; Fernandez-Crehuet, Pablo; Del Prado, Elena; Martes, Pilar; Hernández-Martín, Angela; De Diego, Verónica; Carapeto, Francisco
Patau syndrome is a chromosomal disorder associated with multiple malformations caused by inheritance of an extra chromosome (trisomy 13). Some skin defects have been reported in patients with Patau syndrome, such as scalp defects, glabellar stains, deep palmar creases, rocker-bottom feet, convex soles, hyperconvextity of the nails, and multiple hemangiomas. To our knowledge, widespread comedonal and cystic acne have not been previously reported in Patau syndrome.
Zhao, Sizheng; Goodson, Nicola J
We present the case of a 35-year-old man with thoracic back pain and stiffness, whose only medical history was cystic acne treated with repeated courses of retinoids. His thoracic spine was severely limited in range of movement and was found, on X-ray, to have unilateral hyperostosis typical of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH)--an often asymptomatic condition rarely found in those under 50. Back stiffness in young patients with prolonged retinoid exposure should be investigated.
Diseases of seborrhoic origin include rosacea, acne, gram-negative folliculitis, demodex-folliculorum, perioral dermatitis as well as seborrhoic dermatitis. An important prerequisite for adequate therapy is the knowledge of these different diseases. Unfortunately, topic steroids are often applied, resulting in well known corticosteroid side-effects like skin atrophy and teleangiectasias. The different clinical diseases of seborrhoic origin are reviewed here and a treatment guide is presented.
Gao, Yunqing; Liu, Songhao; Zhang, You; Liu, T. C.
Since 1989, we have cured 367 persons of facial acne of different course by using direct irradiation of high-power CO2 laser combing with operative therapy of low-power CO2 laser. The cure rate is 100 percent. In this paper, we stated the therapeutic approach. It was shown that this therapeutic approach is simple and effective, and its recurrence rate is zero. There are no cicatrices after healing. It is easy to accept it, and is worthy of extension.
Amer, M; Ramadan, A; Abdel Monem, A
Seventy-five women suffering from acne vulgaris classified into three groups according to the grade of the disease. Anti-androgenic tablets cyproterone acetate (CPA), were given in three cycles. The total number of patients whose condition improved was 52% after the first cycle, 55% after the second cycle, and 81.3% after the third cycle. No serious side effects were encountered. CPA is a suitable therapeutic modility for AV in women who use contraceptives.
Redmond, G P; Bergfeld, W F
Androgen excess disorders--acne, alopecia, and hirsutism--can be treated effectively with endocrine therapy such as androgen receptor blockers or antagonists, or with androgen suppression. Spironolactone, estrogen, and dexamethasone are considered the most effective approaches to treatment. Whatever the modality, careful planning is key to success, with recognition that response rates vary from patient to patient. A treatment regimen generally continues for at least 2 years.
Karamata, Varshaben Vejabhai; Gandhi, A M; Patel, P P; Desai, M K
Aims: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge and pattern of self-medication for acne among undergraduate medical students at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in II MBBS (Group A), III MBBS Part I (Group B), and III MBBS Part II (Group C) students. Prevalidated questionnaire about knowledge, attitude, and practice of self-medication were administered to participants. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 582 students who responded to questionnaire, 518 suffered from acne. Self-medication practice was observed in 59.2% students. Significantly higher number of female students practiced self-medication (P < 0.0001). Most common source of information was seniors/friends/family members (34.2%). The mildness of illness (42.3%) was the most common reason of self-medication. A total mean score of knowledge was significantly higher in Group C as compared to Group A (P < 0.001) and Group B (P < 0.05). Allopathic medication was preferred by 69.8% students. Seventy-five percentage students read leaflet/package insert/label instruction and expiry date of the medicines. Conclusions: The participating students lack the knowledge about self-medication for acne. Adequate knowledge and awareness about the appropriate use of medication will reduce the practice of self-medication and improve rational prescribing.
Moss, C W; Dowell, V R; Lewis, V J; Schekter, M A
A detailed study of the cultural characteristics and cellular fatty acid composition of 27 isolates of Corynebacterium acnes was performed to establish the properties by which this organism may be identified and characterized. The fatty acids were extracted directly from whole cells and examined as methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. Each strain possessed a similar fatty acid profile which was characterized by a large percentage of C15 branched-chain acid. Uniformity in certain biochemical reactions and cultural characteristics was also observed. All strains were catalase-positive, nonmotile, and urease-negative, reduced nitrate, liquefied gelatin, failed to hydrolyze esculin and starch, and gave a positive methyl red test. Glucose, fructose, and glycerol were fermented, but not lactose, salicin, sucrose, maltose, xylose, or arabinose. Production of hydrogen sulfide and indole, fermentation of mannitol, and hemolytic activity were variable characteristics. Two species of the genus Propionibacterium were also tested and found to be similar to C. acnes both in cultural characteristics and fatty acid composition. The results strengthen previous suggestions that C. acnes should be classified in the genus Propionibacterium.
Garg, Shilpa; Baveja, Sukriti
Background: Atrophic acne scars are difficult to treat. The demand for less invasive but highly effective treatment for scars is growing. Objective: To assess the efficacy of combination therapy using subcision, microneedling and 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peel in the management of atrophic scars. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with atrophic acne scars were graded using Goodman and Baron Qualitative grading. After subcision, dermaroller and 15% TCA peel were performed alternatively at 2-weeks interval for a total of 6 sessions of each. Grading of acne scar photographs was done pretreatment and 1 month after last procedure. Patients own evaluation of improvement was assessed. Results: Out of 16 patients with Grade 4 scars, 10 (62.5%) patients improved to Grade 2 and 6 (37.5%) patients improved to Grade 3 scars. Out of 22 patients with Grade 3 scars, 5 (22.7%) patients were left with no scars, 2 (9.1%) patients improved to Grade 1and 15 (68.2%) patients improved to Grade 2. All 11 (100%) patients with Grade 2 scars were left with no scars. There was high level of patient satisfaction. Conclusion: This combination has shown good results in treating not only Grade 2 but also severe Grade 4 and 3 scars. PMID:24761094
Sarazin, F; Dompmartin, A; Nivot, S; Letessier, D; Leroy, D
We report the case of a little girl who presented with a nodulocystic acne which had its onset at the age of 20 months. She had no clinical or biological features of endocrinopathy. The lesions did not respond to conventional antibiotics so she was started on oral isotretinoin. A seven-month treatment period was necessary to achieve remission. The onset of infantile acne is usually around 6 to 16 months and there is a male predominance. The onset is later in females. Oral erythromycin is the first line treatment when topical therapies are inefficacious. Some cystic lesions do not respond to oral antibiotics. In these cases, oral isotretinoin may be effective and the treatment is similar to that of an adult. Clinical and biological tolerance is good with no growth retardation. Lesions may relapse after the withdrawal of isotretinoin but they are less important and easily controlled with topical treatments. Isotretinoin can be used for nodulocystic acne to reduce the risk of scarring.
Arora, Sandeep; Malik, Ajay; Kumar, Dharmendra; Sodhi, Neha
Acne fulminans (AF) is a very rare severe form of acne seen in young males, characterized by a sudden and explosive onset of hemorrhagic pustules and ulceration on the trunk, systemic features in the form of fever, polyarthropathy, malaise, erythema nodosum and painful osteolytic bone involvement with leukocytosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Conventional treatment of AF includes corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents for the initial phase followed by isotretinoin. Active hepatitis B infection with a high viral load precludes the administration of any immunosuppressive drugs. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of occasional acne who presented with AF of sudden onset following administration of interferon-alpha-2a for her recently detected hepatitis B infection. Management of hepatitis B was withheld in view of her general condition. The patient was managed with low dose isotretinoin with subsidence of lesions. AF in a young female precipitated by interferon and its management with isotretinoin in the presence of active hepatitis B infection make the case unique. PMID:27057488
Zárate, Mariela S; Yahni, Diego; Guevara, Martín; Smayevsky, Jorgelina
Brain abscesses by Propioni-bacterium acnes are rare. The rapid identification of this pathogen is important in order to choice the appropriate antibiotic therapy. We describe the case of a patient with excision of a multiform glioblastoma who 9 months later presented a tumor recurrence. A subtotal tumor excision was made and implants chemotherapy were placed in the residual tumor. After one month of surgery the patient presented a brain abscess. A craniotomy for drainage was performed. P. acnes was isolated from the biopsy and from purulent material. Identification was made by conventional biochemical tests and by the API system 20 A. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) to clindamycin, penicillin, amoxicillin and metronidazole was determined. The values of MIC (microg/ml) obtained were: 0.250, 0.040, 0.023 and 256, respectively. The patient received cefepime and metronidazole intravenously during 30 days and completed treatment with oral clindamycin for 60 days, considering the possibility of adjacent bone involvement. Eight months after the drainage the patient had no evidence of infection or tumor recurrence. Although P. acnes is a rare cause of post-neurosurgical infection, it should be considered as a possible pathogen in postoperative brain abscesses.
Millikan, Larry E
Both comedogenesis and the development of inflammatory lesions in acne vulgaris appear to be related to genetic as well as immune processes. The key regulatory cytokine, interleukin-1alpha, has recently been documented as playing a major role in both the hypercornification and the orchestration of immune factors, ultimately resulting in noninflammatory and inflammatory lesions. Topical retinoids, such as tretinoin, and topical retinoid analogs, such as adapalene and tazarotene, help normalize the abnormal follicular keratinocyte desquamation - a key pathophysiologic factor in comedogenesis. This normalization also helps mitigate against the development of a propitious microenvironment for Propionibacterium acnes. Preclinical data suggest that topical retinoids and retinoid analogs may also have direct anti-inflammatory effects. A wealth of clinical data confirms that topical retinoids and retinoid analogs significantly reduce inflammatory lesions. Comparative clinical trials also demonstrate that adapalene has the best cutaneous tolerability profile of all these agents. Optimal therapy for inflammatory acne would involve the use of topical retinoids or retinoid analogs combined with oral or topical antibacterials.
Chiang, Audris; Hafeez, Farhaan; Maibach, Howard I
Accurate assessment of acne severity is essential for determining the appropriate treatment required. This paper reviews photographic methods for such assessment. Literature included met the following criteria: proposed photographic standards to assess acne, evaluated such standards, or offered photographic methods to improve visualization and assessment. Validity was evaluated by comparing given photographic grading methods to other methods, such as lesion counting. Many photographic standards were shown to be objective, time-efficient, and have intra-grader and inter-grader consistency. Photography also documents progress for retrospective verification. Drawbacks include not allowing determination of depth, minimization of small lesions and erythema, and difficulty in maintaining consistent settings. Fluorescence and polarized photography improve visualization beyond clinical observation alone. Advances such as computer alignment, imaging segmentation, and three-dimensional analysis methods track lesions and measure objective characteristics. The combined experience summarized here strongly promotes the use of a photographic standard in assessing acne severity. Cook's method can also be used to train and qualify graders. Photographic advancements improve accuracy of assessment by solving problems with consistent settings and depth visualization. Further advancements can improve image analysis through analysis of objective attributes.
Draelos, Zoe Diana; Callender, Valerie; Young, Cherie; Dhawan, Sunil Sharan
Combination acne medications provide enhanced treatment opportunities. A commonly used acne therapy may combine a topical antibiotic with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) to prevent antibiotic resistance while optimizing control of microcomedone formation with a retinoid. Unfortunately, this combination of highly efficacious medications may cause irritation because of the inherent skin irritancy of BPO and retinoids. The present study was undertaken to determine if vehicle optimization of a clindamycin-BPO formulation could increase the tolerability of an added retinoid. Forty-six women with mild to moderate facial acne were enrolled in a 3-center, institutional review board-approved, 2-week, split-face study to compare an optimized vehicle (glycerin and dimethicone) clindamycin-BPO formulation with a traditional clindamycin-BPO formulation, with tretinoin cream 0.025% applied to the entire face. The use of the optimized vehicle clindamycin-BPO formulation in combination with tretinoin cream 0.025% resulted in significantly less erythema and dryness on evaluation days 4, 7, and 14 (P < .05), as assessed by the blinded dermatologist investigators. The incorporation of new vehicles into topical dermatologic medications allows medication combinations with enhanced tolerability.
Del Rosso, James Q
Until recently, with the exception of oral isotretinoin for the treatment of severe recalcitrant nodular acne, systemic therapy for acne vulgaris and rosacea has been based on anecdotal support, clinical experience, and small clinical trials. Tetracycline derivatives are the predominant systemic agents that have been used for both disease states, prescribed in dose ranges that produce antibiotic activity. Anti-inflammatory dose doxycycline, a controlled-release (CR) 40-mg capsule formulation of doxycycline that is devoid of antibiotic activity when administered once daily, was US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the treatment of inflammatory lesions (papules and pustules) of rosacea, based on large-scale phase 3 pivotal trials and long-term microbiologic and safety data. Also, an extended-release (ER) tablet formulation of minocycline was approved by the FDA for the treatment of inflammatory lesions of moderate to severe acne vulgaris in patients 12 years and older based on large-scale phase 3 clinical trials that evaluated efficacy and safety, dose-response analysis, and long-term data. This article discusses the studies and clinical applications related to the use of these agents.
Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Lawrence F
Parts 1 and 2 of this 3-part series provided an overview of the epidemiology, visible patterns, and important considerations for clinical and laboratory evaluation of acne vulgaris (AV) in adult women and reviewed the role of proper skin care and topical therapies in this patient population. In Part 3, oral therapies including combination oral contraceptives, spironolactone, antibiotics, and isotretinoin are discussed along with important considerations that clinicians should keep in mind when selecting oral agents for management of AV in adult women.
Nguyen, Catherine M; Beroukhim, Kourosh; Danesh, Melissa J; Babikian, Aline; Koo, John; Leon, Argentina
Introduction Chronic skin conditions have been well reported to affect a patient’s quality of life on multiple dimensions, including the psychosocial domain. Psychosocial is defined as the interrelation of social factors with an individual’s thoughts and behavior. The assessment of the psychosocial impact of skin disease on a patient can help direct the dermatologists’ treatment goals. To evaluate the psychosocial impact of skin disease, we conducted a review of the literature on three skin conditions with onsets at various stages of life: acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis. Methods A PubMed search was conducted in March 2015 using the terms “psychosocial” AND “acne”, “psychosocial” AND “vitiligo”, and “psychosocial” AND “psoriasis”. The results were limited to articles published in English in the past 5 years studying patients of all ages. Results and their references were evaluated for relevance according to their discussion of psychosocial qualities in their patients and the validity of psychosocial assessments. The search for acne yielded 51 results, and eleven were found to be relevant; vitiligo yielded 30 results with ten found to be relevant; and psoriasis yielded 70 results with seven found to be relevant. Results According to the articles evaluated, 19.2% of adolescent patients with acne were affected in their personal and social lives. Social phobia was present in 45% of patients with acne compared to 18% of control subjects. Race and sex played a role in self-consciousness and social perceptions of the disease. Vitiligo negatively affected marriage potential and caused relationship problems in >50% of patients. Psoriasis negatively affected multiple domains of life, including work, relationships, and social activities. Anxiety and depression affected not only psoriasis patients but also their cohabitants; up to 88% of cohabitants had an impaired quality of life. Conclusion Though all three skin conditions resulted in an increase
Kang, Dezhi; Shi, Baochen; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Li, Huiying
Various diseases have been linked to the human microbiota, but the underlying molecular mechanisms of the microbiota in disease pathogenesis are often poorly understood. Using acne as a disease model, we aimed to understand the molecular response of the skin microbiota to host metabolite signaling in disease pathogenesis. Metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that the transcriptional profiles of the skin microbiota separated acne patients from healthy individuals. The vitamin B12 biosynthesis pathway in the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes was significantly down-regulated in acne patients. We hypothesized that host vitamin B12 modulates the activities of the skin microbiota and contributes to acne pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the skin microbiota in healthy subjects supplemented with vitamin B12. We found that the supplementation repressed the expression of vitamin B12 biosynthesis genes in P. acnes and altered the transcriptome of the skin microbiota. One of the 10 subjects studied developed acne 1 week after vitamin B12 supplementation. To further understand the molecular mechanism, we revealed that vitamin B12 supplementation in P. acnes cultures promoted the production of porphyrins, which have been shown to induce inflammation in acne. Our findings suggest a new bacterial pathogenesis pathway in acne and provide one molecular explanation for the long-standing clinical observation that vitamin B12 supplementation leads to acne development in a subset of individuals. Our study discovered that vitamin B12, an essential nutrient in humans, modulates the transcriptional activities of skin bacteria, and provided evidence that metabolite-mediated interactions between the host and the skin microbiota play essential roles in disease development.
Öztürk, Perihan; Orhan, Fatma Özlem; Özer, Ali; Karakaş, Tuğba; Öksüz, Ali Nuri; Yetişir, Nur Yalçın
Background: Acne is the most common skin disease, affecting nearly 85% of the population as well as their lives. Acne can severely affect social and psychological functioning. Patients with acne may have anxiety, depression, decreased self-esteem, interpersonal difficulties, unemployment, social withdrawal, and even suicidal intent. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the temperament and character inventory (TCI) of patients with acne and to compare the results with those of healthy controls. Study Design: Case-control study Methods: The study population consisted of 47 patients with acne, and 40 healthy control subjects. All participants were instructed to complete a self-administered 240-item TCI and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: In this study, the scores for the temperament properties Worry and pessimism (HA1) and Dependence (RD4) and the character properties Social acceptance (C1) and Integrated conscience (C5) were found to be higher in acne patients than in healthy controls (p<0.05). Compared to the controls, depression and anxiety scores were found to be markedly higher in the patients with acne. Acne type correlated positively with the Disorderliness (NS4) subscale of Novelty seeking (NS) and anxiety. Additionally, acne type correlated negatively with the Attachment (RD3) subscale of Reward Dependence (RD), with the Transpersonal identification (ST2) and Spiritual acceptance (ST3) subscales of Self-Trancendence (ST), and with the Compassion (C4) sub-scale of Cooperativeness (C). Conclusion: Studies in this area may lead to the development of specific and focused interventions for TCI in patients with acne vulgaris. We suggest that the evaluation and treatment of acne should also include psychosomatic approaches in clinical practice. PMID:25207094
Seité, Sophie; Caixeta, Clarice; Towersey, Loan
Background Acne is a chronic disease of the pilosebaceous unit that mainly affects adolescents. It is the most common dermatological problem, affecting approximately 80% of teenagers between 12 and 18 years of age. Diagnosis is clinical and is based on the patient’s age at the time the lesions first appear, and on its polymorphism, type of lesions, and their anatomical location. The right treatment for the right patient is key to treating acne safely. The aim of this investigational survey was to evaluate how Brazilian dermatologists in private practice currently manage acne. Materials and methods Dermatologists practicing in 12 states of Brazil were asked how they manage patients with grades I, II, III, and IV acne. Each dermatologist completed a written questionnaire about patient characteristics, acne severity, and the therapy they usually prescribe for each situation. Results In total, 596 dermatologists were interviewed. Adolescents presented as the most common acneic population received by dermatologists, and the most common acne grade was grade II. The doctors could choose more than one type of treatment for each patient, and treatment choices varied according to acne severity. A great majority of dermatologists considered treatment with drugs as the first alternative for all acne grades, choosing either topical or oral presentation depending on the pathology severity. Dermocosmetics were chosen mostly as adjunctive therapy, and their inclusion in the treatment regimen decreased as acne grades increased. Conclusion This survey illustrates that Brazilian dermatologists employ complex treatment regimens to manage acne, choosing systemic drugs, particularly isotretinoin, even in some cases of grade I acne, and heavily prescribe antibiotics. Because complex regimens are harder for patients to comply with, this result notably raises the question of adherence, which is a key factor in successful treatment. PMID:26609243
Yiu, Z Z N; Madan, V; Griffiths, C E M
Acne conglobata (AC) is a chronic, severe, inflammatory variant of acne characterized by development of cystic nodules, abscesses and sinus tracts. AC may prove resistant to conventional acne therapy. The off-label use of adalimumab for the treatment of AC has been reported recently. We present a 26-year-old man with AC resistant to conventional treatment, who was treated with 40 mg adalimumab every other week, with significant clinical improvement. We review the evidence for the use of tumour necrosis factor antagonists in AC and related conditions. This case provides further evidence supporting the role of adalimumab in the treatment of AC.
Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Kambarev, Stanimir; Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Khammari, Amir; Dréno, Brigitte
ABSTRACT Propionibacterium acnes is now well-known and recognized for its implication in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of an erythromycin-resistant P. acnes strain isolated from a case of folliculitis of the scalp belonging to phylotype IA1 and sequence type 18 (ST18). PMID:28126936
Brown, Teagan L.; Petrovski, Steve; Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert; Tucci, Joseph
Aims To isolate and characterise phage which could lyse P. acnes and to formulate the phage into a delivery form for potential application in topical treatment of acne infection. Methods and Results Using standard phage isolation techniques, ten phage capable of lysing P. acnes were isolated from human skin microflora. Their genomes showed high homology to previously reported P. acnes phage. These phage were formulated into cetomacrogol cream aqueous at a concentration of 2.5x108 PFU per gram, and shown to lyse underlying P. acnes cells grown as lawn cultures. These phage formulations remained active for at least 90 days when stored at four degrees Celsius in a light protected container. Conclusions P. acnes phage formulated into cetomacrogol cream aqueous will lyse surrounding and underlying P. acnes bacteria, and are effective for at least 90 days if stored appropriately. Significance and Impact of the Study There are few reports of phage formulation into semi solid preparations for application as phage therapy. The formulation method described here could potentially be applied topically to treat human acne infections. The potential exists for this model to be extended to other phage applied to treat other bacterial skin infections. PMID:26964063
Mallon, E; Newton, J N; Klassen, A; Stewart-Brown, S L; Ryan, T J; Finlay, A Y
Skin diseases such as acne are sometimes thought of as unimportant, even trivial, when compared with diseases of other organ systems. To address this point directly, validated generic questionnaires were used to assess morbidity in acne patients and compare it with morbidity in patients with other chronic diseases. For 111 acne patients referred to a dermatologist, quality of life was measured using the Dermatology Life Quality Index, Rosenberg's measure of self-esteem, a version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the Short Form 36 (SF-36). Clinical severity was measured using the Leeds Acne Grade. Population quality of life data for the SF-36 instrument were available from a random sample of adult local residents (n = 9334) some of whom reported a variety of long-standing disabling diseases. All quality of life instruments showed substantial deficits for acne patients that correlated with each other but not with clinically assessed acne severity. The acne patients (a relatively severely affected group) reported levels of social, psychological and emotional problems that were as great as those reported by patients with chronic disabling asthma, epilepsy, diabetes, back pain or arthritis. Acne is not a trivial disease in comparison with other chronic conditions. This should be recognized in the allocation of health care resources.
Background We believe that instances of neuroticism and common psychiatric disorders are higher in adults with acne vulgaris than the normal population. Objective Instances of acne in adults have been increasing in frequency in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate personality traits and common psychiatric conditions in patients with adult acne vulgaris. Methods Patients who visited the dermatology outpatient clinic at Bozok University Medical School with a complaint of acne and who volunteered for this study were included. The Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL 90-R) Global Symptom Index (GSI), somatization, depression, and anxiety subscales and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form (EPQ-RSF) were administered to 40 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria before treatment. The results were compared with those of a control group. Results Of the 40 patients included in this study, 34 were female and 6 were male. The GSI and the somatization, depression, and anxiety subscales of the SCL 90-R were evaluated. Patients with adult acne had statistically significant higher scores than the control group on all of these subscales. In addition, patients with adult acne had statistically significantly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSF. Conclusion Our results show that common psychiatric conditions are frequent in adult patients with acne. More importantly, neurotic personality characteristics are observed more frequently in these patients. These findings suggest that acne in adults is a disorder that has both medical and psychosomatic characteristics and requires a multi-disciplinary approach. PMID:25673931
Huber, H P; Nook, T
The efficacy of Clotrimazol cream paste containing a penetration enhancer in the treatment of acne vulgaris was objectified by investigating the sebum composition. Following treatment over three and six weeks, the ratio of triglyceride to free fatty acid significantly increased, which indicated an effective reduction of the lipase activity of Propionibacterium acnes within the sebaceous follicle.
Schmidt, Nathan W.; Agak, George W.; Deshayes, Stephanie; Yu, Yang; Blacker, Alyssa; Champer, Jackson; Xian, Wujing; Kasko, Andrea M.; Kim, Jenny; Wong, Gerard C. L.
