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Sample records for aconiti carmichaeli radix

  1. [Investigating mechanism of toxicity reduction by combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata on terms of proteins self-assembly].

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-jie; Shen, Yong; Liao, Ri-tao; Gao, Guan-zhen; Ke, Li-jing; Zhou, Jian-wu; Rao, Ping-fan

    2015-02-01

    The combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata can increase efficacy and decrease toxicity. This study started from the phenomena of protein self-assembly in the mixed decoction of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata. The attenuated mechanism was explored between the combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata by using the protein of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and aconitine which was the major toxic component of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein with aconitine could form stable particles which particle mean diameter was (206.2 ± 2.02) nm and (238.20 ± 1.23) nm at pH 5.0 in normal temperature. Through the mouse acute toxicity experiment found that injection of aconitine monomer all mice were killed, and injection of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein-aconitine particles with the same content of aconitine all mice survived. Survey the stability of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein-aconitine shows that the colloid particles is stable at room temperature, and it has the possibility to candidate drug carrier. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein can reduce the toxicity of aconitine through self-assembly.

  2. The comparative research on constituents of Radix Aconiti and its processing by HPLC quadrupole TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Hong, Bo; Wang, Jia; Wang, Xi; Niu, Sijia; Zhao, Chunjie

    2012-11-01

    Based upon the regulations stipulated by the State Food and Drug Administration of China, only the processed, detoxified tubers and roots of Aconitum are allowed to be administered orally, used in clinical decoctions and adopted as raw materials for pharmaceutical manufacturing, so the processing principle of preparation of Radix Aconiti is important for ensuring the Radix Aconiti praeparata quality. A simple approach was described for HPLC-Q-TOF-MS screening and identification of many of the aconitine alkaloids present in unprocessed Radix Aconiti and Radix Aconiti praeparata. To compare their fingerprints, the processing principle of preparation of Radix Aconiti was developed. Twenty-nine compounds and 26 compounds were assigned to aconitine alkaloids and tentatively identified by comparing accurate mass and fragments information with that of the authentic standards or by mass spectrometry analysis and retrieving the reference literature. The nonester alkaloids were almost the same. The diester diterpene alkaloids were decreased, the monoester-diterpene alkaloids were increased and lipo-alkaloids decreased obviously in the processing of the preparation. These transformed components could be regarded as potential chemical markers that can be used to distinguish between raw and processed herbs.

  3. Non-thermal plasma treatment of Radix aconiti wastewater generated by traditional Chinese medicine processing.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yiyong; Yi, Jianping; Zhao, Shen; Jiang, Song; Chi, Yuming; Liu, Kefu

    2016-06-01

    The wastewater effluent from Radix aconiti processing, an important step in the production processes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is a type of toxic wastewater and difficult to treat. Plasma oxidation methods have emerged as feasible techniques for effective decomposition of toxic organic pollutants. This study examined the performance of a plasma reactor operated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to degrade the effluent from R. aconiti processing. The effects of treatment time, discharge voltage, initial pH value and the feeding gas for the reactor on the degradation of this TCM wastewater were investigated. A bacterium bioluminescence assay was adopted in this study to test the toxicity of the TCM wastewater after non-thermal plasma treatment. The degradation ratio of the main toxic component was 87.77% after 60min treatment with oxygen used as feed gas and it was 99.59% when the initial pH value was 8.0. High discharge voltage and alkaline solution environment were beneficial for improving the degradation ratio. The treatment process was found to be capable of reducing the toxicity of the wastewater to a low level or even render it non-toxic. These experimental results suggested that the DBD plasma method may be a competitive technology for primary decomposition of biologically undegradable toxic organic pollutants in TCM wastewater.

  4. Simultaneous quantification and pharmacokinetics of alkaloids in Herba Ephedrae-Radix Aconiti Lateralis extracts.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuai; Tang, Qingfa; Huo, Huiling; Li, Hancheng; Xing, Xuefeng; Luo, Jiabo

    2015-01-01

    The combination of Herba Ephedrae (Mahuang in Chinese) and Radix Aconiti Lateralis (Fuzi in Chinese) is a classical preparation in traditional Chinese medicine and used for treating colds and rheumatic arthralgia. However, herbal medicines containing ephedrines and Aconitum alkaloids are strictly regulated because of the potential for adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and the central nervous system. We aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of 11 alkaloids in the Mahuang-Fuzi combination and single-herb extracts after oral administration in rats. The alkaloids were norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine. Simultaneous determination of the alkaloids, including two pairs of diastereomers, was achieved in 14.5 min by a simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The validated method demonstrated adequate sensitivity, selectivity and process efficiency for the quantitative analysis of complex herbal components. Compared with single-herb extracts, alkaloids in plasma (except methylephedrine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine) showed slower elimination (the mean residence time or half-life was longer), although the maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration curve values decreased. Accumulation may occur with continuous drug intake. These results suggest that drug monitoring may be essential for the safe use of the Mahuang-Fuzi combination.

  5. Enrichment and purification of six Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix by macroporous resins and quantification by HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Qing; Liu, Ran; Yin, Yidi; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-06-01

    Aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine are six main Aconitum alkaloids from traditional Chinese medicine, Aconiti kusnezoffii radix, which possess highly bioactive as well as highly toxic character for medicinal use. In the present study, for the purpose of better utilizing the toxic herbal material, the performance characteristics of NKA-II, D101, X-5, AB-8, S-8, HPD722 and HPD750 macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of these six Aconitum alkaloids were critically evaluated. Results showed that NKA-II offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities for six Aconitum alkaloids among the seven macroporous resins tested, which were affected significantly by the pH value. Subsequently, dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments had been carried out with the column packed by NKA-II resin to optimize the separation process of six Aconitum alkaloids. After one run treatment with NKA-II resin, the content of total six Aconitum alkaloids were increased from 5.87% to 60.3%, the recovery was 75.8%. Meanwhile, a validated HPLC-MS method had been developed to qualitative and quantitative these six Aconitum alkaloids. This method would provide scientific references to the large-scale production of six Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix or other plants and might also expand the secure application of these highly toxic components for pharmacy.

  6. Exploring processing adjuvants’ influence on traditional Chinese medicine compatibility of Aconiti Radix Cocta and Pinelliae rhizome using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuming; Li, Yubo; Zhang, Xiuxiu; Xu, Yanyan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yanjun

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that when crude Pinelliae rhizome and Pinelliae rhizoma preparatum are combined with Aconiti Radix Cocta respectively, the toxicity of the combination varies. However, the component's transformation between different compatibility have remained unclear. Objective: In this paper, a novel approach using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was established for exploring the influence of processing adjuvants (PAs) on the compatibility of Aconiti Radix Cocta and Pinelliae rhizome. Materials and Methods: In order to obtain information about the representative markers between different groups, an exhaustive study of different protocols based on adding or removing different PAs step by step was carried out and the influence of PAs on compatibility was investigated. Results: It was found that lime can facilitate diester diterpenoid alkaloids with high toxicity in Aconiti Radix Cocta to be converted into low-toxic or non-toxic derivatives. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma had no remarkable effect on the process. Conclusion: The established method in this study will be of great significance to process research mechanism and study on traditional Chinese Medicine compatibility and clinical application. PMID:25422550

  7. Ultra-fast LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of six highly toxic Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Qing; Yin, Yidi; Liu, Ran; Xu, Huarong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, and efficient ultra-fast LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of six highly toxic Aconitum alkaloids, that is, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, and benzoylhypaconine, in rat plasma after oral administration of crude ethanol extracts from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix by ultrasonic extraction, reflux extraction for 1 h, and reflux extraction for 3 h, respectively. The separation of six Aconitum alkaloids and aminopyrine (internal standard) was performed on an InertSustain® C18 column, and the quantification of the analytes was performed on a 4000Q ultra-fast LC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Absolute recoveries ranged within 65.06-85.1% for plasma samples. The intra- and interday precision and accuracy of analytes were satisfactory. The methods were validated with sensitivity reaching the lower LOQ for aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, and benzoylhypaconine, which were 0.025, 0.025, 0.050, 0.025, 0.025, and 0.100 ng/mL, respectively. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of six Aconitum alkaloids in rat plasma after oral administration of crude ethanol extracts from the raw root of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. by three different extraction processes.

  8. [Allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli on three pasture grasses].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yu-jie; Wang, Ya-qi; Yuan, Ling

    2015-11-01

    The tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli are largely used in traditional Chinese medicine and widely grown in Jiangyou, Sichuan, China. During the growth process, this medicinal plant releases a large amount of allelochemicals into soil, which retard the growth and development of near and late crops. Therefore, a pure culture experiment was thus carried out by seed soaking to study the allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of A. carmichaeli (ETR) on the seed germination and young seedling growth of Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens, and Medicago sativa, the late pasture grasses after cultivation of A. carmichaeli. The results showed that three pasture grasses varied significantly in seed germination and young seedling growth in response to ETR concentrations. Seed germination of M. sativa was stimulated by low ERT concentration (0.01 x g(-1)), while all of pasture grass seeds germinated poorly in solution with 1.00 g x L(-1). Seed soaking with 1.00 g x L(-1) also inhibited significantly the growth of pasture young seedlings, with M. sativa showing the highest seedling height reduction of 42.05% in seeding height, followed by T. repens (40.21%) and L. perenne with about 11%. Cultivation of L. perenne could thus be beneficial to increase whole land productivity in A. carmichaeli-pasture grass cropping systems. In addition, hydrolysis of protein, starch, and inositol phosphates was blocked and free amino acids, soluble sugars and phosphorus were decreased in seeds by seed soaking with ETR, which could be one of the reason for the inhibition of seed germination. There was a significant reduction in root vigor, nitrate reductase, and chlorophyll after the seed treatment with ETR, indicating the suppression of nutrient uptake, nitrate assimilation, and photosynthesis by allelopathic chemicals in ETR, which could lead to the slow growth rate of pasture grass seedlings.

  9. [Identification of aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids in Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and study of their cardiac effects].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Ding, Jia-Yu; Liu, Xiu-Xiu; Tang, Ming-Hai; Chao, Ruo-Bing; Wang, Feng-Peng

    2014-12-01

    In order to affirm the cardioactive components in Fuzi, we identified a group of aminoalcohol- diterpenoid alkaloids in Fuzi using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometer (UPLC-ESI-MS) method. Among a total of forty-one isolated ingredients, thirteen major aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids were identified by comparing their retention times and MS spectra with those of the reference substances. Moreover, Fuzi samples from different places of origin and with different processing methods were examined and their components displayed a pattern of high similarity, though the relative abundance varies probably due to their different processing methods. Furthermore, the cardiac effect of each identified alkaloid was individually evaluated using the isolated bullfrog heart perfusion experiment. Among the thirteen aminoalcohol diterpenoid alkaloids tested, six of them significantly enhanced the amplitude rates. Taken together, we affirm that the cardioactive components in Fuzi are aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids, shedding light on future studies of the mechanisms and development of these cardioactive compounds.

  10. Calculation of Computational Complexity for Radix-2 (p) Fast Fourier Transform Algorithms for Medical Signals.

    PubMed

    Amirfattahi, Rassoul

    2013-10-01

    Owing to its simplicity radix-2 is a popular algorithm to implement fast fourier transform. Radix-2(p) algorithms have the same order of computational complexity as higher radices algorithms, but still retain the simplicity of radix-2. By defining a new concept, twiddle factor template, in this paper, we propose a method for exact calculation of multiplicative complexity for radix-2(p) algorithms. The methodology is described for radix-2, radix-2 (2) and radix-2 (3) algorithms. Results show that radix-2 (2) and radix-2 (3) have significantly less computational complexity compared with radix-2. Another interesting result is that while the number of complex multiplications in radix-2 (3) algorithm is slightly more than radix-2 (2), the number of real multiplications for radix-2 (3) is less than radix-2 (2). This is because of the twiddle factors in the form of which need less number of real multiplications and are more frequent in radix-2 (3) algorithm.

  11. Rapid separation and characterization of diterpenoid alkaloids in processed roots of Aconitum carmichaeli using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Dayuan; Huang, Juan; Huang, Zhihai; Bai, Junqi; Qiu, Xiaohui

    2014-10-01

    The lateral root of Aconitum carmichaeli, a popular traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used to treat rheumatic diseases. For decades, diterpenoid alkaloids have dominated the phytochemical and biomedical research on this plant. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry was developed to characterize the diterpenoid alkaloids in Aconitum carmichaeli. Based on an optimized chromatographic condition, more than 120 diterpenoid alkaloids were separated with good resolution. Using a systematic strategy that combines high resolution separation, highly accurate mass measurements and a good understanding of the diagnostic fragment-based fragmentation patterns, these diterpenoid alkaloids were identified or tentatively identified. The identification of these chemicals provided essential data for further phytochemical studies and toxicity research of Aconitum carmichaeli. Moreover, the ultra high performance liquid chromatography with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry platform was an effective and accurate tool for rapid qualitative analysis of secondary metabolite productions from natural resources.

  12. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract.

  13. Simultaneous determination of thirteen aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids in the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaeli by solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jia-Yu; Liu, Xiu-Xiu; Xiong, Dong-Mei; Ye, Li-Ming; Chao, Ruo-Bing

    2014-06-01

    Aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids have been reported as the cardioactive components in the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaeli (Fuzi) according to recent studies. Determination of these effective components is of great significance for quality control purposes for Fuzi. Here we report, for the first, the development and validation of a new method to determine the 13 aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids in Fuzi by using a simple and accurate solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The chromatographic analysis was performed on an ODS column with methanol-0.1 % formic acid (80 : 20, v/v) as the mobile phase. The quantification was performed using MS/MS detection in the positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Linearity was observed within a range of concentrations of 20-2,000 ng/mL. For all the analytes, the r value was greater than 0.9990. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were less than 0.5 ng/mL and 2.0 ng/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were less than 5% and 10%, respectively. The accuracy was within the range of 90 to 105%. This method was successfully applied to determine the 13 aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids in Fuzi from different origins and with different processing methods.

  14. Discrimination and Proper Use of Polygoni Multiflori Radix, Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix, and Cynanchi Auriculati Radix in Korea: A Descriptive Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Beom-Joon; Lee, Kyungjin

    2015-01-01

    Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR), Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix (CWR), and Cynanchi Auriculati Radix (CAR) are very popular herbal medicines in Traditional Korean Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo Medicine. However, the plant origins, efficacies, and traditional uses of these herbal medicines differ. In Korea, PMR is called Ha Su O (He Shou Wu in China), and CWR is called Baek Ha Su O or Baek Su O (Bai Shou Wu in China). Baek Su O refers to CWR in Korea and CAR in China. CAR has not been used as a traditional herbal medicine, and it cannot be legally used as a food or food ingredient in Korea. However, CAR is cultivated in Korea and imported from China. Because the morphology of CWR and CAR is very similar, they are often confused and misused in Korea. This review discusses the reasons for the confusion and misuse of these substances in Korea and provides the exact plant origins, efficacies, uses, components, and toxicities of PMR, CWR, and CAR so that they can be correctly understood and used. PMID:26539235

  15. Radix Representation of Triangular Discrete Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben, J.; Li, Y. L.; Wang, R.

    2016-11-01

    Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGSs) are spatial references that use a hierarchical tessellation of cells to partition and address the entire globe. It provides an organizational structure that permits fast integration between multiple sources of large and variable geospatial data. Although many endeavors have been done to describe certain discrete grid systems, there still lack of a uniform mathematical framework for them. This paper simplifies the planar class I aperture 4 triangular discrete grid system into a hierarchical lattice model which is proved to be a radix system in the complex number plane. Mathematical properties of the radix system reveal the discrete grid system is equivalent to the set of complex numbers with special form. The conclusion provides a potential way to build a uniform mathematical framework of DGGS and can be used to design efficient encoding and spatial operation scheme for DGGS.

  16. Simultaneous quantification of chrysophanol and physcion in rat plasma by ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and application of the technique to comparative pharmacokinetic studies of Radix et Rhei Rhizoma extract alone and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Huan; Wu, Li; Xing, Jiangwa; Poh, Yanhong; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao Chang

    2015-02-01

    Most herbal medicines are prescribed in combination based on the theory of TCM to obtain synergistic effects or diminish the possible adverse reactions. Compatibility refers to the combination of two or more herbs based on the clinical settings and the properties of herbs. Chrysophanol and physcion are the main effective compounds in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction which is the combination of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata and Radix et Rhizoma Asari. However, chrysophanol and physcion are difficult to detect in vivo because of their low concentration and interference from endogenous compounds. The aim of this study is to develop a rapid, specific and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass method to simultaneously quantify chrysophanol and physcion in rat plasma, in order to better understand the pharmacokinetics and compatibility mechanism of Dahuang Fuzi Decoction for the first time. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was applied for the quantitation at [M-H](-)m/z 253.0→m/z 225.1 for chrysophanol, [M-H](-) for m/z 283.1→m/z 240.0 physcion and [M-H](-)m/z 239.0→m/z 211.0 for IS. The analytes were separated on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm) column within a total running time of 6.5min using a mixture of 3mM ammonium acetate in water and methanol (95:5, v/v) with a time program flow gradient according to the "plus gradient chromatography" theory. The inclusion of the ammonium acetate in the UFLC mobile phase dramatically improved the detection limit of the tested compounds and decreased the interference by matrix effects, which have been referred to as "LC-electrolyte effects". Finally, we demonstrated the application of a validated method in a comparative pharmacokinetic study of rats receiving an oral dose of Dahuang Fuzi Decoction or Radix et Rhei Rhizoma, the monarch drug in the prescription. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed

  17. Radix mesiolingualis and radix distolingualis: a case report of a tooth with an unusual morphology

    PubMed Central

    Aeran, Himanshu; Singh, Inderpreet

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the root and canal morphology of the maxillary first molars is quite common. The most common configuration is 3 roots and 3 or 4 canals. Nonetheless, other possibilities still exist. The presence of an additional palatal root is rather uncommon and has been reported to have an incidence of 0.06 - 1.6% in varying populations studied. Whenever two palatal roots exist, one of them is the normal palatal root, the other is a supernumerary structure which can be located either mesiolingually (radix mesiolingualis) or distolingually (radix distolingualis). This case report describes successful endodontic treatment of a maxillary first molar with radix mesiolingualis and radix distolingualis. Identification of this variation was done through clinical examination along with the aid of multiangled radiographs, and an accurate assessment of this morphology was made with the help of a cone-beam computed tomography imaging. In addition to the literature review, this article also discusses the epidemiology, classifications, morphometric features, guidelines for diagnosis, and endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with extra-palatal root. PMID:27847755

  18. Chemical constituents of radix Ranunculus ternati.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun; Ruan, Jin-Lan; Wang, Jin-Hui; Cong, Yue; Song, Shuang; Cai, Ya-Ling; Fang, Wei; Zhou, Dao-Nian

    2008-02-15

    3 Beta-acetoxy-(20S, 22E)-dammaran-22-en-25-ol, a new triterpene, was isolated along with five known triterpenes (ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, 3-epiocotillol acetate, and dimmarenediol II acetate), and alpha-D-glc and sucrose from Radix Ranunculus ternati All of them, except oleanolic acid and alpha-D-glc, were isolated from the family of Ranunculaceae for the very first time, and the NMR data of sucrose was first described. In addition, the absolute configurations of alpha-D-glc and the glucose component of sucrose were determined.

  19. Efficient radix-r adders for nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moaiyeri, Mohammad Hossein; Chavoshisani, Reza; Jalali, Ali; Navi, Keivan; Hashemipour, Omid

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a new design method and efficient designs for radix-r adders are proposed for carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNFET) FET nanotechnology. This application also investigates the capability of the nanoscale device for designing high-performance analogue circuits. The proposed designs benefit from the unique electrical properties of CNFET, such as near-ideal current voltage characteristics, very high transconductance, high-performance switches and very high-performance and high-gain binary inverters, at nanoscale. Moreover, adjustable threshold voltage and the same mobility of electrons and holes in a CNFET facilitate the design and modification procedures. The proposed design can be considered as an instance of a general adder, capable of adding radix-r digits with high precision. It is noteworthy that a very limited number of carbon nanotube diameters for designing the proposed adder are needed, which enhance the manufacturability. The proposed circuits are designed based on arithmetic relations and are also verified at 32 nm feature size using HSPICE and the Stanford standard SPICE model.

  20. A new pregnane steroid from Poria cum radix pini.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiao-Gang; Liu, Jin-Lei; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2010-05-01

    A new pregnane steroid and eight known compounds were isolated from Poria cum radix pini. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data. All the known compounds were isolated from this species for the first time.

  1. [Quality assessment of sulfur-fumigated paeoniae alba radix].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Chen, Yu-Wu; Wang, Qiong; Sun, Lei; Xu, Wei-Yi; Jin, Hong-Yu; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    The samples of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix acquired both by random spot check from domestic market and self-production by the research group in the laboratory were used to evaluate the effects of sulphur fumigation on the quality of Paeoniae Alba Radix by comparing sulfur-fumigated degree and character, the content of paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester, and changes of the fingerprint. We used methods in Chinese Pharmacopeia to evaluate the character of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix and determinate the content of aulfur-fumigated paeoniflorin. LC-MS method was used to analyze paeoniflorin-converted products. HPLC fingerprint methods were established to evaluate the differences on quality by similarity. Results showed that fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix became white and its unique fragrance disappeared, along with the production of pungent sour gas. It also had a significant effect on paeoniflorin content. As sulfur smoked degree aggravated, paeoniflorin content decreased subsequently, some of which turned into paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester, and this change was not reversible. Fingerprint also showed obvious changes. Obviously, sulfur fumigation had severe influence on the quality of Paeoniae Alba Radix, but we can control the quality of the Paeoniae Alba Radix by testing the paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester content.

  2. Application of quantitative 1H-NMR method to determination of gentiopicroside in Gentianae radix and Gentianae scabrae radix.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Hasebe, Yuko; Nagatsu, Akito

    2014-07-01

    A quantitative (1)H-NMR method (qHNMR) was used to measure gentiopicroside content in Gentianae radix and Gentianae scabrae radix. Gentiopicroside is a major component of Gentianae radix and Gentianae scabrae radix. The purity of gentiopicroside was calculated from the ratio of the intensity of the H-3 signal at δ 7.44 ppm or the H-8 signal at δ 5.78 ppm in methanol-d 4 of gentiopicroside to that of a hexamethyldisilane (HMD) signal at 0 ppm. The concentration of HMD was corrected with SI traceability by using potassium hydrogen phthalate of certified reference material (CRM) grade. As a result, the gentiopicroside content in two lots of Gentianae radix as determined by qHNMR was found to be 1.76 and 2.17 %, respectively. The gentiopicroside content in two lots of Gentianae scabrae radix was 2.73 and 3.99 %, respectively. We demonstrated that this method is useful for the quantitative analysis of crude drugs.

  3. Use of mixed radix FFT in electric power systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, I.D.; Lee, P. )

    1994-07-01

    Radix-2 based Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) routines have been the main stream FFT that are commonly applied to the measurement and analysis of electric power system data. Because of the rigid sampling rates offered by most of the instrument manufacturers and the mathematical limitation imposed by the algorithm of radix-2 FFT, artificial post sampling data windows have been introduced to improve the utility of the radix-2 FFT. The 60 Hz and the 50 Hz based electrical power system frequencies are incompatible with the radix-2 FFT routine to the special requirements of electric power system. Recent advances in the personal computer hardware has opened a new approach to perform the FFT via mixed radix routines. It offers greatly improved flexibility in the selection of a practical data size. And this leads to the elimination of the need of the post sampling software windows. It also allows one to relax or eliminate the requirement of anti-aliasing measures for power system harmonic measurements.

  4. Seasonal variations in the isoflavonoids of radix Puerariae.

    PubMed

    Sibao, Chen; Dajian, Yang; Shilin, Chen; Hongx, Xu; Chan, Albert S C

    2007-01-01

    The variations in isoflavonoid content in Radix Puerariae, the root of Pueraria lobata (Wild) Ohwi, have been examined in order to determine the optimum time to harvest the herb. Total isoflavonoid contents have been analysed by a UV spectrophotometric method whilst HPLC with photodiode array detection has been used to monitor the contents of seven major individual isoflavonoids, namely, 3'-hydroxypuerarin, puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, genistin, formononetin-7-glucoside and daidzein. Ninety-six samples of Radix Puerariae of different ages and harvested in different months were collected and analysed. The results clearly showed that 3-year-old roots harvested in January have the highest yields of isoflavonoid compounds. Moreover, the results obtained by both methods have a strong correlation. This suggested that the simple and fast UV spectrophotometric method could be used for monitoring the phytochemical quality of Radix Puerariae.

  5. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies.

  6. [HPLC fingerprint of glycyrrhizea radix et rhizoma praeparata cum melle].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Jin, Yong; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Qiao, Shan-Yi; Gao, Song; Che, Yan-Zhong

    2014-06-01

    The chromatographic fingerprint was established by eluting with the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and 0.2% formic acid water on an Agilent TC-C18 (2) column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm). Six chromatographic peaks were identified by HPLC-MS/MS method. Ten batches of Glycyrrhizea Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle were determined, and the similarity was arranged from 0.72 to 0.99. Good precision, stability and repeatability were obtained, and this study provides a reference for the quality control of Glycyrrhizea Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle.

  7. [Effects of component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma on cell proliferation, apoptosis and skeleton in lung cancer A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-jing; Yang, Ye; Bi, Lei; Chen, Shan-shan; Zhu, Jing-jing; Chen, Wei-ping

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to optimize the most effective component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma on lung cancer A549 using the orthogonal design method, and to investigate its effects of the component formula on cell proliferation, apoptosis and cytoskeleton in lung cancer A549 cells. The orthogonal design method was introduced to optimize the most effective component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma on lung cancer A549 cells. CCK-8 assay and Real-time cell analysis were adapted to analyze the effect of component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma on A549 cells viability at different time and dose. Cell apoptosis was measured by Annexin V- FITC/PI double staining and flow cytometry. Cell skeleton protein F-actin was detected by high content screening (HCS). The optimizing component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma for total salvianolic acid, total saponins of panax ginseng and ginseng polysaccharide doses were 5, 10, 5 mg L(-1). CCK-8 assay and real-time cell analysis demonstrated that the component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma treatment could significantly decrease the A549 cell viability in both dose- and time-dependent manner compared with control group (P < 0.01). Moreover, the increase of cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and flow cytometry when cells treated with the component formula, which indicating that the component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma could induce A549 cell apoptosis in a time-dependent manner compared with control group (P < 0.01). Furthermore, compared with control group, a significant decrease in A549 cell skeleton area was found in the component formula-exposed cells in the dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). In summary, the component formula

  8. Chemical fingerprint of commercial Radix Echinopsis and quantitative analysis of alpha-terthienyl.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Han, Jian; He, Wen-ni; Wu, Tao; Wang, Bao-rong; Ye, Min; Guo, De-an

    2010-03-01

    New TLC, HPLC and LC/MS methods were developed for the rapid separation, characterization and quantitation of thiophenes in Radix Echinopsis, a herbal medicine, which has been used in China for long history. Nineteen commercial batches of this herb were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Only five batches were derived from correct species. The other 14 batches were identified as its adulterating species, Radix Rhapontici, as they did not contain characteristic thiophenes of Echinopsis species. By LC/MS, 16 thiophenes were identified from the methanol extracts of Radix Echinopsis and Radix Rhapontici according to their fragmentation behaviors in MS/MS. In addition, a fully validated HPLC method was established to determine the contents of alpha-terthienyl in Radix Echinopsis. The contents ranged from 2.7 to 5.2 mg/g for five tested samples. The methods in this paper were simple and reliable, and could be used for the comprehensive quality control of Radix Echinopsis.

  9. A Case Report of Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Mandragora Radix

    PubMed Central

    Baysak, Sevim; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Atacan, Damla; Ergin, Can

    2015-01-01

    An 82-year-old male presented with rash, burning, and itching on his knees that had started 4 days after the local application of Mandragora Radix sap for 3 consecutive days. A dermatological examination revealed erythematous, edematous, and scaly plaque lesions on the patient's knees. An open application test with M. Radix was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to M. Radix. Mandragora species, which belong to the Solanaceae family, have sedative, aphrodisiac, emetic, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of M. Radix-induced allergic contact dermatitis has been previously reported. PMID:26347280

  10. [Advance in research on chemical constituents from Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-ping; Sha, Long; Zhao, Yi-wu; Xu, Zhi-liang; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This paper summarized the recent 30 years research progress of the chemical constituents from Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix. The chemical constituents from Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix mainly consist of coumarins, polyene-polyacetylenes, sesquiterpenes, phenolic acids, while steroids and flavonoids were less reported. All constituents were confirmed and corrected through SciFinder. We also checked the Chinese name and English name and listed the CAS number of each compound. It can provide some guidelines for the research, development and utilization of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix in the future. Whether there is columbianin in the Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix need to be further researched.

  11. Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Least Radix Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Morales, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    A new variational method, the principle of least radix economy, is formulated. The mathematical and physical relevance of the radix economy, also called digit capacity, is established, showing how physical laws can be derived from this concept in a unified way. The principle reinterprets and generalizes the principle of least action yielding two classes of physical solutions: least action paths and quantum wavefunctions. A new physical foundation of the Hilbert space of quantum mechanics is then accomplished and it is used to derive the Schrödinger and Dirac equations and the breaking of the commutativity of spacetime geometry. The formulation provides an explanation of how determinism and random statistical behavior coexist in spacetime and a framework is developed that allows dynamical processes to be formulated in terms of chains of digits. These methods lead to a new (pre-geometrical) foundation for Lorentz transformations and special relativity. The Parker-Rhodes combinatorial hierarchy is encompassed within our approach and this leads to an estimate of the interaction strength of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces that agrees with the experimental values to an error of less than one thousandth. Finally, it is shown how the principle of least-radix economy naturally gives rise to Boltzmann's principle of classical statistical thermodynamics. A new expression for a general (path-dependent) nonequilibrium entropy is proposed satisfying the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

  12. Elucidation of the Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms of Bupleuri and Scutellariae Radix Using System Pharmacological Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xia; Zhao, Zhenyu; Wang, Hao; Guo, Zihu; Hu, Benxiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective. This study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of the combined application of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix and explored the potential therapeutic efficacy of these two drugs on inflammation-related diseases. Methods. After searching the databases, we collected the active ingredients of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix and calculated their oral bioavailability (OB) and drug-likeness (DL) based on the absorption-distribution-metabolism-elimination (ADME) model. In addition, we predicted the drug targets of the selected active components based on weighted ensemble similarity (WES) and used them to construct a drug-target network. Gene ontology (GO) analysis and KEGG mapper tools were performed on these predicted target genes. Results. We obtained 30 compounds from Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix of good quality as indicated by ADME assays, which possess potential pharmacological activity. These 30 ingredients have a total of 121 potential target genes, which are involved in 24 biological processes related to inflammation. Conclusions. Combined application of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix was found not only to directly inhibit the synthesis and release of inflammatory cytokines, but also to have potential therapeutic effects against inflammation-induced pain. In addition, a combination therapy of these two drugs exhibited systemic treatment efficacy and provided a theoretical basis for the development of drugs against inflammatory diseases. PMID:28190938

  13. Two Traditional Chinese Medicines Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma: An Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Xie, Meng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wenping; Zhao, Haoran; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Bai, Shaojuan; Zhao, Yichen; Chen, Xiaoyi; She, Gaimei

    2016-01-01

    Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: 莪术), and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: 郁金), are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory. PMID:27057197

  14. [Determination of trace elements in radix ophiopogonis by HG-ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Lou, Qi-Zheng; Xu, Run-Sheng

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, a method of microwave digestion technique for the contents determination of trace elements Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Ca and Pb in radix ophiopogonis by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma atomic emition spectrometry (HG-ICP-AES) was reported. Its recovery ratio obtained by standard addition method ranged between 97.8% and 102.5%, and its RSD was lower than 4.0%. The results of the determination show that radix ophiopogonis is rich in the inorganic elements such as Fe, and the content of Zn in radix ophiopogonis of Zhejiang is much higher in radix ophiopogonis of Sichun. The result will provide scientific data for the study on the elements in radix ophiopogonis and on their relativity of medicine efficacy.

  15. Two Traditional Chinese Medicines Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma: An Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Xie, Meng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wenping; Zhao, Haoran; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Bai, Shaojuan; Zhao, Yichen; Chen, Xiaoyi; She, Gaimei

    2016-01-01

    Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: ), and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: ), are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory.

  16. Radix Bupleuri ameliorates depression by increasing nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Feng, Qing; Xiao, Yong; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chinese herb Radix Bupleuri has been regarded effective to improve treatment of depression, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Low levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) increase the likelihood of developing the depression. Therefore, we want to know whether Radix Bupleuri affects the levels of these factors. Methods: A total 160 hemodialysis patients were diagnosed with depression and randomly assigned to two groups: Radix Bupleuri group (received 1 g root power of Radix Bupleuri in a capsule daily Radix Bupleuri) and control group (receive placebo). Results: After three-month follow-up, the patients who received Radix Bupleuri had greater improvement in depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms and general functioning via controls after three-month follow-up (P < 0.05). Serum NGF levels were significantly higher in subjects accepted Radix Bupleuris (178.64 ± 52.18 pg/mL) when compared to a control (103.54 ± 31.23 pg/ml) (P < 0.01). Similarly, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher in subjects accepted Radix Bupleuris (1635.26 ± 121.66 pg/ml) when compared to a control (516.38 ± 44.89 pg/ml) (P < 0.01). The serum levels of NGF and BDNF were negatively related with Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and positively related with scores of RAND-36 item Health Survey (RAND-36) (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Thus, Radix Bupleuri ameliorates the patients with depression by increasing serum levels of NGF and BDNF. Radix Bupleuri should be developed a new drug for the therapy of depression. PMID:26309578

  17. [Ecological environment of cultivated Astragali radix and market specification of prepared slices].

    PubMed

    Yu, Kunzi; Liu, Jing; Hong, Hao; Guo, Baolin; Cai, Shaoqing; Chen, Hubiao

    2010-05-01

    Astragali Radix is derived from roots of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and A. membranaceus. The exhaustion of wild Astragali Radix has made cultivated Astragali Radix possess the commercial market of Astragali Radix. So the ecological environment of cultivated Astragali Radix should be investigated through field survey. Through investigation, we found that A. membranaceus var. mongholicus are cultivated in Hengshan mountain of Shanxi province, Longnan of Gansu province, south of Inner Mongolia and Qinghai provinces. A. membranaceus var. mongholicus is almost planted on the plain, except in Shanxi province it grows on the sunny side of the mountain. What is more, soil type, elevation, annual temperature and annual rainfall of these locations are different. So the ecological environments of cultivated location of Astragali Radix are different from each other. A. membranaceus is wild in Heilongjiang and northeast of Inner Mongolia, but the resource is drying up. It is also planted in few places of the provinces of Shanxi, Shandong, Hebei, Gansu, but cultivated scope of A. membranaceus is smaller than A. membranaceus var. mongholicus.. So A. membranaceus var. mongholicus possesses large part of Astragali Radix market. In market, there exists no unified specification fro slices of Astragali Radix, and specification of prepared slices will influence the contents of chemical components. Through investigation, different kind of prepared slices can be collected and compared, this provides evidences for quality control of prepared slices. Through investigation, five different specifications of prepared slices were found in market. The distributions of some specification of prepared slices are specified, like transverseprepared slices prepared from A. membranaceus only found in Heilongjiang province. Transverse prepared slices possess half part of prepared slice market, and can be used to identify original plant of Astragali Radix. So transverse prepared slices

  18. Pharmacological effects of Radix Angelica Sinensis (Danggui) on cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Radix Angelica Sinensis, the dried root of Angelica sinensis (Danggui), is a herb used in Chinese medicine to enrich blood, promote blood circulation and modulate the immune system. It is also used to treat chronic constipation of the elderly and debilitated as well as menstrual disorders. Research has demonstrated that Danggui and its active ingredients, as anti-arthrosclerotic, anti-hypertensive, antioxidant anti-inflammatory agents which would limit platelet aggregation, are effective in reducing the size of cerebral infarction and improving neurological deficit scores. PMID:21867503

  19. Case reports and clinical guidelines for managing radix entomolaris

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Bejoy J.; Nishad, A.; Paulaian, Benin; Sam, Jonathan Emil

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about the external and internal anatomy of the tooth is essential for successful dental practice. Anomalies in the tooth are often encountered which poses difficulties in dental treatments. As like any other tooth, mandibular first molars are also prone for anatomic malformations. One such anatomic variation is the presence of extra root distolingually. This distolingual root is called radix entomolaris (RE). The presence of an additional root can lead to difficulties during endodontic therapy. This article is a report of two cases describing the management of the first mandibular molars with an RE and clinical guidelines for its management. PMID:27829770

  20. Pharmacokinetic Pilot Study of the Antiangiogenic Activity of Standardized Platycodi Radix

    PubMed Central

    Twiner, Emma M.; Liu, Zhijun; Gimble, Jeffrey; Yu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Platycodi radix is a radish used in food, such as Korean kimchi, and has been shown to cause weight loss in rodents. Platycodin D is considered its active ingredient and has been shown to inhibit lipases. The authors hypothesized that platycodi radix and the platycodin D it contains inhibit angiogenesis; another mechanism for weight loss. Methods This study tested platycodi radix extract, platycodin D, and an extract of platycodi radix standardized to platycodin D for their ability to inhibit angiogenesis in a human adipose tissue assay. This study treated five healthy volunteers, orally, with platycodi radix extract standardized to 414 mg of platycodin D. Three volunteers were treated under fasting conditions, one volunteer with a 400 kcal meal, and one volunteer treated with a placebo. Blood was drawn over 5 hours to compare serum inhibition of the human adipose tissue angiogenesis. Results Platycodin radix extract, platycodin D, and platycodi radix extract standardized to platycodin D all inhibited angiogenesis. The three volunteers who consumed platycodi radix extract standardized to 414 mg of platycodin D had a 25.76% reduction in angiogenesis from baseline at 60 minutes (P<0.002), and had a statistically significant reduction in angiogenesis from 30 to 240 minutes (P<0.05 to P<0.002). The placebo decreased angiogenesis by 5.6% between 30 and 240 minutes, compared with 17.8% by the extract. The meal delayed absorption by approximately 3.5 hours. Conclusion Platycodi radix extract standardized to platycodin D inhibited angiogenesis in human volunteers, and paves the way for a dose-response study and a human clinical obesity trial. PMID:21975926

  1. Preventing Elevated Radix Deformity in Asian Rhinoplasty with a Chimeric Dorsal-Glabellar Construct

    PubMed Central

    Zelken, Jonathan A.; Hong, Joon Pio; Broyles, Justin M.; Hsiao, Yen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background Asian facial aesthetic surgery should enhance, but not change, natural features. Augmentation rhinoplasty is a hallmark of Asian cosmetic surgery. In the authors' experience, I-shaped implants can elevate and efface the radix, leading to an unnatural appearance (elevated radix deformity). Objectives The Chimeric technique was developed to control final radix position and preserve the nasal profile. We aim to demonstrate that the Chimeric technique promotes forward projection, not elevation, of the radix. Methods Between 2013 and 2015, 49 patients underwent rhinoplasty with I-shaped implants. Nineteen patients had Chimeric dorsal-glabellar implants, 30 did not. Standardized photographs were obtained at every visit. Novel and established photogrammetric parameters were used to describe radix position and position change. A retrospective chart review provided additional procedural details and outcomes data. Results Patients were followed for 10.8 months (range, 2-36 months). Nasal height increase (113% vs 107%) and bridge length increase (118% vs 105%) were significantly greater when the Chimeric technique was not performed (P < .0001). The nasofrontal angle increased 6° in both groups; there was no difference between groups. The vector of radix position change was 26.1° in the Chimeric group and 63.4° in the traditional group (P < .0001). Conclusions The Chimeric technique preserves the nasal profile with a favorable (horizontal) radix transposition vector. There was not a significant difference in final radix position when Chimeric rhinoplasty was performed because that is controlled by implant thickness and position. The technique did not blunt the radix significantly. Level of Evidence: 4 Therapeutic PMID:26879296

  2. [Effect on quality of Scrophulariae Radix with modern drying technology].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-wei; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-wei; Lu, Xue-jun; Guo, Sheng; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-11-01

    Modern drying technology was used to explore suitable drying process to provide scientific basis for improving drying processing methods of Scrophulariae Radix. Controlled temperature and humidity drying, vacuum drying apparatus, microwave vacuum drying apparatus, short infrared drying device were used to gain samples for analyzing. The character appearance, concentration of main components and power consumption indicators were chosen for preliminary judging. Six major components, including iridoids and phenylpropanoids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method. The contents of polysaccharides were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The character appearance with controlled temperature and humidity drying and short infrared drying meet the pharmacopoeia standard (Ch. p, edition 2015), while samples with vacuum and microwave vacuum drying apparatus didn't. Compared to fresh sample, concentrations of harpagide, harpagoside, aucubin and catalpol were lower in the dried samples. Angoroside-C showed no significant change before and after drying. Concentration of acteoside increased after drying. Samples with controlled temperature (70 degrees C) and humidity (15% - 10%) drying had high content and short drying time. The better drying process of Scrophulariae Radix was controlled temperature and humidity drying. The method will provide the reference for the drying technology standard of roots medicine.

  3. Importance of wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang, a traditional herbal formula for treating women's ailments.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Janis Y X; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Zhu, Kevin Y; Zhang, Wendy L; Bi, Cathy W C; Chen, J P; Du, Crystal Y Q; Dong, Tina T X; Lau, David T W; Tsim, Karl W K

    2013-05-01

    Si Wu Tang (Four Agents Decoction), a traditional Chinese decoction composed of Angelica Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata in a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1, has been used to treat women's diseases for more than a thousand years. According to the original description of Si Wu Tang, Angelica Sinensis Radix should be treated with wine. However, the importance of this wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang's function has not been identified. In this article, the chemical and biological properties of two decoctions processed in different ways (Si Wu Tang with crude Angelica Sinensis Radix and Si Wu Tang with wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix) were compared for examination. The herbal decoction Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix contained much different amounts of its active compounds. Compared with Si Wu Tang using crude Angelica Sinensis Radix, Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix had better biological responses. Therefore, these findings accentuate the functional importance of herbs treated with wine in the Chinese decoction.

  4. Thermal stability of kudzu root (Pueraria Radix) isoflavones as additives to beef patties.

    PubMed

    Kumari, S; Raines, J M; Martin, J M; Rodriguez, J M

    2015-03-01

    Kudzu root, Pueraria radix, extracts are a rich source of isoflavones. This study investigates the thermal stability of Pueraria radix extracts as a natural nutraceutical supplement in beef patties. The extract contained puerarin, diadzin, genistin, ononin, daidzein, glycitein, calycosin, genistein, formononetin and biochanin A; however, puerarin, daidzein and glycitein were the main components. The isoflavones concentrations in the spiked beef patties with kudzu root extracts were unaffected by cooking.

  5. A hyperglycemic silkworm model for evaluating hypoglycemic activity of Rehmanniae Radix, an herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    Silkworm shows hyperglycemia after intake of diet containing large amount of glucose. The hyperglycemic silkworm model is useful for evaluation of anti-diabetic drugs. A hot water extract of Rehmanniae Radix, an herbal medicine, showed hypoglycemic effect against the hyperglycemic silkworms. This method is applicable for quick and simple evaluation of the hypoglycemic activities of different batches of Rehmanniae Radix. Our findings suggest that silkworms have a lot of merit as experimental animals for evaluation of various herbal medicines.

  6. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy study of radix astragali based on soxhlet extractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peng; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nengrong; Shao, Yonghong; Wang, Jing; Shi, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Chen, Rong

    2012-12-01

    Due to its high sensitivity, flexibility, and "fingerprints" sensing capability, Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a very powerful method for characterization of substances. In this paper, two kinds of Radix Astragali with different quality were firstly extracted through continuous circumfluence extraction method and then mixed with silver nanoparticles for SERS detection. Most Raman bands obtained in Radix Astragali extraction solution are found at 300-7000cm-1 and 900-1390 cm-1. Although, major peak positions at 470, 556, 949, 1178 and 1286 cm-1 found in these two kinds of Radix Astragali appear nearly the same, Raman bands of 556 and 1178 cm-1 are different in intensity, thus may be used as a characteristic marker of Radix Astragali quality. In detail, we can make full use of the different intensity of two different kinds but the same state at 556 cm-1 to describe the quality standard of Radix Astragali. Our preliminary results show that SERS combining with continuous circumfluence extraction method may provide a direct, accurate and rapid detection method of Radix Astragali.

  7. Mechanisms of improvement of intestinal transport of baicalin and puerarin by extracts of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xin-Li; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Li, Zhe; Luo, Yun; Liao, Zheng-Gen; Yan, Dong-Mei

    2015-02-01

    Radix Angelicae Dahuricae is the dried root of Angelicae Dahurica (Fisch.ex Hoffm.)Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana (Boiss.) Shan et Yuan (Fam.Umbelliferae). The total coumarins (Cou) and volatile oil (VO) were main active components that drived from Radix Angelicae Dahuricae. Our previous studies have shown that Cou and VO could increase intestinal absorption for transmucosal drug delivery with unknown mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae for improving drug intestinal transport. Caco-2 cell model was used to study the effect of Radix Angelicae Dahurica on transepithelial electrical resistance. Western blot was used to study its effect on the expression of the actin and ZO-1, tight junction proteins. The effect of Radix Angelicae Dahurica on the expression of P-gp protein was investigated using flow cytometry. VO (0.036-2.88 μL/mL) and Cou (0.027-0.54 mg/mL) caused a reversible, time- and dose-dependent decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance. VO and/or Cou could inhibit the expression of the tight junction protein, ZO-1 and actin. VO and/or Cou also could inhibit the expression of P-gp. These data suggested that Radix Angelicae Dahurica increased cell permeability by affecting the expression of actin, ZO-1 or P-gp, opening the tight junction or inhibiting the efflux induced by P-gp.

  8. Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine Radix isatidis (banlangen).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Radix isatidis (R. isatidis) (Banlangen) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) famous for its broad antiviral activity. Its clinical medical history spans several thousands of years in China. Many scientists and scholars have conducted systematic research on this herb from its pharmacognosy to pharmaceuticals, especially in China. Through our research and literature reports, we inferred that the antiviral activity of R. isatidis mostly depended on the water-soluble part, including amino acids, IRPS, nucleosides, and sulfur-containing alkaloids. By playing a role in directly killing pathogenic viruses or regulating the immune system to enhance anti-virus ability, R. isatidis's biological activities mostly depend on the synergistic effect of its multiple components. This article aims to expand understanding of R. isatidis in the following aspects including medicinal resources, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, clinical applications, and separation and analytical technologies.

  9. Highland cattle and Radix labiata, the hosts of Fascioloides magna

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fascioloides magna is a pathogenic fluke introduced to Europe ca 140 years ago. As it is spreading over the continent, new intermediate and definitive hosts might be involved in transmission of the parasite. In Europe, several studies reported potential new intermediate snail hosts (Radix spp.) for F. magna, and also several cases of fascioloidosis of wild and domestic animals were published. However, the data based on molecular and histological analyses confirming these findings remained unreported. This study aims to refer to unique findings of F. magna in European snails and domestic animals (the first observation in the Czech Republic in the last 30 years) and demonstrate the use of molecular techniques in determination of F. magna. Results Two snails of R. labiata naturally infected with F. magna were found; mature cercariae and daughter rediae were observed. Maturity of cercariae was checked by histological methods, however, their ability to encyst was not confirmed. Co-infection of F. magna and Fasciola hepatica in the liver of two highland cattle bulls was proved. Adult fasciolid flukes producing eggs were found in the liver pseudocysts (F. magna) and the bile ducts (F. hepatica). Identification of intermediate hosts, intramolluscan stages, adult flukes and eggs was performed by sequencing the ITS2 region. Connection of F. magna pseudocysts with the gut (via the bile ducts) was not confirmed by means of histological and coprological examinations. Conclusions For the first time, Radix labiata was confirmed as the snail host for F. magna under natural conditions and, together with the finding of F. magna infection in cattle, we can expect further transmission of F. magna from wildlife to livestock in localities shared by these hosts. PMID:24517409

  10. Eurycoma longifolia in Radix for the treatment of ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats.

    PubMed

    Qodriyah, H M S; Asmadi, A Y

    2013-12-01

    The effect of treatment with Radix on ethanol-induced gastric lesions was investigated. The main ingredient of Radix is Eurycoma longifolia. Twenty-four rats of the Sprague-Dawley species were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were given 0.5 mL 100% ethanol orally. Another group was used as a control and was given only distilled water orally (control). After 6 h all the rats were fed with normal diet. One group that was administered with ethanol was only given distilled water orally (no treatment). Another two groups that were administered with ethanol were treated with oral Radix 0.128 mg g(-1) b.wt. (Radix) and oral ranitidine 21.4 mg kg(-1) b.wt. (Ranitidine), respectively. After one week, all the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed. The stomach was isolated and examined for the presence and severity of gastric lesions. Measurements for malondialdehyde content and gastric acid concentration were also done. It is found that the ulcer index was lower in the Radix and ranitidine group compared to the no treatment group whereas in the control group there was no lesion. There was no difference in ulcer index between the Radix and ranitidine group. The gastric MDA content was significantly higher in all the groups that were induced with ethanol compared to the control group but no difference between all the ethanol-induced groups. There was no difference in the gastric acid concentration in all groups. Hence it is concluded that Eurycoma longifolia in Radix is as effective as ranitidine in the treatment of ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

  11. [Influence of combination on the specific chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza in sini decoctions by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huai-Bin; Hong, Yan-Long; Wang, You-Jie; Shen, Lan; Wu, Fei; Feng, Yi; Ruan, Ke-Feng

    2012-04-01

    The paper is to report the establishment of an HPLC specific chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza in Sini decoctions and the influence of combination on the specific chromatogram. The RP-HPLC method was used with a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm ID, 5 microm), and acetonitrile-0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (gradient elution) as mobile phase. Flow rate was 0.8 mL x min(-1) and the detection wavelength was set at 232 nm. The temperature of column was 30 degrees C. The method is stable and reliable with a good reproducibility, it can be used to determine the specific chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza in Sini Decoctions. Twenty peaks were selected as specific peaks in Sini Decoction with liquiritin peak as the reference peak. Six of them were from Glycyrrhiza and the other 6 peaks were from both Glycyrrhiza and Ganjiangfuzi Decoction. The areas of specific peaks of Sini Decoctions were smaller than those in the chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza. The specific chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza in Sini Decoctions is markedly influenced by Radix Aconiti Carmichaeli and Rhizoma Zingiberis. The areas of the specific peaks in Sini Decoctions were reduced obviously. The method is stable and reliable with a good reproducibility, it can be used to determine the specific chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza in Sini Decoctions.

  12. Mixed-radix Algorithm for the Computation of Forward and Inverse MDCT

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiasong; Shu, Huazhong; Senhadji, Lotfi; Luo, Limin

    2008-01-01

    The modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) and inverse MDCT (IMDCT) are two of the most computational intensive operations in MPEG audio coding standards. A new mixed-radix algorithm for efficient computing the MDCT/IMDCT is presented. The proposed mixed-radix MDCT algorithm is composed of two recursive algorithms. The first algorithm, called the radix-2 decimation in frequency (DIF) algorithm, is obtained by decomposing an N-point MDCT into two MDCTs with the length N/2. The second algorithm, called the radix-3 decimation in time (DIT) algorithm, is obtained by decomposing an N-point MDCT into three MDCTs with the length N/3. Since the proposed MDCT algorithm is also expressed in the form of a simple sparse matrix factorization, the corresponding IMDCT algorithm can be easily derived by simply transposing the matrix factorization. Comparison of the proposed algorithm with some existing ones shows that our proposed algorithm is more suitable for parallel implementation and especially suitable for the layer III of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 audio encoding and decoding. Moreover, the proposed algorithm can be easily extended to the multidimensional case by using the vector-radix method. PMID:21258639

  13. Photosynthetic physiological response of Radix Isatidis (Isatis indigotica Fort.) seedlings to nicosulfuron.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiangyang; Zhang, Liguang; Ning, Na; Wen, Yinyuan; Dong, Shuqi; Yin, Meiqiang; Guo, Meijun; Wang, Binqiang; Feng, Lei; Guo, Pingyi

    2014-01-01

    Radix Isatidis (Isatis indigotica Fort.) is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicine plants. However, there is no suitable herbicide used for weed control in Radix Isatidis field during postemergence stage. To explore the safety of sulfonylurea herbicide nicosulfuron on Radix Isatidis (Isatis indigotica Fort.) seedlings and the photosynthetic physiological response of the plant to the herbicide, biological mass, leaf area, photosynthetic pigment content, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and P700 parameters of Radix Isatidis seedlings were analyzed 10 d after nicosulfuron treatment at 5th leaf stage in this greenhouse research. The results showed that biological mass, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and carotenoids content, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, PS II maximum quantum yield, PS II effective quantum yield, PS II electron transport rate, photochemical quenching, maximal P700 change, photochemical quantum yield of PS I, and PS I electron transport rate decreased with increasing herbicide concentrations, whereas initial fluorescence, quantum yield of non-regulated energy dissipation in PS II and quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation due to acceptor side limitation in PS I increased. It suggests that nicosulfuron ≥1 mg L-1 causes the damage of chloroplast, PS II and PS I structure. Electron transport limitations in PS I receptor side, and blocked dark reaction process may be the main cause of the significantly inhibited growth and decreased photosynthetic rate of Radix Isatidis seedlings.

  14. Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids ameliorates neuronal damage and reduces lesion extent in a mouse model of transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ming-San; Guo, Lin; Li, Rui-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Lei

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are a major component in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Ilicis Pubescentis. Previous studies have shown that the administration of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids is protective in cerebral ischemia. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined whether the total flavonoids extracted from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis prevent or ameliorate neuronal damage following transient ischemic attacks. Therefore, Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids question and the potential underlying mechanisms. Thus, beginning 3 days before the induction of a mouse model of transient ischemic attack using tert-butyl hydroperoxide injections, mice were intragastrically administered 0.3, 0.15, or 0.075 g/kg of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids daily for 10 days. The results of spectrophotometric analyses demonstrated that Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids enhanced oxygen free radical scavenging and reduced pathological alterations in the brain. Hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids reduced hippocampal neuronal damage and cerebral vascular injury in this mouse model of transient ischemic attack. These results suggest that the antioxidant effects of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids alleviate the damage to brain tissue caused by transient ischemic attack.

  15. [Pharmacokinetics of a long-circulating PEGylated Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo-jun; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi; Xu, De-sheng; Ruan, Ke-feng

    2011-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a long-circulating PEGylated Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP) was investigated in rats following i.v. or s.c. administration at three dose levels (9, 20, 50 mg x kg(-1)). A moderate coupling reaction between the hydroxyl-activated ROP and the amino-terminated mPEG was chosen to produce PEGylate ROP. The grafting degree of the prepared conjugate was 1.03, and the molecular mass of mPEG used was 20 kDa. High-performance gel permeation chromatorgraphy with fluorescein isothiocyanate prelabeling was established to determine levels of the conjugate in plasma. The results showed that the elimination half-life of the conjugate following s.c. administration was basically identical to that after iv administration. An accurate linear correlation was observed between administration doses and areas under the curve of plasma conjugate level vs. time profile, regardless of the administration route. The absolute bioavailability of the conjugate following sc administration was approximately 56%, and the mean in vivo residence time was 52.1 h, increased 2.4 times compared to those of iv administration. In general, linear pharmacokinetics was observed for the conjugate within the dose range studied, and sc should be a promising administration route for the conjugate.

  16. Rapid analysis of Radix puerariae by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ching-Ching; Chan, Chi-On; Chau, Foo-Tim; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah

    2009-03-13

    A new, rapid analytical method using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was developed to differentiate two species of Radix puerariae (GG), Pueraria lobata (YG) and Pueraria thomsonii (FG), and to determine the contents of puerarin, daidzin and total isoflavonoid in the samples. Five isoflavonoids, puerarin, daidzin, daidzein, genistin and genistein were analyzed simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The total isoflavonoid content was exploited as critical parameter for successful discrimination of the two species. Scattering effect and baseline shift in the NIR spectra were corrected and the spectral features were enhanced by several pre-processing methods. By using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling class analogy (SIMCA), samples were separated successfully into two different clusters corresponding to the two GG species. Furthermore, sensitivity and specificity of the classification models were determined to evaluate the performance. Finally, partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to build the correlation models. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of the prediction models are R=0.970 for the puerarin, R=0.939 for daidzin and R=0.969 for total isoflavonoid. The outcome showed that NIRS can serve as routine screening in the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM).

  17. Structural Characterisation of a Polysaccharide from Radix Ranunculus Ternati

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Yun; Jin, Xin

    2014-01-01

    A water soluble polysaccharide, HB-1, with a molecular weight of 23,930, was isolated from radix Ranunculi ternati. by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, deproteination,ultrafiltration and gel-filtration column chromatography. Its sugar composition was determined by GLC as Glc, Ara, and Gal in a molar ration of 16.071: 2.722: 1. And the absolute configuration of Glc was identified as D. Smith degradation and methylation reaction showed the proportion of —1Glc (A) was about 16%, —1Glc4— (B) about 62%, (C) about 14%, and —1Gal6— (D) about 8%. The repetitive unit was likely composed of 3 As, 3 Cs, 13 Bs and 1 D. Together with the average molecular weight, it was predictable that HB-1 consisted of about seven of the repetitive unit. The inhibition activity of HB-1 on human glioma cell line SF188 was also measured, only to find it inactive. PMID:25587330

  18. Antithrombotic Effect and Mechanism of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Pingyao; Cui, Lili; Shan, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    The compounds of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) were isolated and identified by bioassay-guided method, and antithrombotic effects and mechanism were investigated by the acute blood stasis rat model. The RPR extract was evaluated by APTT, TT, PT, and FIB assays in vitro. Results indicated that RPR extract exhibited the anticoagulant activity. In order to find active compounds, six compounds were isolated and identified, and four compounds, paeoniflorin (Pae), pentagalloylglucose (Pen), albiflorin (Ali), and protocatechuic acid (Pro), exhibited the anticoagulant activity in vitro. Therefore, the antithrombosis effects of RPR extract and four active compounds were investigated in vivo by measuring whole blood viscosity (WBV), plasma viscosity (PV), APTT, PT, TT, and FIB. Meanwhile, the levels of TXB2, 6-Keto-PGF1α, eNOS, and ET-1 were detected. Results suggested that RPR extract and four active compounds had the inhibition effect on thrombus formation, and the antithrombotic effects were associated with the regulation of vascular endothelium active substance, activating blood flow and anticoagulation effect. PMID:28299338

  19. On the design of a radix-10 online floating-point multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlhenny, Robert D.; Ercegovac, Milos D.

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes an approach to design and implement a radix-10 online floating-point multiplier. An online approach is considered because it offers computational flexibility not available with conventional arithmetic. The design was coded in VHDL and compiled, synthesized, and mapped onto a Virtex 5 FPGA to measure cost in terms of LUTs (look-up-tables) as well as the cycle time and total latency. The routing delay which was not optimized is the major component in the cycle time. For a rough estimate of the cost/latency characteristics, our design was compared to a standard radix-2 floating-point multiplier of equivalent precision. The results demonstrate that even an unoptimized radix-10 online design is an attractive implementation alternative for FPGA floating-point multiplication.

  20. Promotion of hair growth by ginseng radix on cultured mouse vibrissal hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Miho; Asanuma, Yusuke; Kubo, Michinori

    2003-08-01

    A 70% methanol extract from red ginseng (steamed and dried roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, a kind of Ginseng Radix) had superior activity to that of white ginseng (peeled and dried root of P. ginseng, another kind of Ginseng Radix) in a hair growth promoting assay using mouse vibrissal follicles in organ culture. Of the major constituents of P. ginseng, ginsenoside-Rb(1) (G-Rb(1)) exhibited activity, but ginsenoside-Rg(1) (G-Rg(1)) and -Ro (G-Ro) were ineffective. Additionally, 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg(3) (20(S)-G-Rg(3)) formed by the processing of red ginseng from the crude root of P. ginseng also showed hair growth promoting activity. These results indicate that Ginseng Radix possesses hair growth promoting activity, and its bioactive components are partially attributable to the ginseng saponin components mentioned above.

  1. [Hemagglutination activity of radix isatidis detected by microcalorimetry].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-shen; Yan, Dan; Zhang, Ping; Li, Han-bing; Feng, Xue; Zhang, Ya-ming; Luo, Yun; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2010-08-01

    In this study, microcalorimetry was adopted to establish a novel method for detecting the hemagglutination process of Radix Isatidis (Banlangen in Chinese, BLG), and to evaluate the hemagglutination activity diversity of BLG from various habitats. The hemagglutination biothermokinetics curves of positive reagent (phytohemagglutinin, PHA) and 8 batches BLG from different regions of the hemagglutination with 20% rabbit erythrocyte were recorded by microcalorimetry, then biothermokinetics parameters were abstracted, the hemagglutination utility of samples were calculated and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA), meanwhile the results were authenticated by micro-plate agglutination. It showed that the hemagglutination was an exothermic reaction, the reaction rate constant (k: 0.039-73.6 min(-1)), maximum reaction power (Pmax: -1 140.2 - 988.2 microW) and reaction enthalpy (Hi: -529.9 - 717.9 microJ) had good linear correlation with BLG extraction concentration (0.2-1.0 g mL(-1), r > 0.97), and PCA showed Pmax (531-1 335 microW) and Ht (585.2-989.2 microJ) could represent the hemagglutination activity diversity of BLG samples, just confirming with the results of micro-plate agglutination (the agglutination dilution was 3-11 respectively). According to the hemagglutination utility, the BLG samples from Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) regions, main producing area and general regions could be clustered correctly; meanwhile, the biothermokinetics curves with perfect distinctive fingerprint and specificity could give out more information for the quality control and evaluation for BLG. In conclusion, the microcalorimetry method established for detecting the hemagglutination activity of BLG samples on rabbit erythrocyte is sensitive and reliable, and could be adopted as an effective technique in detection aggulatination precisely, quantitatively and consecutively; and provide a novel approach for examining and evaluating quality for Chinese

  2. Effects of Asiasari radix on the morphology and viability of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the gingiva.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Su-Hyeon; Lee, Ji-Eun; Jin, Seong-Ho; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2014-12-01

    Medicinal herbs used in traditional Oriental medicine, which have been in use clinically for thousands of years, are attractive sources of novel therapeutics or preventatives. Asiasari radix (A. radix) has been suggested for use in the treatment of dental diseases, including toothache and aphthous stomatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of A. radix extracts on the morphology and viability of human stem cells derived from the gingiva. An Asiasarum heterotropoides extract was centrifuged and freeze-dried in a lyophilizer. Stem cells derived from the gingiva were grown in the presence of A. radix at concentrations ranging between 0.1 µg/ml and 1 mg/ml (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 µg/ml). Cell morphology was evaluated with an optical microscope and the viability of the cells was quantitatively analyzed with a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay for up to seven days. The untreated control group exhibited normal fibroblast morphology. The shapes of the cells following 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml A. radix treatments were similar to those of the control group. However, a significant change was noted in the 1,000 µg/ml group on day 1, when compared with the untreated group. Furthermore, on day 7, the shapes of the cells following 100 and 1,000 µg/ml A. radix treatments were rounder and fewer cells were present, when compared with those of the control group. The cultures that grew in the presence of A. radix did not exhibit any changes in the CCK‑8 assay on day 2; however, significant reductions in cell viability were noticed following 100 and 1,000 µg/ml A. radix treatment on days 5 and 7. Within the limits of this study, A. radix influenced the viability of the stem cells derived from the gingiva. Thus, the direct application of A. radix to oral tissues may produce adverse effects at high doses. Therefore, the concentration and application time of A. radix requires meticulous control to obtain optimal results. These effects require consideration

  3. [Study on simplification of extraction kinetics model and adaptability of total flavonoids model of Scutellariae radix].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Zhang, Jin; Ni, Jian; Dong, Xiao-Xu; Xu, Meng-Jie; Dou, Hao-Ran; Shen, Ming-Rui; Yang, Bo-Di; Fu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Because of irregular shapes of Chinese herbal pieces, we simplified the previously deduced general extraction kinetic model for TCMs, and integrated particle diameters of Chinese herbs that had been hard to be determined in the final parameter "a". The reduction of the direct determination of particle diameters of Chinese herbs was conducive to increase the accuracy of the model, expand the application scope of the model, and get closer to the actual production conditions. Finally, a simplified model was established, with its corresponding experimental methods and data processing methods determined. With total flavonoids in Scutellariae Radix as the determination index, we conducted a study on the adaptability of total flavonoids extracted from Scutellariae Radix with the water decoction method in the model. The results showed a good linear correlation among the natural logarithm value of the mass concentration of total flavonoids in Scutellariae Radix, the time and the changes in the natural logarithm of solvent multiple. Through calculating and fitting, efforts were made to establish the kinetic model of extracting total flavonoids from Scutellariae Radix with the water decoction method, and verify the model, with a good degree of fitting and deviation within the range of the industrial production requirements. This indicated that the model established by the method has a good adaptability.

  4. High speed Radix-4 soft-decision Viterbi decoder for MB-OFDM UWB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guixuan; Portilla, Jorge; Riesgo, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a 64 state soft decision Viterbi Decoder (VD) system by using a high speed radix-4 Add Compare Select (ACS) architecture is presented. The proposed VD system can support different data rate (from 53.5 Mbps to 480 Mbps) for Multiband Orthogonal Frequency-division Multiplexing (MB-OFDM) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) system when implemented onto the FPGA board. The proposed VD employs efficient two steps Radix 4 architecture, which is responsible of calculating two steps of 64 state Radix 4 Branch Metrics (BM) within one clock cycle. The branch metrics are calculated using a uniform distance measurement algorithm, which equals to the symbol itself when compared to logic-0 and equal to its one's complement when compared to logic-1. By employing the modified Modulo Normalization algorithm, it is possible to use only a 10- bit memory block to restore each of the 64 state metrics, with the advantage of avoiding errors caused by overflow during the updating process for state metrics, and simplifying the comparator circuit of the ACS unit. The Two Pointer Even Algorithm, which is considered to be very simple and more hardware-efficient than the register exchange algorithm, is used for tracing back the survivor sequence and output the decoded data stream. 3-bit soft decision input sequences are used for gathering the experimental results. The sampling frequency of the MBOFDM UWB system is 528 MHz, by using the proposed two steps Radix 4 VD architecture we can process 4 input signals in parallel within one clock cycle, therefore only 132 MHz operating frequency is needed for the proposed VD system. This will dramatically reduce the dynamic power consumption for hardware implementation. Final results of the implementation show that the proposed VD architecture can support a maximum working frequency of 152.5 MHz on Xilinx XUPV5-LX110T Evaluation Platform.