Although antibiotics are a common treatment for acne, the difficulties inherent to effective antimicrobial penetration in sebum and selective antimicrobial action in skin are compounded by increasing resistance of Propionibacterium acnes clinical isolates. To address these problems, we engineered Pentobra, a peptide-aminoglycoside molecule which has multiple mechanisms of antibacterial action, and investigated whether it can be a potential candidate for the treatment of acne. Pentobra combines the potent ribosomal activity of aminoglycosides with the bacteria-selective membrane-permeabilizing abilities of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Pentobra demonstrated potent and selective killing of P. acnes, but not against human skin cells in vitro. In direct comparison, Pentobra demonstrated bactericidal activity and drastically outperformed free tobramycin (by 5–7 logs) against multiple P. acnes clinical strains. Moreover, EM studies showed that Pentobra had robust membrane activity, as treatment with Pentobra killed P. acnes cells and caused leakage of intracellular contents. Pentobra may also have potential anti-inflammatory effects as demonstrated by suppression of some P. acnes-induced chemokines. Importantly, the killing activity was maintained in sebaceous environments as Pentobra was bactericidal against clinical isolates in comedones extracts isolated from human donors. Our work demonstrates that equipping aminoglycosides with selective membrane activity is a viable approach for developing antibiotics against P. acnes that are effective in cutaneous environments. PMID:25668237
Shiono, Yuta; Ishii, Ken; Nagai, Shigenori; Kakinuma, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Aya; Funao, Haruki; Kuramoto, Tetsuya; Yoshioka, Kenji; Ishihama, Hiroko; Isogai, Norihiro; Takeshima, Kenichiro; Tsuji, Takashi; Okada, Yasunori; Koyasu, Shigeo; Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Aizawa, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Morio
Whether Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) causes surgical-site infections (SSI) after orthopedic surgery is controversial. We previously reported that we frequently find P. acnes in intraoperative specimens, yet none of the patients have clinically apparent infections. Here, we tracked P. acnes for 6 months in a mouse osteomyelitis model. We inoculated P. acnes with an implant into the mouse femur in the implant group; the control group was treated with the bacteria but no implant. We then observed over a 6-month period using optical imaging system. During the first 2 weeks, bacterial signals were detected in the femur in the both groups. The bacterial signal completely disappeared in the control group within 28 days. Interestingly, in the implant group, bacterial signals were still present 6 months after inoculation. Histological and scanning electron-microscope analyses confirmed that P. acnes was absent from the control group 6 months after inoculation, but in the implant group, the bacteria had survived in a biofilm around the implant. PCR analysis also identified P. acnes in the purulent effusion from the infected femurs in the implant group. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that P. acnes causes SSI only in the presence of an implant. PMID:27615686
Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Kambarev, Stanimir; Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Lepelletier, Didier; Bémer, Pascale; Corvec, Stéphane
Propionibacterium acnes was previously described as a potential implant-related pathogen. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of four P. acnes strains, isolated from spine material, hip arthroplasty, and knee arthroplasty infections in France belonging to different sequence types (ST18, ST27, and ST36).
Bowe, Whitney P; Logan, Alan C
Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder, one that is frequently associated with depression, anxiety and other psychological sequelae. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the extent to which oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Emerging studies have shown that patients with acne are under increased cutaneous and systemic oxidative stress. Indeed, there are indications that lipid peroxidation itself is a match that lights an inflammatory cascade in acne. The notion that lipid peroxidation is a 'starter gun' in acne is not a new one; here we review the nearly 50-year-old lipid peroxidation theory and provide a historical perspective to the contemporary investigations and clinical implications.In addition, we present a novel hypothesis in which lipid peroxidation may be priming an increased susceptibility to co-morbid depression and anxiety in those with acne. The emerging research on the systemic burden of oxidative stress in acne sheds further light on the brain-skin axis. The recent findings also suggest potential avenues of approach for the treatment of acne via specific nutrients, dietary modifications, oral and topical interventions.
Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder, one that is frequently associated with depression, anxiety and other psychological sequelae. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the extent to which oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Emerging studies have shown that patients with acne are under increased cutaneous and systemic oxidative stress. Indeed, there are indications that lipid peroxidation itself is a match that lights an inflammatory cascade in acne. The notion that lipid peroxidation is a 'starter gun' in acne is not a new one; here we review the nearly 50-year-old lipid peroxidation theory and provide a historical perspective to the contemporary investigations and clinical implications. In addition, we present a novel hypothesis in which lipid peroxidation may be priming an increased susceptibility to co-morbid depression and anxiety in those with acne. The emerging research on the systemic burden of oxidative stress in acne sheds further light on the brain-skin axis. The recent findings also suggest potential avenues of approach for the treatment of acne via specific nutrients, dietary modifications, oral and topical interventions. PMID:21143923
Acne vulgaris is a very common condition affecting up of 93% of adolescents. Although rare, this disease may persist in adulthood. In adult women with acne (those older than 25 years old), this condition is particularly relevant because of the refractory to conventional therapies, which makes acne a challenge for dermatologists in this group of patients. In order to its potential risk for chronicity and the involvement of visible anatomical sites such as face and upper torso, acne has been associated with a wide spectrum of psychological and social dysfunction such as depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, somatization, and social inhibition. In particular, adult women with acne have been shown to be adversely impacted by the effect of acne on their quality of life. For the last four decades, dermatologists have used hormonal therapies for the management of acne vulgaris in adult women, which are considered a rational choice given the severity and chronicity of this condition in this group of patients. The aim of this work is to review the hormonal drugs for management of acne.
Nakajima, Akiko; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Shoji; Okamoto, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ishii, Ritsuko; Fujikawa, Akira; Takei, Katsuaki; Kawashima, Makoto
Ozenoxacin, a novel non-fluorinated topical quinolone, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci according to the broth microdilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The isolates used in this study were collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris during a period from 2012 to 2013. The MIC90s of ozenoxacin against Propionibacterium acnes (n=266), Propionibacterium granulosum (n=10), Staphylococcus aureus (n=23), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=229) and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=82) were ≤0.06, ≤0.06, ≤0.06, 0.125 and ≤0.06 µg ml-1, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of ozenoxacin against the clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci was greater than that of five reference antimicrobial agents which have been used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The MICs of ozenoxacin were correlated with those of nadifloxacin in P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates. However, the MICs of ozenoxacin were 0.25-0.5 µg ml-1 and 0.5-8 µg ml-1 against nadifloxacin-resistant P. acnes (MIC: ≥8 µg ml-1; n=8) and S. epidermidis (MIC: ≥64 µg ml-1; n=10), respectively. These results indicated the potent antimicrobial activity against P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates resistant to nadifloxacin. Topical ozenoxacin could represent an alternative therapeutic drug for acne vulgaris based on its potent antimicrobial activity against the isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from acne patients.
Petersen, Rolf L. W.; Scholz, Christian F. P.; Jensen, Anders; Brüggemann, Holger; Lomholt, Hans B.
Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a skin disorder that is characterized by hypopigmented macules and usually seen in young adults. The skin microbiota, in particular the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, is suggested to play a role. Here, we compared the P. acnes population of 24 PMH lesions from eight patients with corresponding nonlesional skin of the patients and matching control samples from eight healthy individuals using an unbiased, culture-independent next-generation sequencing approach. We also compared the P. acnes population before and after treatment with a combination of lymecycline and benzoylperoxide. We found an association of one subtype of P. acnes, type III, with PMH. This type was predominant in all PMH lesions (73.9% of reads in average) but only detected as a minor proportion in matching control samples of healthy individuals (14.2% of reads in average). Strikingly, successful PMH treatment is able to alter the composition of the P. acnes population by substantially diminishing the proportion of P. acnes type III. Our study suggests that P. acnes type III may play a role in the formation of PMH. Furthermore, it sheds light on substantial differences in the P. acnes phylotype distribution between the upper and lower back and abdomen in healthy individuals. PMID:28386469
Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Kambarev, Stanimir; Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Lepelletier, Didier; Bémer, Pascale
Propionibacterium acnes was previously described as a potential implant-related pathogen. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of four P. acnes strains, isolated from spine material, hip arthroplasty, and knee arthroplasty infections in France belonging to different sequence types (ST18, ST27, and ST36). PMID:27979946
Kircik, Leon H
Bacterial resistance became a true clinical concern for dermatologists in the 1980s, when the first reports emerged of the resistance of Propionibacterium acnes to oral antibiotics. Subsequent studies have documented acne treatment failure associated with resistance to topical antibiotics. Beyond dermatology practice, antibiotic resistance has now become recognized as a worldwide health concern. In contrast to antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of acne, benzoyl peroxide (BP)'s mechanism of action is different. Benzoyl peroxide is a bactericidal agent. Combining BP with a topical antibiotic in a stable formulation has been proven in clinical trials to reduce total P acnes count by 99.7% after 1 week of therapy, eliminating both susceptible and resistant strains of P acnes. However, we have recently noticed BP's benefits as monotherapy in the treatment of acne. Benzoyl peroxide works rapidly on P acnes without causing antibiotic resistance. Hence, we may have to reconsider the role of topical antibiotics such as clindamycin in the treatment paradigm of acne vulgaris.
Zivanovic, Dubravka; Masirevic, Iva; Ruzicka, Thomas; Braun-Falco, Markus; Nikolic, Milos
The clinical triad of pyoderma gangrenosum, acne conglobata and hidradenitis suppurativa has been named PASH syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism and inflammation. Hidradenitis suppurativa, like acne vulgaris, may be a feature of hyperandrogenism. Obesity may be associated with both hidradenitis suppurativa and PCOS. We describe a possible association between PASH syndrome and PCOS.
Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Dawn Zhang; Eichenfield, Lawrence F
Acne presenting in adult women is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Many affected women have had acne during their teenaged years, have tried several therapies in the past, and are seeking effective treatment. Others are frustrated by the inexplicable emergence of acne as an adult when they never had it as a teenager. Both groups seek an explanation of why they have acne, are often psychosocially affected by its effects on appearance and self-esteem, and all are wanting effective and safe treatment. Clinicians are encouraged to connect favorably with each patient through careful history and physical examination and to consider underlying causes of androgen excess. Practical approaches to examination and laboratory evaluation are discussed.
Johnson, Tremylla; Kang, Dezhi; Barnard, Emma
ABSTRACT Propionibacterium acnes is an important skin commensal, but it is also considered a pathogenic factor in several diseases including acne vulgaris, the most common skin disease. While previous studies have revealed P. acnes strain-level differences in health and disease associations, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Recently, we demonstrated that vitamin B12 supplementation increases P. acnes production of porphyrins, a group of proinflammatory metabolites important in acne development (D. Kang, B. Shi, M. C. Erfe, N. Craft, and H. Li, Sci. Transl. Med. 7:293ra103, 2015, doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aab2009). In this study, we compared the porphyrin production and regulation of multiple P. acnes strains. We revealed that acne-associated type IA-2 strains inherently produced significantly higher levels of porphyrins, which were further enhanced by vitamin B12 supplementation. On the other hand, health-associated type II strains produced low levels of porphyrins and did not respond to vitamin B12. Using a small-molecule substrate and inhibitor, we demonstrated that porphyrin biosynthesis was modulated at the metabolic level. We identified a repressor gene (deoR) of porphyrin biosynthesis that was carried in all health-associated type II strains, but not in acne-associated type IA-2 strains. The expression of deoR suggests additional regulation of porphyrin production at the transcriptional level in health-associated strains. Our findings provide one potential molecular mechanism for the different contributions of P. acnes strains to skin health and disease and support the role of vitamin B12 in acne pathogenesis. Our study emphasizes the importance of understanding the role of the commensal microbial community in health and disease at the strain level and suggests potential utility of health-associated P. acnes strains in acne treatment. IMPORTANCE Propionibacterium acnes is a dominant bacterium residing on skin, and it has been thought
Patel, Tapan; Tevet, Oren
Acne scars remain a challenging condition to treat despite multiple currently available technologies. This study evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of pneumatic injections of Hyaluronic Acid in the treatment of acne scars. Two patients (Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V) with acne scars received two sessions of pneumatic, needleless injections of crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) at 4-week intervals. The treatment response was assessed by comparing pre- and 3-month posttreatment clinical photography. The patients' acne scar grade improved from 2 to 1 in the first case, and 3 to 2 in the second case, based on independent physician assessment. Patient degree of satisfaction was similar to the physicians' assessment. No significant adverse events were noted. We conclude that pneumatic injection technology to deliver HA to the tissue is an effective and safe method for improving acne scars, even in patients with dark complexion.
Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; dos Santos, Laís Araújo; Sobral Filho, Jader Freire
Background Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation. Objectives To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of João Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnaires and clinical-dermatological evaluation. The primary variables were the incidence of AV; quality of life, set by the Children's Dermatology Quality of Life Index and Dermatology Quality of Life Index; and self-esteem, measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. For calculation of statistical tests, we used the SPSS 20.0 software, considering p=0.05. Results The sample, with an average age of 16, showed 89.3% prevalence of acne vulgaris. The most prevalent psychosocial issue was "afraid that acne will never cease", present in 58% of affected youth. The median score of Quality of Life in Children's Dermatology Index was different amongst students with and without acne vulgaris (p=0.003), as well as the Quality of Life in Dermatology (p=0.038) scores, so that students with acne vulgaris have worse QoL. There was a correlation between the severity of acne vulgaris and worse quality of life. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with the occurrence or severity of acne vulgaris. Conclusions acne vulgaris assumes significance in view of its high prevalence and the effect on quality of life of adolescents, more severe at the more pronounced stages of disease (p<0.001). The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris should be valued in the management of patients with this condition. PMID:26560206
Achermann, Yvonne; Tran, Bao; Kang, Misun; Harro, Janette M.
Propionibacterium acnes is well-known as a human skin commensal but can also act as an invasive pathogen causing implant-associated infections. In order to resolve these types of P. acnes infections, the implants must be removed, due to the presence of an established biofilm that is recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy. In order to identify those P. acnes proteins produced in vivo during a biofilm infection, we established a rabbit model of implant-associated infection with this pathogen. P. acnes biofilms were anaerobically grown on dextran beads that were then inoculated into the left tibias of rabbits. At 4 weeks postinoculation, P. acnes infection was confirmed by radiograph, histology, culture, and PCR. In vivo-produced and immunogenic P. acnes proteins were detected on Western blot using serum samples from rabbits infected with P. acnes after these bacterial proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Those proteins that bound host antibodies were then isolated and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Radiographs and histology demonstrated a disruption in the normal bone architecture and adherent biofilm communities in those animals with confirmed infections. A total of 24 immunogenic proteins were identified; 13 of these proteins were upregulated in both planktonic and biofilm modes, including an ABC transporter protein. We successfully adapted a rabbit model of implant-associated infection for P. acnes to identify P. acnes proteins produced during a chronic biofilm-mediated infection. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of these proteins for either a diagnostic test or a vaccine to prevent biofilm infections caused by P. acnes. PMID:25694647
Zhou, Maosong; Xie, Hongfu; Cheng, Lin; Li, Ji
Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and epidermal barrier function of papulopustular rosacea by comparing with acne vulgaris. Methods: Four hundred and sixty-three papulopustular rosacea patients and four hundred and twelve acne vulgaris patients were selected for the study in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from March 2015 to May 2016. They were analyzed for major facial lesions, self-conscious symptoms and epidermal barrier function. Results: Erythema, burning, dryness and itching presented in papulopustular rosacea patients were significantly higher than that in acne vulgaris patients (P<0.001). The clinical scores of erythema, burning, dryness and itching in papulopustular rosacea patients were significantly higher than those in acne vulgaris patients (P<0.001). The water content of the stratum cornuem and skin surface lipid level were both significantly lower in papulopustular rosacea patients than that of the acne vulgaris patients (P<0.001) and healthy subjects (P<0.001); Water content of the stratum cornuem and skin surface lipid level were higher in acne vulgaris patients in comparison with that of healthy subjects (P>0.05, P<0.001; respectively). Transepidermal water loss was significantly higher in papulopustular rosacea patients than that of acne vulgaris patients and healthy subjects (P<0.001); transepidermal water loss was lower in skin of acne vulgaris patients than that of healthy subjects (P<0.001). Conclusion: Erythema, burning, dryness and itching are the characteristics of papulopustular rosacea, which makes it different from acne vulgaris. The epidermal barrier function was damaged in papulopustular rosacea patients while not impaired in that of acne vulgaris patients. PMID:28083023
Kircik, Leon H; Gwazdauskas, Jennifer; Butners, Victoria; Eastern, Joseph; Green, Lawrence J
Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is a widely used over-the-counter (OTC) topical acne treatment often used in combination with salicylic acid (SA) to achieve better comedone control than that achieved with BPO alone. MaxClarity™ is an OTC acne treatment system comprising BPO and SA in an aqueous foam delivery vehicle, VersaFoam AF™. This paper describes 2 open-label, single-arm studies conducted to assess the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and patient preference of MaxClarity in the treatment of mild, moderate, and severe acne. Subjects applied MaxClarity twice daily for 8 weeks in study 402 and for 12 weeks in study 405. Reductions in all lesion types were seen throughout both studies. At week 8 (study 402), there was a mean reduction from baseline of -56.9 ± 32.7% in total lesions in subjects with mild, moderate, or severe acne. At week 12 (study 405), there was a reduction from baseline of -61.6 ± 22.0% in total lesions in subjects with moderate or severe acne. Overall, both studies demonstrated that MaxClarity is a generally well tolerated and effective treatment for mild, moderate, and severe acne.
Schaub, Steven; Sirkis, Hartley M; Kay, Jonathan
Multifocal osteomyelitis and synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome constitute a spectrum of disease that includes inflammatory bone lesions and dermatologic findings. Radiographic features resemble those of the spondyloarthropathies with anterior chest wall involvement. Early radiographic findings are osteodestructive with lytic lesions. Bone scintigraphy of the sternoclavicular region classically yields a 'bull's head' pattern of radionuclide uptake. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can demonstrate corner lesions of vertebral bodies. Ultrasound often reveals peripheral enthesitis. Late radiographic features are usually osteoproliferative. PET/CT can identify chronic lesions. Differential diagnostic considerations include osteomyelitis and malignancy, which often prompt bone biopsy.
Reilly, Bridget K; Ritsema, Tamara S
Isotretinoin is the strongest, most effective oral treatment for patients with severe acne vulgaris, with remission rates of 89% and higher. Because of its potency, isotretinoin causes many adverse reactions. This article reviews common and severe adverse reactions to isotretinoin and how providers can best manage these reactions. Because of inconclusive research on the correlation between isotretinoin and depression and irritable bowel syndrome, providers should ask patients about symptoms monthly. Prescribing micronized isotretinoin and starting at the lowest dose with gradual upward titration also can help reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.
Mutizwa, Misha M; Sheinbein, David M
With Roche's withdrawl of Accutane from the U.S. market in 2009, isotretinoin has only been available in its generic form. Many clinicians fail to realize that for approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, a generic medication must have a bioequivalence between 80 percent and 125 percent of that of the innovator product. This potential variability in bioavailability between branded and generic medications is important to keep in mind with isotretinoin, given the implications for achieving a sustained remission in acne patients.
Yang, Xiao-Yan; Wu, Wen-Juan; Yang, Cheng; Yang, Ting; He, Jun-Dong; Yang, Zhi; He, Li
Acne vulgaris is a very common skin disorder. Previous studies have indicated that genetic background factors play key roles in the onset of acne. Our previous investigation implicated several genes in the androgen metabolism pathway with acne vulgaris in the Han Chinese population. Thus, we further investigated genes and genetic variants that play important roles in this pathway for their relationship with the pathology of acne. In this study, a total of 610 subjects, including 403 acne patients and 207 healthy controls, were genotyped for 15 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in HSD3B1 and HSD17B3 genes. This study shows that rs6428829 in HSD3B1 was associated with acne vulgaris in Han patients from Southwest China, even after adjusting for age and sex. The GG genotype was associated with an increased risk of acne vulgaris (p < 0.05) and G allele carriers were associated with an increased risk of acne vulgaris (p < 0.05). In addition, the haplotype AAT in HSD3B1 significantly increased the risk of acne vulgaris in the case-control study (p < 0.05). Furthermore, for another gene in this pathway, HSD17B3, the haplotype H8 was significantly associated with an increased risk of acne vulgaris. Based on these analyses, our study indicates that the cutaneous androgen metabolism-regulated genes HSD3B1 and HSD17B3 increase the susceptibility to acne vulgaris in Han Chinese from Southwest China.
Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Baud’huin, Marc; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Brion, Régis; Gouin, François; Lepelletier, Didier; Jacqueline, Cédric; Heymann, Dominique; Asehnoune, Karim; Corvec, Stéphane
Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) is recognized as a pathogen in foreign-body infections (arthroplasty or spinal instrumentation). To date, the direct impact of C. acnes on bone cells has never been explored. The clade of 11 C. acnes clinical isolates was determined by MLST. Human osteoblasts and osteoclasts were infected by live C. acnes. The whole genome sequence of six isolates of this collection was analyzed. CC36 C. acnes strains were significantly less internalized by osteoblasts and osteoclasts than CC18 and CC28 C. acnes strains (p ≤ 0.05). The CC18 C. acnes ATCC6919 isolate could survive intracellularly for at least 96 hours. C. acnes significantly decreased the resorption ability of osteoclasts with a major impact by the CC36 strain (p ≤ 0.05). Genome analysis revealed 27 genes possibly linked to these phenotypic behaviors. We showed a direct impact of C. acnes on bone cells, providing new explanations about the development of C. acnes foreign-body infections. PMID:28218305
Leyden, James J; Del Rosso, James Q; Webster, Guy F
Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic bacterium that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne. Certain antibiotics that can inhibit P acnes colonization also have demonstrated anti-inflammatory activities in the treatment of acne, rosacea, and other noninfectious diseases. Decreased sensitivity of P acnes to antibiotics, such as erythromycin and tetracycline, has developed and may be associated with therapeutic failure. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is a nonantibiotic antibacterial agent that is highly effective against P acnes and for which no resistance against it has been detected to date. Retinoids are important components in combination therapy for acne, including use with antibiotics, and can serve as an alternative to these agents in maintenance therapy. By increasing our understanding of the multifaceted actions of antibiotics and the known clinical implications of antibiotic resistance, physicians can improve their decision making in prescribing these agents.
Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Lawrence F
In part 1 of this 3-part series, an overview of the epidemiology, visible patterns, and important considerations for clinical and laboratory evaluation of acne vulgaris (AV) in adult women was provided. Proper selection and integration of skin care products is important in the management of AV in this patient population. Part 2 of this series includes a discussion of over-the-counter and prescription topical therapies for adult women with AV. A summary of key randomized controlled trials also is provided. Further well-designed studies are needed, as data on the use of topical agents in this subpopulation are limited.
Pace, Joseph L
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder in adult women. Hyperandrogenism is the crux of the pathogenesis of both acne and hirsutism, the most frequent clinical presentations of the syndrome. The chronic anovulation that may occur, often but not always associated with enlarged cystic ovaries, has long been recognized as an important feature of PCOS. In recent years major changes have occurred with regard to PCOS: Although management of the common cutaneous manifestations, mainly acne, hirsutism, alopecia, and acanthosis nigricans, remains strictly within the realm of daily dermatologic practice, the pendulum is shifting toward greater awareness of the longer-term systemic implications of PCOS, with emphasis on the unique opportunity and privileged position of the dermatologist to diagnose this potentially serious problem at an early stage, when effective long-term treatment can be instituted. Patients need to be advised that PCOS cannot be cured but can be controlled. Management should involve a multidisciplinary team with emphasis on lifestyle change, insulin sensitizing agents, androgen blockers, and attention to specific cutaneous manifestations.
Leyden, J J
Isotretinoin (Roaccutane/Accutane) therapy (120 mg/kg) normally results in complete clearing of nodulocystic acne followed by prolonged remission, and many patients remain free of disease. Four groups of patients respond poorly or have a high rate of relapse. Preteens and young teenagers show a high rate of relapse and several courses of treatment are usually needed; 14 of 20 under the age of 12 years, 21 of 47 aged 12-14 and 23 of 66 aged 14-16 relapsed within 1 year. Individuals with linear lesions consisting of undermining tracks of follicular epithelium often show only a partial response. These individuals typically have a history of other 'sinus track' disease such as pilonidial sinus and hidradenitis, either themselves or other family members. Hemorrhagic or crusted lesions can be exacerbated by full doses of isotretinoin and patients develop pyrogenic-granuloma-type lesions and even acne-fulminans-like eruptions. Women with adrenal or ovarian syndrome associated with elevated androgens commonly relapse with 6-12 months after isotretinoin therapy.
Tugnoli, S; Bettoli, V; Agnoli, C; Caracciolo, S
Hidradenitis Suppurative-Acne Inversa is one of the most debilitating chronic skin diseases. It seriously affects the emotional and relational life of the patient, it has a significant psychiatric comorbidity and it impairs the quality of life. We present the report of a clinical situation with onset of the illness in a young woman during pregnancy, a case characterized by particular evolution, severe systemic involvement, strong psycho-emotional impact on the patient and impairment of subjective well-being of the caregiver. The clinical evaluation highlights mainly the relevance of the bodily experience, that stands out as a central issue in the sufference of the patient. She feels an uncanny foreignness to herself and a lacerating wound of her identity, related to her desirability, her femininity and her motherhood. Specific personality factors, which are likely to have influenced and guided the experience of illness and the quality of the relationship with the treatment team, are also evaluated. This case exemplifies, at different levels, the clinical complexity of Hidradenitis Suppurative-Acne Inversa and its impact on individual subjectivity. This disease requires an integrated intervention by a multidisciplinary team, providing for the assessment, the treatment and the evaluation of outcomes. It is necessary an effective operational link between different competences, in order to promote the patient compliance and to activate and develop the best care and the right psychological support.