  5. ISA extensions for high-radix online floating-point addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormiani, Pouya; Ercegovac, Miloš D.; Colavin, O.

    2007-09-01

    ISA extensions for DLX type architectures are proposed to perform high radix online floating point addition on fixed point units with extended feature sets. Online arithmetic allows most significant digit first computation of results, allowing overlapped execution of dependent operations and offers greater instruction scheduling opportunities than software implementations of conventional floating point addition. In this paper we seek an ISA formulation to find a middle ground between full hardware floating point addition units and software implementations strictly based on available ALU logic.

  6. Use of the Reduced Precision Redundancy (RPR) Method in a Radix-4 FFT Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    PRECISION REDUNDANCY (RPR) METHOD IN A RADIX-4 FFT IMPLEMENTATION by Athanasios Gavros September 2010 Thesis Co-Advisors: Herschel ...SCHOOL September 2010 Author: Athanasios Gavros Approved by: Herschel H. Loomis, Jr. Thesis Co-Advisor Alan A. Ross Thesis Co...to Professors Herschel H. Loomis, Jr. and Alan A. Ross for their guidance, encouragement and support in the completion of this work. xvi THIS PAGE

  7. Astragali radix: could it be an adjuvant for oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Pacini, Alessandra; Micheli, Laura; Femia, Angelo Pietro; Maresca, Mario; Zanardelli, Matteo; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Caderni, Giovanna; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Mugelli, Alessandro; Ghelardini, Carla

    2017-02-10

    Neurotoxicity is a major side effect of platinum derivatives both during and after treatment. In the absence of effective pharmacological compounds, the opportunity to identify safe adjuvant treatments among medicinal plants seems appropriate. Astragali radix is an adaptogenic herbal product recently analyzed in platinum-treated cancer patients. With the aim of evaluating the anti-neuropathic profile of Astragali radix, a previously characterized aqueous (Aqu) and two hydroalcoholic (20%HA and 50%HA) extracts were tested in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Repeated administrations significantly reduced oxaliplatin-dependent hypersensitivity with 50%HA, the most effective, fully preventing mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Ex vivo, 50%HA reduced morphometric and molecular alterations induced by oxaliplatin in peripheral nerve and dorsal-root-ganglia. In the spinal cord and in brain areas, 50%HA significantly decreased activation of microglia and astrocytes. Furthermore, 50%HA prevented the nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by the anticancer drug. The protective effect of 50%HA did not alter oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis in colon tumors of Pirc rats, an Apc-driven model of colon carcinogenesis. The hydroalcoholic extract (50%HA) of Astragali radix relieves pain and promotes the rescue mechanisms that protect nervous tissue from the damages triggering chronic pain. A safe profile strongly suggests the usefulness of this natural product in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy.

  8. Sodium dithionite-enhanced quality of radix scutellariae through modification of secondary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Huimin, Guo; Xiaoying, Fu; Hongwei, Du; Wei, Cong; Xiangcai, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The quality of radix scutellariae is particularly associated with environmental stresses, but detailed mechanisms remained unclear. Plant under unfavorable situation generates redundant reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ROS can modify the secondary metabolism. The varied quality of radix scutellariae could be explained by ROS. Materials and Methods: .004, 0.4, and 40 μmol/L of sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4), a material producing ROS, were applied to Scutellaria baicalensis to mimic unfavorable situation. The relationship between ROS, antioxidant enzymes activity, and secondary metabolite was investigated. Results: ROS level fails to rise due to both the antioxidase and the secondary metabolites. The activities of both superoxide dismutase and catalase in the roots of S. baicalensis showed a moderately improvement, meanwhile the phenylalanine ammonia lyase was strongly expressed, and the biosynthesis of flavonoids was heavily elevated. Although the glycosides such as baicalin and wogonoside changed little, the aglycones with the highest effective, such as baicalein and wogonin, were increased by approximately 50%-100%. Conclusion: This is very valuable in insight into the stress physiology and provides a strong tool to enhance the quality of radix scutellariae. PMID:28123992

  9. Astragali radix: could it be an adjuvant for oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Pacini, Alessandra; Micheli, Laura; Femia, Angelo Pietro; Maresca, Mario; Zanardelli, Matteo; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Caderni, Giovanna; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Mugelli, Alessandro; Ghelardini, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Neurotoxicity is a major side effect of platinum derivatives both during and after treatment. In the absence of effective pharmacological compounds, the opportunity to identify safe adjuvant treatments among medicinal plants seems appropriate. Astragali radix is an adaptogenic herbal product recently analyzed in platinum-treated cancer patients. With the aim of evaluating the anti-neuropathic profile of Astragali radix, a previously characterized aqueous (Aqu) and two hydroalcoholic (20%HA and 50%HA) extracts were tested in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Repeated administrations significantly reduced oxaliplatin-dependent hypersensitivity with 50%HA, the most effective, fully preventing mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Ex vivo, 50%HA reduced morphometric and molecular alterations induced by oxaliplatin in peripheral nerve and dorsal-root-ganglia. In the spinal cord and in brain areas, 50%HA significantly decreased activation of microglia and astrocytes. Furthermore, 50%HA prevented the nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by the anticancer drug. The protective effect of 50%HA did not alter oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis in colon tumors of Pirc rats, an Apc-driven model of colon carcinogenesis. The hydroalcoholic extract (50%HA) of Astragali radix relieves pain and promotes the rescue mechanisms that protect nervous tissue from the damages triggering chronic pain. A safe profile strongly suggests the usefulness of this natural product in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. PMID:28186109

  10. Novel functional polysaccharides from Radix Polygoni Multiflori water extracted residue: Preliminary characterization and immunomodulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Xu, Yi; Zou, Sheng; Zhang, Xiaodan; Cao, Kun; Fan, Qi

    2016-02-10

    The alkali-extractable polysaccharides (APMPs) were isolated from the water extracted residues of Radix Polygoni Multiflori, and further purified by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography to obtain a homogeneous polysaccharide (APMP-2) with molecular weights of 7724.8 Da. HPLC chromatography analysis identified that APMP-2 was a heteropolysaccharides and mainly composed of Galactose and Xylose with a molar ratio of 4.31: 1.06. It was shown that both APMP and APMP-2 were of activation effects on splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages, and also significantly restore the proliferation rate, phagocytic index and cytokine (IL-2 and TNF-α) production level of 5-FU-treated splenocytes/peritoneal macrophages in a dosage-dependent manner. The results suggested that polysaccharides presented in Radix Polygoni Multiflori water-extracted residues possessed immunomodulatory activity and could be used as potential immunomodulators, and this finding could be a reference for the utilization of Radix Polygoni Multiflori water extracted residues.

  11. [Determination of baicalin and total flavonoids in Radix scutellariae by near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Qian-qian; Pan, Rui-le; Wei, Jian-he; Wu, Yan-wei; Zhang, Lu-da

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a method for rapid determination of baicalin and total flavonoids in radix scutellariae by near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Sixty one samples of radix scutellariae from different areas containing baicalin of 12.24%-21.34% and total flavonoids of 16.08%-26.52% were used. The range of 8000-4000 cm(-1) of near infrared spectra (NIRS) was selected. Calibration models were established using the PLS(partial least squares). Different spectra pretreatment methods were compared and the optimal model was selected. The study showed that first derivative pretreatments and minimum-maximum normalization methods can be used to extracted spectra information thoroughly to analyze the contents of baicalin and total flavonoids, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) of baicalin was 0.9024, SEC was 1.01 (standard deviation of the calibration sets) and SEP was 0.8764 (standarddeviation ofthe prediction sets). The correlation coefficient(r) of total flavonoids was 0.9527, SEC was 0.7850 and SEP was 0.5211. Results indicated that near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method can be used to analyze the main active components in radix scutellariae rapidly.

  12. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2004-09-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with γ-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  13. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of main components in linderae reflexae radix with one single marker.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Li; Zhang, Yun-Bin; Sun, Xiao-Ya; Chen, Sui-Qing

    2016-05-08

    Establish a quantitative analysis of multi-components by the single marker (QAMS) method for quality evaluation and validate its feasibilities by the simultaneous quantitative assay of four main components in Linderae Reflexae Radix. Four main components of pinostrobin, pinosylvin, pinocembrin, and 3,5-dihydroxy-2-(1-p-mentheneyl)-trans-stilbene were selected as analytes to evaluate the quality by RP-HPLC coupled with a UV-detector. The method was evaluated by a comparison of the quantitative results between the external standard method and QAMS with a different HPLC system. The results showed that no significant differences were found in the quantitative results of the four contents of Linderae Reflexae Radix determined by the external standard method and QAMS (RSD <3%). The contents of four analytes (pinosylvin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, and Reflexanbene I) in Linderae Reflexae Radix were determined by the single marker of pinosylvin. This fingerprint was the spectra determined by Shimadzu LC-20AT and Waters e2695 HPLC that were equipped with three different columns.

  14. Decontamination of organochlorine pesticides in Radix codonopsis by supercritical fluid extractions and determination by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunjie; Hao, Guiming; Li, Huanxin; Luo, Xu; Chen, Yingjie

    2006-09-01

    A method involving depuration of 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Radix codonopsis was developed using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The pesticides investigated in the study included alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-benzene hexachloride, PCNB (pentachloro-nitrobenzene), PCA (pentachloroaniline), HEPT (heptachlor), MPCPS (methyl-pentachlorophenyl sulfide), pp'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene], op'-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], pp'-DDD [1,1-dichloro-2-2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] and pp'-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane]. A series of experiments was conducted to optimize the final extraction conditions as follows: pure CO2, extraction pressure 15 MPa, extraction temperature 60 degrees C, extraction time 20 min and flow rate 55 mL/h. A GC method with electron capture detection was employed for the determination of the OCPs in Radix codonopsis. An HPLC method was developed for the quantitative determination of active constituents. SFE was used to remove the organochlorine pesticide from Radix codonopsis. The results showed that at least 93.5% of the organochlorine pesticide residues in the herb sample were removed by SPE, while 95.0% of the active constituent marker (atractylenoide III) remained.

  15. Perimenopause Amelioration of a TCM Recipe Composed of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Folium Epimedii: An In Vivo Study on Natural Aging Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ji-Yan; Xie, Qing-Feng; Liu, Wei-Jin; Lai, Ping; Liu, Dan-Dan; Tang, Li-Hai; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Li, Kun-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been extensively applied as preferable herbal remedy for menopausal symptoms. In the present work, the potential of a TCM recipe named RRF, composed of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Folium Epimedii, was investigated on a natural aging rat model. After administration of RRF (141, 282, and 564 mg/kg/d), the circulated estradiol (E2) level increased accompanied by a reduction of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). But no significant impact on serum lutenizing hormone (LH) level was observed. As a result of the E2-FSH-LH adjustment, the histomorphology degenerations of ovary, uterus, and vagina of the 11.5-month female rats were alleviated. And lumbar vertebrae trabecular microstructure was also restored under RRF exposure by means of increasing the trabecular area and area rate. Moreover, levels of hypothalamic dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) rallied significantly after RRF treatment. Results from our studies suggest that RRF possesses a positive regulation on the estrogen imbalance and neurotransmitter disorder, thereby restoring reproductive organ degeneration and skeleton deterioration. The above-mentioned benefits of RRF on the menopause syndromes recommend RRF as a potential candidate for the treatment of perimenopausal syndrome. PMID:24454513

  16. Discrimination and chemical characterization of different Paeonia lactifloras (Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra) by infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Ping; Xu, Changhua; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun; Shi, Zhe; Li, Jin; Chen, Tao; Li, Zheng; Cui, Weili

    2015-11-01

    Paeonia lactiflora, a commonly used herbal medicine (HM) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), mainly has two species, Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR), for different clinical applications in TCM. For expounding the chemical profile of RPA and RPR and ensuring the clinical efficacy and safety, an infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation method integrated with statistical pattern recognition was developed to analyze and discriminate the two Paeonia lactifloras. In IR spectra, the major difference between the two was in the range of 1200-900 cm-1: the strongest peak of RPA was at 1024 cm-1, while that of RPR was 1049 cm-1. The difference was magnified in second derivative spectra. The findings were further verified by investigating the separation process of total glucosides, stepwisely monitored by both of IR and UPLC-MS/MS. Simultaneously, the aqueous extracts of RPA and RPR had been separated continuously to acquire the comprehensively hierarchical chemical characteristics for undoubtedly identification and subsequently discrimination of the two herbs. Moreover, 60 batches of the two HMs (30 for each) were objectively classified by principal component regression (PCR) model based on IR macro-fingerprints.

  17. Functions of Danggui Buxue Tang, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, in Uterus and Liver are Both Estrogen Receptor-Dependent and -Independent

    PubMed Central

    Zierau, Oliver; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.; Vollmer, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction containing Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), has been used in treating menopausal irregularity in women for more than 800 years in China. Pharmacological results showed that DBT exhibited significant estrogenic properties in vitro, which therefore suggested that DBT could activate the nuclear estrogen receptors. Here, we assessed the estrogenic properties of DBT in an ovariectomized in vivo rat model: DBT was applied to the ovariectomized rats for 3 days. The application of DBT did not alter the weight of uterus and liver, as well as the transcript expression of the proliferation markers including the estrogen receptors α and β. However, DBT stimulated the transcript expression of the estrogen responsive genes. In addition, the inductive role of DBT on the expression of members of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor family in uterus and liver of ovariectomized rats was confirmed. These responses of DBT however were clearly distinct from the response pattern detectable here for 17β-estradiol. Therefore, DBT exhibited weak, but significant, estrogenic properties in vivo; however, some of its activities were independent of the estrogen receptor. Thus, DBT could be an exciting Chinese herbal decoction for an alternative treatment of hormone replacement therapy for women in menopause without subsequent estrogenic side effects. PMID:25214874

  18. Comparative analysis of the constituents in Saposhnikoviae Radix and Glehniae Radix cum Rhizoma by monitoring inhibitory activity of nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Takuya; Shimokura, Toshihiro; Morita, Yusuke; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Nishizawa, Mikio; Tanaka, Ken

    2016-04-01

    During the development of natural herbal medicines in Japan, Glehniae Radix cum Rhizoma (Hamabofu in Japanese) has been used as a substitute for Saposhnikoviae Radix (Bofu). Bofu and Hamabofu are blended differently in several Kampo formulae. For example, Bofu is included in Jumihaidokuto by a manufacturer, whereas Hamabofu is included instead of Bofu in the same formula by other manufacturers. Although both Bofu and Hamabofu are used for their expected anti-inflammatory effects, differences in their medicinal properties are not well characterized. In addition, there have been very few reports comparing the pharmacological activities of the constituents in Bofu and Hamabofu. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the extracts of Bofu and Hamabofu by monitoring levels of the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) produced in rat hepatocytes. Moreover, the chemical constituents responsible for the activity were investigated. Our results showed that ethyl acetate fractions of Bofu and Hamabofu extracts contain different compounds, although both fractions suppressed NO production in rat hepatocytes. The linear dihydropyranochromones from the Bofu extract (i.e., 3'-O-angeloylhamaudol, ledebouriellol and hamaudol) suppressed NO production, whereas the coumarins from the Hamabofu extract (i.e., umbelliferone and scopoletin) also suppressed NO production. These results suggest that linear dihydropyranochromones and coumarins are responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of Bofu and Hamabofu. It is plausible that Bofu and Hamabofu are blended differently in several Kampo formulae due to many constituents with as yet unidentified pharmacological activity.

  19. Preclinical Evidence of Rapid-Onset Antidepressant-Like Effect in Radix Polygalae Extract

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunwoo; Kim, Yoorim; Park, Sung Hyun; Swanberg, Kelley; Shin, Joo-Yeon; Ha, Sang-Kyu; Cho, Yoonju; Bang, Soo-Yong; Lew, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Seung-Hun; Maeng, Sungho

    2014-01-01

    Radix Polygalae (the root of Polygala tenuifolia) is a herb widely used in traditional Asian medicine that is thought to exert a variety of neuropsychiatric effects. Radix Polygalae extract can protect against N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) neurotoxicity and induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, suggesting modulatory roles at glutamatergic synapses and possible antidepressant action. In accordance with this hypothesis, Radix Polygalae extract demonstrated antidepressant-like effects in 8-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice by decreasing behavioral despair in the forced swim and tail suspension tasks and increasing hedonic-like behavior in the female urine sniffing test 30 minutes after a single oral administration of 0.1 mg/kg. Reduced latency to acquire a food pellet in the novely suppressed feeding paradigm, without change in anxiety-like behaviors suggested a rapid-onset nature of the antidepressant-like effect. In addition, it decreased the number of failed escapes in the learned helplessness paradigm after two oral administrations 24 hours and 30 minutes before the first test. Finally, it reversed anhedonia as measured by saccharin preference in mice exposed to the chronic stress model after two administrations of 0.1 mg/kg, in contrast to the repeated administration generally needed for similar effect by monoamergic antidepressants. Immobility reduction in tail suspension task was blocked by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist NBQX, a pattern previously demonstrated by ketamine and other ketamine-like rapid-onset antidepressants. Also similarly to ketamine, Radix Polygalae appeared to acutely decrease phosphorylation of GluR1 serine-845 in the hippocampus while leaving the phosphorylation of hippocampal mTOR serine 2448 unchanged. These findings serve as preclinical evidence that Radix Polygalae extract exerts rapid-onset antidepressant effects by modulating glutamatergic synapses in critical brain

  20. The Protective Effect of Radix Polygoni Multiflori on Diabetic Encephalopathy via Regulating Myosin Light Chain Kinase Expression

    PubMed Central

    He, Yu; Wang, Feng; Chen, Shiqiang; Liu, Mi; Pan, Wei; Li, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Currently there has been no effective treatment of diabetic encephalopathy. Radix Polygoni Multiflori, a famous traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used in antiaging treatment, especially in prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's diseases. In this study we tried to explore the effect of Radix Polygoni Multiflori on cognitive function among diabetic rats with demonstrated cognitive impairment. SD rats were divided into group A (control group), group B (diabetes), group C (treated with Radix Polygoni Multiflori at the dose of 2 g/kg/d), and group D (treated with same drug at the dose of 1 g/kg/d). The results showed that 8 weeks of Radix Polygoni Multiflori treatment could improve the cognitive dysfunction of diabetic rats (P < 0.01), recover the ultrastructure of hippocampal neurons, and increase the number of synapses in a dose-dependent manner. Further experiment also suggested that the neuroprotective effect of Radix Polygoni Multiflori was partly achieved by downregulating MLCK expression in hippocampus via ERK signaling. PMID:26199947

  1. Quality evaluation of various commercial specifications of Polygoni Multiflori Radix and its dregs by determination of active compounds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background According to market investigation, two kinds of Polygoni Multiflori Radix decoction pieces with different specifications are commercially available: irregular thick slices (0.7-1.3 cm) and length-wise into thin slices (0.11-0.2 cm). The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of various samples of Polygoni Multiflori Radix decoction pieces and its dregs. Results A simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determination the contents of 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (THSG), emodin and physcion, which were considered to be potent active ingredients. The results showed that the contents of THSG, emodin and physcion varied in samples of different diameters and thicknesses. The results also indicated the dregs of Polygoni Multiflori Radix still contained a considerable amount of THSG, emodin and physcion. Conclusion The various commercial specifications of Polygoni Multiflori Radix sold in the markets did not correlate with their prices, and the dregs of Polygoni Multiflori Radix can be further utilized. PMID:22682356

  2. Edematous Erythema at the Hands and Feet Probably Caused By the Traditional Herb “Radix Astragali”

    PubMed Central

    Kogure, Toshiaki; Tatsumi, Takeshi; Oku, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe a patient with erhythema and edema after Radix Astragali was added to a kampo formula. Case summary: A 21-year-old male, who was diagnosed as having atopic dermatitis in 1989, demonstrated systemic dry eruptions and consulted our department for treatment with traditional herbal medicine (THM) in 2004. The oral administration of herbal medicine resulted in decreased symptoms as well as a reduction in the serum IgE level. In August 2007, he complained of sweating on the neck and we added Radix Astragali to the previous formula. About 18 hours after he ingested the new formula including Radix Astragali, erhythema appeared with swelling of the bilateral hands and feet. Administration of the formula was discontinued and about 48 hours later, his symptoms had almost disappeared. Astragaloside, which is the main ingredient of Radix Astragali, was negative on lymphocyte transforming test (LTT) and we could not determine the ingredient that induced erhythema. Conclusion: We consider that the Radix Astragali induced acute erhythema with swelling based on the clinical course. Acute edematous erythema due to THM is very rare and we discuss allergic reactions to traditional herbs and review the litrature. PMID:21614162

  3. Radix dolgini: The integrative taxonomic approach supports the species status of a Siberian endemic snail (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae).

    PubMed

    Vinarski, Maxim V; Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Schniebs, Katrin; Gofarov, Mikhail Yu; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    The molecular techniques are the standard tool for the study of the taxonomic position and phylogenetic affinities of the lymnaeid genus Radix Montfort, 1810, and the majority of the European representatives of this taxon have been studied in this respect. However, a plethora of nominal species of Radix described from Northern Asia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) are still characterized only morphologically, raising some doubts concerning their validity. In this paper, we present the triple (morphological, molecular, and zoogeographical) evidence that there is at least one endemic species of Radix, Radix dolgini (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), widely distributed in Siberia and Western Mongolia. Phylogenetically, it is a sister species to the European R. labiata (Rossmaessler, 1835) [=R. peregra auct.], and their common ancestor most probably lived in the Pliocene, nearly 3.25Myr ago. Our results assume the existence of an extended dispersal barrier for freshwater hydrobionts between Europe and Siberia in the Late Pliocene that may be important for biogeographical explanations. Three other nominal Siberian species of Radix: R. kurejkae (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), R. gundrizeri (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983), and R. ulaganica (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983) proved to be the junior synonyms of R. dolgini.

  4. Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids combined with mobilization of bone marrow stem cells to protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ming-San; Guo, Lin; Li, Rui-Qi; Ma, Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids have a neuroprotective effect, but it remains unclear whether Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids have a synergistic effect with the recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor-mobilized bone marrow stem cell transplantation on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Rat ischemia models were administered 0.3, 0.15 and 0.075 g/kg Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids from 3 days before modeling to 2 days after injury. Results showed that Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids could reduce pathological injury in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The number of Nissl bodies increased, Bax protein expression decreased, Bcl-2 protein expression increased and the number of CD34-positive cells increased. Therefore, Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids can improve the bone marrow stem cell mobilization effect, enhance the anti-apoptotic ability of nerve cells, and have a neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

  5. A study on the inhibitory effect of polysaccharides from Radix ranunculus ternati on human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sun, De-Li; Xie, Han-Bing; Xia, Yun-Zhan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the in vitro anti-breast cancer activity of polysaccharides from Radix ranunculus ternati. Different concentrations of polysaccharide extracts were selected, and MTT assay and flow cytometry (FCM) were used to investigate their growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects on human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines. Radix ranunculus ternati polysaccharides had varying degrees of effects on the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines, and the differences were significant compared with the blank control group. FCM showed that the polysaccharides can induce apoptosis. In addition, it can also enhance NK cell activity. Radix ranunculus ternati polysaccharides have a relatively good in-vitro anti-breast cancer activity.

  6. Application of clear polymethylmethacrylate dosimeter Radix W to a few MeV electron in radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seito, Hajime; Ichikawa, Tatsuya; Hanaya, Hiroaki; Sato, Yoshishige; Kaneko, Hirohisa; Haruyama, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kojima, Takuji

    2009-11-01

    Characteristics of clear PMMA dosimeter (Radix W) were studied for electron irradiation and compared with the response for gamma irradiation. The dose-response curves were nearly linear up to 30 kGy and become sublinear at higher doses. The radiation-induced absorbance was reduced with 6% within 4 h after irradiation. Dose comparisons were performed for 2, 3, 4 and 5 MeV electron irradiation using cellulose triacetate dosimeter (CTA) (FTR-125) and Radix W dosimeters which were independently calibrated for 2 MeV electrons and 60Co gamma-rays using calorimeter and ionizing chamber, respectively. The doses estimated by CTA and Radix W were different by about 20%. The magnitude of this difference was, however, independent of electron energy.

  7. In vitro and in vivo effects of ethanol extract combined with Curcumae Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma on menopausal metabolic disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Park, InSil; Ryuk, JinAh; Lee, HyeWon; Go, Hiroe; Ko, ByoungSeob

    2015-01-01

    Curcumae Radix (CR) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (GR) extracts have been used as health supplements in traditional medicine. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of combined CR and GR extracts (CR+GR) on metabolic complications related menopausal symptoms. We found a significant results that CR+GR extracted using ethanol stimulated the growth of MCF-7 cells in estrogen activity and was attenuated in lipid deposition of HepG2 cells treated with MβCD compared to CR and GR treatments each. To investigate the situation, an experimental menopause rat model with dyslipidemia was induced by surgical bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and high fat high cholesterol (HFHC) diet in female rats. OVX rats fed HFHC (OVX-HFHC) showed a shift in weight gain, elevated serum cholesterol, altered liver enzymatic parameters and enhanced liver injury compared to the NC and HFHC groups. However, administration of CR+GR, in particular 200 or 450 mg/kg/day, inhibited the increase in body weight gain and lipid metabolic disturbances, lowering total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared to the OVX-HFHC group. Furthermore, CR+GR (200 or 450 mg/kg/day) ameliorated the serum levels of the liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) compared to the OVX-HFHC group. Moreover, CR+GR (200 or 450 mg/kg/day) attenuated not only hepatic steatosis but also larger adipocytes. Our study demonstrated that combined treatment with CR and GR attenuated metabolic complications induced by OVX and HFHC diet, suggesting that this effect may regulate and prevent the acceleration of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after menopause. PMID:26628991

  8. Research progress of the studies on the roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum dunn (Peucedani radix).

    PubMed

    Song, Yuelin; Jing, Wanghui; Yan, Ru; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    As a commonly employed traditional Chinese medicine, Peucedani Radix (Qian-hu in Chinese), which consists of the dried roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn, has a long history of application for the treatment of cough with thick sputum and dyspnea, nonproductive cough and upper air-way infections in traditional medicinal practice. The current review aims to summarize the research progress on the botany, phytochemistry, chemical analysis, pharmacological assay, and pharmacokinetic profile of this famous herbal drug. All available information on this traditional medicine was obtained via electronic search (using ACS, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and CNKI). Phytochemical investigations revealed that angular-type pyranocoumarins (APs), mainly (±)-praeruptorin A (Pd-Ia), (+)-praeruptorin A, (±)-praeruptorin B, (+)-praeruptorin B (Pd-II) and (+)-praeruptorin E (Pd-III), were the main active components in Qian-hu, while some other types of ingredients were also identified from this herb. The crude extract and pure compounds from Peucedani Radix exhibited a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities, including vasorelaxant, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-tumor and anti-platelet aggregative effects. Conversely to the well-defined chemical constituents and activities, the properties of absorption, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism were rarely characterized. However, further investigations are wistful for the development of new drugs and therapies for various diseases, especially cardiovascular disorders. Collectively, the present review on the phytochemistry, chemical analysis, pharmacological evaluation, and pharmacokinetic profile of Peucedani Radix will provide meaningful information for further studies and commercial exploitation of the herbal medicine.

  9. Protective Effect against Hydroxyl-induced DNA Damage and Antioxidant Activity of Radix Glycyrrhizae (Liquorice Root)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xican; Chen, Weikang; Chen, Dongfeng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: As a typical Chinese herbal medicine, Radix Glycyrrhizae (RG) possesses various pharmacological effects involved in antioxidant ability. However, its antioxidant has not been explored so far. The aim of the study was to investigate its antioxidant ability, then further discuss the antioxidant mechanism. Methods: RG was extracted by ethanol to obtain ethanolic extract of Radix Glycyrrhizae (ERG). ERG was then determined by various antioxidant methods, including DNA damage assay, DPPH assay, ABTS assay, Fe3+-reducing assay and Cu2+-reducing assay. Finally, the contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids were analyzed by spectrophotometric methods. Results: Our results revealed that ERG could effectively protect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage (IC50 517.28±26.61μg/mL). In addition, ERG could scavenge DPPH· radical (IC50165.18±6.48μg/mL) and ABTS+• radical (IC507.46±0.07μg/mL), reduce Fe3+ (IC50 97.23±2.88 μg/mL) and Cu2+ (IC50 59.21±0.18 μg/mL). Chemical analysis demonstrated that the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids in ERG were 111.48±0.88 and 218.26±8.57 mg quercetin/g, respectively. Conclusion: Radix Glycyrrhizae can effectively protect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage. One mechanism of protective effect may be radical-scavenging which is via donating hydrogen atom (H·), donating electron (e). Its antioxidant ability can be mainly attributed to the flavonoids or total phenolics. PMID:24312831

  10. Quartile and Outlier Detection on Heterogeneous Clusters Using Distributed Radix Sort.

    SciTech Connect

    Spafford, Kyle L; Meredith, Jeremy S; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, performance improvements in CPUs and memory technologies have outpaced those of storage systems. When extrapolated to the exascale, this trend places strict limits on the amount of data that can be written to disk for full analysis, resulting in an increased reliance on characterizing in-memory data. Many of these characterizations are simple, but require sorted data. This paper explores an example of this type of characterization - the identification of quartiles and statistical outliers - and presents a performance analysis of a distributed heterogeneous radix sort as well as an assessment of current architectural bottlenecks.

  11. Chemical Analysis of the Herbal Medicine Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen).

    PubMed

    Pang, Hanqing; Wu, Liang; Tang, Yuping; Zhou, Guisheng; Qu, Cheng; Duan, Jin-ao

    2016-01-05

    Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae et Rhizoma, known as Danshen in China, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines. Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Danshen for its remarkable bioactivities, such as promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, and clearing away heat. This review summarized the advances in chemical analysis of Danshen and its preparations since 2009. Representative established methods were reviewed, including spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography (LC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), capillary electrophoresis, electrochemistry, and bioanalysis. Especially the analysis of polysaccharides in Danshen was discussed for the first time. Some proposals were also put forward to benefit quality control of Danshen.

  12. Danggui Buxue Tang, Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Induces Production of Nitric Oxide in Endothelial Cells: Signaling Mediated by Phosphorylation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Gong, Amy G W; Lau, K M; Zhang, Laura M L; Lin, H Q; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2016-03-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix at the weight ratio of 5:1, is used to mitigate menopausal syndromes in women. The pharmacological properties of Danggui Buxue Tang have been illustrated in bone development, blood enhancement, and immune stimulation. Here, we extended the possible pharmacological role of Danggui Buxue Tang in cardiovascular function. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the application of Danggui Buxue Tang induced the release of nitric oxide and the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt kinase in time- and dose-dependent manners. The robust activation of nitric oxide signaling, however, required the boiling of Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix together, i.e., as Danggui Buxue Tang instead of other herbal extracts. The Danggui Buxue Tang-induced phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt kinase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were fully blocked by treatment with an endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), a PI3K/Akt inhibitor (LY294002), and a Ca(2+) chelator (BAPTA-AM). In parallel, the blockage of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt activation subsequently fully abolished the Danggui Buxue Tang-induced nitric oxide production.

  13. Anti-fatigue activity of polysaccharides extract from Radix Rehmanniae Preparata.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Yu, Ke-qiang; Liu, Yan-yan; Ouyang, Ming-zi; Yan, Mei-hua; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiao-shan

    2012-01-01

    The anti-fatigue effects of the Radix Rehmanniae Preparata polysaccharides (RRPP) were studied in mice. The RRPP were orally administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 4 weeks and the anti-fatigue activity was evaluated using a weight-loaded swimming test, along with the determination of serum urea nitrogen (SUN), hepatic glycogen and blood lactic acid (BLA) contents. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the body weight of mice in the three RRPP groups compared with the negative control group during initial, intermediate and terminal stages in the experiment (p>0.05). The ratio of exhausting swimming time was obviously increased 31.48% (p<0.05) and 61.51% (p<0.01) in the middle-dose group and the high-dose RRPP group, respectively. The BLA and SUN levels were decreased in middle-dose and high-dose RRPP groups (p<0.01). Hepatic glycogen level was increased in three RRPP treated groups (p<0.01). Therefore, RRPP may be responsible for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue of Radix Rehmanniae Preparata. The mechanism was related to the increase of the storage of hepatic glycogen and the decrease of the accumulation of SUN and BLA.

  14. Performance of Point and Range Queries for In-memory Databases using Radix Trees on GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Maksudul; Yoginath, Srikanth B; Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2016-01-01

    In in-memory database systems augmented by hardware accelerators, accelerating the index searching operations can greatly increase the runtime performance of database queries. Recently, adaptive radix trees (ART) have been shown to provide very fast index search implementation on the CPU. Here, we focus on an accelerator-based implementation of ART. We present a detailed performance study of our GPU-based adaptive radix tree (GRT) implementation over a variety of key distributions, synthetic benchmarks, and actual keys from music and book data sets. The performance is also compared with other index-searching schemes on the GPU. GRT on modern GPUs achieves some of the highest rates of index searches reported in the literature. For point queries, a throughput of up to 106 million and 130 million lookups per second is achieved for sparse and dense keys, respectively. For range queries, GRT yields 600 million and 1000 million lookups per second for sparse and dense keys, respectively, on a large dataset of 64 million 32-bit keys.

  15. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

    PubMed

    Shan, Mingqiu; Yu, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Chen, Peidong; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2016-12-20

    Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India), is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  16. A Nucleotide Signature for the Identification of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui) and Its Products

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Liu, Yang; Wang, Lili; Han, Jianping; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    It is very difficult to identify Angelicae sinensis radix (Danggui) when it is processed into Chinese patent medicines. The proposed internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) is not sufficient to resolve heavily processed materials. Therefore, a short barcode for the identification of processed materials is urgently needed. In this study, 265 samples of Angelicae sinensis radix and adulterants were collected. The ITS2 region was sequenced, and based on one single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) site unique to Angelica sinensis, a nucleotide signature consisting of 37-bp (5′-aatccgcgtc atcttagtga gctcaaggac ccttagg-3′) was developed. It is highly conserved and specific within Angelica sinensis while divergent among other species. Then, we designed primers (DG01F/DG01R) to amplify the nucleotide signature region from processed materials. 15 samples procured online were analysed. By seeking the signature, we found that 7 of them were counterfeits. 28 batches of Chinese patent medicines containing Danggui were amplified. 19 of them were found to contain the signature, and adulterants such as Ligusticum sinense, Notopterygium incisum, Angelica decursiva and Angelica gigas were detected in other batches. Thus, this nucleotide signature, with only 37-bp, will broaden the application of DNA barcoding to identify the components in decoctions, Chinese patent medicines and other products with degraded DNA. PMID:27713564

  17. Effect of Radix Isatidis on the expression of moesin mRNA induced by LPS in the tissues of mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yunhai; Fang, Jianguo; Chen, Xin; Xie, Wei

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the effect of the anti-endotoxic part of Radix Isatidis on the expression of moesin mRNA in murine tissues induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the sample solution of F(022) part from Radix Isatidis was intraperitoneally administered to experimental mice, and the lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) were injected into the tail vein, and then the tissues of liver, kidney and spleen were colleted and cut into slices. The mRNA was detected by moesin mRNA hybridization in situ. The staining results were observed under microscope. It was found that moesin mRNA expression was increased in the tissues of liver, kidndy and spleen in mice treated with LPS, while in the mice pre-treated with F(022) part from Radix Isatidis, the LPS-induced moesin mRNA expressions in these tissues were inhibited in a dose-dependant manner. Our study showed that F(022) part from Radix Isatidis can inhibit the LPS-induced expression of moesin mRNA in the tissues of liver, kidney and spleen in mice.

  18. [Study on process and principle of lactose grinding modification to decrease hygroscopic of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Fang; Lin, Jun-Zhi; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ying-Guang; Yang, Ming

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract,with high hygroscopic,was selected as research model, while lactose was selected as modifiers to study the effect of the grinding modification method on the hygroscopic. Subsequently, particle size distribution, scannin electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were adopted for a phase analysis. The results showed that the modified extract, prepared by Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract grinding 5 min with the same amount of lactose UP2, which hygroscopic initial velocity, acceleration, and critical relative humidity moisture were less than that of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract and the mixture dramatically. In addition, compared with the mixture, the size distribution of modified extract was much less, the microstructure was also difference, while the infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were similar with that of lactose. It is the main principle that lactose particle adhered to the surface of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract after grinding mofication to decress the moisture obviously.

  19. Quantitative Analysis and In vitro Anti-inflammatory Effects of Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Quercetin from Radix Sanguisorbae

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Lee, Na-Ri; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radix Sanguisorbae has long been used to treat diarrhea, enteritis, duodenal ulcers, and internal hemorrhage. Objective: We investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of Radix Sanguisorbae and performed quantitative analyses of three marker components, namely gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. Materials and Methods: The three marker components were separated using a reversed-phase Gemini C18 analytical column maintained at 40°C by the gradient elution with two solvent systems. We examined the biological effects of the three marker compounds, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin, by determining their anti-inflammatory activities in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Results: All of the marker compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, with no cytotoxicity. Particularly, ellagic acid significantly inhibited production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ellagic acid is the most potent bioactive phytochemical component of radix Sanguisorbae in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY Established high-performance liquid chromatography method was applied in the quantitative analysis of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin present in an extract from radix SanguisorbaeAmong the three compounds, the ellagic acid.(7.65.mg/g) is main component in radix SanguisorbaeEllagic acid significantly inhibited production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Abbreviations used: HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography, PDA: Photodiode array, TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL: Interleukin, LPS: Lipopolysaccharide, PGE2: Prostaglandin E2, NSAIDs

  20. Rapid and undamaged analysis of crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy coupled with soft independent modeling of class analogy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huiping; Cao, Gang; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang; Hu, Jue

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this work is to determine the feasibility of identification of crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy couple with soft independent modeling of class analogy (FT-IR-SIMCA). Materials and Methods: A total of 50 different crude Radix Scrophulariae was used to product processed ones. The spectra were acquired by FT-IR spectroscopy using a diffuse reflectance fiber optic probe. For the multivariate analysis, SIMCA was used. Results showed that FT-IR-SIMCA was useful to discriminate the processed Radix Scrophulariae samples from crude samples. These samples could be successfully classified by SIMCA. Results: In all cases, the recognition and rejection rates were 97.8% and 100%, respectively. When testing with the blind sample that was picked out from the chosen samples, the accuracy was up to 90%. Conclusion: It means that the methodology is capable of accurately separating processed Radix Scrophulariae from crude samples. PMID:25210313

  1. Determination of Ruscogenin in Ophiopogonis Radix by High-performance Liquid Chromatography-evaporative Light Scattering Detector Coupled with Hierarchical Clustering Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-Hua; Li, Ming; Feng, Ya-Qian; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Yu, Bo-Yang; Qi, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ophiopogonis Radix is a famous traditional Chinese medicine. It is necessary to establish a suitable quality control methods of Ophiopogonis Radix. Objective: To investigate the quality control methods of Ophiopogonis Radix by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). Materials and Methods: A rapid and simple method, HPLC coupled with ELSD, was applied to determinate ruscogenin in 35 batches of Ophiopogenis Radix samples. Orthogonal tests and single factor explorations were used to optimize the extraction condition of ruscogenin. The content of ruscogenin in different origin was further analyzed by hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Results: The ruscogenin was successfully determined by HPLC-ELSD with a two-phase solvent system composed of methanol-water (88:12) at a flow rate 1.0 ml/min, column temperature maintained at 25°C, detector draft tube temperature at 42.2°C, nebulizer gas flow rate at 1.4 L/min, and the gain at 8. The result showed the good linearity of ruscogenin in the range of 40.20–804.00 μg/ml (R2 = 0.9996). Average of recovery was 101.3% (relative standard deviation = 1.59%). A significant difference of ruscogenin content was shown among 35 batches of Ophiopogenis Radix from different origin, varied from 0.0035% to 0.0240%. HCA based on the content of ruscogenin indicated that Ophiopogonis Radix in different origin was mainly divided into two clusters. Conclusion: This simple, rapid, low-cost, and reliable HPLC-ELSD method could be suitable for measurement of ruscogenin content rations and quality control of Ophiopogonis Radix. SUMMARY Ophiopogonis Radix is an important Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat and prevent cardiovascular diseases and acute or chronic inflammation for thousands of years. Steroidal saponins were known as the dominant active components for their significant cardiovascular activity, and the most steroid sapogenin of them is

  2. [Isolation and preparation of an imidazole alkaloid from radix radix of Aconitum pendulum Busch by semi-preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongling; Chen, Tao; Chen, Chen; Zou, Denglang; Li, Yulin

    2014-05-01

    Aconitum pendulum Busch is rich C19 diterpenoid alkaloids, but there is no report of imidazole alkaloid in Aconitum pendulum Busch. In this study, an imidazole alkaloid named 1H-imidazole-2-carboxylic acid, butyl ester (ICABE) was successfully separated from Aconitum pendulum Busch with semi-preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The partition coefficient was measured by HPLC to select the solvent systems for ICABE separation by HSCCC. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-chloroform-ethanol-water (10:1 : 13:2, v/v/v/v). The upper phase was used as the stationary phase and the lower phase as the mobile phase. It was operated at a flow rate of 1.8 mL/min. The apparatus was rotated at 850 r/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 230 nm. Under the selected conditions, a high efficiency separation of HSCCC was achieved, and 7.5 mg of ICABE was obtained from 100 mg of the crude sample of Aconitum pendulum in one-step separation within 350 min. The HPLC analysis showed that the purity of the compound was over 98%. The chemical structure was confirmed by UV, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The established method is simple, highly efficient and suitable for large scale separation of ICABE from radix of Aconitum pendulum Busch.

  3. Simultaneous determination of bioactive components of Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple in rat plasma and tissues by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Niancui; Li, Zhenhao; Qian, Dawei; Qian, Yefei; Guo, Jianming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhu, Min

    2014-07-15

    A highly sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of seven components in rat plasma and five components in rat tissues after oral administration of the extracts of different combination Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple and has been applied to compare the different pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of these bioactive components. The extracts of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple (RRHC) were orally administrated to rats, respectively. The concentrations of ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ligustilide, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in rat plasma and the concentrations of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in tissues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol and the tissue samples were homogenated with water and pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase for gradient elution. A triple quadrupole (TQ) tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source was used as detector operating both in positive and negative ionization mode and operated by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 program. The differences between each group were compared by SPSS 16.0 with Independent-Samples T-test. The pharmacokinetic parameters (such as Cmax, Tmax, T1/2, AUC0-T, MRT0-T, Vz/F or CLz/F) of all the detected components between the single herb (RAS or RPA) and herb pair (RRHP) showed significant differences (P<0.05). It indicated that the compatibility of RAS and RPA could alter the pharmacokinetics features

  4. Fluorescence enhancement of radix angelica dahurica by binding to single silver sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Ru; Shi, Qiang; Li, Shu-Hong; Wang, Wen-Jun

    2015-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of the influence of a single silver sphere on the fluorescence of radix angelica dahurica, which is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine. The enhancement factors of the excitation and the relaxation processes are deduced. The excitation can be enhanced more than 100 times at 315 nm. The enhancement factor of the emission can reach up to 9 at a center wavelength of 400 nm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61405085 and 61275147), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Liaocheng University, China, the Key Project of Science and Technology of Shandong Province of China (Grant No. 2010GGX10127), and the Shandong Province Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. ZR2013EML006 and ZR2012AL11).

  5. [Study on extraction process of coumarin in a Mongolian drug Chagan-sorlo (Radix Glehniae)].

    PubMed

    Borjigidai, Almaz; Cui, Xun; Pang, Zong-Ran; Cui, Jian; Kang, Feng

    2014-04-01

    The present paper discusses ultrasonic extraction method aided extraction of coumarin from a Mongolian drug, Chagan-sorlo (Radix Glehniae), aiming to study out how much coumarin contained in Chagan-sorlo, and to provide the scientific basis and production guidance for extracting coumarin from Chagan-sorlo. Under different conditions the coumarin in Chagan-sorlo was extracted by ultrasonic, measured and analyzed, and then HPLC was used to carry out the measurement. Result showed that with solvent volume fraction of 70%, extraction time of 20 min, ultrasonic power of 175 W, temperature of 25 degrees C, solid-liquid ratio of 1 : 20, and 80-100 mesh extraction, the coumarin extraction reaches the highest yield.

  6. Processing of waste material of radix physochlainae for preparation of fine chemicals after extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, A.; Yohannes, A.; Feng, X. T.; Yao, S.

    2017-02-01

    Waste residues of Chinese traditional medicine radix physochlainae (Huashanshen) contain a large amount of hemicelluloses after extraction. After the removal of the cellulose and lignin, main components of the solution are different degree of hydrolysis products of hemicelluloses. In the degradation process, hemicelluloses firstly become pentose, and then pentose loses 3 molecules of water and turns into furfural. This study explored a series of conditions of the method; finally the yield of furfural can reach 8.5% (calculated with the weight of raw residues) under the condition of pH of 0.2-0.3, temperature of 104-106°C, hydrolysis duration for 10 minutes. Furfural can be further processed to be resin materials.

  7. Radix Entomolaris in Mandibular First Molars in Indian Population: A Review and Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Attam, Kanika; Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Utneja, Shivani; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this paper is to present cases of mandibular first molars with an additional distolingual root and their management using appropriate instruments and techniques. Basic Procedures and Main Findings. Mandibular molars can sometimes present a variation called radix entomolaris, wherein the tooth has an extra root attached to its lingual aspect. This additional root may complicate the endodontic management of the tooth if it is misdiagnosed or maltreated. This paper reviews the prevalence of such cases in Indian population and reports the management of 6 such teeth. Principal Conclusions. (1) It is crucial to be familiar with variations in tooth/canal anatomy and characteristic features since such knowledge can aid location and negotiation of canals, as well as their subsequent management. (2) Accurate diagnosis and careful application of clinical endodontic skill can favorably alter the prognosis of mandibular molars with this root morphology. PMID:23125938

  8. Antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of flavonoids from Puerariae radix.

    PubMed

    Xiaoming, Wang; Ling, Lei; Jinghang, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of flavonoids from Puerariae radix (FPR). In vitro antioxidant activities of FPR were investigated through hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of FPR was investigated through loaded swimming exercise of mice. Results showed that FPR had not only in vitro antioxidant activities, but also an in vivo anti-fatigue activity in mice. FPR possessed superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in in vitro experimental studies. In vivo experimental studies, FPR could evidently extend exhaustive swimming time of mice, inhibit the increase of blood lactic acid (BLA), decrease serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, promote increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) of mice after swimming. The results provided an important basis for developing the FPR as a novel antioxidant and anti-fatigue compound.

  9. [Textual research on the origin and producing area of Baitouweng (Radix Pulsatillae)].

    PubMed

    Wang, W H; Zhan, Z L; Peng, H S; Yang, J; Qian, J P

    2017-01-28

    Baitouweng (Pulsatilla Root), a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, was first recorded in Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) . Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel from Ranunculaceae had become the authentic source for the Baitouweng since the Song Dynasty, which was consistent with the Radix Pulsatillae collected in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Chuzhou, Anhui province, being regarded as the main producing area in ancient times, had been its genuine producing area since the period of Republic of China. From the Tang Dynasty to Ming Dynasty, the origin of Baitouweng recorded in the works of Chinese materia medica could also include P. cernua, P. dahurica and P. ambigua. Therefore, P. chinensis in Chuzhou, with large quantity and high quality, is a superior resource that need to increase its protection and further studies, whereas P. cernua, P. dahurica and P. ambigua have better to be used as local drugs.

  10. [Optimization of extraction technology for salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid in Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma with orthogonal test].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Wang, Xue-jing; Zhao, Yi-wu; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-09-01

    The extracting technology of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma was optimized. With extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid as indexes, orthogonal test was used to evaluate effect of 4 factors on extracting technology, including concentration of solvent, the dosage of solvent, duration of extraction, and frequency of extraction. The results showed that, the best extracting technology was to extract in 70% alcohol with 8 times the weight of herbal medicine for 2 times, with 3 hours once. High extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid were obtained with the present technology. The extracting technology was stable and feasible with high extraction rate of four compounds from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma, it was suitable for industrial production.

  11. [Research on quality parameters of scutellariae radix (formula particles) using on-line NIR in pilot with different extraction process].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Pan, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Qiao; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    The on-line monitor for the changes in the content of baicalin in Scutellariae Radix formula particles during the extraction process was conducted by using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method. Kennard-Stone (KS) was used to divide sample sets, so as to compare different pretreatment methods. The synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) was used to screen out modeling wave band to establish partial least-squares models. The relative error method was applied to predict forecast set samples of Scutellariae Radix in three extraction phases. The results showed that the model established by Savitzky-Golay smoothing with 11 points (SG11 points) was the best, with the root mean square with cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of correction (RMSEC) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of baicalin of 0.092 7, 0.134 4 and 0.114 8, respectively, the determination coefficient R2 of greater than 0.99, and the relative error of baicalin content of less than 5%. This indicates that the on-line near infrared reflectance spectroscopy could be applied in on-line monitor and quality control of the extraction process of Scutellariae Radix formula particles.

  12. Simultaneous chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis of crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae from different locations in China by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Cao, Gang; Ji, Jinyu; Cong, Xiaodong; Wang, Shengbo; Cai, Baochang

    2011-06-01

    A validated liquid chromatography method was first developed to evaluate the quality of crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae extracts through establishing chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of five bioactive compounds, namely 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), acteoside, angroside C, harpagoside and cinnamic acid. The chromatographic were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) and detected by diode array detector (DAD). Mobile phase was composed of (A) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.03%, v/v) and (B) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 30 °C with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 280 nm. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r(2) ≥0.9996) within the tested ranges, and the recovery of the method was in the range of 98.12-103.38%, with RSD values ranging from 0.6 to 2.8%. In addition, the contents of those five bioactive compounds in crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae prepared by different locations of China were determined to establish the effectiveness of the method. The results demonstrate that the developed method is accurate and reproducible and could be readily utilized as a suitable quality control method for the quantification of Radix Scrophulariae.

  13. [Preparation of flavonoid reference standards from Scutellariae Radix under the guidance of high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis].

    PubMed

    Guo, Henan; Yang, Xuedong; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Wenfeng

    2012-07-01

    Flavonoid reference standards were targeted-prepared from Scutellariae Radix under the guidance of high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis. With HPLC-MS analysis of Scutellariae Radix, 19 flavonoid components were identified by analyzing and comparing their retention times, ultraviolet spectra, and mass spectrometry data with literature. The separation and purification protocols of all targeted flavonoid reference standards were optimally designed according to the results of HPLC-MS analysis and related literature. The ethanol extract of Scutellariae Radix was suspended in water and extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol successively. The ethyl acetate extract and n-butanol extract were separately subjected to primary separation by low pressure reverse phase preparative chromatography. Then the fractions containing targeted compounds were further purified by low pressure reverse and normal phases preparative chromatography. Finally, baicalin and wogonoside reference standards were obtained from n-butanol extract; baicaelin, wogonin, and oroxylin A reference standards were obtained from ethyl acetate extract. The structures of the 5 reference standards were identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. The HPLC analytical results showed that the purities of the 5 reference standards were all above 98%. It is demonstrated that the rapid targeted-preparation method under the guidance of the HPLC-MS analysis is applicable for the isolation and preparation of chemical components in traditional Chinese medicines.

  14. [Nasal submicron emulsion of Scutellariae Radix extract preparation technology research based on phase transfer of solute technology].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ya-jun; Shi, Jun-hui; Chen, Shi-bin; Yang, Ming

    2015-07-01

    Based on the demand of nasal drug delivery high drug loadings, using the unique phase transfer of solute, integrating the phospholipid complex preparation and submicron emulsion molding process of Scutellariae Radix extract, the study obtained the preparation of the high drug loadings submicron emulsion of Scutellariae Radix extract. In the study of drug solution dispersion method, the uniformity of drug dispersed as the evaluation index, the traditional mixing method, grinding, homogenate and solute phase transfer technology were investigated, and the solute phase transfer technology was adopted in the last. With the adoption of new technology, the drug loading capacity reached 1.33% (phospholipid complex was 4%). The drug loading capacity was improved significantly. The transfer of solute method and timing were studied as follows,join the oil phase when the volume of phospholipid complex anhydrous ethanol solution remaining 30%, the solute phase transfer was completed with the continued recycling of anhydrous ethanol. After drug dissolved away to oil phase, the preparation technology of colostrum was determined with the evaluation index of emulsion droplet form. The particle size of submicron emulsion, PDI and stability parameters were used as evaluation index, orthogonal methodology were adopted to optimize the submicron emulsion ingredient and main influential factors of high pressure homogenization technology. The optimized preparation technology of Scutellariae Radix extract nasal submicron emulsion is practical and stable.

  15. The Effect of Polyphenols Isolated from Cynanchi wilfordii Radix with Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Anti-bacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sunyoung; Lee, Sunwoo; Choi, Woo Jin; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Cynanchi wilfordii Radix has gained wide use in Asian countries as a functional food effective for relieving fatigue, osteoporosis, and constipation, particularly in menopausal disorders. However, its anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities have not been explored in detail to date. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-bacterial properties of the Cynanchi wilfordii Radix extracts obtained with water, methanol, ethanol, and acetone were compared. All 4 polyphenol-containing extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The ethanol extract was found to elicit the most potent reduction of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) levels, as well as inhibit the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a concentration-dependent manner. The evaluation of antioxidant activity also revealed the ethanol extract to have the highest free radical scavenging activity, measured as 85.3±0.4%, which is equivalent to 99.9% of the activity of α -tocopherol. In the assessment of anti-bacterial activity, only ethanol extract was found to inhibit the growth of the Bacillus species Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis. These results show that polyphenols of Cynanchi wilfordii Radix have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-bacterial properties that can be exploited and further improved for use as a supplementary functional food, in cosmetics, and for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:25729277

  16. [Analysis of variation of coumarin and volatile compounds in Angelica Dahuricae radix in different drying methods and conditions].

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Chen, Jing; Zhou, Bing; Xu, Yuan; Qian, Da-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2014-07-01

    To explore the effect of different processing methods and conditions of coumarin and volatile compounds in Angelica Dahuricae Radix and their change regularity, in order to optimize and establish appropriate drying methods and conditions. After being cleaned, fresh Angelica Dahuricae Radix herbs were baked, sun-dried, shade-dried, sun-dried after sulfur-fumigation, dried by quick-lime embedding, freeze-dried, microwave-dried. Finally, 24 groups of samples were obtained after being mashed and passing through the 60-mesh screen. The HPLC-PDA method was adopted to simultaneously determine the content of coumarin compounds. The GC-MS method was used to determine the content of volatile compounds. The principal component analysis (PCA) was made on the standardized analysis results for the 24 groups of samples processed with different drying methods. According to the PCA results, the comprehensive scores of coumarin and volatile compounds in Angelica Dahuricae Radix herbs processed with different methods in the order from high to low were that unpeeled and dried by quicklime embedding > unpeeled and dried with hot-air at 100 degrees C > unpeeled and dried with hot-air at 40 degrees C > peeled and infrared-dried > peeled and dried with hot-air at 60 degrees C > peeled and dried with hot-air at 40 degrees C > peeled and sun-dried > peeled and dried with hot-air at 60 degrees C > peeled and dried with hot-air at 100 degrees C > peeled and microwave-dried > peeled and dried with hot-air at 80 degrees C > unpeeled and sun-dried > unpeeled and dried with sulfur-fumigation > peeled and dried with sulfur-fumigation > unpeeled and dried with hot-air at 120 degrees C > unpeeled and freeze-dried > unpeeled and infrared-dried > peeled and dried with hot-air at 120 degrees C > peeled and freeze-dried > peeled and dried by quicklime embedding > unpeeled and dried with hot-air at 80 degrees C > peeled and shade-dried > unpeeled and shade-dried > unpeeled and microwave-dried. According

  17. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using catclaw buttercup (Radix Ranunculi Ternati) and evaluation of its colloidal stability.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fang; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Yin, Jinjin

    2012-08-01

    The biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using catclaw buttercup (Radix Ranunculi Ternati) and their stability have been reported in this paper. The aqueous catclaw buttercup was used as mild reducing agent for gold nanoparticles synthesis from HAuCl4 solutions. The influence of reaction time, temperature and mass ratio of HAuCl4/catclaw buttercup were evaluated to investigate their effects on gold nanoparticles synthesis. Under the optimized reaction parameters, the gold nanoparticles obtained are characterized by UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), EDAX technique (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), FTIR spectrum, anthrone-sulfuric colorimetric method, and plus Improved-Lowry Protein Assay Kit. The HRTEM images showed that the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles are mostly spherical with size range from 9-24 nm. Furthermore, it was found that the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles possessed outstanding colloid stability in aqueous solutions as a function of category and concentration of monovalent salt and pH value of the solution when compared with chemosynthetic ones with the similar size. Anthrone-sulfuric colorimetric method revealed that there is no sugar in the biosynthesized gold colloid. While Improved-Lowry tests results demonstrated that the existence of much protein in the biosynthesized gold colloid, which may played an important role in stabilization of it. Owing to their stability, biocompatibility, lower cost and so on, gold nanoparticles synthesized by this biosynthesis method show potential application prospect in optoelectronic and biomedicine.

  18. Effect of γ-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2009-07-01

    A study was carried out to find the effect of γ-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix ( Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, ( E)-carveol, ( E, E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of γ-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  19. Radix Astragali Stimulates p38 MARK Phosphorylation in Pediatric Patients with β-Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinhua; Zhang, Chunhong; Chen, Zhiwen; Du, Guangliang

    2016-01-01

    A previous study conducted by our group demonstrated that Radix Astragali compounded with Codonopsis pilosula and Plastrum testudinis was effective in treating pediatric β-thalassemia in a randomized, controlled clinical trial. However, the mechanism of action that underpins this treatment remains to be elucidated. Blood was collected from patients participating in this clinical trial and nucleated red blood cell-enriched mononuclear cells were isolated to facilitate the extraction of RNA and protein. RT-PCR was used to monitor the expression of globin genes and p38 MAPK, and total and phosphorylated p38 MAPK expression was assessed using Western blot analysis. Expression of α-, β-, and Aγ-globin mRNAs was not significantly affected following treatment with R. Astragali or the compounded formulation. However, Gγ-globin mRNA levels increased significantly in both treatment groups (when compared with pretreatment levels) following 12 weeks of treatment. Moreover, posttreatment Gγ-globin expression was significantly higher in both treatment groups compared with the control group. Although neither p38 MAPK mRNA nor protein levels were affected by the treatments, posttreatment phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was significantly increased in the R. Astragali and compounded formulation groups compared with the control group. These data suggest that the molecular mechanisms that underpin the efficacious use of R. Astragali (and its compounded formulation) in pediatric β-thalassemia treatment facilitate the induction of Gγ-globin expression following activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:27882072

  20. Anti-tumor effect of Radix Paeoniae Rubra extract on mice bladder tumors using intravesical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei-Yi; Chiang, Su-Yin; Li, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Mei-Fang; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) is the dried root of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas and Paeonia veitchii Lynch, and is a herbal medicine that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of blood-heat and blood-stasis syndrome, similarly to Cortex Moutan. The present study identified the same three components in RPR and Cortex Moutan extracts. In addition, it has been reported that RPR has an anti-cancer effect. Bladder cancer is the seventh most common type of cancer worldwide. Due to the high recurrence rate, identifying novel drugs for bladder cancer therapy is essential. In the present study, RPR extract was evaluated as a bladder cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. The present results revealed that RPR extract reduced the cell viability of bladder cancer cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1–3 mg/ml, and had an extremely low cytotoxic effect on normal urothelial cells. Additionally, RPR decreased certain cell cycle populations, predominantly cells in the G1 phase, and caused a clear sub-G increase. In a mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, intravesical application of RPR extract decreased the bladder tumor size without altering the blood biochemical parameters of the mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate the anti-proliferative properties of RPR extract on bladder cancer cells, and its anti-bladder tumor effect in vivo. Compared to Cortex Moutan extract, RPR extract may provide a more effective alternative therapeutic strategy for the intravesical therapy of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:27446367

  1. Receptor and transporter binding and activity profiles of albiflorin extracted from Radix paeoniae Alba

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zeng-liang; Gao, Nana; Xu, Weizhe; Xu, Pingxiang; Li, Shuaiqi; Zheng, Yuan-yuan; Xue, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Albiflorin, a traditional Chinese herb, is a main component of Radix paeoniae Alba, which has been used for the treatment of depressive disorders since ancient times. However, the mechanism of the antidepressant effect of albiflorin is poorly understood. Thus, we explored the binding profile of albiflorin at neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. We also characterised the in vivo effect of albiflorin on monoaminergic systems by using microanalysis to determine the extracellular levels of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in the hypothalamus of freely moving rats administered albiflorin. We found that albiflorin inhibited the uptake of 5-HT and NE and displayed robust binding affinities for the transporters of both neurotransmitters. By contrast, albiflorin (10 μM) showed no significant affinity to a wide array of central nervous system receptors. The results of our in vivo microdialysis studies showed that administration of albiflorin (3.5, 7.0, 14.0 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular concentrations of 5-HT and NE in the hypothalamus of freely moving rats. Overall, the current study showed that albiflorin is a novel 5-HT and NE reuptake inhibitor with high selectivity. PMID:27646789

  2. Polysaccharide enhances Radix Saposhnikoviae efficacy through inhibiting chromones decomposition in intestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing-Ming; Jiang, Hua; Dai, Hong-Liang; Wang, Zi-Wei; Jia, Gui-Zhi; Meng, Xiang-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Vegetative but not reproductive stage of Saposhnikovia divaricate (Turxz.) schischk possesses pharmacological activities. However, our recent study showed that reproductive S. divaricate supplemented with polysaccharide showed evidently elevated pharmacological activities and increased cimifugin content in rat serum. The aims of present study were to assess the influence of polysaccharides on the chromones pharmacological activities in Radix Saposhnikoviae (RS), the dried root of vegetative stage of S. divaricate, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Only cimifugin was detected in the plasma of chromone treated animals and RS polysaccharide significantly increased the plasma content of cimifugin. It was shown that neither cimifugin absorption nor glycoside components transformation in simulated digestive fluid was affected by RS polysaccharide. However, a significant promotion of transformation of cimifugin to more stable prime-O-glucosylcimifugin (PGCN) by RS polysaccharide, and a protective effect of polysaccharide on chromone components were observed in small intestine solutions. Meanwhile, RS polysaccharide produced a significant elevation of cimifugin and PGCN concentration in vivo. Based on these findings, we concluded that RS polysaccharide could greatly increase the content of cimifugin, which might be related to its degradation-proof effect on cimifugin, via transforming cimifugin to comparatively more stable PGCN and spatial structure protection. PMID:27595868

  3. [Absorption and transportation of calycosin in Astragali Radix by using Caco-2 monolayer model].

    PubMed

    Le, Zhou; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Di, Liu-Qing

    2014-05-01

    Flavonoids are a class of important active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine, pharmacological activity and in vivo process is the focus of research in recent years. Calycosin is the main active ingredients of flavonoids in Astragali Radix, recent studies indicate that it has many kinds of pharmacological activity, but the absorption and transport characteristics in vivo is unclear. The experiment using Caco-2 cell model, with apigenin as internal standard substance, using the method for the determination of drug concentration by HPLC, were studied at different concentrations and absorption transport characteristics of respectively adding different types of protein inhibitors. Data were analyzed by Q test, the results show that low, middle, high concentration of P(app)(BL-AP)/ P(app)(AP-BL) = 1.38 < 1.5, respectively adding different types of protein inhibitors, compared with the control group of P(app)(BL-AP)/ P(app)(AP-BL), there were no significant differences. Calycosin absorption may mainly passive transport, also involved in active transport mechanism, the transport may not be affected by the P-protein, MRP2 protein, SGLT protein.

  4. Radix Tetrastigma hemsleyani flavone inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of human lung carcinoma A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Liangrui; Zheng, Junxian; Sun, Qianqian; Wei, Kemin; Hu, Yijuan

    2016-01-01

    Radix Tetrastigma hemsleyani flavone (RTHF) is widely used as a traditional herb and has detoxification and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of RTHF on the growth and metastasis of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and evaluated its mechanisms. A549 cells were treated with RTHF at various concentrations for different periods. In vitro Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and colony formation methods showed that RTHF had dose- and time-dependent antiproliferation effects on A549 cells. A cell adhesion assay showed that RTHF decreased A549 cell adhesion in a dose-dependent manner. Cell invasion and migration were investigated using the Transwell assay and observed using an inverted microscope; the results showed that cell metastasis was significantly lower in the treatment group than that in the control group (P<0.01). Expression of metastasis-related matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The results showed that the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 decreased, while that of TIMP-2 increased significantly in the RTHF group when compared with the results of the control group. These results show that RTHF exhibits antigrowth and antimetastasis activity in lung cancer A549 cells by decreasing the expression of MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1 and increasing that of TIMP-2. PMID:26893573

  5. Scutellaria radix Extract as a Natural UV Protectant for Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Choi, Go Woon; An, Sang Mi; Kwak, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Hyeong-Ho; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces oxidative injury and inflammation in human skin. Scutellaria radix (SR, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) contains flavonoids with high UV absorptivity and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential use of SR extract as an additive in cosmetic products for UV protection. SR extract and its butanol (BuOH) fraction strongly absorbed UV radiation and displayed free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radials and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. They also attenuated the UV-induced death of HaCaT cells. Sunscreen creams, with or without supplementation of SR extract BuOH fraction, were tested in vivo in human trials to evaluate potential skin irritation and determine the sun protection factor (SPF). Both sunscreen creams induced no skin irritation. A sunscreen cream containing 24% ZnO showed an SPF value of 17.8, and it increased to 22.7 when supplemented with 5% SR extract BuOH fraction. This study suggests that SR-derived materials are useful as safe cosmetic additives that provide UV protection.

  6. [Effects of steaming and baking on content of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-lin; Huang, Zhi-fang; Zhang, Yi-han; Liu, Yu-hong; Liu, Yun-huan; Chen, Yan; Yi, Jin-hai

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of steaming and baking process on contents of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi), 13 alkaloids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS equipped with ESI ion source in MRM mode. In steaming process, the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids decreased rapidly, the contents of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids firstly increased, reached the peak at 40 min, and then deceased gradually. The contents of aconine alkaloids (mesaconine, aconine and hypaconine) increased all the time during processing, while the contents of fuziline, songorine, karacoline, salsolionl were stable or slightly decreased. In baking process, dynamic variations of alkaloids were different from that in the steaming process. Diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were degraded slightly slower than in steaming process. Monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, aconine alkaloids and the total alkaloids had been destroyed at different degrees, their contents were significantly lower than the ones in steaming Fuzi at the same processing time. This experiment revealed the dynamic variations of alkaloids in the course of steaming and baking. Two processing methods which can both effectively remove the toxic ingredients and retain the active ingredients are simple and controllable, and are valuable for popularization and application.

  7. Chromatographic analysis of Polygalae Radix by online hyphenating pressurized liquid extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuelin; Song, Qingqing; Li, Jun; Shi, Shepo; Guo, Liping; Zhao, Yunfang; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-06-01

    Practicing “green analytical chemistry” is of great importance when profiling the chemical composition of complex matrices. Herein, a novel hybrid analytical platform was developed for direct chemical analysis of complex matrices by online hyphenating pressurized warm water extraction followed by turbulent flow chromatography coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PWWE-TFC-LC-MS/MS). Two parallel hollow guard columns acted as extraction vessels connected to a long narrow polyether ether ketone tube, while warm water served as extraction solvent and was delivered at a flow rate of 2.5 mL/min to generate considerable back pressure at either vessel. A column oven heated both the solvent and crude materials. A TFC column, which is advantageous for the comprehensive trapping of small molecular substances from fluids under turbulent flow conditions, was employed to transfer analytes from the PWWE module to LC-MS/MS. Two electronic valves alternated each vessel between extraction and elution phases. As a proof-of-concept, a famous herbal medicine for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, namely Polygalae Radix, was selected for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results suggest that the hybrid platform is advantageous in terms of decreasing time, material, and solvent consumption and in its automation, versatility, and environmental friendliness.

  8. Effect of raw Radix Rehmanniae on the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone in rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhan; Gao, Jingwen; Yuan, Yuemei; Zhu, Shuzhen; Yao, Meicun

    2014-05-01

    Raw Radix Rehmanniae (RRR) is a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus according to the statistics on all of the anti-diabetic formulas recorded in New National Traditional Chinese Medicine. Pioglitazone and RRR may be co-administrated for presumably enhanced therapeutic effects because of the common indications. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of RRR on the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone in healthy rats and type 2 diabetic rats. The pharmacokinetic effect of RRR on pioglitazone was studied in healthy rats and type 2 diabetic rats. A validated UPLC-MS/MS method was used to analyze the concentration of pioglitazone in blood samples. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analyses by Winnonlin 5.0.1. In healthy group, the pre-treatment of RRR significantly (P<0.05) reduced the C(max) but enhanced the V/F of pioglitazone; whereas in T2DM group, significant increase of C(max) and decrease of V/F and T½ were found after the rats were pre-treated with RRR. However, AUC(0-t) and CL/F remained unchanged in both healthy group and T2DM group. In conclusion, co-administration with RRR could alter the pharmacokinetic profiles of pioglitazone to statistically significant levels.

  9. Chemical composition of the leaf and stem essential oil of Adenophorae Radix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Weijie; Lin, Shang; Li, Xindan; Zhang, Qing; Qin, Wen

    2017-03-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from leaves and stems of Adenophorae Radix was determined for the first time in this study. Twenty-six compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). n-Hexadecanoic acid (29.14%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (17.22%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester(8.98%), 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- (7.03%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (5.93%), phytol (5.50%), and estradiol (4.43%) were measured as the major compounds in stem oil. The leaf essential oil was dominated by n-hexadecanoic acid (50.78%), 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- (9.04%), phytol (8.47%), d-mannitol (5.81%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (4.31%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (2.19%) and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-(1.7%). The leaves yield was 0.12% (v/w) and the stems yield showed only 0.073% (v/w). The results might provide reference basis for further exploration of its application value.

  10. Chromatographic analysis of Polygalae Radix by online hyphenating pressurized liquid extraction

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuelin; Song, Qingqing; Li, Jun; Shi, Shepo; Guo, Liping; Zhao, Yunfang; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Practicing “green analytical chemistry” is of great importance when profiling the chemical composition of complex matrices. Herein, a novel hybrid analytical platform was developed for direct chemical analysis of complex matrices by online hyphenating pressurized warm water extraction followed by turbulent flow chromatography coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PWWE-TFC-LC-MS/MS). Two parallel hollow guard columns acted as extraction vessels connected to a long narrow polyether ether ketone tube, while warm water served as extraction solvent and was delivered at a flow rate of 2.5 mL/min to generate considerable back pressure at either vessel. A column oven heated both the solvent and crude materials. A TFC column, which is advantageous for the comprehensive trapping of small molecular substances from fluids under turbulent flow conditions, was employed to transfer analytes from the PWWE module to LC-MS/MS. Two electronic valves alternated each vessel between extraction and elution phases. As a proof-of-concept, a famous herbal medicine for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, namely Polygalae Radix, was selected for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results suggest that the hybrid platform is advantageous in terms of decreasing time, material, and solvent consumption and in its automation, versatility, and environmental friendliness. PMID:27272557

  11. Injectable long-acting in situ forming systems for Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Shi, XiaoLi; Lin, Xiao; Yao, ChunXia; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    In the area of injectable long-acting formulations, the in situ forming system (ISFS) is an attractive alternative for its various superiorities. In this study, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic in situ forming systems, using Poloxamer and sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) or poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) copolymer (PLGA) as carrier, respectively, were investigated for Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP), a natural anti-myocardial ischemic fructan. A reasonable and applicable range of formulations were selected from each carrier for in vivo study by investigating their rheological property. The results from in vivo evaluation show that relatively promising sustained behaviors were achieved by formulations 24% P407/10% P188, 40% PLGA30k/NMP, and 30% PLGA50k/NMP. Significant differences of drug release kinetics were observed between in situ thermally-induced Poloxamer-based hydrogels and in situ solvent exchange-induced hydrophobic PLGA depots. This suggests that different ISFS could be chosen to provide different application purpose for polysaccharide drugs. In the case of ROP, Poloxamer-based ISFS is promising for short-term acute therapies; however, PLGA-based ISFS might be promising for long-term precaution or/and cure of myocardial ischemia.

  12. Protective effects of radix Rosa laevigata against Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    He, Rong-Rong; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Yao, Nan; Wang, Min; Dai, Yi; Gao, Hao; Yu, Yang; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the effects of an extract of Radix Rosa laevigata (R. R. laevigata) on Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury. The plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was significantly elevated by an intravenous injection of heat-killed P. acnes at a dose of 0.4 mg/mouse and then with LPS at 0.1 microg/mouse after 5 d. However, the elevated ALT activity was significantly reduced by the administered of R. R. laevigata (125 and 500 mg/kg/d) for 7 d before the LPS injection. In addition, the extract treatment reduced the number of liver mononuclear cells (MNCs), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents, but improved the liver oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, the chemical profile of R. R. laevigata was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the main peaks were identified as a series of polyphenol compounds which had been confirmed as the significantly active components by their anti-oxidative and NO inhibitory effects. These results suggest that the extract of R. R. laevigata offered good efficacy for preventing liver injury.

  13. Study on the Identification of Radix Bupleuri from Its Unofficial Varieties Based on Discrete Wavelet Transformation Feature Extraction of ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy Combined with Probability Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wenying; Wan, Chayan; Cheng, Cungui

    2015-01-01

    The attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was employed to acquire the infrared spectra of Radix Bupleuri and its unofficial varieties: the root of Bupleurum smithii Wolff and the root of Bupleurum bicaule Helm. The infrared spectra and spectra of Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and probability neural network (PNN) of these species were analyzed. By the method of FSD, there were conspicuous differences of the infrared absorption peak intensity of different types between Radix Bupleuri and its unofficial varieties. But it is hard to tell the differences between the root of Bupleurum smithii Wolff and the root of Bupleurum bicaule. The differences could be shown more clearly when the DWT was used. The research result shows that by the DWT technology it is easier to identify Radix Bupleuri from its unofficial varieties the root of Bupleurum smithii Wolff and the root of Bupleurum bicaule.

  14. Influence of processing procedure on the quality of Radix Scrophulariae: a quantitative evaluation of the main compounds obtained by accelerated solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang; Zhu, Xuemei

    2015-02-01

    An improved high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection combined with accelerated solvent extraction method was used to simultaneously determine six compounds in crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae samples. Accelerated solvent extraction parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, number of cycles, and analysis procedure were systematically optimized. The results indicated that compared with crude Radix Scrophulariae samples, the processed samples had lower contents of harpagide and harpagoside but higher contents of catalpol, acteoside, angoroside C, and cinnamic acid. The established method was sufficiently rapid and reliable for the global quality evaluation of crude and processed herbal medicines.

  15. Recognition and identification of active components from Radix Bupleuri using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Feihu; Zhang, Xiaohong; Xu, Tanghui; Quan, Wei; Wang, Hui; Shi, Jianguo; Dai, Zunxiao; Wu, Bin; Wu, Qiangju

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to screen active components of Radix Bupleuri (a traditional Chinese herb) and discover novel anti-schizophrenic candidate drugs using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells were used for preparation of the stationary phase in the cell membrane chromatography model. Retention components by the SH-SY5Y/CMC model were collected and then analyzed by GC/MS under the optimized conditions in offline conditions. After investigating the suitability and reliability of the SH-SY5Y/CMC method using amisulpride and haloperidol as standard compounds, this method was applied to screening active components from the extracts of Radix Bupleuri. Retention components of SH-SY5Y/CMC model were saikosaponin A, saikosaponin B1, saikosaponin B2, saikosaponin C and saikosaponin D, which were identified by the GC/MS method. In vitro pharmacological trials-MTT, saikosaponin B1, saikosaponin B2 and saikosaponin C could protect SY5Y cells. The protective effects of saikosaponin B1 and saikosaponin C were concentration dependent. Saikosaponin A and saikosaponin D inhibited cell viability at concentrations >30 µg/mL (p < 0.05). Via SH-SY5Y/CMC method and SH-SY5Y MTT trial, we rapidly detected target components from Radix Bupleuri, accurately identified them and determined their different effects on SH-SY5Y cells. Saikosaponin B1, saikosaponin B2 and saikosaponin C may be anti-schizophrenic candidate drugs.

  16. Flavones Isolated from Scutellariae radix Suppress Propionibacterium Acnes-Induced Cytokine Production In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Po-Jung; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Hsieh, Ming-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wu, Wen-Huey

    2015-12-24

    Scutellariae radix, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis, has long been applied in traditional formulations and modern herbal medications. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in follicles can trigger inflammation and lead to the symptom of inflammatory acnes vulgaris. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of Scutellariae radix extract and purified components isolated from it on inflammation induced by P. acnes in vitro and in vivo. The results showed the ethyl acetate (EA) soluble fraction from the partition of crude ethanolic extract from Scutellariae radix inhibited P. acnes-induced interleukin IL-8 and IL-1β production in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Seven flavones were isolated from the EA fraction by repeated chromatographies, and identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone (FL1, oroxylin), 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (FL2, wogonin), 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone (FL3, 7-O-methylwogonin), 5,6'-dihydroxy-6,7,8,2'-tetramethoxy flavone (FL4, skullcapflavone II), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (FL5), 5,2',6'-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone (FL6, viscidulin II), and 5,7,2',5'-tetrahydroxy-8,6'-dimethoxyflavone (FL7, ganhuangenin). They all significantly suppressed P. acnes-induced IL-8 and IL-1β production in THP-1 cells, and FL2 exerted the strongest effect with half maximal inhibition (IC50) values of 8.7 and 4.9 μM, respectively. Concomitant intradermal injection of each of the seven flavones (20 μg) with P. acnes effectively attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling, and decreased the production of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in ear homogenates. Our results suggested that all the seven flavones can be potential therapeutic agents against P. acnes-induced skin inflammation.

  17. Simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Cheng, Ling; Ji, Shen; Wang, Ke

    2014-09-01

    This work reported an efficient and accurate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins in Puerariae lobatae radix, a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The effects of four different clean-up methods, including TC-M160, TC-T220, Mycosep 227, and QuEChERS method, on the recoveries of mycotoxins were investigated and compared. Finally, TC-M160 was chosen for better recovery and repeatability for mycotoxins analysis. The analytes were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 column (4.6mm×250mm, 5μm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The separated compounds were detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results of method validation accorded with the requirement of analytical method for mycotoxins in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 401/2006. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of mycotoxins in seventeen batches of Puerariae lobatae radix collected from different provinces of China. Three batches of them were found with contamination of mycotoxins AFB1 at (0.751±0.176)μg/kg, T-2 at (1.10±0.01)μg/kg, and T-2 at (0.853±0.044)μg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for monitoring mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix.

  18. Effects of anti-inflammatory and Rehmanniae radix pharmacopuncture on atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Yook, Tae-Han

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by pruritic and erythematous skin lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the suppressive effects of anti-inflammatory and Rehmanniae radix pharmacopuncture on the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. The AD was induced on the mice's back skin by using biostir AD. The experimental groups were divided into three groups, PPI (anti-inflammatory pharmacopuncture), PPII (Rehmanniae radix pharmacopuncture, hydrodistillation extraction) and PPIII (Rehmanniae radix pharmacopuncture, MeOH extraction). All mice were treated using a 1-mL syringe to inject 0.1 mL of pharmacopuncture at right and left acupoints (BL13) on alternate days. In the control group, normal saline was used instead of pharmacopuncture. The following factors were investigated: (1) optical observations made with a handscope and clinical skin scores were evaluated; (2) tissue (general/immune) mast cells and CCR3(+) eosinophils, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor immunoreactive changes were evaluated; (3) CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in the spleen were immunohistochemically examined; and, (4) the serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level and lymphokines [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4] were measured. In the PPI and the PPIII groups, the clinical skin score, total number of mast cells, CCR3(+) eosinophils immunoreaction, and total serum IgE, IL-2, and IL-4 levels were lower than the control group. The PPI and the PPIII groups also showed strong immunohistochemical reactions for vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor. The PPI group particularly showed a very strong immunohistochemical reaction for epidermal growth factor. All groups showed strong immune activity for CD8(+). The PPIII group showed strong immunity for both CD4(+) and CD8(+). From the above results, Rehmanniae radix pharmacopuncture (MeOH extraction) and anti

  19. [Application of bioassay in quality control of Chinese materia medica-taking Radix Isatidis as an example].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan; Ren, Yongshen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Li, Hanbing; Feng, Xue; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2010-10-01

    Bioassay, which construct the characteristics consistents with Chinese medical science, is the core mode and methods for the quality control of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Radix Isatidis as an example, the contribution, status and application of bioassay in the quality control of Chinese materia medica were introduced in this article, and two key issue (the selection of reference and measurement methods) in the process of establishing bioassay were also explained. This article expects to provide a reference for the development and improvement of the bioassay of Chinese materia medica in a practical manipulation level.

  20. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of dodecatetraenamides A, B in Asari Radix et Rhizoma].

    PubMed

    Xie, De-mei; Liu, Guang-xue; Xu, Feng; Shang, Ming-ying; Zhang, Zi-wei; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-qing

    2015-02-01

    To develop an analytic method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of dodecatetraenamides A, B in 42 samples of two official species of Asari Radix et Rhizoma( ARR) (37 samples of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum with different collection time and 5 samples of Asarum sieboldiivar. seoulense). The HPLC-IT-TOF-MS/MS methods for the qualitative and UPLC-PDA methods for the quantitative analysis were established. Dodecatetraenamides A, B were identified by comparing the retention time, UV absorption spectrum and quasi-molecular ion peak [ M + H]+ with the reference compound using HPLC-IT-TOF-MS/MS. The content of dodecatetraenamides A and B in ARR were determined by UPLC-PDA. The separation was successfully carried out on a ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 µm) column eluted with mobile phases of water (A) and acetonitrile (B) in gradient program (0-3 min, 35% B; 3-5 min, 35%-36% B; 5-6 min, 36%-43% B; 6 min-11 min 43% B; 11-12 min, 43%-100% B). The column temperature was 45 °C, and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The flow rate was 0.6 mL · min(-1). On one level mass spectrometry scanning, the results showed that the quasi-molecular ion [M + H] + of both dodecatetraenamides A and B were m/z 248.20. The quantitative method with UPLC-PDA has made the baseline separation of the constituents, which were reported as mixtures in the most literatures. The average recovery of dodecatetraenamides A and B were 97.90% and 99.86%, the relative standard deviation were 0.4% and 1.1%, respectively. The contents of dodecatetraenamides A, B in all ARR samples was in the range of 0.11-3.89 and 0.24-6.65 mg · g(-1). Their contents reduced with the extension of storage time. Compared with the samples of 2013, the average content of the two constituents in the samples collected in year 2002-2003 reduced 34% and 36%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared the A. sieboldii var. seoulense and A. heterotropoides var. mandshuricum with the same collective time

  1. Potentiation of the bioavailability of daidzin by an extract of Radix puerariae.

    PubMed

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1996-04-30

    The dose effect of pure daidzin on the suppression of ethanol intake in Syrian golden hamsters was compared with that of crude daidzin contained in a methanol extract of Radix puerariae (RP). EC50 values estimated from the graded dose-response curves for pure daidzin and RP extract daidzin are 23 and 2.3 mg per hamster per day, respectively. Apparently the antidipsotropic activity of the RP extract cannot be accounted for solely by its daidzin content (22 mg/g). In addition to daidzin, six other isoflavones were identified in the RP extract and quantified--namely, puerarin (160 mg per g of extract), genistin (3.7 mg/g), daidzein (2.6 mg/g), daidzein-4',7-diglucoside (1.2 mg/g), genistein (0.2 mg/g), and formononetin (0.16 mg/g). None of these, administered either alone or combined, contributes in any significant way to the antidipsotropic activity of the extract. Plasma daidzin concentration-time curves determined in hamsters administered various doses of pure daidzin or RP extract by i.p.injection indicate that the crude extract daidzin has approximately 10 times greater bioavailability than the pure compound. Reconstruction of the dose-response effects for pure and crude daidzin using bioavailable daidzin rather than administered dose gives a single curve. Synthetic daidzin added to the RP extract acquires the bioavailability of the endogenous daidzin that exists naturally in the extract. These results show that (i) daidzin is the major active principle in methanol extracts of RP, and (ii) additional constituents in the methanol extract of RP assist uptake of daidzin in golden hamsters.

  2. Poria Attenuates Idiosyncratic Liver Injury Induced by Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dan; Pang, Jing-Yao; Zhang, Cong-En; Li, Chun-Yu; Tu, Can; Zhang, Hai-Zhu; Niu, Ming; Xiong, Yin; Xiao, Xiao-He; Zhao, Kui-Jun; Gao, Wei-Wei; Wang, Jia-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The hepatotoxicity induced by Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata (PM) has aroused great concern throughout the world. Hence, it is worthwhile to perform studies on the detoxification with the combined use of medicinal herbs based on the compatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicine. In this work, the rat model of PM/LPS-induced idiosyncratic liver injury was used. The effects of Poria, Licorice, and Panax notoginseng on rats of PM/LPS-induced liver injury were investigated respectively, hoping to find the most effective herbal medicine to reduce the hepatotoxicity. According to results of biochemical and histological tests, PM could induce the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of rats which presented modest inflammation triggered by non-injurious dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also found that the combined use of Poria and PM in the ratio of 1:2 could significantly ameliorate the PM/LPS-induced liver injury and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, UPLC/QTOF-MS-based metabolomics was performed to identify possible biomarkers and underlying biological pathways. Ten metabolites were expressed differentially among LPS, PM/LPS, and detoxification-treated groups in terms of PCA and OPLS-DA analysis, which could be potential biomarkers. MetaboAnalyst and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that alterations of these metabolites were primarily involved in three pathways: arginine and proline metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis and sphingolipid metabolism. This research provides systematic experimental evidences for the hepatoprotective effect of Poria against PM/LPS-induced liver injury for the first time. And these findings may help better understand the underlying mechanisms of pathophysiologic changes in PM/LPS-induced liver injury. PMID:27803670

  3. Molluscicidal activity of crude water and hexane extracts of Hypericum species to snails (Radix peregra).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Tânia; Rainha, Nuno; Rosa, José Silvino; Lima, Elisabete; Baptista, José

    2012-04-01

    In spite of intense research on both chemical constituency and biological activity of Hypericum species, potential applications of their active components for pest control have been less well investigated. In the present study, Hypericum androsaemum (tutsan), Hypericum foliosum (malfurada), and Hypericum undulatum (wavy St. John's wort) aqueous and hexane extracts were studied for their molluscicidal and ovicidal activities against Radix peregra. The molluscicidal activity of the aqueous extracts was low, except for H. androsaemum infusion (median lethal concentration [LC50](adults)  = 317.1 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 415 ppm), and less important compared with the toxicity of all three hexane extracts tested: H. androsaemum (LC50(adults)  = 30.47 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 73.25 ppm), H. undulatum (LC50(adults)  = 30.55 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 60.54 ppm), and H. foliosum (LC50(adults)  = 48.61 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 38.81 ppm). An ovicidal effect was observed only with H. androsaemum infusion (1.85% of hatching at 500 ppm) and H. foliosum hexane extract (0.0% of hatching at 100 ppm). A preliminary phytochemical investigation of the lipophylic extracts from these Hypericum sp. revealed a different chemical profile and confirmed the presence of ursolic acid only in H. undulatum as the main compound. The present study indicates that products from hexane extracts of the Hypericum sp. analyzed may be used as potential molluscicides to control snails responsible for transmitting fasciolosis.

  4. Isolation and characterization of bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapa L. radix

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Jyotchna; Nakhuru, Khonamai Sewa; Policegoudra, Rudragoud S.; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Rai, Ashok Kumar; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to isolate and characterize bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapa L. radix (紫茉莉根 zǐ mò lì gēn). Thin-layer chromatography was used for the separation of spots from fractions of the crude extract. Separated spots were collected for identification of their activities. Free-radical scavenging activity was evaluated by spraying thin-layer chromatography plates (spotted with fractions) with 0.2% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl solution. Activity against human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were determined using the agar diffusion method. Potential spots were subjected to infrared (IR) analysis and gas chromatography for characterization. Two spots (5F1 and 1F3) showed free-radical scavenging activity. The 1F3 spot was active against both S. aureus and C. albicans, whereas the 5F1 spot was active against S. aureus only. IR spectral analysis indicated that 5F1 spot to be a triterpenoid. Using IR spectral analysis and an IR library search, the 1F3 spot was identified to be a flavone, which may have a hydroxyl group in ring “A” of the flavone nucleus. Our results indicated that the 1F3 and 5F1 spots are potential free-radical scavengers. Both 1F3 and 5F1 exhibited antimicrobial activity. IR spectral analysis coupled with an IR library search indicated 1F3 and 5F1 to be a flavone and a triterpenoid, respectively. PMID:26870679

  5. Influence of Trichobilharzia regenti (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) on the defence activity of Radix lagotis (Lymnaeidae) Haemocytes.

    PubMed

    Skála, Vladimír; Černíková, Alena; Jindrová, Zuzana; Kašný, Martin; Vostrý, Martin; Walker, Anthony J; Horák, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Radix lagotis is an intermediate snail host of the nasal bird schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti. Changes in defence responses in infected snails that might be related to host-parasite compatibility are not known. This study therefore aimed to characterize R. lagotis haemocyte defence mechanisms and determine the extent to which they are modulated by T. regenti. Histological observations of R. lagotis infected with T. regenti revealed that early phases of infection were accompanied by haemocyte accumulation around the developing larvae 2-36 h post exposure (p.e.) to the parasite. At later time points, 44-92 h p.e., no haemocytes were observed around T. regenti. Additionally, microtubular aggregates likely corresponding to phagocytosed ciliary plates of T. regenti miracidia were observed within haemocytes by use of transmission electron microscopy. When the infection was in the patent phase, haemocyte phagocytic activity and hydrogen peroxide production were significantly reduced in infected R. lagotis when compared to uninfected counterparts, whereas haemocyte abundance increased in infected snails. At a molecular level, protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) were found to play an important role in regulating these defence reactions in R. lagotis. Moreover, haemocytes from snails with patent infection displayed lower PKC and ERK activity in cell adhesion assays when compared to those from uninfected snails, which may therefore be related to the reduced defence activities of these cells. These data provide the first integrated insight into the immunobiology of R. lagotis and demonstrate modulation of haemocyte-mediated responses in patent T. regenti infected snails. Given that immunomodulation occurs during patency, interference of snail-host defence by T. regenti might be important for the sustained production and/or release of infective cercariae.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Combination of Scutellariae Radix and Liriopis Tuber Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    So, Mi-Hye; Choi, You-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Scutellariae Radix and Liriopis Tuber have been used to treat the inflammatory diseases in traditional Korean medicine and anti-inflammatory effect of each herb has been shown partially in several articles. However, the combined extract of these medicinal herbs (SL) has not been reported for its anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of SL on the creation of several proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cell mouse macrophages induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). SL inhibited significantly the increase of NO, the release of intracellular calcium, the increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and MIP-2), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell at the concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL, and SL inhibited significantly the increase of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) at the concentrations of 25 and 50 μg/mL, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) at the concentration of 25 μg/mL. These results implicate that SL has anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing the production of various inflammatory mediators in macrophages. But SL did not inhibit significantly the increase of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES); therefore, further study is demanded for the follow-up research to find out the possibility of SL as a preventive and therapeutic medicine for various inflammatory diseases. PMID:26604969

  7. Influence of different processing times on the quality of Polygoni Multiflora Radix by metabolomics based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xie-An; Ge, Ai-Hua; Zhang, Lu; Li, Jin; An, Mingrui; Cao, Jun; He, Jun; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2017-03-20

    A metabolomics method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed to evaluate the influence of processing times on the quality of raw and processed Polygoni Multiflora Radix. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to screen the potential maker metabolites that were contributed to the quality changes. Then these marker metabolites were selected as variables in Fisher's discriminant analysis to establish the models that were used to distinguish the raw and processed Polygoni Multiflora Radix in the markets. Additionally, 36 compounds were identified. 12 raw Polygoni Multiflora Radix samples and 23 processed Polygoni Multiflora Radix samples were distinguished. The results showed that the 12 raw Polygoni Multiflora Radix samples belonged to the group of processing time of 0 h, and two processed Polygoni Multiflora Radix samples were part of the group of processing times of 4 h, 12 samples belonged to group of processing times of 8 to 16 h, and nine samples were the group of processing times of 24 to 48 h. The results demonstrated that the method could provide scientific support for the processing standardization of Polygoni Multiflora Radix. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of the Chemical Changes from Crude and Processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma Herbal Pair Extracts by Using Q Exactive High-Performance Benchtop Quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Gang; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Tu, Sicong; Cai, Baochang

    2014-01-01

    The Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair is mainly used for regulating the functions of liver and spleen, benefiting qi, and nourishing blood. However, the bioactive compounds for the pharmacological activities of the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts are still unclear to date. In the present study, Q Exactive high-performance benchtop quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS was applied to identify the complicated components from crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba, crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, and their crude and processed herbal pair extracts. 123 and 101 compounds were identified in crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba samples, respectively. Meanwhile, 32 and 26 compounds were identified in crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma samples, respectively. In the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts, co-decoction could significantly change the chemical composition of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in solution. The developed method may provide a scientific foundation for deeply elucidating the processing and compatibility mechanism of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma. PMID:24876867

  9. Kai-Xin-San, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria, Stimulates the Expression and Secretion of Neurotrophic Factors in Cultured Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Xu, Sherry Li; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Yan, Artemis Lu; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. In China, KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness. Although animal study has supported the antidepression function of KXS, the mechanism in cellular level is still unknown. Here, a chemically standardized water extract of KXS was applied onto cultured astrocytes in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment, which significantly stimulated the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, in a dose-dependent manner: the stimulation was both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction. The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase. The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction. PMID:24222781

  10. Integrative hepatoprotective efficacy comparison of raw and vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri using nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jie; Sun, Hui-Min; Jia, Jin-Ping; Qin, Xue-Mei; Li, Zhen-Yu

    2017-05-10

    Radix Bupleuri (RB), with a Chinese name Chaihu, is one of the most popular Traditional Chinese herbal drug. It can be baked with vinegar to afford vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB), which is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for liver diseases treatment. In the present study, nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic approach was used to compare the liver protective effect of RB and two types of VBRBs, which were prepared by two kinds of vinegar. The contents of 14 metabolites in the liver of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated mice were significantly altered in comparison with control group, and VBRB prepared by Shanxi vinegar showed best effect as revealed by the amount and regulatory degree of the perturbed metabolites. The metabolism pathways analysis showed that the liver protective effect was related with the energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, ketone body metabolism, glutathione metabolism, amino acids metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. The results presented here showed that metabolomic approach made it possible to disclose the subtle biological difference between two types of VBRB, which highlight the potential of metabolomic approach to quantitatively compare the pharmacological effect of the herbal drugs.

  11. Comparison of Volatile Components between Raw and Vinegar Baked Radix Bupleuri by GC-MS Based Metabolic Fingerprinting Approach

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jie; Sun, Hui-Min; Li, Zhen-Yu; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Radix Bupleuri (RB), also named Chaihu in Chinese, is a commonly used herbal drug in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and the processing of RB with vinegar to prepare vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB) has a long history in the clinic of TCM. In the present study, GC-MS coupled with multivariate data analysis was applied to compare the volatile components between crude and two vinegar processed RBs. After vinegar baking, the oil yields were decreased significantly, and the chemical compositions were also changed greatly. The chemical changes included the disappearance or appearance, as well as the content increase or decrease of some volatile compounds. The oil yields of two different VBRBs showed no significant difference but differed markedly in their chemical compositions, suggesting that the type of vinegar exerted great impacts on the vinegar-baking process. Thus, the effect of different vinegars on processing should be further investigated to ensure the therapeutic effect and safety of VBRB in clinic. PMID:26265925

  12. Radix angelica elicits both nitric oxide-dependent and calcium influx-mediated relaxation in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Young

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the vascular relaxation produced by Radix Angelica (AG; Dong Quai) and its possible mechanisms in isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with norepinephrine. The butanolic fraction (AgBt) of the crude extract of AG causes gradual endothelium-independent relaxation, which was unaffected by five different potassium channel inhibitors. AgBt attenuated the CaCl2-induced vasoconstriction in high-potassium depolarized medium; this required less than one-tenth the concentration needed to elicit vascular relaxation. An aqueous fraction (AgDw) of the crude extract induced transient acute relaxation, which was virtually abolished by endothelial ablation and pretreatment with L-NNA. L-Arginine fully reversed the action of L-NNA. Methylene blue and atropine significantly attenuated the relaxation, but indomethacin did not. Ferulic acid, the main active component in AG, relaxed both endothelium-intact and -denuded rings, while L-NNA, methylene blue, or atropine did not modify the relaxation. Ferulic acid also did not attenuate the CaCl2-induced contraction in high-potassium depolarized medium. In conclusion, Radix Angelica leads to both endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation of isolated rat aorta. Increased formation of NO might contribute to the endothelium-mediated relaxation, while inhibition of the calcium influx might be an important mechanism in direct smooth muscle relaxation. A substance other than ferulic acid might create these effects.

  13. Rapid determination of baicalin and total baicalein content in Scutellariae radix by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Navarro Escamilla, M; Rodenas Sanz, F; Li, H; Schönbichler, S A; Yang, B; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

    2013-09-30

    In this study methods for the quantification of baicalin and total baicalein in Scutellariae radix with near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and attenuated-total-reflectance mid-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy in hyphenation with multivariate analysis were developed and compared. The reference analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Different pretreatments like standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first and second derivative Savitzky-Golay were applied on the spectra to optimize the calibrations. A principal component analysis was performed with both spectroscopic methods to distinguish wild and cultivated samples. Quality parameters obtained for test-set calibration models of ATR-IR spectroscopy (baicalin: standard error of prediction (SEP)=1.31, ratio performance to deviation (RPD)=2.91 and R(2)=0.88; total baicalein: SEP=1.02, RPD=3.24 and R(2)=0.89) and NIR spectroscopy (baicalin: SEP=1.50, RPD=2.54 and R(2)=0.88; total baicalein: SEP=1.19, RPD=2.76 and R(2)=0.84) demonstrate that both spectroscopic techniques in combination with multivariate analysis are successful tools for the quantification of baicalin and total baicalein in Scutellariae radix, but it was found that ATR-IR spectroscopy provides higher accuracy in the given application. Furthermore it was proved that wild and cultivated samples can be distinguished by ATR-IR.

  14. Surfactant-Assisted Pressurized Liquid Extraction at Room Temperature for Radix glycyrrhizae by a New Class of Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Heng, Ming Yuan; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald; Ong, Eng Shi

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-assembled surfactant-assisted pressurized liquid extraction system at room temperature was used for the extraction of glycyrrhizin (GLY) in Radix glycyrrhizae. Environmentally friendly saccharide fatty acid ester such as glucose oleic acid ester is proposed to replace chemical-based surfactants. As the chemical properties of the surfactant obtained were unknown initially, lipase-catalyzed synthesis and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry were used to ascertain the identity. Surfactant-assisted pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was carried out dynamically and the extraction efficiencies of the proposed method using different concentration of glucose oleic acid ester were compared with sonication using an organic solvent (ethanol/water, 70:30). The extraction efficiencies of GLY in Radix glycyrrhizae using surfactant-assisted PLE was observed to be higher compared with sonication. The method precision was found to vary from 1.3 to 5.1% (relative standard deviation, RSD, n= 6) on different days. The new method demonstrated the possibility for the extraction to be carried out at room temperature for the production of botanical extracts.

  15. [Determination of 99 pesticide residues in Paeoniae Radix Alba by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Tong, Ling; Meng, Wenting; Sun, Guoxiang

    2015-08-01

    A method was established for the simultaneous determination of 99 pesticide residues with combination of solid-phase extraction technique ( SPE) and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS). The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate, and cleaned-up by an amino SPE column. The extract was determined by GC-MS/MS in multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and matrix-matched internal standard method was applied to quantify the pesticides. The results of all the 99 pesticides showed good linearity in the range of 0.001-0.25 mg/L, with correlation coefficients (r2) > 0.99. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.001-0.050 mg/kg. The recoveries were between 66.7% and 128.0% with RSD values typically lower than 18.3% at three spiked levels of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mg/kg. This method has been applied to determine thirteen batches of commercially available samples, chlorpyriphos-ethyl and p,p'-DDE were detected in four batches of Paeoniae Radix Alba. The method is highly accurate, reliable and sensitive for monitoring the 99 pesticide residues in Paeoniae Radix Alba.

  16. SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF TWO MINOR COMPOUNDS FROM RADIX ISATIDIS BY INTEGRATIVE MPLC AND HSCCC WITH PREPARATIVE HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhenjie; Li, Bin; Liang, Yong; Su, Yaping; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Radix isatidis has been widely used as a Chinese traditional medicine for its anti-virus and anticancer activities where the minor components may contribute to these beneficial pharmaceutical effects. In order to enrich the target minor compounds effectively and rapidly, extraction, medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC), high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (pre-HPLC) were integratively used for separation and purification of two target minor compounds indole-3-acetonitrile-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (target 1) and clemastanin B (target 2) in the present study. Radix isatidis was dried, pulverized and extracted with 50% methanol at room temperature, then concentrated and subjected to pretreatment with D-101 macroporous resin chromatography and extraction by MPLC. The first target compound was separated by MPLC at the purity raised to 70–80%, but without the second minor compounds which were irreversibly adsorbed by C18 solid support. Therefore, the second target compound in the crude extract was directly separated by HSCCC at purity of 80–90%. Finally these refined samples were further separated by pre-HPLC to obtain a high purity at 98–99%. The chemical structure identification of each target compound was carried out by IR, ESI-MS and 1H NMR. PMID:25745338

  17. Evaluation of the Influence of Sulfur-Fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the Quality of Si Wu Tang by Chromatographic and Chemometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Ke; Duan, Yu; Qiao, Feng-Xian; Tu, Si-Cong; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Li; Song, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Kai-Lei; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2016-01-01

    An accurate and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint combining with multi-ingredient determination was developed and validated to evaluate the influence of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the quality and chemical constituents of Si Wu Tang. Multivariate data analysis including hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, which integrated with high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and multi-ingredient determination, was employed to evaluate Si Wu Tang in a more objective and scientific way. Interestingly, in this paper, a total of 37 and 36 peaks were marked as common peaks in ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sun-dried Paeoniae Radix Alba and ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba, respectively, which indicated the changed fingerprint profile of Si Wu Tang when containing sulfur-fumigated herb. Furthermore, the results of simultaneous determination for multiple ingredients showed that the contents of albiflorin and paeoniflorin decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and the contents of gallic acid and Z-ligustilide decreased to some extent at the same time when Si Wu Tang contained sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba. Therefore, sulfur-fumigation processing may have great influence on the quality of Chinese herbal prescription. PMID:27034892

  18. The Inhibition of Mast Cell Activation of Radix Paeoniae alba Extraction Identified by TCRP Based and Conventional Cell Function Assay Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Huiying; Cheng, Hongqiang; Cao, Gang; Zhang, Xingde; Tu, Jue; Sun, Mingjiao; Mou, Xiaozhou; Shou, Qiyang; Ke, Yuehai

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbs have long been used to treat allergic disease, but recently the development was greatly impeded by the lack of good methods to explore the mechanism of action. Here, we showed the effects of Chinese herb Radix Paeoniae alba were identified and characterized by a mast cell activation assay that involves electronic impedance readouts for dynamic monitoring of cellular responses to produce time-dependent cell responding profiles (TCRPs), and the anti-allergic activities were further confirmed with various conventional molecular and cell biology tools. We found Radix P. alba can dose-dependently inhibit TCPRs, and have anti-allergic function in vitro and in vivo. Radix P. alba suppressed mast cell degranulation not only inhibiting the translocation of granules to the plasma membrane, but also blocking membrane fusion and exocytosis; and that there may be other anti-allergic components in addition to paeoniflorin. Our results suggest that Radix P. alba regulated mast cell activation with multiple targets, and this approach is also suitable for discovering other mast cell degranulation-targeting Chinese herbs and their potential multi-target mechanisms. PMID:27195739

  19. [Effect of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma combined with Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on p53 and p21 gene expression of IEC-6 cells].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang; Jiang, Ze-bo; Zhang, Xian; Hu, Jin-ping; Li, Si-ming; Zhao, Jin; Zeng, Xing

    2015-05-01

    To study the effect of the combined administration of different doses of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on the proliferation of DFMO-treated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) and p53, p21 mRNA and protein expressions, in order to define the molecular basis for the effect of the combined administration of different doses of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on the cell proliferation. The effect of the drugs on the cell division rate and cell cycle of IEC-6 cells was detected by FCM. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the effect of the drugs on mRNA of p2l and p53 related to IEC-6 proliferation. Western blot was used to analyze the effect of the drugs on p2l and p53 protein expressions of IEC-6 cells. Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma could increase p53, p21 mRNA and proteins expression in DFMO-treated IEC-6 cells. The combined administration of different ratios of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma could significantly down-regulate Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma's effect on p53, p21 mRNA and proteins expression in DFMO-treated IEC-6 cells and promote the proliferation of IEC-6 cells. The combined administration of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma could down-regulate Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma's effect on DFMO-treated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6).

  20. Risk of Liver Injury Associated with Chinese Herbal Products Containing Radix bupleuri in 639,779 Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Hsing; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal products (CHPs) containing Radix bupleuri are often prescribed for chronic hepatitis. There have been no epidemiological studies in populations with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Our study was conducted to determine the association between the use of CHPs containing Radix bupleuri and the risk of hospitalisation related to liver injury among HBV-infected patients in Taiwan. Methods From a total of 639,779 patients with diagnoses related to HBV infection, we included hospitalised adult cases with a primary diagnosis of liver injury in the database of Taiwan's national health insurance during the period 1997–2004. Case-control and case-crossover designs were used to assess the risk of hospitalisation with conditional logistic regression models constructed and adjusted for 270 conventionally hepatotoxic drugs. Cumulative doses of these CHPs and Radix bupleuri were assessed for any dose-response relationship. Findings In total, we collected 1,080 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In the case-control design, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30 to 2.77). The risks from prescribing the CHPs Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang and Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang were significantly high, and dose-response relationships were found. The risk of adding each 19 gm dose of Radix bupleuri was 2.19 (95% CI: 1.66 to 2.89). The results using the case-crossover design remained similar. Conclusions Prescribing Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang, Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang, or CHPs containing more than 19 gram of Radix bupleuri in HBV-infected patients might increase their risks of liver injury. Further studies are indicated to corroborate the above findings. PMID:21264326

  1. A purge and trap technique to capture volatile compounds combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to investigate the effect of sulfur-fumigation on Radix Angelicae Dahuricae.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Li, Qinglin; Zhang, Jida; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang

    2014-09-01

    Sulfur-fumigation is known to reduce volatile compounds that are the main active components in herbs used in herbal medicine. We investigated changes in chemical composition between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Dahuricae using a purge and trap technique to capture volatile compounds, and two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identification. Using sun-dried Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples as a reference, the results showed that 73 volatile compounds, including 12 sulfide compounds, were found to be present only in sulfur-fumigated samples. Furthermore, 32 volatile compounds that were found in sun-dried Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples disappeared after sulfur-fumigation. The proposed method can be applied to accurately discriminate sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Dahuricae from different commercial sources.

  2. [Effect of Astragali Radix in improving early renal damage in metabolic syndrome rats through ACE2/Mas pathway].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong-ying; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Ning-yin; Xu, Han; Yang, Mi-na; Lin, Xin; Yu, Heng; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To study the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 specific receptor Mas protain in renal blood vessels of metabolic syndrome ( MS) rats and its anti-oxidative effect. A total of 80 male SD rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group (NC, the same volume of normal saline), the MS group (high fat diet), the MS + Astragali Radix group (MS + HQ, 6 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage) and the MS + Valsartan group (MS + XST, 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage). After four weeks of intervention, their general indexes, biochemical indexes and blood pressure were measured; plasma and renal tissue Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide demutase (SOD) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. The protein expressions of Mas receptor, AT1R, ACE and ACE2 were detected by western blot analysis. According to the result, compared with the NC group, the MS group and the MS + HQ group showed significant increases in systolic and diastolic pressures, body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acid and Ang II level of MS rats (P < 0.05). The MS + XST group showed notable decreases in systolic and diastolic pressures than that of the MS group. The MS group showed significant increases in the SOD activity and NO level and decrease in the MDA level after being intervened with Astragali Radix. ACE and AT1R protein expressions in renal tissues of the MS group were higher than that in the NC group, but with lower ACE2 and -Mas receptor expressions (all P < 0.05). Compared with the MS group, the MS + HQ group showed significant increase in Mas receptor expression in renal tissues, whereas the MS + XST group showed notable decrease in AT1R (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, Astragali Radix can increase the Mas receptor expressions in renal tissues, decrease ACE expression and change local Ang II, MDA, NO and SOD in kidneys, so as to protect early damages in renal tissues.

  3. Evidence of Fasciola hepatica infection in Radix peregra and a mollusc of the family Succineidae in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Relf, V; Good, B; McCarthy, E; de Waal, T

    2009-07-07

    Worldwide molluscs of the genera Lymnaea, Pseudosuccinea, Galba and Stagnicola act as intermediate hosts of the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. Galba truncatula is the only recorded intermediate host of F. hepatica within Ireland and is the principle intermediate host within Europe. To investigate the transmission of liver fluke on the Teagasc hill sheep farm, Co. Mayo, Ireland, snail species other than G. truncatula, were collected from the lowland pasture (snail sp. 'A') in May (n=23) and from the hill area (snail sp. 'B') in March, April and May 2008 (n=78, 53 and 36 respectively). Morphological characteristics identified snail sp. 'A' as a Succinea sp. and snail sp. 'B' as Radix peregra. PCR and subsequent sequencing of the 18S gene and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) region of the snail rDNA were used for molecular identification. The 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences revealed a 99% similarity with Omalonyx matheroni (Succineidae) for snail sp. 'A', and for snail sp. 'B' a 99% and 98% similarity with Radix auricularia and R. peregra, respectively. The ITS-2 sequences of snail sp. 'B' revealed a 100% similarity with R. peregra. Using PCR F. hepatica DNA was identified in 73.9% (n=17) of snail sp. 'A' collected during May and 10.3% (n=8), 60.4% (n=32) and 61.1% (n=22) of snail sp. 'B' collected during March, April and May, respectively. A priori knowledge of habitat preference and environmental tolerances of G. truncatula has failed to explain the prevalence of infection recorded in the hill sheep flock on Teagasc hill sheep farm. These findings may explain the presence of infection in sheep populations grazing hill habitats considered too acidic to maintain G. truncatula populations.

  4. Comparative analysis of two species of Asari Radix et Rhizoma by electronic nose, headspace GC-MS and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Xu, Feng; Cao, Chen; Shang, Ming-Ying; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Yu, Jie; Liu, Guang-Xue; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2013-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) can be identified by experts according to their odors. However, the identification of these medicines is subjective and requires long-term experience. In this paper, electronic nose, headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chemometrics methods were applied to differentiate two species of Asari Radix et Rhizoma by their odors. The samples used were the dried roots and rhizomes of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum (AH) and Asarum sieboldii (AS). The electronic nose was used to determine the odors of the samples and enabled rapid differentiation of AH and AS when coupled with principal component analysis. Headspace GC-MS was utilized to reveal the differences between the volatile constituents of AH and AS. In all, 54 volatile constituents were identified, and 9 major constituents (eucalyptol, eucarvone, 3,5-dimethoxytoluene, 3,4,5-trimethoxytoluene, methyleugenol, 2,3,5-trimethoxytoluene, croweacin, pentadecane and asaricin) could be used as chemical markers to distinguish these two species. AH contained higher relative contents of eucarvone (1.79-16.76%), 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (6.64-26.52%), 3,4,5-trimethoxytoluene/methyleugenol (6.43-31.67%) and 2,3,5-trimethoxytoluene (1.64-6.66%), whereas AS had higher relative contents of eucalyptol (14.06-24.95%), croweacin (5.64-13.55%), pentadecane (8.44-20.82%) and asaricin (7.03-13.45%). Moreover, AH and AS could be distinguished according to the contents of either all 54 identified volatile constituents or only the 9 major constituents by employing cluster analysis. The proposed method is rapid, simple, eco-friendly and can successfully differentiate these two species of Asari Radix et Rhizoma by their odors.

  5. Rapid Determination of Puerarin by Near-infrared Spectroscopy During Percolation and Concentration Process of Puerariae Lobatae Radix

    PubMed Central

    Jintao, Xue; Quanwei, Yang; Yun, Jing; Yufei, Liu; Chunyan, Li; Jing, Yang; Yanfang, Wu; Peng, Li; Guangrui, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gegen (Puerariae Labatae Radix) is one of the important medicines in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The studies showed that Gegen and its preparation had effective actions for atherosclerosis. Objective: Near-infrared (NIR) was used to develop a method for rapid determination of puerarin during percolation and concentration process of Gegen. Materials and Methods: About ten batches of samples were collected with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis values as reference, calibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression, and artificial neural networks (ANN) as nonlinear regression. Results: The root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Conclusions: The NIR model for the rapid analysis of puerarin can be used for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process. SUMMARY Near-infrared was used to develop a method for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process of GegenCalibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) as non-linear regressionThe root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Abbreviations used: NIR: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy; Gegen: Puerariae Loabatae Radix; TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine; PLS: Partial least-squares; ANN: Artificial neural networks; RMSEP: Root mean square error of validation; R2: Correlation coefficients; PAT: Process analytical technology; FDA: The Food and Drug Administration; Rcal: Calibration set; RMSECV: Root mean square errors of cross-validation; RPD: Residual predictive deviation; SLS: Straight Line Subtraction; MLP: Multi-Layer Perceptron; MSE: Mean square error. PMID:27601848

  6. Endodontic Management of a Mandibular First Molar with Radix Entomolaris and Conservative Post-endodontic Restoration with CAD/CAM Onlay: A Novel Clinical Technique

    PubMed Central

    De Ataide, Ida De Noronha; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan; Alreja, Dalip

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a novel technique of restoring endodontically treated teeth. Hidden caries causing irreversible pulpitis in a mandibular molar with Radix Entomolaris (RE) was evident. The intact occlusal surface anatomy was duplicated before preparing an access cavity to replicate the original occlusal surface in the post endodontic restoration using (Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing) CAD/CAM technique. This report highlights uniquely designed onlay utilizing the benefits of contemporary materials and advanced technology. PMID:28050515

  7. A genetically distinct Schistosoma from Radix luteola from Nepal related to Schistosoma turkestanicum: A phylogenetic study of schistosome and snail host.

    PubMed

    Devkota, Ramesh; Brant, Sara V; Loker, Eric S

    2016-12-01

    During a survey of freshwater snails in the Terai region of southern Nepal, 16 of 2588 specimens of Radix luteola from 4 different habitats were found to be shedding schistosome cercariae. None of the 1411 specimens of Radix acuminata we collected were positive for schistosomes. Analysis of 28S, cox1, 16S and 12S sequences indicated that all the R. luteola-derived schistosomes were genetically very similar to one another and, although unambiguously grouping most closely to the widespread Asian species Schistosoma turkestanicum, were clearly genetically distinct from it. We lack information from other life cycle stages to verify the specific identity of these cercariae, but it is possible they are of Schistosoma bomfordi or Schistosoma dattai, both species previously known only from northern India, the latter species known to infect R. luteola. This study provides sequence evidence for a third genetically distinct lymnaeid-transmitted Schistosoma lineage in Asia (to go along with S. turkestanicum and S. incognitum). As a close relative of S. turkestanicum, it provides the first direct molecular evidence to accompany morphological results from earlier studies for the presence of a S. turkestanicum species group in Asia. It increases to five the number of known or suspected mammalian schistosome species to be present in the Terai region of Nepal. Radix luteola and R. acuminata were identified and differentiated using conchological features and by molecular phylogenetic analyses of cox1 and 16S genes.

  8. An Improved LC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of the Eleven Bioactive Constituents for Quality Control of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and Its Related Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Zhang, Qiu-Hong; He, Jun; Liu, Er-wei; Gao, Xiu-mei; Chang, Yan-xu

    2015-01-01

    An improved LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of eleven bioactive constituents of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and its related preparations. It was the first report on the quantification of bioactive constituents in different preparations of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis by LC-MS/MS analytical method. These samples were separated with an Agilent Zorbax Extend reversed-phase C18 column (1.8 μm, 4.6 × 100 mm) by linear gradient elution using aqueous ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.3 mL min−1. The eleven bioactive constituents showed good regression (R > 0.990) within test ranges and the recoveries were in the range of 87.1–110%. The limit of detections and quantifications for most of the major constituents were less than 0.5 and 1.0 ng mL−1, respectively. All results indicated that the developed method could be readily utilized as a suitable quality control method for Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and related preparations. PMID:26078992

  9. Quality evaluation of Radix Stemonae through simultaneous quantification of bioactive alkaloids by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and evaporative light scattering detectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Song-Lin; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Hon, Po-Ming; Cheng, Ling; Xu, Hong-Xi; Greger, Harald; But, Paul Pui-Hay; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2007-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) method was developed to simultaneously quantify six major bioactive alkaloids belonging to different structure types in Radix Stemonae, Bai-Bu in Chinese, a traditionally used antitussive and insecticidal medicinal material in China and other countries of Southeast Asia. Diode array detector (DAD) with the wavelengths at 307 and 260 nm was used to monitor the conjugated system of protostemonine (2) and maistemonine (4), respectively, whereas evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was employed to detect croomine (1), stemoninine (3), neotuberostemonine (5) and tuberostemonine (6), the other four analytes with no or poor chromophores. The assay was validated to be sensitive, precise and accurate, with a detection limit of 3.64-0.04 microg/mL depending on the individual analytes. The overall intra- and inter-day variations were less than 9.3%, and the overall recoveries higher than 91.2%, respectively. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were better than 0.996 for all analytes. The newly established method was successfully utilized to determine six major components in the genuine sources of Radix Stemonae: Stemona japonica, S. sessilifolia and S. tuberosa. Significant variations of contents of these components were demonstrated in samples of these three species. This simple, rapid, low-cost and reliable method is suitable for the routine quality control of herbal medicines containing bioactive components with different structure types such as Radix Stemonae.

  10. Prediction of Radix Astragali Immunomodulatory Effect of CD80 Expression from Chromatograms by Quantitative Pattern-Activity Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Michelle Chun-har; Lau, Tsui-yan; Fan, Kei; Xu, Qing-song; Lam, Mary K.

    2017-01-01

    The current use of a single chemical component as the representative quality control marker of herbal food supplement is inadequate. In this CD80-Quantitative-Pattern-Activity-Relationship (QPAR) study, we built a bioactivity predictive model that can be applicable for complex mixtures. Through integrating the chemical fingerprinting profiles of the immunomodulating herb Radix Astragali (RA) extracts, and their related biological data of immunological marker CD80 expression on dendritic cells, a chemometric model using the Elastic Net Partial Least Square (EN-PLS) algorithm was established. The EN-PLS algorithm increased the biological predictive capability with lower value of RMSEP (11.66) and higher values of Rp2 (0.55) when compared to the standard PLS model. This CD80-QPAR platform provides a useful predictive model for unknown RA extract's bioactivities using the chemical fingerprint inputs. Furthermore, this bioactivity prediction platform facilitates identification of key bioactivity-related chemical components within complex mixtures for future drug discovery and understanding of the batch-to-batch consistency for quality clinical trials. PMID:28337449

  11. Deciphering chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma by liquid chromatography with transformed multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhao; Liu, Ting; Liao, Jie; Ai, Ni; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we propose an integrated strategy for the efficient identification and quantification of herbal constituents using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. First, liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed for the chemical profiling of herbs, where a targeted following nontargeted approach was developed to detect trace constituents by using structural correlations and extracted ion chromatograms. Next, ion pairs and parameters of MS(2) of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were selected to design multiple reaction monitoring transitions for the identified compounds on liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The relative concentration of each constituent was then calculated using a semiquantitative calibration curve. The proposed strategy was applied in a study of chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma. A total of 140 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized from the herbs, 132 of which were relatively quantified. The visualized quantitative results clearly showed codecoction produced significant constituent concentration variations especially for those with a low polarity. The case study also indicated that the present methodology could provide a reliable, accurate, and labor-saving solution for chemical studies of herbal medicines.

  12. Broad spectrum antibacterial activity of a mixture of isothiocyanates from nasturtium (Tropaeoli majoris herba) and horseradish (Armoraciae rusticanae radix).

    PubMed

    Conrad, A; Biehler, D; Nobis, T; Richter, H; Engels, I; Biehler, K; Frank, U

    2013-02-01

    Isothiocyanates have been reported to exert antimicrobial activity. These compounds are found in a licensed native preparation of nasturtium (Tropaeoli majoris herba) and horseradish (Armoraciae rusticanae radix) which is used for treatment of upper respiratory and urinary tract infections. The aim of our investigation was to assess the antimicrobial activity of a mixture of the contained benzyl-, allyl-, and phenylethyl- isothiocyanates against clinically important bacterial and fungal pathogens including antimicrobial resistant isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed by agar-dilution technique. Isothiocyanates were mixed in proportions identical to the licensed drug. Minimum inhibitory- and minimum bactericidal concentrations were assessed. The Minimum inhibitory concentration90 was defined as the concentration which inhibited 90% of the microbial species tested. H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, S. marcescens, P. vulgaris, and Candida spp. were found to be highly susceptible, with minimum inhibitory concentration90 -values ranging between ≤0.0005% and 0.004% (v/v) of total ITC. Intermediate susceptibilities were observed for S. aureus, S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, with Minimum inhibitory concentration90 -values ranging between 0.004% and 0.125% (v/v), but with elevated Minimum bactericidal concentrations90-values (2-7 dilution steps above Minimum inhibitory concentration90). Low susceptibilities were determined for viridans streptococci and enterococci. Interestingly, both resistant and non-resistant bacteria were similarly susceptible to the test preparation.

  13. Radix Astragali-Based Chinese Herbal Medicine for Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) remains a big challenge for oncologists. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Radix Astragali- (RA-) based Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy, including the incidence and grading of neurotoxicity, effective percentage, and nerve conduction velocity. Methods. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were found using PubMed, Cochrane, Springer, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database of China Science Periodical Database (CSPD) by keyword search. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.0. Results. A total of 1552 participants were included in 24 trials. Meta-analysis showed the incidence of all-grade neurotoxicity was significantly lower in experimental groups and high-grade neurotoxicity was also significantly less. Effective percentage was significantly higher and sensory nerve conduction velocity was improved significantly, but changes in motor nerve conduction velocity were not statistically significant. No adverse events associated with RA-based intervention were reported. Conclusion. RA-based intervention may be beneficial in relieving oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. However, more double-blind, multicenter, large-scale RCTs are needed to support this theory. Trial Registration. PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews has registration number  CRD42015019903. PMID:27795728

  14. Mixed Phenolic Acids Mediated Proliferation of Pathogens Talaromyces helicus and Kosakonia sacchari in Continuously Monocultured Radix pseudostellariae Rhizosphere Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongmiao; Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Zhu, Quan; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Jiahui; Zheng, Cailiang; Chen, Jun; Qin, Xianjin; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing; Azeem, Saadia; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Radix pseudostellariae L. is a common and popular Chinese medication. However, continuous monoculture has increased its susceptibility to severe diseases. We identified two pathogenic microorganisms, Talaromyces helicus M. (KU355274) and Kosakonia sacchari W. (KU324465), and their antagonistic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus Z. in rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae. Nine types of phenolic acids were identified both in the rhizosphere soil and in culture medium under sterile conditions. A syringic acid and phenolic acid mixture significantly promoted the growth of T. helicus and K. sacchari. T. helicus could utilize eight types of phenolic acids, whereas K. sacchari could only use four phenolic acids. K. sacchari produced protocatechuic acid when consuming vanillin. Protocatechuic acid negatively affected the growth of B. pumilus. The 3A-DON toxin produced by T. helicus promoted the growth of K. sacchari and inhibited growth of B. pumilus at low concentrations. These data help explain why phenolic exudates mediate a microflora shift and structure disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae and lead to increased replanting disease incidence. PMID:27014250

  15. Antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of the mixture of ginseng radix and crataegi fructus: experimental study and preliminary clinical results.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chang-Nam; Park, Seong-Uk; Chang, Gyu-Tae; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Cho, Ki-Ho

    2011-06-01

    The mixture of Ginseng Radix and Crataegi Fructus (Gen-CF) was developed to increase the pharmacological effect of ginseng in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated the effects of Gen-CF on serum lipids of hypercholesterolemic rats in vivo, as well as its antioxidant activities in vitro, and explored its clinical effects on patients with hypercholesterolemia. In vitro, Gen-CF displayed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrasyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities, and inhibited hemolysis induced by 2,2'-azobis-2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, Gen-CF significantly inhibited the increases of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride in high cholesterol-diet and Triton WR-1339 models. It also significantly inhibited the decrease of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in these models. In the clinical trial, Gen-CF significantly lowered total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, total lipid and phospholipid, with no adverse events, including hepatic or renal toxicity. The data suggest that Gen-CF has the potential to treat hypercholesterolemia and prevent cardiovascular disease.

  16. Application of Scutellariae radix, Gardeniae fructus, and Probiotics to Prevent Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis Infection in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chiung-Hung; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Su, Chiu-Hsian; Chen, Daniel S.; Tsai, Chin-En; Yu, Bi; Hsu, Yuan-Man

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, a host-adapted pathogen of swine, usually causes septicemia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains have been widely studied in recent years for their probiotic properties. In this study, a mouse infection model first screened for potential agents against infection, then a pig infection model evaluated effects of LAB strains and herbal plants against infection. Scutellariae radix (SR) and Gardeniae fructus (GF) showed abilities to reduce bacteria shedding and suppressing serum level of TNF-α induced by infection in swine. Bioactivities of SR and GF were enhanced by combining with LAB strains, which alone could speed up the bacteria elimination time in feces and boost immunity of infected pigs. Baicalein and genipin exhibited stronger cytotoxicity than baicalin and geniposide did, as well as prevent Salmonella from invading macrophages. Our study suggests LAB strains as exhibiting multiple functions: preventing infection, enhancing immunity to prepare host defenses against further infection, and adjusting intestinal microbes' enzymatic activity in order to convert herbal compounds to active compounds. The SR/GF-LAB strain mixture holds potential infection-prevention agents supplied as feed additives. PMID:23533497

  17. Herbal formula, Scutellariae radix and Rhei rhizoma attenuate dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Leu, Yann-Lii; Wu, Tung-Ho; Wu, Yun-Ru; You, Jyh-Sheng

    2015-07-02

    The bioactive components extracted from Scutellariae radix and Rhei rhizoma (SR) have been commonly used to treat liver diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the underlying mechanisms and antifibrotic effects of ethanol extract from the herbal combinatorial formula (SRE) in a dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-administered rat model, with functional proteome tools. Our results indicated that the hepatic collagen content and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression were obviously alleviated by treatment with SRE. Comprehensive proteomics revealed global protein changes, and the network analysis implied that SRE application would attenuate oxidative stress and cytoskeleton dysregulation caused by DMN exposure. Next, marked downregulation of antioxidant enzymes mediated by DMN treatment was restored in the presence of SRE, while SRE treatment contributed to decreased MDA content. Moreover, protein carbonylation and DNA adduction induced by oxidative stress finally leading to liver injury were also reduced under SRE administration. These findings demonstrate that SRE could effectively prevent hepatic fibrosis mainly through regulating the redox status, and subsequently modulating the modification of intracellular molecules. Our experiments might help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against oxidation-caused liver diseases.

  18. Platycodi Radix attenuates dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats by inducing Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Ho; Jin, Sun Woo; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Hwang, Yong Pil; Lee, Kyung Jin; Choi, Chul Yung; Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-fibrotic effects of the aqueous extract of the Platycodi Radix root (Changkil: CK) on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. DMN treatment for 4 weeks led to marked liver fibrosis as assessed by serum biochemistry, histopathological examination, and hepatic lipid peroxidation and collagen content. CK significantly inhibited DMN-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, fibrosis score, and hepatic malondialdehyde and collagen content. CK also inhibited DMN-induced reductions in rat body and liver weights. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses revealed that CK inhibited DMN-induced increases in matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA, and collagen type I and α-smooth muscle actin protein. DMN-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation was reduced by CK treatment. Furthermore, CK induced activation of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant enzymes such as γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in HepG2 cells. These results demonstrated that CK attenuates DMN-induced liver fibrosis through the activation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes.

  19. Herbal formula, Scutellariae radix and Rhei rhizoma attenuate dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Leu, Yann-Lii; Wu, Tung-Ho; Wu, Yun-Ru; You, Jyh-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The bioactive components extracted from Scutellariae radix and Rhei rhizoma (SR) have been commonly used to treat liver diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the underlying mechanisms and antifibrotic effects of ethanol extract from the herbal combinatorial formula (SRE) in a dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-administered rat model, with functional proteome tools. Our results indicated that the hepatic collagen content and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression were obviously alleviated by treatment with SRE. Comprehensive proteomics revealed global protein changes, and the network analysis implied that SRE application would attenuate oxidative stress and cytoskeleton dysregulation caused by DMN exposure. Next, marked downregulation of antioxidant enzymes mediated by DMN treatment was restored in the presence of SRE, while SRE treatment contributed to decreased MDA content. Moreover, protein carbonylation and DNA adduction induced by oxidative stress finally leading to liver injury were also reduced under SRE administration. These findings demonstrate that SRE could effectively prevent hepatic fibrosis mainly through regulating the redox status, and subsequently modulating the modification of intracellular molecules. Our experiments might help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against oxidation-caused liver diseases. PMID:26133262

  20. Targeting delivery of Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide to ischemic/reperfused rat myocardium by long-circulating macromolecular and liposomal carriers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, LiNa; Yao, ChunXia; Wu, Fei; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Drug delivery to ischemic myocardium is an enormous challenge. This work aimed to characterize cardiac delivery behaviors of mono-polyethylene glycosylated (PEGylated) conjugates and long-circulating liposomes (L-Lps) with Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP) as drug. The results showed that compared to native ROP, 32-, 52-, and 45-fold increases in blood half-life were achieved by 20-kDa PEG mono-modified ROP (P20k-R), 40-kDa PEG mono-modified ROP (P40k-R), and ROP-loaded L-Lp, respectively. With comparable blood pharmacokinetics, ROP-loaded L-Lp showed both significantly higher targeting efficacy and drug exposure in infarcted myocardium than P40k-R. With regard to P20k-R, both its targeting efficacy and its level in infarcted myocardium at 3 hours postdose were comparable to P40k-R, but its level in blood and myocardium reduced obviously faster. As a whole, the results indicate that both loading in L-Lps and mono-PEGylation are effective in targeting drug to ischemic myocardium, but the former appears to induce stronger effects. PMID:26425081

  1. Analog implementation of radix-2, 16-FFT processor for OFDM receivers: non-linearity behaviours and system performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtarian, N.; Hodtani, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Analog implementations of decoders have been widely studied by considering circuit complexity, as well as power and speed, and their integration with other analog blocks is an extension of analog decoding research. In the front-end blocks of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, combination of an analog fast Fourier transform (FFT) with an analog decoder is suitable. In this article, the implementation of a 16-symbol FFT processor based on analog complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor current mirrors within circuit and system levels is presented, and the FFT is implemented using a butterfly diagram, where each node is implemented using analog circuits. Implementation details include consideration of effects of transistor mismatch and inherent noises and effects of circuit non-linearity in OFDM system performance. It is shown that not only can transistor inherent noises be measured but also transistor mismatch can be applied as an input-referred noise source that can be used in system- and circuit-level studies. Simulations of a radix-2, 16-symbol FFT show that proposed circuits consume very low power, and impacts of noise, mismatch and non-linearity for each node of this processor are very small.