Alakeel, Abdullah; Ferneiny, Marie; Auffret, Nicole; Bodemer, Christine
Acne fulminans (AF) is a rare manifestation and the most severe form of the entire clinical spectrum of acne. The disease is destructive and is characterized by the sudden onset of painful and ulcerative pustules and systemic symptoms including high fever, hepatomegaly, polyarthralgia, leukocytosis, plaquetose, and increased inflammatory markers and transaminases. Osteolytic lesions in multiple skeletal sites could also be associated. The use of isotretinoin is considered a related trigger, as well as the use and cessation of testosterone, although a bacterial infection, a drug-induced disease, or an intake of anabolic androgenic steroids has been suggested. The treatment of AF is challenging and controversial. The recommended treatment is aggressive and consists of a combination of oral steroids and low doses of isotretinoin, with no consensus at this time. The patient may require several weeks of hospitalization to control the eruption. The cutaneous lesions usually leave scars and milia. We report on two boys and two girls presenting with AF, triggered by isotretinoin in three patients and by an antibiotic in one patient. All the patients treated with corticosteroids and isotretinoin with success.
Sayanjali, Behnam; Christensen, Gitte J M; Al-Zeer, Munir A; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Meyer, Thomas F; Brüggemann, Holger
Propionibacterium acnes has been detected in diseased human prostate tissue, and cell culture experiments suggest that the bacterium can establish a low-grade inflammation. Here, we investigated its impact on human primary prostate epithelial cells. Microarray analysis confirmed the inflammation-inducing capability of P. acnes but also showed deregulation of genes involved in the cell cycle. qPCR experiments showed that viable P. acnes downregulates a master regulator of cell cycle progression, FOXM1. Flow cytometry experiments revealed that P. acnes increases the number of cells in S-phase. We tested the hypothesis that a P. acnes-produced berninamycin-like thiopeptide is responsible for this effect, since it is related to the FOXM1 inhibitor siomycin. The thiopeptide biosynthesis gene cluster was strongly expressed; it is present in subtype IB of P. acnes, but absent from type IA, which is most abundant on human skin. A knock-out mutant lacking the gene encoding the berninamycin-like peptide precursor was unable to downregulate FOXM1 and to halt the cell cycle. Our study reveals a novel host cell-interacting activity of P. acnes.
Liu, Jared; Yan, Riceley; Zhong, Qiao; Ngo, Sam; Bangayan, Nathanael J; Nguyen, Lin; Lui, Timothy; Liu, Minghsun; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Tomida, Shuta; Li, Huiying
The viral population, including bacteriophages, is an important component of the human microbiota, yet is poorly understood. We aim to determine whether bacteriophages modulate the composition of the bacterial populations, thus potentially playing a role in health or disease. We investigated the diversity and host interactions of the bacteriophages of Propionibacterium acnes, a major human skin commensal implicated in acne pathogenesis. By sequencing 48 P. acnes phages isolated from acne patients and healthy individuals and by analyzing the P. acnes phage populations in healthy skin metagenomes, we revealed that P. acnes phage populations in the skin microbial community are often dominated by one strain. We also found phage strains shared among both related and unrelated individuals, suggesting that a pool of common phages exists in the human population and that transmission of phages may occur between individuals. To better understand the bacterium–phage interactions in the skin microbiota, we determined the outcomes of 74 genetically defined Propionibacterium strains challenged by 15 sequenced phages. Depending on the Propionibacterium lineage, phage infection can result in lysis, pseudolysogeny, or resistance. In type II P. acnes strains, we found that encoding matching clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat spacers is insufficient to confer phage resistance. Overall, our findings suggest that the prey–predator relationship between bacteria and phages may have a role in modulating the composition of the microbiota. Our study also suggests that the microbiome structure of an individual may be an important factor in the design of phage-based therapy. PMID:25848871
Ozdemir, Murat; Ozdemir, Gokhan; Sasmaz, Sezai; Arican, Ozer
The aim of this study was to investigate the ocular surface disorders and tear function changes in patients with nodulo-cystic acne. Eighty-seven patients with nodulo-cystic acne vulgaris and 50 healthy subjects were included in the study. All subjects underwent full ocular examinations. Subjective ocular complaints were recorded. Corneal staining with fluorescein, tear film break-up time (BUT), and Schirmer test were applied. Abnormal tear film BUT and abnormal Schirmer scores were significantly more common in the acne group than in the control group. The tear film BUT was abnormal in 18 (20.7%) cases in the patient group and in 2 (4%) subjects in the control group (p=0.007). The mean Schirmer score was abnormal in 7 (8%) and decreased in 18 (20.7%) acne patients, and it was decreased in only 3 (6%) control subjects (p=0.005). Corneal punctuate epithelial erosions were detected in 3 (3.4%) acne patients, but not any of the control subjects. However, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (p=0.184). Subjective ocular complaints were present in 28 cases (32.2%) in the patient group. Five (10%) subjects in the control group had such complaints (p=0.003). Tear function tests are also significantly altered in patients with nodulo-cystic acne. Our data suggest that severe acne patients should be referred to an ophthalmologist.
Liu, Jared; Yan, Riceley; Zhong, Qiao; Ngo, Sam; Bangayan, Nathanael J; Nguyen, Lin; Lui, Timothy; Liu, Minghsun; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Tomida, Shuta; Li, Huiying
The viral population, including bacteriophages, is an important component of the human microbiota, yet is poorly understood. We aim to determine whether bacteriophages modulate the composition of the bacterial populations, thus potentially playing a role in health or disease. We investigated the diversity and host interactions of the bacteriophages of Propionibacterium acnes, a major human skin commensal implicated in acne pathogenesis. By sequencing 48 P. acnes phages isolated from acne patients and healthy individuals and by analyzing the P. acnes phage populations in healthy skin metagenomes, we revealed that P. acnes phage populations in the skin microbial community are often dominated by one strain. We also found phage strains shared among both related and unrelated individuals, suggesting that a pool of common phages exists in the human population and that transmission of phages may occur between individuals. To better understand the bacterium-phage interactions in the skin microbiota, we determined the outcomes of 74 genetically defined Propionibacterium strains challenged by 15 sequenced phages. Depending on the Propionibacterium lineage, phage infection can result in lysis, pseudolysogeny, or resistance. In type II P. acnes strains, we found that encoding matching clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat spacers is insufficient to confer phage resistance. Overall, our findings suggest that the prey-predator relationship between bacteria and phages may have a role in modulating the composition of the microbiota. Our study also suggests that the microbiome structure of an individual may be an important factor in the design of phage-based therapy.
Kang, Mi-Sun; Kim, Jin-Hee; Shin, Boo-Ahn; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Kim, Youn-Shin; Lim, Hae-Soon; Oh, Jong-Suk
Chlorophyllin (CHL), a chlorophyll-derivative, exhibits several beneficial properties, including antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. However, its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against Propionibacterium acnes have not been described. The antibacterial activity of this compound was evaluated in vitro using the broth microdilution method. CHL had an inhibitory effect on the growth of P. acnes (MIC = 100 μM). In a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, CHL significantly decreased interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in a dose-dependent manner, decreasing both mRNA and protein levels for these chemokines in THP-1 cells indicating the anti-inflammatory effects of it. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of CHL in THP-1 cells stimulated by P. acnes, we used western blotting to analyze the effect of CHL on activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB. CHL inhibited P. acnes-induced IL-8 and MCP-1 production via blockade of NF-κB activation in THP-1 cells. Therefore, based on these results, we suggest that CHL is a useful agent to control the growth of P. acnes involved in acne inflammation and prevent acne.
Kim, Randie H; Armstrong, April W
Acne vulgaris continues to be a challenge to dermatologists and primary care physicians alike. The available treatments reflect the complex and multifactorial contributors to acne pathogenesis, with topical retinoids as first-line therapy for mild acne, topical retinoids in combination with anti-microbials for moderate acne, and isotretinoin for severe nodular acne. Unfortunately, these conventional therapies may not be effective against refractory acne, can lead to antibiotic resistance, and is associated with adverse effects. With the rise of new technologies and in-office procedures, light and laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, chemical peels, and comedo extraction are growing in popularity as adjunctive treatments and may offer alternatives to those who desire better efficacy, quicker onset of action, improved safety profile, reduced risk of antibiotic resistance, and non-systemic administration. Whereas adjunctive therapies are generally well-tolerated, the number of randomized controlled trials are few and limited by small sample sizes. Furthermore, results demonstrating efficacy of certain light therapies are mixed and studies involving photodynamic therapy and chemical peels have yet to standardize and optimize application, formulation, and exposure times. Nevertheless, adjunctive therapies, particularly blue light and photodynamic therapy, show promise as these treatments also target factors of acne pathogenesis and may potentially complement current conventional therapy.
Nasri, Hamid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Moradi Nafchi, Atefeh; Saberianpour, Shirin; Rafieian Kopaei, Mahmoud
Context: Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of teenagers and may continue to adulthood. There are about two million visits to physicians per year for teenagers and the direct cost of acne treatment in the US exceeds $1 billion per year. Evidence Acquisition: A wide variety of treatment regimens exist for acne vulgaris including benzoil peroxide, retinoids, isotretinoids, keratolytic soaps, alpha hydroxy acids, azelaic acid, salicilic acid as well as hormonal, anti-androgen or antiseborrheic treatments. However, none of these methods is free of side effects and their exact role in therapy is not clear. In this paper apart from presenting the possible causes of acne vulgaris and its available drugs, recently published papers about medicinal plants used in the treatment of acne vulgaris were reviewed. Results: Consumption of alternative and complementary medicine, including medicinal plants, is increasing and is common amongst patients affected by acne and infectious skin diseases. Medicinal plants have a long history of use and have been shown to possess low side effects. These plants are a reliable source for preparation of new drugs. Conclusions: Many plants seem to have inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses in vitro. However, there are a few clinical evidences about the effectiveness and safety of these plants in the treatment of acne and other skin infections. PMID:26862380
Zhao, Ya-E; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Ma, Jun-Xian
Until now, etiology of acne vulgaris is still uncertain. Although clinicians usually deny the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, it has been proved in some clinical practices. To confirm the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, a meta-analysis was conducted. Predefined selection criteria were applied to search all published papers that analyzed the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris (January 1950 to August 2011) in ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on fixed effects models or random effects models. We enrolled the 60 Chinese and 3 English papers in this meta-analysis, which covered Turkey and 25 different provinces/municipalities in China and 42130 participants including students and residents, aged from 1 to 78 years. The pooled OR in random effects models is 2.80 (95% CI, 2.34-3.36). Stability is robust according to sensitivity analysis. The fail-safe number is 18477, suggesting that at least 18477 articles with negative conclusions would be needed to reverse the conclusion that acne vulgaris was related to Demodex infestation. So the effect of publication bias was insignificant and could be ignored. It was concluded that acne vulgaris is associated with Demodex infestation. This indicates that when regular treatments for acne vulgaris are ineffective, examination of Demodex mites and necessary acaricidal therapies should be considered.
Abdulmassih, Rasha; Makadia, Jina; Como, James; Paulson, Michelle; Min, Zaw; Bhanot, Nitin
Background Propionibacterium acnes infections are likely under-recognized and underreported. This is partly because of low clinical suspicion, perceived non-pathogenicity, or lack of adequate culture incubation time. We conducted a study to assess the optimal incubation period to recover P. acnes from specimens acquired during the workup of suspected clinical infections. Methods A 5-year retrospective chart review was conducted between January 2010 and December 2014 at a single tertiary-care hospital. All patient cases from which P. acnes was recovered were included for analysis. Source of infection, antibiotic use, and culture time-to-positivity (TTP) were recorded. Results Implanted devices comprised the single most common source of P. acnes infection. In the majority of cases, P. acnes was the only organism identified. The mean incubation TTP for all isolates was 5.73 days. Conclusions Standard 5-day culture incubation periods are insufficient to recover P. acnes. As a result, P. acnes is likely a much more common etiology of a variety of clinical infections than previously reported. PMID:27829959
Lemay, A; Langley, R G
There is compelling evidence that oral contraceptives (OCs) are effective in the management of mild-moderate acne vulgaris, as well as cumulative evidence that elevated levels of androgens in acne patients, relative to appropriate controls, are an underlying pathophysiological factor in acne. All low dose OCs reduce serum free testosterone (T) to a similar extent, which is contrary to the traditional concept that a patient who has acne should not use an OC containing a progestin with androgenic properties. The efficacy of various OCs to improve acne has been reported in transverse, cohort and comparative studies, and more recently in multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Recently, an ultra-low dose OC (Alesse, Wyeth) was shown to effectively reduce non-inflammatory and inflammatory lesions in mild-to-moderate acne, while having a profile of side-effects similar to that of a placebo. Besides its contraceptive efficacy, an ultra-low dose OC represents an attractive alternative as a single or associated medication in the management of acne.
Bhate, K; Williams, H C
This review summarizes important clinical developments in acne vulgaris identified from 17 systematic reviews published between February 2011 and August 2012. Regarding causes, Demodex mites have been shown to be associated with both acne vulgaris and rosacea, although it is unclear if their eradication improves either disease. Some weak evidence has emerged that suggests a possible link between dairy produce and acne, which warrants further research. With reference to the effects of acne, there is good evidence that acne negatively affects quality of life, self-esteem and mood in adolescents. Acne is also associated with an increased risk of anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation, highlighting the importance of asking patients with acne directly about psychological issues in order to identify those who might benefit from early psychiatric support. Regarding treatment, there seems to be no additional benefit to using higher strengths of benzoyl peroxide, and lower strengths such as 2.5% have fewer side effects. Despite earlier concerns of increased mortality in those using topical tretinoin for skin cancer prevention, a systematic review on this topic has not found any convincing evidence of a link between such non-cutaneous events and once-daily application of 0.02-0.05% tretinoin. Combined oral contraceptives are of benefit in both inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne. Current surveys suggest that implementation of the pregnancy prevention programme for isotretinoin may not be stringent, and a high level of monitoring and audit is recommended. Ablative and non-ablative laser resurfacing for the treatment of acne scars may be beneficial, but further studies with a longer follow-up period are required.
Borovaya, Alena; Dombrowski, Yvonne; Zwicker, Stephanie; Olisova, Olga; Ruzicka, Thomas; Wolf, Ronald; Schauber, Jürgen; Sárdy, Miklós
In acne vulgaris, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could play a dual role; i.e., protective by acting against Propionibacterium acnes, pro-inflammatory by acting as signalling molecules. The cutaneous expression of 15 different AMPs was investigated in acne patients; furthermore, the impact of isotretinoin therapy on AMP expression was analysed in skin biopsies from 13 patients with acne vulgaris taken before, during and after a 6-month treatment cycle with isotretinoin using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cutaneous expression of the AMPs cathelicidin, human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2), lactoferrin, lysozyme, psoriasin (S100A7), koebnerisin (S100A15), and RNase 7 was upregulated in untreated acne vulgaris, whereas α-defensin-1 (HNP-1) was downregulated compared to controls. While relative expression levels of cathelicidin, HBD-2, lactoferrin, psoriasin (S100A7), and koebnerisin (S100A15) decreased during isotretinoin treatment, only those of cathelicidin and koebnerisin returned to normal after 6 months of isotretinoin therapy. The increased expression of lysozyme and RNase 7 remained unaffected by isotretinoin treatment. The levels of granulysin, RANTES (CCL5), perforin, CXCL9, substance P, chromogranin B, and dermcidin were not regulated in untreated acne patients and isotretinoin had no effect on these AMPs. In conclusion, the expression of various AMPs is altered in acne vulgaris. Isotretinoin therapy normalizes the cutaneous production of distinct AMPs while the expression of others is still increased in healing acne. Considering the antimicrobial and pro-inflammatory role of AMPs, these molecules could serve as specific targets for acne therapy and maintenance of clinical remission.
Olsson, Jan; Drott, Johanna Bergh; Laurantzon, Lovisa; Laurantzon, Oscar; Bergh, Anders; Elgh, Fredrik
Chronic inflammation in the prostate, seen as infiltration of inflammatory cells into the prostate gland in histological samples, affects approximately half the male population without indication of prostate disease, and is almost ubiquitous in patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia and cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to be frequently present in prostate tissue from men suffering from prostate disease. P. acnes has been shown to be associated with histological inflammation in human prostatectomy specimens, and also to induce strong inflammatory response in prostate-derived tissue culture models. The present paper describes a rat model for assessment of the pathogenic potential of P. acnes in prostate. Prostate glands of Sprague Dawley rats (n = 98) were exposed via an abdominal incision and live P. acnes or, in control rats, saline were injected into the ventral and dorso-lateral lobes. Rats were sacrificed 5 days, 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post infection, and prostate tissue was analyzed for bacterial content and histological inflammation. Rat sera were assessed for levels of CRP and anti-P. acnes IgG. Live P. acnes could be recovered from the dorso-lateral lobes up to 3 months post infection, while the ventral lobes were cleared from bacteria at that time. In samples up to 3 months post infection, the dorso-lateral lobes exhibited intense focal inflammation. CRP and IgG levels were elevated throughout the span of the experiment, and reached maximum levels 3 weeks and 3 months post infection, respectively. We show that P. acnes have the potential to cause chronic infection in previously healthy prostate, and that the infection has potential to cause chronic histological inflammation in the infected tissue. The high prevalence of P. acnes in human prostate tissue calls for resolution of pathogenic details. The present rat model suggests that complications such as chronic
Fan, Yukun; Hao, Fei; Wang, Weizhen; Lu, Yonghong; He, Li; Wang, Gang; Chen, Wenchieh
Antibiotics are widely applied in management of acne vulgaris, which raises the issue of antibiotic resistance. Due to improper application and supervision of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance has become a serious problem in China. So, the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy in acne is unclear without an objective monitor of antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium acnes. This cross-sectional, multicenter observational study is aimed at understanding the status of antibiotic resistance in P. acnes, investigating the measures of acne management in China and analyzing the genotypes of antibiotic-resistant strains of P. acnes. Altogether, 312 strains of P. acnes were collected from patients in five medical centers across central China after reviewing the corresponding medical history in detail. The samples underwent antibiotic susceptibility assays by agar dilution method with a total of 11 classes of antibiotics being tested. The antibiotic-resistant strains were screened and further analyzed by investigation of the genotypes regarding 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA and erm(X). The predominant resistance occurred in macrolides and lincomycin with an overall resistance rate of 47.8%. The resistance to tetracyclines was scarce with only two cases identified. The emergence of minimum inhibitory concentration elevation for tetracyclines is associated with its application history (P < 0.005). The genotypes of the reported macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance strains were also spotted in Chinese subjects while other resistance determinants may also exist. The tetracyclines have been proved to be vastly susceptible while macrolides and lincomycin face a serious resistance status in China.
Kim, Grace K.
Oral spironolactone has been used for over two decades in the dermatological setting. Although it is not generally considered a primary option in the management of female patients with acne vulgaris, the increase in office visits by post-teenage women with acne vulgaris has recently placed a spotlight on the use of this agent in this subgroup of patients. This article reviews the literature focusing on the use of oral spironolactone in this subset of women with acne vulgaris, including discussions of the recommended starting dose, expected response time, adjustments in therapy, potential adverse effects, and patient monitoring. PMID:22468178
Erickson, Brandon J; Bhatia, Sanjeev; Biswas, Debdut; Verma, Nikhil N
Coracoid transfer procedures are highly effective at improving glenohumeral stability in patients with recurrent shoulder instability; complication rates from this procedure are generally low. We present the first case in the literature of a Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) infection following a coracoid transfer. The case stresses the importance of proper antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing Latarjet procedures, as well as the workup for a painful postoperative shoulder, and the need to maintain cultures from the shoulder for up to 21 days to isolate P. acnes.
Baran, Utku; Li, Yuandong; Choi, Woo J.; Wang, Ruikang K.
Acne is a common skin disease in society and often leads to scarring. In this paper, we demonstrate the capabilities of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in detecting specific features of acne lesion initiation and scarring on human facial skin in vivo over 30 days. Optical microangiography (OMAG) technique made it possible to image 3D tissue microvasculature changes up to 1 mm depth in vivo without the need of exogenous contrast agents in ~10 seconds. The presented results show promise to facilitate clinical trials of treatment and prognosis of acne vulgaris by detecting cutaneous microvasculature and structural changes within human skin in vivo.
Jad, Yahya E; Acosta, Gerardo A; Khattab, Sherine N; de la Torre, Beatriz G; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; El-Faham, Ayman; Albericio, Fernando
To date, DMF has been considered as the only solvent suitable for peptide synthesis. Here we demonstrate the capacity of THF and ACN, which are friendlier solvents than DMF, to yield the product in higher purity than DMF. Using various peptide models, both THF and ACN reduced racemization in solution-phase and solid-phase synthesis when compared with DMF. Moreover, the use of ACN and THF in the solid-phase peptide synthesis of hindered peptides, such as Aib-enkephalin pentapeptide and Aib-ACP decapeptide, in combination with a complete polyethylene glycol resin (ChemMatrix), gave a better coupling efficiency than DMF.
Maneschi, F; Noto, G; Pandolfo, M C; Palisi, F; Martorana, A
The authors have studied the androgenic patterns in 29 women with late-onset persistent acne vulgaris. Clinical evaluation of acne, menstrual history and serum determinations of SHBG, total-T, free-T, DHEAS, delta 4A have been carried out. A mild and heterogeneous hyperandrogenism was found in 70% of women, thus, a greater steroid bioavailability for peripheral conversion and/or a direct stimulation of the pilosebaceous unit can be postulated. Androgenic evaluation in women with late-onset or persistent acne vulgaris is useful, mainly for hormonal management.
Okamoto, Kazuaki; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Shoji; Nakajima, Akiko; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ishii, Ritsuko; Umehara, Masatoshi; Gotoh, Naomasa; Hayashi, Naoki; Iyoda, Takako; Matsuzaki, Kaoru; Matsumoto, Satoru; Kawashima, Makoto
Benzoyl peroxide (BPO), a therapeutic agent for acne vulgaris, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes using a novel broth microdilution testing that improved BPO solubility. We searched for a suitable culture medium to measure the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of BPO against P. acnes and finally found the Gifu anaerobic medium (GAM) broth supplemented with 0.1(v/v)% glycerol and 2(v/v)% Tween 80, in which BPO dissolved up to 1250 μg/mL and P. acnes grew well. The MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of BPO against 44 clinical isolates of P. acnes collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris were determined by our testing method using the supplemented GAM broth. The MICs of BPO were 128 or 256 μg/mL against all isolates of P. acnes regardless of susceptibility to nadifloxacin or clindamycin. The MBCs of BPO were also 128 or 256 μg/mL against the same isolates. Moreover, BPO at the MIC showed a rapid bactericidal activity against P. acnes ATCC11827 in time-kill assay. In conclusion, we could develop a novel assay for the MIC and MBC determinations of BPO against P. acnes, which is reliable and reproducible as a broth microdilution testing and the present results suggest that BPO has a potent bactericidal activity against P. acnes.
Porras, Simo P; Jussila, Matti
ACN is an extremely poor hydrogen bond donor and therefore the anions dissolved in it are solvated mainly by other hydrogen bond donors (e.g. uncharged acids) possibly present in the solution. Under properly selected experimental conditions stabilization via hydrogen bonding can be used for separation in CE as has been demonstrated for uncharged acids by several authors. Electromigration based on heteroconjugation can be of importance, e.g. when aqueous separation medium cannot be used due to stability reasons. It also allows CE to be used as a tool for solution chemistry measurements, if the required physicochemical properties of the studied system are known or they can be predicted with sufficient accuracy by existing theories. In the present work we showed that also an uncharged base can stabilize an anion via hydrogen bonding in ACN. In the setup imidazole was chosen as a model base and acetate ion as complexing anion in equimolar acetic acid-acetate buffer. The resulted hydrogen-bonded imidazole-acetate complex (i.e. heteroconjugate) possesses a charge and can thus migrate in CE. It was shown that the studied complexation in ACN is sensitive to competition by other hydrogen bond donors such as water and methanol. On the other hand, acetone, which is a poor hydrogen bond donor, did not have much effect on the complexation. To take the effect of ionic strength on mobility into account, mobilities of the imidazole-acetate complex measured at various ionic strengths were corrected to zero ionic strength by the aid of conductivity equation. A fit of the 1:1 binding isotherm to the ionic strength corrected mobility versus acetate concentration data led to rather good correlation. However, x-reciprocal linear transformation of the binding isotherm showed nonlinearity, which could be partly explained by homoconjugation of acetic acid and acetate ion. Since the homoconjugation constant for acetic acid under present experimental conditions was not available, theoretical
Hasegawa, Toshio; Matsukura, Tomoyuki; Suga, Yasushi; Muramatsu, Shigenori; Mizuno, Yuki; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Haruna, Kunitaka; Ogawa, Hideoki; Ikeda, Shigaku
Acne conglobata is an uncommon disorder characterized by the presence of nodulocystic lesions. Conservative therapy with oral and topical antibiotics is of limited efficacy in many cases, and surgical excision is often needed for removal of the cystic lesions. Treatment is particularly difficult in cases with lesions located in aesthetically sensitive areas, such as the face. We successfully treated a case of acne conglobata by CO(2) laser ablation to remove the top of the sinuses and their tracts. In addition, topical tretinoin therapy was also initiated simultaneously to prevent the appearance of new acne lesions. Based on the results, we propose that the use of CO(2) laser for opening the cysts, combined with topical tretinoin therapy to prevent the appearance of new lesions, is a powerful treatment option for acne conglobata.
Over 70 years have passed since dermatologists John H. Stokes and Donald M. Pillsbury first proposed a gastrointestinal mechanism for the overlap between depression, anxiety and skin conditions such as acne. Stokes and Pillsbury hypothesized that emotional states might alter the normal intestinal microflora, increase intestinal permeability and contribute to systemic inflammation. Among the remedies advocated by Stokes and Pillsbury were Lactobacillus acidophilus cultures. Many aspects of this gut-brain-skin unifying theory have recently been validated. The ability of the gut microbiota and oral probiotics to influence systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, glycemic control, tissue lipid content and even mood itself, may have important implications in acne. The intestinal microflora may also provide a twist to the developing diet and acne research. Here we provide a historical perspective to the contemporary investigations and clinical implications of the gut-brain-skin connection in acne. PMID:21281494
Magrey, Marina; Khan, Muhammad A
In 1987, synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome was proposed as an umbrella term for a group of diseases with similar musculoskeletal manifestations, in particular hyperostosis of anterior chest wall, synovitis, and multifocal aseptic osteomyelitis, observed in association with dermatologic conditions such as palmoplantar pustulosis, severe acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, and immunogenetic mechanisms involved in SAPHO syndrome, etiopathogenesis remains poorly understood. Propionibacterium acnes, the microorganism associated with acne, has been recovered on bone biopsy in some patients, but the possible pathogenetic role of an infectious agent in a genetically predisposed individual, resulting in exaggerated inflammatory response as "reactive osteitis," is a largely unproven hypothesis. The newly available whole-body MRI will assist early diagnosis by detecting multifocal osteitis lesions, some of them asymptomatic, in axial (anterior chest wall, spine, and jaws) and nonaxial sites. Moreover, outcomes are vastly improved by treatment with bisphosphonates and tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists.
Hansted, B; Reymann, F
22 adult females with therapy-resistant acne vulgaris were treated for 12 months with Diane, a drug containing cyproterone acetate and ethinylestradiol. Treatment was withdrawn in 7 patients because of side-effects of lack of of effect. In the remaining 15 patients, the treatment had extremely promising results, from 70 to 90% improvement of the acne. In a remarkably high number of patients, the androgen production, measured by the urinary excretion of fractional 17-ketosteroids, was elevated. None of these patients had signs of endocrinological diseases, in particular no cases of hirsutism of Stein-Leventhal syndrome were found. The current concept of the course of acne is that the conversion in the skin of testosterone to dehydrotestosterone is increased. The finding of an elevated urinary excretion of androgenic substances in this group of acne patients indicates that the pathogenesis is far more complicated.
Noto, G; Pravatà, G; Aricò, M; Maneschi, F; Palisi, F
The ovulatory patterns in women with acne vulgaris were evaluated in order to understand their relationship with androgenic levels. Ovulation disturbances were found in 58.3% of patients with prevalence of anovulation in the juvenile acne and of luteal insufficiency in the late-onset/persistent acne. Significant negative correlation was found between T free and P in the late-onset/persistent group (r: -0.629; p = 0.016): This may be interpreted as a rather steady endocrine status in which the raised androgenic levels, probably due to peripheral conversion, are concomitant to absent or insufficient ovulations. In the younger patients both the androgen excess and the ovulation disturbances could be due to an abnormal or delayed maturation of the hypothalamus-pituitary ovarian axis. The evaluation of the ovarian function in women with acne vulgaris may be useful to detect ovulatory disturbances in view of a possible resolution of both the problems by specific endocrine management.
Melnik, Bodo; Jansen, Thomas; Grabbe, Stephan
Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) by members of fitness centers and others in Germany has reached alarming dimensions. The health care system provides the illegal AAS to 48.1 % of abusers. Physicians are involved in illegal prescription of AAS and monitoring of 32.1 % of AAS abusers. Besides health-threatening cardiovascular, hepatotoxic and psychiatric long-term side effects of AAS, acne occurs in about 50 % of AAS abusers and is an important clinical indicator of AAS abuse, especially in young men 18-26 years of age. Both acne conglobata and acne fulminans can be induced by AAS abuse. The dermatologist should recognize bodybuilding acne, address the AAS abuse, and warn the patient about other potential hazards.
Kim, Grace K; Michaels, Brent B
Current evidence suggests that post-adolescent acne in women is on the rise. Acne in this subgroup of patients commonly follows a specific pattern that can often be treatment resistant and/or prone to relapse, including after oral isotretinoin therapy. With a plethora of medications to choose from for acne treatment, many of which have been used in the past by patients without success, dermatology practitioners often find oral contraceptives and spironolactone to be of benefit in otherwise healthy adult females. Also, some of these patients may have concurrent hormonal anomalies such as polycystic ovarian syndrome or other underlying endocrine disorders, which should also be appropriately worked up by the clinician and managed accordingly. This article reviews some of the underlying pathophysiological factors, available treatment options, and screening guidelines to assist clinicians in the management of acne in adult females.
Allhorn, Maria; Arve, Sabine; Brüggemann, Holger; Lood, Rolf
The role of the skin microbiota in human health is poorly understood. Here, we identified and characterized a novel antioxidant enzyme produced by the skin microbiota, designated RoxP for radical oxygenase of Propionibacterium acnes. RoxP is uniquely produced by the predominant skin bacterium P. acnes, with no homologs in other bacteria; it is highly expressed and strongly secreted into culture supernatants. We show that RoxP binds heme, reduces free radicals, and can protect molecules from oxidation. Strikingly, RoxP is crucial for the survival of P. acnes in oxic conditions and for skin colonization of P. acnes ex vivo. Taken together, our study strongly suggests that RoxP facilitates P. acnes’ survival on human skin, and is an important beneficial factor for the host-commensal interaction. Thus, RoxP is the first described skin microbiota-derived mutualistic factor that potentially can be exploited for human skin protection. PMID:27805044
Ceilley, Roger I
Acne and rosacea are common skin diseases which may present similarly and both involve inflammation. Both can result in significant cosmetic impairment and lead to quality of life decrements if not optimally treated. The conventional approach for both diseases involves the use of topical therapy to treat inflammatory lesions in combination, when needed, with a systemic or topical antibiotic. An important issue in the management of both diseases at present is the need to reduce antibiotic usage due to the increasing problem of bacterial resistance. One of the emerging treatment paradigms that is becoming increasingly useful as an antibiotic-sparing strategy is the use of procedural therapies in combination with medical management. Such procedural modalities include lasers, intense pulsed light (IPL), and photodynamic therapies (PDT). Topical regimens are used pre-treatment and following physical modalities for maintenance of remission.
Hormonal influences give rise to hirsutism and may encourage the appearance of seborrhea, acne and falling hair. Androgenically active processes in the cells of the end organs (e. g. sebaceous glands, hair roots) and in the endocrine regulation center may also be responsible for androgenic manifestations in women such as excretion of androgens by suprarenals and ovaries as well as its metabolization and final elimination. The central inhibiting effects of large doses of estrogen or gestagen have been taken advantage of since the sixties with varying therapeutic success. Advances in the treatment were only brought by the development of antiandrogenic progestogens and finally the synthesis of the "antiandrogen" cyproterone acetate in particular which, when selectively applied with critical consideration of the clinical symptoms, brings about a satisfactory therapeutic result for the cosmetically sensitive woman.
Aslan, İbrahim; Özcan, Filiz; Karaarslan, Taner; Kıraç, Ebru; Aslan, Mutay
This study aimed to determine circulating levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and measure circulating protein levels of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), ANGPTL4, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in patients with acne vulgaris. Serum from 21 control subjects and 31 acne vulgaris patients were evaluated for levels of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n- 6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). PUFA levels were determined by an optimized multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method using ultra fast-liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Lipid profile, routine biochemical and hormone parameters were assayed by standard kit methods Serum EPA levels were significantly decreased while AA/EPA and DGLA/EPA ratio were significantly increased in acne vulgaris patients compared to controls. Serum levels of AA, DGLA and DHA showed no significant difference while activity of sPLA2 and LPL were significantly increased in acne vulgaris compared to controls. Results of this study reveal the presence of a proinflammatory state in acne vulgaris as shown by significantly decreased serum EPA levels and increased activity of sPLA2, AA/EPA and DGLA/EPA ratio. Increased LPL activity in the serum of acne vulgaris patients can be protective through its anti-dyslipidemic actions. This is the first study reporting altered EPA levels and increased sPLA2 activity in acne vulgaris and supports the use of omega-3 fatty acids as adjuvant treatment for acne patients.
Burd', V N; van Pee, K H
The gene of tryptophan 7-halogenase was isolated from the Pseudomonas aureofaciens ACN strain producing pyrrolnitrin, a chlorocontaining antibiotic, and sequenced. A high homology degree (over 95%) was established for the genes and the corresponding halogenases from P. aureofaciens ACN and P. fluorescens BL915. The tryptophan 7-halogenase gene was amplified by PCR, and the corresponding enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli cells using the pBSII SK+ vector.
Morton, Laurel M
The treatment of acne scars is an important part of a laser specialist's practice. For the last 20 years, the technology available for this application has progressed from nonablative to ablative and eventually to fractional lasers that are effective for a range of scar types. Although patients with mild to severe acne scarring have long been good laser candidates, we are beginning to understand the use of lasers for severe traumatic scars which can be disfiguring and functionally limiting in nature.
Matuszewski, Marcin; Michajłowski, Igor; Krajka, Kazimierz
Acne inversa is a rare chronic and debilitating inflammatory skin disease. The authors report a case of a 45-year old male who presented with acne inversa in the inguinal, perineal, and scrotal areas. After unsatisfactory pharmacological treatment a wide surgical excision of the affected skin was performed in stages. On follow-up the patient presented with a very good cosmetic and functional result. A review of the most recent literature is also presented. PMID:24578957
Barnard, Emma; Shi, Baochen; Kang, Dezhi; Craft, Noah; Li, Huiying
Studies have emphasized the importance of disease-associated microorganisms in perturbed communities, however, the protective roles of commensals are largely under recognized and poorly understood. Using acne as a model disease, we investigated the determinants of the overall virulence property of the skin microbiota when disease- and health-associated organisms coexist in the community. By ultra-deep metagenomic shotgun sequencing, we revealed higher relative abundances of propionibacteria and Propionibacterium acnes phage in healthy skin. In acne patients, the microbiome composition at the species level and at P. acnes strain level was more diverse than in healthy individuals, with enriched virulence-associated factors and reduced abundance of metabolic synthesis genes. Based on the abundance profiles of the metagenomic elements, we constructed a quantitative prediction model, which classified the clinical states of the host skin with high accuracy in both our study cohort (85%) and an independent sample set (86%). Our results suggest that the balance between metagenomic elements, not the mere presence of disease-associated strains, shapes the overall virulence property of the skin microbiota. This study provides new insights into the microbial mechanism of acne pathogenesis and suggests probiotic and phage therapies as potential acne treatments to modulate the skin microbiota and to maintain skin health. PMID:28000755
Simmons, Brian J; Griffith, Robert D; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre A; Nouri, Keyvan
Acne is a common affliction among many teens and some adults that usually resolves over time. However, the severe sequela of acne scarring can lead to long-term psychological and psychiatric problems. There exists a multitude of modalities to treat acne scars such as more invasive surgical techniques, subcision, chemical peels, ablative lasers, fractional lasers, etc. A more recent technique for the treatment of acne scars is nonablative radiofrequency (RF) that works by passing a current through the dermis at a preset depth to produce small thermal wounds in the dermis which, in turn, stimulates dermal remodeling to produce new collagen and soften scar defects. This review article demonstrates that out of all RF modalities, microneedle bipolar RF and fractional bipolar RF treatments offers the best results for acne scarring. An improvement of 25%–75% can be expected after three to four treatment sessions using one to two passes per session. Treatment results are optimal approximately 3 months after final treatment. Common side effects can include transient pain, erythema, and scabbing. Further studies are needed to determine what RF treatment modalities work best for specific scar subtypes, so that further optimization of RF treatments for acne scars can be determined. PMID:25540589
Saric, Suzana; Notay, Manisha; Sivamani, Raja K.
Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies) and tea, type not specified (two studies). Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands. PMID:28036057
McCammon, M T
The two carbon compounds, ethanol and acetate, can be oxidatively metabolized as well as assimilated into carbohydrate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distribution of acetate metabolic enzymes among several cellular compartments, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cytoplasm makes it an intriguing system to study complex metabolic interactions. To investigate the complex process of carbon catabolism and assimilation, mutants unable to grow on acetate were isolated. One hundred five Acn- ("ACetate Nonutilizing") mutants were sorted into 21 complementation groups with an additional 20 single mutants. Five of the groups have defects in TCA cycle enzymes: MDH1, CIT1, ACO1, IDH1, and IDH2. A defect in RTG2, involved in the retrograde communication between the mitochondrion and the nucleus, was also identified. Four genes encode enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis: ICL1, MLS1, MDH2, and PCK1. Five other genes appear to be defective in regulating metabolic activity since elevated levels of enzymes in several metabolic pathways, including the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis, and acetyl-CoA metabolism, were detected in these mutants: ACN8, ACN9, ACN17, ACN18, and ACN42. In summary, this analysis has identified at least 22 and as many as 41 different genes involved in acetate metabolism.
Del Rosso, James Q
Acne vulgaris is the most common disorder encountered in ambulatory clinical practice comprising 11.3 percent of office visits to dermatologists in 2005.(1) By comparison, eczematous dermatoses, psoriasis, and skin cancer accounted for 6.2, 3.5, and 10 percent of office visits, respectively.(1) A variety of topical therapeutic options are available for treatment of acne vulgaris, including benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur.(2,3) Sodium sulfacetamide 10%-sulfur 5% has been used for the topical treatment of seborrheic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, and rosacea since the mid-1950s and is available in a variety of formulations, including lotions, creams, cleansers, and emollient foams.(4) Recently, an emollient foam sodium sulfacetamide 10%-sulfur 5% formulation indicated for topical therapy of acne vulgaris, rosacea, and seborrheic dermatitis has become available.(5) This article provides an overview of the sodium sulfacetamide 10%-sulfur 5% emollient foam and reports the results of a case report series of patients with acne vulgaris treated with sodium sulfacetamide 10%-sulfur 5% emollient foam as monotherapy or in combination with other topical acne products.
Del Rosso, James Q
The widespread use of long-term antibiotics to treat acne and rosacea has resulted in increased Propionibacterium acnes resistance to antibiotics. Although resistance may decrease treatment effectiveness in some cases, it also is clear that antimicrobial activity is not the only role antibiotics play in acne management. The anti-inflammatory activity of antibiotics contributes to antipropionibacterial efficacy. In addition, the use of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) in combination with antibiotics to reduce resistant populations of propionibacteria is widely advocated, as P acnes has not developed resistance to it. P acnes now is known to form biofilms, which are bacterial communities that live encased in a glycocalyx polymer that aids in adherence to surfaces, thereby delaying antibiotic penetration. In addition to drug resistance, patient compliance with acne treatment is an important issue. Because compliance is a function of tolerability and convenience, new moisturizing noncomedogenic vehicles and fixed BPO-antibiotic combinations can be expected to improve compliance. Better efficacy has been noted with BPO-antibiotic combination therapy.
Saric, Suzana; Notay, Manisha; Sivamani, Raja K
Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies) and tea, type not specified (two studies). Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.
McCammon, M. T.
The two carbon compounds, ethanol and acetate, can be oxidatively metabolized as well as assimilated into carbohydrate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distribution of acetate metabolic enzymes among several cellular compartments, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cytoplasm makes it an intriguing system to study complex metabolic interactions. To investigate the complex process of carbon catabolism and assimilation, mutants unable to grow on acetate were isolated. One hundred five Acn(-) (``ACetate Nonutilizing'') mutants were sorted into 21 complementation groups with an additional 20 single mutants. Five of the groups have defects in TCA cycle enzymes: MDH1, CIT1, ACO1, IDH1, and IDH2. A defect in RTG2, involved in the retrograde communication between the mitochondrion and the nucleus, was also identified. Four genes encode enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis: ICL1, MLS1, MDH2, and PCK1. Five other genes appear to be defective in regulating metabolic activity since elevated levels of enzymes in several metabolic pathways, including the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis, and acetyl-CoA metabolism, were detected in these mutants: ACN8, ACN9, ACN17, ACN18, and ACN42. In summary, this analysis has identified at least 22 and as many as 41 different genes involved in acetate metabolism. PMID:8878673
Suh, Dae Hun; Shin, Jung Won; Min, Seong Uk; Lee, Dong Hun; Yoon, Mi Young; Kim, Nack In; Kye, Young Chul; Lee, Eil Soo; Ro, Young Suck; Kim, Kwang Joong
Little is known about the treatment-seeking behaviors of acne patients, especially Asian acne patients. This study was performed to obtain detailed information about the treatment-seeking behaviors in Korean acne patients. Patients who visited the dermatology departments at 17 university hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire. Most patients obtained information about acne from doctors or the Internet. The most important criteria for selecting a treatment method or choosing a particular clinic were effectiveness and accessibility. Patients used traditional medicine, visited beauty clinics, drank more water, and used over-the-counter topical agents more frequently than they sought doctors during the worsening period. The degree of satisfaction in treatment was found to depend on the total cost of treatment, number of places visited, site affected by acne, and emotional stress. Those who had experienced a side effect tended to have been treated for longer, to have paid more for treatment, and to have an associated skin disease. Treatments prescribed by dermatology clinics had the lowest aggravating rate, although improvement rates for family medicine clinics were also fairly high. This is the first study to investigate in detail the demographic features and characteristics of the treatment-seeking behaviors of acne patients in Asia.
El-Latif, Azmy Ahmed Abd; Hassan, Faisal Abdel Aziz; Elshahed, Ahmed Rashad; Mohamed, Amr Ghareeb; Elsaie, Mohamed L
Acne is a common disorder affecting the pilosebaceous unit. Despite many advances in the treatments of acne vulgaris the best option is still controversial as the pathogenesis of acne is rather complex, necessitating various combination therapies. The objective of this study is to compare the clinical efficacy of intense pulsed light therapy (IPL) versus benzoyl peroxide 5% for the treatment of inflammatory acne. Fifty patients of both sexes, (15 males and 35 females) aged (18-27 years), with mild-to-severe acne and Fitzpatrick skin phototype IV were enrolled in this study. The patients were equally divided into two groups. The first group was treated by benzoyl peroxide while the second group was treated by IPL. For both therapies, patients experienced a significant reduction in the mean of the inflammatory lesion counts over the treatment period. Comparing the effects of both therapies, BP produced better results than IPL. The difference in the results was statistically significant at the midpoint of the study. However, this difference was insignificant at the end of study. Treatment with both benzoyl peroxide and IPL resulted in considerable improvement of the acne after 5 weeks of treatment. Comparing the effects of both therapies, BP produced better results than IPL. The difference in the results was statistically significant at the midpoint of the study. However, this difference was insignificant at the end of study.
Odlind, V; Carlström, K; Michaëlsson, G; Vahlqvist, A; Victor, A; Mellbin, T
The possible relationship between plasma androgenic activity and acne vulgaris was investigated. Plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were determined in healthy girls during different stages of puberty, in healthy adult women and in women with acne vulgaris. Testosterone increase during puberty, whereas SHBG decreased during the early stages before it increased and stabilized plasma concentrations of testosterone and SHBG. Women with severe acne vulgaris had testosterone levels in the same range but the SHBG levels were significantly lower than those of healthy women and women with mild acne. These results show a high androgenic activity in the intermediate stages of puberty, when acne vulgaris is a common complaint and an increased androgenic activity in adult women with severe acne vulgaris.
Nakase, Keisuke; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Toda, Yuta; Noguchi, Norihisa
Determination of the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and the mutant selection window (MSW) of antimicrobial agents used to treat pathogenic bacteria is important in order to apply effective antimicrobial therapies. Here, we determined the MPCs of the major topical antimicrobial agents against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus which cause skin infections and compared their MSWs. Among the MPCs of nadifloxacin and clindamycin, the clindamycin MPC was determined to be the lowest against P. acnes. In contrast, the nadifloxacin MPC was the lowest against S. aureus. Calculations based on the minimum inhibitory concentrations and MPCs showed that clindamycin has the lowest MSW against both P. acnes and S. aureus. Nadifloxacin MSWs were 4-fold higher against P. acnes than against S. aureus. It is more likely for P. acnes to acquire resistance to fluoroquinolones than S. aureus. Therefore, topical application of clindamycin contributes very little to the emergence of resistant P. acnes and S. aureus strains.
Martin, A G; Weaver, C C; Cockerell, C J; Berger, T G
The development of pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) in three patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is described. Two of the patients had onset of severe generalized cystic acne concomitant with their development of PRP. PRP and acne conglobata should be added to the group of cutaneous disorders that can present in a more virulent manner in the setting of HIV infection. The association of cystic acne with PRP and their response to treatment are discussed.
Hammer, K A
Over-the-counter acne treatments containing tea tree oil from the plant Melaleuca alternifolia are widely available, and evidence indicates that they are a common choice amongst those self-treating their acne. The aims of this review were to collate and evaluate the clinical evidence on the use of tea tree oil products for treating acne, to review safety and tolerability and to discuss the underlying modes of therapeutic action.
Goh, Chee Leok; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Aw, Derrick Chen Wee; Baba, Roshidah; Chan, Lee Chin; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Leong, Hoe Nam; Medina-Oblepias, Marie Socouer; Noppakun, Nopadon; Sitohang, Irma Bernadette; Sugito, Titi Lestari; Wong, Su-Ni
The management of acne in South-East Asia is unique, as Asian skin and local variables require a clinical approach unlike that utilized in other parts of the world. There are different treatment guidelines per country in the region, and a group of leading dermatologists from these countries convened to review these guidelines, discuss current practices and recent advances, and formulate consensus guidelines to harmonize the management of acne vulgaris in the region. Emphasis has been placed on formulating recommendations to impede the development of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes. The group adopted the Acne Consensus Conference system for grading acne severity. The group recommends that patients may be treated with topical medications including retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), salicylic acid, a combination of retinoid and BPO, or a combination of retinoids and BPO with or without antibiotics for mild acne; topical retinoid with topical BPO and a oral antibiotic for moderate acne; and oral isotretinoin if the patient fails first-line treatment (a 6- or 8-week trial of combined oral antibiotics and topical retinoids with BPO) for severe acne. Maintenance acne treatment using topical retinoids with or without BPO is recommended. To prevent the development of antibiotic resistance, topical antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy or used simultaneously with oral antibiotics. Skin care, comprised of cleansing, moisturizing and sun protection, is likewise recommended. Patient education and good communication is recommended to improve adherence, and advice should be given about the characteristics of the skin care products patients should use.
Nagy, István; Pivarcsi, Andor; Kis, Kornélia; Koreck, Andrea; Bodai, László; McDowell, Andrew; Seltmann, Holger; Patrick, Sheila; Zouboulis, Christos C; Kemény, Lajos
Acne is a common skin disorder of the pilosebaceous unit. In addition to genetic, hormonal and environmental factors, abnormal colonization by Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated in the occurrence of acne via the induction of inflammatory mediators. To gain more insight into the role that sebocytes play in the innate immune response of the skin, particularly in acne, we compared the antimicrobial peptide and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression at mRNA and protein levels, as well as the viability and differentiation of SZ95 sebocytes in response to co-culture with representative isolates of P. acnes type IA and type IB as well as Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that, in vitro, P. acnes type IA and IB isolates and LPS induced human beta-defensin-2 and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression, and influenced sebocyte viability and differentiation. Our results provide evidence that sebocytes are capable of producing proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and antimicrobial peptides, which may have a role in acne pathogenesis. Furthermore, since P. acnes types IA and IB differentially affect both the differentiation and viability of sebocytes, our data demonstrate that different strains of P. acnes vary in their capacity to stimulate an inflammatory response within the pilosebaceous follicle.
Ryu, Sunhyo; Han, Hyo Mi; Song, Peter I.