  2. The volatile oil of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in HUVEC cells.

    PubMed

    Maiwulanjiang, Maitinuer; Bi, Cathy W C; Lee, Pinky S C; Xin, Guizhong; Miernisha, Abudureyimu; Lau, Kei M; Xiong, Aizhen; Li, Ning; Dong, Tina T X; Aisa, Haji A; Tsim, Karl W K

    2015-01-01

    Nardostahyos Radix et Rhizoma (NRR; the root and rhizome of Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) is a widely used medicinal herb. Historically, NRR is being used for the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases. To search for active ingredients of NRR, we investigated the vascular benefit of NRR volatile oil in (i) the vasodilation in rat aorta ring, and (ii) the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By measuring the fluorescence signal in cultures, application of NRR volatile oil resulted in a rapid activation of NO release as well as the phosphorylation of eNOS: both inductions were markedly reduced by L-NAME. In parallel, the phosphorylation level of Akt kinase was markedly increased by the oil treatment, which was partially attenuated by PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. This inhibitor also blocked the NRR-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. In HUVECs, application of NRR volatile oil elevated the intracellular Ca(2+) level, and BAPTA-AM, a Ca(2+) chelator, reduced the Ca(2+) surge: the blockage were also applied to NRR-induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. These findings suggested the volatile oil of NRR was the major ingredient in triggering the vascular dilatation, and which was mediated via the NO production.

  3. Elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography for the separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chu; Zhang, Shidi; Tong, Shengqiang; Li, Xingnuo; Li, Qingyong; Yan, Jizhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient protocol for the rapid separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix was developed by combining macroporous resin and elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography. The crude extract was firstly subjected to a D101 macroporous resin column eluted with water and a series of different concentrations of ethanol. Then, effluents of 30 and 95% ethanol were collected as sample 1 and sample 2 for further counter-current chromatography purification. Finally, a pair of isomers, 96 mg of compound 1 and 48 mg of compound 2 with purities of 91.1 and 96.2%, respectively, was isolated from 200 mg of sample 1. The other pair of isomers, 14 mg of compound 3 and 8 mg of compound 4 with purities of 93.6 and 88.9%, respectively, was isolated from 48 mg of sample 2. Their purities were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were identified by mass spectrometry and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Compared to a normal counter-current chromatography separation, the separation time and solvent consumption of elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography were reduced while the resolutions were still good. The established protocol is promising for the separation of natural products with great disparity of content in herbal medicines.

  4. Integrating targeted glycomics and untargeted metabolomics to investigate the processing chemistry of herbal medicines, a case study on Rehmanniae Radix.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Mao, Qian; Kong, Ming; Shen, Hong; Li, Xiu-Yang; Duan, Su-Min; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-11-11

    It is well-recognized that multiple components, the majority of which are secondary metabolites and carbohydrates, collectively contribute to the therapeutic effects of herbal medicines. The chemical characterization of herbal medicines has focused extensively on secondary metabolites but has largely overlooked carbohydrates. Here, we proposed an integrated chromatographic technique based targeted glycomics and untargeted metabolomics strategy simultaneously determining carbohydrates and secondary metabolites for the overall chemical profiling of herbal medicines; this strategy was successfully exemplified in an investigation of processing chemistry of Rehmanniae Radix (RR), a Chinese medicinal herb. It was demonstrated that the integrated strategy holistically illuminated the variations in the glycome and metabolome of RR samples processed by the traditionally-adopted nine cycles of steaming and drying, and further elucidated the processing-induced chemical transformation mechanisms of carbohydrates and secondary metabolites, and thereby revealed the inherent chemical connections between carbohydrates and secondary metabolites. The result suggested that the proposed strategy meets the technical demands for the overall chemical characterization of herbal medicines, and therefore could serve as a powerful tool for deciphering the scientific basis of herbal medicines.

  5. Assessment of molluscicidal activity of essential oils from five Azorean plants against Radix peregra (Müller, 1774).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Tânia; Rosa, José Silvino; Rainha, Nuno; Baptista, José; Rodrigues, Armindo

    2012-03-01

    The molluscicidal activity of essential oils from two endemic (Juniperus brevifolia; Laurus azorica) and three introduced (Hedychium gardnerianum; Pittosporum undulatum; Psidium cattleianum) Azorean plants against the snail Radix peregra was studied under laboratory conditions. Essential oils from leaves of H. gardnerianum, L. azorica and J.brevifolia presented promising molluscicidal activity on both adults and juveniles stages of R. peregra. The molluscicidal activity of these essential oils was found to be both time and concentration dependent. Lethal concentrations (LC(50)) varied between 15.4 (L. azorica) and 44.6 ppm (H. gardnerianum) for juveniles and from 45.3 (H. gardnerianum) to 54.6 ppm (J. brevifolia) for R. peregra adults. Ovicidal effect, calculated as percentage of egg hatching, at 100 ppm concentration, was observed in essential oils from P. undulatum flowers (4.2% of hatching) and leaves of H. gardnerianum (4.9%), L. azorica (7.4%) and J. brevifolia (17.7%). The present study is the first attempt to assess the molluscicidal potential of some Azorean plants essential oils against a Lymnaeidae snail. In fact, the H. gardnerianum, L. azorica and J. brevifolia can offer natural alternative tools for the control of R. peregra population, but more research is needed in order to determine the mode of action of these oils and determine the side effects on the ecosystem where this freshwater snail occurs.

  6. Design of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction for the efficient extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xueqin; Li, Li; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-12-01

    A series of novel tetramethylguanidinium ionic liquids and hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been synthesized based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine. The structures of the ionic liquids were confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. A green guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction method has been developed with these guanidinium ionic liquids for the effective extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani. After extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was employed for the analysis of Praeruptorin A. Several significant operating parameters were systematically optimized by single-factor and L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array experiments. The amount of Praeruptorin A extracted by [1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine]CH2CH(OH)COOH is the highest, reaching 11.05 ± 0.13 mg/g. Guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction presents unique advantages in Praeruptorin A extraction compared with guanidinium ionic liquid based maceration extraction, guanidinium ionic liquid based heat reflux extraction and guanidinium ionic liquid based ultrasound-assisted extraction. The precision, stability, and repeatability of the process were investigated. The mechanisms of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction were researched by scanning electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy. All the results show that guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction has a huge potential in the extraction of bioactive compounds from complex samples.

  7. The Volatile Oil of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma Induces Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in HUVEC Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maiwulanjiang, Maitinuer; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Lee, Pinky S. C.; Xin, Guizhong; Miernisha, Abudureyimu; Lau, Kei M.; Xiong, Aizhen; Li, Ning; Dong, Tina T. X.; Aisa, Haji A.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2015-01-01

    Nardostahyos Radix et Rhizoma (NRR; the root and rhizome of Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) is a widely used medicinal herb. Historically, NRR is being used for the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases. To search for active ingredients of NRR, we investigated the vascular benefit of NRR volatile oil in (i) the vasodilation in rat aorta ring, and (ii) the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By measuring the fluorescence signal in cultures, application of NRR volatile oil resulted in a rapid activation of NO release as well as the phosphorylation of eNOS: both inductions were markedly reduced by L-NAME. In parallel, the phosphorylation level of Akt kinase was markedly increased by the oil treatment, which was partially attenuated by PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. This inhibitor also blocked the NRR-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. In HUVECs, application of NRR volatile oil elevated the intracellular Ca2+ level, and BAPTA-AM, a Ca2+ chelator, reduced the Ca2+ surge: the blockage were also applied to NRR-induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. These findings suggested the volatile oil of NRR was the major ingredient in triggering the vascular dilatation, and which was mediated via the NO production. PMID:25643147

  8. Blockade of vascular angiogenesis by Aspergillus usamii var. shirousamii-transformed Angelicae Gigantis Radix and Zizyphus jujuba.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Wook; Choi, Jung-Suk; Bae, Ji-Young; Li, Jing; Kim, Dong Shoo; Kim, Jung-Lye; Shin, Seung-Yong; You, Hyun Ju; Park, Hyoung-Sook; Ji, Geun Eog; Kang, Young-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play an important role in tumor invasion, angiogenesis and inflammatory tissue destruction. Increased expression of MMP was observed in benign tissue hyperplasia and in atherosclerotic lesions. Invasive cancer cells utilize MMP to degrade the extracellular matrix and vascular basement membrane during metastasis, where MMP-2 has been implicated in the development and dissemination of malignancies. The present study attempted to examine the antiangiogenic activity of the medicinal herbs of Aspergillus usamii var. shirousamii-transformed Angelicae Gigantis Radix and Zizyphus jujube (tAgR and tZj) with respect to MMP-2 production and endothelial motility in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- or VEGF-exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Nontoxic tAgR and tZj substantially suppressed PMA-induced MMP-2 secretion. In addition, 25 microg/mL tAgR and tZj prevented vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated endothelial cell transmigration and tube formation. The results reveal that tAgR and tZj dampened endothelial MMP-2 production leading to endothelial transmigration and tube formation. tAgR and tZj-mediated inhibition of endothelial MMP may boost a therapeutic efficacy during vascular angiogenesis.

  9. Preparation of monomeric and polymeric β-cyclodextrin functionalized monoliths for rapid isolation and purification of puerarin from Radix puerariae.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yongqin; Hughes, Timothy C; Hao, Xiaojuan; Mei, Danping; Tan, Tianwei

    2011-08-01

    Monomeric and epichlorohydrin polymerized β-CD functionalized monoliths were prepared for the rapid isolation and purification of the isoflavonoid puerarin, a well-known traditional Chinese drug, from a crude extract of Radix puerariae (root of the plant Pueraria lobata). Two copolymers poly(isocyanatoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(IEM-co-MMA-co-EDMA)) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-EDMA) (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)) were developed as facile, highly reactive and versatile monolithic matrix. SEM characterization demonstrated that the modified monoliths had homogenous porous structure and morphology. The success of the chemical modification of the monolithic matrix was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), solid-state (13) C NMR and elemental analysis. It was demonstrated that polymeric β-CD modified monoliths had better separation and selectivity for puerarin, recovering puerarin with a purity of 96% (m%) and a yield of 93% (m%). Compared with poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-EDMA), poly(isocyanatoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co-EDMA) monolithic matrix had higher reactivity, which significantly improved the β-CD ligand density and thus the selectivity of the monoliths. Puerarin with a purity of 96% (m%) and with a yield of 89% (m%) was recovered on the monolith.

  10. HepG2 cells biospecific extraction and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis for screening potential antiatherosclerotic active components in Bupeuri radix.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuqiang; Tan, Zhibin; Li, Pingting; Gao, Xiaoling; Zeng, Yuaner; Wang, Shuling

    2016-03-20

    HepG2 cells biospecific extraction method and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analysis was proposed for screening of potential antiatherosclerotic active components in Bupeuri radix, a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The hypothesis suggested that when cells are incubated together with the extracts of TCM, the potential bioactive components in the TCM should selectively combine with the receptor or channel of HepG2 cells, then the eluate which contained biospecific component binding to HepG2 cells was identified using HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. The potential bioactive components of Bupeuri radix were investigated using the proposed approach. Five compounds in the saikosaponins of Bupeuri radix were detected as these components selectively combined with HepG2 cells, among these compounds, two potentially bioactive compounds namely saikosaponin b1 and saikosaponin b2 (SSb2) were identified by comparing with the chromatography of the standard sample and analysis of the structural clearance characterization of MS. Then SSb2 was used to assess the uptake of DiI-high density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells for antiatherosclerotic activity. The results have showed that SSb2, with indicated concentrations (5, 15, 25, and 40 μM) could remarkably uptake dioctadecylindocarbocyanine labeled- (DiI) -HDL in HepG2 cells (Vs control group, *P<0.01). In conclusion, the application of HepG2 biospecific extraction coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS analysis is a rapid, convenient, and reliable method for screening potential bioactive components in TCM and SSb2 may be a valuable novel drug agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  11. ["Re-evaluation upon suspected event" is an approach for post-marketing clinical study: lessons from adverse drug events related to Bupleuri Radix preparations].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Xin; Sun, Hong-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Long, Hong-Zhu; Ye, Zu-Guang; Ji, Shao-Liang; Zhang, Li

    2014-08-01

    We revisited the "Xiao Chaihu Decoction event (XCHDE)" occurred in late 1980s in Japan and the Bupleuri Radix related adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports in China After careful review, comparison, analysis and evaluation, we think the interstitial pneumonitis, drug induced Liver injury (DILI) and other severe adverse drug envents (ADEs) including death happened in Japan is probably results from multiple factors, including combinatory use of XCHDE with interferon, Kampo usage under modern medicine theory guidance, and use of XCHD on the basis of disease diagnosis instead of traditional Chinese syndrome complex differentiation. There are less ADE case reports related to XCHD preparation in China compared to Japan, mostly manifest with hypersensitivity responses of skin and perfuse perspiration. The symptoms of Radix Bupleuri injection related ADEs mainly manifest hypersensitivity-like response, 2 cases of intravenous infusion instead of intramuscular injection developed hypokalemia and renal failure. One case died from severe hypersensitivity shock. In Chinese literatures, there is no report of the interstitial pneumonitis and DILI associated with XCHDG in Japan. So far, there is no voluntary monitoring data and large sample clinical research data available. The author elaborated the classification of "reevaluation" and clarified "re-evaluation upon events" included the reaction to the suspected safety and efficacy events. Based on the current status of the clinical research on the Radix Bupleuri preparations, the author points out that post-marketing "re-evaluation upon suspected event" is not only a necessity of continuous evaluation of the safety, efficacy of drugs, it is also a necessity for providing objective clinical research data to share with the international and domestic drug administrations in the risk-benefit evaluation. It is also the unavoidable pathway to culture and push the excellent species and famous brands of TCM to the international market, in

  12. [Study on effect of astragali radix polysaccharides in improving learning and memory functions in aged rats and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Yao, Hui; Gu, Li-Jia; Guo, Jian-You

    2014-06-01

    To observe the effect of Astragali Radix polysaccharides (APS) on the learning and memory functions of aged rats, in order to explore its mechanism for improving the learning and memory functions. Natural aging female SD rats were selected in the animal model and randomly divided into the control group, the APS low-dose group (50 mg x kg(-1)), the APS high-dose group (150 mg x kg(-1)) and the piracetam-treated group (560 mg x kg(-1)). They were orally administered with the corresponding drugs for consecutively 60 days. Besides, a young control group was set. The learning and memory functions of the rats were tested by the open-field test and the Morris water maze task. The Western-blot method was used to observe the levels of relevant neural plasticity protein N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor) in hippocampus, calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II), protein kinase (PKA), the phosphorylation level of CAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and the protein expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF). In this study, the authors found that the learning and memory functions and the hippocampus neural plasticity protein expression of the aged rat group were much lower than that of the young control group (P < 0.01). Compared with the aged rat group, the APS group showed the significant improvement in the impaired learning and memory functions of aged rats and the up-regulation in the hippocampus neural plasticity protein expression. The results showed that APS may improve the learning and memory functions of aged rats by increasing the expressions of relevant neural plasticity proteins.

  13. Lipid Regulation Effects of Raw and Processed Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizome on Steatotic Hepatocyte L02 Cell.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Li, Chunmei; Yang, Caixia; Zhao, Ronghua; Mao, Xiaojian; Yu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Raw and processed Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizome (NRR) have been widely used in treatment of metabolic syndromes and related disease, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study was designed to investigate lipid regulation effects of raw and processed NRR in steatotic L02 cell. Materials and Methods. Steatotic L02 cells were obtained after being cultured with 5% fat emulsion-10% FBS-RPMI 1640 medium for 48 h. Contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in steatotic L02 cells were evaluated after treatment. Furthermore, the lipid metabolism regulation mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) and its monomers were evaluated by detecting the expressions of hydroxymethyl glutaric acyl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR), sterol regulating element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7α). Results. TG and TC contents were doubled in model group compared to those in normal L02 cells group. Raw NRR and NRR heated with sand (NRR-B) showed much remarkable lipid-lowering effects in steatotic L02 cells. PNS, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, and ginsenoside Rb1 displayed the best TG and TC regulation activity, which could significantly reduce contents of SREBP-2 and HMG-CoAR and increase the content of CYP7α. Conclusions. Our results may support the fact that both raw NRR and NRR-B might have more satisfactory effects in the treatment of NAFLD.

  14. Pectinase-Processed Ginseng Radix (GINST) Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia in High Fat Diet-Fed ICR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hai-Dan; Kim, Jung Tae; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    To develop a ginseng product possessing an efficacy for diabetes, ginseng radix ethanol extract was treated with pectinase and obtained the GINST. In the present study, we evaluate the beneficial effect of GINST on high fat diet (HFD)-induced hyper-glycemia and hyperlipidemia and action mechanism(s) in ICR mice. The mice were randomly divided into five groups: regular diet group (RD), high fat diet group (HFD), HFD plus GINST at 75 mg/kg (GINST75), 150 mg/kg (GINST150), and 300 mg/kg (GINST300). Oral glucose tolerance test reveals that GINST improves the glucose tolerance after glucose challenge. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were decreased by 4.3% and 4.2% in GINST75, 10.9% and 20.0% in GINST150, and 19.6% and 20.9% in GINST300 compared to those in HFD control group. Insulin resistance indices were also markedly decreased by 8.2% in GINST75, 28.7% in GINST150, and 36.4% in GINST300, compared to the HFD control group. Plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acid levels in the GINST300 group were decreased by 13.5%, 22.7% and 24.1%, respectively, compared to those in HFD control group. Enlarged adipocytes of HFD control group were markedly decreased in GINST-treated groups, and shrunken islets of HFD control mice were brought back to near normal shape in GINST300 group. Furthermore, GINST enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). In summary, GINST prevents HFD-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia through reducing insulin resistance via activating AMPK-GLUT4 pathways, and could be a potential therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes. PMID:24116299

  15. Antioxidant and Proliferative Activities of Bupleuri Radix Extract Against Serum Deprivation in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Mi Kyoung; Cho, Hye Yeon; Lee, Chan Hong; Koo, Kyung Ah; Park, Yong Ki; Lee, Jung Goo; Lee, Bong Ju

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bupleuri Radix (BR) is a major component of several Oriental herbal medicines used to treat stress and mental illness. There are evidences that antidepressant drugs modulate oxidative damage implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorder, including depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant and proliferative effects of BR against oxidative stress induced by serum deprivation in SH-SY5Y cells. Methods We examined the antioxidant effects of BR on a number of measures, including cell viability, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and levels of both Bcl-2 and Bax. We also investigated the effects of BR on cell proliferation using the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay, and used Western blot analysis to measure changes in expression of the cell cycle phase regulators. Results 1) Serum deprivation significantly induced the loss of cell viability, the formation of ROS, the reduction of SOD activity, down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax expression. However, BR extract reversed these effects in dose-dependent manner. 2) Serum deprivation significantly reduced cell proliferation. Western blot analysis revealed that serum deprivation significantly decreased cyclinD1 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) expression, and increased p27 expression. On the other hand, BR dose dependently reversed these effects. Conclusion This study suggests that aqueous extract of BR may exert potent antioxidant effects and also play an important role in regulating cell cycle progression during neurogenesis. These effects of BR may be a potentially important mechanism of antidepressant underlying the observed antioxidant and proliferative effects. PMID:23483021

  16. Lipid Regulation Effects of Raw and Processed Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizome on Steatotic Hepatocyte L02 Cell

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunmei; Yang, Caixia; Zhao, Ronghua

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Raw and processed Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizome (NRR) have been widely used in treatment of metabolic syndromes and related disease, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study was designed to investigate lipid regulation effects of raw and processed NRR in steatotic L02 cell. Materials and Methods. Steatotic L02 cells were obtained after being cultured with 5% fat emulsion-10% FBS-RPMI 1640 medium for 48 h. Contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in steatotic L02 cells were evaluated after treatment. Furthermore, the lipid metabolism regulation mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) and its monomers were evaluated by detecting the expressions of hydroxymethyl glutaric acyl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR), sterol regulating element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7α). Results. TG and TC contents were doubled in model group compared to those in normal L02 cells group. Raw NRR and NRR heated with sand (NRR-B) showed much remarkable lipid-lowering effects in steatotic L02 cells. PNS, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, and ginsenoside Rb1 displayed the best TG and TC regulation activity, which could significantly reduce contents of SREBP-2 and HMG-CoAR and increase the content of CYP7α. Conclusions. Our results may support the fact that both raw NRR and NRR-B might have more satisfactory effects in the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:27642594

  17. Simultaneous detection of eight active components in Radix Tinosporae by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiuyue; Hashi, Yuki; Chen, Zilin

    2016-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of eight major active components (magnoflorine, menisperine, 20-hydroxyecdysone, cepharanthine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, columbin, and palmatine) in Radix Tinosporae. The separation was performed on an InterSustainSwift C18 column (1.9 μm, 2.1 id × 100 mm) at 40 °C with a gradient elution. A mixture of acetonitrile and methanol (v/v = 1:1) and ammonium acetate buffer (25 mmol/L ammonium acetate with 0.2% formic acid) were used as mobile phases, and the flow rate was set at 0.4 mL/min. The recovery was tested in real samples and calculated to be 86.97-111.28%, and all the compounds showed good linearity (r > 0.998) in relatively wide concentration ranges. The developed method was applied to the determination of eight active compounds in real herb samples, which were collected from four different places. It has been demonstrated that the proposed method has great potential for the quality control of the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Tinosporae.

  18. Development of an in-line HPLC fingerprint ion-trap mass spectrometric method for identification and quality control of Radix Scrophulariae.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jing; Chan, Chi-on; Xu, Lijia; Jin, Dengping; Cao, Xinwei; Mok, Daniel K W; Parekh, H S; Chen, Sibao

    2011-12-05

    Chromatographic fingerprinting has been widely accepted as a crucial method for qualitative and quantitative analyses of bioactives within traditional Chinese medicine. A fingerprint provides detailed information, specific for any given herb, thus facilitating the quality control measures of a given traditional Chinese medicine. In this article, quality assessment of Radix Scrophulariae was achieved by using high performance liquid chromatography combining diode-array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS). Eight batches of sample obtained from different origins in China were used to establish the fingerprint and quantitative analyses. By comparing the retention times, UV and MS spectral data with reference standards, four characteristic peaks in the chromatograms were confirmed as corresponding to acetoside, angoroside C, cinnamic acid, and harpagoside. In addition, other two characteristic peaks were tentatively identified, following the literature interpretation of HPLC-ESI-MS and LC-MS/MS (affording structural information) to be sibirioside A and scrophuloside B(4), respectively. The results indicated that the newly developed HPLC-DAD-MS fingerprint method would be suitable for quality control of Radix Scrophulariae.

  19. Antiosteoporosis effect of radix scutellariae extract on density and microstructure of long bones in tail-suspended sprague-dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-Rui; Zhang, Guang-Wei; Niu, Yin-Bo; Pan, Ya-Lei; Zhai, Yuan-Kun; Mei, Qi-Bing

    2013-01-01

    Radix Scutellariae (RS), a medicinal herb, is extensively employed in traditional Chinese medicines and modern herbal prescriptions. Two major flavonoids in RS were known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE) against bone loss induced by mechanical inactivity or weightlessness. A hindlimb unloading tail-suspended rat model (TS) was established to determine the effect of RSE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. Treatment of RSE at 50 mg/kg/day and alendronate (ALE) at 2 mg/kg/day as positive control for 42 days significantly increased the bone mineral density and mechanical strength compared with TS group. Enhanced bone turnover markers by TS treatment were attenuated by RSE and ALE administration. Deterioration of bone trabecula induced by TS was prevented. Moreover, both treatments counteracted the reduction of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and number, and connectivity density. In conclusion, RSE was demonstrated for the first time to prevent osteoporosis induced by TS treatment, which suggests the potential application of RSE in the treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Rhapontici Radix Ethanol Extract via Inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK and Induction of HO-1 in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Oh, You-Chang; Cho, Won-Kyung; Yim, Nam-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Rhapontici Radix (RR) has been used in traditional medicine in East Asia and has been shown to have various beneficial effects. However, its biological properties or mechanism on inflammation-related diseases is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity and underlying molecular mechanisms of Rhapontici Radix ethanol extract (RRE). The inhibitory effect of RRE on the production of NO, cytokines, inflammatory-related proteins, and mRNAs in LPS-stimulated macrophages was determined by the Griess assay, ELISA, Western blot analysis, and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Our results indicate that treatment with RRE significantly inhibited the secretion of NO and inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages without cytotoxicity. We also found that RRE strongly suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 and induced HO-1 expression. It also prevented nuclear translocation of NF-κB by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of MAPKs in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was significantly inhibited by RRE. These findings suggest that RRE may operate as an effective anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in macrophages. Our results suggest that RRE has potential value as candidate to inflammatory therapeutic phytomedicine. PMID:27524868

  1. A pre-classification strategy based on UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS for metabolic screening and identification of Radix glehniae in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Qi, Pengcheng; Zhou, Na; Zhao, Minmin; Ding, Weijing; Li, Song; Liu, Minyan; Wang, Qiao; Jin, Shumin

    2016-10-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) have gained increasing popularity in modern society. However, the profiles of TCMs in vivo are still unclear owing to their complexity and low level in vivo. In this study, UPLC-Triple-TOF techniques were employed for data acquiring, and a novel pre-classification strategy was developed to rapidly and systematically screen and identify the absorbed constituents and metabolites of TCMs in vivo using Radix glehniae as the research object. In this strategy, pre-classification for absorbed constituents was first performed according to the similarity of their structures. Then representative constituents were elected from every class and analyzed separately to screen non-target absorbed constituents and metabolites in biosamples. This pre-classification strategy is basing on target (known) constituents to screen non-target (unknown) constituents from the massive data acquired by mass spectrometry. Finally, the screened candidate compounds were interpreted and identified based on a predicted metabolic pathway, well - studied fragmentation rules, a predicted metabolic pathway, polarity and retention time of the compounds, and some related literature. With this method, a total of 111 absorbed constituents and metabolites of Radix glehniae in rats' urine, plasma, and bile samples were screened and identified or tentatively characterized successfully. This strategy provides an idea for the screening and identification of the metabolites of other TCMs.

  2. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction in a syringe filter for determination of triazine herbicides in Radix Paeoniae Alba by ultra-fast liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinpei; Wang, Yuanpeng; Sun, Qun; Xu, Bo; Yu, Yong; Wang, Xinghua

    2016-02-01

    A novel, cost-effective and simple solid phase extraction (SPE) method, by using a syringe connected with a nylon membrane filter as the adsorbent container, was developed for the extraction of triazine herbicides from Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) samples. The selective molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) synthesized with the template of atrazine were employed as the adsorbents for the enrichment and purification of analytes. The extraction parameters, including the volume and type of loading solvent, the type of washing solvent and eluting solvent, were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the final extracts were analyzed by ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC). Recoveries of the developed method range from 92.4% to 107.3% with intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 8.2%. The calibration curve is linear in the concentration range of 0.005-2.4 µg g(-1) for desmetryn, atrazine and terbumeton, and 0.005-1.5 µg g(-1) for dimethametryn and dipropetryn, with the correlation coefficient (R(2)) higher than 0.9995. The limits of detection (LODs) of five triazine herbicides are in the range of 0.09-0.39 ng g(-1), which are lower than the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by various official organizations. Analytical results of three real Radix Paeoniae Alba samples indicate that the proposed method is cost-effective and easy-to-use than other routine pretreatment methods.

  3. Onjisaponin B Derived from Radix Polygalae Enhances Autophagy and Accelerates the Degradation of Mutant α-Synuclein and Huntingtin in PC-12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, An-Guo; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; Xu, Su-Wei; Chan, Wai-Kit; Ng, Choi-In; Liu, Liang; Law, Betty Yuen-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates important protective roles being played by autophagy in neurodegenerative disorders through clearance of aggregate-prone or mutant proteins. In the current study, we aimed to identify autophagy inducers from Chinese medicinal herbs as a potential neuroprotective agent that enhances the clearance of mutant huntingtin and α-synuclein in PC-12 cells. Through intensive screening using the green fluorescent protein-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) autophagy detection platform, we found that the ethanol extracts of Radix Polygalae (Yuan Zhi) were capable of inducing autophagy. Further investigation showed that among three single components derived from Radix Polygalae—i.e., polygalacic acid, senegenin and onjisaponin B—onjisaponin B was able to induce autophagy and accelerate both the removal of mutant huntingtin and A53T α-synuclein, which are highly associated with Huntington disease and Parkinson disease, respectively. Our study further demonstrated that onjisaponin B induces autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, findings in the current study provide detailed insights into the protective mechanism of a novel autophagy inducer, which is valuable for further investigation as a new candidate agent for modulating neurodegenerative disorders through the reduction of toxicity and clearance of mutant proteins in the cellular level. PMID:24248062

  4. Simultaneous qualification and quantification of eight triterpenoids in radix achyranthis bidentatae by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun; Song, Yue; Bi, Zhi-Ming; Li, Yan-Jing

    2007-04-01

    An HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) and ESI-MS was established for the simultaneous determination of eight triterpenoids in Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae. The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a Zorbax C18 column by linear gradient elution with 0.08% v/v aqueous formic acid and ACN as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Temperature for the detector drift tube was set at 101 degrees C and the nitrogen flow rate was 2.8 L/min. The identities of the analytes were accomplished by comparing retention times and mass data with those of reference compounds. The validation of the method included tests of linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, recovery, and stability. All the calibration curves of the eight triterpenoids showed good linear regression (R2 >0.997) within the test ranges. The method provides desirable repeatability with overall intra- and interday variations of less than 4.9%. The obtained recoveries varied between 93.6 and 98.1% while the RSDs were below 3.9% (n = 3). The analysis results indicate that the content of investigated triterpenoids in Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae from different locations was greatly diverse, and the triterpenoids could be used as chemical markers for the discrimination of genuine and ungenuine crude drugs.

  5. Quantification of two polyacetylenes in Radix Ginseng and roots of related Panax species using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Hua; Lee, Che-Sum; Leung, Kit-Ming; Yan, Zhong-Kai; Shen, Bai-Hua; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2007-10-31

    A sensitive method for quantitating the pharmacologically active polyacetylenes panaxynol and panaxydol in Radix Ginseng was developed using a capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method. The detection mode of selected ion monitoring (SIM) allowed sensitive and selective quantitation of the two compounds in ginseng. Method validation showed that the GC-MS method has much lower detection and quantitation limits than the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. This indicates that GC-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of polyacetylene compounds, which have relatively low abundances compared with ginsenosides in ginseng. Based on the quantitative results of different types of ginseng herbs, it was found that the panaxydol and panaxynol contents were higher in forest ginseng than in cultivated ginseng. This method was further applied to the quantitative analyses of panaxynol and panaxydol in Radix Notoginseng and American ginseng. The ratio of panaxydol to panaxynol can be utilized as a marker for differentiating ginseng, notoginseng, and American ginseng. This study introduces the first GC-MS method for the quantitative analysis of polyacetylenes in herbs of the Panax genus.

  6. Assessment of genotoxicity of herbal medicinal products: application of the "bracketing and matrixing" concept using the example of Valerianae radix (valerian root).

    PubMed

    Kelber, Olaf; Wegener, Tankred; Steinhoff, Barbara; Staiger, Christiane; Wiesner, Jacqueline; Knöss, Werner; Kraft, Karin

    2014-01-01

    An assessment of genotoxicity is a precondition for marketing authorization respectively registration of herbal medicinal products (HMPs), as well as for inclusion into the 'Community list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations thereof for use in traditional herbal medicinal products' established by the European Commission in accordance with Directive 2001/83/EC as amended, and based on proposals from the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC). In the 'Guideline on the assessment of genotoxicity of herbal substances/preparations' (EMEA/HMPC/107079/2007) HMPC has described a stepwise approach for genotoxicity testing, according to which the Ames test is a sufficient base for the assessment of genotoxicity in case of an unequivocally negative result. For reducing efforts for testing of individual herbal substances/preparations, HMPC has also developed the 'guideline on selection of test materials for genotoxicity testing for traditional herbal medicinal products/herbal medicinal products' (EMEA/HMPC/67644/2009) with the aim to allow testing of a standard range of test materials which could be considered representative of the commonly used preparations from a specific herbal drug according to a 'bracketing/matrixing' approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide data on the practical application of this bracketing and matrixing concept using the example of Valerianae radix, with the intention of facilitating its inclusion in the "Community list". Five extraction solvents, representing the extremes of the polarity range and including also mid-range extraction solvents, were used, covering the entire spectrum of phytochemical constituents of Valerianae radix, thereby including polar and non-polar constituents. Extracts were tested in the Ames test according to all relevant guidelines. Results were unequivocally negative for all extracts. A review of the literature showed that this result is in accordance with the available data, thus

  7. Compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis exerts antitumor effects by inhibiting the proliferation and inducing the apoptosis of esophageal carcinoma TE-8 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Cai, Weimei; Yang, Qinghui; Lu, Zhihong; Li, Jinsong; Yu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on the proliferation of esophageal carcinoma TE-8 cells and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. For this purpose, we incubated TE-8 cells in medium containing various concentrations (0, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/ml) of the compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis injection and its effects on the proliferation of TE-8 cells were examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, we observed the morphological changes and measured the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax) in the cells treated with different doses of the compound (low-dose group, 0.05 mg/ml; medium-dose group, 0.2 mg/ml; and high-dose group, 0.8 ng/ml) by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The apoptotic index of the cancer cells treated with different doses of the compound was determined by TUNEL assay. Our results revealed that compared with the control group (untreated cells), the proliferation of the cancer cells treated with the compound was significantly inhibited (P≤0.05); the inhibition of the proliferation of the cancer cells occured in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, the apoptotic rate of the cells in the low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups increased significantly (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and Bax increased significantly in the cells treated with the compound. However, the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 markedly decreased (P<0.05). With the gradual increase in the drug concentration, the mRNA expression levels of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax in the cancer cells were altered in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis injection significantly enhances the expression of pro-apoptotic genes in esophageal carcinoma TE-8

  8. Stachyose: One of the Active Fibroblast-proliferating Components in the Root of Rehmanniae Radix (地黃 dì huáng)

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Patrick Kwok-Kin; To, Ming-Ho; Lau, Kit-Man; Liu, Cheuk-Lun; Cheng, Ling; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the fibroblast-proliferating activities of different Rehmanniae Radix (RR) samples and its chemical components using human normal fibroblast cells Hs27. Those active components were quantified in differently treated RR samples using UPLC so as to correlate activity with component content. Our results showed that dried RR aqueous extract exhibited the most potent fibroblast-proliferating activity. Stronger effect was observed when ethanol with heating was applied in the extraction process. Stachyose and verbascoside were demonstrated for their first time to exhibit significant stimulatory effects on fibroblast proliferation. However, the proliferating effect of dried RR extract did not correlate with the stachyose content, and verbascoside was not responsible for the fibroblast proliferative effect of RR since it was undetectable in all samples. In conclusion, stachyose only contributed in part to the activity of RR, suggesting that other active components might be present and yet to be found. PMID:24716137

  9. [A simultaneous determination of daidzin and puerarin and determination of daidzein in Oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing puerariae radix by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, T; Momma, N; Ohsawa, K

    1993-12-01

    A simple and precise method was established for the simultaneous determination of daidzin and puerarin and the determination of daidzein in oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing Puerariae Radix using high-performance liquid chromatography with tetra-n-heptylammonium bromide (THA) as an ion-pair reagent. Daidzin and puerarin were eluted within 45 min without interference with co-existing components using an ODS column and a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5)-methanol (68:32) containing 5 mM THA as a mobile phase. Daidzein was eluted within 35 min without interference with co-existing components using an ODS column and a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5)-acetonitrile (72:28 or 68:32) containing 5 mM THA as a mobile phase.

  10. Synthesis of a Temperature-Sensitive Matrine-Imprinted Polymer and Its Potential Application for the Selective Extraction of Matrine from Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Minjie; Wang, Lisheng; Liu, Xu; Yang, Hua; Ren, Fan; Gan, Lizhen; Jiang, Weizhe

    2015-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive matrine-imprinted polymer was prepared in chloroform by free-radical cross-linking copolymerization of methacrylic acid at 60 °C in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, N-isopropyl acrylamide as the temperature-responsive monomer and matrine as the template molecule. Binding experiments and Scatchard analyses revealed that two classes of binding sites were formed on molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) at 50 °C. Additionally, the thermoresponsive MIP was tested for its application as a sorbent material for the selective separation of matrine from Chinese medicinal plant radix Sophorae tonkinensis. It was shown that the thermoresponsive MIP displayed different efficiency in clean-up and enrichments using the SPE protocol at different temperatures. PMID:25658797

  11. Traditional Chinese Nootropic Medicine Radix Polygalae and Its Active Constituent Onjisaponin B Reduce β-Amyloid Production and Improve Cognitive Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohang; Cui, Jin; Yu, Yang; Li, Wei; Hou, Yujun; Wang, Xin; Qin, Dapeng; Zhao, Cun; Yao, Xinsheng; Zhao, Jian; Pei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Decline of cognitive function is the hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), regardless of the pathological mechanism. Traditional Chinese medicine has been used to combat cognitive impairments and has been shown to improve learning and memory. Radix Polygalae (RAPO) is a typical and widely used herbal medicine. In this study, we aimed to follow the β-amyloid (Aβ) reduction activity to identify active constituent(s) of RAPO. We found that Onjisaponin B of RAPO functioned as RAPO to suppress Aβ production without direct inhibition of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase activities. Our mechanistic study showed that Onjisaponin B promoted the degradation of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Further, oral administration of Onjisaponin B ameliorated Aβ pathology and behavioral defects in APP/PS1 mice. Taken together, our results indicate that Onjisaponin B is effective against AD, providing a new therapeutic agent for further drug discovery. PMID:26954017

  12. Traditional Chinese Nootropic Medicine Radix Polygalae and Its Active Constituent Onjisaponin B Reduce β-Amyloid Production and Improve Cognitive Impairments.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohang; Cui, Jin; Yu, Yang; Li, Wei; Hou, Yujun; Wang, Xin; Qin, Dapeng; Zhao, Cun; Yao, Xinsheng; Zhao, Jian; Pei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Decline of cognitive function is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), regardless of the pathological mechanism. Traditional Chinese medicine has been used to combat cognitive impairments and has been shown to improve learning and memory. Radix Polygalae (RAPO) is a typical and widely used herbal medicine. In this study, we aimed to follow the β-amyloid (Aβ) reduction activity to identify active constituent(s) of RAPO. We found that Onjisaponin B of RAPO functioned as RAPO to suppress Aβ production without direct inhibition of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase activities. Our mechanistic study showed that Onjisaponin B promoted the degradation of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Further, oral administration of Onjisaponin B ameliorated Aβ pathology and behavioral defects in APP/PS1 mice. Taken together, our results indicate that Onjisaponin B is effective against AD, providing a new therapeutic agent for further drug discovery.

  13. Rapid Characterization and Identification of Flavonoids in Radix Astragali by Ultra-High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Linear Ion Trap-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Xu, Xiao-Jie; Xu, Wen; Huang, Juan; Zhu, Da-yuan; Qiu, Xiao-Hui

    2015-07-01

    A simple and effective method was established for separation and characterization of flavonoid constituents in Radix Astragali (RA) by combination of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography with LTQ-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (u-HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS(n)). For three major structural types of flavonoids, the proposed fragmentation pathways and major diagnostic fragment ions of isoflavones, pterocarpans and isoflavans were investigated to trace isoflavonoid derivatives in crude plant extracts. Based on the systematic identification strategy, 48 constituents were rapidly detected and characterized or tentatively identified, many of which were first reported in RA. The u-PHLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS(n) platform was proved as an effective tool for rapid qualitative analysis of secondary metabolite productions from natural resources.

  14. Feeble Antipyretic, Analgesic, and Anti-inflammatory Activities were Found with Regular Dose 4’-O-β-D-Glucosyl-5-O-Methylvisamminol, One of the Conventional Marker Compounds for Quality Evaluation of Radix Saposhnikoviae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing-Ming; Jiang, Hua; Dai, Hong-Liang; Wang, Zi-Wei; Jia, Gui-Zhi; Meng, Xiang-Cai

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: 4’-O-β-D-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol (GML) is a conventional marker compound for quality control of Radix Saposhnikoviae. Despite that, neither pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic information is available with regard to GML. As such, the aim of thisstudy was to assess the conventional evaluation indices for the quality of Radix Saposhnikoviae. Materials and methods: Pyretic animal model, hot plate test, and ear edema model were established to evaluate and compare the antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effect of the chromone derivativescimifugin, prime-O-glucosylcimifugin (PGCN), and GML in Radix Saposhnikoviae. High performance liquid chromatography separation and analysis was used to obtain pharmacokinetic parameters. Simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid was used to investigate the metabolite profiles of PGCN and GML in gastrointestinal tract. Results: Cimifugin exerted a marked dose-dependent antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effect, whereas the effects of PGCN were relatively lower. GML had feeble pharmacodynamic effects. Pharmacokinetic study showed that only cimifugin was detected in the plasma sample of cimifugin and PGCN-treated animals, with drug concentration in the former much higher than the latter. No components were traced in the plasma samples from GML-treated rats. Stability study showed that PGCN and GML was predominantly biotransformed into cimifugin and 5-O-methyvisammiol, respectively. The latter was proven to be extremely unstable in liver tissue homogenate and plasma. Conclusions: A feeble antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities was observed when GML was orally delivered. Given that Radix Saposhnikoviae extract is generally administered orally, we speculate that this compound might be a nonpharmacolagically active agent in real usage. Thus, it might be unscientific to evaluate the quality of Radix Saposhnikoviae based on the content of GML. SUMMARY GML-derived cimifugin

  15. Simultaneous determination of the bioactive components in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and application in pharmacokinetic studies after oral administration of Radix scutellariae extract.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jin-Hua; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Shu; Ling, Yong; Wang, Dong-Geng

    2017-02-16

    A highly sensitive and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of the four main bioactive compounds, i.e., baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside and wogonin in rat plasma after oral administration of Radix scutellariae extract. Clarithromycin was used as an internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were processed by protein precipitation with methanol. The separation was performed on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min, using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase. The MS/MS ion transit ions monitored were 447.5 → 270.1 for baicalin, 270.1 → 168.1 for baicalein, 461.2 → 284.0 for wogonoside, 284.2 → 168.1 for wogonin and 748.5 → 158.1 for IS. Method validation was performed according to Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) achieved was 1.13 ng/mL for baicalin, 1.23 ng/mL for baicalein, 0.82 ng/mL for wogonoside and 0.36 ng/mL for wogonin, respectively. The calibration curves obtained were linear (r > 0.99) over the concentration range approximately 1-1000 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 15% and the accuracy was within ±14.7%. After validation, this method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of Radix scutellariae extract.

  16. Pharmacokinetic behavior of gentiopicroside from decoction of Radix Gentianae, Gentiana macrophylla after oral administration in rats: a pharmacokinetic comaprison with gentiopicroside after oral and intravenous administration alone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Hong; Cheng, Xue-Mei; He, Yu-qi; White, Kenneth N; Bligh, S W Annie; Branford-White, Christopher J; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2007-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics in rats of gentiopicroside (GPS) from orally administered decoctions of Radix Gentianae (DRG) and Gentiana macrophlla (DGM) were compared with that of GPS alone administered at 150 mg/kg orally and 30 mg/kg intravenously. The metabolic profile of GPS after intravenous injection could be fitted to two-compartment model whereas oral administration decoctions DRG or DGM, or GPS alone, could all be fitted to a one-compartment model. After oral administration of GPS alone, GPS was absorbed quickly and reached a maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) value, 5.78 +/- 2.24 microg/mL within 0.75 +/- 0.62 h. The plasma level of GPS declined with a T1/2ke, 3.35 +/- 0.76 h. After oral administration of decoctions DRG and DGM, GPS was absorbed and reached significantly higher maximum concentrations of 10.53 +/- 3.20 microg/mL (p < 0.01) and 7.43 +/- 1.64 microg/mL (p < 0.05) at later time points 1.60 +/- 0.76 (p < 0.01) and 2.08 +/- 0.74 h (p < 0.05), for DRG and DGM respectively, compared with oral GPS alone. Significantly larger AUC values were found for decoctions of GPS (83.49 +/- 20.8 microgxh/mL for DRG and 59.43 +/- 12.9 microgxh/mL for DGM) compared with oral GPS alone (32.67 +/- 12.9 microgxh/mL). The results demonstrate that the bioavailability of GPS was markedly improved when administered as a decoction than as purified GPS. The decoction from Radix Gentianae provided 2.5 times better bioavailability and that from Gentiana macrophlla 1.8 times higher. The study confirms the importance of careful pharmacokinetic analysis in the characterization of herbal medicines when applied for future clinical applications.

  17. [Study on the identification of radix scutellariae and extract using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional IR correlation spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-hui; Zhang, Gui-jun; Sun, Su-qin; Tu, Ya

    2010-07-01

    2D-IR correlation spectroscopy was used to do the research on crude and prepared drug of radix scutellariae and the extracts of them. The results show that the holistic shape of peaks among them are similar in the FTIR spectra. In second derivative spectra, the two absorption peaks: 1,745 and 1,411 cm(-1) of processed products move to the bigger wavenumber direction, while 1,357 cm(-1) of processed products moves to the smaller wavenumber direction; There are conspicuous differences in Two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy among them: Four characteristic peaks are shown between 1,300 and 1,800 cm(-1). The intensity of peak at 1,575 cm(-1) is the strongest. There are three main districts about the autopeaks of sliced scutellariae. Wine-fried scutellariae has two auto-peak districts, in which all the auto-peaks are positively correlated. The FTIR spectra of total glycoside extract of different samples present characteristic peaks at 1,615, 1,585, 1,450 cm(-1) (vibration of phenyl framework) and 1,658 cm(-1) (=C-O ) respectively, therefore, the authors speculated that their mutual component is the compound of phenolic glycoside. The two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra present five automatic peaks (vibration of phenyl framework) in 800-1,800 cm(-1) (1,366, 1,420, 1,508, 1,585, 1,669 cm(-1)). So the authors can conclude that a lot of information can be provided by macro-fingerprint technology of infrared spectroscopy which can evaluate overall quality of radix scutellariae accurately and be used to study the characteristics of relevance of crude and prepared scutellariae.

  18. [Study on compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma based on pharmacokinetics of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-ying; Zhang, Hong; Dong, Yu; Ren, Wei-guang; Chen, Heng-wen

    2015-04-01

    A study was made on the pharmacokinetic regularity of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SMRR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CR) in rats, so as to discuss the compatibility mechanism of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Rats were randomly divided into three groups and intravenously injected with 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B for the single SMRR extracts group, 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the single CR extracts group and 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B + 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the SMRR and CR combination group. The blood samples were collected at different time points and purified by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. With chloramphenicol as internal standard (IS), UPLC was adopted to determine concentrations of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid. The pharmacokinetic parameters of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid were calculated with WinNonlin 6.2 software and analyzed by SPSS 19.0 statistical software. The UPLC analysis method was adopted to determine salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma, including linear equation, stability, repeatability, precision and recovery. The established sample processing and analysis methods were stable and reliable, with significant differences in major pharmacokinetic parameters, e.g., area under the curve (AUC), mean residence time (MRT) and terminal half-life (t(1/2)). According to the experimental results, the combined application of SMRR and CR can significantly impact the pharmacokinetic process of their effective components in rats and promote the wide distribution, shorten the action time and prolong the in vivo action time of salvianolic acid B and increase the blood drug concentration and accelerate the clearance of ferulic acid in vivo.

  19. [Detection of agent "zhuanggenling" and investigation of utilization of plant growth retardants in traditional Chinese medicine cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-yao; Guo, Bao-lin; Huang, Wen-hua

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth retardant as one of plant growth regulator can inhibit the cell division, elongation and growth rate in shoot apical meristem (SAM), which can be reversed by gibberellin regulate the product of photosynthesis transfer to the root and rhizome part. As commonly used plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, choline chloride and daminozide are used to promote the growth of root and rhizome, call as "zhuanggenling", "pengdasu", "pengdaji" etc. Single or recombination of plant growth regulator is registered as pesticide, and called as pesticide "zhuanggenling" in this paper. Growth regulator which registered as a foliar fertilizer or fertilization was called agricultural fertilizer "zhuanggenling" in this paper. The author investigate the usage of "zhuanggenling" in the root and rhizome of medicinal plants cultivation from 2012 to 2014 in Sichuan province, Huangyuan town, Mianyang (Ophiopogonis Radix); Pengzhou Aoping town (Chuanxiong Rhizoma); Pengshan Xiejia town (Alismatis Rhizoma); Jiangyou Taiping town and Zhangming town (Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata); Yunnan Wenshan (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma); Henan province, Wuzhidafeng Town (Rehmanniae Radix, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Dioscoreae Rhizoma); Gansu Min county (Codonopsis Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix); Gansu Li county (Rhei Radix et Rhizoma). The result showed that "zhuanggenling" were applied in the most medicinal plant cultivation except Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It has been applied widespreadly in Ophiopogonis Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Codonopsis Radix; Rehmanniae Radix, commonly in Angelicae Sinensis Radix application, and occasionally in Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Dioscoreae Rhizoma. In 53 collected sample from plantation areas, fifteen (28%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling", thirty-eight (72%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling". UPLC analysis

  20. A rapid method for simultaneous determination of 14 phenolic compounds in Radix Puerariae using microwave-assisted extraction and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, G; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Q W; Li, G H; Yang, F Q; Wang, Y; Li, Y C; Wang, Y T

    2010-01-29

    A microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-TOF-MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 14 phenolic compounds in the root of Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi and Pueraria thomsonii Benth. Operational conditions of MAE were optimized by central composite design (CCD). The optimized result was 65% ethanol as extraction solvent, 17mL of extraction volume, 100 degrees C of extraction temperature and 2min of hold time. A Zorbax SB C(18) (50mmx4.6mm I.D., 1.8microm) and gradient elution were used during the analysis. The chromatographic peaks of 14 investigated compounds in samples were successfully identified by comparing their retention time, UV spectra and TOF mass data with the reference substances. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.9997) within the test ranges. The intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 1.77% and 2.88%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the investigated compounds in 10 samples of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii, respectively. The result indicated that MAE and UHPLC-DAD-TOF-MS system might provide a rapid method for the quality control of Radix Puerariae.

  1. Facilitated Visual Interpretation of Scores in Principal Component Analysis by Bioactivity-Labeling of 1H-NMR Spectra-Metabolomics Investigation and Identification of a New α-Glucosidase Inhibitor in Radix Astragali.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yueqiu; Nyberg, Nils T; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2017-03-06

    Radix Astragali is a component of several traditional medicines used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in China. Radix Astragali is known to contain isoflavones, which inhibit α-glucosidase in the small intestines, and thus lowers the blood glucose levels. In this study, 21 samples obtained from different regions of China were extracted with ethyl acetate, then the IC50-values were determined, and the crude extracts were analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. A principal component analysis of the 1H-NMR spectra labeled with their IC50-values, that is, bioactivity-labeled 1H-NMR spectra, showed a clear correlation between spectral profiles and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The loading plot and LC-HRMS/NMR of microfractions indicated that previously unknown long chain ferulates could be partly responsible for the observed antidiabetic activity of Radix Astragali. Subsequent preparative scale isolation revealed a compound not previously reported, linoleyl ferulate (1), showing α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 0.5 mM) at a level comparable to the previously studied isoflavones. A closely related analogue, hexadecyl ferulate (2), did not show significant inhibitory activity, and the double bonds in the alcohol part of 1 seem to be important structural features for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This proof of concept study demonstrates that bioactivity-labeling of the 1H-NMR spectral data of crude extracts allows global and nonselective identification of individual constituents contributing to the crude extract's bioactivity.

  2. Pharmacological effects of Chinese herb aconite (fuzi) on cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dandan; Wang, Jie; Cui, Yanjing; Wu, Xinfang

    2012-09-01

    Fuzi (aconite, Radix Aconiti praeparata), a widely used Chinese herb, plays a significant role in the cardiovascular system. This is mainly reflected by Fuzi's cardiotonic effect, its protective effect on myocardial cells, and its effect on heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure, and hemodynamics. In this article, the pharmacological effects and the corresponding mechanisms of Fuzi (aconite) and its active components on cardiovascular system are reviewed.

  3. [Influence of metal ions on stability of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside contained in Polygoni Multiflori Radix].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-yu; Feng, Wu-wen; Li, Xiao-fei; Zhang, Ding-kun; Li, Chun-yu; Meng, Ya-kun; Bai, Zhao-fang; Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Xia, Hou-lin; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2016-01-01

    Decoction is one of the most commonly used dosage forms of traditional Chinese medicine. The stability of chemical constituents in decoction is closely related to the clinical efficacy and safety. There were few reports about the influence of metal ions in the stability of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no evidence that metal ions in decoction water need to be controlled. In this study, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG), one of the main constituents in Polygoni Multiflori Radix was studied. Ordinary tap water, deionized water, and water containing different metal ions were used to investigate and compare the influence on THSG. The results showed that after storage in a dark place at the room temperature for 10 days, the degradation of THSG was 7% in deionized water, while undetectable in tap water. The content of THSG could be decreased by different kinds of metal ions, and the effect was concentration-dependent. Moreover, Fe3+ and Fe2+ showed the greatest influence at the same concentration; and our study has shown that THSG decreased more than 98% in Fe and Fe2+ solutions at 500 ppm concentration. In the same time we found out p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (molecular weight: 122.036 7) and 2,3,5-trihydroxybenzaldehyde-2-O-glycoside (molecular weight: 316.079 4) were the main degradation products of THSG in tap water and water containing Cu2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Mg2+ and Al3+. The product of THSG dimer with a water molecule was found in water containing Fe3+ and Fe2+. The above results showed that the metal ions in water could significantly influence the stability of THSG in water, indicating that the clinical efficacy and safety of decoction would be affected if the metal ions in water were not under control. It's suggested that deionized water should be used in the preparation of decoction containing Polygoni Multiflori Radix in the clinic to avoid degradation of THSG. Meanwhile, decoction prepared by tap water

  4. Effects of radix curcumae-derived diterpenoid C on Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation and nuclear factor kappa B signal pathways

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuan; Lv, Bin; Zhang, Shuo; Dai, Qun; Chen, Bing-Bing; Meng, Li-Na

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study effect of diterpenoid C extracted from radix curcumae on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected inflammation, intestinal metaplasia, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway in vitro. METHODS: We used I-type H. pylori to infect human gastric epithelial gastric epithelium cell line (GES-1) cell lines, and then H. pylori-infected GES-1 cells were treated with radix curcumae (RC)-derived diterpenoid C of different concentrations (5, 10, 20 μg/mL) and amoxicillin. The expression of p65, IκB kinase (IKK) α and IKKγ proteins was detected with Western blotting, and the expression of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and IL-4 was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Data were analyzed using SPSS software ver18.0. For comparisons between groups of more than two unpaired values, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. If an ANOVA F value was significant, post hoc comparisons were performed between groups. If results were not normally distributed, the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare two groups of unpaired values, whereas for comparisons between groups of more than two unpaired values, the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used. Statistical significance was established at P < 0.05. RESULTS: The MTT assay results revealed the inhibited rate of GES-1, and indicated that the IC5 of RC-derived diterpenoid C and amoxicillin all were 5 μg/mL for gastric GES-1 cells. The expression of IL-8 was significantly increased, especially at 12 h time point; and the expression of IL-4 was decreased in H. pylori-infected GES-1 cells. After H. pylori-infected GES-1 cells were treated with RC-derived diterpenoid C of different concentrations and amoxicillin, the expression of IL-8 was decreased at 12, 24, 48, 72 h points (P < 0.01), especially in high-concentration diterpenoid C (20 μg/mL) group; and the expression of IL-4 was increased, especially in moderate and high-concentration diterpenoid C (10 and 20 μg/mL) groups. RC

  5. Species classification and quality assessment of Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri) based on high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and combined chemometrics methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Jie; Hu, Jie; Li, Zhen-Yu; Qin, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Li-Zeng; Guo, Xiao-Qing

    2011-06-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was established to analyze 36 Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri) samples collected from three species (Bupleurum chinense DC., B. scorzonerifolium Willd. and B. smithii Wolff.). Addition of trifluoroacetic acid into the mobile phase resulted in fingerprint chromatograms with stable baselines. There were thirty-two characteristic peaks in the standard fingerprint of B. chinense DC. Different recognition pattern methods, including similarity analysis (SA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) were utilized to analyze the 36 samples based on the contents of chemical constituents. Consistent results from SA, HCA and PCA analysis illustrated the rationalisation for why B. smithii Wolff. was not quoted in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and classified samples were in agreement with their species. PLS-DA loading plots showed the chemical markers which had the most influences on the separation among different species. However, SA, HCA and PCA could not differentiate between wild and cultivated B. chinense DC. as well as between samples from different provinces. HPLC fingerprint in combination with chemometric techniques provided a very flexible and reliable method for homogeneity evaluation and quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicine.

  6. Assessment of metal contamination in the Hun River, China, and evaluation of the fish Zacco platypus and the snail Radix swinhoei as potential biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing; Wang, Shaofeng; Chen, Hongxing; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Hongwei; Gao, Mi; Bi, Ran; Klerks, Paul L; Wang, He; Luo, Yongju; Xie, Lingtian

    2017-01-10

    The Hun River is a major tributary of the Liao River in the northeast area of China and provides drinking water for 23 million local residents. This study was designed to assess the severity of metal contamination in the Hun River and the potential use of indigenous organisms (the fish Zacco platypus and the snail Radix swinhoei) as biomonitors of metal contamination. Water, sediment, and the native fish and snails were collected at four sampling sites that differed in their physicochemical characteristics and their contamination levels. The samples were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by ICP-MS. The results showed that although the overall potential ecological risks of the metals were low at our sampling sites, Cd posed a noteworthy ecological risk. Strong correlations were obtained between Cd concentrations in the organisms and in the environment. The results indicated that Z. platypus and R. swinhoei can be useful biomonitoring species for assessing Cd contamination. Biomonitoring with the snail may be most effective when focused on the gonad/digestive tissue (because of the high metal accumulation there), but further work is needed to confirm this.

  7. Saikosaponin A, an active glycoside from Radix bupleuri, reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells and HepG2/ADM cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Rui-Ping; Chen, Zhen-Dong

    2017-02-01

    1. The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR). Saikosaponin A (SSA) is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Radix Bupleuri. This study was mainly designed to understand effects of SSA on MDR in MCF-7/ADR and HepG2/ADM cells. 2. MDR reversal was examined as the alteration of cytotoxic drugs IC50 in resistant cells in the presence of SSA by MTT assay, and was compared with the non-resistant cells. Apoptosis and uptake of P-gp substrates in the tumor cells were detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was performed to assay the expression of P-gp. 3. Our results demonstrate SSA could increase the chemosensitivity of P-gp overexpressing HepG2/ADM and MCF-7/ADR cells to doxorubicin (DOX), vincristine (VCR) and paclitaxel. SSA promoted apoptosis of MCF-7/ADR cells in the presence of DOX. Moreover, it could also increase the retention of P-gp substrates DOX and rhodamine 123 in MCF-7/ADR cells, and decrease digoxin efflux ratio in Caco-2 cell monolayer. Finally, a mechanistic study showed that SSA reduced P-gp expression without affecting hydrolytic activity of P-gp. 4. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SSA could be further developed for sensitizing resistant cancer cells and used as an adjuvant therapy together with anticancer drugs to improve their therapeutic efficacies.

  8. Identification of urine tauro-β-muricholic acid as a promising biomarker in Polygoni Multiflori Radix-induced hepatotoxicity by targeted metabolomics of bile acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-Sheng; Jiang, Li-Long; Fan, Ya-Xi; Dong, Lei-Chi; Ma, Jiang; Dong, Xin; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2017-02-24

    Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) has been widely used as a tonic for centuries. However, hepatotoxicity cases linked to PMR have been frequently reported and appropriate biomarkers for clinical diagnosis are currently lacking. Here, an approach using UPLC-QqQ/MS-based targeted metabolomics of bile acids (BAs) complemented with biochemistry and histopathology was applied to characterize the development and recovery processes of PMR-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and to identify biomarkers. The expression of bile salt export pump (Bsep) and sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) were evaluated to investigate the underlying mechanism. Steatosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in PMR-treated rats, which were accompanied by the elevation of serum biochemistry. The metabolic profiles of BAs were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis, hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) in serum and tauro-β-muricholic acid (TβMCA) in urine were identified as potential biomarkers for PMR-induced hepatotoxicity. The elevated expression of Bsep and decreased expression of Ntcp in the liver of PMRtreated rats indicated that hepatotoxicity was related to the disorders of BAs metabolism. Our study demonstrated that BAs may be used for clinical diagnosis of PMR-induced hepatotoxicity. Urine TβMCA was identified as a promising biomarker to facilitate the clinical monitoring of PMR-induced hepatotoxicity and may serve as potential therapeutic target.

  9. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg). At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage. PMID:27042190

  10. Screening anti-allergic components of Astragali Radix using LAD2 cell membrane chromatography coupled online with UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yanni; Sun, Yueming; Fu, Jia; Kong, Liyun; Han, Shengli

    2017-02-01

    Huangqi (Astragali Radix), a traditional Chinese herb, is widely used in clinical therapy in China. In addition, an anti-allergic effect of constituents in Huangqi has been reported in the scientific literature. In the present study, cell membrane chromatography coupled online with UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed to screen, analyze and identify the anti-allergic components of Huangqi. The Laboratory of Allergic Disease 2 (LAD2) cell was used to establish cell membrane chromatography, which was combined with UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The coupled system was then used to screen anti-allergic components from Huangqi. Effects of active components were verified by histamine release assay. A component retained on the LAD2 cell membrane chromatography was identified as formononetin. Bioactivity of formononetin was investigated by histamine release assay in LAD2 cells, and it was found that formononetin could inhibit histamine release in a dose-dependent manner from 1 to 100 μm. The LAD2 cell membrane chromatography online with UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method is an effective technique for screening the anti-allergic components of Huangqi.

  11. Evaluation of the In Vivo Therapeutic Effects of Radix Paeoniae Rubra Ethanol Extract with the Hypoglycemic Activities Measured from Multiple Cell-Based Assays

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Chuan; Yuan, Wei; Lin, Yun-Lian; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Juan, Yi-Chen; Sun, Wan-Hua; Tsay, Huey Jen; Lee, Yu-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chi Shao) contains several phytochemicals with hypoglycemic actions. Current research aims to explore potential insulinotropic effects and long-term therapeutic efficacy of such herb against type 2 diabetes. Methods. Composition analysis for the ethanol extract (PRExt) was executed by high performance liquid chromatography. Polyphenol-enriched fraction was characterized by high pressure size exclusion chromatography. Multiple cell platforms were employed to evaluate hypoglycemic bioactivities. In animal experiments, blood glucose, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-index assessment, glucose tolerance test, and in vivo glucose uptake were all measured. Additional effects of PRExt on obesity and hepatic steatosis were evaluated by serum and histological analysis. Results. PRExt provides multiple hypoglycemic effects including the enhancement of glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Pentagalloylglucose and polyphenol-enriched fraction are two insulinotropic constituents. Moreover, PRExt intraperitoneal injection causes acute hypoglycemic effects on fasted db/db mice. Oral administration of PRExt (200 mg/kg b.w.) gradually reduces blood glucose in db/db mice to the level similar to that in C57J/B6 mice after 30 days. The improvement of glucose intolerance, HOMA-index, and in vivo glucose uptake is evident in addition to the weight loss effect and attenuation of hepatic steatosis. Conclusion. PRExt is an effective antidiabetic herbal extract with multiple hypoglycemic bioactivities. PMID:28018473

  12. Cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica radix on human colon (HT29) and gastric (MKN45) cancer cells mediated through oxidative and apoptotic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, S; Moradzadeh, M; Mousavi, S H; Sadeghnia, H R

    2016-10-15

    Defects in the apoptotic pathways are responsible for both the colorectal cancer pathogenesis and resistance to therapy. In this study, we examined the level of cellular oxidants, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica radix (0-2000 µg/mL) and oxaliplatin (0-1000 µg/mL, as positive control) in human gastric (MKN45) and colon (HT29) cancer, as well as normal human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Exposure to U. dioica or oxaliplatin showed a concentration dependent suppression in cell survival with IC50 values of 24.7, 249.9 and 857.5 µg/mL for HT29, MKN45 and HFF cells after 72 h treatment, respectively. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation were also concentration-dependently increased following treatment with U. dioica, similar to oxaliplatin. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased concomitantly with concentration of U. dioica as compared with control cells, which is similar to oxaliplatin and serum-deprived cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that U. dioica inhibited proliferation of gastric and colorectal cancer cells while posing no significant toxic effect on normal cells. U. dioica not only increased levels of oxidants, but also induced concomitant increase of apoptosis. The precise signaling pathway by which U. dioica induce apoptosis needs further research.