The cutaneous inflammation associated with acne vulgaris is caused by the anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes through activation of the innate immune system in the skin. Current standard treatments for acne have limitations that include adverse effects and poor efficacy in many patients, making development of a more effective therapy highly desirable. In the present study, we demonstrate the protective effects of a novel customized α-helical cationic peptide, P5, against P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Application of P5 significantly reduced expression of two inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α in P. acnes-treated primary human keratinocytes, where P5 appeared to act in part by binding to bacterial lipoteichoic acid, thereby suppressing TLR2-to-NF-κB signaling. In addition, in a mouse model of acne vulgaris, P5 exerted both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects against P. acnes, but exerted no cytotoxic effects against skin cells. These results demonstrate that P5, and perhaps other cationic antimicrobial peptides, offer the unique ability to reduce numbers P. acnes cells in the skin and to inhibit the inflammation they trigger. This suggests these peptides could potentially be used to effectively treat acne without adversely affecting the skin. PMID:26197393
We report the case of a patient with a simultaneous presence of pyoderma gangrenosum, acne conglobata, suppurative hidradenitis, and axial spondyloarthritis. This condition differs from both the PASH (pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and suppurative hidradenitis) syndrome, in which arthritis is absent, and the PAPA (pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne) syndrome, in which suppurative hidradenitis is lacking. Our patient failed to respond to etanercept therapy, whereas all dermatologic and rheumatic manifestations completely regressed following infliximab infusion. We therefore propose that simultaneous presence of pyoderma gangrenosum, acne conglobata, suppurative hidradenitis, and seronegative spondyloarthritis might represent a distinct syndrome that could be termed the PASS syndrome. Tumor necrosis factor α therapies seem to play selective roles.
Semedo, Diogo; Ladeiro, Filipa; Ruivo, Mariana; D'Oliveira, Carlos; De Sousa, Filipa; Gayo, Mariana; Lima, Clara; Magalhães, Frederico; Brandão, Rui; Branco, Maria; Da Silva, Isabel; Batista, Joana; Amado, João; Massa, António; Neves-Amado, João
Introdução: A acne, apesar de caraterística no adolescente, afeta frequentemente o adulto. Em Portugal, não são conhecidos estudos sobre a prevalência da acne no adulto, nomeadamente observada nos grandes centros populacionais. Os objetivos deste estudo foram estimar a prevalência da acne nos utentes dos serviços de cuidados de saúde primários, as suas características, incluindo fatores de risco para início e/ou agravamento, além de coletar informação relacionada com a automedicação e/ou tratamento prescrito. Material e Métodos: Aplicação de questionário e exame físico a amostra composta por adultos entre os 20 - 60 anos de idade que visitaram, em dias aleatórios, cinco centros de saúde da área do Grande Porto. Resultados: Dos 1 055 adultos avaliados, a prevalência estimada de acne foi de 61,5%. Apenas 36,8% dos portadores estavam cientes da sua condição e somente 25% afirmou ter procurado tratamento. Mais de metade dos fumadores (62,3%) apresentavam acne. A zona mais afetada foi a região malar, diferindo da forma adolescente da doença. Discussão: A prevalência encontrada de acne foi mais elevada do que em outros estudos. A acne aparentou estar relacionada com a ingestão calórica aumentada, tabagismo, consumo de leite gordo ou meio gordo, hirsutismo, alopécia e seborreia. Conclusão: No contexto dos cuidados de saúde primários, mais de metade dos adultos eram portadores de acne. Estes números demonstram o quão importante pode ser a prevenção e intervenção pelos profissionais dos cuidados de saúde primários, tanto para a redução de eventuais factores de risco como para a intervenção terapêutica e consequências psicossociais relacionadas com a acne. Palavras-chave: Acne Vulgaris/epidemiologia; Adulto; Cuidados de Saúde Primários; Portugal; Prevalência.
Jaffary, Fariba; Faghihi, Gita; Saraeian, Sara; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen
Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles and one of the most common skin diseases. The peeling method has been recently found to be effective for acne treatment. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% peeling in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. Materials and Methods: In a prospective single-blinded clinical trial, 86 patients with acne were randomly assigned into two groups. In both groups, the routine treatment of acne (topical solution of erythromycin 4%, triclorocarban soap, and sunscreen) were used twice a day for 8 weeks. In addition, salicylic acid 30% for the control group and pyruvic acid 50% for the case group were used. In both groups, acne severity index (ASI) was calculated before and at week 2, 4, 6, and 8 of the treatment. Patient satisfaction was assessed at the end of the treatment. Side effects were recorded using a checklist. Results: In both groups, the reduction in the number of comedones, papules, and ASI were statistically significant (P < 0.001) in the course of treatment. However, it was not significant regarding the number of pustules (P = 0.09). None of the number of comedone, papules, pustules, and ASI was statistically different between study groups. Both treatment groups had similar side effects except for scaling in the fifth session, which was significantly lower in salicylic acid – treated patients (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Both pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% are effective in the improvement of mild to moderate acne with no significant difference in efficacy and side effects. PMID:27904577
Nelson, Kate; Lyles, James T.; Li, Tracy; Saitta, Alessandro; Addie-Noye, Eugenia; Tyler, Paula; Quave, Cassandra L.
Propionibacterium acnes is implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, which impacts >85% of teenagers. Novel therapies are in high demand and an ethnopharmacological approach to discovering new plant sources of anti-acne therapeutics could contribute to filling this void in effective therapies. The aims of our study were two-fold: (1) To determine if species identified in ethnopharmacological field studies as having traditional uses for skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) exhibit significantly more activity against P. acnes than species with no such reported use; and (2) Chemically characterize active extracts and assess their suitability for future investigation. Extracts of Italian medicinal (for acne and other skin infection) and randomly collected plants and fungi were screened for growth-inhibitory and anti-biofilm activity in P. acnes using broth microdilution methods. Bioactive extracts were chemically characterized by HPLC and examined for cytotoxicity against human keratinocytes (HaCaTs). Following evaluation of 157 extracts from 10 fungi and 58 plants, we identified crude extracts from seven species exhibiting growth inhibitory activity (MICs 64–256 μg mL−1). All active extracts were examined for cytotoxicity against HaCaTs; extracts from one fungal and one plant species were toxic (IC50 256 μg mL−1). HPLC analysis with chemical standards revealed many of these extracts contained chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, gallic acid, and tannic acid. In conclusion, species used in traditional medicine for the skin exhibited significantly greater (p < 0.05) growth inhibitory and biofilm eradication activity than random species, supporting the validity of an ethnobotanical approach to identifying new therapeutics. The anti-acne activity of three extracts is reported for the first time: Vitis vinifera leaves, Asphodelus microcarpus leaves, and Vicia sativa aerial parts. PMID:27891094
Davis, Scott A; Sandoval, Laura F; Gustafson, Cheryl J; Feldman, Steven R; Cordoro, Kelly M
The prevalence of acne in younger children is increasing. Of the acne treatments that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved for ages 12 years and older, it is unclear which medications are being prescribed off-label for this younger patient population. The purpose of this study is to compare the therapies being prescribed to preadolescent patients with acne (defined in this study as ages 7 to 11 years) with those being prescribed to adolescent patients (ages 12 to 18 years) and to determine whether prescribing patterns differ between dermatologists and pediatricians. Leading therapies for the treatment of children with a diagnosis of acne were collected from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) from 1993 to 2009. Data were stratified according to age group and physician specialty. Physicians prescribed a wide variety of FDA-approved and off-label medications to preadolescent patients with acne. The leading medications were topical treatments, including adapalene (14.4%), benzoyl peroxide (12.8%), and tretinoin (12.5%). Treatment of this age group differed substantially between specialties, with dermatologists frequently prescribing topical retinoids and primary care physicians preferring antibiotics, particularly oral antibiotics. Limitations included a lack of data on acne severity and morphology through NAMCS, as well as the absence of longitudinal data. With the limited number of FDA-approved treatment options, off-label prescribing for acne in preadolescent patients is common. Furthermore, this study identified a potential knowledge gap between pediatricians based on their prescribing patterns in this patient population.
Dinant, Alexa; Boulos, Ramiz A
Background Acne is a prominent skin condition affecting >80% of teenagers and young adults and ~650 million people globally. Isotretinoin, a vitamin A derivative, is currently the standard of care for treatment. However, it has a well-established teratogenic activity, a reason for the development of novel and low-risk treatment options for acne. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of Zolav®, a novel antibiotic as a treatment for acne vulgaris. Materials and methods Minimum inhibitory concentration of Zolav® against Propionibacterium acnes was determined by following a standard protocol using Mueller-Hinton broth and serial dilutions in a 96-well plate. Cytotoxicity effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and lung cells in the presence of Zolav® were investigated by determining the growth inhibition (GI50) concentration, total growth inhibition concentration, and the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50). The tryptophan auxotrophic mutant of Escherichia coli strain, WP2 uvrA (ATCC 49979), was used for the AMES assay with the addition of Zolav® tested for its ability to reverse the mutation and induce bacterial growth. The in vivo effectiveness of Zolav® was tested in a P. acnes mouse intradermal model where the skin at the infection site was removed, homogenized, and subjected to colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. Results Susceptibility testing of Zolav® against P. acnes showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 µg/mL against three strains with no cytotoxicity and no mutagenicity observed at the highest concentrations tested, 30 µM and 1,500 µg/plate, respectively. The use of Zolav® at a concentration of 50 µg/mL (q8h) elicited a two-log difference in CFU/g between the treatment group and the control. Conclusion This study demonstrates the potential of Zolav® as a novel treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:27042015
Fendrich, Z; Jandová, E; Finsterlová, M
An inevitable condition for the pharmacist is a basic knowledge of dermatological changes which are prominent in acne and solar impairment of the skin to be able to recommend in a qualified manner an effective and safe treatment to the patient. However, sufferers of the more serious forms of acne should always be referred to their general practitioner, or preferentially a dermatologist. Acne vulgaris is an androgen-induced disorder, but three major mechanisms for the development of the disease have been identified: hypertrophy of the sebaceous gland, hyperkatosis of the follicular epithelium, and proliferation of microbial flora, particularly Propionibacterium acnes. The basis of all lesions is the microcomedone which is developed into the ripe comedone. Inflammatory lesions are thought to be due to proliferation of P. acnes. In the selfmedication of common acne, benzoyl peroxide, which in a 5-10% lotion exerts antimicrobial and keratolytic properties, proved to be useful. Patients appreciate a lot its instant effect which is visible after just one day of treatment. Salicylic acid is another effective drug, which, when used on the long-term basis, has comedolytic properties; it reduces the number of microcomedones and counteracts plugging of the follicles. In addition, in healthy young women who take oral contraception, a triphasic combined oral preparations of contraceptives with newer progestins, notably with norgestimmate, which is practically free of androgenic effects, are recommended with advantage for the treatment of moderate acne vulgaris without any adverse effects. Solar impairment of the skin, the so-called solar ageing, is clinically indistinguishable from biological ageing. Changes connected with solar impairment appear mostly in the dermis, where solar elastosis develops, the skin gets drier and wrinkle formation appears. For the treatment, hydroxy acids are recommended, namely salicylic acid, which is very effective, because in combination with a
Rodan, Katie; Fields, Kathy; Falla, Timothy J
Background Acne vulgaris (acne) is the most common skin disorder producing physical and emotional scars that can persist for years. An estimated 83% of acne sufferers self-treat, but there is lack of studies documenting the effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC) acne treatment products. Objective This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of an OTC, 3-step, anti-acne skincare regimen in treating acne and improving the appearance of red/inflamed facial skin. Methods This 6-week, open-label clinical study included both genders aged between 12 and 35 years with mild-to-moderate acne. All subjects were required to have an acne score of 1–3 (Cook’s acne grading scale: 0=clear to 7=very severe) and a moderate redness score of ≥2 (0=none and 4=severe). Subjects completed a 3-step facial treatment regimen every morning and evening using an OTC cleanser, toner, and acne treatment. Evaluations for effectiveness and safety were done at baseline and weeks 2, 4, and 6 using digital photographs (Visia-CR® digital imaging system) of the face and analyzed using Image-Pro® software for the grading of acne, red/inflamed skin, and the number and type of lesions. Results Thirty subjects (12 males and 18 females) were enrolled (mean age of 19 years; range 12–34 years). This skincare regimen resulted in statistically significant improvements in acne grading scores after 2 weeks of use, with mean scores continuing to improve after 4 and 6 weeks of use (P<0.001). Statistically significant improvements from baseline in red/inflamed skin, open and closed comedones, and papules were detected at all time points and for nodules at week 6, compared to their respective baselines (P<0.05). Conclusion This clinical study demonstrated the effectiveness of an OTC 3-step, anti-acne skincare regimen in significantly improving acne and the overall appearance of skin in the majority of subjects who had mild-to-moderate acne. PMID:28115862
Ollagnier, Guillaume; Désiré, Nathalie; Sayon, Sophie; Raingeaud, Jöel; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Calvez, Vincent; Khammari, Amir; Batteux, Frédéric; Dréno, Brigitte; Dupin, Nicolas
Background Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is an anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria encountered in inflammatory acne lesions, particularly in the pilosebaceous follicle. P. acnes triggers a strong immune response involving keratinocytes, sebocytes and monocytes, the target cells during acne development. Lipoteicoic acid and peptidoglycan induce the inflammatory reaction, but no P. acnes surface protein interacting with Toll-like receptors has been identified. P. acnes surface proteins have been extracted by lithium stripping and shown to induce CXCL8 production by keratinocytes. Methodology and principal findings Far-western blotting identified two surface proteins, of 24.5- and 27.5-kDa in size, specifically recognized by TLR2. These proteins were characterized, by LC-MS/MS, as CAMP factor 1 devoid of its signal peptide sequence, as shown by N-terminal sequencing. Purified CAMP factor 1 induces CXCL8 production by activating the CXCL8 gene promoter, triggering the synthesis of CXCL8 mRNA. Antibodies against TLR2 significantly decreased the CXCL8 response. For the 27 P. acnes strains used in this study, CAMP1-TLR2 binding intensity was modulated and appeared to be strong in type IB and II strains, which produced large amounts of CXCL8, whereas most of the type IA1 and IA2 strains presented little or no CAMP1-TLR2 binding and low levels of CXCL8 production. The nucleotide sequence of CAMP factor displays a major polymorphism, defining two distinct genetic groups corresponding to CAMP factor 1 with 14 amino-acid changes from strains phylotyped II with moderate and high levels of CAMP1-TLR2 binding activity, and CAMP factor 1 containing 0, 1 or 2 amino-acid changes from strains phylotyped IA1, IA2, or IB presenting no, weak or moderate CAMP1-TLR2 binding. Conclusions Our findings indicate that CAMP factor 1 may contribute to P. acnes virulence, by amplifying the inflammation reaction through direct interaction with TLR2. PMID:27902761
Dessinioti, Clio; Katsambas, Andreas; Antoniou, Christina
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also known as acne inversa, is a chronic follicular occlusive skin disorder characterized by recurrent abscesses, draining sinuses, and scarring, with a multifactorial pathogenesis. The answer to the question whether HS may be considered a systemic disease relies on the presence of accompanying systemic manifestations, on the proof of association with other diseases or conditions, and on the occurrence of systemic implications. We address these questions based on a systemic review of the existing literature. There are several reports in the literature of the coexistence of HS with other diseases, including pyoderma gangrenosum, PASH syndrome, Adamantiades-Behcet's disease, spondylarthropathy, Crohn's disease, SAPHO, pachyonychia congenita, Dowling-Degos disease, and the keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome. Case series exist only for Crohn's disease, while most other reports are anecdotal, thus, not providing high-quality scientific evidence. Based on well-designed studies, HS has been associated with the metabolic syndrome and with excess body weight or obesity. The link between HS and systemic associations may be attributed to common genetic or environmental factors or shared inflammatory pathways.
Hong, Jong Soo; Jung, Jae Yoon; Yoon, Ji Young; Suh, Dae Hun
Various methods of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for acne have been introduced. However, comparative studies among them are still needed. We performed this study to compare the effect of methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) PDT for acne between red light and intense pulsed light (IPL). Twenty patients were enrolled in this eight-week, prospective, split-face study. We applied MAL cream over the whole face with a three-hour incubation time. Then patients were irradiated with 22 J/cm(2) of red light on one-half of the face and 8-10 J/cm(2) of IPL on the other half during each treatment session. We performed three treatment sessions at two-week intervals and followed-up patients until four weeks after the last session. Inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions were reduced significantly on both sides. The red light side showed a better response than the IPL side after the first treatment. Serious adverse effects after treatment were not observed. MAL-PDT with red light and IPL are both an effective and safe modality in acne treatment. Red light showed a faster response time than IPL. After multiple sessions, both light sources demonstrated satisfactory results. We suggest that reducing the total dose of red light is desirable when performing MAL-PDT in Asian patients with acne compared with Caucasians.
Achermann, Yvonne; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Coenye, Tom
SUMMARY Propionibacterium acnes is known primarily as a skin commensal. However, it can present as an opportunistic pathogen via bacterial seeding to cause invasive infections such as implant-associated infections. These infections have gained more attention due to improved diagnostic procedures, such as sonication of explanted foreign materials and prolonged cultivation time of up to 14 days for periprosthetic biopsy specimens, and improved molecular methods, such as broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR. Implantassociated infections caused by P. acnes are most often described for shoulder prosthetic joint infections as well as cerebrovascular shunt infections, fibrosis of breast implants, and infections of cardiovascular devices. P. acnes causes disease through a number of virulence factors, such as biofilm formation. P. acnes is highly susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics, including beta-lactams, quinolones, clindamycin, and rifampin, although resistance to clindamycin is increasing. Treatment requires a combination of surgery and a prolonged antibiotic treatment regimen to successfully eliminate the remaining bacteria. Most authors suggest a course of 3 to 6 months of antibiotic treatment, including 2 to 6 weeks of intravenous treatment with a beta-lactam. While recently reported data showed a good efficacy of rifampin against P. acnes biofilms, prospective, randomized, controlled studies are needed to confirm evidence for combination treatment with rifampin, as has been performed for staphylococcal implant-associated infections. PMID:24982315
Pigatto, P D; Finzi, A F; Altomare, G F; Polenghi, M M; Vergani, C; Vigotti, G
We have recently reported that patients with severe nodular cystic acne have much lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A and hepatic lipoprotein lipase than healthy controls or subjects with acne vulgaris. Since isotretinoin is very effective in the treatment of the nodular cystic acne but has been shown to increase blood lipid levels, we decided to compare its clinical effectiveness and its effects on lipid metabolism with those of minocycline in patients with nodular cystic acne. After 20 weeks, the number and mean diameter of the cysts were definitely decreased in both groups, but the improvement was more striking in the isotretinoin-treated group. At the end of the treatment, the HDL-C and hepatic lipoprotein lipase levels in this group were increased toward normal, but not in the minocycline-treated group. Our study showed a significant remission in the acne of patients treated with isotretinoin but not in that of the minocycline-treated patients. Furthermore isotretinoin can also correct the altered lipid metabolism in these patients.
Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Faghihi, Gita; Basiri, Akram; Farhadi, Sadaf; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali; Behfar, Shadi
Background: Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease. Local and systemic antimicrobial drugs are used for its treatment. But increasing resistance of Propionibacterium acnes to antibiotics has been reported. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 40 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were recruited. one side of the face was treated with Clindamycin Gel 1% and the other side with Azithromycin Topical Gel 2% BID for 8 weeks and then they were assessed. Results: Average age was 21. 8 ± 7 years. 82.5% of them were female. Average number of papules, pustules and comedones was similarly reduced in both groups and, no significant difference was observed between the two groups (P > 0.05, repeated measurs ANOVA). The mean indexes of ASI and TLC also significantly decreased during treatment in both groups, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. (P > 0.05, repeated measurs ANOVA). Also, impact of both drugs on papules and pustules was 2-3 times greater than the effect on comedones. Average satisfaction score was not significant between the two groups (P = 0.6, repeated measurs ANOVA). finally, frequency distribution of complications was not significant between the two groups (P > 0.05, Fisher Exact test). Conclusion: Azithromycin gel has medical impact at least similar to Clindamycin Gel in treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris, and it may be consider as suitable drug for resistant acne to conventional topical therapy. PMID:27169103
Elmongy, Naglaa Nabil; Shaker, Olfat
Sebum production is the key factor in the pathophysiology of acne. Studies in sebocyte and human sebaceous gland biology indicate that agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alter sebaceous lipid production. Our objective was to detect the expression of PPARβ/δ in acne lesions and find its contribution to disease pathogenesis. Twenty five acne vulgaris patients (14 males, 11 females) were included. In addition, 12 healthy volunteers (6 males, 6 females) served as controls. Punch biopsies (3mm) were taken from lesional skin of all patients, non-lesional skin in 12 patients, and from the healthy controls. The biopsies were estimated quantitatively for the level of PPARβ/δ mRNA using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain (RT-PCR) technique. PPARβ/δ mRNA levels were significantly higher in patients than controls (p=0.00) and in patients' lesional than non-lesional skin (p=0.00). No significant difference however, was found between inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Age and disease duration had no influence on mean PPAR mRNA levels in lesional skin. PPARβ/δ is over expressed-in inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne vulgaris and may well be considered as a candidate target in future acne therapy. However, elucidation of its functional role is recommended.
Piggott, Damani A.; Higgins, Yvonne M.; Melia, Michael T.; Ellis, Brandon; Carroll, Karen C.; McFarland, Edward G.; Auwaerter, Paul G.
Background. Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) significantly complicate joint arthroplasties. Propionibacterium acnes is an increasingly recognized PJI pathogen, yet limited clinical and therapeutic data exist. We sought to examine characteristics of P. acnes shoulder PJIs and compare surgical and nonsurgical management outcomes. Methods. A retrospective analysis of P. acnes shoulder PJIs was conducted at an academic center in Baltimore, Maryland from 2000 to 2013. Results. Of 24 cases of P. acnes shoulder PJIs, 92% were diagnosed after extended culture implementation; 42% in the delayed and 46% in the late postsurgical period. Joint pain and diminished function were the predominant presenting clinical signs. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein elevations occurred in 47% and 44%, respectively. All tested isolates were susceptible to β-lactams, moxifloxacin, vancomycin, and rifampin. Clindamycin resistance was identified in 6%. Of the antibiotic-only treated cases, 67% had a favorable clinical outcome compared with 71% (P = 1.0) of cases with a combined antibiotic-surgical approach. Favorable outcome with and without rifampin therapy was 73% and 60% (P = .61), respectively. Conclusions. Propionibacterium acnes PJI diagnoses increased with extended culture. Inflammatory markers were elevated in a minority of cases. Isolates maintained broad antimicrobial susceptibility. Compared to combined antibiotic-surgical approaches, antibiotic-only approaches were similarly successful in selected cases. PMID:26933665
Totté, J E E; van der Feltz, W T; Bode, L G M; van Belkum, A; van Zuuren, E J; Pasmans, S G M A
Staphylococcus aureus might amplify symptoms in chronic inflammatory skin diseases. This study evaluates skin and mucosal colonization with S. aureus in patients with psoriasis, acne and rosacea. A systematic literature search was conducted. Both odds ratios (OR) for colonization in patients versus controls and the prevalence of colonization in patients are reported. Fifteen articles about psoriasis and 13 about acne (12 having a control group) were included. No study in rosacea met our inclusion criteria. For psoriasis, one study out of three controlled studies showed increased skin colonization (OR 18.86; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.20-161.99). Three out of the five studies that reported on nasal colonization showed significant ORs varying from 1.73 (95 % CI 1.16-2.58) to 14.64 (95 % CI 2.82-75.95). For acne one of the three studies that evaluated skin colonization reported a significant OR of 4.16 (95 % CI 1.74-9.94). A relation between nasal colonization and acne was not found. Limitations in study design and low sample sizes should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results. Colonisation with S. aureus seems to be increased in patients with psoriasis. This bacterial species, known for its potential to induce long-lasting inflammation, might be involved in psoriasis pathogenesis. Information on acne is limited. Prospective controlled studies should further investigate the role of S. aureus in chronic inflammatory skin diseases.
Achermann, Yvonne; Goldstein, Ellie J C; Coenye, Tom; Shirtliff, Mark E
Propionibacterium acnes is known primarily as a skin commensal. However, it can present as an opportunistic pathogen via bacterial seeding to cause invasive infections such as implant-associated infections. These infections have gained more attention due to improved diagnostic procedures, such as sonication of explanted foreign materials and prolonged cultivation time of up to 14 days for periprosthetic biopsy specimens, and improved molecular methods, such as broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR. Implant-associated infections caused by P. acnes are most often described for shoulder prosthetic joint infections as well as cerebrovascular shunt infections, fibrosis of breast implants, and infections of cardiovascular devices. P. acnes causes disease through a number of virulence factors, such as biofilm formation. P. acnes is highly susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics, including beta-lactams, quinolones, clindamycin, and rifampin, although resistance to clindamycin is increasing. Treatment requires a combination of surgery and a prolonged antibiotic treatment regimen to successfully eliminate the remaining bacteria. Most authors suggest a course of 3 to 6 months of antibiotic treatment, including 2 to 6 weeks of intravenous treatment with a beta-lactam. While recently reported data showed a good efficacy of rifampin against P. acnes biofilms, prospective, randomized, controlled studies are needed to confirm evidence for combination treatment with rifampin, as has been performed for staphylococcal implant-associated infections.