  13. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of freshwater snail (Radix balthica) to discover genes and pathways affected by exposure to oxazepam.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Jean-Yves; Bonnafe, Elsa; Klopp, Christophe; Escudier, Frédéric; Geret, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are increasingly found in aquatic ecosystems due to the non-efficiency of waste water treatment plants. Therefore, aquatic organisms are frequently exposed to a broad diversity of pharmaceuticals. Freshwater snail Radix balthica has been chosen as model to study the effects of oxazepam (psychotropic drug) on developmental stages ranging from trochophore to hatching. In order to provide a global insight of these effects, a transcriptome deep sequencing has been performed on exposed embryos. Eighteen libraries were sequenced, six libraries for three conditions: control, exposed to the lowest oxazepam concentration with a phenotypic effect (delayed hatching) (TA) and exposed to oxazepam concentration found in freshwater (TB). A total of 39,759,772 filtered raw reads were assembled into 56,435 contigs having a mean length of 1579.68 bp and mean depth of 378.96 reads. 44.91% of the contigs have at least one annotation. The differential expression analysis between the control condition and the two exposure conditions revealed 146 contigs differentially expressed of which 144 for TA and two for TB. 34.0% were annotated with biological function. There were four mainly impacted processes: two cellular signalling systems (Notch and JNK) and two biosynthesis pathways (Polyamine and Catecholamine pathways). This work reports a large-scale analysis of differentially transcribed genes of R. balthica exposed to oxazepam during egg development until hatching. In addition, these results enriched the de novo database of potential ecotoxicological models.

  14. Identification of novel autophagic Radix Polygalae fraction by cell membrane chromatography and UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS for degradation of neurodegenerative disease proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wu, An-Guo; Kam-Wai Wong, Vincent; Zeng, Wu; Liu, Liang; Yuen-Kwan Law, Betty

    2015-01-01

    With its traditional use in relieving insomnia and anxiety, our previous study has identified onjisaponin B from Radix Polygalae (RP), as a novel autophagic enhancer with potential neuroprotective effects. In current study, we have further identified a novel active fraction from RP, contains 17 major triterpenoid saponins including the onjisaponin B, by the combinational use of cell membrane chromatography (CMC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to (quadrupole) time-of-flight mass spectrometry {UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS}. By exhibiting more potent autophagic effect in cells, the active fraction enhances the clearance of mutant huntingtin, and reduces protein level and aggregation of α-synuclein in a higher extent when compared with onjisaponin B. Here, we have reported for the first time the new application of cell-based CMC and UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS analysis in identifying new autophagy inducers with neuroprotective effects from Chinese medicinal herb. This result has provided novel insights into the possible pharmacological actions of the active components present in the newly identified active fraction of RP, which may help to improve the efficacy of the traditional way of prescribing RP, and also provide new standard for the quality control of decoction of RP or its medicinal products in the future. PMID:26598009

  15. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ju-Hye; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Sanguisorbae Radix (SR) is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease). We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD) of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR) using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker). ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms. PMID:27065570

  16. Molecular study for detecting the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in field-collected snails of Radix gedrosiana (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae) in northwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Imani-Baran, Abbas; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Malekzadeh Viayeh, Reza; Paktarmani, Razieh

    2012-10-26

    Fasciolosis is an important disease in veterinary medicine worldwide, and is a cause of great economic loss in livestock husbandry in Iran. This study was aimed to determine prevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in field-collected snails of Radix gedrosiana in northwestern Iran. The snails were collected from 28 perennial and seasonal freshwater habitats from May to December 2010 and identified. A fragment of 618 bp of 28s rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using DraII and AvaII enzymes. PCR-RFLP patterns revealed that 3.12% of the snails were infected with F. gigantica. It was also found that the infected snails had a limited distribution over the water bodies located in the central part of the region. It was concluded that PCR-RFLP was a reliable approach to detect Fasciola infection in pond snails and may be useful to establish control measures for livestock and humans' fasciolosis in the region.

  17. Indirect identification of antioxidants in Polygalae Radix through their reaction with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and subsequent HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiyuan; Chen, Jiale; Zhou, Qinfen; Lei, Houliang; Luan, Lianjun; Liu, Xuesong; Wu, Yongjiang

    2015-11-01

    A rapid and efficient method for the identification of antioxidants in the traditional Chinese medicine Polygalae Radix (PR) by HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS is described. The method is based on the hypothesis that upon reaction of antioxidants with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the peak areas of compounds with potential antioxidant activities in the HPLC chromatogram will be significantly reduced in comparison to the untreated sample. The identity confirmation was achieved by Q-TOF-MS/MS technique. With this method, eight components were proposed possessing potent antioxidant activity. They were identified as sibiricose A5, sibiricose A6, sucrose monoester, polygalaxanthone III, tenuifoliside B, 3',6-disinapoylsucrose (DISS), sucrose diester, tenuifoliside C, respectively. DISS was proposed to be the most potent one. The antioxidant activity of DISS was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay in vitro. Vitamin C (Vc) was used as positive control substance. DISS showed moderate DPPH (DISS's IC50 value was 1024.17 μg/mL, Vc's was 294.68 μg/mL) and ABTS (IC50 324.13 μg/mL, Vc's was 117.50 μg/mL) free radical scavenging capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. DISS can be used as a new source of natural antioxidant in foods and cosmetics.

  18. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Screening Method for the Detection of Radical-Scavenging Natural Antioxidants from the Whole Scutellariae (Radix, Stem and Leaf).

    PubMed

    Shi, Gao-Feng; Yao, Rui-Xing; Wang, Guo-Ying; Wang, Zhen-Ju; Chen, Fu-Wen

    2015-08-01

    A novel free radical reaction combined with high-performance LC-photodiode array-ESI-MS/MS screening method was developed for the detection and identification of natural antioxidants from whole Scutellariae. Six compounds and whole Scutellariae extracts were found to possess a potential antioxidant capacity, and their free radical-scavenging activities were investigated in detail. The six compounds were identified as baicalin, baicalein, scutellarin, scutellarein, wogonoside and chrystin-7-glucoronide. The present study reveals that the radical-scavenging capacities of the whole Scutellariae extracts are as follows: hydroxyl radical > superoxide radical > peroxy radical. Wogonoside showed the strongest capability for scavenging hydroxyl radical. Baicalein not only showed the strongest capability for scavenging superoxide radical but also showed capability for lipid radical; Scutellarein (Peak 5) exhibited the highest reactivity in the lipid peroxidation processes. Based on these studies, the current paper accomplishes the evaluation of activities of some important anti-radical substances extracted from the radix, stem and leaf of the whole Scutellariae.

  19. Antihypertensive Effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Excessive Alcohol Intake and High Fat Diet Induced Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Su-Hong, Chen; Qi, Chen; Bo, Li; Jian-Li, Gao; Jie, Su; Gui-Yuan, Lv

    2015-01-01

    Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, RPA) has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation to treat hypertension by repression the hyperfunction of liver. However, whether the RPA itself has the antihypertensive effect or not is seldom studied. This study was to evaluate the protective effect of RPA on hypertensive rats. Alcohol in conjunction with a high fat diet- (ACHFD-) induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was constantly received either RPA extract (25 or 75 mg/kg) or captopril (15 mg/kg) all along the experiments. As a result, RPA extract (75 mg/kg) could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure of both ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats and SHR after 9-week or 4-week treatment. In ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats, the blood pressure was significantly increased and the lipid profiles in serum including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. Also, hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum. The RPA extract significantly reversed these parameters, which revealed that it could alleviate the liver damage of rats. In SHR, our result suggested that the antihypertensive active of RPA extract may be related to its effect on regulating serum nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET) levels. PMID:25784949

  20. Anti-obesity effect of radix Angelica sinensis and candidate causative genes in transcriptome analyses of adipose tissues in high-fat diet-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tao; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Hu, Jiangtao; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Niu, Lili

    2017-01-30

    We have previously reported that radix Angelica sinensis (RAS) suppressed body weight and altered the expression of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene in mice with high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. In the present study we performed RNA sequencing-mediated transcriptome analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-obesogenic effects of RAS in mice. The results revealed that 36 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in adipose tissues from the RAS supplementation group (DH) and control group (HC). These 36 DEGs were clustered into 297 functional gene ontology (GO) categories, among which several GO annotations and signaling pathways were associated with lipid homeostasis. Six out of the 36 DEGs were identified to be involved in lipid metabolism, with the APOA2 gene a potential anti-obesogenic influence. The expression pattern revealed by RNA-Seq was identical to the results of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Therefore, RAS supplementation in HFD-induced obese mice was associated with an anti-obesogenic global transcriptomic response. This study provides insight into potential applications of RAS in obesity therapy.

  1. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of Radix Saposhnikoviae for metabolomic research.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Yue; Wang, Xin-Xia; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Hai; Lv, Lei; Zhou, Gui-chen; Chai, Yi-Feng; Zhang, Guo-Qing

    2013-02-01

    In this study, metabolite profiling of Radix Saposhnikoviae from different geographical locations was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOFMS) and multivariate statistical analysis technique. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the data shows that these samples could be roughly separated into three groups: Guan Fangfeng, Kou Fangfeng and Chuan Fangfeng. The potential chemical markers were discovered through the loading plot of PCA. Based on accurate mass measurements and subsequent fragment ions of TOFMS after in-source collision induced dissociation, as well as matching of empirical molecular formulae with those of published components in the in-house chemical library, 10 potential markers, such as 4'-O-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol, cimifugin, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and 3'-O-angeloylhammaudol, were tentatively identified and partially verified by the available reference standards. The results of this study indicate that it is an effective and novel approach to identify traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from different sources, and that performing quantity determination of corresponding marker compounds could optimize the quality control of TCM.

  2. A Biomedical Investigation of the Hepatoprotective Effect of Radix salviae miltiorrhizae and Network Pharmacology-Based Prediction of the Active Compounds and Molecular Targets

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ming; Li, Sha; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor-Yue; Cheung, Fan; Feng, Yibin

    2017-01-01

    Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen in Chinese), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb, has been used for centuries to treat liver diseases. In this study, the preventive and curative potential of Danshen aqueous extract on acute/chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was studied. The in vivo results indicated that Danshen could alleviate hepatic inflammation, fatty degeneration, and haptic fibrogenesis in ALD and NAFLD models. In the aspect of mechanism of action, the significant reduction in MDA levels in both ALD and NAFLD models implies the decreased levels of oxidative stress by Danshen. However, Danshen treatment could not activate the internal enzymatic antioxidant system in ALD and NAFLD models. To further explore the hepatoprotective mechanism of Danshen, an in silico-based network pharmacology approach was employed in the present study. The pharmacological network analysis result revealed that six potential active ingredients such as tanshinone iia, salvianolic acid b, and Danshensu may contribute to the hepatoprotective effects of Danshen on ALD and NAFLD. The action mechanism may relate with regulating the intracellular molecular targets such as PPARα, CYP1A2, and MMP2 for regulation of lipid metabolism, antioxidant and anti-fibrogenesis by these potential active ingredients. Our studies suggest that the combination of network pharmacology strategy with in vivo experimental study may provide a forceful tool for exploring the mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb and developing novel bioactive ingredients. PMID:28335383

  3. An Efficient High-performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method to Elaborate the Changes of Components Between the Raw and Processed Radix Aconitum kusnezoffii

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beibei; Ji, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Shuang; Dong, Jie; Tan, Peng; Na, Shengsang; Liu, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Crude radix Aconitum kusnezoffii (RAK) has great toxicity. Traditional Chinese medicine practice proved that processing may decrease its toxicity. In our previous study, we had established a new method of RAK processing (Paozhi). However, the mechanism is yet not perfect. Objective: To explore the related mechanism of processing through comparing the chemical contents. Materials and Methods: A new processing method of RAK named stoving (Hong Zhi) was used. In particular, RAK was stored at 110°C for 8 h, and then high performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn) was developed for the detection of the alkaloids of the crude and processed RAK decoction pieces. Results: Thirty components of the crude RAK were discovered, among which, 23 alkaloids were identified. Meanwhile, 23 ingredients were detected in the processed RAK decoction pieces, among which, 20 alkaloids were determined yet. By comparison, eight alkaloids were found in both crude and processed RAK decoction pieces, 15 alkaloids were not found in the crude RAK, however, 10 new constituents yield after processing, which are 10-OH-hypaconine, 10-OH-mesaconine, isomer of bullatine A, 14-benzoyl-10-OH-mesaconine, 14-benzoyl-10-OH-aconine, 14-benzoyl-10-OH-hypaconine, dehydrated aconitine, 14-benzoylaconine, chuanfumine, dehydrated mesaconitine. Conclusion: The present study showed that significant change of alkaloids was detected in RAK before and after processing. Among them, the highly toxic diester alkaloids decreased and the less toxic monoester alkaloids increased. Moreover, the concentration changes significantly. HPLC-ESI-MSn are Efficient to elaborate the mechanism of reduction of toxicity and enhancement efficacy after processing. SUMMARY Stoving is a simple and effective method for the processing of radix Aconitum kusnezoffii.In the positive mode, the characteristic fragmentations of Aconitum alkaloids were obtained

  4. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2 cell membrane chromatographic analysis system for charactering anti-hepatoma components from rat serum after oral administration of Radix scutellariae: A strategy for rapid screening active compounds in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dan; Chen, Xiaofei; Cao, Yan; Wu, Xunxun; Ding, Xuan; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Chuan; Chai, Yifeng; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2016-01-25

    Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is a bioaffinity chromatography technique for characterizing interactions between drugs and membrane receptors and has been widely used to screen active components from complex samples such as herbal medicines (HMs). However, it has never been applied in vivo due to its relatively high limit of detection (LOD) and the matrix interferences. In this study, a novel on-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2/CMC/enrich columns/high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry system was developed to rapidly screen potential anti-hepatoma components from drug-containing serum of rats after oral administration of Radix scutellariae. A matrix interference deduction method with a home-written program in MATLAB was developed, which could successfully eliminate the interference of endogenous substances in serum. Baicalein, wogonin, chrysin, oroxylin A, neobaicalein and rivularin from Radix scutellariae extraction were significantly retained in the HepG2/CMC column. Three potential active components, wogonin, oroxylin A and neobaicalein were firstly screened from the drug-containing serum as well. The cell counting kit-8 assay demonstrated that wogonin, oroxylin A and chrysin showed high inhibitory activities in a dose-dependent manner on HepG2 cells at the concentration of 12.5-200 μM (p<0.05) and the IC50 values were 69.83, 16.66 and 51.6 μM, respectively. Wogonin and oroxylin A, which were screened both from Radix scutellariae extraction and the drug-containing serum, could be selected as lead compounds to obtain good anti-hepatoma effects. The proposed comprehensive 2D CMC system and matrix interference elimination strategy have significant advantages for in vivo screening of active components from complex biological samples and could be applied to other biochromatography models.

  5. Injectable long-acting systems for Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide based on mono-PEGylation and in situ formation of a PLGA depot

    PubMed Central

    Shi, XiaoLi; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, XiangWei; Feng, Yi; Shen, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Background Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP), a highly hydrophilic macromolecule, has a unique anti-ischemic action in the myocardium. One of the main problems with its use is its relatively short half-life in vivo. To solve this problem, injectable long-acting drug delivery systems, which combine mono-PEGylation (PEG, polyethylene glycol) with the in situ formation of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) copolymer (PLGA) depots, were tested in this study. Methods Through a moderate coupling reaction between 20 kDa amino-terminated methoxy-PEG and excessive ROP with activated hydroxyls, a long-circulating and bioactive mono-PEGylated ROP was prepared and characterized. A reasonable and applicable range of PLGA formulations loaded with the mono-PEGylated ROP were prepared, characterized, and evaluated in vivo. Results Relative to ROP, the half-life of which was only 0.5 hours, the conjugate alone, following subcutaneous administration, showed markedly prolonged retention in the systemic circulation, with a mean residence time in vivo of approximately 2.76 days. In combination with in situ-forming PLGA depots, the residence time of the conjugate in vivo was prolonged further. In particular, a long-lasting and steady plasma exposure for nearly a month was achieved by the formulation comprising 40% 30 kDa PLGA in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Conclusion Long-lasting and steady drug exposure could be achieved using mono-PEGylation in combination with in situ formation of PLGA depots. Such a combination with ROP would be promising for long-term prophylaxis and/or treatment of myocardial ischemia. For high-dose and highly hydrophilic macromolecular drugs like ROP, more than one preparation technology might be needed to achieve week-long or month-long delivery per dosing. PMID:25489243

  6. Factors affecting stability of z-ligustilide in the volatile oil of radix angelicae sinensis and ligusticum chuanxiong and its stability prediction.

    PubMed

    Cui, F; Feng, L; Hu, J

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to obtain a suitable vehicle for Z-ligustilide in the volatile oil of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Ligusticum Chuanxiong in which it is stable enough for the application in pharmaceutics, to investigate its degradation laws, and to predict its shelf-life at 25 degrees C. Factors including temperature, light, pH value, co-solvents and antioxidants can all influence the stability of Z-ligustilide, thereinto antioxidants could markedly improve its stability in aqueous solution by almost 35%. The suitable vehicle for Z-ligustilide contains 1.5% tween-80, 0.3% Vitamin C, and 20% propylene glycol (PG). Furthermore, the degradation rates of Z-ligustilide were found to conform to a rate equation following Weibull probability distribution within a range of degradation ratio, and the equation could be expressed as follow: ln ln (1/1-alpha) = ln k + m ln t. Where alpha is degradation ratio; t is time; m and k are constants relating to the degradation rate. The degradation rate will get greater as the increasing of parameter k. According to the degradation law obtained from the equation, the drug shelf-life (10% of active ingredient degraded, T90) in this vehicle was predicted to be more than 1.77 years at 25 degrees C through Arrehenius equation and accelerating experiments. The present investigation was undertaken to propose a kinetic treatment that may be applicable to any type of degradation of the active ingredient of pharmaceutical formulation, and also could provide a good foundation for the new drug development of Z-ligustilide, especially for injection formulation.

  7. Colon-derived uremic biomarkers induced by the acute toxicity of Kansui radix: A metabolomics study of rat plasma and intestinal contents by UPLC-QTOF-MS(E).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhou; Hou, Jin-Jun; Qi, Peng; Yang, Min; Yan, Bing-Peng; Bi, Qi-Rui; Feng, Rui-Hong; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2016-07-15

    Kansui radix (KR) is a poisonous Chinese herbal medicine recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and the acute toxicity obstructs its clinical applications. To explore its acute toxicity mechanism to enhance clinical safety, a metabolomics study based on UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS(E) was performed. Wistar rats were exposed for 4h to the aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts prepared from KR at a high dose (25g/kg). The contents of six different sections of rat intestine, including the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum were collected as samples for the first time, as well as the rat plasma. The interesting results showed that only those rats exposed to the ethyl acetate extract showed a watery diarrhea, similar to the observed acute human toxicity. The identified biomarkers found in the plasma, such as phenol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, and p-cresol sulfate were significantly perturbed in the rats. These biomarkers are known as colon-derived uremic compounds, which were first reported with respect to KR. The three essential amino acids which produced these biomarkers were only found in the contents of colon and rectum. A hypothesis was proposed that only the colon-derived uremic compounds induced by KR might be responsible for the acute toxicity. Three traditional process methods to reduce the toxicity of KR were compared based on these biomarkers, and different levels of toxicity modulation were observed. These results may be helpful to further understand the mechanism of acute toxicity, and the relevance of the traditional process methods to ameliorate the adverse effects of KR.

  8. Sodiation-based in-source collision for profiling of pyranocoumarins in Radix Peucedani (Qianhu): utility of sodium adducts' stability with in-source collision.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Li, Yingfei; Kang, Chen; Zhao, Haiyu; Xiang, Li; Li, Chuan; Wang, Qiao

    2017-01-19

    Full scan mode of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source offers a chance on global detection of complicated components; however, the scan mode carries significant challenges in rapidly capturing information of analysts. Sodiation-based in-source collision was proposed here, as a technique for rapid detecting untargeted analytes in full scan analysis, which was based on the stability of sodium adducts and the nonselectivity of in-source collision. Then the technique was applied to profile of angular-type pyranocoumarins (APs) in Radix Peucedani, with full scan analysis performed at two specific in-source collision energy: a high energy 50 V that is tolerated by the sodium adducts of APs, and a low energy 10 V, at which abundant adducts were offered. The spectra list of two average mass spectra was exported, and stable ions were selected based on the intensity ratio of standards at the two collision energy. Then 27 plausible [M + Na](+) m/z values of APs were acquired after filtering the fragment ion and isotope ions and validating with [M + NH4 ](+) . Eighty-two APs finally were tentatively identified based on their accurate spectral data of MS(n) , fragmentation rules, and elution order regardless of their absolute configuration, which included 25 reported APs from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn. The technique provided a novel application of sodium adduct in qualitative analysis. And it was valuable for rapidly capturing information of analytes in full scan analysis, not only for APs but also for other compounds that could form sodium adducts.

  9. Ampelopsis Radix Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium/1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-Induced Toxicity in Parkinson's Disease Models In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jin Sup; Lee, Hyejung; Oh, Myung Sook

    2013-01-01

    Ampelopsis Radix, the root of Ampelopsis japonica (Thunb.) Makino (Vitaceae), is a herbal medicine which has been widely used in East Asia. The present study was done to explore whether the standardized extract of Ampelopsis Radix (AJW) protects dopaminergic neurons via antioxidant mechanisms in Parkinson's disease (PD) models. The effects of AJW on primary mesencephalic cultures stressed with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium were investigated using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry and reactive oxygen species measurement. The eliminative effects of AJW on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radicals were explored using colorimetric methods. The effects of AJW on the mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) were determined by pole test as well as TH and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine immunohistochemistry. AJW protected dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting reactive oxygen species generation in vitro. Moreover, AJW showed potent radical scavenging activities in vitro. In the mouse PD model, AJW protected the dopaminergic neurons in the brain, leading to motor improvements. AJW inhibited the MPTP-evoked accumulation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the brain. These data suggest that AJW has neuroprotective effects with antioxidant mechanisms in PD models. PMID:24204389

  10. Oral Administration of Achyranthis radix Extract Prevents TMA-induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis by Regulating Th2 Cytokine and Chemokine Production in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Keun; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Kim, Min Jung; Seong, Ki Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-12-03

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) remains a major skin disease in many countries, necessitating the discovery of novel and effective anti-ACD agents. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of Achyranthis radix extract (AcRE) on trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced dermatitis and the potential mechanism of action involved. Oral administration of AcRE and prednisolone (PS) significantly suppressed TMA-induced increases in ear and epidermal thickness, and IgE expression. In addition, abnormal expression of IL-1β and TNF-α protein and mRNA was also significantly attenuated by oral administration of AcRE. Treatment with AcRE also significantly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines and mRNA expression in vivo. Moreover, AcRE strongly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 production in draining lymph nodes, as well as OVA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 expression in primary cultured splenocytes. Interestingly, AcRE suppressed IL-4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation in both primary cultured splenocytes and HaCaT cells, and TMA-induced GATA3 mRNA expression ex vivo. AcRE also suppressed TMA-mediated CCL11 and IL-4-induced CCL26 mRNA expression and infiltration of CCR3 positive cells. The major compounds from AcRE were identified as gentisic acid (0.64 ± 0.2 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), protocatechuic acid (2.69 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (5.59 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), caffeic acid (4.21 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), and ferulic acid (14.78 ± 0.4 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE). Taken together, these results suggest that AcRE has potential for development as an agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.

  11. Relevance of the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Puerariae lobatae Radix to Aggregation of Multi-Component Molecules in Aqueous Decoctions.

    PubMed

    Su, Bili; Kan, Yongjun; Xie, Jianwei; Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng

    2016-06-28

    The complexity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is related to their multi-component system. TCM aqueous decoction is a common clinical oral formulation. Between molecules in solution, there exist intermolecular strong interactions to form chemical bonds or weak non-bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces, which hold molecules together to form "molecular aggregates". Taking the TCM Puerariae lobatae Radix (Gegen) as an example, we explored four Gegen decoctions of different concentration of 0.019, 0.038, 0.075, and 0.30 g/mL, named G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4. In order of molecular aggregate size (diameter) the four kinds of solution were ranked G-1 < G-2 < G-3 < G-4 by Flow Cell 200S IPAC image analysis. A rabbit vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI) model was set up and they were given Gegen decoction (GGD) at a clinical dosage of 0.82 g/kg (achieved by adjusting the gastric perfusion volume depending on the concentration). The HPLC fingerprint of rabbit plasma showed that the chemical component absorption into blood in order of peak area values was G-1 < G-2 > G-3 > G-4. Puerarin and daidzin are the major constituents of Gegen, and the pharmacokinetics of G-1 and G-2 puerarin conformed with the two compartment open model, while for G-3 and G-4, they conformed to a one compartment open model. For all four GGDs the pharmacokinetics of daidzin complied with a one compartment open model. FQ-PCR assays of rabbits' vertebrobasilar arterial tissue were performed to determine the pharmacodynamic profiles of the four GGDs. GGD markedly lowered the level of AT₁R mRNA, while the AT₂R mRNA level was increased significantly vs. the VBI model, and G-2 was the most effective. In theory the dosage was equal to the blood drug concentration and should be consistent; however, the formation of molecular aggregates affects drug absorption and metabolism, and therefore influences drugs' effects. Our data provided references for the rational use

  12. Astragalus and Paeoniae Radix Rubra extract (APE) inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation by modulating transforming growth factor-β/smad pathway

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, WEIJUAN; LI, LIN; TIAN, XIAOPENG; YAN, JINJIN; YANG, XINZHENG; WANG, XINLONG; LIAO, GUOZHEN; QIU, GENQUAN

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Astragalus and Paeoniae Radix Rubra extract (APE) is capable of protecting against liver fibrosis in rats. The hypothesis of the present study was that APE exerts its anti-fibrotic effect by mediating the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a series of assays were designed to detect the effects of APE on cell proliferation, cell invasion and the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In addition, the effects of APE on the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway were explored, with the aim of elucidating the underlying mechanisms. HSCs were initially isolated from normal rat liver. A number of assays were then employed in order to evaluate the effects of APE on the function of these cells. Cell proliferation was investigated using an MTT assay and cell invasion was observed with the use of transwell invasion chambers. Collagen synthesis was measured with a 3H-proline incorporation assay and expression of α-smooth muscle actin was used to determine the extent of HSC activation. Protein expression induced by TGF-β1 in HSCs was investigated by western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type1 (PAI-1) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) transcriptional activity was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that APE (5–80 μg/ml) significantly inhibited fetal bovine serum-induced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Cell invasion and activation of HSCs induced by TGF-β1 were disrupted by treatment with APE in a dose-dependent manner. TGF-β1 was observed to increase the phosphorylation of Smad2/3, while APE administered at higher doses produced inhibitory effects on Smad2/3 phosphorylation. In addition, administration of APE abrogated the TGF-β1-induced reduction in Smad-7 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The results further indicated that APE treatment not only

  13. Strategy of integrated evaluation on treatment of traditional Chinese medicine as 'interaction of system to system' and establishment of novel fuzzy target contribution recognition with herb-pairs, a case study on Astragali Radix-Fructus Corni.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yu; Pei, Ke; Cai, Hao; Tu, Sicong; Cheng, Xinwei; Zhang, Zhengwei; Fan, Kailei; Qiao, Fengxian; Qin, Kunming; Cai, Baochang

    2016-10-15

    To date, in the struggle against diseases and the development of TCM, what we lack is wisdom rather than knowledge. Studies on pharmacology of traditional Chinese medicine are facing critical challenges on how to select the proper parameters or targets to represent the pharmacological evaluation system. With seven steps of optimized modules established by ourselves, we can re-evaluate TCM in a panorama view with a proper pharmacological evaluation system. In this article, with the treatment of TCM as 'interaction of system to system', a novel and generally applicable approach called fuzzy target contribution recognition was established and agents from Astragali Radix-Fructus Corni in resisting diabetic nephropathy were successfully discovered for the first time. CG6, a promising agent from this herb-pair on the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, was finally acquired and its possible molecular mechanism was explored through a nuclear factor erythroid 2-Like 2 (NFE2L2) activation-dependent pathway.

  14. Selenium speciation in radix puerariae using ultrasonic assisted extraction combined with reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after magnetic solid-phase extraction with 5-sulfosalicylic acid functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yupin; Yan, Lizhen; Huang, Hongli; Deng, Biyang

    2016-08-01

    A new method for determination of selenium species in radix puerariae was described. The method consists of sample enrichment with 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA)-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, and online detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium species were extracted using ultrasonic extraction system with a mixture of protease K and lipase. The SSA-SMNPs were used to enrich trace amounts of selenite [Se(IV)], selenate [Se(VI)], selenomethionine (SeMet), and selenocystine (SeCys2) from lower selenium containing samples. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (3σ) for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were observed as 0.0023, 0.0015, 0.0043, and 0.0016 ng mL- 1, respectively. The RSD values (n = 6) of method for intraday were observed between 0.5% and 0.9%. The RSD values of method for interday were less than 1.3%. The linear concentration ranges for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were 0.008-1000, 0.005-200, 0.015-500 and 0.006-200 ng mL- 1, respectively. The detection limits of this method were improved by 10 times due to the enrichment with the SSA-SMNP extraction. The contents of SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet, and Se(VI) in radix puerariae were determined as 0.0140, 0.171, 0.0178, and 0.0344 μg g- 1, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 95.6%-99.4% and the RSDs (n = 6) of recoveries were less than 1.5%.

  15. A novel approach to rapidly explore analytical markers for quality control of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract granules by robust principal component analysis with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Jing-Zheng; Li, Song-Lin; Zhou, Yan; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Chen, Shi-Lin; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2010-11-02

    In a well-controlled experiment, outliers discriminated by robust principal component analysis (RPCA) represent contents in samples which are of particular quality distinguishable from the rest of the others, therefore chemical constituents in a natural product causing discrimination between outliers and the majority of samples could be considered as analytical markers for quality control. Based on this strategy, a novel approach for rapidly exploring characteristic analytical markers was proposed for the quality control of extract granules of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (EGRSM). In this study, large sizes of samples were analyzed via high-throughput ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-UV-Q-Tof MS). RPCA was first performed on the three groups of samples: RSM (the raw material), the in-house prepared aqueous extract of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (AERSM) and commercial product of EGRSM, to determine the variation of specific constituents between raw material and the final products as well as the effect of manufacturing process on the overall quality. Then RPCA was performed on the commercial products of EGRSM to explore the applicability of identified characteristic markers for the quality control of EGRSM. Candidate markers were extracted by RPCA, and their molecular formulae were determined by high resolution electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) analysis. The suitability of identified markers was then evaluated by determining the relationship between quantities of the identified markers with their antioxidant activities biologically, and further confirmed in a variety of samples. In conclusion, the combination of RPCA with UHPLC-UV-Q-Tof MS is a reliable means to identify chemical markers for evaluating quality of herbal medicines.

  16. The Attenuation of Scutellariae radix Extract on Oxidative Stress for Colon Injury in Lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 Cell and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid-induced Ulcerative Colitis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yu; Yang, Jun; Lin, Lianjie; Lin, Yan; Zheng, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress (OS) has been regarded as one of the major pathogeneses of ulcerative colitis (UC) through damaging colon. It has been shown that Scutellariae radix (SR) extract has a beneficial effect for the prevention and treatment of UC. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether SR had a potential capacity on oxidant damage for colon injury both in vivo and in vitro. Materials and Methods: The 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) was used to induce UC rats model while 1 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was for RAW264.7 cell damage. Disease activity index (DAI) was determined to response the severity of colitis. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in rat colon was also estimated. The 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid assay was performed to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of SR. Furthermore, the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) in cell supernatant and rat serum were detected by appropriate kits. In addition, an immunohistochemical assay was applied to examine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) protein expression in colon tissue. Results: The treatment with SR could significantly increase the activity of GSH-PX, CAT, and SOD associated with OS in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell damage and TNBS-induced UC rats. However, the level of MDA was markedly reduced both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, SR significantly decreased DAI and reversed the increased MPO activity. Thus, SR could decrease the severity of acute TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Immunohistochemical assay showed that SR significantly downregulated TGF-β1 protein expression in colon tissue. Conclusion: Our data provided evidence to support this fact that SR attenuated OS in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell and also in TNBS-induced UC rats. Thus, SR may be an interesting candidate drug for the management of UC. SUMMARY Scutellariae radix (SR

  17. Fo shou san, an ancient herbal decoction prepared from angelicae sinensis radix and chuanxiong rhizoma, induces erythropoietin expression: a signaling mediated by the reduced degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor in cultured liver cells.

    PubMed

    Bi, Cathy W C; Xu, Li; Zhang, Wendy L; Zhan, Janis Y X; Fu, Qiang; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Chen, Vicky P; Lau, David T W; Choi, Roy C Y; Wang, Tie J; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2012-01-01

    Fo Shou San (FSS) is an ancient herbal decoction composed of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR; Danggui) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR; Chuanxiong) in a ratio of 3:2. FSS is mainly prescribed for patients having a deficiency of blood supply, and it indeed has been shown to stimulate the production of erythropoietin (EPO) in cultured cells. In order to reveal the mechanism of this FSS-induced EPO gene expression, the upstream regulatory cascade, via hypoxia-induced signaling, was revealed here in cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep3B. The induction of EPO gene expression, triggered by FSS, was revealed in cultured hepatocytes by: (i) the increase of EPO mRNA; and (ii) the activation of the hypoxia response element (HRE), an upstream regulator of the EPO gene. The FSS-induced EPO gene expression was triggered by an increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1 α) protein; however, the mRNA expression of HIF-1 α was not altered by the treatment of FSS. The increased HIF-1 α was a result of reduced protein degradation after the FSS treatment. The current results therefore provide one of the molecular mechanisms of this ancient herbal decoction for its hematopoietic function.

  18. Simultaneous determination of umbelliferone and scopoletin in Tibetan medicine Saussurea laniceps and traditional Chinese medicine Radix angelicae pubescentis using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Wu, Hai-Long; Yin, Xiao-Li; Hu, Yong; Gu, Hui-Wen; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2017-01-01

    A chemometrics-assisted excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence method is presented for simultaneous determination of umbelliferone and scopoletin in Tibetan medicine Saussurea laniceps (SL) and traditional Chinese medicine Radix angelicae pubescentis (RAP). Using the strategy of combining EEM fluorescence data with second-order calibration method based on the alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithm, the simultaneous quantification of umbelliferone and scopoletin in the two different complex systems was achieved successfully, even in the presence of potential interferents. The pretreatment is simple due to the "second-order advantage" and the use of "mathematical separation" instead of awkward "physical or chemical separation". Satisfactory results have been achieved with the limits of detection (LODs) of umbelliferone and scopoletin being 0.06 ng mL- 1 and 0.16 ng mL- 1, respectively. The average spike recoveries of umbelliferone and scopoletin are 98.8 ± 4.3% and 102.5 ± 3.3%, respectively. Besides, HPLC-DAD method was used to further validate the presented strategy, and t-test indicates that prediction results of the two methods have no significant differences. Satisfactory experimental results imply that our method is fast, low-cost and sensitive when compared with HPLC-DAD method.

  19. Profiling of components of rhizoma et radix polygoni cuspidati by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet diode-array detector and ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jinfeng; Wang, Min; Guo, Huimin; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zunjian; Song, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rhizoma et Radix Polygoni Cuspidati (Huzhang in Chinese, HZ) is a traditional medicinal plant in China. Many of the components of HZ have been proved to be bioactive while it is difficult to conduct a comprehensive chemical profiling of HZ as a consequence of the absence of efficient separation system and sensitive detective means. We developed a simple and effective method for comprehensive characterization of constituents in HZ. Objective: To develop a simple and effective method to characterize the components in HZ and provide useful information for subsequent metabolic studies of HZ. Materials and Methods: The components in HZ aqueous extract were characterized by using high performance liquid chromatography with UV diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-IT/TOF). Stilbenes, anthraquinones, gallates and tannins, naphthalenes and some other compounds were identified and confirmed by diagnostic fragment ions with accurate mass measurements, characteristic fragmentation pathways and relevant published literatures. Results: Among the 238 constituents detected in HZ, a total number of 74 constituents were identified unambiguously or tentatively, including 29 compounds reported for the first time in HZ. Conclusion: The identification and structure elucidation of these chemicals provided essential data for quality control and further in vivo metabolic studies of HZ. Key words: Polygonum cuspidatum, HPLC-DAD, HPLC-IT/TOF, qualitative analysis. PMID:26246723

  20. Simultaneous determination of scopoletin, psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, columbianetin acetate, imperatorin, osthole and isoimperatorin in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS for pharmacokinetic studies following oral administration of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis extract.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-xu; Zhang, Qiu-Hong; Li, Jin; Zhang, Ling; Guo, Xin-rong; He, Jun; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Lin; Deng, Yan-ru; Zhang, Bo-li; Gao, Xiu-mei

    2013-04-15

    A rapid and sensitive bioassay based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of eight coumarins in rat plasma. The liquid-liquid extraction method with ethyl acetate was used to prepare the plasma samples after addition of warfarin as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on an Eclipse plus C18 column (100mm×4.6mm, 1.8μm) using gradient elution when 1mM ammonium acetate aqueous solution - acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of each coumarin was lower than 2.16ngmL(-1). Intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 15%. The accuracies were in the range of 88.9-117%. The mean recoveries of coumarins and IS were higher than 84%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of eight coumarins in rats after oral administration of radix angelicae pubescentis.

  1. Veratri Nigri Rhizoma et Radix (Veratrum nigrum L.) and Its Constituent Jervine Prevent Adipogenesis via Activation of the LKB1-AMPKα-ACC Axis In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinbong; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dae-Seung; Han, Yo-Han; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Yoon, Daeyeon; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Heon; Lee, Junhee; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate the antiobese effects of the ethanolic extract of Veratri Nigri Rhizoma et Radix (VN), a herb with limited usage, due to its toxicology. An HPLC analysis identified jervine as a constituent of VN. By an Oil Red O assay and a Real-Time RT-PCR assay, VN showed higher antiadipogenic effects than jervine. In high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese C57BL/6J mice, VN administration suppressed body weight gain. The levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (aP2), adiponectin, resistin, and LIPIN1 were suppressed by VN, while SIRT1 was upregulated. Furthermore, VN activated phosphorylation of the liver kinase B1- (LKB1-) AMP-activated protein kinase alpha- (AMPKα-) acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) axis. Further investigation of cotreatment of VN with the AMPK agonist AICAR or AMPK inhibitor Compound C showed that VN can activate the phosphorylation of AMPKα in compensation to the inhibition of Compound C. In conclusion, VN shows antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, VN has antiadipogenic features, which is due to activating the LKB1-AMPKα-ACC axis. These results suggest that VN has a potential benefit in preventing obesity. PMID:27143989

  2. Veratri Nigri Rhizoma et Radix (Veratrum nigrum L.) and Its Constituent Jervine Prevent Adipogenesis via Activation of the LKB1-AMPKα-ACC Axis In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinbong; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dae-Seung; Han, Yo-Han; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Yoon, Daeyeon; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Heon; Lee, Junhee; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate the antiobese effects of the ethanolic extract of Veratri Nigri Rhizoma et Radix (VN), a herb with limited usage, due to its toxicology. An HPLC analysis identified jervine as a constituent of VN. By an Oil Red O assay and a Real-Time RT-PCR assay, VN showed higher antiadipogenic effects than jervine. In high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese C57BL/6J mice, VN administration suppressed body weight gain. The levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (aP2), adiponectin, resistin, and LIPIN1 were suppressed by VN, while SIRT1 was upregulated. Furthermore, VN activated phosphorylation of the liver kinase B1- (LKB1-) AMP-activated protein kinase alpha- (AMPKα-) acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) axis. Further investigation of cotreatment of VN with the AMPK agonist AICAR or AMPK inhibitor Compound C showed that VN can activate the phosphorylation of AMPKα in compensation to the inhibition of Compound C. In conclusion, VN shows antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, VN has antiadipogenic features, which is due to activating the LKB1-AMPKα-ACC axis. These results suggest that VN has a potential benefit in preventing obesity.

  3. Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 21 mycotoxins in Radix Paeoniae Alba by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry and QuEChERS for sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yanyan; Meng, Wenting; Sun, Wanyang; Li, Dongxiang; Yu, Zhiguo; Tong, Ling; Zhao, Yunli

    2016-09-15

    A high-throughput method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 21 mycotoxins in Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) was developed by coupling the modified QuEChERS method with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqLIT-MS). The 21 mycotoxins were extracted and cleaned up using QuEChERS-based procedure, then further separated on a C18 column and detected by a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in the multiple reaction monitoring-information dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion (MRM-IDA-EPI) mode. Under this technique, 13 mycotoxins were detected using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase in positive mode while the other 8 mycotoxins were detected using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% ammonia as the mobile phase in negative mode. The calibration curves of all analytes showed good linearity (r(2)>0.995) within test ranges. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.031 to 5.4μg/kg and 0.20 to 22μg/kg, respectively. Additionally, recoveries were all above 75.3% with relative standard deviations within 15%. The method proposed herein with significant advantages including simple pretreatment, rapid determination as well as high sensitivity, accuracy and throughput would be a preferred candidate for the determination and quantification of multi-class mycotoxin contaminants in real samples.

  4. Comparative pharmacokinetics of prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and cimifugin by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after oral administration of Radix Saposhnikoviae extract, cimifugin monomer solution and prim-O-glucosylcimifugin monomer solution to rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueyue; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Hai; Jia, Jing; Lv, Lei; Zhou, Guichen; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Guoqing

    2012-10-01

    A sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of cimifugin and prim-O-glucosylcimifugin in rat plasma after oral administration of Radix Saposhnikoviae (RS) extract, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin monomer solution and cimifugin monomer solution. Plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with acetonitrile containing the internal standards puerarin and daidzein. LC separation was achieved on a Zorbax SB-C(18) column (150 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) with 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol by isocratic elution. The detection was carried out in select-ion-monitoring mode with a positive electrospray ionization interface. The fully validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the analytes in rats. A bimodal phenomenon appeared in the concentration-time curve of prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and cimifugin after oral administration of RS extract. Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin mainly transformed to cimifugin when it was absorbed into blood. Both absorption and elimination of cimifugin after oral administration of RS were longer than after administration of single cimifugin. The pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC(0-t) , AUC(0-∞) and t(1/2) ) of prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and cimifugin by giving cimifugin monomer solution, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin monomer solution and RS extract had significant differences (P < 0.05).

  5. A new application of an aqueous diphase solvent system in one-step preparation of polysaccharide from the crude water extract of Radix Astragali by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun-Yi; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Yu, Hua; Xie, Ming-Yong; Hsiao, Wen-Luan; Lu, Ai-Ping; Han, Quan-Bin

    2012-11-02

    Polysaccharide's purification remains challenge to separation technology. Conventional methods involve time-consuming and complicated operations and always cause significant variation in the isolates' chemistry. This paper reports an aqueous diphase solvent system, namely PEG1000-MgSO(4)-H(2)O, which succeeded in one-step CCC separation of a polysaccharide (43 mg) from the water extract (1.67 g) of Radix Astragali. The solvent composition was set as 12:16:72 (w/w/w) of which the lower phase was used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in a 1000 mL column. The purified polysaccharide bears an average molecular weight of 1095 kDa and consists of galacturonic acid (76.5%), galactose (7.7%), arabinose (4.2%) and glucose (5.0%). Methylation analysis result showed it was composed of 58.4% of 1,4-linked Glcp, 11.8% of T-linked Araf, 10.5% of T-linked Glcp, 9.1% of 1,4,6-linked Galp and 5.1% of 1,3,6-linked Galp, etc. This success shows a short way between the crude water extract and purified polysaccharides, which minimizes the chemical variation caused by purification methods.

  6. Emodin Isolated from Polygoni cuspidati Radix Inhibits TNF-α and IL-6 Release by Blockading NF-κB and MAP Kinase Pathways in Mast Cells Stimulated with PMA Plus A23187

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yue; Jeong, Yong-Tae; Li, Xian; Kim, Mi Jin; Park, Pil-Hoon; Hwang, Seung-Lark; Son, Jong Keun; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2013-01-01

    Emodin, a naturally occurring anthraquinone derivative isolated from Polygoni cuspidati radix, has several beneficial pharmacologic effects, which include anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, the authors examined the effect of emodin on the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus the calcium ionophore A23187. To investigate the mechanism responsible for the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production by emodin, the authors assessed its effects on the activations of transcriptional factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Emodin attenuated the nuclear translocation of (NF)-κB p65 and its DNA-binding activity by reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα and the phosphorylation of IκB kinase B (IKK). Furthermore, emodin dose-dependently attenuated the phosphorylations of MAPKs, such as, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAP kinase, and the stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK)/c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of emodin on PMA plus A23187-stimulated BMMCs are mediated via the inhibition of NF-κB activation and of the MAPK pathway. PMID:24404333

  7. Capillary liquid chromatography-microcoil 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry for on-line structure elucidation of isoflavones in Radix astragali.

    PubMed

    Xiao, H B; Krucker, M; Putzbach, K; Albert, K

    2005-03-04

    Miniaturization and hyphenation of chromatographic separation techniques to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is being increasingly demanded in the field of biomedical, drug metabolite and natural product analysis. Herein, capillary liquid chromatography was coupled on-line to microcoil 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (capLC-NMR) equipped with a 1.5 microL solenoidal probe for structure elucidation of isoflavones in Radix astragali. The extract was screened by HPLC-UV-MS as the preliminary step and four major peaks were identified tentatively by ion trap mass spectrometry molecular weights and characteristic fragments. Then, stopped-flow capLC-UV-NMR was performed using 33 microg extract injected on-column. The four peaks were parked manually in the micro probe one by one and corresponding 1H NMR spectra were recorded with good resolutions under the applied capLC-NMR conditions (120 and 220 ng injected on-column for peaks 2 and 4, respectively). All aromatic regions of 1H NMR spectra correlated well to the characteristic signals of isoflavone aglycone protons. And the signal corresponding to the anomeric proton of the glucopyranoside of isoflavone glycoside was also obtained for peak 1. Therefore, these four peaks are determined as calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), ononin (2), calycosin (3) and formononetin (4) unambiguously. The capLC-NMR results indicate that this hyphenated technique could be used for the determination of a great variety of natural products from small sample amounts, e.g., only 5 g R. astragali in this study.

  8. Pharmacokinetic comparisons by UPLC-MS/MS of isomer paeoniflorin and albiflorin after oral administration decoctions of single-herb Radix Paeoniae Alba and Zengmian Yiliu prescription to rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Can; Yang, Hong; Wei, Hai; Qi, Cong; Wang, Chang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    Zengmian Yiliu (ZMYL), a traditional Chinese formula, is designed to improve clinical efficacy and reduce adverse effects in combination with cisplatin in ovarian cancer chemotherapy. In ZMYL, Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA, made from root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) acts as an adjunctive drug in cancer treatment by ameliorating side effects induced by radio- and chemotherapy. The pharmacokinetics differences between isomer albiflorin and paeoniflorin, the main components of RPA, after oral administration decoction of single-herb RPA and ZMYL were compared using a sensitive and accurate UPLC-MS/MS. The results indicate that there are statistically significant differences between the pharmacokinetic parameters: decreasing area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), maximum concentration (Cmax ), elimination rate constant (Ke ) and increasing apparent volume of distribution (Vd ) and clearance (CL) for albiflorin, increasing distribution half-life (T1/2d ) and decreasing elimination half-life (T1/2e ), distribution rate constant (Kd ) and absorption rate constant (Ka ) for paeoniflorin in the ZMYL group compared with the single-herb RPA group. In comparison with albiflorin, the pharmacokinetic parameters of paeoniflorin included significantly increasing mean residence time (MRT) and Vd , decreasing CL and Ke in the single-herb RPA group and increasing MRT and T1/2d and decreasing CL, Ke and Kd in the ZMYL group. Both paeoniflorin and albiflorin are more likely, as the main active ingredients in RPA and ZMYL, to play a variety of pharmacological effects, and herb-herb interactions occur, resulting in different pharmacokinetics of albiflorin and paeoniflorin in RPA and ZMYL.

  9. 2β, 3β, 23-trihydroxy-urs-12-ene-28-olic acid (TUA) isolated from Actinidia chinensis Radix inhibits NCI-H460 cell proliferation by decreasing NF-κB expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qi-Lai; Li, Hong-Liang; Huang, Zhi-Qin; Chen, Yi-Jian; Liu, Ta-Si

    2015-10-05

    A natural ursolic compound, 2β, 3β, 23-trihydroxy-urs-12-ene-28-olic acid (TUA) was isolated from the root of Actinidia chinensis Planch (A. chinensis Radix). Since a large number of triterpenoid compound has marked anticancer effects toward various types of cancer cell lines in vitro, this study was carried out to investigate the anticancer effect of TUA in non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLCCs) and the underlying apoptotic mechanism of TUA was examined in NCI-H460 cell lines. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle were measured using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The activity of transcription factor NF-κB was determined by EMSA method. The expression of apoptosis- and proliferation-related proteins was determined by western blotting. The effect of TUA on NF-κB mRNA expression in NCI-H460 cells was detected by RT-PCR. TUA significantly suppressed the viability of NCI-H460 cells. Also, TUA significantly increased the sub G1 population by cell cycle analysis and in a concentration dependent manner in NCI-H460 cells. Such an effect was accompanied by p65 (NF-κB subunit) inactivation by an inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, and by inhibition of p65 mRNA expressions. Consistently Overall, our findings suggest that TUA induces apoptosis via inhibition of NF-κB (p65) expression level and activation of IκBα in NCI-H460 cells as a potent anticancer candidate for lung cancer treatment.

  10. Triple aldose reductase/α-glucosidase/radical scavenging high-resolution profiling combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for identification of antidiabetic constituents in crude extract of Radix Scutellariae.

    PubMed

    Tahtah, Yousof; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Wubshet, Sileshi G; Nyberg, Nils T; Jønsson, Louise H; Jäger, Anna K; Qinglei, Sun; Staerk, Dan

    2015-08-21

    In this work, development of a new microplate-based high-resolution profiling assay using recombinant human aldose reductase is presented. Used together with high-resolution radical scavenging and high-resolution α-glucosidase assays, it provided the first report of a triple aldose reductase/α-glucosidase/radical scavenging high-resolution inhibition profile - allowing proof of concept with Radix Scutellariae crude extract as a polypharmacological herbal drug. The triple bioactivity high-resolution profiles were used to pinpoint bioactive compounds, and subsequent structure elucidation was performed with hyphenated high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The only α-glucosidase inhibitor was baicalein, whereas main aldose reductase inhibitors in the crude extract were baicalein and skullcapflavone II, and main radical scavengers were ganhuangemin, viscidulin III, baicalin, oroxylin A 7-O-glucuronide, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin, and skullcapflavone II.

  11. The neurology of aretaeus: radix pedis neurologia.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2013-01-01

    Aretaeus (Aretaios) was a physician born in Cappadocia in about the 2nd century AD, a student of medicine and physician in Alexandria. His works are found in eight books which espoused the physiological and pathological views of the Hippocratic principles derived from the pneumatists and the eclectic schools. Though he has been called the forgotten physician, it has been said that: 'after Hippocrates no single Greek author has equalled Aretaios'. In order to give an indication of his neurological legacy, this paper offers a summary of and quotations from his principal neurological contributions: migraine, vertigo, tetanus, epilepsy, melancholia, strokes and paralysis. One of his most important discoveries was the notion that the pyramidal tract decussates.

  12. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively.

  13. Microcalorimetry studies of the antimicrobial actions of Aconitum alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-bin; Liu, Lian; Shao, Wei; Wei, Ting; Lin, Gui-mei

    2015-08-01

    The metabolic activity of organisms can be measured by recording the heat output using microcalorimetry. In this paper, the total alkaloids in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Aconiti Lateralis were extracted and applied to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of alkaloids on bacteria growth was studied by microcalorimetry. The power-time curves were plotted with a thermal activity monitor (TAM) air isothermal microcalorimeter and parameters such as growth rate constant (μ), peak-time (Tm), inhibitory ratio (I), and enhancement ratio (E) were calculated. The relationships between the concentration of Aconitum alkaloids and μ of E. coli or S. aureus were discussed. The results showed that Aconitum alkaloids had little effect on E. coli and had a potentially inhibitory effect on the growth of S. aureus.

  14. Data mining and frequency analysis for licorice as a "Two-Face" herb in Chinese Formulae based on Chinese Formulae Database.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Zhao, Jinlong; Fan, Xinsheng; Duan, Jinao; Qian, Dawei; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping

    2014-09-25

    Liquorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Leguminosae. Licorice is described as 'National Venerable Master' in Chinese medicine and plays paradoxical roles, i.e. detoxification/strengthen efficacy and inducing/enhancing toxicity. Therefore, licorice was called "Two-Face" herb in this paper. The aim of this study is to discuss the paradoxical roles and the perspective usage of this "Two-Face" herb using data mining and frequency analysis. More than 96,000 prescriptions from Chinese Formulae Database were selected. The frequency and the prescription patterns were analyzed using Microsoft SQL Server 2000. Data mining methods (frequent itemsets) were used to analyze the regular patterns and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in the selected prescriptions. The result showed that licorice (Radix glycyrrhizae) was the most frequently used herb in Chinese Formulae Database, other frequently used herbs including Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui), Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), etc. Toxic herbs such as Radix aconiti lateralis praeparata (Fu zi), Rhizoma pinelliae (Ban xia) and Cinnabaris (Zhu sha) are top 3 herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), Poria (Fu ling), Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui) are top 3 nontoxic herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Moreover, Licorice was seldom used with sargassum (Hai Zao), Herba Cirsii Japonici (Da Ji), Euphorbia kansui (Gan Sui) and Flos genkwa (Yuan Hua), which proved the description of contradictory effect of Radix glycyrrhizae and these herbs as recorded in Chinese medicine theory. This study showed the principle pattern of Chinese herbal drugs used in combination with licorice or not. The principle patterns and special compatibility laws reported here could be useful and instructive for scientific usage of licorice in clinic application. Further pharmacological and chemical researches are

  15. Pharmacokinetics of TJ-8117 (Onpi-to), a drug for renal failure (I): Plasma concentration, distribution and excretion of [3H]-(-)epicatechin 3-O-gallate in rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Yukiho; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Morota, Takashi; Tomisawa, Hiroki; Takeda, Shuichi; Aburada, Masaki

    2004-01-01

    TJ-8117 (Onpi-to) is an herbal medicine extracted from a mixture of five crude medicinals (Rhei Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Ginseng Radix, Zingiberis Rhizoma and Aconiti Tuber), which has been developed as a drug for chronic renal failure. (-)Epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECG), one of the active components of TJ-8117, was labeled with tritium and added to TJ-8117. Pharmacokinetics in plasma, tissue distribution and excretion of radioactivity were investigated following a single oral administration of TJ-8117 containing [3H]ECG ([3H]TJ-8117) in rats and dogs. 1. Following oral administration of [3H]TJ-8117, radioactivity exhibited linear pharmacokinetics in Cmax. Linearity of AUC(0-72 h) was lost at the highest dose of [3H]TJ-8117. Cmax and AUC(0-72 h) were higher in female rats than in male rats, a finding which suggested a sex difference in rats. Plasma levels of radioactivity displayed curves with one peak in dogs, which suggested a species difference between rats and dogs. 2. No accumulation was observed in any tissues in male rats. 3. Within 168 h after administration of [3H]TJ-8117 to male rats, 18.7%, 84.1% and 0.9% of the dose was excreted in urine, feces and expired air, respectively. Data from bile-duct cannulated rats indicated that at least 18.4% of the dose was absorbed.

  16. Serum Pharmacochemistry Analysis Using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS after Oral Administration to Rats of Shenfu Decoction

    PubMed Central

    He, Jia-le; Zhao, Jia-wei; Ma, Zeng-chun; Wang, Yu-guang; Liang, Qian-de; Tan, Hong-ling; Xiao, Cheng-rong; Tang, Xiang-lin; Gao, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the serum pharmacochemistry of SFD as well as the material basis through analyzing the constituents absorbed in blood. The SFD was orally administrated to Wistar rats at 20 g·kg−1, and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) fingerprints of SFD were created. Serum samples were collected for analysis, and further data processing used MarkerLynx XS software. 19 ginsenosides and 16 alkaloids were detected in SFD. The absorption of alkaloids (mainly monoester diterpenoid alkaloids) increased when Aconitum carmichaeli Debx. was combined with Panax ginseng, while the ginsenosides remained stable. Diester diterpenoid alkaloids were not present in the serum samples. A suitable serum pharmacochemistry method was successfully established to study pharmacological effects and potential improvements in formulation. This may also be useful for toxicity reduction. We suspect that the increased absorption of the monoester diterpenoid alkaloids from the mixture of Panax and Radix, compared to the Panax only extract, may be the reason for the combination of the two herbs in popular medicine formulas in China. PMID:26273317

  17. Antiradical and antioxidant activity of flavones from Scutellariae baicalensis radix.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Dorota; Dryś, Andrzej; Matkowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the antioxidant properties of four main flavones from Scutellaria baicalensis: baicalein, wogonin and their glucuronides - baicalin and wogonoside. We used three in vitro assays: free radical scavenging with 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical, transition metal ions reducing power by phosphomolybdenum assay and inhibition of the hydroxyl radical-induced peroxidation of linoleic acid assay. All flavones have antioxidant capacity, which differs depending on the structure and mechanisms of activity. In all tests, only baicalein - the aglycone with three adjacent hydroxyl groups - exhibited consistent antioxidant effect. Wogonin protected linoleic acid against oxidation. Baicalin displayed less potent antioxidant properties whereas wogonoside did not have significant antioxidant activity.

  18. Advancement in analysis of Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen).

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Guo; Song, Long; Liu, Mei; Hu, Zhi-Bi; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2009-03-13

    This review summarizes the recent advances in the chemical analysis of Danshen and its finished products, including the introduction of the identified bioactive components, analytical methods for quantitative determination of target analytes and fingerprinting authentication, quality criteria of Danshen crude herb and its preparations, as well as the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on the active components of Danshen and its finished products. Danshen contains mainly two types of constituents, the hydrophilic depsides and lipophilic diterpenoidal quinones and both of them are responsible for the pharmacological activities of Danshen. In order to monitor simultaneously both types of components which have different physicochemical properties, numerous analytical methods have been reported using various chromatographic and spectrophotometric technologies. In this review, 110 papers on analysis of Danshen are discussed, various analytical methods and their chromatographic conditions are briefly described and their advantages/disadvantages are compared. For obtaining a quick, accurate and applicable analytical approach for quality evaluation and establishing a harmonized criteria of Danshen and its finished products, the authors' suggestion and opinions are given, including the reasonable selection of marker compounds with high concentration and commercial availability, a simple sample preparation procedure with high recoveries of both the hydrophilic phenols and lipophilic tanshinones, and an optimized chromatographic condition with ideal resolutions of all the target components. The chemical degradation and transformation of the predominant constituent salvianolic acid B in Danshen during processing and manufacturing are also emphasized in order to assure the quality consistency of Danshen containing products.

  19. cAMP-PKA-CaMKII signaling pathway is involved in aggravated cardiotoxicity during Fuzi and Beimu Combination Treatment of Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Pengwei; Huang, Yingying; Lu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Liman; Sun, Fengjiao; Zhang, Yanjun; Duan, Jinao

    2016-01-01

    Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata (Fuzi) and Fritillariae Thunbergii bulbus (Beimu) have been widely used clinically to treat cardiopulmonary related diseases in China. However, according to the classic rules of traditional Chinese medicine, Fuzi and Beimu should be prohibited to use as a combination for their incompatibility. Therefore, it is critical to elucidate the paradox on the use of Fuzi and Beimu combination therapy. Monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension rats were treated with either Fuzi, Beimu, or their combination at different stages of PH. We demonstrated that at the early stage of PH, Fuzi and Beimu combination significantly improved lung function and reduced pulmonary histopathology. However, as the disease progressed, when Fuzi and Beimu combination were used at the late stage of PH, right ventricular chamber dilation was histologically apparent and myocardial apoptosis was significantly increased compared with each drug alone. Western-blotting results indicated that the main chemical ingredient of Beimu could down-regulate the protein phosphorylation levels of Akt and PDE4D, whereas the combination of Fuzi and Beimu could up-regulate PKA and CaMKII signaling pathways. Therefore, we concluded that Fuzi and Beimu combination potentially aggravated the heart injury due to the inhibition of PDK1/Akt/PDE4D axis and subsequent synergistic activation of βAR-Gs-PKA/CaMKII signaling pathway. PMID:27739450

  20. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  1. Higenamine promotes M2 macrophage activation and reduces Hmgb1 production through HO-1 induction in a murine model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Mingchao; Wang, Yan; Wu, Jian; Li, Jiaping

    2014-12-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered to be primarily associated with loss of motor function and leads to the activation of diverse cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system to attempt to repair the damaged spinal cord tissue. Higenamine (HG) (1-[(4-hydroxyphenyl) methyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-6,7-diol), an active ingredient of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, has been traditionally used as a heart stimulant and anti-inflammatory agent in oriental countries. However, the function and related mechanism of HG on SCI have never been investigated. In our current study, HG treatment displayed increased myelin sparring and enhanced spinal cord repair process. The numbers of CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, Ly6G(+) neutrophils and CD11b(+) macrophages were all significantly lower in the HG-treated group than that in the control group after SCI. HG administration increased the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 and promoted M2 macrophage activation. Significantly reduced Hmgb1 expression was also observed in HG-treated mice with SCI. Furthermore, HG treatment promoted HO-1 production. The increased number of M2 macrophages, decreased expression of Hmgb1 and promoted locomotor recovery induced by HG were all reversed with additional HO-1 inhibitor treatment. In conclusion, HG promotes M2 macrophage activation and reduces Hmgb1 expression dependent on HO-1 induction and then promotes locomotor function after SCI.

  2. Synergistic Effects of Danshen (Salvia Miltiorrhiza Radix et Rhizoma) and Sanqi (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma) Combination in Inhibiting Inflammation Mediators in RAW264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Kam, Antony; Low, Mitchell; Chan, Kelvin

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study aims to investigate the possible synergistic interactions of the Danshen-Sanqi combination on vascular disease via their anti-inflammatory activities. Methods. Nine combination ratios of Danshen-Sanqi extracts were screened in the RAW264.7 cell line and their anti-inflammatory effects were examined in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) generation pathways. The interaction between Danshen and Sanqi on each target was analysed using combination index (CI) and isobologram models. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activities of key bioactive compounds from Danshen and Sanqi were tested using the same models. The compounds from each herb that exerted the most potent activity were combined to evaluate their possible synergistic/antagonistic interactions. Results. Danshen-Sanqi 8 : 2 was found to be the optimal ratio and exerted a synergistic effect in inhibiting NO, TNF, and MCP-1 when the concentrations were higher than 1.24, 1.89, and 2.17 mg/mL, respectively. Although dihydrotanshinone I (DT) and ginsenoside Rd (Rd) from Danshen and Sanqi, respectively, exhibited the greatest individual bioactivity in the assays, antagonistic effects were observed for the DT-Rd combination 7 : 3. Conclusion. This study provided scientific evidence to support the traditional use of the Danshen-Sanqi combination for vascular disease through their synergistic interactions on anti-inflammatory pathways. PMID:27830149

  3. Incidence of Radix Entomolaris in Mandibular First Molars in Palestinian Population: A Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate clinically the percentage of permanent mandibular first molar teeth with three roots amongst Palestinian population. Patients and Methods. Three hundred twenty-two mandibular first molars from 185 females and 137 males scheduled for root canal treatment at the Dental Center of the Arab American University were examined over a 2-year period. The incidence of a third root revealed by periapical radiographs and the comparison of the occurrence between males and females and between the right and left sides of the mandible were recorded. Statistical Analysis. It was performed using the chi-square test with a significant level set at P < 0.05%. Results. Of the 322 treated mandibular first molars, twelve teeth were found to have a third root with an overall incidence being 3.73%. More teeth with a third root were treated on the right side of the mandible compared to the left side. Conclusion. The incidence of a third root in Palestinian population was within the range of previous reports from the Middle East but considerably lower than the percentage from the Far East. PMID:27355078

  4. A comprehensive review on the stinging nettle effect and efficacy profiles. Part II: urticae radix.

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, Julia E; Roufogalis, Basil D; Wagner, Hildebert; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2007-08-01

    Nettle root is recommended for complaints associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We therefore conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to summarise the pharmacological and clinical effects of this plant material. Only a few components of the active principle have been identified and the mechanism of action is still unclear. It seems likely that sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), aromatase, epidermal growth factor and prostate steroid membrane receptors are involved in the anti-prostatic effect, but less likely that 5alpha-reductase or androgen receptors are involved. Extract and a polysaccharide fraction were shown to exert anti-inflammatory activity. A proprietary methanolic nettle root extract and particular fractions inhibited cell proliferation. Isolated lectins (UDA) were shown to be promising immunomodulatory agents, having also anti-viral and fungistatic effects. However, despite these in vitro studies it is unclear whether the in-vitro or animal data are a surrogate for clinical effects. The clinical evidence of effectiveness for nettle root in the treatment of BPH is based on many open studies. A small number of randomised controlled studies indicate that a proprietary methanolic extract is effective in improving BPH complaints. However, the significance and magnitude of the effect remains to be established in further confirmatory studies before nettle root treatment may be accepted in the guidelines for BPH treatment. The risk for adverse events during nettle root treatment is very low, as is its toxicity. Pre-clinical safety data remain to be completed.

  5. H2O2 Improves Quality of Radix scutellariae Through Anti-oxidant Effect

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Song; Wu-lin, Cao; Hua, Jiang; Ai-hua, Zhang; Xiang-cai, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The correlation between the quality and geographical origin of herbal medicine was traced back to Tang Dynasty in China, more than 1200 years, and the effects of ecological environments on the secondary metabolites such as flavonoids have been confirmed. However, little is known about how the adversity impacts on the quality. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be medium between the ecological environment and the secondary metabolism. Materials and Methods: The fresh roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi were treated with 0.002 μmol/L, 0.2 μmol/L, and 20 μmol/L H2O2, respectively. A stress model was established to elucidate the change of secondary metabolism, anti-oxidant enzyme system, and enzymes relating to flavonoids. Results: The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase decreased. Too much H2O2, firstly, boosted transformation of flavonoids glycoside into aglucon with the most remarkable activities through UDP-glucuronate baicalein 7-O-glucuronosyltransferase (UBGAT), and β-glucuronidase (GUS), then regulated the gene expression of phenylalanine ammonialyase, GUS, and UBGAT, and increased the contents of flavones, motivated the flavonoid glycoside converting into aglucon. With this action, the flavones displaced the anti-oxidant enzymes. The higher the dosage, the more baicalein and wogonin increased, the later they took action. Conclusion: The plant secondary metabolites to keep ROS constant are identical to the effective materials in clinic. They are closely linked. H2O2 can improve flavones, especially the aglucon, and further increased the quality of herbal medicine, which possesses very important value in medical practice. SUMMARY H2O2 decreasing the activities of CAT and POD lead to accumulation of more H2O2. Excess of H2O2 up-regulated PAL, BUG, promote biosynthesis of flavones, and enhance the nonenzyme system. “↑” and “↓” represent activity or content “up” and “down” respectively. PMID:27019566

  6. Aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing NF-κB and NFATc1 activation and DC-STAMP expression

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiang-zhou; He, Long-gang; Wang, Song; Wang, Keng; Zhang, Yue-yang; Tao, Lei; Li, Xiao-juan; Liu, Shu-wen

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat chronic arthritis and is highly effective against rheumatoid arthritis. However, the effects of aconine, a derivative of aconitum alkaloids, on osteoclasts, which can absorb bone, remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of aconine on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro. Methods: The viability of mouse leukemic monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was measured using CCK-8 assays. Osteoclast differentiation was induced by incubation of RAW264.7 cells in the presence of RANKL, and assessed with TRAP staining assay. Bone resorption was examined with bone resorption pits assay. The expression of relevant genes and proteins was analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blots. The activation of NF-κB and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) was examined using stable NF-κB and NFATc1 luciferase reporter gene systems, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results: Aconine (0.125, 0.25 μmol/L) did not affect the viability of RAW264.7 cells, but dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorptive activity. Furthermore, aconine dose-dependently inhibited the RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB and NFATc1 in RAW264.7 cells, and subsequently reduced the expression of osteoclast-specific genes (c-Src, β3-Integrin, cathepsin K and MMP-9) and the expression of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), which played an important role in cell-cell fusion. Conclusion: These findings suggest that aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and NFATc1 and the expression of the cell-cell fusion molecule DC-STAMP. PMID:26592521

  7. Evaluation of an Aqueous Extract from Horseradish Root (Armoracia rusticana Radix) against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cellular Inflammation Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Herz, Corinna; Tran, Hoai Thi Thu; Márton, Melinda-Rita; Maul, Ronald; Schreiner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop and its root is used in condiments. Traditionally, horseradish root is used to treat bacterial infections of the respiratory tract and urinary bladder. The antiphlogistic activity, determined in activated primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), was evaluated for an aqueous extract and its subfractions, separated by HPLC. Compound analysis was done by UHPLC-QToF/MS and GC-MS. The aqueous extract concentration-dependently inhibited the anti-inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in terms of TNF-α release at ≥37 μg/mL. Further, the cyclooxygenase as well as lipoxygenase pathway was blocked by the extract as demonstrated by inhibition of COX-2 protein expression and PGE2 synthesis at ≥4 μg/mL and leukotriene LTB4 release. Mechanistic studies revealed that inhibition of ERK1/2 and c-Jun activation preceded COX-2 suppression upon plant extract treatment in the presence of LPS. Chemical analysis identified target compounds with a medium polarity as relevant for the observed bioactivity. Importantly, allyl isothiocyanate, which is quite well known for its anti-inflammatory capacity and as the principal pungent constituent in horseradish roots, was not relevant for the observations. The results suggest that horseradish root exerts an antiphlogistic activity in human immune cells by regulation of the COX and LOX pathway via MAPK signalling. PMID:28182113

  8. Effects of astragalosides from Radix Astragali on high glucose-induced proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation in glomerular mesangial cells

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, XIAO; WANG, DONG-DONG; WEI, TONG; HE, SU-MEI; ZHANG, GUAN-YING; WEI, QUN-LI

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) exhibits a deteriorating course that may lead to end-stage renal failure. Astragalosides have been clinically tested for the treatment of DN, but the mechanism is unclear at present. In this study, the effects of astragalosides were investigated on high glucose-induced proliferation and expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), type IV collagen (colIV) and fibronectin (FN) in glomerular mesangial cells (MCs). Cell proliferation was determined by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine assay, and the expression of TGF-β1, CTGF, colIV and FN mRNA and proteins in MCs was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and ELISA assay, respectively. The results showed that high glucose clearly induced the proliferation of MCs and increased the expression of TGF-β1, CTGF, colIV and FN. Treatment with 50, 100, 200 µg/ml astragalosides inhibited cell proliferation and the expression of TGF-β1, CTGF, colIV and FN induced by high glucose. Thus, it is concluded that astragalosides inhibit the increased cell proliferation and expression of major extracellular matrix proteins that are induced by high glucose, indicating their value for the prophylaxis and therapy of DN. PMID:27313676

  9. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble arrowroot (Puerariae radix) tea extracts on foodborne pathogens in ground beef and mushroom soup.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Fung, D Y C

    2004-09-01

    Antimicrobial activity of water-soluble arrowroot tea extract was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in ground beef and mushroom soup. The concentrations of arrowroot tea used were 0, 3, and 6% (wt/wt) for ground beef and 0, 1, 5, and 10% (wt/vol) for mushroom soup. Samples without tea extract were considered controls. Each sample was stored for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days at 7 degrees C for ground beef and for 0, 1, 3, and 5 days at 35 degrees C for mushroom soup. On each sampling time, proper dilutions were spread plated on each pathogen-specific agar. Viable cell counts of each pathogen were performed after incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 to 48 h. For ground beef, Salmonella Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes were slightly suppressed by approximately 1.5 log, compared with the control, on day 7 at 3 and 6% arrowroot tea treatment. For mushroom soup, all test pathogens were suppressed by 6.5, 4.7, 3.4, and 4.3 log at 5% and 6.0, 4.7, 5.0, and 4.3 log at 10% against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. Mushroom soup with 1% arrowroot tea also showed 2.3- and 2.7-log growth suppression of Salmonella Enteritidis and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. This study showed that the use of arrowroot tea would effectively inhibit the microbial growth of both gram-negative and gram-positive foodborne pathogens in various foods, especially liquid foods.

  10. A study of speech emotion recognition based on hybrid algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ju-xia; Zhang, Chao; Lv, Zhao; Rao, Yao-quan; Wu, Xiao-pei

    2011-10-01

    To effectively improve the recognition accuracy of the speech emotion recognition system, a hybrid algorithm which combines Continuous Hidden Markov Model (CHMM), All-Class-in-One Neural Network (ACON) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed. In SVM and ACON methods, some global statistics are used as emotional features, while in CHMM method, instantaneous features are employed. The recognition rate by the proposed method is 92.25%, with the rejection rate to be 0.78%. Furthermore, it obtains the relative increasing of 8.53%, 4.69% and 0.78% compared with ACON, CHMM and SVM methods respectively. The experiment result confirms the efficiency of distinguishing anger, happiness, neutral and sadness emotional states.

  11. Norisoboldine, an Anti-Arthritis Alkaloid Isolated from Radix Linderae, Attenuates Osteoclast Differentiation and Inflammatory Bone Erosion in an Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhi-feng; Lv, Qi; Xia, Ying; Yue, Meng-fan; Shi, Can; Xia, Yu-feng; Chou, Gui-xin; Wang, Zheng-tao; Dai, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Norisoboldine (NOR), the primary isoquinoline alkaloid constituent of the root of Lindera aggregata, has previously been demonstrated to attenuate osteoclast (OC) differentiation. Accumulative evidence has shown that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays an important role in regulating the differentiation of various cells, and multiple isoquinoline alkaloids can modulate AhR. In the present study, we explored the role of NOR in the AhR signaling pathway. These data showed that the combination of AhR antagonist resveratrol (Res) or α-naphthoflavone (α-NF) nearly reversed the inhibition of OC differentiation through NOR. NOR could stably bind to AhR, up-regulate the nuclear translocation of AhR, and enhance the accumulation of the AhR-ARNT complex, AhR-mediated reporter gene activity and CYP1A1 expression in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting that NOR might be an agonist of AhR. Moreover, NOR inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65, resulting in the evident accumulation of the AhR-NF-κB-p65 complex, which could be markedly inhibited through either Res or α-NF. Although NOR only slightly affected the expression of HIF-1α, NOR markedly reduced VEGF mRNA expression and ARNT-HIF-1α complex accumulation. In vivo studies indicated that NOR decreased the number of OCs and ameliorated the bone erosion in the joints of rats with collagen-induced arthritis, accompanied by the up-regulation of CYP1A1 and the down-regulation of VEGF mRNA expression in the synovium of rats. A combination of α-NF nearly completely reversed the effects of NOR. In conclusion, NOR attenuated OC differentiation and bone erosion through the activation of AhR and the subsequent inhibition of both NF-κB and HIF pathways.

  12. Optimization of liquid chromatographic method for the separation of nine hydrophilic and hydrophobic components in Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen) using microemulsion as eluent.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongzhang; Xuan, Xueyi; Xu, Liyuan; Yang, Jianrui; Gao, Chongkai; Li, Ning

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we have proposed and developed a novel, environmental-friendly and simple method for separation of nine hydrophilic and hydrophobic components in Danshen using microemulsion liquid chromatography. The proposed method was optimized via the preliminary screening experiment and the experimental design. The following factors were investigated in preliminary screening experiment: pH of mobile phase, column type, the nature of surfactant, the nature of oil phase and additives. In order to simultaneously optimize resolution and analysis time, the chromatographic optimization function (COF) was adopted to evaluate chromatograms. The central composite design (CCD) was used to create the matrix of experiments for mapping the chromatographic response surface. Finally, the COF values were fitted into a second order polynomial model and the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to find the optimal eluent constituents. The reliability of the established model was confirmed by the good agreement obtained between experimental data and predictive values. Based on the results from the preliminary screening experiment and the CCD optimization, the optimal mobile phase was identified as a solution consisting of 6.68% (w/w) polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (Brij35), 0.84% (w/w) cyclohexane, 6.92% (w/w) n-butanol, 85.56% (w/w) phosphate buffer (pH 6.60) and 8mM cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB).

  13. [Compatibility regularity of compound traditional Chinese medicine patents based on association principle and entropy method].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiang-jun; He, Qing-yong

    2015-02-01

    To analyze the compatibility regularity of compound traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) patents for treating dyslipidemia, and provide basis for the clinical development and research of new TCM for treating dyslipidemia. Totally 243 compound traditional Chinese medicine patents for treating dyslipidemia were collected from the national patent database from September 1985 to March 2014 and analyzed by using drug frequency, association rules, complex network and entropy method of Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance System (V1.1). The commonest single medicine in the treatment of dyslipidemia is Crataegi Fructus 109 (44.86%). The commonest pair medicine is Crataegi Fructus-Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma 53 (21.81%). The commonest corner drug is Crataegi Fructus-Cassiae Semen-Polygoni Multiflori Radix 25 (10.29%). The common prescriptions on basis of association rules are Prunellae Spica-->Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (0.833), Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Alismatis Rhizoma-->Polygoni Multiflori Radix (1.00), Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Cassiae Semen, Alismatis Rhizoma-->Polygoni Multiflori Radix (0.929). The core drugs based on complex networks are Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegi Fructus. The new prescriptions extracted by entropy method are Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma-Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Platycladi Semen-Stephaniae Tetrandrae Radix; Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium-Poria-Coicis Semen-Pinelliae Rhizoma. This study shows the regularity in the compatibility of compound TCM patents treating dyslipidemia, suggesting that future studies on new traditional Chinese medicines treating dyslipidemia should focus on the following six aspects: (1) Single medicine should be preferred: e. g. Crataegi Fructus; (2) Pair medicines should be preferred: e. g. Crataegi Fructus-Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma; (3) Corner drugs should be preferred: e. g. Crataegi Fructus, Cassiae Semen, Polygoni Multiflori Radix; (4) The

  14. Neuroprotective effect and underlying mechanism of sodium danshensu [3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) lactic acid from Radix and Rhizoma Salviae miltiorrhizae = Danshen] against cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chao; Yin, Ying; Duan, Jialin; Zhu, Yanrong; Yan, Jiajia; Wei, Guo; Guan, Yue; Wu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Yanhua; Xi, Miaomaio; Wen, Aidong

    2015-02-15

    Sodium danshensu (SDSS), the sodium salt of danshensu (DSS), has the same pharmacological effects as DSS. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect and possible mechanism of SDSS against cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, control, 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg SDSS. Cerebral ischemia was induced by 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Neurological functional deficits were evaluated according to the modified neurological severity score (mNSS); cerebral infarct volume and histological damage were measured by TTC or H-E staining. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells and caspase 3/7 activity were assessed by TUNEL or Caspase-Glo assay. And the expression of apoptosis-regulatory proteins and the PI3K/Akt pathway were investigated by western blotting. Our results showed that treatment with SDSS for 5 days after MCAO remarkably improved neurologic deficits and survival rate, reduced infarct volume and the number of dead neurons. SDSS also decreased the number of apoptotic cells, regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, and increased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. Further study revealed that treatment with SDSS also increased the level of p-Akt and p-GSK-3β. Taken together, our results suggest that SDSS has the neuroprotective effect against cerebral I/R injury, and the potential mechanism might to inhibition of apoptosis through activating the PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

  15. Results of a randomized, prospective, double-dummy, double-blind trial to compare efficacy and safety of a herbal combination containing Tropaeoli majoris herba and Armoraciae rusticanae radix with co-trimoxazole in patients with acute and uncomplicated cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Rainer; Schneider, Berthold; Albrecht, Uwe; Mueller, Valentina; Schnitker, Joerg; Michalsen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate non-inferiority of an herbal combination (horseradish root and nasturtium herb) to an antibiotic (co-trimoxazole) in acute uncomplicated cystitis. Design Randomized, prospective, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, phase III clinical study, using block randomization of 4 blocks (size 2). Setting Twenty-six centers in Germany, from May 2011 to June 2013. Participants Adult patients (median age, 38.5 years; 90% female) with acute uncomplicated cystitis confirmed via urinalysis and bacterial counts. Interventions Patients received the herbal combination (five tablets, four times per day) or the antibiotic (two tablets daily) for a period of 7 or 3 days, respectively, followed by a 21-days without drug treatment. Placebos ensured blinding. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary endpoint was the percentage of responders, expressed as reduction of germ count from >105 to <103 CFU/mL of pathogens between visit 1 (day 0) and 3 (day 15). Secondary endpoints included change of symptom scores, duration of symptoms, efficacy assessments, relapse frequency, and safety. A sample size of 178 patients per group was estimated. Results Of the 96 randomized patients (intent-to-treat; 45 in the phytotherapy group, 51 in the antibiotic group), 51 were considered per-protocol patients (22 in the phytotherapy group, 29 in the antibiotic group). Responder rates were 10/22 (45.5%) for the phytotherapy group and 15/29 (51.1%) for the antibiotic group (group difference: −6.27% [95% CI: −33.90%–21.3%]). The study was terminated prematurely due to slow recruitment rates. Non-inferiority could not be assumed by predefined criteria. During the follow-up period, one relapse occurred in each group. Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion This clinical trial indicates comparable efficacy of the herbal combination and antibiotic, although non-inferiority was not proved. However, the results and lessons learned are important for the planning of future trials. Issues that led to the premature trial discontinuation were considered. PMID:28352615

  16. The two isomers of HDTIC compounds from Astragali Radix slow down telomere shortening rate via attenuating oxidative stress and increasing DNA repair ability in human fetal lung diploid fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peichang; Zhang, Zongyu; Sun, Ying; Liu, Xinwen; Tong, Tanjun

    2010-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-2,6'-spirane-5',6',7',8'-tetrahydro-indolizine-3'-carbaldehyde (HDTIC)-1 and HDTIC-2 are two isomers extracted from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bunge Var. mongholicus (Bge) Hsiao. Our previous study had demonstrated that they could extend the lifespan of human fetal lung diploid fibroblasts (2BS). To investigate the mechanisms of the HDTIC-induced delay of replicative senescence, in this study, we assessed the effects of these two compounds on telomere shortening rate and DNA repair ability in 2BS cells. The telomere shortening rates of the cells cultured with HDTIC-1 or HDTIC-2 were 31.5 and 41.1 bp with each division, respectively, which were much less than that of the control cells (71.1 bp/PD). We also found that 2BS cells pretreated with HDTIC-1 or HDTIC-2 had a significant reduction in DNA damage after exposure to 200 microM H(2)O(2) for 5 min. Moreover, the 100 microM H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage was significantly repaired after the damaged cells were continually cultured with HDTIC for 1 h. These results suggest that HDTIC compounds slow down the telomere shortening rate of 2BS cells, which is mainly due to the biological properties of the compounds including the reduction of DNA damage and the improvement of DNA repair ability. In addition, the slow down of telomere shortening rate, the reduction of DNA damage, and the improvement of DNA repair ability induced by HDTIC may be responsible for their delay of replicative senescence.

  17. Aviation Forecasts. Fiscal Years 1976-1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    international scheduled carriers continued to show a poor profit picture when looked at as a group . The international trunk car- riers decreased from... blg AVAIL1 + bj- PILOTS + IL PILB »104 b20 VrPRPP-t b2] IFRFF + U10 ACON »u4 I),,., IFRDF ♦ Vu PP t12 ♦ b23 L1PP * b24 LLSTD - b26 CLEAN

  18. Quantitative and chemical fingerprint analysis for the quality evaluation of Isatis indigotica based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector combined with chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Xie, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Rui; Huang, Shan-Jun; Li, Yi-Ming; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2012-01-01

    A simple and reliable method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PDA) was developed to control the quality of Radix Isatidis (dried root of Isatis indigotica) for chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitative analysis of eight bioactive constituents, including R,S-goitrin, progoitrin, epiprogoitrin, gluconapin, adenosine, uridine, guanosine, and hypoxanthine. In quantitative analysis, the eight components showed good regression (R > 0.9997) within test ranges, and the recovery method ranged from 99.5% to 103.0%. The UPLC fingerprints of the Radix Isatidis samples were compared by performing chemometric procedures, including similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and principal component analysis. The chemometric procedures classified Radix Isatidis and its finished products such that all samples could be successfully grouped according to crude herbs, prepared slices, and adulterant Baphicacanthis cusiae Rhizoma et Radix. The combination of quantitative and chromatographic fingerprint analysis can be used for the quality assessment of Radix Isatidis and its finished products.

  19. [History of incompability among medicinals of "Glycyrrhiza antagonistic to Sargassum, Euphorbia Pekinensis, Kansui, and Genkwa" and its modern recognition].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chenxue; Bian, Yali; Fan, Xinsheng

    2015-05-01

    The allegation of "Glycyrrhiza antagonistic to Sargassum, Euphorbia Pekinensis, Kansui, and Genkwa", being one of the hypotheses of "18 antagonisms" in TCM pharmacology, is referring to the antagonistic action among the Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhiza and Radix Euphorbiae Kansui, Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Flos Genkwa, and Sargassum when compounded together in a single recipe. By reviewing its history concerted with modern knowledge, it can be found that the theory of "seven emotions" was originated from Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica; while the Variorum of the Classic of Materia Medica firstly and definitely records that Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae is forbidden to be used with Radix Kansui, Flos Genkwa, Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Sargassum together in a single formula. It was summarized into a Chinese poetic sentence as above-mentioned later. In the works of later ages, including Chinese Pharmacopoeia, A Great Dictionary of Chinese Materia Medica, and China's Herbology, etc., all enhance the understanding of the prohibited combination of Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae and its incompatible herbs. Nevertheless, there are discrepancies between the results of modern experimental and clinical studies on this problem, which, needless to say, should be resolved by further investigations.

  20. [Analysis on medication rules of state medical master yan zhenghua's prescriptions that including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis based on data mining].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-rui; Guo, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-meng; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Meng-di; Sheng, Xiao-guang

    2014-11-01

    The prescriptions including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis that built by Pro. Yan were collected to build a database based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance assist system. The method of association rules with apriori algorithm was used to achieve frequency of single medicine, frequency of drug combinations, association rules between drugs and core drug combinations. The datamining results indicated that in the prescriptions that including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, the highest frequency used drugs were parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Ostreae Concha, Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Paeoniae Rubra Radix, and so on. The most frequent drug combinations were "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen", "Ostreae Concha-Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia". The drug association rules of confidence coefficient 1 were "Ostreae Concha-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "Poria-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Paeoniae Alba Radix-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis". The core drug combinations in the treatment of insomnia were Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ostreae Concha, Polygalae Radix, Margaritifera Concha, Poria, and parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. And the core drug combinations in the treatment of obstruction of Qi in chest were Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Trichosanthis Fructus, Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus, and Paeoniae Rubra Radix.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of Buyang Huanwu decoction on cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal damage

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Qingchun; Liu, Pengfei; Hu, Xitong; Gao, Haijun; Zheng, Xu; Huang, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Among the various treatment methods for stroke, increasing attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicines. Buyang Huanwu decoction is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of stroke. This paper summarizes the active components of the Chinese herb, which is composed of Huangqi (Radix Astragali seu Hedysari), Danggui (Radix Angelica sinensis), Chishao (Radix Paeoniae Rubra), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong), Honghua (Flos Carthami), Taoren (Semen Persicae) and Dilong (Pheretima), and identifies the therapeutic targets and underlying mechanisms that contribute to the neuroprotective properties of Buyang Huanwu decoction. PMID:25368650

  2. Effects of error sources on the parallelism of an optical matrix-vector processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlee, Caroline J.; Casasent, David P.

    1990-01-01

    The error sources in a high accuracy optical matrix-vector processor are analyzed by numerical simulation in terms of their effects on the parallelism and speed of the processor. These effects are detailed for radices -2, -4 and -8. Radix -4 is shown to provide maximum parallel processing capabilities under the effects of the system's error sources. Processing speed is shown to be a function of matrix partitioning and the number of parallel processing channels. Consequently, radix -4 operation provides a higher processing speed than radix -2 and -8 for most matrix-vector multiplications when error source effects are considered.

  3. [Exploration into rules of combined Chinese and Western medical treatment on immune infertility].

    PubMed

    Yao, Dan-ni; Chen, Wen-yu; Xiao, Ying

    2010-03-01

    In order to explore the rules of combined Chinese and Western medical treatment on immune infertility, the study was carried out by searching relative primary documents from databases and 26 articles (dealing with 5865 cases) were screened out. Excel was used to perform the frequency analysis on the Western drugs and 27 Chinese recipes emerging in the documents separately. It was discovered that the combined use of Chinese and Western medicines has its superiority. Low dose glucocorticoids together with vitamine is the main Western treatment used, and dexamethasone is the most frequently used preparation of glucocorticoids. Among the 72 Chinese drugs presented in the 27 Chinese recipes, 13 appeared for more than 1800 times, they were Angelica sinensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Radix Astragali, Poria, Carthamus tinctorius, Phellodendron amurense, Scutellaria baicalensis, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Rehmannia glutinosa, Cuscuta chinensis, Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Glycyrrhiza.

  4. Fast algorithm for computing complex number-theoretic transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, I. S.; Liu, K. Y.; Truong, T. K.

    1977-01-01

    A high-radix FFT algorithm for computing transforms over FFT, where q is a Mersenne prime, is developed to implement fast circular convolutions. This new algorithm requires substantially fewer multiplications than the conventional FFT.

  5. Counting digital filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S.

    1977-01-01

    Overall design of filter combines radix converter with ADC in single functional unit that directly converts analog input to its negative binary representation. Four basic elements of filter are fixed register, shift register, counter, and accumulator.

  6. Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

  7. PP: A Lisp Pretty Printing System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    level :length :lines :array :radix :circle :case : gensym This function is like PRIN1 except that it does not force ,PRINT-ESCAPE, to be T. The...PRINT-CASE, and ,PRINT- GENSYM , respectively. (’llhe last four of these variables are not supported by release 5 of the I isp Machine System...variables. PP:SET-INTERACTIVE-CONTROL-VARIABLES &key :escape :base :pretty :level :length :lines :array :radix :circle :case : gensym This function specifies

  8. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    DOEpatents

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  9. Bottom-up proteomics suggests an association between differential expression of mitochondrial proteins and chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ciregia, F; Kollipara, L; Giusti, L; Zahedi, R P; Giacomelli, C; Mazzoni, M R; Giannaccini, G; Scarpellini, P; Urbani, A; Sickmann, A; Lucacchini, A; Bazzichi, L

    2016-09-27

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by unexplained fatigue not improved by rest. An area of investigation is the likely connection of CFS with defective mitochondrial function. In a previous work, we investigated the proteomic salivary profile in a couple of monozygotic twins discordant for CFS. Following this work, we analyzed mitochondrial proteins in the same couple of twins. Nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS) was used to study the mitochondria extracted from platelets of the twins. Subsequently, we selected three proteins that were validated using western blot analysis in a big cohort of subjects (n=45 CFS; n=45 healthy), using whole saliva (WS). The selected proteins were as follows: aconitate hydratase (ACON), ATP synthase subunit beta (ATPB) and malate dehydrogenase (MDHM). Results for ATPB and ACON confirmed their upregulation in CFS. However, the MDHM alteration was not confirmed. Thereafter, seeing the great variability of clinical features of CFS patients, we decided to analyze the expression of our proteins after splitting patients according to clinical parameters. For each marker, the values were actually higher in the group of patients who had clinical features similar to the ill twin. In conclusion, these results suggest that our potential markers could be one of the criteria to be taken into account for helping in diagnosis. Furthermore, the identification of biomarkers present in particular subgroups of CFS patients may help in shedding light upon the complex entity of CFS. Moreover, it could help in developing tailored treatments.

  10. Alternatively spliced insertions in the paired domain restrict the DNA sequence specificity of Pax6 and Pax8.

    PubMed Central

    Kozmik, Z; Czerny, T; Busslinger, M

    1997-01-01

    Transcription factors of the Pax family bind to their target genes via the paired domain which is known to be composed of two subdomains each recognizing distinct half-sites in adjacent major grooves of the DNA helix. We now demonstrate that the mammalian Pax8 gene gives rise, by alternative mRNA splicing, to a protein isoform containing an extra serine residue in the recognition alpha-helix 3 of the paired domain. This Pax8(S) protein does not interact with bipartite paired domain-binding sites, indicating that inactivation of the N-terminal DNA-binding motif severely restricts the sequence specificity of the paired domain. However, the Pax8(S) protein binds in vitro and in vivo to the 5aCON sequence which was previously identified as a high-affinity binding site for the Pax6(5a) splice variant carrying a 14-amino-acid insertion in the paired domain. The 5aCON sequence is shown to consist of four interdigitated 5' half-sites of the bipartite consensus sequence and is thus bound by four Pax8(S) molecules via the intact C-terminal DNA-binding motif of the paired domain. Together these data suggest that inactivation of the N-terminal region of the paired domain by alternative splicing is used in vivo to selectively target Pax transcription factors to gene regulatory regions containing highly specialized 5aCON-like sequences. PMID:9362493

  11. Capping in situ with activated carbon in Trondheim harbor (Norway) reduces bioaccumulation of PCBs and PAHs in marine sediment fauna.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Göran S; Hedman, Jenny E; Elmquist Kruså, Marie; Gunnarsson, Jonas S; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2015-08-01

    Three types of thin-layer caps with activated carbon (AC) were tested in situ in experimental plots (10 × 10 m) in Trondheim harbor, Norway, using AC + clay, AC-only or AC + sand. One year after capping, intact sediment cores were collected from the amended plots for ex situ surveys of the capping efficiency in reducing the PAH and PCB aqueous concentrations and bioaccumulation by the polychaete Hediste diversicolor and the clam Abra nitida. Reduced pore water concentrations were observed in all AC treatments. The capping efficiency was in general AC + clay > AC-only > AC + sand. AC + clay reduced bioaccumulation of PAH and PCB congeners between 40% and 87% in the worms and between 67% and 97% in the clams. Sediment capped with AC-only also led to reduced bioaccumulation of PCBs, while AC + sand showed no reduction in bioaccumulation. Thus the best thin-layer capping method in this study was AC mixed with clay.

  12. Mother-to-Children Plasmodium falciparum Asymptomatic Malaria Transmission at Saint Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Douamba, Zoenabo; Dao, Nangnéré Ginette Laure; Zohoncon, Théodora Mahoukédé; Bisseye, Cyrille; Compaoré, Tegwindé Rebeca; Kafando, Jacques Gilbert; Sombie, Bavouma Charles; Ouermi, Djeneba; Djigma, Florencia W.; Ouedraogo, Paul; Ghilat, Nadine; Colizzi, Vittorio; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria's prevalence during pregnancy varies widely in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Burkina Faso. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of mother-to-child malaria transmission during childbirth at St. Camille Medical Centre in the city of Ouagadougou. Methods. Two hundred and thirty-eight (238) women and their newborns were included in the study. Women consenting to participate in this study responded to a questionnaire that identified their demographic characteristics. Asymptomatic malaria infection was assessed by rapid detection test Acon (Acon Malaria Pf, San Diego, USA) and by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin smears from peripheral, placental, and umbilical cord blood. Birth weights were recorded and the biological analyses of mothers and newborns' blood were also performed. Results. The utilization of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) were 86.6% and 84.4%, respectively. The parasitic infection rates of 9.5%, 8.9%, and 2.8% were recorded, respectively, for the peripheral, placental, and umbilical cord blood. Placental infection was strongly associated with the presence of parasites in the maternal peripheral blood and a parasite density of >1000 parasites/µL. Conclusion. The prevalence of congenital malaria was reduced but was associated with a high rate of mother-to-child malaria transmission. PMID:25506464

  13. Effects of Resistance-Associated NS5A Mutations in Hepatitis C Virus on Viral Production and Susceptibility to Antiviral Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Nitta, Sayuri; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Mami; Yamada, Norie; Sugiyama, Ryuichi; Masaki, Takahiro; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Kato, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Mamoru; Wakita, Takaji; Kato, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) have potent anti-HCV effects but may provoke resistance-associated variants (RAVs). In this study, we assessed the characteristics of these RAVs and explored efficacious anti-HCV reagents using recombinant HCV with NS5A from a genotype 1b strain. We replaced the NS5A of JFH1 with that of Con1 (JFH1/5ACon1) and introduced known NS5A inhibitor resistance mutations (L31M, L31V, L31I and Y93H) individually or in combination. Susceptibilities against anti-HCV reagents were also investigated. RAVs with Y93H exhibited high extracellular core antigen levels and infectivity titers. Variants with any single mutation showed mild to moderate resistance against NS5A inhibitors, whereas variants with double mutations at both L31 and Y93 showed severe resistance. The variants with mutations exhibited similar levels of susceptibility to interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-λ1, IFN-λ3 and Ribavirin. Variants with the Y93H mutation were more sensitive to protease inhibitors compared with JFH1/5ACon1. In conclusion, the in vitro analysis indicated that the Y93H mutation enhanced infectious virus production, suggesting advantages in the propagation of RAVs with this mutation. However, these RAVs were susceptible to protease inhibitors. Thus, a therapeutic regimen that includes these reagents is a promising means to eradicate these RAVs. PMID:27703205

  14. Effects of shakuyakukanzoto and its absorbed components on twitch contractions induced by physiological Ca2+ release in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kaifuchi, Noriko; Omiya, Yuji; Kushida, Hirotaka; Fukutake, Miwako; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Kase, Yoshio

    2015-07-01

    Shakuyakukanzoto (SKT) is a kampo medicine composed of equal proportions of Glycyrrhizae radix (G. radix) and Paeoniae radix (P. radix). A double-blind study reported that SKT significantly ameliorated painful muscle cramp in cirrhosis patients without the typical severe side effects of muscle weakness and central nervous system (CNS) depression. Previous basic studies reported that SKT and its active components induced relaxation by a direct action on skeletal muscle and that SKT did not depress CNS functions; however, why SKT has a lower incidence of muscle weakness remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated which components are absorbed into the blood of rats after a single oral administration of SKT to identify the active components of SKT. We also investigated the effects of SKT and its components on the twitch contraction induced by physiological Ca(2+) release. Our study demonstrated that SKT and five G. radix isolates, which are responsible for the antispasmodic effect of SKT, did not inhibit the twitch contraction in contrast to dantrolene sodium, a direct-acting peripheral muscle relaxant, indicating that the mechanisms of muscle contraction of SKT and dantrolene in skeletal muscle differ. These findings suggest that SKT does not reduce the contractile force in skeletal muscle under physiological conditions, i.e., SKT may have a low risk of causing muscle weakness in clinical use. Considering that most muscle relaxants and anticonvulsants cause various harmful side effects such as weakness and CNS depression, SKT appears to have a benign safety profile.

  15. Survey of heavy metal pollution in four chinese crude drugs and their cultivated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jialun; Zou, Yaohua; Zhan, Xiuping; Chen, Shifei; Lu, Guangzhao; Lai, Fugen

    2008-12-01

    A two-year survey on the residues of heavy metals in four Chinese crude drugs and their cultivated soils was conducted. Targeted heavy metals were copper (Cu), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and cadmium (Cd). Herbs surveyed include White Peony Root (Radix Paeoniae Alba), Turmeric Root Tuber (Radix Curcumae), Thunberg Fritillary Bulb (Bulbus Fritillariae Thumbergii), and Tuber of Dwarf Lilyturf (Radix Ophiopogonis). Concentrations of all heavy metals were under the permitted levels except cadmium, which exceeded the permitted level in some samples of Thunberg Fritillary Bulb, White Peony Root, and Turmeric Root Tuber. Concentration coefficients were less than 1.0 for all heavy metals except cadmium. The concentration coefficient of cadmium in Turmeric Root Tuber was 14.0. Lower pH and high Zn concentration in the soil may facilitate the transfer of cadmium from cultivated soil into the herbs.

  16. [Acupoints selecting and medication rules analysis based on data mining technique for bronchial asthma treated with acupoint application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Han, Dongyue; Qie, Lili; Liu, Chang; Wang, Fuchun

    2015-06-01

    Clinical literature of bronchial asthma treated with acupoints application from January 2000 to March 2014 in modern periodicals databases was retrieved through computer. With cluster analysis and frequency analysis methods of data mining, acupoints selecting and medication rules of bronchial asthma treated with acupoints application were analyzed. Total 38 articles were included eventually, including 25 acupoints and 42 medicines. The results indicate that on acupoints selecting, Feishu (BL 13) is used as the main acupoint and 3 groups of bladder meridian and conception vessel acupoints are applied alternately and on medicines, Baijiezi (Brassica alba Boiss), Xixin (Radix et Rhizoma Asari), Gansui (Radix Kansui), Yanhusuo (Corydalis) and Mahuang (Radix et Rhizonma Ephedrae) are primarily adopted, epispastic medicines being the main medicines; medicines mostly belong to lung meridian, main medicines being unchanged mostly with Shengjiang as guiding drug.

  17. Bounds on the minimum number of data transfers in WFTA and FFT programs. [Winograd Fourier Transform Algorithms and Fast Fourier Transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nawab, H.; Mcclellan, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Bounds on the minimum number of data transfers (i.e., loads, stores, copies) required by WFTA and FFT programs are presented. The analysis is applicable to those general-purpose computers with M general processor registers, where M is equal to or greater than 4 but much less than the transform length. It is shown that the 1008-point WFTA requires about 21 percent more data transfers than the 1024-point radix-4 FFT; on the other hand, the 120-point WFTA has about the same number of data transfers as the mixed radix (4 x 4 x 4 x 2) version of the 128-point FFT and 22 percent fewer than the radix-2 version. Finally, comparisons of the 'total' program execution times (multiplications, additions, and data transfers, but not indexing or permutations) are presented.

  18. Measurement of aesthetic proportions in the profile view of Koreans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jong Hwan; Jang, Yong Ju; Park, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2009-02-01

    We have evaluated the usefulness of direct soft tissue measurements in profile photographs for determining the nasal proportions and angles of young Korean individuals and those of rhinoplasty patients, and we compared these findings with existing norms of Caucasian populations. We retrospectively compared preoperative profile measurements of nasal length, nasal tip projection, dorsal height, radix height, nasolabial angle, and nasofrontal angle in 123 patients who underwent rhinoplasty, with measurements in 21 young Korean adults. Rhinoplasty patients were grouped by preoperative diagnosis as deviated nose without saddle or hump, saddle nose, hump nose, and low radix. The young Koreans had a nasal length to nasal tip projection to dorsal height to radix height ratio of 2:0.97:0.61:0.28. Dorsal height differed significantly among groups of rhinoplasty patients. Those with low radix had the lowest dorsal and radix height, whereas those with saddle nose had the smallest nasal tip projection. The average nasolabial and nasofrontal angles were 78.5 degrees and 82.7 degrees, respectively, in young male Koreans and 126.0 degrees and 133.6 degrees, respectively, in young female Koreans. In the deviated nose group, all parameters except for nasofrontal angle were significantly changed after rhinoplasty. In the saddle nose group, nasal tip projection and dorsal height were significantly increased, whereas, in the hump nose group, nasal tip projection and nasolabial angle were significantly altered. Direct soft tissue measurement on profile photographs is useful for assessing nasal characteristics and postrhinoplasty outcomes. Compared with Caucasians, young Koreans had relatively lower dorsum and radix and more acute nasolabial angle, but similar nasofrontal angle.

  19. BEAP profiles as rapid test system for status analysis and early detection of process incidents in biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Refai, Sarah; Berger, Stefanie; Wassmann, Kati; Hecht, Melanie; Dickhaus, Thomas; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    A method was developed to quantify the performance of microorganisms involved in different digestion levels in biogas plants. The test system was based on the addition of butyrate (BCON), ethanol (ECON), acetate (ACON) or propionate (PCON) to biogas sludge samples and the subsequent analysis of CH4 formation in comparison to control samples. The combination of the four values was referred to as BEAP profile. Determination of BEAP profiles enabled rapid testing of a biogas plant's metabolic state within 24 h and an accurate mapping of all degradation levels in a lab-scale experimental setup. Furthermore, it was possible to distinguish between specific BEAP profiles for standard biogas plants and for biogas reactors with process incidents (beginning of NH4(+)-N inhibition, start of acidification, insufficient hydrolysis and potential mycotoxin effects). Finally, BEAP profiles also functioned as a warning system for the early prediction of critical NH4(+)-N concentrations leading to a drop of CH4 formation.

  20. Bottom-up proteomics suggests an association between differential expression of mitochondrial proteins and chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ciregia, F; Kollipara, L; Giusti, L; Zahedi, R P; Giacomelli, C; Mazzoni, M R; Giannaccini, G; Scarpellini, P; Urbani, A; Sickmann, A; Lucacchini, A; Bazzichi, L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by unexplained fatigue not improved by rest. An area of investigation is the likely connection of CFS with defective mitochondrial function. In a previous work, we investigated the proteomic salivary profile in a couple of monozygotic twins discordant for CFS. Following this work, we analyzed mitochondrial proteins in the same couple of twins. Nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS) was used to study the mitochondria extracted from platelets of the twins. Subsequently, we selected three proteins that were validated using western blot analysis in a big cohort of subjects (n=45 CFS; n=45 healthy), using whole saliva (WS). The selected proteins were as follows: aconitate hydratase (ACON), ATP synthase subunit beta (ATPB) and malate dehydrogenase (MDHM). Results for ATPB and ACON confirmed their upregulation in CFS. However, the MDHM alteration was not confirmed. Thereafter, seeing the great variability of clinical features of CFS patients, we decided to analyze the expression of our proteins after splitting patients according to clinical parameters. For each marker, the values were actually higher in the group of patients who had clinical features similar to the ill twin. In conclusion, these results suggest that our potential markers could be one of the criteria to be taken into account for helping in diagnosis. Furthermore, the identification of biomarkers present in particular subgroups of CFS patients may help in shedding light upon the complex entity of CFS. Moreover, it could help in developing tailored treatments. PMID:27676445

  1. Remediation of contaminated marine sediment using thin-layer capping with activated carbon--a field experiment in Trondheim harbor, Norway.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Kruså, Marie Elmquist; Breedveld, Gijs D; Eek, Espen; Oen, Amy M P; Arp, Hans Peter H; Raymond, Caroline; Samuelsson, Göran; Hedman, Jenny E; Stokland, Øystein; Gunnarsson, Jonas S

    2011-07-15

    In situ amendment of contaminated sediments using activated carbon (AC) is a recent remediation technique, where the strong sorption of contaminants to added AC reduces their release from sediments and uptake into organisms. The current study describes a marine underwater field pilot study in Trondheim harbor, Norway, in which powdered AC alone or in combination with sand or clay was tested as a thin-layer capping material for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment. Several novel elements were included, such as measuring PAH fluxes, no active mixing of AC into the sediment, and the testing of new manners of placing a thin AC cap on sediment, such as AC+clay and AC+sand combinations. Innovative chemical and biological monitoring methods were deployed to test capping effectiveness. In situ sediment-to-water PAH fluxes were measured using recently developed benthic flux chambers. Compared to the reference field, AC capping reduced fluxes by a factor of 2-10. Pore water PAH concentration profiles were measured in situ using a new passive sampler technique, and yielded a reduction factor of 2-3 compared to the reference field. The benthic macrofauna composition and biodiversity were affected by the AC amendments, AC + clay having a lower impact on the benthic taxa than AC-only or AC + sand. In addition, AC + clay gave the highest AC recoveries (60% vs 30% for AC-only and AC + sand) and strongest reductions in sediment-to-water PAH fluxes and porewater concentrations. Thus, application of an AC-clay mixture is recommended as the optimal choice of the currently tested thin-layer capping methods for PAHs, and more research on optimizing its implementation is needed.

  2. Plant-derived natural medicines for the management of depression: an overview of mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Marzieh Sarbandi; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a serious widespread psychiatric disorder that affects approximately 17% of people all over the world. Exploring the neurological mechanisms of the antidepressant activity of plant-derived agents could have a crucial role in developing natural drugs for the management of depression. The aim of the present study is to review the neurological mechanisms of action of antidepressant plants and their constituents. For this purpose, electronic databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Cochrane Library, were searched from 1966 to October 2013. The results showed that several molecular mechanisms could be proposed for the antidepressant activity of medicinal plants and their constituents. Hypericum species could normalize brain serotonin level. Liquiritin and isoliquiritin from Glycyrrhiza uralensis rhizome act via the noradrenergic system. Rosmarinus officinalis and curcumin from Curcuma longa interact with D1 and D2 receptors as well as elevate the brain dopamine level. Sida tiagii and Aloysia gratissima involve γ-aminobutyric acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, respectively. Fuzi polysaccharide-1 from Aconitum carmichaeli could affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. Psoralidin from Psoralea corylifolia seed modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The total glycosides of Paeonia lactiflora demonstrate an inhibitory effect on both subtypes of monoamine oxidase. 3,6'-Di-o-sinapoyl-sucrose and tenuifoliside A from Polygala tenuifolia exhibit cytoprotective effects on neuronal cells. Further preclinical and clinical trials evaluating their safety, bioefficacy, and bioavailability are suggested to prove the valuable role of natural drugs in the management of depressive disorders.

  3. Rapid Authentication of the Herbal Medicine Plant Species Aralia continentalis Kitag. and Angelica biserrata C.Q. Yuan and R.H. Shan Using ITS2 Sequences and Multiplex-SCAR Markers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wook Jin; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Yang, Sungyu; Han, Kyeong Suk; Choi, Goya; Lee, A Yeong

    2016-02-29

    Accurate identification of the plant species that are present in herbal medicines is important for quality control. Although the dried roots of Aralia continentalis (Araliae Continentalis Radix) and Angelica biserrata (Angelicae Pubescentis Radix) are used in the same traditional medicine, namely Dok-Hwal in Korean and Du-Huo in Chinese, the medicines are described differently in the national pharmacopeia. Further confusion arises from the distribution of dried Levisticum officinale and Heracleum moellendorffii roots as the same medicine. Medicinal ingredients from all four plants are morphologically similar, and discrimination is difficult using conventional methods. Molecular identification methods offer rapidity and accuracy. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) was sequenced in all four plant species, and the sequences were used to design species-specific primers. Primers for each species were then combined to allow sample analysis in a single PCR reaction. Commercial herbal medicine samples were obtained from Korea and China and analyzed using the multiplex assay. The assay successfully identified authentic medicines and also identified inauthentic or adulterated samples. The multiplex assay will be a useful tool for identification of authentic Araliae Continentalis Radix and/or Angelicae Pubescentis Radix preparations in Korea and China.

  4. Algorithms to Reveal Properties of Floating-Point Arithmetic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Two algorithms are presented in the form of Fortran subroutines. Each subroutine computes the radix and number of digits of the floating - point numbers...and whether rounding or chopping is done by the machine on which it is run. The methods are shown to work on any ’reasonable’ floating - point computer.

  5. On Round-Off Error of Floating-Point Addition with Guard Digits,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Some recent computers, such as those in the IBM 360 series, use radix 16 and single precision with guard digit in floating - point addition. In this...paper, a bound on the round-off error for floating - point addition in single precision with guard digits is derived. Comparison with double precision addition is made. (Author)

  6. 75 FR 10317 - DHL Global Forwarding, A Subsidiary of DP DHL, Finance and Accounting Divisions, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Reported to Danzas, Radix and Air Express, Phoenix, AZ; DHL Global Forwarding, A Subsidiary of DP DHL...,857A); DHL Global Forwarding, a subsidiary of DP DHL, Finance and Accounting Divisions, Phoenix... Forwarding, a subsidiary of DP DHL, Finance and Accounting Divisions, Phoenix, Arizona (TA-W-70,857B),...

  7. High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography: Quantitative Analysis of Chinese Herbal Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, W. F.; Lin, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    An HPLC undergraduate experiment on the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been developed. Two commonly used herbs ("glycyrrhizae radix" and "cinnamomi ramulus") are studied. Glycyrrhizin, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde are chosen as markers for the herbs. The dried herbs in their natural state and a TCM…

  8. Toxicological assessment of P-9801091 plant mixture extract after chronic administration in CBA/HZg mice--a biochemical and histological study.

    PubMed

    Petlevski, Roberta; Hadzija, Mirko; Slijepcević, Milivoj; Juretić, Dubravka

    2008-06-01

    Acute, subchronic and chronic effects of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass were assessed in serum of healthy CBA/HZg mice at 24 hours, 7 days, 3 months and 6 months of treatment (experimental group), and compared with the values obtained in the control group of untreated healthy CBA/HZg mice. The P-9801091 plant mixture extract is an antihyperglycemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli fructus sine semine (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Millefolii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana officinalis L.) and Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L). Toxic effect of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract was assessed by the following biochemical parameters: urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and cholesterol. Also, histopathological examination of the kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, testes and lungs was performed. Results of biochemical testing performed at specified time points generally showed no statistically significant differences from control values, with the only exception of the catalytic concentration of AST in the experimental group measured on day 7, which was significantly increased as compared with the control group (p<0.05). Pathohistological examination including characteristic organ and tissue structure, and parenchyma relationship to the adjacent blood vessels and connective tissue in the examined organs revealed no major pathologic changes.

  9. The Development of Therapeutic and Diagnostic Countermeasures to WMD by the Advanced Medical Countermeasures Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    vivo murine model Study the interaction between Vitamin A deficiency (i.e. anemia) and Leishmania infection on murine peritoneal monocytes and...129. Ma Z, Otsuyama K, Liu S, et al. Baicalein , a component of Scutellaria radix from Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), leads to suppression of

  10. Structure of High-Speed Modulo Multiplier Suitable for Repeated Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudou, Tadamichi; Tsunekawa, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Masayuki

    In this paper, we propose a new modulo multiplier suitable for repeated operations using redundant representations. First, we consider a computation rule for radix-2 modulo multiplications. In radix-2 operation, we show two methods to calculate (2i-1 mod n) from (2i mod n) and decide product digits sequentially from upper side. These methods make it possible to perform (2i-1 mod n) and multiplications simultaneously. Second, we attempt to apply these methods to radix-4 operations which enables us to reduce clock cycles by only shift and sign change. We propose some structures to perform each part efficiently for radix-4 modulo multiplications. The high-speed redundant binary adder/subtractor which we have already proposed is applied to these structures. By using this adder/subtractor, the longest delay path of this modulo multiplier becomes very short. Finally, by using PARTHENON which is a design system for VLSI, this modulo multiplier is designed and evaluated. As a result, we show the speed of this proposed modulo multiplier becomes over 2.5 times as compared with the conventional structures.

  11. A new fast algorithm for computing a complex number: Theoretic transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, I. S.; Liu, K. Y.; Truong, T. K.

    1977-01-01

    A high-radix fast Fourier transformation (FFT) algorithm for computing transforms over GF(sq q), where q is a Mersenne prime, is developed to implement fast circular convolutions. This new algorithm requires substantially fewer multiplications than the conventional FFT.

  12. Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products for Breast Cancer in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chinese herbal products (CHPs) given as a therapy for symptom relief have gained widespread popularity among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of CHP among women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed for breast cancer among women with breast cancer were evaluated, recruited from a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CHP. Results. 81.5 percent (N = 2, 236) of women with breast cancer utilized traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and 18% of them sought TCM with the intent of treating their breast cancer. Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (Augmented Rambling Powder) was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating breast cancer. Among the top 10 most frequently prescribed CHP for treating breast cancer, seven contained dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) and six contained ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix), which are reported to have potential beneficial synergistic effects on breast cancer cells. Conclusion. CHP containing dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) or ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix) are the most frequently prescribed for breast cancer and their effects should be taken into account by healthcare providers. PMID:22685488

  13. A Systems Biology Approach to Uncovering Pharmacological Synergy in Herbal Medicines with Applications to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Xue; Tao, Weiyang; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Background. Clinical trials reveal that multiherb prescriptions of herbal medicine often exhibit pharmacological and therapeutic superiority in comparison to isolated single constituents. However, the synergistic mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. To address this question, a novel systems biology model integrating oral bioavailability and drug-likeness screening, target identification, and network pharmacology method has been constructed and applied to four clinically widely used herbs Radix Astragali Mongolici, Radix Puerariae Lobatae, Radix Ophiopogonis Japonici, and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiza which exert synergistic effects of combined treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results. The results show that the structural properties of molecules in four herbs have substantial differences, and each herb can interact with significant target proteins related to CVD. Moreover, the bioactive ingredients from different herbs potentially act on the same molecular target (multiple-drug-one-target) and/or the functionally diverse targets but with potentially clinically relevant associations (multiple-drug-multiple-target-one-disease). From a molecular/systematic level, this explains why the herbs within a concoction could mutually enhance pharmacological synergy on a disease. Conclusions. The present work provides a new strategy not only for the understanding of pharmacological synergy in herbal medicine, but also for the rational discovery of potent drug/herb combinations that are individually subtherapeutic. PMID:23243453

  14. 78 FR 31625 - Bloggerwave, Inc., Cardima, Inc. (n/k/a CLI Liquidating Corporation), Innuity, Inc., Kaleidoscope...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...., Radix Marine, Inc., SBS Interactive Co., and VersaTech, Inc. (n/k/a VersaTech USA), Order of Suspension... accurate information concerning the securities of VersaTech, Inc. (n/k/a VersaTech USA) because it...

  15. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Anne Ø; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt; Kania, Per W; Nejsum, Peter; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2016-03-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools to identify the parasites at species level. In order to do that, 499 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix sp., Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola sp. and Planorbarius corneus) were sampled from 12 lakes, ponds, and marshes in the greater Copenhagen area. Avian schistosome cercariae were identified by microscopy and subjected to molecular investigation by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 5.8S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA for species identification. Additionally, snail hosts belonging to the genus Radix were identified by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS2 ribosomal DNA. Three out of 499 snails shed different species of Trichobilharzia cercariae: Trichobilharzia szidati was isolated from L. stagnalis, Trichobilharzia franki from Radix auricularia and Trichobilharzia regenti from Radix peregra. In the light of the public health risk represented by bird schistosomes, these findings are of concern and, particularly, the presence of the potentially neuro-pathogenic species, T. regenti, in Danish freshwaters calls for attention.

  16. Development of a Combination Therapy for Prostate Cancer by Targeting Stat3 and HIF-1alpha

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    CEP), Tinospora Root (JTH), Radix Steohanian Tetrandrae (BLT), Chelerythrine (CLT), and a perylene derivative (TEL03) (Fig.1A). The results...whether TEL03 specifically interacts with HIF-1 protein. After bead pull down, the samples were loaded onto a polyacrylamide gel . Fig.5A shows that

  17. Quality assessment of a formulated Chinese herbal decoction, Kaixinsan, by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry: A chemical evaluation of different historical formulae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kevin Y; Fu, Q; Xie, Heidi Q; Xu, Sherry L; Cheung, Anna W H; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Luk, Wilson K W; Choi, Roy C Y; Lau, David T W; Dong, Tina T X; Jiang, Zhi Y; Chen, Ji J; Tsim, Karl W K

    2010-12-01

    Kaixinsan is an ancient Chinese herbal decoction mainly prescribed for patients suffering from mental depression. This decoction was created by Sun Si-miao of Tang Dynasty (A.D. 600) in ancient China, and was composed of four herbs: Radix and Rhizome Ginseng, Radix Polygalae, Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii and Poria. Historically, this decoction has three different formulations, each recorded at a different point in time. In this study, the chemical compositions of all three Kaixinsan formulae were analyzed. By using rapid resolution LC coupled with a diode-array detector and an ESI triple quadrupole tandem MS (QQQ-MS/MS), the Radix and Rhizome Ginseng-derived ginsenosides including Rb(1), Rd, Re, Rg(1), the Radix Polygalae-derived 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose, the Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii-derived α- and β-asarone and the Poria-derived pachymic acid were compared among the three different formulations. The results showed variations in the solubility of different chemicals between one formula and the others. This systematic method developed could be used for the quality assessment of this herbal decoction.

  18. Texas LPG fuel cell development and demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2004-07-26

    The State Energy Conservation Office has executed its first Fuel Cell Project which was awarded under a Department of Energy competitive grant process. The Texas LPG Fuel Processor Development and Fuel Cell Demonstration Program is a broad-based public/private partnership led by the Texas State Energy Conservation Office (SECO). Partners include the Alternative Fuels Research and Education Division (AFRED) of the Railroad Commission of Texas; Plug Power, Inc., Latham, NY, UOP/HyRadix, Des Plaines, IL; Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), San Antonio, TX; the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC), and the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT). The team proposes to mount a development and demonstration program to field-test and evaluate markets for HyRadix's LPG fuel processor system integrated into Plug Power's residential-scale GenSys(TM) 5C (5 kW) PEM fuel cell system in a variety of building types and conditions of service. The program's primary goal is to develop, test, and install a prototype propane-fueled residential fuel cell power system supplied by Plug Power and HyRadix in Texas. The propane industry is currently funding development of an optimized propane fuel processor by project partner UOP/HyRadix through its national checkoff program, the Propane Education and Research Council (PERC). Following integration and independent verification of performance by Southwest Research Institute, Plug Power and HyRadix will produce a production-ready prototype unit for use in a field demonstration. The demonstration unit produced during this task will be delivered and installed at the Texas Department of Transportation's TransGuide headquarters in San Antonio, Texas. Simultaneously, the team will undertake a market study aimed at identifying and quantifying early-entry customers, technical and regulatory requirements, and other challenges and opportunities that need to be addressed in planning commercialization of the units. For further

  19. Effects of San'o-shashin-to and the constituent herbal medicines on theophylline-induced increase in arterial blood pressure of rats.

    PubMed

    Sanae, F; Komatsu, Y; Chisaki, K; Kido, T; Ishige, A; Hayashi, H

    2001-10-01

    San'o-shashin-to, composed of Scutellariae Radix, Coptidis Rhizoma and Rhei Rhizoma (volume ratio = 1:1:1), reduced an increase in arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats induced by theophylline (5 mg/kg, i.v.). The hypotensive effect of San'o-shashin-to was produced in a dose dependent manner and was maximum at its 0.5 g/kg. Then the constituent herbal medicines were examined for their possible hypotensive effect. Scutellariae Radix of 0.2 g/kg slightly decreased in the blood presure. Rhei Rhizoma of 0.2 g/kg decreased in the blood pressure and the hypotensive effect was significantly produced even at the dose of 0.05 g/kg, while Coptidis Rhizoma had little effect. Among fractions of San'o-shashin-to separated by Diaion HP-20 column chromatography, the 50% methanol-eluted fraction had a large hypotensive effect. The 50% methanol-eluted fraction of Scutellariae Radix and Rhei Rhizoma were also effective and, especially, that of Rhei Rhizoma had a large hypotensive effect. In isometric tension study, Scutellariae Radix and Rhei Rhizoma (10-30 microg/ml) slightly exerted contractile and relaxant effects, respectively, on the phenylephrine-contracted endothelium-intact rat thoracic aorta. Coptidis Rhizoma (1-10 microg/ml) caused both endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxantion. These results suggest that the hypotensive effect of San'o-shashin-to is not mediated by the direct action on blood vessel but by other actions. Some components in Scutellariae Radix and Rhei Rhizoma, especially in the latter may play a main role in the hypotensive effect.

  20. Therapeutic Potential of Chinese Herbal Medicines in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Chun-Ting; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a complex chronic disease and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from steatosis and steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Since effective therapies for ALD are still limited, Chinese herbal medicine is thought to be an important and alternative approach. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence of ALD by ten Chinese Materia Medica (中藥 zhōng yào), including Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (丹參 dān shēn), Notoginseng Radix (三七 sān qī), Lycii Fructus (枸杞子 gǒu qǐ zǐ), Cnidii Fructus (蛇床子 shé chuáng zǐ), Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn), Puerariae Radix (葛根 gé gēn), Puerariae Flos (葛花 gé huā), Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex (厚朴 hòu pò), Platycodonis Radix (桔梗 jié gěng), and Trigonellae Semen (胡蘆巴 hú lú bā). Potential mechanisms of these herbal medicines in ALD are involved in amelioration of enhanced inflammation, reduction of hepatic oxidative stress and lipogenesis, and enhancement of intestinal permeability in alcohol-induced liver injury models in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, the evidenced therapeutic potential suggests that these herbs are promising candidates for prevention and development of new drugs for ALD in the future. PMID:24716123

  1. [Studies on effects of calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside on prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and cimifugin in vivo pharmacokinetics].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Li; Liu, Ling; Di, Liu-Qing; Li, Jun-Song; Kang, An

    2014-12-01

    Study on the effects of Astragali Radix main active flavone calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside on Saposhnikoviae Radix main active ingredients prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and cimifugin, a UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and cimifugin in rat plasma was established, and the comparative pharmacokinetics of prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and cimifugin after oral administration of prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside-prim-O-glucosylcimifugin to rats were carried out, which might be conductive in exploring the rationality of Astragali Radix - Saposhnikoviae Radix herb couple. Twelve male SD rats were divided into two groups. Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and cimifugin in rat plasma of different time points after oral administration of prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside - prim-O-glucosylcimifugin to rats were determinated. And the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated using DAS 3. 2. 4. The established method was rapid, accurate and sensitive for simultaneous determination of prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and cimifugin in rat plasma. The analysis was performed on a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with the mixture of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid/water as mobile phase, and the gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.3 mL x min(-1). The analytes were detected by tandem mass spectrometry with the electrospray ionization (ESI) source and in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Compared with prim-O-glucosylcimifugin group, the AUC(0-t)., and AUC(0-∞) of p-O-glucosylcimifugin as well as the C(max) of cimifugin significantly increased (P < 0.05) in calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside-prim-O-glucosylcimifugin group. Calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside could enhance the absorption of prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and cimifugin and improve the bioavailability, explaining preliminarily the rationality of Astragali Radix-Saposhnikoviae Radix herb couple.

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A and Anhydrosafflor Yellow B in Safflower Series of Herb Pairs Using Prep-HPLC and a Selective Knock-Out Approach.

    PubMed

    Qu, Cheng; Wang, Lin-Yan; Jin, Wen-Tao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Jin, Yi; Shi, Xu-Qin; Shang, Li-Li; Shang, Er-Xin; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2016-11-06

    The flower of Carthamus tinctorius L. (Carthami Flos, safflower), important in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is known for treating blood stasis, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and cerebrovascular disease in clinical and experimental studies. It is widely accepted that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) and anhydrosafflor yellow B (ASYB) are the major bioactive components of many formulae comprised of safflower. In this study, selective knock-out of target components such as HSYA and ASYB by using preparative high performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) followed by antiplatelet and anticoagulation activities evaluation was used to investigate the roles of bioactive ingredients in safflower series of herb pairs. The results showed that both HSYA and ASYB not only played a direct role in activating blood circulation, but also indirectly made a contribution to the total bioactivity of safflower series of herb pairs. The degree of contribution of HSYA in the safflower and its series herb pairs was as follows: Carthami Flos-Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma Rubra (CF-GR) > Carthami Flos-Sappan Lignum (CF-SL) > Carthami Flos-Angelicae Sinensis Radix (CF-AS) > Carthami Flos-Astragali Radix (CF-AR) > Carthami Flos-Angelicae Sinensis Radix (CF-AS) > Carthami Flos-Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (CF-GL) > Carthami Flos-Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (CF-SM) > Carthami Flos (CF), and the contribution degree of ASYB in the safflower and its series herb pairs: CF-GL > CF-PS > CF-AS > CF-SL > CF-SM > CF-AR > CF-GR > CF. So, this study provided a significant and effective approach to elucidate the contribution of different herbal components to the bioactivity of the herb pair, and clarification of the variation of herb-pair compatibilities. In addition, this study provides guidance for investigating the relationship between herbal compounds and the bioactivities of herb pairs. It also provides a scientific basis for reasonable clinical applications and new drug

  3. Neuroprotective effect of a chuk-me-sun-dan on neurons from ischemic damage and neuronal cell toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae-Wook; Koo, Byung-Soo; Choi, Eun-Gyu; Kim, Min-Gon; Lee, In-Seon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Chukmesundan (CMSD), composed of the following 8 medicinal herbs including Panex ginseng C.A. MEYER, Atractylodes macrocephala KOID, Poria cocos WOLF, Pinellia ternata BREIT, Brassica alba BOISS, Aconitum carmichaeli DEBX, Cynanchum atratum BGE and Cuscuta chinensis LAM. CMSD is being used in Korea for the treatment of various symptoms accompanying hypertension and cerebrovascular disorders. This study was carried out to examine the effects of CMSD on cultured primary neuron cell, cell cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in Abeta-treated cells. Cell death was enhanced by addition of Abeta. Pretreatment of CMSD attenuated in cell killing induced by Abeta. The protective effect of the CMSD water extracts on Abeta-induced neuronal death was also observed by lactate dehydrogenase assay using cultured astrocyte cells. Abeta-induced cell death was protected by the water extract of CMSD in a dose-dependent manner, and 25-50 microg/ml was the most effective concentration. CMSD has been also shown to protect primary cultured neurons from N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptor-mediated glutamate toxicity. It was in vivo evidenced that CMSD protects neurons against ischemia-induced cell death. Moreover, oral administration of CMSD into mice prevented ischemia-induced learning disability and rescued hippocampal CA1 neurons from lethal ischemic damage. The neuroprotective action of exogenous CMSD was also confirmed by counting synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region. The presence of CMSD in neuron cultures rescued the neurons from nitrogen oxide (NO)-induced death. From these, it was suggested that CMSD may exert its neuroprotective effect by reducing the NO-mediated formation of free radicals or antagonizing their toxicity.

  4. Assessment of the embryotoxicity of four Chinese herbal extracts using the embryonic stem cell test.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Yan; Cao, Fen-Fang; Su, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Qi-Hao; Dai, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Xue; Huang, Ya-Dong; Zheng, Qing; Xu, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala, Radix Isatidis, Coptis chinensis and Flos Genkwa are common herbal remedies used by pregnant woman in China. In this study, their potential embryotoxicity was assessed using the embryonic stem cell test (EST) and a prediction model. The potential embryotoxicity of the herbs was based on three endpoints: the concentrations of the compounds that inhibited the proliferation of 50% of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (IC50ES), the concentrations that inhibited 50% of 3T3 cells (IC503T3), and the concentrations that inhibited the differentiation of 50% of ESCs (ID50ES). The results revealed that Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala and Radix Isatidis are non-embryotoxic compounds. Coptis chinensis extracts appeared to demonstrated weak embryotoxicity, and Flos Genkwa exhibited strong embryotoxicity. These results may be useful in guiding the clinical use of these herbs and in expanding the application of the EST to the field of traditional Chinese medicine.

  5. Numerical computation of spherical harmonics of arbitrary degree and order by extending exponent of floating point numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2012-04-01

    By extending the exponent of floating point numbers with an additional integer as the power index of a large radix, we compute fully normalized associated Legendre functions (ALF) by recursion without underflow problem. The new method enables us to evaluate ALFs of extremely high degree as 232 = 4,294,967,296, which corresponds to around 1 cm resolution on the Earth's surface. By limiting the application of exponent extension to a few working variables in the recursion, choosing a suitable large power of 2 as the radix, and embedding the contents of the basic arithmetic procedure of floating point numbers with the exponent extension directly in the program computing the recurrence formulas, we achieve the evaluation of ALFs in the double-precision environment at the cost of around 10% increase in computational time per single ALF. This formulation realizes meaningful execution of the spherical harmonic synthesis and/or analysis of arbitrary degree and order.

  6. Development of a combined technique using a rapid one-step immunochromatographic assay and indirect competitive ELISA for the rapid detection of baicalin.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Madan Kumar; Putalun, Waraporn; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Morinaga, Osamu; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2011-09-09

    A colloidal gold conjugated anti-baicalin monoclonal antibody (anti-BA MAb) was prepared and used in an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for BA in Scutellariae Radix and Kampo medicines. This competitive ICA uses an anti-BA MAb which shows a high specificity for BA and baicalein. Its advantages include a short assay time (15 min), no dependence on any instrumental systems, and it can detect BA in plant materials and Kampo medicines. The limit of detection for the ICA was found to be around 0.6 μg mL(-1)of baicalin. Moreover, the usefulness of the combination of indirect competitive ELISA and the ICA using anti-BA MAb as a quality control method was confirmed for analysis of BA in Scutellariae Radix and Kampo medicines with a sufficient sensitivity (200 ng mL(-1) to 2 μg mL(-1)), obtainable in an easy and timely manner.