Gahukamble, Abhay Deodas; McDowell, Andrew; Post, Virginia; Salavarrieta Varela, Julian; Rochford, Edward Thomas James; Richards, Robert Geoff; Patrick, Sheila; Moriarty, Thomas Fintan
Propionibacterium acnes and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens implicated in prosthetic joint and fracture fixation device-related infections. The purpose of this study was to determine whether P. acnes and the CoNS species Staphylococcus lugdunensis, isolated from an "aseptically failed" prosthetic hip joint and a united intramedullary nail-fixed tibial fracture, respectively, could cause osteomyelitis in an established implant-related osteomyelitis model in rabbits in the absence of wear debris from the implant material. The histological features of P. acnes infection in the in vivo rabbit model were consistent with localized pyogenic osteomyelitis, and a biofilm was present on all explanted intramedullary (IM) nails. The animals displayed no outward signs of infection, such as swelling, lameness, weight loss, or elevated white blood cell count. In contrast, infection with S. lugdunensis resulted in histological features consistent with both pyogenic osteomyelitis and septic arthritis, and all S. lugdunensis-infected animals displayed weight loss and an elevated white blood cell count despite biofilm detection in only two out of six rabbits. The differences in the histological and bacteriological profiles of the two species in this rabbit model of infection are reflective of their different clinical presentations: low-grade infection in the case of P. acnes and acute infection for S. lugdunensis. These results are especially important in light of the growing recognition of chronic P. acnes biofilm infections in prosthetic joint failure and nonunion of fracture fixations, which may be currently reported as "aseptic" failure.
Yang, Yun Seok; Lim, Hee Kyeong; Hong, Kyung Kook; Shin, Min Kyung; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Sung Won
Background Lipid peroxide (LPO) in comedones, which are produced as a result of sebum oxidation, might potentially induce interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and exacerbate comedogenesis and inflammatory changes in comedones. Objective To investigate the relationship of proinflammatory cytokines and LPO levels in the extracts of comedones with the acne of clinical difference between smokers and non-smokers, and with the severity and distribution of the acne lesions. Methods Twenty-two non-smoking and 21 smoking adult acne patients were evaluated by comedone extraction and measurement of proinflammatory cytokines and LPO levels. Acne severity and distribution of the lesions were also analyzed. Results Relative to the non-smoking group, smokers had significantly higher levels of IL-1α and LPO in comedones. Their levels showed a positive correlation. However, there were no statistically significant difference between the severity or distribution of the disease and the levels of LPO and IL-1α in comedones. Conclusion Smoking may be involved in the pathogenesis of adult acne by increasing the oxidative stress that results in subsequent accumulation of LPO in comedones. PMID:24648681
Sanclemente, Gloria; Acosta, Jorge-Luis; Tamayo, Maria-Eulalia; Bonfill, Xavier; Alonso-Coello, Pablo
A significant number of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) about the treatment of acne vulgaris in adolescents and adults have been published worldwide. However, little is known about the quality of CPGs in this field. The aim of this study was to appraise the methodological quality of published acne vulgaris CPGs. We performed a systematic review of published CPGs on acne vulgaris therapy from July 2002 to July 2012. Three reviewers independently assessed each CPG using the AGREE II instrument. A standardized score was calculated for each of the six domains. Our search strategy identified 103 citations but just six met our inclusion criteria. Agreement among reviewers was very good: 0.981. The domains that scored better were: "scope and purpose" and "clarity and presentation". Those that scored worse were "stakeholder involvement", "rigor of development", and "applicability". The European and the Malaysian CPGs were the only recommended with no further modifications. In addition, the Mexican, Colombian and the United States guidelines were recommended with provisos, with lower scores regarding stakeholder involvement, rigor of development and applicability. Only two guidelines clearly reported outcome measures for evaluating efficacy or included quality of life outcomes. CPGs varied regarding the consideration of light/laser therapy or consideration of complementary/alternative medicines. None of them included cost considerations of drugs such as systemic isotretinoin. In conclusion, published acne vulgaris CPGs for acne therapy vary in quality with a clear need to improve their methodological rigor. This could be achieved with the adherence to current CPGs development standards.
Introduction Acne vulgaris is the most frequently diagnosed dermatosis in patients aged between 11 and 30. It is believed that it affects about 80% of persons in this age group or even, taking into account lesions of low intensity, 100% of young people. The role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of acne is not fully known. The TLR2 receptors play a role in the aetiology of acne. Stimulation of TLR2 by Propionibacterium acnes makes the IL-8 and IL-12 concentrations increase. Aim The aim of this work was to determine IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-8 and TNF-α levels in patients’ sera used to test response to TLR2 stimulation. A decrease in the levels of the above mentioned cytokines together with a decrease in sebum production were defined as an indication of efficient treatment with isotretinoin. Material and methods The tests were performed in 155 patients treated for different clinical forms of acne with an oral isotretinoin preparation in the Dermatology Clinic of the Silesian Medical University in Katowice in 2009–2011 – I group and the patients treated with oral isotretinoin 2 and 5 years ago – II group. The control group consisted of 40 healthy individuals. Conclusions Measurements of IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α sera concentrations could be assessed in parallel to the improvement of the clinical condition and can constitute a good indication of the efficiency of the isotretinoin treatment. PMID:24683393
Kim, Su Youn; Ochsendorf, Falk R
The fixed-dose combination adapalene 0.1%/benzoylperoxide 2.5% (A/BPO) was introduced as an acne vulgaris therapeutic in 2007. It combines anti-inflammatory, keratolytic, comedolytic, and antibacterial properties. Thus, it addresses several pathophysiological factors involved in the pathophysiology of acne. This review highlights the rationale for the use of this fixed-dose combination product, its therapeutic efficacy including effects on adherence and quality of life, its use for different forms of acne, and the side-effect profile. In summary, the fixed-dose combination of A/BPO gel can be regarded as a highly effective and safe formulation. It is not associated with antibiotic resistance. It reduces factors that cause nonadherence and has positive effects on the quality of life of affected patients. The tolerance is good. The initial mild irritation potential can be addressed by adequate counseling. A/BPO can be used for all forms of inflammatory acne, including severe forms, as part of a combination with systemic antibiotics. Finally, it can also be used for the long-term treatment of chronic acne. Thus, it is a very valuable therapeutic option in daily practice, which is reflected by its strong recommendation in the “European S3-guidelines”. PMID:27757036
Rallis, Efstathios; Verros, Constantinos; Katoulis, Alexandros; Katsarou, Alexandra
Acne is the most common skin disease, with a relative prevalence of 85%-100% among young individuals. It affects the cosmetic appearance of the patients provoking severe distress. A number of different topical treatments have been used for the treatment of acne. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of the topical treatment with 5% benzoyl peroxide and 3% erythromycin gel in patients with papulopustular acne. One hundred and ninety-one patients with inflammatory acne completed the study. The patients included 54 males and 137 females, mean age 22.3 ± 8.1 years. Topical gel was applied on the face once daily for 3 months. The mean number of non-inflammatory and inflammatory lesions after 3 months of therapy decreased significantly with respect to baseline, with a mean percentage reduction of the non-inflammatory and inflammatory lesions by 42.2% and 57.5%, respectively. In conclusion, topical 5% benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin 3% as monotherapy is efficient for the treatment of papulopustular acne.
Tan, Jerry Kl; Ediriweera, Chemanthi
Acne is a common disorder affecting the majority of adolescents and often extends into adulthood. The central pathophysiological feature of acne is increased androgenic stimulation and/or end-organ sensitivity of pilosebaceous units leading to sebum hypersecretion and infundibular hyperkeratinization. These events lead to Propionibacterium acnes proliferation and subsequent inflammation. Hormonal therapy, including combined oral contraceptives (OCs), can attenuate the proximate androgenic trigger of this sequence. For many women, hormonal therapy is a rational option for acne treatment as it may be useful across the spectrum of severity. Drospirenone (DRSP) is a unique progestin structurally related to spironolactone with progestogenic, antimineralocorticoid, and antiandrogenic properties. It is available in 2 combined OC preparations (30 μg EE/3 mg DRSP; Yasmin(®) in a 21/7 regimen; and 20 μg EE/3 mg DRSP; Yaz(®) in a 24/4 regimen). These preparations are bereft of the fluid retentional side effects typical of other progestins and their safety has been demonstrated in large epidemiological studies in which no increased risk of vascular thromboembolic disease or arrhythmias was observed. In acne, the efficacy of DRSP-containing OCs has been shown in placebo-controlled superiority trials and in active-comparator non-inferiority trials.
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 333 Guidance for Industry on Topical Acne Drug... availability of a guidance for small business entities entitled ``Topical Acne Drug Products for Over-the... ingredient in over-the-counter (OTC) topical acne drug products and provides new labeling...
Friis-Nielsen, Jens; Vinner, Lasse; Hansen, Thomas Arn; Richter, Stine Raith; Fridholm, Helena; Herrera, Jose Alejandro Romero; Lund, Ole; Brunak, Søren; Izarzugaza, Jose M. G.; Mourier, Tobias; Nielsen, Lars Peter
Propionibacterium acnes is the most abundant bacterium on human skin, particularly in sebaceous areas. P. acnes is suggested to be an opportunistic pathogen involved in the development of diverse medical conditions but is also a proven contaminant of human clinical samples and surgical wounds. Its significance as a pathogen is consequently a matter of debate. In the present study, we investigated the presence of P. acnes DNA in 250 next-generation sequencing data sets generated from 180 samples of 20 different sample types, mostly of cancerous origin. The samples were subjected to either microbial enrichment, involving nuclease treatment to reduce the amount of host nucleic acids, or shotgun sequencing. We detected high proportions of P. acnes DNA in enriched samples, particularly skin tissue-derived and other tissue samples, with the levels being higher in enriched samples than in shotgun-sequenced samples. P. acnes reads were detected in most samples analyzed, though the proportions in most shotgun-sequenced samples were low. Our results show that P. acnes can be detected in practically all sample types when molecular methods, such as next-generation sequencing, are employed. The possibility of contamination from the patient or other sources, including laboratory reagents or environment, should therefore always be considered carefully when P. acnes is detected in clinical samples. We advocate that detection of P. acnes always be accompanied by experiments validating the association between this bacterium and any clinical condition. PMID:26818667
Barakat, Manal T; Moftah, Noha H; El Khayyat, Mohammad A M; Abdelhakim, Zainab A
Intense pulsed light (IPL) has been used for years in treatment of acne vulgaris. However, quantitative evaluation of histopathological changes after its use as a sole therapy was poorly investigated. Accordingly, this study aims to objectively evaluate inflammatory infiltrate and sebaceous glands in acne vulgaris after IPL. Twenty-four patients of acne were treated with six IPL sessions. Clinical evaluation was done at 2 weeks after last session by counting acne lesions. Patient satisfaction using Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) was recorded at baseline, 2 weeks and 3 months after IPL. Using histopathological and computerized morphometric analysis, quantitative evaluation of inflammatory infiltrate and measurement of surface area of sebaceous glands were performed for skin biopsies at baseline and 2 weeks after last session. After IPL, there was significant reduction of all acne lesions especially inflammatory variety with significant decrease of CADI score at 2 weeks and 3 months after IPL (p < .05). Microscopically, there was significant decrease in density of inflammatory infiltrate and surface area of sebaceous glands (p < .05). So, IPL is fairly effective therapy in acne vulgaris especially inflammatory variety. The results suggest that IPL could improve acne lesions through targeting both inflammation and sebaceous glands.
Fitri, Noor; Fatimah, Ifat; Chabib, Lutfi; Fajarwati, Febi Indah
Propionibacterium acnes are a normal bacterium in human skin but it can become primary pathogens that can cause inflammation on the skin. Research about new antibacterial compounds is important because resistance of bacteria acne to antibiotics. Some of Essential oils have antibacterial properties. Lime peel essential oil and patchouli essential oil have some terpenoids that act as antibacterial compounds such as Linalool and Seychellene. The purpose of this research was to formulate anti acne serum based on lime peel essential oil and patchouli oil and to determine the zone of inhibition against of Propionibacterium acnes. This study made 21 variations of formulation of anti acne serum, consisted of lime peel essential oil, patchouli oil and olive oil. Anti acne serum was evaluated i.e. in vitro antibacterial activity test against Propionibacterium acnes for 5 days, organoleptic, stability test, pH test, viscosity test and GC-MS analysis. Nine serum formulations had been selected, which based on their most favorite order. Those favorite serums had antibacterial inhibitory against Propionibacterium acnes between 20.80 - 26.12 mm, whereas control positive only 12.47 mm and control negative 5.78 mm. The most favorite serum with the best antibacterial activity was serum formula A. The composition of serum A consist of lime peel essential oil: patchouli oil: olive oil (11:1:18).
Background The purpose of the current survey was to evaluate how teenagers and adults view teens with acne as compared to those with smooth, clear skin. We also surveyed teens and adults about their experiences with acne. Methods We hypothesized that teens with acne would be perceived in a more negative fashion as compared to teens with smooth, clear skin. We presented digitally altered photographs to our responders and asked how they perceived the two groups. No mention was made of acne. In the first survey (n = 1,002), both adults and teens provided their impressions on photo images of teenagers with either clear skin or acne. In the second survey (n = 1,006), the adults and teens also answered questions about their own experiences with acne. Results Survey 1. With respect to impressions of photo images, the first thing teens and adults noticed about a person with acne was their skin (65% and 75%, respectively). Teenagers with acne were perceived most often by other teens and adults (teen responder %, adult responder %) as being shy (39%, 43%), nerdy (31%, 21%), stressed (24%, 20%), lonely (23%, 22%), boring (15%, 6%), unkempt (13%, 7%), unhealthy (12%, 8%), introverted (9%, 23%), and rebellious (7%, 5%). Survey 2. Most teenagers with acne (64%) felt embarrassed by it and thought that getting acne was the most difficult aspect of puberty (55%). Teenagers with acne reported lower self-confidence or shyness (71%); difficulty finding dates (43%), problems making friends (24%), challenges with school (21%), and trouble getting a job (7%). Conclusions Teens with smooth, clear skin were rated higher on every favorable characteristic and lower on every unfavorable characteristic by both teens and adults. In most cases, the first thing that respondents noticed was the skin of teens with acne. Teenagers and adults alike perceived other teens with acne as generally being shy, less socially active, more likely to be bullied, and less successful in terms of finding a job
Ingram, John R; Grindlay, Douglas J C; Williams, Hywel C
In the course of producing the 2009 NHS Evidence--skin disorders Annual Evidence Update on Acne Vulgaris, 25 randomised controlled trials were examined. From these, at least 12 potentially serious problems of trial reporting were identified. Several trials concluded no effect of a treatment yet they were insufficiently powered to exclude potentially useful benefits. There were examples of duplicate publication and "salami publication", as well as two trials being combined and reported as one. In some cases, an incorrect "within-groups" statistical comparison was made and one trial report omitted original efficacy data and included only P values. Both of the non-inferiority studies examined failed to pre-specify a non-inferiority margin. Trials reported as "double-blind" compared treatments that were dissimilar in appearance or had differing adverse effect profiles. In one case an intention-to-treat analysis was not performed and there was a failure to account for all of the randomized participants. Trial results were made to sound more impressive by selective outcome reporting, emphasizing the statistical significance of treatment effects that were clinically insignificant, and by the use of larger-sounding odds ratios rather than rate ratios for common events. Most of the reporting problems could have been avoided by use of the CONSORT guidelines and prospective trial registration on a public clinical trials database.
Rigopoulos, Dimitris; Larios, George; Katsambas, Andreas D
Acne is one of the most prevalent diseases in dermatology: Millions of people worldwide experience this distressing condition. To determine the appropriate therapeutic strategy, there is a strong need for a standardized classification system of acne. The exact molecular mechanism of action of isotretinoin is not completely understood; however, oral isotretinoin targets simultaneously at all major mechanisms of acne pathogenesis. Various mass media reports about the risk of teratogenicity and depression from isotretinoin usage as well as the creation of intense prevention programs have created an obstacle to the use of the most active available drug against acne, presenting isotretinoin as a very dangerous regimen. According to recommendations of several international experts, which we share, oral isotretinoin may be prescribed not only to patients with severe disease but indications should be broadened to also include patients with less severe forms of acne, especially in cases with scarring, significant psychologic stress, or failure to respond to conventional therapy.
Cohen, E B; Rossen, N N
Three women developed severe acne vulgaris within several weeks to a few months after either insertion of a levonorgestrel IUD (two women, 27 and 33 years of age) or subcutaneous implantation of an etonogestrel implant (26-year-old woman). The first woman had had acne previously; her IUD was removed and she was transferred to oral contraception with cyproterone-ethinyloestradiol. The second woman was treated with a peeling cream. The third woman changed to an oral anticonceptive and was treated with isotretinoin. The acne disappeared in all three patients. Progestagens have androgenic activity, even in low doses, and it is well known that androgenic stimulation of the sebaceous glands can cause acne vulgaris. The possibility that acne vulgaris may be an adverse reaction is probably not always considered. When asking the patient about her use of drugs, one should therefore ask specifically about an IUD or a subcutaneous implant.
Green, J; Sinclair, R D
Misconceptions exist in the community regarding factors that exacerbate acne vulgaris. In particular stress, diet, lifestyle and personal hygiene are often erroneously claimed to be important factors. In order to investigate whether these common misconceptions persist in medical graduates, we analysed the answers of 215 sixth year medical students, who all subsequently graduated from The University of Melbourne, to a short-answer question on acne management and exacerbating factors in one of their final year examination papers. With respect to exacerbating factors, 67% of students identified stress, 10% identified lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption), and 25% claimed poor facial hygiene exacerbated acne. Diet was stated to be an important factor by 41% of students, of whom 12% specifically mentioned chocolate. Persistence of these misconceptions among medical graduates is likely to perpetuate misinformation in the community.
Barnes, Cheryl J; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Lee, Jungho; Cunningham, Bari B
Infantile acne is a rare occurrence. It is more common in boys and predominately occurs on the cheeks in infants between the ages of 1 and 16 months. Clinically, the lesions range from comedones to inflammatory papulopustules to cysts. Successful therapies include topical tretinoin, benzoyl peroxide and topical and oral erythromycin. For more serious cases, oral isotretinoin (Accutane) has been reported to successfully treat recalcitrant infantile cystic acne. We describe two additional patients with infantile cystic acne treated successfully with oral isotretinoin. The dose of isotretinoin used ranged from 0.2 mg/kg/day to 1.5 mg/kg/day. The treatment duration varied from 5 to 14 months. Careful monthly monitoring is recommended because of the many side effects reported with isotretinoin. Practical tips for the administration of oral isotretinoin in infants are reviewed.
Jautová, J; Jarcusková, D; Ficová, M; Dubivská, M
The authors administered to 20 patients with acne vulgaris (14 patients with the papulopustulous form of acne, 6 patients with the indurative or cystic form of acne) the preparation STAVA inj. After treatment they evaluated the therapeutic effect of the preparation and the state of immunity of the patient. Treatment failed in three patients with the cystic form where there was a severe deficiency of the cellular immunity component. In six patients, where the cellular immunity was deficient treatment was satisfactory and it was almost restored to normal after treatment. In 11 patients the authors recorded an excellent therapeutic effect already after three weeks' administration and after treatment they recorded complete recovery of cellular immunity. The authors recommend this immunomodulating treatment when other treatment is not effective or contraindicated. In the conclusion they emphasize that STAVA inj. are an excellent immunostimulating preparation when cellular immunity is deficient. The therapeutic effect is good and so is the tolerance; there are no side-reactions.
Higgins, Rebecca; Pink, Andrew; Hunger, Robert; Yawalkar, Nikhil; Navarini, Alexander A.
Mutations in the fibroblast growth factor-receptor gene 2 (FGFR2) gene have been implicated in numerous diseases, including nevus comedonicus (NC) and naevoid acne that have somatic missense mutations in FGFR2 in the affected tissue. A patient presented in our department with unusual, innumerable large comedones throughout his back reminiscient of NC, as well as multifocal hidradenitis suppurativa and acne. Topical and systemic treatments were unsuccessful. Whole exome sequencing of blood-derived DNA detected a germline mutation in FGFR2 that was predicted to be damaging. This could explain the multifocal and severe nature of the disease. We suggest screening other, phenotypically similar patients for FGFR2 mutations. Our findings, once confirmed independently, could indicate that therapeutic modulation of FGFR signaling in the acne tetrad could be effective. PMID:28293556
Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Cevirgen Cemil, Bengu; Emiroglu, Nazan; Gulsel Bahali, Anil; Onsun, Nahide
Whey protein is a source of protein that was isolated from milk. Whey proteins are composed of higher levels of essential amino acids. The role of diet in acne etiology has been investigated for several years. It was established that milk and milk products can trigger acneiform lesions, and recent evidence supports the role of whey protein supplements in acne. Herein, we report 6 healthy male adolescent patients developing acne located only to the trunk after the consumption of whey protein supplements for faster bodybuilding. This is the first observation which specified the location of acneiform lesions among bodybuilders. In our opinion, a trendy and common health problem is beginning among adolescents in the gyms. PMID:28326292
Al-Hammadi, Anwar; Al-Ismaily, Abla; Al-Ali, Sameer; Ramadurai, Rajesh; Jain, Rishi; McKinley-Grant, Lynn; Mughal, Tariq I.
Acne vulgaris is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin disorders among adolescents and young adults. It is associated with substantial morbidity and, rarely, with mortality. The exact worldwide incidence and prevalence are currently unknown. Current challenges involve improving understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of acne vulgaris and developing a practical treatment consensus. Expert panel discussions were held in 2013 and 2014 among a group of scientists and clinicians from the Omani and United Arab Emirate Dermatology Societies to ascertain the current optimal management of acne vulgaris, identify clinically relevant end-points and construct suitable methodology for future clinical trial designs. This article reviews the discussions of these sessions and recent literature on this topic. PMID:27226905
Pieske, O; Lob, G; Messner, G; Lange, W; Haberl, J
To improve patient's outcome of seriously injured occupants after vehicle accident rescue should be performed as soon as possible. While the rescue-time-period after EMS alarming is well-defined the rescue-time-period before EMS-alarm is very variable from minutes to several hours. To reduce the rescue-time-period between accident occurrence and EMS-alarm the Automatic Collision Notification (ACN) was developed. The ACN is a new invehicle-equipment which detects a severe vehicle crash and alarms via cellular phone the EMS automatically. Simultaneously the exact accident location is transmitted (GPS). Official data of the European Community predict a 15% reduction of road traffic fatalities with ACN. Thereby the economical benefit of about 561 million [symbol: see text] could be calculated for Germany 2000.
Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Ganceviciene, Ruta
The pathogenesis of acne, a disease of the pilosebaceous follicle and one of the most common chronic skin disorders, is attributed to multiple factors such as increased sebum production, alteration of the quality of sebum lipids, inflammatory processes, dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, interaction with neuropeptides, follicular hyperkeratinisation and the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes within the follicle. In particular, the sebaceous gland plays an exquisite role in the initiation of the disease as it possesses all the enzyme machinery for the production of hormones and cytokines. In addition, in response to the altered tissue environment in the pilosebaceous follicle as well as in answer to emotional fret, stress response system mechanisms with induction of central and local expression of neuropeptides, are also initiated. This review summarises the latest advances in understanding the role of sebaceous gland cells in the pathomechanism of acne. PMID:21519409
Schwendinger, Katja; Kreiseder, Birgit; Wiederstein, Martina; Pretsch, Dagmar; Genov, Miroslav; Hollaus, Ralph; Zinssmeister, Daniela; Debbab, Abdesamad; Hundsberger, Harald; Eger, Andreas; Proksch, Peter; Wiesner, Christoph
Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease, causing significant psychosocial problems such as anxiety and depression similar to a chronic illness for those afflicted. Currently, obtainable agents for acne treatment have limited use. Thus, development of novel agents to treat this disease is a high medical need. The anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated in the inflammatory phase of acne vulgaris by activating pro-inflammatory mediators such as the interleukin-8 (IL-8) via the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Talaromyces wortmannii is an endophytic fungus, which is known to produce high bioactive natural compounds. We hypothesize that compound C but also the crude extract from T. wortmannii may possess both antibacterial activity especially against P. acnes and also anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression and P. acnes-induced IL-8 release. Treatment of keratinocytes (HaCaT) with P. acnes significantly increased NF-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation, as well as IL-8 release. Compound C inhibited P. acnes-mediated activation of NF-κB and AP-1 by inhibiting IκB degradation and the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK MAP kinases, and IL-8 release in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these results, compound C has effective antimicrobial activity against P. acnes and anti-inflammatory activity, and we suggest that this substance or the crude extract are alternative treatments for antibiotic/anti-inflammatory therapy for acne vulgaris. PMID:24887557
Sowmiya, Murali; Malathi, Jambulingam; Swarnali, Sen; Priya, Jeyavel Padma; Therese, Kulandai Lily; Madhavan, Hajib N.