  7. Protective effects of Danggui Buxue Tang on renal function, renal glomerular mesangium and heparanase expression in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tai-Sheng; Zhang, Ying-Wen; Zhang, Xian-Mei

    2016-06-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a simple combination of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelica sinensis (5:1), with a variety pharmacological activities. In the present study, a single intravenous injection of 30 mg/kg streptozotocin and subsequent six weeks of high glucose diet in Sprague Dawley rats were used to induce diabetic nephropathy. Rats with diabetes mellitus showed increased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), serum and urine β2-microglobulins (β2-MG), and type IV collagen (all P<0.05). DBT treatment significantly decreased the levels of FBG, BUN, Scr, serum and urine β2-MG, and type IV collagen. Furthermore, DBT treatment significantly and dose-dependently restored the ultrastructural injury, and reduced the expression of heparanase, compared with the vehicle (P<0.05). Therefore, DBT may be a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of diabetic nephrology.

  8. Protective effects of Danggui Buxue Tang on renal function, renal glomerular mesangium and heparanase expression in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    YE, TAI-SHENG; ZHANG, YING-WEN; ZHANG, XIAN-MEI

    2016-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a simple combination of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelica sinensis (5:1), with a variety pharmacological activities. In the present study, a single intravenous injection of 30 mg/kg streptozotocin and subsequent six weeks of high glucose diet in Sprague Dawley rats were used to induce diabetic nephropathy. Rats with diabetes mellitus showed increased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), serum and urine β2-microglobulins (β2-MG), and type IV collagen (all P<0.05). DBT treatment significantly decreased the levels of FBG, BUN, Scr, serum and urine β2-MG, and type IV collagen. Furthermore, DBT treatment significantly and dose-dependently restored the ultrastructural injury, and reduced the expression of heparanase, compared with the vehicle (P<0.05). Therefore, DBT may be a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of diabetic nephrology. PMID:27284335

  9. Antiinflammatory activity of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Se Ra; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated a new herbal preparation, HemoHIM, for its antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced edema, the formation of granulation tissues by cotton pellet and experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The HemoHIM was prepared by adding its ethanol-insoluble polysaccharide fraction to the total water extract of Angelica Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. The preparation (4 mg of solids/mL of drinking water, p.o., 50-100 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. In addition, HemoHIM also reduced the degree of TNBS-induced colitis and improved the gross and histological changes such as thickening, dilatation, ulceration, and infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions. These results demonstrate that the HemoHIM has a potent antiinflammatory effect.

  10. Asymmetry in mesial root number and morphology in mandibular second molars: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Shashit; Shekhar, Rhitu

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguity in the root morphology of the mandibular second molars is quite common. The most common root canal configuration is 2 roots and 3 canals, nonetheless other possibilities may still exist. The presence of accessory roots is an interesting example of anatomic root variation. While the presence of radix entomolaris or radix paramolaris is regarded as a typical clinical finding of a three-rooted mandibular second permanent molar, the occurrence of an additional mesial root is rather uncommon and represents a possibility of deviation from the regular norms. This case report describes successful endodontic management of a three-rooted mandibular second molar presenting with an unusual accessory mesial root, which was identified with the aid of multiangled radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography imaging. This article also discusses the prevalence, etiology, morphological variations, clinical approach to diagnosis, and significance of supernumerary roots in contemporary clinical dentistry. PMID:24516829

  11. Efficient Sorting on the Tilera Manycore Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Morari, Alessandro; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste; Secchi, Simone; Valero, Mateo

    2012-10-24

    e present an efficient implementation of the radix sort algo- rithm for the Tilera TILEPro64 processor. The TILEPro64 is one of the first successful commercial manycore processors. It is com- posed of 64 tiles interconnected through multiple fast Networks- on-chip and features a fully coherent, shared distributed cache. The architecture has a large degree of flexibility, and allows various optimization strategies. We describe how we mapped the algorithm to this architecture. We present an in-depth analysis of the optimizations for each phase of the algorithm with respect to the processor’s sustained performance. We discuss the overall throughput reached by our radix sort implementation (up to 132 MK/s) and show that it provides comparable or better performance-per-watt with respect to state-of-the art implemen- tations on x86 processors and graphic processing units.

  12. Protective effect of jakyak-gamcho-tang extract and its constituents against t-BHP-induced oxidative damage in HT22 cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tai-Hyun; Baek, Hum-Young; Kim, Youn-Chul

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated whether Jakyak-Gamcho-Tang (JGT, Shaoyao-Gancao-tang) and its constituents have the protective effect against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cytotoxicity on hippocampal HT22 cell line. JGT consists of two medicinal herbs, Paeoniae Radix (PR) and Glycyrrhizae Radix (GR). In contrast to treating with t-BHP alone, pre-treatment of HT22 cells with JGT, PR and GR (50-400 microg/ml) for 3 hours significantly increased the cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, JGT, PR and GR exhibited the scavenging activity in both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion assays. Among the tested extracts, PR showed the most potent protective and antioxidative activities. These results suggest that PR acts as an antioxidant and this property may contribute to the neuroprotective activity of JGT extract.

  13. An Elegant Algorithm for the Construction of Suffix Arrays.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar; Nicolae, Marius

    2014-07-01

    The suffix array is a data structure that finds numerous applications in string processing problems for both linguistic texts and biological data. It has been introduced as a memory efficient alternative for suffix trees. The suffix array consists of the sorted suffixes of a string. There are several linear time suffix array construction algorithms (SACAs) known in the literature. However, one of the fastest algorithms in practice has a worst case run time of O(n(2)). The problem of designing practically and theoretically efficient techniques remains open. In this paper we present an elegant algorithm for suffix array construction which takes linear time with high probability; the probability is on the space of all possible inputs. Our algorithm is one of the simplest of the known SACAs and it opens up a new dimension of suffix array construction that has not been explored until now. Our algorithm is easily parallelizable. We offer parallel implementations on various parallel models of computing. We prove a lemma on the ℓ-mers of a random string which might find independent applications. We also present another algorithm that utilizes the above algorithm. This algorithm is called RadixSA and has a worst case run time of O(n log n). RadixSA introduces an idea that may find independent applications as a speedup technique for other SACAs. An empirical comparison of RadixSA with other algorithms on various datasets reveals that our algorithm is one of the fastest algorithms to date. The C++ source code is freely available at http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~man09004/radixSA.zip.

  14. Context and Content Aware Routing of Managed Information Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    starting point of the predicate range for the common attribute. 3) D Structures: Priority Search Trees [10], Interval Trees [11], Suffix Trees [12...attributes whose predicates specify a range of values while suffix trees could be good choices for string attributes whose predicates use the substring...and suffix operators. Our current implementation of PUBSUB includes Radix Priority Search Trees (RPST), Red-Black Priority Search Trees (RBPST) and

  15. Pharmacological induction of leukotriene B4-12-hydroxydehydrogenase suppresses the oncogenic transformation of human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lai; Liu, Jie; Le, X Chris; Han, Yifan; Tong, Yao; Lau, Allan S Y; Rong, Jianhui

    2011-09-01

    Leukotriene B4-12-hydroxydehydrogenase (LTB4DH) is characterized as a chemopreventive and tumor suppressor gene. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmaco-logical induction of LTB4DH and potential anticancer activity. Using HepG2 cells as a cellular detector, we successfully isolated the active compounds from the herbs Radix Astragali and Radix Paeoniae Rubra through a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure. Using various analytical techniques including electronic spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gallic acid (GA) was identified as the active compound from Radix Paeoniae Rubra whereas the active compound from Radix Astragali, designated as RA-C, was also purified to the extent that it is now suitable for further identifi-cation. We found that the active compounds from these two different herbs synergistically induced LTB4DH expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A key finding was that commercial GA in combination with purified RA-C attenuated the focus formation and anchorage-independent growth, two indexes of in vitro oncogenic transformation, of HepG2 cells via the induction of LTB4DH expression. Moreover, the combination of GA and purified RA-C significantly induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells. Our results demon-strated for the first time that GA and purified RA-C suppress the in vitro oncogenic transformation of HepG2 cells via the induction of LTB4DH expression. Importantly, pharmaco-logical induction of LTB4DH represents a potential alternative strategy for the therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  16. JPRS Report, China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-03

    also diligently organize the gathering, processing and purchasing of Chinese medicinal herbs such as licorice root [Radix Geycyrrhizae], rhizome of...wind-weed [Rhizoma Ane- marrhenae], and Chinese caterpillar fungus [Cordyceps chinensis], as well as wild growing cash crops to increase the masses...unchanged for com- modities including grain and edible oil, sugar, coal, matches, soap, and washing powder supplies rationed to city and town residents

  17. Multitaper Cross-Spectral Analysis and Related Studies of NTS explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-29

    Martin , III Now England Research, Inc. Dr. Jay J. Pulli 76 Olcott Drive Radix Systems, Inc.White River Junotion, VT 05001 2 Taft Court, Suit. 203...MNTER.ORCWT. GWN’i 2 ST WUSS U MaLKEBJ.. Hg"&*V4’ I 4CLUBED. RETCN ______________ 2 RADM P~ULI INWAy. NrtI A41fAL 2 TEEDYNEI AUDCANDRA. VA FWJEIM 2 . rASC

  18. Parametric time delay modeling for floating point units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmy, Hossam A. H.; Liddicoat, Albert A.; Flynn, Michael J.

    2002-12-01

    A parametric time delay model to compare floating point unit implementations is proposed. This model is used to compare a previously proposed floating point adder using a redundant number representation with other high-performance implementations. The operand width, the fan-in of the logic gates and the radix of the redundant format are used as parameters to the model. The comparison is done over a range of operand widths, fan-in and radices to show the merits of each implementation.

  19. A Complex System of Glacial Sub-Refugia Drives Endemic Freshwater Biodiversity on the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Clewing, Catharina; Albrecht, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Although only relatively few freshwater invertebrate families are reported from the Tibetan Plateau, the degree of endemism may be high. Many endemic lineages occur within permafrost areas, raising questions about the existence of isolated intra-plateau glacial refugia. Moreover, if such refugia existed, it might be instructive to learn whether they were associated with lakes or with more dynamic ecosystems such as ponds, wetlands, or springs. To study these hypotheses, we used pulmonate snails of the plateau-wide distributed genus Radix as model group and the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, located in the north-eastern part of the plateau, as model site. First, we performed plateau-wide phylogenetic analyses using mtDNA data to assess the overall relationships of Radix populations inhabiting the Lake Donggi Cona system for revealing refugial lineages. We then conducted regional phylogeographical analyses applying a combination of mtDNA and nuclear AFLP markers to infer the local structure and demographic history of the most abundant endemic Radix clade for identifying location and type of (sub-)refugia within the drainage system. Our phylogenetic analysis showed a high diversity of Radix lineages in the Lake Donggi Cona system. Subsequent phylogeographical analyses of the most abundant endemic clade indicated a habitat-related clustering of genotypes and several Late Pleistocene spatial/demographic expansion events. The most parsimonious explanation for these patterns would be a scenario of an intra-plateau glacial refugium in the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, which might have consisted of isolated sub-refugia. Though the underlying processes remain unknown, an initial separation of lake and watershed populations could have been triggered by lake-level fluctuations before and during the Last Glacial Maximum. This study inferred the first intra-plateau refugium for freshwater animals on the Tibetan Plateau. It thus sheds new light on the evolutionary history

  20. Discovery of Anti-inflammatory Ingredients in Chinese Herbal Formula Kouyanqing Granule based on Relevance Analysis between Chemical Characters and Biological Effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zheng, Yan-fang; Li, Chu-yuan; Zheng, Yu-ying; Wang, De-qin; Wu, Zhong; Huang, Lin; Wang, Yong-gang; Li, Pei-bo; Peng, Wei; Su, Wei-wei

    2015-12-10

    Kouyanqing Granule (KYQG) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula composed of Flos lonicerae (FL), Radix scrophulariae (RS), Radix ophiopogonis (RO), Radix asparagi (RA), and Radix et rhizoma glycyrrhizae (RG). In contrast with the typical method of separating and then biologicalily testing the components individually, this study was designed to establish an approach in order to define the core bioactive ingredients of the anti-inflammatory effects of KYQG based on the relevance analysis between chemical characters and biological effects. Eleven KYQG samples with different ingredients were prepared by changing the ratios of the 5 herbs. Thirty-eight ingredients in KYQG were identified using Ultra-fast liquid chromatography-Diode array detector-Quadrupole-Time-of-flight-Tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) technology. Human oral keratinocytes (HOK) were cultured for 24 hours with 5% of Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to induce inflammation stress. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated after treatment with the eleven KYQG samples. Grey relational analysis(GRA), Pearson's correlations (PCC), and partial least-squares (PLS) were utilized to evaluate the contribution of each ingredient. The results indicated that KYQG significantly reduced interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumour necrosis factor-α levels, in which lysine, γ-aminobutyric acid, chelidonic acid, tyrosine, harpagide, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, luteolin-7-o-glucoside, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, angoroside C, harpagoside, cinnamic acid, and ruscogenin play a vital role.

  1. Discovery of Anti-inflammatory Ingredients in Chinese Herbal Formula Kouyanqing Granule based on Relevance Analysis between Chemical Characters and Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Zheng, Yan-fang; Li, Chu-yuan; Zheng, Yu-ying; Wang, De-qin; Wu, Zhong; Huang, Lin; Wang, Yong-gang; Li, Pei-bo; Peng, Wei; Su, Wei-wei

    2015-01-01

    Kouyanqing Granule (KYQG) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula composed of Flos lonicerae (FL), Radix scrophulariae (RS), Radix ophiopogonis (RO), Radix asparagi (RA), and Radix et rhizoma glycyrrhizae (RG). In contrast with the typical method of separating and then biologicalily testing the components individually, this study was designed to establish an approach in order to define the core bioactive ingredients of the anti-inflammatory effects of KYQG based on the relevance analysis between chemical characters and biological effects. Eleven KYQG samples with different ingredients were prepared by changing the ratios of the 5 herbs. Thirty-eight ingredients in KYQG were identified using Ultra-fast liquid chromatography-Diode array detector-Quadrupole-Time-of-flight-Tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) technology. Human oral keratinocytes (HOK) were cultured for 24 hours with 5% of Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to induce inflammation stress. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated after treatment with the eleven KYQG samples. Grey relational analysis(GRA), Pearson’s correlations (PCC), and partial least-squares (PLS) were utilized to evaluate the contribution of each ingredient. The results indicated that KYQG significantly reduced interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumour necrosis factor-α levels, in which lysine, γ-aminobutyric acid, chelidonic acid, tyrosine, harpagide, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, luteolin-7-o-glucoside, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, angoroside C, harpagoside, cinnamic acid, and ruscogenin play a vital role. PMID:26657159

  2. An Elegant Algorithm for the Construction of Suffix Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar; Nicolae, Marius

    2014-01-01

    The suffix array is a data structure that finds numerous applications in string processing problems for both linguistic texts and biological data. It has been introduced as a memory efficient alternative for suffix trees. The suffix array consists of the sorted suffixes of a string. There are several linear time suffix array construction algorithms (SACAs) known in the literature. However, one of the fastest algorithms in practice has a worst case run time of O(n2). The problem of designing practically and theoretically efficient techniques remains open. In this paper we present an elegant algorithm for suffix array construction which takes linear time with high probability; the probability is on the space of all possible inputs. Our algorithm is one of the simplest of the known SACAs and it opens up a new dimension of suffix array construction that has not been explored until now. Our algorithm is easily parallelizable. We offer parallel implementations on various parallel models of computing. We prove a lemma on the ℓ-mers of a random string which might find independent applications. We also present another algorithm that utilizes the above algorithm. This algorithm is called RadixSA and has a worst case run time of O(n log n). RadixSA introduces an idea that may find independent applications as a speedup technique for other SACAs. An empirical comparison of RadixSA with other algorithms on various datasets reveals that our algorithm is one of the fastest algorithms to date. The C++ source code is freely available at http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~man09004/radixSA.zip. PMID:25045344

  3. Effect of 'antidiabetis' herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Petlevski, R; Hadzija, M; Slijepcevic, M; Juretic, D

    2001-05-01

    The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L.)), patent No. P-9801091 Zagreb, Croatia was investigated. Two extracts were prepared: ethanol extract (extract 1), and ethanol extract from which ethanol was evaporated on a rotatory evaporator at a temperature of 45 degrees C (extract 2). Extract 1 and extract 2 were administered (in experiment 1) to alloxan-induced non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice in the same dose of 20 mg/kg. Blood glucose was determined before, and 10, 30, 60 and 120 min after the preparation administration. Extract 1 and extract 2 decreased the level of blood glucose by 10 and 20%, respectively, of the initial value (at 0 min, mean = 22.6 +/- 8.3 mmol/l). Serum levels of glucose and fructosamine were determined in NOD mice, NOD mice administered extract 2 in a dose of 20 mg/kg of extract 2, and NOD mice administered acarbose in a dose of 25 mg/100 g chow, in order to verify the hypoglycemic action of extract 2 (in experiment 2). Extract 2 and acarbose were admixed to the chow. The duration of treatment was 7 days. Significantly lower glucose (P < 0.05) and fructosamine (P < 0.001) levels were recorded in extract 2 treated NOD mice as compared with NOD mice. Study results showed extract 2 to significantly decrease the level of glucose and fructosamine in alloxan induced NOD mice. Our future studies will be focused on the search of active principles of the extracts.

  4. A Complex System of Glacial Sub-Refugia Drives Endemic Freshwater Biodiversity on the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Clewing, Catharina; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although only relatively few freshwater invertebrate families are reported from the Tibetan Plateau, the degree of endemism may be high. Many endemic lineages occur within permafrost areas, raising questions about the existence of isolated intra-plateau glacial refugia. Moreover, if such refugia existed, it might be instructive to learn whether they were associated with lakes or with more dynamic ecosystems such as ponds, wetlands, or springs. To study these hypotheses, we used pulmonate snails of the plateau-wide distributed genus Radix as model group and the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, located in the north-eastern part of the plateau, as model site. First, we performed plateau-wide phylogenetic analyses using mtDNA data to assess the overall relationships of Radix populations inhabiting the Lake Donggi Cona system for revealing refugial lineages. We then conducted regional phylogeographical analyses applying a combination of mtDNA and nuclear AFLP markers to infer the local structure and demographic history of the most abundant endemic Radix clade for identifying location and type of (sub-)refugia within the drainage system. Our phylogenetic analysis showed a high diversity of Radix lineages in the Lake Donggi Cona system. Subsequent phylogeographical analyses of the most abundant endemic clade indicated a habitat-related clustering of genotypes and several Late Pleistocene spatial/demographic expansion events. The most parsimonious explanation for these patterns would be a scenario of an intra-plateau glacial refugium in the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, which might have consisted of isolated sub-refugia. Though the underlying processes remain unknown, an initial separation of lake and watershed populations could have been triggered by lake-level fluctuations before and during the Last Glacial Maximum. This study inferred the first intra-plateau refugium for freshwater animals on the Tibetan Plateau. It thus sheds new light on the evolutionary history

  5. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 930901W1. 11322. RISCAE Honeywell RH32-Targeted Area Compiler, 1.0 DEC Vaxstation 4000 Under VMS, 5.5=> RISCAE Honeywell RH32 Simulator Running on the Host Under VMS, 5.5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-16

    illegal use of the Ada programaing language. 1-4 OIAPT 2 IMPLEMETATICN DEPEDEN4CIES 2.1 WITHDRAHT The following tests have been withdravn by the AVO. The...a (1.0 - 2.0*-S I)*2.00*204 LONGYFLOAT’MACHINE-ROUNDS a= tu LONG-yLOArMACHINE-OVERFILOWS a tre LONG-YLOAT’MACHIINE-RADIX =2 LONG-MOArMACHINEMANTISSA

  6. Naphthalene-induced oxidative stress in rats and the protective effects of vitamin E succinate.

    PubMed

    Vuchetich, P J; Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Hassoun, E A; Tang, L; Stohs, S J

    1996-01-01

    Quinone metabolites of naphthalene (NAP) are known to produce lipid peroxidation. However, the ability of naphthalene to induce oxidative stress in experimental animals has not been extensively investigated. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin E succinate [(+)-alpha-tocopherol acid succinate; VES] on naphthalene-induced oxidative stress and tissue damage were assessed. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with a single oral dose of 1100 mg naphthalene/kg (0.50 LD50) in corn oil. Vitamin E succinate-treated rats received 100 mg VES/kg/day orally for 3 d before naphthalene treatment, and 40 mg VES/kg/d after NAP administration. Hepatic and brain tissues and urine samples were collected 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after NAP treatment. Naphthalene treatment resulted in a 2.1-fold increase in lipid peroxidation in liver and brain mitochondria at the 24-h time point. Increases in hepatic and brain mitochondrial lipid peroxidation in VES plus NAP-treated rats were 39-46% less than NAP treated rats at 24 h. DNA-single strand breaks increased 3.0-fold in hepatic tissues in NAP treated rats, and increased only 1.6-fold in VES protected rats at the 24-h time point. Glutathione (GSH) decreased by 83 and 49% in hepatic and brain tissues, respectively, in NAP-treated rats at the 24-h time point, while GSH content in VES plus NAP-treated rats decreased 47 and 21% in hepatic and brain tissues, respectively, at this same time point. Microsomal membrane fluidity, a measurement of membrane damage, increased 1.9- and 1.7-fold in liver and brain tissues, respectively, in NAP-treated rats, and only 1.3- and 1.2-fold in NAP plus VES-treated rats at the 24-h time point. The urinary excretion of malondialdehyde (MDA), formaldehyde (FA), acetaldehyde (ACT), and acetone (ACON) was determined at 0-96 h after NAP administration. Between 12-24 h after NAP administration maximal excretion of the four urinary lipid metabolites was observed, with increases of 4.5-, 2.7-, 2.3-, and 2.8-fold for MDA

  7. Plant Natural Products Calycosin and Gallic Acid Synergistically Attenuate Neutrophil Infiltration and Subsequent Injury in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction: A Possible Role for Leukotriene B4 12-Hydroxydehydrogenase?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Jia; Tse, Hung Fat; Le, X Chris; Rong, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    Leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase (LTB4DH) catalyzes the oxidation of proinflammatory LTB4 into less bioactive 12-oxo-LTB4. We recently discovered that LTB4DH was induced by two different natural products in combination. We previously isolated gallic acid from Radix Paeoniae through a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that LTB4DH inducers may suppress neutrophil-mediated inflammation in myocardial infarction. We first isolated the active compound(s) from another plant, Radix Astragali, by the similar strategy. By evaluating LTB4DH induction, we identified calycosin and formononetin from Radix Astragali by HPLC-ESI-MS technique. We confirmed that gallic acid and commercial calycosin or formononetin could synergistically induce LTB4DH expression in HepG2 cells and human neutrophils. Moreover, calycosin and gallic acid attenuated the effects of LTB4 on the survival and chemotaxis of neutrophil cell culture. We further demonstrated that calycosin and gallic acid synergistically suppressed neutrophil infiltration and protected cardiac integrity in the isoproterenol-induced mice model of myocardial infarction. Calycosin and gallic acid dramatically suppressed isoproterenol-induced increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Collectively, our results suggest that LTB4DH inducers (i.e., calycosin and gallic acid) may be a novel combined therapy for the treatment of neutrophil-mediated myocardial injury.

  8. An Integrated Strategy for Global Qualitative and Quantitative Profiling of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulas: Baoyuan Decoction as a Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaoyu; Song, Yuelin; Qiao, Lirui; Wang, Wenguang; Zhao, Mingbo; Tu, Pengfei; Jiang, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Clarification of the chemical composition of traditional Chinese medicine formulas (TCMFs) is a challenge due to the variety of structures and the complexity of plant matrices. Herein, an integrated strategy was developed by hyphenating ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF), hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Qtrap-MS), and the novel post-acquisition data processing software UNIFI to achieve automatic, rapid, accurate, and comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical components in TCMFs. As a proof-of-concept, the chemical profiling of Baoyuan decoction (BYD), which is an ancient TCMF that is clinically used for the treatment of coronary heart disease that consists of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle, and Cinnamomi Cortex, was performed. As many as 236 compounds were plausibly or unambiguously identified, and 175 compounds were quantified or relatively quantified by the scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) method. The findings demonstrate that the strategy integrating the rapidity of UNIFI software, the efficiency of UPLC, the accuracy of Q-TOF-MS, and the sensitivity and quantitation ability of Qtrap-MS provides a method for the efficient and comprehensive chemome characterization and quality control of complex TCMFs.

  9. Diabetic Osteoporosis: A Review of Its Traditional Chinese Medicinal Use and Clinical and Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rufeng; Zhu, Ruyuan; Wang, Lili; Guo, Yubo; Liu, Chenyue; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Fengwei; Li, Hongjun; Li, Yu; Fu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The incidence of diabetic osteoporosis (DOP) is increasing due to lack of effective management over the past few decades. This review aims to summarize traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) suitability in the pathogenesis and clinical and preclinical management of DOP. Methods. Literature sources used were from Medline (Pubmed), CNKI (China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database), and CSTJ (China Science and Technology Journal Database) online databases. For the consultation, keywords such as diabetic osteoporosis (DOP), TCM, clinical study, animal experiment, toxicity, and research progress were used in various combinations. Around 100 research papers and reviews were visited. Results. Liver-spleen-kidney insufficiency may result in development of DOP. 18 clinical trials are identified to use TCM compound prescriptions for management of patients with DOP. TCM herbs and their active ingredients are effective in preventing the development of DOP in streptozotocin (STZ) and alloxan as well as STZ combined with ovariectomy insulted rats. Among them, most frequently used TCM herbs in clinical trials are Radix Astragali, Radix et Rhizoma Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata, and Herba Epimedii. Some of TCM herbs also exhibit toxicities in clinical and preclinical research. Conclusions. TCM herbs may act as the novel sources of anti-DOP drugs by improving bone and glucolipid metabolisms. However, the pathogenesis of DOP and the material base of TCM herbs still merit further study. PMID:27698674

  10. Potential Beneficial Effects of Si-Wu-Tang on White Blood Cell Numbers and the Gastrointestinal Tract of γ-Ray Irradiated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jin; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) is a decoction consisting of a mixture of ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix, Angelica Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix. As a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, SWT has been widely used for the treatment of diseases characterized as blood and/or energy deficit. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of SWT on the different populations of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) and gastrointestinal changes in γ-ray irradiated mice. Female mice were treated daily with orally administered SWT seven days before irradiation, until one day before irradiation or until one day before sample collection. WBC counts were determined from peripheral blood samples taken from the mice at different times post-irradiation. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of fibrinogen, were utilized to evaluate the effects of SWT in the intestines of mice after radiation exposure. The results of the present studies demonstrate that SWT has protective effects against radiation damage to circulating WBCs, specifically to lymphocytes, and to the gastrointestinal tract of the irradiated animals. PMID:25324699

  11. Application of SiO(2) hollow fibers for sorptive microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of organochlorine pesticides in herbal matrices.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2010-10-01

    A method involving simultaneous extraction and sample clean-up procedure: hollow fiber sorptive microextraction, coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection for quantification of seven organochlorine pesticides in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei is described. SiO(2) hollow fiber with porous structure was synthesized for the first time. The internal diameter of SiO(2) hollow fiber is 380 microm and average wall thickness is 100 microm. Aggregated SiO(2) particles deposited on the surface of the hollow fiber in a regular array lead to porous structure. SiO(2) hollow fiber was applied to the determination of organochlorine pesticides in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei to avoid sample clean-up and minimize the matrix effects. Extraction solvent, extraction temperature and equilibration time were optimized. Fiber to fiber repeatability over the concentration ranges were less than 10%. Recoveries were satisfactory (between 63% and 115%) for most of organochlorine pesticides at spiking levels. Furthermore, the proposed method was also applied to determine seven organochlorine pesticides in 43 commercial Radix et Rhizoma Rhei samples, in which the selected pesticides were found in eight samples. The results have been further confirmed by solvent extraction methods according to China Pharmacopoeia (2005).

  12. An authenticity survey of herbal medicines from markets in China using DNA barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jianping; Pang, Xiaohui; Liao, Baosheng; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Adulterant herbal materials are a threat to consumer safety. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to investigate the proportions and varieties of adulterant species in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) markets. We used a DNA barcode database of TCM (TCMD) that was established by our group to investigate 1436 samples representing 295 medicinal species from 7 primary TCM markets in China. The results indicate that ITS2 barcodes could be generated for most of the samples (87.7%) using a standard protocol. Of the 1260 samples, approximately 4.2% were identified as adulterants. The adulterant focused on medicinal species such as Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Renshen), Radix Rubi Parvifolii (Maomeigen), Dalbergiae odoriferae Lignum (Jiangxiang), Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (Shichangpu), Inulae Flos (Xuanfuhua), Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Jinyinhua), Acanthopanacis Cortex (Wujiapi) and Bupleuri Radix (Chaihu). The survey revealed that adulterant species are present in the Chinese market, and these adulterants pose a risk to consumer health. Thus, regulatory measures should be adopted immediately. We suggest that a traceable platform based on DNA barcode sequences be established for TCM market supervision. PMID:26740340

  13. An Integrated Strategy for Global Qualitative and Quantitative Profiling of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulas: Baoyuan Decoction as a Case.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaoyu; Song, Yuelin; Qiao, Lirui; Wang, Wenguang; Zhao, Mingbo; Tu, Pengfei; Jiang, Yong

    2016-12-07

    Clarification of the chemical composition of traditional Chinese medicine formulas (TCMFs) is a challenge due to the variety of structures and the complexity of plant matrices. Herein, an integrated strategy was developed by hyphenating ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF), hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Qtrap-MS), and the novel post-acquisition data processing software UNIFI to achieve automatic, rapid, accurate, and comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical components in TCMFs. As a proof-of-concept, the chemical profiling of Baoyuan decoction (BYD), which is an ancient TCMF that is clinically used for the treatment of coronary heart disease that consists of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle, and Cinnamomi Cortex, was performed. As many as 236 compounds were plausibly or unambiguously identified, and 175 compounds were quantified or relatively quantified by the scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) method. The findings demonstrate that the strategy integrating the rapidity of UNIFI software, the efficiency of UPLC, the accuracy of Q-TOF-MS, and the sensitivity and quantitation ability of Qtrap-MS provides a method for the efficient and comprehensive chemome characterization and quality control of complex TCMFs.

  14. Statistical quality control of total ash, acid-insoluble ash, loss on drying, and hazardous heavy metals contained in the component medicinal herbs of "Ssanghwatang", a widely used oriental formula in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donggyu; Kim, Bogsoon; Yun, Eunsun; Kim, Junghun; Chae, Youngzoo; Park, Seungkook

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the current quality control status of raw materials in "Ssanghwatang", a widely used oriental formula effective for fatigue recovery in Korea, 1024 samples of 9 herbs available in Seoul area markets were collected, and the contents of quality inspection items such as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, loss on drying, and hazardous heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Hg) were examined. Medicinal herbs requiring quality control, which may not meet the specifications and standards set by the Korea Food and Drug Administration, were selected using robust z-scores, a random variable. Among the quality control items, control of total ash content was required for the Ssanghwatang raw materials Cinnamomi Cortex, Rehmanniae Radix Preparata, Zingiberis Rhizoma, and Zizyphi Fructus; loss on drying for Cinnamomi Cortex; and heavy metal (Cd) for Angelicae Gigantis Radix, Cinnamomi Cortex, and Zingiberis Rhizoma. Additionally, acid-insoluble ash content revealed how many fine soil and sand particles are present in commercial medicinal herbs, which were correlated with heavy metals such as Pb (r = 0.528) and As (r = 0.342) in Rehmanniae Radix Preparata (p < 0.01).

  15. The radioprotective effects of bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang: a prescription of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Song-Eun; Oh, Heon; Kim, Se-Ra; Yee, Sung-Tae; Yu, Young-Beob; Byun, Myung-Woo; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang, a prescription of traditional Oriental medicine, and its major ingredients on protection of the intestine and hematopoietic organs against radiation damage in this study. The jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells were investigated in mice irradiated with high and low doses of gamma-rays. bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang administration before irradiation protected the jejunal crypts (p < 0.0001), increased the formation of the endogenous spleen colony (p < 0.05) and reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis (p < 0.05). In experiments on the effects of the individual ingredient of bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang, Rensan (Radix Ginseng), Danggui (Radix Angelicae gigantis), Shengma (Rhizoma Cimicifugae) and Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri) might have major radioprotective effects, and each might have different degrees of effect on these three endpoints. These results indicated that bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang might be a better agent than any one of its ingredients to satisfy all three endpoints. Although the mechanisms of this inhibitory effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively non-toxic natural product. Further studies are needed to better characterize the protective nature of bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang extract and its ingredients.

  16. Metabolic differentiations of Pueraria lobata and Pueraria thomsonii using ¹H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Gan; Song, Yue-Lin; Wang, Ying; Yuan, Yun-Fei; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Ye, Wen-Cai; Wang, Yi-Tao; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2014-05-01

    Puerariae Radix was a widely used herbal medicine. Pueraria lobata (PL) and Pueraria thomsonii (PT) were the two authorized sources of Puerariae Radix (gegen) in China. In this study, metabolic differentiations between these two species were investigated using NMR spectroscopy followed by principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The content of puerarin in PL and PT was also determined using quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Thirteen isoflavones were tentatively identified based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data in two species. The (1)H NMR spectra of PL and PT were obviously different. PL and PT could also be markedly discriminated from (1)H NMR spectroscopic data by PCA and PLS-DA. For the crude drug resources, isoflavones, in which puerarin is the most important one, were regarded as the reasonable markers for the discrimination of the two species. The contents of puerarin and total isoflavones in PL were quantitated much higher than those in PT. Above all, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, which can provide comprehensive profiles of the metabolites and achieve convenient determinations of puerarin and total isoflavones in a single run, is an efficient means for evaluating the medicinal samples and achieving a better quality control of Puerariae Radix.

  17. [Study on medication regularity of grand master of traditional Chinese medicine YAN Zheng-hua's Ostreae Concha-containing prescriptions based on data mining].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Rui; Guo, Wei-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Bing

    2014-07-01

    In this study, prescriptions were collected to establish a database based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TCMISS). Such data-mining methods as software's statistical statement module, data analysis module and apriori algorithm were used to analyze the frequency of single drug, the frequency of drug combination, the association rules and the core drug combinations of ostreae concha-containing prescriptions. The results showed that Ostreae Concha-containing prescriptions were frequently used to treat insomnia, vertigo, stomach-ache and other syndromes. The frequently used drugs included Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix and Paeoniae Rubra Radix. The frequently used drug combinations included "Ostreae Concha and Ossis Mastodi Fossilia", "Ostreae Concha and Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen", and "Ostreae Concha and Polygoni Multiflori Caulis". The drug association rules with the confidence coefficient of more than 0. 95 included "Ossis Mastodi Fossilia-->Ostreae Concha", "Cocos Poria-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia-Ostreae Concha", "Ossis Mastodi Fossilia-Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-->Ostreae Concha", and "Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia--Ostreae Concha".

  18. Postauricular fascia in augmentation rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Aldo Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Ten rhinoplasty operations performed using postauricular fascia for the purpose of augmenting the radix and dorsum of the nose were analyzed retrospectively. All the operations were performed over a 1-year period, between 2005 and 2006. The fascia of the postauricular area has been used as a source of pliable soft-tissue grafts in primary and revision rhinoplasty. It may be easily accessed using a single sulcus incision that also enables harvesting of ear cartilage grafts. Deficiency in the radix is an overlooked abnormality seen in many patients undergoing primary as well as revision rhinoplasty after aggressive hump removal. Recent trends in rhinoplasty have been to avoid the overly reduced nasal skeleton and to create a more balanced nasal surgery result. This article presents the use of the postauricular fascia as a radix graft that has been found to be simple to carry out, reliable, and long lasting. In addition, the fascia graft is useful in the camouflage of various nasal deformities in the dorsum and sidewalls. The average patient follow-up for the study was 24 months.

  19. Construction and Quality Analysis of Transgenic Rehmannia glutinosa Containing TMV and CMV Coat Protein.

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhongqiu; Shen, Ye; Li, Jing; Lin, Zhongping; Chen, Min; Wang, Min; Li, Man; Dong, Hongran; Huang, Luqi

    2016-08-27

    Plant viruses, especially tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) are serious threats to Rehmannia glutinosa which is a "top grade" herb in China. In the present study, TMV- and CMV-resistant Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. plants were constructed by transforming the protein (CP) genes of TMV and CMV into Rehmannia glutinosa via a modified procedure of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Integration and expression of TMV CP and CMV CP transgenes in 2 lines, LBA-1 and LBA-2, were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR. Both LBA-1 and LBA-2 were resistant to infection of homologous TMV and CMV strains. The quality of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix was evaluated based on fingerprint analysis and components quantitative analysis comparing with control root tubes. These results showed that chemical composition of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix were similar to non-transgenic ones, which demonstrated that the medical quality and biosafety of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix were equivalent to non-transgenic material when consumed as traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM).

  20. Fine-root mortality rates in a temperate forest: Estimates using radiocarbon data and numerical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.J.; Gaudinski, J.B.; Torn, M.S.; Joslin, J.D.; Hanson, P.J.

    2009-09-01

    We used an inadvertent whole-ecosystem {sup 14}C label at a temperate forest in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA to develop a model (Radix1.0) of fine-root dynamics. Radix simulates two live-root pools, two dead-root pools, non-normally distributed root mortality turnover times, a stored carbon (C) pool, and seasonal growth and respiration patterns. We applied Radix to analyze measurements from two root size classes (< 0.5 and 0.5-2.0 mm diameter) and three soil-depth increments (O horizon, 0-15 cm and 30-60 cm). Predicted live-root turnover times were < 1 yr and 10 yr for short- and long-lived pools, respectively. Dead-root pools had decomposition turnover times of 2 yr and 10 yr. Realistic characterization of C flows through fine roots requires a model with two live fine-root populations, two dead fine-root pools, and root respiration. These are the first fine-root turnover time estimates that take into account respiration, storage, seasonal growth patterns, and non-normal turnover time distributions. The presence of a root population with decadal turnover times implies a lower amount of belowground net primary production used to grow fine-root tissue than is currently predicted by models with a single annual turnover pool.

  1. An Integrated Strategy for Global Qualitative and Quantitative Profiling of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulas: Baoyuan Decoction as a Case

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaoyu; Song, Yuelin; Qiao, Lirui; Wang, Wenguang; Zhao, Mingbo; Tu, Pengfei; Jiang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Clarification of the chemical composition of traditional Chinese medicine formulas (TCMFs) is a challenge due to the variety of structures and the complexity of plant matrices. Herein, an integrated strategy was developed by hyphenating ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF), hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Qtrap-MS), and the novel post-acquisition data processing software UNIFI to achieve automatic, rapid, accurate, and comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical components in TCMFs. As a proof-of-concept, the chemical profiling of Baoyuan decoction (BYD), which is an ancient TCMF that is clinically used for the treatment of coronary heart disease that consists of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle, and Cinnamomi Cortex, was performed. As many as 236 compounds were plausibly or unambiguously identified, and 175 compounds were quantified or relatively quantified by the scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) method. The findings demonstrate that the strategy integrating the rapidity of UNIFI software, the efficiency of UPLC, the accuracy of Q-TOF-MS, and the sensitivity and quantitation ability of Qtrap-MS provides a method for the efficient and comprehensive chemome characterization and quality control of complex TCMFs. PMID:27924825

  2. [Inhibitory effects of fifteen kinds of Chinese herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on SOS response].

    PubMed

    Jin, Z C; Qian, J

    1994-05-01

    Effects of 15 kinds of herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on lex-dependent sfi-SOS response were determined by micropersistent and/or pulse models induced by 4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) and Mitomycin C (MMC) in Escherichia coli(E. coli) PQ37 and PQ35, respectively. Results showed the water extract of Rhizoma Polygonati (RP), Fructus Chebulae (FC), Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM), Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL), Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii (BFT), shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice, and solutions of 5-Fluorouracil, Tannic acid and garlicin could inhibit SOS responses with a dose-response relationship and suggested the inhibitory effects took place both inside and outside E. coli cells. Water extract of FC, FLL, BFT, shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice and solution of 5-Fluorouracil and Tannic acid could intracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by MMC in E. coli PQ35, and acetone extract of Grifola Frondosa (GF) could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses in E. coli PQ37 and intracellularly in PQ35 induced by 4NQO or MMC. Water extract of raw hawthorn. Radix Angelicae Duhuricae (RAD), Radix Ophiopogonis (RO), and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by 4NQO in E coli PQ37. The possible mechanisms of intracellular inhibition and antidamage repair were discussed in the paper.

  3. Some improvements on RNS Montgomery modular multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajard, Jean-Claude; Didier, Laurent-Stephane; Kornerup, Peter; Rico, Fabien

    2000-11-01

    In Residue Number Systems (RNS), an integer X is represented by its residues {x0,...,xn-1} modulo a base of relatively prime numbers {m0,...,mn-1}. Thus a large number can be represented as a set of small integers. Addition and multiplication can be easily parallelized, there is no carry propagation. The time is reduced to the evaluation of these operations with small numbers. This representation is useful in cryptography and digital signal processing. Furthermore, in these two domains, modular multiplication (A X B mod N) is frequently used. So, in 1998, we have presented in IEEE journal of transactions on computers, a new modular multiplication algorithm in RNS. This algorithm is based on the Montgomery algorithm, using the associated Mixed Radix representation, for the weighted digits. It was the first algorithm of this type. In this paper, we present two remarks. First, if we develop the different expressions due to the algorithm, we obtain some mathematical simplifications that allow us to suppress some Mixed Radix occurrence in the basic iteration simply with a new initialization of our variables. Thus, in this new version, the complexity of each basic iteration, becomes equivalent to two products of small integers instead of three. The second remark is that, most of the time, modular multiplications are done with the same modulo N. We can precompute some values and reduce the complexity of each basic iteration to one multiplication of two small integers. Thus, the basic iteration is three times faster, and the global computation, due to the initialization, is 8/5 time faster than the original version. Sometime after the last basic iteration a Mixed Radix conversion can be needed. Classical parallel methods are linear. We propose an algorithmic parallel algorithm for this translation from RNS to Mixed Radix. For this, we use a result that comes from an RNS division algorithm, we published in Journal of VLSI signal processing systems 1998. We obtain in a

  4. Updates in immunoassays: virology.

    PubMed

    Josko, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Virus identification is a challenge to the clinical microbiologist since growing viruses in traditional cell culture is labor intensive, time consuming, and subject to contamination. The advent of rapid and automated immunoassays has eliminated this problem by generating positive results in minutes to hours. For example, testing for infectious mononucleosis can yield a positive result in 3-8 minutes as seen with the Beckman Coulter, Inc. ICON Mono test or in 5-15 minutes with the MONO Mononucleosis Rapid Test Device marketed by ACON Laboratories, Inc. Fully automated immunoassay analyzers provide fast, accurate, sensitive results that aid in a prompt and accurate diagnosis for the patient. Turnaround times are shortened, allowing for timely medical intervention and treatment. The priority in any hospital or medical facility is to treat the patient as quickly and appropriately as possible. By using immunoassays, clinical laboratory professionals are able to report out correct results in a timely manner, ensuring overall positive patient outcomes and improved quality of healthcare.

  5. Ignavine: a novel allosteric modulator of the μ opioid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Miyagi, Chika; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Mizuno, Keita; Omiya, Yuji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Warabi, Eiji; Sudo, Yuka; Yokoyama, Akinobu; Miyano, Kanako; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2016-01-01

    Processed Aconiti tuber (PAT) is used to treat pain associated with various disorders. Although it has been demonstrated that the κ opioid receptor (KOR) signaling pathway is a mediator of the analgesic effect of PAT, active components affecting opioid signaling have not yet been identified. In this study, we explored candidate components of PAT by pharmacokinetic analysis and identified ignavine, which is a different structure from aconitine alkaloids. A receptor binding assay of opioid receptors showed that ignavine specifically binds the μ opioid receptor (MOR), not the KOR. Receptor internalization assay in MOR-expressing cell lines revealed that ignavine augmented the responses produced by D-Ala(2)-N-Me-Phe(4)-Gly-ol(5)-enkephalin (DAMGO), a representative MOR agonist, at a low concentration and inhibited it at a higher concentration. Ignavine also exerted positive modulatory activity for DAMGO, endomorphin-1 and morphine in cAMP assay. Additionally, ignavine alone showed an analgesic effect in vivo. In silico simulation analysis suggested that ignavine would induce a unique structural change distinguished from those induced by a representative MOR agonist and antagonist. These data collectively suggest the possibility that ignavine could be a novel allosteric modulator of the MOR. The present results may open the way for the development of a novel pain management strategy. PMID:27530869

  6. Nonlinear resonances of a single-wall carbon nanotube cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, I. K.; Lee, S. I.

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics of an electrostatically actuated carbon nanotube (CNT) cantilever are discussed by theoretical and numerical approaches. Electrostatic and intermolecular forces between the single-walled CNT and a graphene electrode are considered. The CNT cantilever is analyzed by the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, including its geometric and inertial nonlinearities, and a one-mode projection based on the Galerkin approximation and numerical integration. Static pull-in and pull-out behaviors are adequately represented by an asymmetric two-well potential with the total potential energy consisting of the CNT elastic energy, electrostatic energy, and the Lennard-Jones potential energy. Nonlinear dynamics of the cantilever are simulated under DC and AC voltage excitations and examined in the frequency and time domains. Under AC-only excitation, a superharmonic resonance of order 2 occurs near half of the primary frequency. Under both DC and AC loads, the cantilever exhibits linear and nonlinear primary and secondary resonances depending on the strength of the excitation voltages. In addition, the cantilever has dynamic instabilities such as periodic or chaotic tapping motions, with a variation of excitation frequency at the resonance branches. High electrostatic excitation leads to complex nonlinear responses such as softening, multiple stability changes at saddle nodes, or period-doubling bifurcation points in the primary and secondary resonance branches.

  7. Production of nitric oxide using a microwave plasma torch and its application to fungal cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Young Ho; Kumar, Naresh; Kang, Min-Ho; Cho, Guang Sup; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon; Uhm, Han Sup

    2015-03-01

    The generation of nitric oxide by a microwave plasma torch is proposed for its application to cell differentiation. A microwave plasma torch was developed based on basic kinetic theory. The analytical theory indicates that nitric oxide density is nearly proportional to oxygen molecular density and that the high-temperature flame is an effective means of generating nitric oxide. Experimental data pertaining to nitric oxide production are presented in terms of the oxygen input in units of cubic centimeters per minute. The apparent length of the torch flame increases as the oxygen input increases. The various levels of nitric oxide are observed depending on the flow rate of nitrogen gas, the mole fraction of oxygen gas, and the microwave power. In order to evaluate the potential of nitric oxide as an activator of cell differentiation, we applied nitric oxide generated from the microwave plasma torch to a model microbial cell (Neurospora crassa: non-pathogenic fungus). Germination and hyphal differentiation of fungal cells were not dramatically changed but there was a significant increase in spore formation after treatment with nitric oxide. In addition, the expression level of a sporulation related gene acon-3 was significantly elevated after 24 h upon nitric oxide treatment. Increase in the level of nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate in water after nitric oxide treatment seems to be responsible for activation of fungal sporulation. Our results suggest that nitric oxide generated by plasma can be used as a possible activator of cell differentiation and development.

  8. Deceased tissue donor serology and molecular testing for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses: a lack of cadaveric validated tests.

    PubMed

    Victer, Thayssa Neiva da Fonseca; Dos Santos, Cris Stéphany Rodrigues; Báo, Sônia Nair; Sampaio, Thatiane Lima

    2016-12-01

    Vital to patient safety is the accurate assessment and minimization of risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C (HCV), and Hepatitis B (HBV) virus transmission by deceased donor organ and tissue transplantation. The pathogens are tested by serological kits based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence (CLIA) and eletrochemiluminescence (ECLIA) immunoassays. Organ transplantation is a highly successful life-saving treatment in Brazil, but the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency currently mandates that all deceased organ donors are screened for HIV, HCV and HBV following living donor policies. In this review, six ELISA (Wama(®), Bio-Rad(®), Biomerieux(®), DiaSorin(®), Acon Biotech(®) and Biokit(®)), three CLIA (Abbott(®), Siemens(®), Diasorin(®)) and one ECLIA (Roche(®)) were utilized for evaluating the effectiveness of those serological tests for deceased donors in Brazil according to manufacturer's guidelines. NAT for HIV, HCV and HBV can assist with detection of pre-seroconversion for those infections, and only Cobas(®) TaqScreen MPX(®) test, the Tigris System(®) Procleix Ultrio Assay(®) and the Bio-Manguinhos(®) HIV/HCV/HBV NAT are commercially available. Between all the tests, only the manufacturer Abbott(®) and Cobas(®) TaqScreen MPX(®) test are currently validated for cadaver samples.

  9. Improving thrust by pulse-induced breakdown enhancement in AC surface dielectric barrier discharge actuators for airflow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huijie; Yang, Liang; Qi, Xiaohua; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a plate-to-plate AC surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) actuator using the pulse-induced breakdown enhancing method are experimentally investigated. The encapsulated electrode is supplied with a sine high AC voltage, while the exposed electrode is feed by a synchronized pulse voltage. Based on the thrust force and power consumption measurements, a parametric study was performed using a positive pulse applied at the trough phase of the AC cycles in which the thrust force was observed to increase by about 100% to 300% and the efficiency up to about 100% compared with the AC-only supply conditions for different AC voltages within the tested range. The pulse-induced breakdown effect was analyzed from the electrical and light emission waveforms to reveal the underlying mechanism. The surface potential due to the charge deposition effect was also measured using a specially designed corona-like discharge potential probe. It is shown that the pulse-induced breakdown was able to cause a temporarily intensified local electric field to enhance the glow-like discharge and meanwhile increase the time-average surface potential in the region further downstream. The improvement in the force by the enhancement in the pulse-induced breakdown was mainly due to enhancements in the glow-like discharge and the surface potential increment, with the latter being more important when the AC voltage is higher.

  10. Neuroprotective effect of Chuk-Me-Sun-Dan on NMDA- and AMPA-evoked nitric oxide synthase activity in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Koo, Byung-Soo; Choi, Eun-Gyu; Park, Jae-Bok; Cho, Chang-Ho; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Chukmesundan (CMSD) is composed of 8 medicinal herbs including Panex ginseng C.A. MEYER, Atractylodes macrocephala KOID, Poria cocos WOLF, Pinellia ternata BREIT, Brassica alba BOISS, Aconitum carmichaeli DEBX, Cynanchum atratum BGE, and Cuscuta chinensis LAM and used for the treatment of various symptoms accompanying hypertension and cerebrovascular disorders. This study was carried out to examine the effects of CMSD on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-evoked, and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-evoked nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in mouse brain. In adult forebrain, CMSD influences neuronal maintenance and is neuroprotective in several injury models through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Interaction is observed between CMSD and nitric oxide (NO). Because NO affects both neural plasticity and degeneration, we hypothesized that CMSD might rapidly modulate NO production. Using in vivo microdialysis we measured conversion of L-[14C] arginine to L-[14C] citrulline as an accurate reflection of NOS activity in adult mouse hippocampus. CMSD significantly reduced NOS activities to 62% of basal levels within 2 days of onset of delivery and maintained NOS activity at less than 45% of baseline throughout 3 days of delivery. These effects did not occur with control (distilled water) and were not mediated by effect of CMSD on glutamate levels. In addition, simultaneous delivery of CMSD treatment prevented significant increases in NOS activity triggered by the glutamate receptor agonists NMDA and AMPA. Rapid suppression by CMSD of basal and glutamate-stimulated NOS activity may regulate neuromodulatory functions of NO or protect neurons from NO toxicity and suggests a novel mechanism for rapidly mediating functions of CMSD. It is shown that NMDA receptor stimulation leads to activation of p21ras (Ras) through generation of NO via neuronal NOS. The competitive NOS inhibitor, L-nitroarginine methyl ester, and CMSD prevents Ras

  11. New insight in lymnaeid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) as intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Belgium and Luxembourg

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aims to assess the epidemiological role of different lymnaeid snails as intermediate hosts of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica in Belgium and Luxembourg. Methods During summer 2008, 7103 lymnaeid snails were collected from 125 ponds distributed in 5 clusters each including 25 ponds. Each cluster was located in a different biogeographic area of Belgium and Luxembourg. In addition, snails were also collected in sixteen other biotopes considered as temporary wet areas. These snails were identified as Galba truncatula (n = 2474) (the main intermediate host of F. hepatica in Europe) and Radix sp. (n = 4629). Moreover, several biological and non-biological variables were also recorded from the different biotopes. DNA was extracted from each snail collected using Chelex® technique. DNA samples were screened through a multiplex PCR that amplifies lymnaeid internal transcribed spacer 2 gene sequences (500–600 bp) (acting as an internal control) and a 124 bp fragment of repetitive DNA from Fasciola sp. Results Lymnaeid snails were found in 75 biotopes (53.2%). Thirty individuals of G. truncatula (1.31%) and 7 of Radix sp. (0.16%) were found to be positive for Fasciola sp. The seven positive Radix sp. snails all belonged to the species R. balthica (Linnaeus, 1758). Classification and regression tree analysis were performed in order to better understand links and relative importance of the different recorded factors. One of the best explanatory variables for the presence/absence of the different snail species seems to be the geographic location, whereas for the infection status of the snails no obvious relationship was linked to the presence of cattle. Conclusions Epidemiological implications of these findings and particularly the role of R. balthica as an alternative intermediate host in Belgium and Luxembourg were discussed. PMID:24524623

  12. Neuroprotective effect of the active components of three Chinese herbs on brain iron load in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xian-Hui; Gao, Wei-Juan; Kong, Wei-Na; Xie, Hong-Lin; Peng, Yan; Shao, Tie-Mei; Yu, Wen-Guo; Chai, Xi-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder and the most common cause of dementia. New treatments for AD are required due to its increasing prevalence in aging populations. The present study evaluated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on learning and memory impairment, β-amyloid (Aβ) reduction and brain iron load in an APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Increasing evidence indicates that a disturbance of normal iron homeostasis may contribute to the pathology of AD. However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in abnormal iron load in the AD brain remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that the brain iron load is influenced by the deregulation of certain proteins associated with brain iron metabolism, including divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1). The present study investigated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on the expression levels of DMT1 and FPN1. The treatment with the active components reduced cognitive deficits, inhibited Aβ plaque accumulation, reversed Aβ burden and reduced the brain iron load in AD model mice. A significant increase was observed in the levels of DMT1-iron-responsive element (IRE) and DMT1-nonIRE in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain, which was reduced by treatment with the active components. In addition, the levels of FPN1 were significantly reduced in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain compared with those of control mice, and these levels were increased following treatment with the active components. Thus, the present study indicated that the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae may exert a neuroprotective effect against AD by reducing iron overload in the AD brain and may provide a novel approach for the development of drugs for the treatment of AD.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of liquiritigenin as a consequence of the inhibition of NF-κB-dependent iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines production

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y W; Zhao, R J; Park, S J; Lee, J R; Cho, I J; Yang, C H; Kim, S G; Kim, S C

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Glycyrrhizae radix has been widely used as a cytoprotective, plant-derived medicine. We have identified a flavanoid, liquiritigenin, as an active component in extracts of Glycyrrhizae radix. This research investigated the effects of liquiritigenin on the induction of inducible NOS (iNOS) and proinflammatory cytokines by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Raw264.7 cells, and on paw oedema in rats. Experimental approach: iNOS expression was determined by western blotting, real-time reverse transcription-PCR and reporter gene analyses. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were assayed by ELISA. Gel shift assay and immunoblotting were used to assess NF-κB activation. The effect of liquiritigenin on acute inflammation in vivo was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema. Key results: Treatment of Raw264.7 cells with liquiritigenin caused inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB DNA binding activity, due to repression of I-κBα phosphorylation and degradation. Liquiritigenin treatment prevented LPS from increasing the levels of iNOS protein and mRNA in a concentration-dependent manner. Liquiritigenin also suppressed the production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 from Raw264.7 cells after LPS. In rats, liquiritigenin treatment inhibited formation of paw oedema induced by carrageenan. Conclusion and implications: These results demonstrate that liquiritigenin exerts anti-inflammatory effects, which results from the inhibition of NF-κB activation in macrophages, thereby decreasing production of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines. Our findings showing inhibition by liquiritigenin of paw oedema as well as inflammatory gene induction will help to understand the pharmacology and mode of action of liquiritigenin, and of the anti-inflammatory use of Glycyrrhizae radix. PMID:18332856

  14. Pharmacological Effects of Active Components of Chinese Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Jian-Gang; Li, Hao; Yang, Hui-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder associated with dementia, not only severely decreases the quality of life for its victims, but also brings a heavy economic burden to the family and society. Unfortunately, few chemical drugs designed for clinical applications have reached the expected preventive or therapeutic effect so far, and combined with their significant side-effects, there is therefore an urgent need for new strategies to be developed for AD treatment. Traditional Chinese Medicine has accumulated many experiences in the treatment of dementia during thousands of years of practice; modern pharmacological studies have confirmed the therapeutic effects of many active components derived from Chinese herbal medicines (CHM). Ginsenoside Rg1, extracted from Radix Ginseng, exerts a [Formula: see text]-secretase inhibitor effect so as to decrease A[Formula: see text] aggregation. It can also inhibit the apoptosis of neuron cells. Tanshinone IIA, extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, and baicalin, extracted from Radix Scutellariae[Formula: see text] can inhibit the oxidative stress injury in neuronal cells. Icariin, extracted from Epimedium brevicornum, can decrease A[Formula: see text] levels and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and can also inhibit oxidative stress and apoptosis. Huperzine A, extracted from Huperzia serrata, exerts a cholinesterase inhibitor effect. Evodiamine, extracted from Fructus Evodiae, and curcumin, extracted from Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, exert anti-inflammatory actions. Curcumin can act on A[Formula: see text] and tau too. Due to the advantages of multi-target effects and fewer side effects, Chinese medicine is more appropriate for long-term use. In this present review, the pharmacological effects of commonly used active components derived from Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of AD are discussed.

  15. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Katrin M.; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M.; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  16. Treatment with QiBaoMeiRan, a Kidney-Invigorating Chinese Herbal Formula, Antagonizes Estrogen Decline in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao-ping; Ding, Jie; Liu, Zhen-li; Song, Zhi-qian; Liu, Hong-ning

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) contain multi-interactive compounds that have been used for treatment of peri-menopausal syndrome and have become a new phytoestrogens resource. The QiBaoMeiRan formula (QBMR), including Polygoni Multiflori Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Semen Cuscutae, Fructus Lycii, Poria, and Fructus Psoraleae, has been used clinically for treating osteoporosis in post-menopausal women by virtue of its kidney-invigorating function. However, no evidence base links QBMR to estrogen replacement therapy. In this study, we undertook a characterization of estrogenic activity of QBMR using ovariectomized (OVX) rats. OVX rats were treated with QBMR at doses of 0.875, 1.75, and 3.5 grams/kg per day for 8 weeks. QBMR treatments demonstrated significant estrogenic activity, as indicated by vaginal cornification, reversal of atrophy of uterus, vagina, and mammary gland, and up-regulation of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression in the reproductive target tissues, where ERβ up-regulation was stronger than that of ERα. Meanwhile, treatment with QBMR significantly increased adrenal weight and serum estradiol levels and tended to decrease serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, QBMR significantly decreased weight gain and rectal temperature increase caused by ovariectomy, and the largest changes in rectal temperature were found at the lowest dose. The data suggest that QBMR's estrogenic responses show tissue variation that reflects different affinities of ERs for QBMR components. This study demonstrates that QBMR activity is mediated through estrogenic components and provides an evidence base for QBMR treatment of post-menopausal symptoms. PMID:24773352

  17. Treatment with qibaomeiran, a kidney-invigorating Chinese herbal formula, antagonizes estrogen decline in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Ma, Xiao-ping; Ding, Jie; Liu, Zhen-li; Song, Zhi-qian; Liu, Hong-ning; Lin, Na

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) contain multi-interactive compounds that have been used for treatment of peri-menopausal syndrome and have become a new phytoestrogens resource. The QiBaoMeiRan formula (QBMR), including Polygoni multiflori radix, Angelicae sinensis radix, Achyranthis bidentatae radix, semen Cuscutae, fructus Lycii, Poria, and fructus Psoraleae, has been used clinically for treating osteoporosis in post-menopausal women by virtue of its kidney-invigorating function. However, no evidence base links QBMR to estrogen replacement therapy. In this study, we undertook a characterization of estrogenic activity of QBMR using ovariectomized (OVX) rats. OVX rats were treated with QBMR at doses of 0.875, 1.75, and 3.5 grams/kg per day for 8 weeks. QBMR treatments demonstrated significant estrogenic activity, as indicated by vaginal cornification, reversal of atrophy of uterus, vagina, and mammary gland, and up-regulation of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression in the reproductive target tissues, where ERβ up-regulation was stronger than that of ERα. Meanwhile, treatment with QBMR significantly increased adrenal weight and serum estradiol levels and tended to decrease serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, QBMR significantly decreased weight gain and rectal temperature increase caused by ovariectomy, and the largest changes in rectal temperature were found at the lowest dose. The data suggest that QBMR's estrogenic responses show tissue variation that reflects different affinities of ERs for QBMR components. This study demonstrates that QBMR activity is mediated through estrogenic components and provides an evidence base for QBMR treatment of post-menopausal symptoms.

  18. [Acupoint selection and medication rules analysis for allergic rhinitis treated with acupoint application-based on data mining technology].

    PubMed

    Han, Dongyue; Liu, Chang; Qie, Lili; Wang, Fuchun; Wang Zhaohui

    2015-11-01

    To make a systematic study on acupoints selection and medication rules for allergic rhinitis treated with acupoint application, literature regarding clinical researches on acupoint application for allergic rhinitis since 2000 has been retrieved; medication and acupoints involved were preprocessed and cluster analysis technique was applied to classify the data. As a result, a total of 37 pieces of literature were included, involving 27 types of herbs and 33 acupoints. The results showed Baijiezi (Brassica alba Boiss), Xixin (Radix et Rhizoma Asari), Gansui (Radix Kansui), Yanhusuo (Corydalis), Jiangzhi (Ginger juice) and Baizhi (Radix angelicae) constituted the main herb prescription, and the layer was increased along with frequency of use. Feishu (BL 13), Dazhui (GV 14), Shenshu (BL 23), Pishu (BL 20), Gaohuang (BL 43), Fengmen (BL 12) constituted the main acupoint prescription, which were clustered into 4 classes; Feishu (BL 13) and Dazhui (GV 14) constituted the first class; Pishu (BL 20) and Shenshu (BL 23) constituted the second class; the first and second class merged into the third class, Including Feishu (BL 13), Dazhui (GV 14), Shenshu (BL 23) and Pishu (BL 20); Gaohuang (BL 43) and Fengmen (BL 12) constituted the fourth class; the fourth class and the third class constituted the whole acupoint prescription. It was showed that for the allergic rhinitis treated with acupoint application, the medication was mainly epispastic herbs with pungent nature that belonged to the lung, spleen and kidney meridian, which presented the principle of simultaneous treatment of principal and subordinate symptoms; also the medication can be selected from core layer to supporting layer based on clinical needs; for the selection of acupoints, acupoints in lung and bladder meridian were mainly selected to assist exterior and resist the pathogenic qi, which could treat allergic rhinitis fundamentally by joint use with acupoints in soleen and kidney meridian.

  19. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of 32 Chemical Ingredients of a Chinese Patented Drug Sanhuang Tablet.

    PubMed

    Fung, Hau-Yee; Lang, Yan; Ho, Hing-Man; Wong, Tin-Long; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Han, Quan-Bin

    2017-01-12

    Sanhuang Tablet (SHT) is a Chinese patented drug commonly used for the treatment of inflammations of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. It contains a special medicinal composition including the single compound berberine hydrochloride, extracts of Scutellariae Radix and Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, as well as the powder of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. Despite advances in analytical techniques, quantitative evaluation of a Chinese patented drug like SHT remains a challenge due to the complexity of its chemical profile. In this study, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was used to simultaneously quantify 29 non-sugar small molecule components of SHT (11 flavonoids, two isoflavonoids, one flavanone, five anthraquinones, two dianthranones, five alkaloids, two organic acids and one stilbene). Three major saccharide components, namely fructose, glucose, and sucrose, were also quantitatively determined using high performance liquid chromatography-charged aerosol detector (HPLC-CAD) on an Asahipak NH₂P-50 4E amino column. The established methods were validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and stability, and then successfully applied to analyze 27 batches of commercial SHT products. A total of up to 57.61% (w/w) of SHT could be quantified, in which the contents of the determined non-saccharide small molecules varied from 5.91% to 16.83% (w/w) and three saccharides accounted for 4.41% to 48.05% (w/w). The results showed that the quality of the commercial products was inconsistent, and only four of those met Chinese Pharmacopoeia criteria.