Background & objectives: There are only a few reports available on characterization of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from various ocular clinical specimens. We undertook this study to evaluate the role of P. acnes in ocular infections and biofilm production, and also do the phylogenetic analysis of the bacilli. Methods: One hundred isolates of P. acnes collected prospectively from ocular clinical specimens at a tertiary care eye hospital between January 2010 and December 2011, were studied for their association with various ocular disease conditions. The isolates were also subjected to genotyping and phylogenetic analysis, and were also tested for their ability to produce biofilms. Results: Among preoperative conjunctival swabs, P. acnes was a probably significant pathogen in one case; a possibly significant pathogen in two cases. In other clinical conditions, 13 per cent isolates were probably significant pathogens and 38 per cent as possibly significant pathogens. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene revealed four different phylogenies whereas analysis of recA gene showed two phylogenies confirming that recA gene was more reliable than 16S rRNA with less sequence variation. Results of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) had 100 per cent concordance with phylogenetic results. No association was seen between P. acnes subtypes and biofilm production. Interpretation & conclusions: RecA gene phylogenetic studies revealed two different phylogenies. RFLP technique was found to be cost-effective with high sensitivity and specificity in phylogenetic analysis. No association between P. acnes subtypes and pathogenetic ability was observed. Biofilm producing isolates showed increased antibiotic resistance compared with non-biofilm producing isolates. PMID:26609036
Furber, Gareth; Leach, Matthew; Segal, Leonie
Objective: Acne vulgaris is a dynamic, complex condition that is notoriously difficult to evaluate. The authors set out to critically evaluate currently available measures of acne severity, particularly in terms of suitability for use in clinical trials. Design: A systematic review was conducted to identify methods used to measure acne severity, using MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, and Wiley Online. Each method was critically reviewed and given a score out of 13 based on eight quality criteria under two broad groupings of psychometric testing and suitability for research and evaluation. Results: Twenty-four methods for assessing acne severity were identified. Four scales received a quality score of zero, and 11 scored ≤3. The highest rated scales achieved a total score of 6. Six scales reported strong inter-rater reliability (ICC>0.75), and four reported strong intra-rater reliability (ICC>0.75). The poor overall performance of most scales, largely characterized by the absence of reliability testing or evidence for independent assessment and validation indicates that generally, their application in clinical trials is not supported. Conclusion: This review and appraisal of instruments for measuring acne severity supports previously identified concerns regarding the quality of published measures. It highlights the need for a valid and reliable acne severity scale, especially for use in research and evaluation. The ideal scale would demonstrate adequate validation and reliability and be easily implemented for third-party analysis. The development of such a scale is critical to interpreting results of trials and facilitating the pooling of results for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. PMID:27672410
Semprini, Alex; Corin, Andrew; Sheahan, Davitt; Tofield, Christopher; Helm, Colin; Montgomery, Barney; Fingleton, James; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard
Objective To investigate the efficacy of Honevo, a topical 90% medical-grade kanuka honey, and 10% glycerine (honey product) as a treatment for facial acne. Design Randomised controlled trial with single blind assessment of primary outcome variable. Setting Outpatient primary care from 3 New Zealand localities. Participants Of 136 participants aged between 16 and 40 years with a diagnosis of acne and baseline Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) for acne score of ≥2.68, participants were randomised to each treatment arm. Interventions All participants applied Protex, a triclocarban-based antibacterial soap twice daily for 12 weeks. Participants randomised to the honey product treatment arm applied this directly after washing off the antibacterial soap, twice daily for 12 weeks. Outcome measures The primary outcome was ≥2 point decrease in IGA score from baseline at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included mean lesion counts and changes in subject-rated acne improvement and severity at weeks 4 and 12, and withdrawals for worsening acne. Results 4/53 (7.6%) participants in the honey product group and 1/53 (1.9%) of participants in the control group had a ≥ 2 improvement in IGA score at week 12, compared with baseline, OR (95% CI) for improvement 4.2 (0.5 to 39.3), p=0.17. There were 15 and 14 participants who withdrew from the honey product group and control group, respectively. Conclusions This randomised controlled trial did not find evidence that addition of medical-grade kanuka honey in combination with 10% glycerine to standard antibacterial soap treatment is more effective than the use of antibacterial soap alone in the treatment of acne. Trial registration number ACTRN12614000003673; Results. PMID:26832428
Charoenvisal, C; Thaipisuttikul, Y; Pinjaroen, S; Krisanapan, O; Benjawang, W; Koster, A; Doesburg, W
In Thailand, at the Prince of Sonkhla University in Sonkhla (Center A) and Rajvithi Hospital in Bangkok (Center B), researchers compared data on 32 women using a low-dose combined oral contraceptive (OC) containing 150 mcg desogestrel plus 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol (Marvelon) with data on 34 women using an OC containing 2000 mcg cyproterone acetate plus 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol (Diane) to examine their efficacy in acne treatment. All the women presented with acne and were between 16 and 30 years old. The study consisted of a baseline cycle and 6 successive treatment cycles. The mean objective acne score decreased with both OCs in Center A. This decrease was significant with Diane after 3 and 6 treatment cycles (p 0.05). At cycle 6, the mean objective score for Diane was much lower than that for Marvelon (p 0.05). At Center B, the mean objective score consistently and significantly decreased with Marvelon after 3 and 6 treatment cycles (p 0.05 and p 0.01, respectively) and with Diane after 6 treatment cycles (p 0.001). No significant between-group differences existed for Center B. The percentage of women with moderate/severe acne decreased significantly with Marvelon at Center B (p = 0.002) and with Diane in Centers A (p = 0.014) and B (p = 0.004). Both Diane and Marvelon significantly increased plasma levels of sex hormone binding globulin at 3 and 6 treatment cycles (p 0.01). They tended to reduce plasma levels of total and free testosterone. This decrease only reached significance with Marvelon, however (p 0.05). There were no significant associations between acne severity and biochemical variables. These findings suggest that both OCs cause significant improvement in acne in most Asian women who also may need a reliable contraceptive. There were no significant differences between the two OCs.
Pavičić Baldani, Dinka; Škrgatić, Lana; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Trgovčić, Iva
Clinical traits associated with androgen, acne and hirsutism, are important diagnostic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). As androgens are necessary for the development of cutaneous signs of PCOS, patients with severe forms of clinical hyperandrogenism are expected to present with higher levels of plasma androgens. This relationship has not been well established and studies examining the relationship have produced inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the severity of clinical traits caused by androgen, acne and hirsutism, with plasma levels of androgens in Croatian women diagnosed with PCOS. One hundred and forty-five women of reproductive age with isolated acne (n=61) or isolated hirsutism (n=84), oligo/amenorrhea and polycystic morphology of the ovaries were enrolled in the study. Acne grade, hirsutism grade, body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were recorded. Hormonal profiles were measured and assessment of insulin resistance was performed. There were no significant associations between acne severity and BMI, WHR and examined hormonal and insulin resistance parameters. There was a significant correlation between sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and free testosterone levels and the severity of hirsutism (ρ=-0.611, P<0.001 and ρ=0.337, P=0.002, respectively). No significant association was found between the hirsutism grade and other hormonal and metabolic parameters examined. In conclusion, acne severity in PCOS patients is not linearly associated with serum androgen levels; therefore, their levels should not be used to determine the dose of anti-androgen therapy. The observed negative correlation between serum SHBG levels and the degree of hirsutism suggests that hormonal contraception, which elevates SHBG, should be used as primary therapy in hirsute PCOS patients.
Nagaraju, Umashankar; Chikkaiah, Mahesh K; Raju, Belliappa P; Agarwal, Priyanka
Conventional technique of dermal grafting for acne scars where the source of filler material used is the patient's own dermis requires longer surgical time, recovery period and can result in unsightly scars at the donor area. Hence, it is not suitable for treating a larger number of scars. Furthermore, these dermal grafts are firm and cannot be contoured to fit all types of acne scars. Occurrence of epidermal cyst and secondary infection is another complication if epidermis is not completely removed. Enzymatic techniques need trypsinisation which is expensive and requires laboratory facilities. PMID:28163459
Gold, M H
Acne vulgaris can represent a therapeutic challenge in terms of managing ongoing symptoms and preventing scar formation. While the copious variations of available treatments address milder forms of the disease, until recently, therapies for resistant or moderate-to-severe forms were limited to systemic agents that were accompanied by potentially severe side-effects. With the addition of lasers, light sources, and aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) therapies, dermatologists may now have viable new alternatives for treating all grades of acne severity that circumvent the negative side-effects associated with many conventional options.
Rendon, Marta I; Rodriguez, David A; Kawata, Ariane K; Degboe, Arnold N; Wilcox, Teresa K; Burk, Caroline T; Daniels, Selena R; Roberts, Wendy E
Background Limited data are available on acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction in the adult female subpopulation, particularly among different racial and ethnic groups. Objective Describe acne treatment patterns and expectations in adult females of different racial/ethnic groups and analyze and explore their potential effects on medication compliance and treatment satisfaction. Methods A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was administered to US females (25–45 years) with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Data collected included sociodemographics, self-reported clinical characteristics, acne treatment use, and treatment expectations and satisfaction. Results Three hundred twelve subjects completed the survey (mean age, 35.3±5.9 years), comprising black (30.8%), Hispanic (17.6%), Asian/other (17.3%), and white (34.3%). More than half of the subjects in each racial group recently used an acne treatment or procedure (black, 63.5%; Hispanic, 54.5%; Asian/other, 66.7%; white, 66.4%). Treatment use was predominantly over-the-counter (OTC) (47.4%) versus prescription medications (16.6%). OTC use was highest in white subjects (black, 42.7%; Hispanic, 34.5%; Asian/other, 44.4%; white, 59.8%; P<0.05). The most frequently used OTC treatments in all racial/ethnic groups were salicylic acid (SA) (34.3%) and benzoyl peroxide (BP) (32.1%). Overall, compliance with acne medications was highest in white versus black (57.0±32.4 vs 42.7±33.5 days, P>0.05), Hispanic (57.0±32.4 vs 43.2±32.9 days, P>0.05), and Asian/other (57.0±32.4 vs 46.9±37.2 days, P>0.05) subjects. Most subjects expected OTC (73.7%) and prescription (74.7%) treatments to work quickly. Fewer than half of the subjects were satisfied with OTC treatment (BP, 47.0%; SA, 43.0%), often due to skin dryness (BP, 26.3%; SA, 44.3%) and flakiness (BP, 12.3%; SA, 31.1%). No statistically significant differences were observed among racial/ethnic groups in their level of satisfaction with OTC or
Lipohydroxy acid is a derivative of salicylic acid with unique properties that explain its clinical effects in the skin. Lipohydroxy acid has skin renewing, exfoliating, and acne treating properties and is a commonly used ingredient in personal skin care products. The slow penetration of lipohydroxy acid results in an individual cell-by-cell exfoliation that is associated with excellent tolerability. Lipohydroxy acid has been shown to induce dermal thickening by stimulating glycosaminoglycans, collagen, and elastin production. Finally, lipohydroxy acid has been demonstrated to possess comedolytic properties. This article reviews the available data on the use of lipohydroxy acid in treating aging skin and acne. PMID:28210389
Wishart, J M
Levonorgestrel, as used in oral contraceptives, has antiovulatory activity at doses far lower than those producing androgenic effects. Triphasil, containing levonorgestrel was compared with Diane, containing cyproterone acetate in a trial of acne treatment. Twenty closely matched patients were alternatively allocated to 6 months of Triphasil or Diane treatment. Both groups had a 72% reduction in acne counts. Assays of total testosterone, androgen index, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and androstenedione showed significant reduction on treatment and sex hormone binding globulin was raised. All hormonal changes were more marked in the Diane group. Side effects caused only one withdrawal from the trial.
Riyanto, Puguh; Subchan, Prasetyowati; Lelyana, Rosa
Background: Acne vulgaris (AV) is the commonest skin disorder, whereas soybean isoflavone had been proved as antiandrogen that is it can inhibit the enzyme 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase,17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 5α-reductase. The purpose of this study is to prove the advantage of soybean isoflavone as antiandrogen on AV. Methods: this study is a clinical study using randomized pretest-posttest control group design. This study is a study with 40 samples randomized into 2 groups, i.e. placebo group and 160 mgs of isoflavone group, the duration is 12 weeks, conducted a double-blind manner. The dependent variabel is total of AV lesion, whereas the intermediate variable is DHT that will be examined using ELISA. Defferential test and multivariate analysis were performed on dependent, independent and intermediate variables. Results: This study found that the difference in mean of total AV lesion before treatment was not significant (p: 0.099), whereas after treatment it differed significantly (p: 0.000), with significant delta difference (p: 0.000). Difference of mean DHT level before treatment was not significant (p: 0.574), whereas after treatment it differed significantly (p: 0.000), with significant delta difference (p: 0.000). Delta of DHT (p: 0.003) (r: 0.736) had significant influence on delta of total AV lesion (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study concludes that supplementation with 160 mgs/day of soybean isoflavone can reduce total AV lesion as a result of decreased DHT level. PMID:26413190
Reith, J D; Bauer, T W; Schils, J P
The SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome includes a complex group of disorders characterized by peculiar bone lesions, most commonly involving the anterior chest wall, and sometimes accompanied by dermatologic manifestations. The clinical and radiographic features of this syndrome are well described, but few studies have examined the histologic features of the bone lesions. We describe the clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of the osseous lesions encountered in eight patients with a clinical diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome. The patients included five female and three male patients ranging in age from 5 to 63 years (mean, 35.3 years). The most common clinical presentation was pain related to the sites of osseous involvement. Two patients also had some form of pustular dermatosis. The radiographic features of the osseous lesions varied but often suggested the possibility of a neoplasm. Nine pathologic specimens were available for review, five from the clavicle, two from the first rib, one from the calcaneus/cuboid, and one from the tibia. The histologic features varied but seemed related to the duration of the patients' musculoskeletal symptoms. Early lesions contained acute inflammation, edema, and prominent periosteal bone formation, histologically indistinguishable from ordinary bacterial osteomyelitis, whereas late lesions demonstrated markedly sclerotic bone trabeculae with prominent marrow fibrosis and only mild chronic inflammation; one of these biopsies appeared virtually identical to Paget's disease. One biopsy was performed after an intermediate duration of symptoms and contained prominent chronic inflammation only. The histologic findings in SAPHO are variable and nonspecific and may depend on the duration of disease, but it is important to recognize the spectrum of histologic changes possible in the syndrome and to realize that clinicopathologic correlation is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary
Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Matsusue, Miyuki; Mashima, Yasuo; Miyawaki, Masaaki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko
To clarify the influence of the fatty acid composition of sebum in acne vulgaris, we investigated the amounts and fatty acid compositions of triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA), and the amounts of cutaneous superficial Propionibacterium acnes in acne patients and healthy subjects. The foreheads of 18 female patients, 10 male patients, 10 healthy females and 10 healthy males were studied in a Japanese population. There were significant differences in the amounts of sebum, TG and cutaneous superficial P. acnes, as well as the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA between acne patients and healthy subjects in females. Their fatty acid compositions were correlated with the amount of TG with or without acne. It was clarified that the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA depended on the amount of TG, and there were no differences in the fatty acid composition in the presence and absence of acne.
Allergen Inc has launched Aczone, a topical gel formulation of the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory agent dapsone, for the potential treatment of acne vulgaris. Oral dapsone has demonstrated efficacy in acne, but was associated with severe side effects such as anemia, which was particularly serious in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Aczone was developed to overcome this limitation, and is formulated using solvent-microparticle technology for improved absorption and action and for fewer side effects. In a phase I clinical trial, systemic exposure to dapsone was 126-fold lower following treatment with Aczone compared with oral dapsone. Aczone significantly reduced lesion counts in patients with acne in phase III trials, and was particularly effective in reducing inflammatory lesions. In a phase IV trial, Aczone was safely applied to patients with G6PD deficiency without inducing anemia. Phase IV trials in patients with acne were ongoing at the time of publication to assess safety and to compare Aczone monotherapy with combinations of Aczone and other anti-acne therapeutics. At the time of publication, Allergen was also developing Aczone for the treatment of rosacea; the drug was undergoing phase II trials for this indication. Aczone appears to be a novel promising anti-acne therapeutic option, particularly for patients with inflammatory acne.
Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Yoon, Ji Young; Park, Seon Yong; Min, Seonguk; Kim, Yong-il; Park, Ji Yong; Lee, Yun-Sang; Thiboutot, Diane M; Suh, Dae Hun
Acne vulgaris is a nearly universal cutaneous disease characterized by multifactorial pathogenic processes. Because current acne medications have various side effects, investigating new pharmacologically active molecules is important for treating acne. As natural products generally provide various classes of relatively safe compounds with medicinal potentials, we performed activity-guided purification after a series of screenings from the extracts of five medicinal plants to explore alternative acne medications. Lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, from the hexane extract of Solanum melongena L. (SM) was identified after instrumental analysis. Lupeol targeted most of the major pathogenic features of acne with desired physicochemical traits. It strongly suppressed lipogenesis by modulating the IGF-1R/phosphatidylinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/sterol response element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) signaling pathway in SEB-1 sebocytes, and reduced inflammation by suppressing the NF-κB pathway in SEB-1 sebocytes and HaCaT keratinocytes. Lupeol exhibited a marginal effect on cell viability and may have modulated dyskeratosis of the epidermis. Subsequently, histopathological analysis of human patients' acne tissues after applying lupeol for 4 weeks demonstrated that lupeol markedly attenuated the levels of both the number of infiltrated cells and major pathogenic proteins examined in vitro around comedones or sebaceous glands, providing solid evidence for suggested therapeutic mechanisms. These results demonstrate the clinical feasibility of applying lupeol for the treatment of acne.
Shalita, Alan R.; Harth, Yoram; Elman, Monica; Slatkine, Michael; Talpalariu, Gerry; Rosenberg, Yitzhak; Korman, Avner; Klein, Arieh
Propionibacterium. acnes is a Gram positive, microaerophilic bacterium which takes a part in the pathogenesis of inflammatory acne. P. acnes is capable to produce high amounts endogenic porphyrins with no need of any trigger molecules. Light in the violet-blue range (407-420 nm) has been shown to exhibit a phototoxic effect on Propionibacterium acnes when irradiated in vitro. The purpose of our study was to test the clinical effects of a high intensity narrowband blue light source on papulo pustular acne. A total of 35 patients in 3 centers were treated twice a week with a high intensity metal halide lamp illuminating the entire face (20x20 cm2) or the back with visible light in the 407-420 nm range at an intensity of 90 mW/cm2 (CureLight Ltd.) for a total of 4 weeks. UV is totally cut off. In each treatment the patient was exposed to light for 8-15 minutes. After 8 treatments, 80% of the patients with mild to moderate papulo-pustular acne showed significant improvement at reducing the numbers of non- inflammatory, inflammatory and total facial lesions. Inflammatory lesion count decrease by a mean of 68%. No side effects to the treatment were noticed. In conclusion, full face or back illumination with the high intensity pure blue light we used exhibits a rapid significant decrease in acne lesions counts in 8 biweekly treatments.
Dhaked, Daulat Ram; Meena, Ram Singh; Maheshwari, Anshul; Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Purohit, Saroj
Background: Oral isotretinoin is highly effective in all forms and grades of acne, even in lower dosages (<0.5 mg/kg/day). There is a paucity of comparative data on the various low-dose regimens of oral isotretinoin in the Indian literature. Objectives: To assess and compare the efficacy and tolerability of two low-dose oral isotretinoin treatment regimens (20 mg daily and 20 mg alternate days) in moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris were selected and randomized into two groups and treated with a fixed dose of 20 mg of isotretinoin (Group A - daily and Group B - alternate days) for 24 weeks and followed up for 12 weeks post therapy. Results: A total of 234 patients completed the study. At the end of therapy, decrease in the total acne loads up to 98.99% (Group A) and 97.69% (Group B) was achieved from the baseline (P < 0.01), excellent response was observed in 98.3% (Group A) and 93.96% (Group B) patients (P = 0.166). In the severe acne, Group A performed significantly better than Group B until the end of 36 weeks. While in the moderate acne, significant difference in the response between both groups was observed only up to 12 weeks. No serious side effect was observed. Conclusion: Both isotretinoin regimens were well tolerated and found to be an effective treatment for moderate to severe acne vulgaris. However, in moderate acne 20 mg alternate day regimen may be preferred. A 20 mg daily regimen is a better choice for severe acne in terms of response. Limitation: Small sample size and short follow-up period. PMID:27730033
Lee, Kyou Chae; Kim, Min Ji; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won
Background Laser/light-based devices may provide an alternative to conventional acne therapeutics in some patients with nonresponsive acne. Objective We investigated the efficacy of red or infrared light-emitting diode (LED) devices in a mouse model of Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation through clinical examination and histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Methods A human-derived Propionibacterium acnes suspension (109 colony-forming units /µl) was injected into the back of an HR-1 mouse. Then, a 28.9 J/cm2 650-nm red LED or 9.3 J/cm2 830-nm infrared LED was applied to the mouse with P. acnes-induced inflammation once daily for 2 weeks. Two weeks after treatment, histological findings with hematoxylin and eosin staining and expression levels of inflammatory biomarkers (integrin α6, neutrophils, interleukin [IL]-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-2/9) were evaluated in tissue specimens using immunohistochemical staining. Results Mice treated with red and infrared LED showed clinical improvement in inflammatory nodules compared to mice in the control group. Red LED was much more effective than infrared LED. Epidermal hyperplasia, comedone-like cysts, and integrin α6 expression improved to a similar extent in the red and infrared LED treatment groups and control group. Neutrophil, IL-1β, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression after treatment with red and infrared LED decreased considerably compared to expression in the control group. Conclusion In a mouse model of P. acnes-induced inflammatory nodules, red and infrared LED devices may be an alternative to conventional acne therapies. In addition, a mouse model of P. acnes-induced inflammatory nodules is helpful for laboratory research of acne. PMID:27081265
Adalatkhah, Hassan; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun
Background The use of oral flutamide is rarely investigated in acne therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of oral flutamide with that of a cyproterone-estradiol combination in treating acne lesions. Methods A randomized clinical trial enrolled patients with moderate acne into two equal groups to receive either oral flutamide or the cyproterone-estradiol combination for 6 months. Lesion count, Acne Severity Index, and Global Acne Grading system (GAGS) scores were used to assess improvement in acne lesions. The dichotomous measurement scale for primary endpoint assessment was defined as improvement from moderate to mild acne based on GAGS score. Patient satisfaction and dermal fat were also assessed. Intention to treat and per protocol analyses were done, reporting related effect sizes. Results Both treatments resulted in substantial improvement in acne lesions. Although flutamide seemed to have higher efficacy, an intention to treat analysis did not find the two treatment protocols to be different. The relative risk in intention to treat analysis was 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89–1.6), and was 1.33 (95% CI 1.03–1.72) for the per protocol analysis. The number needed to treat for flutamide compared with the cyproterone-estradiol combination was 7.7 and 4.2 in the intention to treat and per protocol analyses, respectively. Conclusion Flutamide appears to be more effective than a cyproterone-estradiol combination in some aspects of acne treatment, but this requires confirmation in a larger trial. PMID:21833162
Kar, Bikash Ranjan; Tripathy, Sanjita; Panda, Maitreyee
Background: Acne is a self limiting condition that often results in scarring and disfigurement disproportionate to its clinical severity. Isotretinoin is considered the gold standard in the medical management of severe form of acne vulgaris. Salicyclic acid (SA) peels, a β- hydroxy acid peel has got sebosuppressive effect and helps in faster resolution of acne with minimal scarring. It also decreases the post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Combining both the modalities is usually not advocated because of expected excessive dryness and irritation Aims: To compare the efficacy of oral isotretinoin and oral isotretinoin with 20% SA peels in patients with moderate to severe acne. Materials and Methods: 60 consecutive patients with moderate to severe facial acne attending the skin department were randomized in to 2 groups. 1st group received 20mg oral isotretinoin once daily for 16 weeks and 2nd group received 20mg oral isotretinoin once daily along with 20% SA peels every two weeks for 16 weeks. Baseline grading of acne was done with Michelsons Acne severity index (MASI).Right and left sides of the face were scored separately and total score was taken. Severity score was assessed monthly .Clinical photographs were obtained for evaluation every month. Patients were asked to follow up once every 2 weeks or earlier in case of any adverse events. Results: Patients in both the groups revealed a reduction in the number of lesions. The 1st group showed a reduction of approximately 73.4% after receiving 20mg oral isotretinoin for 16 weeks. The 2nd group showed a reduction of approximately 92.5 % after receiving 20mg oral isotretinoin along with 20% SA peel once every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. Conclusion: Both oral isotretinoin and combination of oral isotretinoin with 20% SA peels once every 2 weeks are effective in treating moderate to severe acne but the combination showed significantly better clearance of acne than monotherapy with isotretinoin. PMID:24470716
Tsai, Po-Jung; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Hsieh, Ming-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wu, Wen-Huey
Scutellariae radix, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis, has long been applied in traditional formulations and modern herbal medications. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in follicles can trigger inflammation and lead to the symptom of inflammatory acnes vulgaris. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of Scutellariae radix extract and purified components isolated from it on inflammation induced by P. acnes in vitro and in vivo. The results showed the ethyl acetate (EA) soluble fraction from the partition of crude ethanolic extract from Scutellariae radix inhibited P. acnes-induced interleukin IL-8 and IL-1β production in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Seven flavones were isolated from the EA fraction by repeated chromatographies, and identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone (FL1, oroxylin), 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (FL2, wogonin), 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone (FL3, 7-O-methylwogonin), 5,6'-dihydroxy-6,7,8,2'-tetramethoxy flavone (FL4, skullcapflavone II), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (FL5), 5,2',6'-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone (FL6, viscidulin II), and 5,7,2',5'-tetrahydroxy-8,6'-dimethoxyflavone (FL7, ganhuangenin). They all significantly suppressed P. acnes-induced IL-8 and IL-1β production in THP-1 cells, and FL2 exerted the strongest effect with half maximal inhibition (IC50) values of 8.7 and 4.9 μM, respectively. Concomitant intradermal injection of each of the seven flavones (20 μg) with P. acnes effectively attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling, and decreased the production of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in ear homogenates. Our results suggested that all the seven flavones can be potential therapeutic agents against P. acnes-induced skin inflammation.
Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar
Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. Results A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring. PMID:27438194
Ma, Qiuyue; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Xia, Xiaojing; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Gu, Jingmin; Han, Wenyu; Lei, Liancheng
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of acute and chronic pleuropneumonia. Propionibacterium acnes is a facultative anaerobic gram-positive corynebacterium. We have previously found that anti-P. acnes antibodies can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infections in mice. To investigate the role of macrophages in this process, affinity-purified anti-P. acnes IgG and anti-A. pleuropneumoniae IgG were used in opsonophagocytosis assays. Additionally, the efficacy of passive immunization with P. acnes serum against A. pleuropneumoniae was tested in macrophage-depleted mice. It was found that anti-P. acnes IgG had an effect similar to that of anti-A. pleuropneumoniae IgG (P > 0.05), which significantly promotes phagocytosis of A. pleuropneumoniae by macrophages (P < 0.01). It was also demonstrated that, after passive immunization with anti-P. acnes serum, macrophage-replete mice had the highest survival rate (90%), whereas the survival rate of macrophage-depleted mice was only 40% (P < 0.05). However, macrophage-depleted mice that had been passively immunized with naïve serum had the lowest survival rate (20%), this rate being lower than that of macrophage-replete mice that had been passively immunized with naïve serum. Overall, anti-P. acnes antibodies did not prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infection under conditions of macrophage depletion (P > 0.05). Furthermore, in mice that had been passively immunized with anti-P. acnes serum, macrophage depletion resulted in a greater A. pleuropneumoniae burden and more severe pathological features of pneumonia in lung tissues than occurred in macrophage-replete mice. It was concluded that macrophages are essential for the process by which anti-P. acnes antibody prevents A. pleuropneumoniae infection in mice.
Yu, Zhenwei; Lv, Hongyan; Han, Gang; Ma, Ke
The aim of this study was to develop ethosomes loaded with cryptotanshinone (CPT) and formulate them as a topical gel for the treatment of acne. Ethosomes were prepared and evaluated for vesicle size, CPT loading and encapsulation efficiency. Optimized ethosomes were formulated as Carbomer 974 gels and compared with conventional hydroethanolic gels for transdermal permeation and skin deposition in vitro. The anti-acne activity and skin irritation of the gel was investigated in rabbits. Optimized ethosomes had an average vesicle size of 69.1 ± 1.9 nm with CPT loading and encapsulation efficiency of 0.445 ± 0.007 mg/mL and 40.31 ± 0.67%, respectively. The transdermal flux and skin deposition of the optimized ethosomal gel were 2.5- and 2.1-times those of conventional gels. The ethosomal gel revealed better anti-acne effect with only slight skin irritation. This study demonstrates that ethosomal formulation is an effective dermal delivery system for CPT, and that CPT ethosomal gels are promising future acne treatments.
Nguyen, Catherine M; Koo, John; Cordoro, Kelly M
Atopic dermatitis (AD) and acne vulgaris are among the most-prevalent skin diseases in children. Both have been well documented in the literature to have significant negative effects on quality of life. Herein, we discuss the results of a comprehensive literature review aimed at assessing the impact of acne and AD on self-esteem and identity. We highlight clinical tools for their assessment and offer coping strategies for patients and families. Multiple factors including relationships with parents and classmates, sports participation, and the sex of the patient contribute to the development of self-esteem and identity in individuals with AD and acne. Atopic dermatitis was found to have significant behavioral effects on children, ultimately resulting in a lack of opportunity to develop proper coping. AD had a more-prominent role in identity formation and gender roles in girls. Acne vulgaris was found to have a more direct effect on self-esteem, self-confidence and identity, especially in girls. The Cutaneous Body Image Scale is reviewed and offered as an easy and reliable tool to evaluate a patient's mental perception of the appearance of their skin. Coping strategies that may be offered to patients and families include empowerment and cognitive adaptation.
Libow, L F; Friar, D A
A patient with arthropathy associated with cystic acne, hidradenitis suppurativa, and perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens who showed a dramatic response to isotretinoin is described. This, to our knowledge, is the first report documenting effective treatment of this condition, whose nosologic position with respect to other spondyloarthropathies associated with cutaneous disease is considered.
Gupta, M A; Gupta, A K
We examined the prevalence of depression (measured by the Carroll Rating Scale for Depression, CRSD), wishes to be dead and acute suicidal ideation among 480 patients with dermatological disorders that may be cosmetically disfiguring, i.e. non-cystic facial acne (n = 72; 5.6% suicidal ideation), alopecia areata (n = 45; 0% suicidal ideation), atopic dermatitis (n = 146; 2.1% suicidal ideation) and psoriasis (79 outpatients, 2.5% suicidal ideation and 138 inpatients, 7.2% suicidal ideation). Analysis of variance revealed that the severely affected psoriasis inpatients (mean +/- SD total body surface area affected: 52 +/- 23.4%) had the highest (P < 0.05) CRSD score, followed by the patients with mild to moderate acne; both scores were in the range for clinical depression (CRSD score > 10). The 5.6-7.2% prevalence of active suicidal ideation among the psoriasis and acne patients was higher than the 2.4-3.3% prevalence reported among general medical patients. Our findings highlight the importance of recognizing psychiatric comorbidity, especially depression, among dermatology patients and indicate that in some instances even clinically mild to moderate disease such as non-cystic facial acne can be associated with significant depression and suicidal ideation.
Ashorn, R; Uotila, A; Kuokkanen, K; Räsänen, L; Karhumäki, E; Krohn, K
The delayed-type immune reactivities of 39 patients suffering from moderate to severe papulopustular or nodulo-cystic forms of Acne vulgaris were compared with healthy acne-free controls. In vivo reactivity was assessed by skin testing with four common recall antigens. In vitro the afferent arm of the immune system was assayed by antigen and mitogen simulated lymphocyte transformation and the efferent arm by granulocyte random migration and by granulocyte responsiveness to a standard migration inhibitory lymphokine preparation. Spontaneous lymphocyte transformations were also evaluated. In acne patients the skin test reactivities were in general only slightly decreased. Their lymphocytes showed relatively normal responses to mitogen stimulation, but antigen responsiveness was significantly diminished. Furthermore the patients' lymphocytes showed increased spontaneous transformation. All these changes correlated, to some extent, with the severity of the disease. The granulocytes of acne patients showed increased random migration, of borderline significance, but the granulocyte responses to the lymphokine preparation were completely normal. The results suggest that immunologic abnormalities are mild and probably secondary to the inflammatory process.
Wunnoo, Suttiwan; Saising, Jongkon; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan
Virulence enzymes and biofilm a play crucial role in the pathogenesis of Propionibacterium acnes, a major causative agent of acne vulgaris. In the present study, the effects of rhodomyrtone, a pure compound identified from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaves extract against enzyme production and biofilm formation production by 5 clinical isolates and a reference strain were evaluated. The degree of hydrolysis by both lipase and protease enzymes significantly decreased upon treatment with the compound at 0.125-0.25 μg/mL (p < 0.05). Lipolytic zones significantly reduced in all isolates while decrease in proteolytic activities was found only in 50% of the isolates. Rhodomyrtone at 1/16MIC and 1/8MIC caused significant reduction in biofilm formation of the clinical isolates (p < 0.05). Percentage viability of P. acnes within mature biofilm upon treated with the compound at 4MIC and 8MIC ranged between 40% and 85%. Pronounced properties of rhodomyrtone suggest a path towards developing a novel anti-acne agent.
Gromadzki, M.; Hamanowicz, A.; Wyrzykowski, L.
We report the spectroscopic classification of a nuclear transient Gaia17acn discovered by Gaia Science Alerts (http://gsaweb.ast.cam.ac.uk/alerts). The spectrum was obtained using the FOcal Reducer/low dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) on the Very Large Telescope (VLT).
Yu, Zhenwei; Lv, Hongyan; Han, Gang; Ma, Ke
The aim of this study was to develop ethosomes loaded with cryptotanshinone (CPT) and formulate them as a topical gel for the treatment of acne. Ethosomes were prepared and evaluated for vesicle size, CPT loading and encapsulation efficiency. Optimized ethosomes were formulated as Carbomer 974 gels and compared with conventional hydroethanolic gels for transdermal permeation and skin deposition in vitro. The anti-acne activity and skin irritation of the gel was investigated in rabbits. Optimized ethosomes had an average vesicle size of 69.1 ± 1.9 nm with CPT loading and encapsulation efficiency of 0.445 ± 0.007 mg/mL and 40.31 ± 0.67%, respectively. The transdermal flux and skin deposition of the optimized ethosomal gel were 2.5- and 2.1-times those of conventional gels. The ethosomal gel revealed better anti-acne effect with only slight skin irritation. This study demonstrates that ethosomal formulation is an effective dermal delivery system for CPT, and that CPT ethosomal gels are promising future acne treatments. PMID:27441661
Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ling-Lin; Su, Lina; Guo, Ming-Xia; Huang, Zheng
Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)- medicated photodynamic therapy (ALA PDT) for the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Methods: Sixteen Chinese patients with moderate to severe facial acne were treated with 1-3 courses of ALA PDT. ALA cream (3%) was freshly prepared and applied to acne lesions for 3-4 h. The lesions were irradiated by a 635 nm diode laser at dose levels of 60 - 80 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2. Clinical assessments were conducted before and after treatment up to 3 months. Results: All patents showed response to ALA PDT. Complete clearance was seen in 10 patients (62.5%) and partial clearance in 6 patients (37.5%). One case showed recurrence after complete clearance at 2 months and another two showed recurrence after complete clearance at 3 months. However, the number of new lesions were significantly reduced. Adverse effects were minimal. Conclusions: The results of this preliminary clinical study is encouraging. ALA PDT is a simple, safe and useful therapeutic option for the treatment of moderate to severe acne. Further studies to evaluate the treatment with a larger number of patients and for a longer period of follow-up are needed.
Tyrell Inc., a Houston-based medical technologies company, was able to access engineering support in redesigning a heating element for a hand-held acne-fighting device through SATOP, NASA's Space Alliance Technology Outreach Program. SATOP put Tyrell in contact with The Boeing Company, which assessed the design and made several major contributions. The product, named Zeno, is now the highest selling over-the-counter medical device for the treatment of acne, and in 2006, Zeno was named the "SATOP Texas, Success Story of the Year." Zeno employs proprietary ClearPoint technology to provide relief of mild to moderate inflammatory acne by delivering a precisely controlled low-level dosage of heat to the blemish, causing the bacteria at the root of more than 90 percent of acne to self-destruct. Within its first year on the market, Zeno was cited by various publications for several awards, including Allure's 2005 "Best of Beauty," Marie Claire's "10 Best Gadgets for Girls," and Popular Science's 2005 "Best of What's New." A variation of the Zeno for use in treating herpetic lesions such as cold sores, by killing the virus that causes them, is currently undergoing FDA trials.
Ningsih, D. R.; Zusfahair; Kartika, D.; Lestari, I. T.
Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disease pilosebaceous follicle, where the oil- producing glands are clogged and contaminated by bacteria. Propionibacterium acne is one of the bacteria that contributes to the pathogenesis of acne. Acne treatment was done by reducing the population of bacteria using an antibacterial. One of the plants that have antibacterial activity is white plumeria. The ethanol extract of white plumeria leaves contains antibacterial secondary metabolites, which are alkaloids and saponins. The aim of this study is to formulate white plumeria leaves extract into the water leached ointment base. Characteristics of the ointment were determined by evaluating the stability of the ointment including organoleptic, adhesion test, dispersive power test, determination of pH, and the antibacterial activity test. The results showed that the ointment of ethanol extract of white plumeria leaves has some characteristics, semisolid form, white, has distinctive smell of ointment, homogeneous but not protective, has a pH of 4.57 - 6.10, dispersive power of 5.10 - 6.06 cm, the adhesiveness of 1.67 - 3 seconds, and optimum antibacterial activity at concentrations of 5 ppm providing inhibition zone of 24.00 mm.
Following a European review, products containing the ethinylestradiol + cyproterone combination are back on the French market for women with acne (as second-line treatment) or hirsutism. Yet experience has shown that frequent off-label prescription of this combination for contraceptive purposes exposes many women to an unjustified risk of thromboembolism.
Gaillard, Christophe; Dupond, Marc; Brisou, Patrick; Gaillard, Tiphaine
We report 3 clinical cases of septic nonunions of lower limb long bones in which the pathogenicity of Propionibacterium acnes was retained after several weeks of poor outcome. The patients had fractures that were treated by internal fixation, without initially suspected infection. The diagnosis of delayed union coincided with the onset of treatment. Support was performed in 2 steps, allowing for the collection of several deep samples that were referred for microbiological analysis. Molecular techniques for microbiological investigation were performed on perioperative samples and were not contributive. The detection of P acnes, which was identified after several days of incubation, prompted us to consider the role of this bacterium. The presence of P acnes is regularly interpreted as contamination of samples during collection or handling in the laboratory. A multidisciplinary decision to make the diagnosis of surgical site infection with P acnes and specific antibiotic treatment for several months led to consolidation in all the patients. The ability of bacteria of the genus Propionibacterium to cause insidious surgical site infections should not be underestimated, and more extensive sample incubation is essential to diagnose such infections.
Zhao, Zigang; Li, Ying; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Hua; Li, Hengjin
Synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is characterized by various dermatological manifestations and osteoarthropathy frequently localized to the anterior chest wall. Dermatologists should be familiar with this syndrome. Its early diagnosis is important to avoid prolonged antibiotic treatments and unnecessary invasive procedures. We report a new case of this syndrome with review of the relevant published work.
Horiuchi, Isao; Fukatsu, Yuko; Ushijima, Junko; Nakamura, Eishin; Samajima, Koki; Kadowaki, Kanako; Takagi, Kenjiro
Little is known about the influence of pregnancy on pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne (PAPA) syndrome. We experienced a rare case of pregnancy complicated with PAPA syndrome. The patient had various histories of skin and joint disorders and experienced subarachnoid hemorrhage during pregnancy; however, her skin lesion was unaffected.
Falsetti, L; Gambera, A; Andrico, S; Sartori, E
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the absence or presence of acne or hirsutism in 248 women with polycystic ovary syndrome was associated with different clinical, endocrine, metabolic and ultrasonographic factors. Patients were divided into three groups: 96 (38.7%) without any androgenic symptoms; 94 (37.9%) with only hirsutism; and 58 (23.4%) with only acne. The cycle alterations (oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea) and the echographic ovarian morphology (polycystic or multifollicular ovaries) showed no significant differences between the three groups. Hirsutism was associated with a greater incidence of obesity and insulin resistance, with an increase of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, ovarian and adrenal androgens, 3alpha-androstanediol glucuronide, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I and low luteinizing hormone, sex hormone binding globulins and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 levels. Acne was associated only with the lowest 3alpha-androstanediol glucuronide levels. Therefore, two different pathogenetic mechanisms may play a role in the onset of acne and hirsutism.
Vargas-Diez, E; Hofmann, M A; Bravo, B; Malgazhdarova, G; Katkhanova, O A; Yutskovskaya, Y
Acne, one of the most common skin problems in dermatological practice, is a condition that affects not only adolescents but also adults. While approximately 80% of cases occurring in adulthood are persistent from teenage years, around 20% are described as 'late-onset' disease, appearing for the first time in adulthood. The disease can be triggered by hormonal changes (including a change from one contraceptive to another), or it can be induced by certain nonhormonal medications, emotional stress, and various underlying diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome. In many cases acne becomes a chronic skin condition with undulating activity, including improvement and relapse phases, and is often experienced as a major psychological burden. It is, therefore, even more important to provide an effective as well as a safe and tolerable treatment. The spectrum of topical acne treatments has expanded substantially in recent years and various topical medications are available, ranging from azelaic acid, antibiotics, retinoids and benzoyl peroxide to several fixed combinations of these active compounds. The following case collection illustrates how 15% azelaic acid gel, as a well-established monotherapy, can be successfully employed to treat mild-to-moderate forms of adult female acne.
Patil, V; Bandivadekar, A; Debjani, D
Lipases play an important role in pathogenesis of acne by hydrolysing sebum triglycerides and releasing irritating free fatty acids in the pilosebaceous follicles. Lipase is a strong chemotactic and proinflammatory antigen. Therefore, lipase has generated a high interest as a pharmacological target for antiacne drugs. The aim of this study was to identify inhibitory effects of plant extracts on the lipase activity of Propionibacterium acnes. Colorimetric microassay was used to determine lipase activity. Extracts from Terminalia chebula and Embelia ribes showed lower IC(50) value (1 μg mL(-1) ) for lipase inhibition as compared to Vitex negundo and Picrorhiza kurroa (19 and 47 μg mL(-1) , respectively). The active component responsible for lipase inhibition was isolated. This study reports for the first time the novel antilipase activity of chebulagic acid (IC(50) : 60 μmol L(-1) ) with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 12.5 μg mL(-1) against P. acnes. The inhibitory potential of plant extracts was further confirmed by plate assay. The organism was grown in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of extracts from P. kurroa, V. negundo, T. chebula, E. ribes and antibiotics such as clindamycin and tetracycline. Extract from T. chebula showed significant inhibition of lipase activity and number of P. acnes.
Bowe, W; Patel, N B; Logan, A C
Acne vulgaris has long been postulated to feature a gastrointestinal mechanism, dating back 80 years to dermatologists John H. Stokes and Donald M. Pillsbury. They hypothesised that emotional states (e.g. depression and anxiety) could alter normal intestinal microbiota, increase intestinal permeability, and contribute to systemic inflammation. They were also among the first to propose the use of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus cultures. In recent years, aspects of this gut-brain-skin theory have been further validated via modern scientific investigations. It is evident that gut microbes and oral probiotics could be linked to the skin, and particularly acne severity, by their ability to influence systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, glycaemic control, tissue lipid content, and even mood. This intricate relationship between gut microbiota and the skin may also be influenced by diet, a current area of intense scrutiny by those who study acne. Here we provide a historical background to the gut-brain-skin theory in acne, followed by a summary of contemporary investigations and clinical implications.
Tissue inflammation is a major component of the acne process. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is considered to be a major player in the development of tissue inflammation. Synthesis of LTB4 is controlled by the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase. Since Zileuton blocks the activity of 5-lipoxygenase, experimental and clinical studies have been conducted to test mode of function, as well as efficacy and safety of this compound in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Human SZ95 sebocytes and inflammatory cells in vitro express the enzymes of the leukotriene pathway at mRNA and protein levels and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of LTB4 are activated in sebaceous glands of acne lesions. Pre-treatment of SZ95 sebocytes with Zileuton partially prevented short-term arachidonic acid-induced effects, such as induction of LTB4, increase of neutral lipid content and stimulation of interlekin-6 release. Long-term treatment with Zileuton directly reduced the content of neutral lipids and interleukin-6 release from SZ95 seb ocytes. PPAR mRNA levels were not regulated by Zileuton. In a first pilot clinical study with 10 patients with papulopustular acne Zileuton 4 × 600 mg/d p.o. for 3 months decreased the acne severity index in a time-dependent manner being 41% of the initial score at week 12 (p < 0.05). This was mostly due to a decrease of the number of inflammatory lesions of 29% (p < 0.01). In addition, total sebum lipids significantly decreased (35%, p < 0.05) and the pro-inflammatory free fatty acids (22%) and lipoperoxides (26%) were markedly diminished in patients’ sebum under treatment. The magnitude of clinical improvement strongly correlated with the reduction of total sebum lipids (p = 0.0009, r2 = 0.81) and free fatty acids (p = 0.0003, r2 = 0.82). In a further study, a 40-year-old female with mild disseminated sebaceous gland hyperplasia and seborrhea, responded with normalization of the casual skin surface lipids and similar reduction of facial sebum synthesis under treatment with
Bilgic, Ayhan; Bilgic, Özlem; Çolak, Rukiye Sivri; Altınyazar, Hilmi Cevdet
Acne vulgaris has recently been reported to be associated with elevated rates of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in epidemiological studies. This report examines childhood and current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of female adults. Ninety-one women with acne vulgaris and 53 controls were included in this study. The aforementioned symptoms were measured in participants. No significant differences were found between patients and controls in any of the measurements. Contrary to the findings of epidemiological studies, this study did not uncover a link between acne vulgaris and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Khodaeiani, Effat; Fouladi, Rohollah Fadaei; Amirnia, Mehdi; Saeidi, Majid; Karimi, Elham Razagh
Nicotinamide and clindamycin gels are two popular topical medications for acne vulgaris. This study aimed to compare efficacy of the topical 4% nicotinamide and 1% clindamycin gels in these patients. In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, patients with moderate inflammatory facial acne vulgaris were randomly allocated to receive either topical 4% nicotinamide (n = 40) or 1% clindamycin gels (n = 40) twice daily. In each group, they were further categorized in two subgroups with oily and non-oily types of facial skin. The Cook's acne grade was determined at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8 post treatment. Acne grade decreased from an average of 5.93 ± 0.83 at baseline to 4.03 ± 1.33 at week 4 and 2.08 ± 1.59 at week 8 in nicotinamide receivers, and from an average of 5.70 ± 0.94 at baseline to 3.85 ± 1.66 at week 4 and 2.03 ± 1.53 at week 8 in the clindamycin group (within-group P < 0.001, between-group P > 0.05). Comparing with each other, nicotinamide and clindamycin gels were significantly more efficacious in oily and non-oily skin types, respectively. No major side effect was encountered by any patient. Skin type is a significant factor in choosing between topical nicotinamide and clindamycin in patients with acne vulgaris.
Liu, Yale; Zeng, Weihui; Hu, Die; Jha, Smita; Ge, Qin; Geng, Songmei; Xiao, Shengxiang; Hu, Guanglei; Wang, Xiaoxiao
We evaluated the short-term and long-term effects of the 1550 nm erbium:glass (Er:glass) fractional laser in the treatment of facial acne vulgaris. Forty-five (9 male and 36 female) acne patients were treated 4 times at 4-week intervals with the following parameters: 169 spot density and 15-30 mJ/cm(2) fluence. There was no control group. The laser spots were adjustable (maximum overlap: 20%) according to the treatment area, and delivered in rows in order to cover all the face. Clinical photographs were taken. The IGA scores and lesion counts were performed for each treatment. Their current state was obtained by phone call follow-up to determine the long-term effect and photographs were offered by themselves or taken in hospital. After four treatments, all patients had an obvious reduction of lesion counts and IGA score and the peak lesion counts decreased to 67.7% after the initial four treatment sessions. For long-term effect, 8 patients lost follow-up, hence 37 patients were followed-up. 8 patients were 2-year follow up, 27 at the 1-year follow-up, and all patients at the half-year follow-up. The mean percent reduction was 72% at the half-year follow-up, 79 at the 1-year follow-up and 75% at the 2-year follow-up. Side effects and complications were limited to transient erythema and edema, and few patients suffered from transient acne flare-ups and sensitivity. All patients responded that their skin was less prone to oiliness. In conclusion, acne can be successfully treated by 1550 nm Er:glass fractional laser, with few side effects and prolonged acne clearing.
Gahukamble, Abhay Deodas; McDowell, Andrew; Post, Virginia; Salavarrieta Varela, Julian; Rochford, Edward Thomas James; Richards, Robert Geoff; Patrick, Sheila
Propionibacterium acnes and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens implicated in prosthetic joint and fracture fixation device-related infections. The purpose of this study was to determine whether P. acnes and the CoNS species Staphylococcus lugdunensis, isolated from an “aseptically failed” prosthetic hip joint and a united intramedullary nail-fixed tibial fracture, respectively, could cause osteomyelitis in an established implant-related osteomyelitis model in rabbits in the absence of wear debris from the implant material. The histological features of P. acnes infection in the in vivo rabbit model were consistent with localized pyogenic osteomyelitis, and a biofilm was present on all explanted intramedullary (IM) nails. The animals displayed no outward signs of infection, such as swelling, lameness, weight loss, or elevated white blood cell count. In contrast, infection with S. lugdunensis resulted in histological features consistent with both pyogenic osteomyelitis and septic arthritis, and all S. lugdunensis-infected animals displayed weight loss and an elevated white blood cell count despite biofilm detection in only two out of six rabbits. The differences in the histological and bacteriological profiles of the two species in this rabbit model of infection are reflective of their different clinical presentations: low-grade infection in the case of P. acnes and acute infection for S. lugdunensis. These results are especially important in light of the growing recognition of chronic P. acnes biofilm infections in prosthetic joint failure and nonunion of fracture fixations, which may be currently reported as “aseptic” failure. PMID:24599975