  20. Neuroprotective effect of the active components of three Chinese herbs on brain iron load in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    DONG, XIAN-HUI; GAO, WEI-JUAN; KONG, WEI-NA; XIE, HONG-LIN; PENG, YAN; SHAO, TIE-MEI; YU, WEN-GUO; CHAI, XI-QING

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder and the most common cause of dementia. New treatments for AD are required due to its increasing prevalence in aging populations. The present study evaluated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on learning and memory impairment, β-amyloid (Aβ) reduction and brain iron load in an APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Increasing evidence indicates that a disturbance of normal iron homeostasis may contribute to the pathology of AD. However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in abnormal iron load in the AD brain remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that the brain iron load is influenced by the deregulation of certain proteins associated with brain iron metabolism, including divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1). The present study investigated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on the expression levels of DMT1 and FPN1. The treatment with the active components reduced cognitive deficits, inhibited Aβ plaque accumulation, reversed Aβ burden and reduced the brain iron load in AD model mice. A significant increase was observed in the levels of DMT1-iron-responsive element (IRE) and DMT1-nonIRE in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain, which was reduced by treatment with the active components. In addition, the levels of FPN1 were significantly reduced in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain compared with those of control mice, and these levels were increased following treatment with the active components. Thus, the present study indicated that the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae may exert a neuroprotective effect against AD by reducing iron overload in the AD brain and may provide a novel approach for the development of drugs for the treatment of AD. PMID:25780429

  1. Fine Root Mortality Rates in a Temperate Forest: Estimates using Radiocarbon Data and Numerical Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, William J.; Gaudinski, Julia B.; Torn, Margaret S.; JoslinJr., John D.; Hanson, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Carbon (C) fluxes through roots are the most uncertain of all C exchanges between the atmosphere, plants, and soil. Yet the three dominant methods to characterize root C fluxes (minirhizotron, sequential coring, and isotopes) yield significantly different estimates of temperate forest root mortality turnover times. We contend that these discrepancies result from limitations in interpreting these very distinct types of observations. In this study we used a whole-ecosystem 14C label to develop, parameterize, and test a model (Radix1.0) of fine-root mortality and decomposition. Radix simulates two live roots pools (one with structural and non-structural C components), two dead root pools, non-normally distributed root mortality turnover times, a stored C pool, seasonal growth and respiration patterns, a best-fit to measurements approach to estimate model parameters, and Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. We applied Radix at a temperate forest in Oak Ridge Tennessee using 14C measurements from two root size classes (<0.5 mm and 0.5−2.0 mm) and three soil depth increments (O horizon, 0−15, and 30−60 cm). Predicted root lifetimes were 0.1-0.9 y and 11-14 y for fast and slow live root pools respectively, and 0.1-4 y and 11-14 y for fast and slow dead root pool decomposition turnover times, respectively. We estimated that C fluxes through fine roots <2 mm diameter are ~40, 220, and 90 g C m-2 y 1 in the O horizon, 0−15 cm, and 30−60 cm depth intervals, respectively. We conclude that accurate characterization of C flows through fine roots required a model with two live fine-root pools, two dead fine-root pools, and root respiration. Further, root turnover times on the order of a decade imply different response times in biomass and growth than are currently predicted by models with a single annual turnover pool.

  2. Environment parameters and basic functions for floating-point computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. S.; Feldman, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    A language-independent proposal for environment parameters and basic functions for floating-point computation is presented. Basic functions are proposed to analyze, synthesize, and scale floating-point numbers. The model provides a small set of parameters and a small set of axioms along with sharp measures of roundoff error. The parameters and functions can be used to write portable and robust codes that deal intimately with the floating-point representation. Subject to underflow and overflow constraints, a number can be scaled by a power of the floating-point radix inexpensively and without loss of precision. A specific representation for FORTRAN is included.

  3. Defining the IEEE-854 floating-point standard in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.

    1995-01-01

    A significant portion of the ANSI/IEEE-854 Standard for Radix-Independent Floating-Point Arithmetic is defined in PVS (Prototype Verification System). Since IEEE-854 is a generalization of the ANSI/IEEE-754 Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, the definition of IEEE-854 in PVS also formally defines much of IEEE-754. This collection of PVS theories provides a basis for machine checked verification of floating-point systems. This formal definition illustrates that formal specification techniques are sufficiently advanced that is is reasonable to consider their use in the development of future standards.

  4. Optical linear algebra processors - Architectures and algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the component design and optical configuration features of a generic optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) architecture, as well as the large number of OLAP architectures, number representations, algorithms and applications encountered in current literature. Number-representation issues associated with bipolar and complex-valued data representations, high-accuracy (including floating point) performance, and the base or radix to be employed, are discussed, together with case studies on a space-integrating frequency-multiplexed architecture and a hybrid space-integrating and time-integrating multichannel architecture.

  5. Antidiabetic coumarin and cyclitol compounds from Peucedanum japonicum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ok; Choi, Sang Zin; Lee, Jong Hwa; Chung, Sung Hyun; Park, Sang Hyun; Kang, Hee Chol; Yang, Eun Young; Cho, Hi Jae; Lee, Kang Ro

    2004-12-01

    The antidiabetic activity-guided fractionation and isolation of the 80% EtOH extracts from Peucedani Radix (Peucedanum japonicum, Umbelliferae) led to the isolation and characterization of a coumarin and a cyclitol as active principles, that is, peucedanol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and myo-inositol (2). Their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 showed 39% inhibition of postprandial hyperglycemia at 5.8 mg/kg dose, and compound 2 also significantly inhibited postprandial hyperglycemia by 34% (P<0.05).

  6. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the tiger.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Hayakawa, Daisuke; Chen, Huayue; Shoumura, Shizuko

    2004-08-01

    The dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) was examined by macroscopical and scanning electron microscopical observations. Filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae were observed. The filiform papillae were distributed over the entire dosal surface of the tongue. The fungiform papillae were present rounded bodies, and more densely distributed on the lingual apex. There were 4 vallate papillae in total on borderline between the lingual body and lingual radix. Each papilla was surrounded by a groove. No foliate papillae were seen on the dorsal surface. Openings of the glandular ducts on the regions of the vallate papillae were found.

  7. Validated HPTLC methods for the determination of salicin in Salix sp. and of harpagoside in Harpagophytum [corrected] procumbens.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Steffen; Ureña, Abraham; Reich, Eike; Merfort, Irmgard

    2008-11-04

    Preparations of Harpagophytum procumbens and of Salix species are successfully used for the treatment of degenerative rheumatism and painful arthrosis. For the quality control of both drugs, rapid methods of quantification are desirable. Here we report the development of two HPTLC methods enabling the determination of harpagoside in Harpagophyti radix and of salicin in Salicis cortex. We focused on a standardized methodology and thorough validation including two laboratories. The methods allow the analyses of up to 16 samples in parallel demonstrating the proposed methods as very rapid and cost efficient.

  8. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  9. Aggressively Parallel Algorithms of Collision and Nearest Neighbor Detection for GPU Planetesimal Disk Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillen, Alice C.; Moore, A.

    2008-09-01

    Planetesimal and dust dynamical simulations require collision and nearest neighbor detection. A brute force implementation for sorting interparticle distances requires O(N2) computations for N particles, limiting the numbers of particles that have been simulated. Parallel algorithms recently developed for the GPU (graphics processing unit), such as the radix sort, can run as fast as O(N) and sort distances between a million particles in a few hundred milliseconds. We introduce improvements in collision and nearest neighbor detection algorithms and how we have incorporated them into our efficient parallel 2nd order democratic heliocentric method symplectic integrator written in NVIDIA's CUDA for the GPU.

  10. A 8.9-ENOB 2.5-εW 150-KS/s non-binary redundant successive approximation ADC in 0.18-microm CMOS for bio-implanted devices.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kok Lim; Lee, Andreas Astuti; Yuan, Xiaojun; Krishna, Kotlanka R; Je, Minkyu

    2010-01-01

    A successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) with a split-capacitor switching scheme implementing the generalized non-binary redundant SAR algorithm and an energy efficient level shifter is proposed for bio-implanted applications. The generalized non-binary redundant SAR algorithm removes the radix constraint in conventional non-binary redundant SAR algorithm, and the energy efficient level shifter allows optimal power supplies to be chosen independently for the analog and digital blocks. A FOM of 34.7fJ/step has been achieved.

  11. [Contention on the theory of processing techniques of Chinese materia medica in the Ming-Qing period].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Jia, Tianzhu

    2015-03-01

    On the basis of the golden stage of development of processing techniques of medicinals in the Song dynasty, the theory and techniques of processing in the Ming-Qing dynasties developed and accomplished further. The knowledge of some physicians on the processing of common medicinal, such as Radix rehmannia and Radixophiopogonis, was questioned, with new idea of processing methods put forward and argued against those insisting traditional ones, marking the progress of the art of processing. By reviewing the contention of technical theory of medicinal processing in the Ming-Qing period, useful references can be provided for the inheritance and development of the traditional art of processing medicinals.

  12. Negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlee, C.; Casasent, D.

    1986-01-01

    In the digital multiplication by analog convolution algorithm, the bits of two encoded numbers are convolved to form the product of the two numbers in mixed binary representation; this output can be easily converted to binary. Attention is presently given to negative base encoding, treating base -2 initially, and then showing that the negative base system can be readily extended to any radix. In general, negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors represents a more efficient technique than either sign magnitude or 2's complement encoding, when the additions of digitally encoded products are performed in parallel.

  13. Seasonal dynamics of microzooplankton in the São Sebastião Channel (SP, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M; Björnberg, T K S

    2006-02-01

    The qualitative composition, numerical abundance and seasonal distribution of microzooplankton in the São Sebastião Channel were studied in different seasonal periods. Data are presented for 43 Protozoa, 4 rotifer and 30 copepod nauplii specimens. Tintinnids represented the most abundant group within the microzooplankton community, with 31 species recorded, among which Amphorellopsis acuta, Codonellopsis morchella, Eutintinnus tenuis, Favella ehrenbergii, Leprotintinnus nodqvisti, Tintinnopsis buetschlil, T. lobiancoi and T. radix stood out, followed in abundance by copepod nauplii. Our findings indicated that water masses play a fundamental role in the seasonal composition of microzooplankton assemblages in the São Sebastião Channel.

  14. Harmonic reduction in capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers by gap feedback linearization.

    PubMed

    Satir, Sarp; Degertekin, F Levent

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear relationship between the electrical input signal and electrostatic force acting on the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) membrane limits its harmonic imaging performance. Several input shaping methods were proposed to compensate for the nonlinearity originating from the electrostatic force's dependence on the square of the applied voltage. Here, we analyze harmonic generation in CMUTs with a time-domain model. The model explains the basis of the input shaping methods and suggests that the nonlinearity resulting from gap dependence of the electrostatic force is also significant. It also suggests that the harmonic distortion in the output pressure can be eliminated by subharmonic ac-only excitation of the CMUT in addition to scaling the input voltage with the instantaneous gap. This gap feedback configuration can be approximated by the simple addition of a series impedance to the CMUT capacitance. We analyze several types of series impedance feedback topologies for gap feedback linearization. We show that for subharmonic ac excitation, although resistive and capacitive impedances result in a trade-off between input voltage and harmonic distortion for a desired pressure output, harmonic generation can be suppressed while increasing the Pa/V transmit sensitivity for proper series inductance and resistance feedback. We experimentally demonstrate the feedback method by reducing harmonic generation by 10 dB for the same output pressure at the fundamental frequency by using a simple series resistor feedback with a CMUT operating at a center frequency of 3 MHz. The proposed methods also allow for utilization of the full CMUT gap for transmit operation and, hence, should be useful in high-intensity ultrasonic applications in addition to harmonic imaging.

  15. MiRNA profiling provides insights on adverse effects of Cr(VI) in the midgut tissues of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Swati; Pandey, Ashutosh; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar

    2015-01-01

    Cr(VI), a well-known environmental chemical, is reported to cause various adverse effects on exposed organisms including genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Despite available information on the underlying mechanism of Cr(VI) induced toxicity, studies regarding toxicity modulation by epigenetic mechanisms are limited. It was therefore, hypothesized that the global miRNA profiling in Cr(VI) exposed Drosophila, a genetically tractable model organism, will provide information about mis-regulated miRNAs along with their targeted genes and relevant processes. Third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster (Oregon R(+)) were exposed to 5.0-20.0 μg/ml of Cr(VI) for 24 and 48 h. Following miRNA profile analysis on an Agilent platform, 28 of the 36 differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be significantly mis-regulated targeting major biological processes viz., DNA damage repair, oxidation-reduction processes, development and differentiation. Down-regulation of mus309 and mus312 under DNA repair, acon to oxidation-reduction and pyd to stress activated MAPK cascade respectively belonging to these gene ontology classes concurrent with up-regulation of dme-miR-314-3p, dme-miR-79-3p and dme-miR-12-5p confirm their functional involvement against Cr(VI) exposure. These findings assume significance since majority of the target genes in Drosophila have functional homologues in humans. The study further recommends Drosophila as a model to explore the role of miRNAs in xenobiotic induced toxicity.

  16. Arginine feeding modifies cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed Central

    De Nicola, L; Thomson, S C; Wead, L M; Brown, M R; Gabbai, F B

    1993-01-01

    Glycine (G) infusion causes renal vasodilation mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Cyclosporine A (CsA) nephrotoxicity is characterized by preglomerular vasoconstriction and decreased efferent arteriolar tone probably related to reduced NO and angiotensin II, respectively. L-Arginine (ARG) is a precursor to NO. To test the hypothesis that chronic CsA decreases renal NO activity, we compared the glomerular hemodynamic response to glycine infusion in rats after 8 d of CsA (30 mg/kg per d s.c.), CsA and ARG (1.6 g/kg per d p.o.) (A/CsA), and in two groups of pair-fed controls (CON, A/CON). Single nephron GFR (SNGFR), single nephron plasma flow (SNPF), glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure gradient (delta P), proximal tubular reabsorption (APR), and kidney tissue angiotensin II (AIIk) were measured before and during G. CsA was associated with baseline decrements in SNGFR, SNPF, delta P, and AIIk, and with a blunted hemodynamic response to G. In CON, ARG did not affect baseline hemodynamics or modify the response to G. In CsA, ARG decreased baseline preglomerular resistance and restored the glomerular hemodynamic response to G. G was associated with a significant increase in AIIk in both CON and CsA. These findings suggest that (a) CsA is associated with decreased AIIk, and (b) CsA may diminish NO activity within the kidney, and that this capacity may be partially restored by arginine feeding. PMID:8408638

  17. Methamphetamine treatment outcomes among gay men attending a LGBTI-specific treatment service in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lea, Toby; Kolstee, Johann; Lambert, Sarah; Ness, Ross; Hannan, Siobhan; Holt, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Gay and bisexual men (GBM) report higher rates of methamphetamine use compared to heterosexual men, and thus have a heightened risk of developing problems from their use. We examined treatment outcomes among GBM clients receiving outpatient counseling at a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI)-specific, harm reduction treatment service in Sydney, Australia. GBM receiving treatment for methamphetamine use from ACON's Substance Support Service between 2012-15 (n = 101) were interviewed at treatment commencement, and after 4 sessions (n = 60; follow-up 1) and 8 sessions (n = 32; follow-up 2). At each interview, clients completed measures of methamphetamine use and dependence, other substance use, injecting risk practices, psychological distress and quality of life. The median age of participants was 41 years and 56.4% identified as HIV-positive. Participants attended a median of 5 sessions and attended treatment for a median of 112 days. There was a significant reduction in the median days of methamphetamine use in the previous 4 weeks between baseline (4 days), follow-up 1 (2 days) and follow-up 2 (2 days; p = .001). There was a significant reduction in the proportion of participants reporting methamphetamine dependence between baseline (92.1%), follow-up 1 (78.3%) and follow-up 2 (71.9%, p < .001). There were also significant reductions in psychological distress (p < .001), and significant improvements in quality of life (p < .001). Clients showed reductions in methamphetamine use and improved psychosocial functioning over time, demonstrating the potential effectiveness of a LGBTI-specific treatment service.

  18. Multistate Memristive Tantalum Oxide Devices for Ternary Arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonjoo; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Siemon, Anne; Linn, Eike; Waser, Rainer; Rana, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Redox-based resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) offers excellent properties to implement future non-volatile memory arrays. Recently, the capability of two-state ReRAMs to implement Boolean logic functionality gained wide interest. Here, we report on seven-states Tantalum Oxide Devices, which enable the realization of an intrinsic modular arithmetic using a ternary number system. Modular arithmetic, a fundamental system for operating on numbers within the limit of a modulus, is known to mathematicians since the days of Euclid and finds applications in diverse areas ranging from e-commerce to musical notations. We demonstrate that multistate devices not only reduce the storage area consumption drastically, but also enable novel in-memory operations, such as computing using high-radix number systems, which could not be implemented using two-state devices. The use of high radix number system reduces the computational complexity by reducing the number of needed digits. Thus the number of calculation operations in an addition and the number of logic devices can be reduced. PMID:27834352

  19. Application of LC/MS and ICP/MS for establishing the fingerprint spectrum of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Gan-Lu-Yin.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Hsin; Lee, Ming-Chung; Chuang, Wu-Chang

    2006-01-01

    We developed a method to analyze the fingerprint spectrum qualitatively and quantitatively for the traditional Chinese herbal medicinal preparation Gan-Lu-Yin with HPLC combined with photodiode array detection, and MS, and to identify the preparation's 14 main components including baicalin, baicalein, oroxylin A-7-O-glucuronide, wogonin-7-O-glucuronide, wogonin, and oroxylin A in Radix Scutellariae; naringin and neohesperidin in Aurantii fructus; liquiritigenin, liquiritin, and glycyrrhizic acid in Radix Glycyrrhizae. In LC/UV assay, a Cosmosil 5C18-MS-II column was used as the stationary phase, and a gradient of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, ACN, and water as the elute solution. The UV detection wavelengths were 250 and 280 nm. In LC/MS assay, a gradient of phosphoric acid, ACN, and water was used as the elute solution, and electrospray positive ion mode ((+)-ESI) as the analytic mode. In order to explore the distribution of trace metal elements effectively in Gan-Lu-Yin, a microwave digestion method was used for sample treatment, and an inductively coupled plasma MS assay was used to analyze fingerprint spectra of the inorganic metals in Gan-Lu-Yin. Combined with fingerprint spectra of organic compounds by LC/UV and LC/MS, it was expected to provide effective quality control in the production of Gan-Lu-Yin.

  20. Chemical and biological assessment of Angelica herbal decoction: comparison of different preparations during historical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wendy Li; Zheng, Ken Yu-Zhong; Zhu, Kevin Yue; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Bi, Cathy Wen-Chuan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Du, Crystal Ying-Qing; Zhao, Kui-Jun; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-08-15

    The commonly used Angelica herbal decoction today is Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), which is a dietary supplement in treating menopausal irregularity in women, i.e. to nourish "Qi" and to enrich "Blood". According to historical record, many herbal decoctions were also named DBT, but the most popular formulation of DBT was written in Jin dynasty (1247 AD) of China, which contained Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) with a weight ratio of 5:1. However, at least two other Angelica herbal decoctions recorded as DBT were prescribed in Song (1155 AD) and Qing dynasties (1687 AD). Although AR and ASR are still the major components in the DBT herbal decoctions, they are slightly varied in the herb composition. In order to reveal the efficiency of different Angelica herbal decoctions, the chemical and biological properties of three DBT herbal extracts were compared. Significantly, the highest amounts of AR-derived astragaloside III, astragaloside IV, calycosin and formononetin and ASR-derived ferulic acid were found in DBT described in 1247 AD: this preparation showed stronger activities in osteogenic, estrogenic and erythropoetic effects than the other two DBT. The current results supported the difference of three DBT in chemical and biological properties, which could be a result of different herbal combinations. For the first time, this study supports the popularity of DBT described in 1247 AD.

  1. Metabonomic analysis of water extracts from different angelica roots by ¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pui Hei; Zhang, Wendy L; Lau, Chung-Ho; Cheung, Chi Yuen; Keun, Hector C; Tsim, Karl W K; Lam, Henry

    2014-03-20

    Angelica Radix, the roots of the genus Angelica, has been used for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicine in Eastern Asia. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia records more than 100 herbal formulae containing Angelica roots. There are two common sources of Angelica roots, Angelica sinensis from China and A. gigas from Korea. The two species of Angelica roots differ in their chemical compositions, pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy. ¹H-NMR metabolic profiling has recently emerged as a promising quality control method for food and herbal chemistry. We explored the use of ¹H-NMR metabolic profiling for the quality control of Angelica Radix. Unlike previous work, we performed the metabolic profiling on hot water extracts, so as to mimic the clinically relevant preparation method. Unsupervised principle component analyses of both the full spectral profile and a selection of targeted molecules revealed a clear differentiation of three types of Angelica roots. In addition, the levels of 13 common metabolites were measured. Statistically significant differences in the levels of glucose, fructose and threonine were found between different sources of Angelica. Ferulic acid, a marker commonly used to evaluate Angelica root, was detected in our samples, but the difference in ferulic acid levels between the samples was not statistically significant. Overall, we successfully applied ¹H-NMR metabolic profiling with water extraction to discriminate all three sources of Angelica roots, and obtained quantitative information of many common metabolites.

  2. Morphology of the lingual surface of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae in two species of Otariidae family by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We used tongues of two South American Otariidae species. The tongues were elongated and terminated in bifid apex and there was no median sulcus on the dorsal lingual surface. The most numerous type of lingual papilla was filiform in the South American fur seal (SASL) and entire dorsal lingual surface was covered by these filiform papillae but the dorsal surface of the tongue of the South American sea lion was covered by numerous polygonal projections, which were different in size. Fungiform papillae were detected in only SASL and they randomly distributed on the lingual apex and body, and some fungiform papillae were collected into twosome or threesome groups on the posterior part of the lingual body. Circumvallate papilla was found in the center of the lingual radix of South American sea lion. Thread-like conical papillae were common for both species and they located on the lingual radix. We determined that lingual surface morphology was completely different in each species, although they were members of the same family, Otariidae.

  3. Ferulic Acid Orchestrates Anti-Oxidative Properties of Danggui Buxue Tang, an Ancient Herbal Decoction: Elucidation by Chemical Knock-Out Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Amy G. W.; Huang, Vincent Y.; Wang, Huai Y.; Lin, Huang Q.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid, a phenolic acid derived mainly from a Chinese herb Angelica Sinensis Radix (ASR), was reported to reduce the formation of free radicals. Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction composing of Astragali Radix (AR) and ASR, has been utilized for more than 800 years in China having known anti-oxidative property. Ferulic acid is a major active ingredient in DBT; however, the role of ferulic acid within the herbal mixture has not been resolved. In order to elucidate the function of ferulic acid within this herbal decoction, a ferulic acid-depleted herbal decoction was created and named as DBTΔfa. The anti-oxidative properties of chemically modified DBT decoction were systemically compared in cultured H9C2 rat cardiomyoblast cell line. The application of DBT and DBTΔfa into the cultures showed functions in (i) decreasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, detected by laser confocal; (ii) increasing of the activation of Akt; (iii) increasing the transcriptional activity of anti-oxidant response element (ARE); and (iv) increasing the expressions of anti-oxidant enzymes, i.e. NQO1 and GCLM. In all scenario, the aforementioned anti-oxidative properties of DBTΔfa in H9C2 cells were significantly reduced, as compared to authentic DBT. Thus, ferulic acid could be an indispensable chemical in DBT to orchestrate multi-components of DBT as to achieve maximal anti-oxidative functions. PMID:27824860

  4. Evaluating the Bone Tissue Regeneration Capability of the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang from a Molecular Biology Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Kao, Shung-Te; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Large bone defects are a considerable challenge to reconstructive surgeons. Numerous traditional Chinese herbal medicines have been used to repair and regenerate bone tissue. This study investigated the bone regeneration potential of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese herbal decoction prepared from Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), from a molecular biology perspective. The optimal ratio of RA and RAS used in DBT for osteoblast culture was obtained by colorimetric and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays. Moreover, the optimal concentration of DBT for bone cell culture was also determined by colorimetric, ALP activity, nodule formation, Western blotting, wound-healing, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity assays. Consequently, the most appropriate weight ratio of RA to RAS for the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts was 5 : 1. Moreover, the most effective concentration of DBT was 1,000 μg/mL, which significantly increased the number of osteoblasts, intracellular ALP levels, and nodule numbers, while inhibiting osteoclast activity. Additionally, 1,000 μg/mL of DBT was able to stimulate p-ERK and p-JNK signal pathway. Therefore, DBT is highly promising for use in accelerating fracture healing in the middle or late healing periods. PMID:25295277

  5. Enhanced Bone Tissue Regeneration by Porous Gelatin Composites Loaded with the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Kao, Shung-Te; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Chen, Kuo-Yu; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a traditional Chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis. Pharmacological results indicate that DBT can stimulate bone cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of adding DBT to bone substitutes on bone regeneration following bone injury. DBT was incorporated into porous composites (GGT) made from genipin-crosslinked gelatin and β-triclacium phosphates as bone substitutes (GGTDBT). The biological response of mouse calvarial bone to these composites was evaluated by in vivo imaging systems (IVIS), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histology analysis. IVIS images revealed a stronger fluorescent signal in GGTDBT-treated defect than in GGT-treated defect at 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that the level of repair from week 4 to 8 increased from 42.1% to 71.2% at the sites treated with GGTDBT, while that increased from 33.2% to 54.1% at GGT-treated sites. These findings suggest that the GGTDBT stimulates the innate regenerative capacity of bone, supporting their use in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:26126113

  6. Smart Soup, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula, Ameliorates Amyloid Pathology and Related Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohang; Cui, Jin; Ding, Jianqing; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Xianglu; Ling, Yun; Shen, Xiaoheng; Chen, Shengdi; Huang, Chenggang; Pei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS), a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT), Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP) and Radix Polygalae (RP), is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease. PMID:25386946

  7. Pharmacological Activities and Applications of Spicatoside A

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Mahesh; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Liriopogons (Liriope and Opiopogon) species are used as a main medicinal ingredient in several Asian countries. The Liriopes Radix (tuber, root of Liriope platyphylla) has to be a promising candidate due to their source of phytochemicals. Steroidal saponins and their glycosides, phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites are considered of active constituents in Liriopes Radix. Spicatoside A, a steroidal saponin, could be more efficacious drug candidate in future. In this review, we summarized the available knowledge on phytochemical and pharmacological activities for spicatoside A. It significantly suppressed the level of NF-κB, NO, iNOS, Cox-2, IL-1β, IL-6 and MAPKs in LPS-stimulated inflammation. The production of MUC5AC mucin was increased. MMP-13 expression was down-regulated in IL-1β-treated cells and reduced glycosaminoglycan release from IL-1α-treated cells. The neurite outgrowth activity, PI3K, Akt, ERK1/2, TrkA and CREB phosphorylation and neurotropic factors such as NGF and BDNF were upregulated with increased latency time. It also showed cell growth inhibitory activity on various carcinoma cells. From this, spicatoside A exerts anti-inflammation, anti-asthma, anti-osteoclastogenesis, neurite outgrowth, memory consolidation and anticancer activities. Further studies are needed on spicatoside A in order to understand mechanisms of action to treat various human diseases. PMID:27169821

  8. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production by flavone and its related compounds.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Tadayoshi; Chiba, Hiroshige; Horie, Norio; Kato, Takao; Kobayashi, Masaki; Hashimoto, Ken; Kusama, Kaoru; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that among 12 major ingredients of Sairei-to, Scutellariae radix inhibited prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells more efficiently than other ingredients, and wogonin, a major flavonoid from Scutellariae radix, showed greater inhibitory activity and membrane permeability than baicalein and baicalin. Here the effects of six other flavonoids, with similar structures, on membrane permeability and PGE(2) production were investigated. 7-Methoxyflavone inhibited the LPS-stimulated PGE(2) production to the greatest extent, followed by flavone>wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone)> 7,8-dimethoxyflavone>chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone)> baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone)>chromone. 7-Methoxyflavone also showed the highest membrane permeability, followed by flavone>chrysin>7,8-dimethoxy-flavone>wogonin>baicalein. When PGE(2) inhibitory activity was expressed per molecule incorporated into the cells, wogonin produced the greatest inhibition, further substantiating its anti-inflammatory potency.

  9. Encapsulation of Aconitine in Self-Assembled Licorice Protein Nanoparticles Reduces the Toxicity In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Li-jing; Gao, Guan-zhen; Shen, Yong; Zhou, Jian-wu; Rao, Ping-fan

    2015-11-01

    Many herbal medicines and compositions are clinically effective but challenged by its safety risks, i.e., aconitine (AC) from aconite species. The combined use of Radix glycyrrhizae (licorice) with Radix aconite L. effectively eliminates toxicity of the later while increasing efficacy. In this study, a boiling-stable 31-kDa protein (namely GP) was purified from licorice and self-assembled into nanoparticles (206.2 ± 2.0 nm) at pH 5.0, 25 °C. The aconitine-encapsulated GP nanoparticles (238.2 ± 1.2 nm) were prepared following the same procedure and tested for its toxicity by intraperitoneal injection on ICR mouse ( n = 8). Injection of GP-AC nanoparticles and the mixed licorice-aconite decoction, respectively, caused mild recoverable toxic effects and no death, while the aconitine, particle-free GP-AC mixture and aconite decoction induced sever toxic effects and 100 % death. Encapsulation of poisonous alkaloids into self-assembled herbal protein nanoparticles contributes to toxicity attenuation of combined use of herbs, implying a prototype nanostructure and a universal principle for the safer clinical applications of herbal medicines.

  10. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities.

    PubMed

    Lam, Puiyan; Cheung, Fan; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Yuen, Man Fung; Feng, Yibin

    2016-03-29

    The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC) axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases.

  11. A per-pixel Log2ADC for high dynamic range, 1000FPS digital focal plane arrays (DFPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petilli, Eugene

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsix has developed a Digital Focal Plane Array (DFPA) architecture based on a novel piecewise linear Log2 ADC (LADC) with "lossless" analog compression which enables ultra-high dynamic range ROICs that use less power than other extended dynamic range technologies. The LADC provides dynamic range of 126dB with a constant 75dB SNR over the entire frame. The companding 13bit mantissa, 3bit radix per pixel LADCs compress the 21bit signals into efficient 16 bit data words. The Read Out IC (ROIC) is compatible with most IR and LWIR detectors including two-color SLS (photodiode) and uBolometers. The DFPA architecture leverages two (staggered frame prime and redundant) MIPI CSI-3 interfaces to achieve full HD DFPA at 1000 frames/sec; an equivalent uncompressed data rate of 100Gb/sec. The LADC uses direct injection into a moderate sized integrating capacitor and several comparators create a stream of multi-bit data values. These values are accumulated in an SRAM based log2ALU and the radix of the ALU is combined with the data to generate a feedback current to the integrating capacitor, closing the delta loop. The integration time and a single pole low pass IIR filter are configurable using control signals to the log2ALU. The feedback current is at least partially generated using PWM for high linearity.

  12. Interaction of Some Commercial Teas with Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes Linked with Type-2 Diabetes: A Dietary Intervention in the Prevention of Type-2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ogunruku, Omodesola O.; Ogidiolu, Funke O.; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Adedayo, Bukola C.; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the inhibitory effect of teas on key enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) linked with type-2 diabetes and their antioxidant properties. Four samples of three brands were used; infusions of green tea (GT), 2 brands of black tea (BT), and a formulated herbal preparation for diabetes (ADT) (white tea, Radix Puerariae, Radix ophiopogonis, hawthorn berry, Chinese yam, and fragrant Solomon seal rhizome) were prepared and subsequently analyzed for their total phenol, ascorbic acid contents, antioxidant properties (2,2-Azizobis (3-Ethylbenzo-Thiazoline~6-sulfonate) “ABTS” scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property), and inhibition of pancreatic-α-amylase and intestinal-α-glucosidase in vitro. The study revealed that GT had the highest total phenol content, ascorbic acid content, ABTS∗ scavenging ability, and ferric reducing ability. Furthermore, all the teas inhibited Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in pancreas, with GT having the highest inhibitory effect. Conversely, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the inhibitory effects of the teas on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The antidiabetic property of the teas could be attributed to their inhibitory effect on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes implicated in diabetes and their antioxidant activities. PMID:24527218

  13. LTE turbo decoder design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Yang; Tianchun, Ye; Bin, Wu; Ruiqi, Zhang

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a turbo decoder supporting all 188 block sizes in 3GPP long term evolution (LTE) standard which can be employed in the LTE micro-eNodB system. The design allows 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 soft-in/soft-out (SISO) decoders to concurrently process each block size, and the number of iterations can be adjusted. By adding a register in core structure add-compare-select-add, this article proposes an improved SISO algorithm and interleaving design, calculated forward state matrix and backward state matrix alternately, and the branch transition probability can be used in the Turbo decode process directly just after one clock delay. The structure enables a decoder processing radix-2 algorithm with high speed, instead of radix-4 as the conventional decoder. Moreover, the paper details an interleaver/de-interleaver, which is combined by two operational steps. One is column address mapping and the other is intra-row permutation. Decoder realizes interleaving by loading data from memories whose address is generated by column mapping and then lets data passing through inter-row permutation. For de-interleaving, the system can adopt reverse operation. Project supported by the LTE-Advanced User Equipment Software Baseband Technology Major Project of China (No. 2013ZX0300315001).

  14. Interactions of the baicalin and baicalein with bilayer lipid membranes investigated by cyclic voltammetry and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xuejing; Wang, Lei; Yu, Miao; Han, Xiaojun

    2014-02-01

    The baicalin and baicalein are the major flavonoids found in Radix Scutellariae, an essential herb in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. The interactions of the baicalin and baicalein with lipid bilayer membranes were studied using cyclic voltammetry and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The thickness d of supported bilayer lipid membranes was calculated as d=4.59(±0.36) nm using AC impedance spectroscopy. The baicalein interacted with egg PC bilayer membranes in a dose-dependent manner. The responses of K3Fe(CN)6 on lipid bilayer membrane modified Pt electrode linearly increased in a concentration range of baicalein from 6.25μM to 25μM with a detection limit of 0.1μM and current-concentration sensitivity of 0.11(±0.01) μA/μM, and then reached a plateau from 25μM to 50μM. However the baicalin showed much weaker interactions with egg PC bilayer membranes. UV-Vis spectroscopy also confirmed that the baicalein could interact with egg PC membranes noticeably, but the interaction of baicalin with membranes was hard to be detected. The results provide useful information on understanding the mechanism of action of Radix Scutellariae in vivo.

  15. Systematic Review on the Efficacy and Safety of Herbal Medicines for Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Man, Sui Cheung; Chan, Kam Wa; Lu, Jia-Hong; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Liu, Liang-Feng; Li, Min

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematic review of existing research that aims to assess the efficacy and safety of herbal medications (HM), as either monotherapy or adjunct to orthodox medications (OM), mainly comprised of cholinesterase inhibitors, for vascular dementia (VaD). We included 47 studies conducted in mainland China, each testing different HM. Of 43 HM monotherapy studies, 37 reported HM to be significantly better than OM or placebo; six reported similar efficacy between HM and OM. All four HM adjuvant studies reported significant efficacy. No major adverse events for HM were reported. Heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria, interventions and outcome measures hindered comprehensive data analysis. Studies suggested that HM can be a safe and effective treatment for VaD, either alone or in conjunction with OM. However, methodological flaws in the design of the studies limited the extent to which the results could be interpreted. Thirty most commonly used herbal constituents, including Rhizoma Chuanxiong (Chuanxiong in Chinese), Radix Polygoni Multiflori (Heshouwu in Chinese) and Radix Astragali (Huangqi in Chinese). were ranked. Further multi-center trials with large sample sizes, high methodological quality and standardized HM ingredients are necessary for clinical recommendations to be made. PMID:22235231

  16. HemoHIM enhances the therapeutic efficacy of ionizing radiation treatment in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Ju, Eun-Jin; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2010-02-01

    Although radiotherapy is commonly used for a variety of cancers, radiotherapy alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. In this study, we examined the possibility that HemoHIM can enhance the anticancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR) in melanoma-bearing mice. The HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs-Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma, and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice exposed to IR. IR treatment (5 Gy at 7 days after melanoma cell injection) reduced the weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with IR enhanced the decreases in tumor weight (P < .03). In the melanoma-bearing mice treated with IR, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, although the proportions of these cells in spleen were not different. In addition, HemoHIM administration increased the interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion from lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice treated with IR. In conclusion, HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during radiotherapy for enhancing the antitumor efficacy.

  17. Restoration of the immune functions in aged mice by supplementation with a new herbal composition, HemoHIM.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a new herbal composition, HemoHIM, on immune functions was examined in aged mice, in which various immune responses had been impaired. The composition HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Supplementation to the aged mice with HemoHIM restored the proliferative response and cytokine production of splenocytes with a response to ConA. Also, HemoHIM recovered the NK cell activity which had been impaired in the aged mice. Meanwhile aging is known to reduce the Th1-like function, but not the Th2-like function, resulting in a Th1/Th2 imbalance. HemoHIM restored the Th1/Th2 balance in the aged mice through enhanced IFN-gamma and IgG2a production, and conversely a reduced IL-4 and IgG1 production. It was found that one factor for the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the aged mice was a lower production of IL-12p70. However, HemoHIM restored the IL-12p70 production in the aged mice. These results suggested that HemoHIM was effective for the restoration of impaired immune functions of the aged mice and therefore could be a good recommendation for immune restoration in elderly humans.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of multiple components for quality control of Deng-Zhan-Sheng-Mai capsules by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method coupled with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pin; Lu, Yan; Chen, Daofeng

    2017-02-01

    Deng-Zhan-Sheng-Mai capsules are a well-known traditional Chinese patent medicine that was developed in China for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Its quality control focuses on Erigerontis Herba but ignores the contributions of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, and Ophiopogonis Radix. To improve the quality standards for this medicine, this work reports the application of a systematic ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method coupled with chemometrics. Three qualitative and quantitative parameters are established for the evaluation of quality: chemical profiling, the relationship between the contents of 18 compounds and the antioxidant activity, and chemometric analysis. A total of 55 compounds, including 20 phenolic acids, 10 flavonoids, 15 saponins, and 10 lignans, were identified. The method for the quantitative determination of the aforementioned 18 compounds was validated. The limit of quantification ranged from 0.13 to 9.60 ng/mL. The overall recoveries ranged from 95.31 to 103.54%. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were applied to the data of 18 components in ten batches of samples. Nine compounds, including scutellarin, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rg1, ophiopogonin D, schisandrin, and schisandrol B, are suggested as chemical markers for evaluating the quality.

  19. UPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based metabolomic studies on the toxicity mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine Chuanwu and the detoxification mechanisms of Gancao, Baishao, and Ganjiang.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Yan, Guang-Li; Han, Ying; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Li, Xian-Na; Wang, Xi-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chuanwu (CW), a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the mother roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx.. (Ranunculaceae), has been used for the treatment of various diseases. Unfortunately, its toxicity is frequently reported because of its narrow therapeutic window. In the present study, a metabolomic method was performed to characterize the phenotypically biochemical perturbations and potential mechanisms of CW-induced toxicity. Meanwhile, the expression level of toxicity biomarkers in the urine were analyzed to evaluate the detoxification by combination with Gancao (Radix Glyeyrrhizae, CG), Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba, CS) and Ganjiang (Rhizoma Zingiberis, CJ), which were screened from classical TCM prescriptions. Urinary metabolomics was performed by UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS, and the mass spectra signals of the detected metabolites were systematically analyzed using pattern recognition methods. As a result, seventeen biomarkers associated with CW toxicity were identified, which were associated with pentose and glucuronate interconversions, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, among others. The expression levels of most toxicity biomarkers were effectively modulated towards the normal range by the compatibility drugs. It indicated that the three compatibility drugs could effectively detoxify CW. In summary, our work demonstrated that metabolomics was vitally significant to evaluation of toxicity and finding detoxification methods for TCM.

  20. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Puiyan; Cheung, Fan; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Yuen, Man Fung; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC) axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases. PMID:27043533

  1. Characterization of the Principal Constituents of Danning Tablets, a Chinese Formula Consisting of Seven Herbs, by an UPLC-DAD-MS/MS Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Changsen; Xiong, Aizhen; Shen, Danping; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-05-14

    Danning Tablets are a traditional Chinese formula showing broad clinical applications in hepatobiliary diseases and containing a diversity of bioactive chemicals. However, the chemical profiling of the formula, which serves as the material foundation of its efficacy, is really a big challenge as Danning Tablets consist of seven herbs from different origins. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) approach was developed to characterize the principal polyphenol constituents in the formula. As a result, a total of 32 constituents, including 14 anthraquinones and their glucosides, four anthrones, two naphthalene glycosides, two stilbenes and 10 flavonoids were identified based on their retention time, UV absorption and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. The sources of these compounds were also illustrated. Most of the bioactive anthraquinone derivatives were found in Rhei Radix et Rhizoma or Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix, which are the Emperor drugs in the formula for its clinic usage. These findings indicate the merit of using this integrated UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS approach to rapidly illustrate the chemical foundation of complex formulas. The present study will facilitate the quality control of Danning Tablet formulas as well as the individual herbs.

  2. Yu Ping Feng San reverses cisplatin-induced multi-drug resistance in lung cancer cells via regulating drug transporters and p62/TRAF6 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jian-Shu; Yan, Lu; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Chan, Gallant K. L.; Wu, Qi-Yun; Liu, Yun-Le; Huang, Yun; Yao, Ping; Du, Crystal Y. Q.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2016-01-01

    Yu Ping Feng San (YPFS), an ancient Chinese herbal decoction composed of Astragali Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Saposhnikoviae Radix, has been used in the clinic for treating immune deficiency. In cancer therapy, YPFS is being combined with chemotherapy drugs to achieve improved efficacy; however, scientific evidence to illustrate this combination effect is lacking. The present study aims to demonstrate the anti-drug resistance of YPFS in cisplatin (DDP)-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549/DDP). The application of YPFS exhibited a synergistic enhancement of DDP-induced cytotoxicity as well as of the apoptotic signalling molecules. DDP-induced expression of the multi-drug-resistance efflux transporters was markedly reduced in the presence of YPFS, resulting in a higher intracellular concentration of DDP. In addition, the application of YPFS increased DDP-induced ROS accumulation and MMP depletion, decreased p62/TRAF6 signalling in DDP-treated A549/DDP cells. The co-treatment of DDP and YPFS in tumour-bearing mice reduced the tumour size robustly (by more than 80%), which was much better than the effect of DDP alone. These results indicate that YPFS can notably improve the DDP-suppressed cancer effect, which may be a consequence of the elevation of intracellular DDP via the drug transporters as well as the down regulation of p62/TRAF6 signalling. PMID:27558312

  3. Determination of the effectiveness of components of the herbal medicine Toki-Shakuyaku-San and fractions of Angelica acutiloba in improving the scopolamine-induced impairment of rat's spatial cognition in eight-armed radial maze test.

    PubMed

    Hatip-Al-Khatib, Izzettin; Egashira, Nobuaki; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Iwasaki, Kiyo; Kurauchi, Kouji; Inui, Keiichiro; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2004-09-01

    The improving effects of various components of Toki-Shakuyaku-San (TSS) and fractions isolated from Angelica acutiloba Radix (Toki) on scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment were investigated in eight-armed radial maze. The scopolamine-induced memory impairment was characterized by prominent increase of error choices in addition to decreased correct choices. Toki, Cnidium officinale Rhizoma (Senkyu), Poria cocos Hoelen (Bukuryo), Alisma orientale Rhizoma (Takusha), and Atractylodes lancea Rhizoma (Sojutsu) increased the correct choices, while only the Toki, Sojutsu, and Takusha decreased the error choices. No effect was produced by Paeonia lactiflora Radix (Shakuyaku). Investigation of effects of fractions isolated from Toki revealed that its activity mainly resided in the butanol layer and its contents of N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide and amines. Moreover, the alkaloid, internal and external solutions (containing poly-, di-, and monosaccharides) obtained by dialysis with Visking cellophane tubing also improved the memory. However, no improving properties were detected for methanol and hexanol layers, L-(-)-tryptophan, L-arginine, L-(-)-lysine, and choline chloride. The results showed that the TSS components could improve the reference and working memory impaired by scopolamine. The improving effect of TSS is produced greatly by the Toki component, the activity of which was greatly produced by the fraction extracted by butanol.

  4. Comparative Morphology of the Papillae Linguales and their Connective Tissue Cores in the Tongue of the Greater Japanese Shrew-mole, Urotrichus talpoides

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, K; Shindo, J; Kageyama, I

    2013-01-01

    The external morphology of the papillae linguales (papillae filiformes, papillae fungiformes and papillae vallatae) and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) of the greater Japanese shrew-mole (Urotrichus talpoides) were analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Papillae filiformes were distributed over the dorsal surface of the apex linguae, and on the rostral and caudal regions of the corpus linguae but were less numerous in the mid-region. They were absent from the radix linguae. A pair of oval papillae vallatae was situated at the border between the corpus linguae and the radix linguae. Papillae foliatae were absent. The epithelial surface of each papilla filiformis consisted of a circular concavity, a ring-like wall and either a single thumb-like process or 2–3 slender pointed processes, depending on their location. The morphology of the CTCs of the papillae filiformes also varied regionally. The papillae linguales of the Japanese shrew-mole were morphologically similar to those of other Talpidae and Soricidae, including the common shrew, particularly with respect to the papillae filiformes in the mid- and caudal regions of the corpus linguae. PMID:22571539

  5. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunfei; Han, Mingnuan; Lin, Pei; He, Yanran; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Ronghua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR) has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP). Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), β-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00%) than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%). However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression. PMID:26294926

  6. A Case of Metastatic Bladder Cancer in Both Lungs Treated with Korean Medicine Therapy Alone

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Seong, Shin; Woo, Chang-Ryoul; Han, Jae-Bok

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This case report is aimed to investigate the effects of Korean medicine therapy (KMT) including oral herbal medicine and herb nebulizer therapy in treating metastatic bladder cancer in the lungs. A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with metastatic bladder cancer in both lungs in August 2013. He refused any chemotherapy and was admitted to our hospital in a much progressed state on January 11, 2014. Since then, he was treated with KMT until May 17, 2014. The main oral herbal medicines were Hyunamdan made of heat-processed ginseng, Hangamdan S made of Cordyceps militaris, Panax ginseng radix, Commiphora myrrha, calculus bovis, margarita, Boswellia carteri, Panax notoginseng radix and Cremastra appendiculata tuber, and nebulizer therapy with Soram nebulizer solution made of wild ginseng and Cordyceps sinensis distillate. Their effect was evaluated considering the change of the main symptoms and using serial chest X-ray. The size and number of multiple metastatic nodules in both lungs were markedly decreased and the symptoms had disappeared. These results suggest that KMT can be an effective method to treat metastatic bladder cancer in the lungs. PMID:25232323

  7. [Analysis on formula raw materials application of health food containing Gardeniae fructus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-guang; Tang, Shi-huan; Jia, Qiang; Meng, Fan-yun

    2014-11-01

    In this article we built formula database of health food containing Gardeniae Fructus with Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System (V2.0). And on this basis, use data mining method such as association rules of the software, to analyze commonly used formula raw materials or materials combination of formula containing Gardeniae Fructus and raw material application having assisted function formula to protect chemical liver injury. The result shows that of the 71 health food formulas containing Gardeniae Fructus, most used materials are Gardeniae Fructus, Lycii Fructus, Angelica Sinensis Radix, Poria and so on. Commonly used materials combination mostly are Gardeniae Fructus and Lycii Fructus, Gardeniae Fructus and Angelica Sinensis Radix, Gardeniae Fructus and Poria, Gardeniae Fructus and Paeonia. There are nearly 18 healthcare functions of the health food containing Gardeniae Fructus, and most of these are assisted functions to protect chemical liver injury, and then immune modulating function. Of 23 formulas containing Gardeniae Fructus having assisted function formula to protect chemical liver injury, Gardeniae Fructus usually combined with traditional Chinese medicine which nourishs blood and liver such as Pueraria, Lycii Fructus, Hawthorn, Paeonia and Turnjujube. Analyzing formula raw materials application of health food containing Gardeniae Fructus contributes a lot to the further development and utilization.

  8. Antidepressant-like effects of auraptenol in mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaosu; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Xiaomei; Wang, Fen; Zhang, Cai-Yi; Du, Chenchen; Shen, Lihua; Chen, Xiang; Shi, Jiansheng; Liu, Chunfeng; Ke, Kaifu

    2014-03-24

    Depression is a major psychiatric disorder affecting nearly 21% of the world population and imposes a substantial health burden on society. Current available antidepressants are not adequate to meet the clinical needs. Here we report that auraptenol, an active component of the traditional Chinese medicine, angelicae dahuricae radix, had antidepressant-like effects in mice models of depression. In mouse forced swimming test and tail suspension test, two validated models of depression, auraptenol dose-dependently decreased the immobility duration within the dose range of 0.05-0.4 mg/kg. In addition, the antidepressant-like effects of auraptenol was significantly averted by a selective serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (1 mg/kg). These doses that affected the immobile response did not affect locomotor activity. In summary, this study for the first time identified an active component from the herbal medicine angelicae dahuricae radix that possesses robust antidepressant-like efficacy in mice. These data support further exploration for the possibility of developing auraptenol as a novel antidepressant agent in the treatment of major depression disorders.

  9. Scaling silicon photonic switch fabrics for data center interconnection networks.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Dessislava; Rumley, Sébastien; Calhoun, David; Li, Qi; Hendry, Robert; Samadi, Payman; Bergman, Keren

    2015-01-26

    With the rapidly increasing aggregate bandwidth requirements of data centers there is a growing interest in the insertion of optically interconnected networks with high-radix transparent optical switch fabrics. Silicon photonics is a particularly promising and applicable technology due to its small footprint, CMOS compatibility, high bandwidth density, and the potential for nanosecond scale dynamic connectivity. In this paper we analyze the feasibility of building silicon photonic microring based switch fabrics for data center scale optical interconnection networks. We evaluate the scalability of a microring based switch fabric for WDM signals. Critical parameters including crosstalk, insertion loss and switching speed are analyzed, and their sensitivity with respect to device parameters is examined. We show that optimization of physical layer parameters can reduce crosstalk and increase switch fabric scalability. Our analysis indicates that with current state-of-the-art devices, a high radix 128 × 128 silicon photonic single chip switch fabric with tolerable power penalty is feasible. The applicability of silicon photonic microrings for data center switching is further supported via review of microring operations and control demonstrations. The challenges and opportunities for this technology platform are discussed.

  10. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography for separation of a mixture of coptis alkaloids, scute flavonoids, and rhubarb anthraquinones and bianthrones.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lin-Chau; Sun, Shao-Wen

    2006-01-23

    Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, and Rhei Rhizoma are three common Chinese herbs. There are many herbal formulas which contain either two or all three of the herbs mentioned above. Their bioactive components have already been identified, respectively. However, there is no report about separation of the 13 bioactive constituents of the three herbs at the same time. In order to assess these constituents of related Chinese herbal preparations, a micellar electrokinetic chromatography method was developed. While buffer pH and surfactant concentration affected the resolution of separation, acetonitrile percentage was found to significantly influence the resolution, peak shape, and elution window. Optimum separation of 13 compounds was achieved at pH 7.3 using a buffer mixture of 70% (v/v) 3 mM di-sodium tetraborate, 10 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and 50 mM sodium deoxycholate with 30% (v/v) acetonitrile. When applying the developed method to analyze a model preparation, San-huang-xie-xin-tang, which contains all three herbs, 8 of the 13 bioactive constituents, could be determined. The present study proposed a method to assess San-huang-xie-xin-tang within short analysis time and also provided a possible starting point to evaluate related herbal preparations containing Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, and Rhei Rhizoma.

  11. The Profiling and Identification of the Absorbed Constituents and Metabolites of Guizhi Decoction in Rat Plasma and Urine by Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography Combined with Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hongjun; Zhang, Lishi; Song, Jiannan; Fan, Bin; Nie, Yinglan; Bai, Dong; Lei, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Guizhi decoction (GZD), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription consisting of Ramulus Cinnamomi, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Fructus Jujubae and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, is usually used for the treatment of common colds, influenza, and other pyretic conditions in the clinic. However, the absorbed ingredients and metabolic compounds of GZD have not been reported. In this paper, a method incorporating rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) was used to identify ingredients after oral administration of GZD. Identification of the primary components in GZD, drug-containing serum and urine samples was carried out in order to investigate the assimilation and metabolites of the decoction in vivo. By comparing the total ion chromatograms (TICs) of GZD, a total of 71 constituents were detected or characterized. By comparing TICs of blank and dosed rat plasma, a total of 15 constituents were detected and identified as prototypes according to their retention time (tR) and MS, MS/MS data. Based on this, neutral loss scans of 80 and 176 Da in samples of rat plasma and urine helped us to identify most of the metabolites. Results showed that the predominant metabolic pathways of (epi) catechin and gallic acid were sulfation, methylation, glucuronidation and dehydroxylation; the major metabolic pathways of flavone were hydrolysis, sulfation and glucuronidation. Furthermore, degradation, oxidation and ring fission were found to often occur in the metabolism process of GZD in vivo. PMID:27626411

  12. Myelophil ameliorates brain oxidative stress in mice subjected to restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Geug; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jong-Suk; Son, Seung-Wan; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2012-12-03

    We evaluated the pharmacological effects of Myelophil, a 30% ethanol extract of a mix of Astragali Radix and Salviae Radix, on oxidative stress-induced brain damage in mice caused by restraint stress. C57BL/6 male mice (eight weeks old) underwent daily oral administration of distilled water, Myelophil (25, 50, or 100mg/kg), or ascorbic acid (100mg/kg) 1h before induction of restraint stress, which involved 3h of immobilization per day for 21days. Nitric oxide levels, lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione redox system enzymes), and concentrations of adrenaline, corticosterone, and interferon-γ, were measured in brain tissues and/or sera. Restraint stress-induced increases in nitric oxide levels (serum and brain tissues) and lipid peroxidation (brain tissues) were significantly attenuated by Myelophil treatment. Restraint stress moderately lowered total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, glutathione content, and the activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase; all these responses were reversed by Myelophil. Myelophil significantly attenuated the elevated serum concentrations of adrenaline and corticosterone and restored serum and brain interferon-γ levels. Moreover, Myelophil normalized expression of the genes encoding monoamine oxidase A, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, which was up-regulated by restraint stress in brain tissues. These results suggest that Myelophil has pharmacological properties protects brain tissues against stress-associated oxidative stress damage, perhaps in part through regulation of stress hormones.

  13. Analysis of Polygala tenuifolia Transcriptome and Description of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Pathways by Illumina Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hongling; Xu, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Fusheng; Wang, Yaoqin; Guo, Shuhong; Qin, Xuemei; Du, Guanhua

    2015-01-01

    Radix polygalae, the dried roots of Polygala tenuifolia and P. sibirica, is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Radix polygalae contains various saponins, xanthones, and oligosaccharide esters and these compounds are responsible for several pharmacological properties. To provide basic breeding information, enhance molecular biological analysis, and determine secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways of P. tenuifolia, we applied Illumina sequencing technology and de novo assembly. We also applied this technique to gain an overview of P. tenuifolia transcriptome from samples with different years. Using Illumina sequencing, approximately 67.2% of unique sequences were annotated by basic local alignment search tool similarity searches against public sequence databases. We classified the annotated unigenes by using Nr, Nt, GO, COG, and KEGG databases compared with NCBI. We also obtained many candidates CYP450s and UGTs by the analysis of genes in the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways, including putative terpenoid backbone and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway. With this transcriptome sequencing, future genetic and genomics studies related to the molecular mechanisms associated with the chemical composition of P. tenuifolia may be improved. Genes involved in the enrichment of secondary metabolite biosynthesis-related pathways could enhance the potential applications of P. tenuifolia in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26543847

  14. Treatment with the herbal medicine, naoxintong improves the protective effect of high-density lipoproteins on endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    LV, PU; TONG, XUNLIANG; PENG, QING; LIU, YUANYUAN; JIN, HAIQIANG; LIU, RAN; SUN, WEI; PAN, BING; ZHENG, LEMIN; HUANG, YINING

    2016-01-01

    The protective effect of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on endothelial function is impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which may result in atherosclerotic complications. Naoxintong (NXT) is a compound preparation that includes Radix Astragali, Angelicae sinensis, Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Ligusticum wallichii. It is widely administered in China to prevent atherosclerotic complications. In the present study, NXT was administered to 69 patients with T2DM. HDLs were isolated from patient blood samples prior to and following the intervention. In vitro endothelial functions of HDL, including proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, and anti-apoptosis were investigated by bromodeoxyuridine, wound healing, Transwell and Matrigel tube formation assays on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results from the present study demonstrated that HUVECs treated with HDL isolated from diabetic patients following NXT therapy exhibited increased proliferative effects (10–27%; P<0.05), and improved migration ability (15–35%; P<0.05), anti-apoptotic function (23–34%; P<0.05) and angiogenesis (30–54%; P<0.001). Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of Akt (26–36%; P<0.01) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (16–80%; P<0.01) were increased following NXT therapy. The present in vitro study demonstrates that the protective effect of HDL on endothelial function is markedly impaired in diabetic patients who tend to develop atherosclerosis, and the impaired function may be partly abrogated by NXT. PMID:26781332

  15. Gastroprotective potential against indomethacin and safety assessment of the homology of medicine and food formula cuttlebone complex.

    PubMed

    Chien, Mei-Yin; Lin, Yi-Ting; Peng, Fu-Chuo; Lee, Huei-Jane; Chang, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chih-Min; Chen, Chao-Hsiang

    2015-08-01

    Cuttlebone complex (CBC), a homology of medicine and food formula, is comprised of five herbal medicines (Endoconcha Sepiae, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, fresh ginger, Fructus Amomi, and Radix Glycyrrhizae) and two food ingredients (Zingiber zerumbet and chitosan). Herein, the gastroprotective potential against indomethacin and a safety assessment of CBC were investigated. In a gastroprotective model, CBC effectively decreased the indomethacin-increased gastric ulcerous lesions, and increased the indomethacin-decreased prostaglandin E2 levels in the gastric mucosa. In genotoxicity tests, CBC treatment did not increase the numbers of revertant colonies in five Salmonella typhimurium strains and chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, with or without S9 metabolic activation. The oral supplementation of CBC did not increase micronucleus formation in the peripheral blood of mice. In a subacute toxicity study, the body weight and blood biochemical parameters observed in CBC-treated rats were normal. In conclusion, CBC was considered as a non-toxic formula and could be used to remedy indomethacin-induced gastric damage.

  16. Anti-fatigue effect of Myelophil in a chronic forced exercise mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Han, Jong-Min; Kim, Young-Ae; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-10-05

    This study was performed to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of Myelophil. ICR male mice (10 weeks old) were forced to run for 1 hour, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Each running session was followed by administration of distilled water, Myelophil (50 or 100 mg/kg), or ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg) 1h later. Equal proportions of Astragali Radix and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix were extracted using 30% ethanol, and formulated into Myelophil. To evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of Myelophil, exercise tolerance and forced swimming tests were conducted. Underlying mechanisms, including oxidant-antioxidant balance, inflammatory response, and energy metabolism, were investigated by analyzing skeletal muscle tissues and/or sera. Myelophil significantly increased exercise ability and latency times, and decreased the number of electric shocks and immobility time on exercise tolerance and forced swimming tests compared with control group. Myelophil also significantly ameliorated fatigue-induced alterations in oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant capacity, as measured by multiple assays, including enzyme activity assays and western blotting, as well as alterations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, Myelophil normalized alterations in energy metabolic markers in sera. These findings suggest that Myelophil reduces the effects of chronic fatigue, likely by attenuating oxidative and inflammatory responses and normalizing energy metabolism. Consequently, this study provides evidence for the clinical relevance of Myelophil.

  17. Authentication of Chinese Materia Medica decoction dregs. Part II: comparison before and after decoction of four Chinese Materia Medica that mainly comprise storage tissue.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lailai; Liang, Zhitao; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2012-02-01

    Authentication of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) decoction dregs is important for ensuring the efficacy and safety of CMM when they are used in decoction. If someone got worse or poisoned after taking a decoction while the formula is appropriate, the authentication of CMM dregs is the effective method to explore the reasons. Therefore, a systematic study on the authentication of CMM dregs was carried out. In this study, two pairs of easily confused CMM dregs, Fenge (Puerariae Thomsonii Radix) and Shanyao (Dioscoreae Rhizoma), Dihuang (Rehmanniae Radix) and Huangjing (Polygonati Rhizoma), which mostly comprise storage tissues, were investigated by comparing the morphological and microscopic characteristics. Fenge and Shanyao contain abundant starch granules. After decoction their dregs were hard, nonstarchy and horn-like. Fully gelatinized starch granules were found in the powder of Fenge dregs while incompletely gelatinized starch granules were occasionally found in the Shanyao dregs. In contrast, Dihuang and Huangjing contain water-soluble sugars. After decoction, their dregs were hard and brittle. Their parenchymatous cells were shrunken and unknown crystals were found under microscope. Hence, the morphological and microscopic characteristics of CMM before and after decoction were different, and different changes in the CMM dregs can be illustrated by the different nature of their ergastic substance. These differences could be used to authenticate CMM dregs.

  18. Authentication of Chinese Materia Medica decoction dregs, part 1: comparison of morphological and microscopic features of four Chinese Materia Medica before and after decoction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lailai; Liang, Zhitao; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2011-04-01

    Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) decoction dregs are the residues of medicinal materials after decoction. Accurate identification of CMM in decoction dregs will be helpful for exploring the causes of poisoning or other medical incidents arising after the ingestion of CMM decoctions. To determine how decoction affects the characteristics used to authenticate specific CMM, a systematic study was carried out. In this study, two pairs of Materia Medica that are commonly confused-namely, Baizhu (Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma) and Cangzhu (Atractylodis Rhizoma), Baishao (Paeoniae Alba Radix) and Chishao (Paeoniae Rubra Radix)-were chosen for investigation. Each pair of Materia Medica has similar morphology in appearance, but they have different functions in Chinese clinic. After decoction, with regard to gross morphological characters, the results showed that bark and wood could be easily distinguished. The striation of vessels and fibers became more prominent because of the contraction of parenchymatous cells, but the lignified cells did not. As for the microscopic characteristics, the cells with thickened walls, such as stone cells and fibers, were basically stable. Most of the parenchymatous cells were broken. Crystals of calcium oxalate showed no changes as they were insoluble in water. Starch granules were gelatinized and aggregated in parenchymatous cells. Inulins were substantially reduced in number as they dissolved in water during decoction. According to these changes in morphological and microscopic characteristics after decoction, the dregs of two pairs of Materia Medica could be distinguished.

  19. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction May Not Be a Better Alternative Approach than Conventional Boiling for Extracting Polysaccharides from Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    Yip, Ka-Man; Xu, Jun; Tong, Wing-Sum; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Yi, Tao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Hu-Biao

    2016-11-18

    In clinical practice polysaccharides from herbal medicines are conventionally prepared by boiling water extraction (BWE), while ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) has often been used instead employed in laboratory research due to its strong extraction ability and efficiency. However, if and how the polysaccharides obtained by UAE and BWE are comparable, and hence whether the UAE-based research is instructive for the actual usage of herbal polysaccharides still requires further evaluation. To address this issue, here we chemically analyzed and compared the UAE- and BWE-obtained polysaccharides from three herbal medicines, i.e., Ginseng Radix, Astragali Radix and Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis. Then, the spike recovery of two series of standard dextran and pullulan by UAE and BWE was tested. The results showed that the polysaccharides from the herbal medicines by UAE were quantitatively and qualitatively different with those by BWE. The powerful extraction ability and polysaccharide degradation caused by ultrasound collectively contributed to these differences. It was then revealed that not only the UAE conditions but also the polysaccharide structures could affect the extraction ability and polysaccharide degradation. Given these, we highly recommended that the effects of UAE on polysaccharides from herbal medicines should be first carefully considered before employing it in relevant chemical and pharmacological analysis.

  20. Multistate Memristive Tantalum Oxide Devices for Ternary Arithmetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wonjoo; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Siemon, Anne; Linn, Eike; Waser, Rainer; Rana, Vikas

    2016-11-01

    Redox-based resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) offers excellent properties to implement future non-volatile memory arrays. Recently, the capability of two-state ReRAMs to implement Boolean logic functionality gained wide interest. Here, we report on seven-states Tantalum Oxide Devices, which enable the realization of an intrinsic modular arithmetic using a ternary number system. Modular arithmetic, a fundamental system for operating on numbers within the limit of a modulus, is known to mathematicians since the days of Euclid and finds applications in diverse areas ranging from e-commerce to musical notations. We demonstrate that multistate devices not only reduce the storage area consumption drastically, but also enable novel in-memory operations, such as computing using high-radix number systems, which could not be implemented using two-state devices. The use of high radix number system reduces the computational complexity by reducing the number of needed digits. Thus the number of calculation operations in an addition and the number of logic devices can be reduced.

  1. Integrated evaluation of HPLC and UV fingerprints for the quality control of Danshen tablet by systematic quantified fingerprint method combined with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Sun, Guoxiang

    2017-03-20

    Danshen tablet, which consists of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Borneolum syntheticum, has been widely used in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to develop comprehensive evaluation methods for the quality control of Danshen tablet. First, five-wavelength fusion fingerprint was established to avoid one-sidedness of a single wavelength. Then, the ultraviolet spectrum fingerprint was applied to reflect the information of unsaturated bond and conjugated system of chemical substances in Danshen tablet. The similarity analyses of these two fingerprints were performed by systematic quantified fingerprint method in terms of qualitative and quantitative aspects. After that, the evaluation results of high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet fingerprints were integrated by the mean algorithm, which could reduce the error caused by single method. The integrated evaluation results showed that 30 batches of samples were classified into seven grades. Finally, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship was established using an on-line antioxidant system and partial least squares model to explore the connection between chemical components and antioxidant activities. The methods established in this paper had proven to be suitable for the analysis of Danshen tablet. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Chinese Herbal Cardiotonic Pill Stabilizes Vulnerable Plaques in Rabbits by Decreasing the Expression of Adhesion Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Changjiang; Rong, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Yawei; Xu, Xinsheng; Yao, Guihua; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The cardiotonic pill (CP), consisting of a mixture of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng, and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been widely used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Adhesion molecules, including intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, are involved in the development of vulnerable plaque. We investigated the effect of the CP in a rabbit model of vulnerable plaque established by local transfection with p53 gene. Compared with the control group, rabbits with vulnerable plaque showed a significantly lower intima-media thickness and plaque burden after CP treatment for 12 weeks. Moreover, the reduction in rate of plaque rupture and vulnerability index was similar. On enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry analysis, the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 was inhibited with CP treatment. CP treatment could postpone atherosclerotic plaque development and stabilize vulnerable plaque by inhibiting the expression of adhesion molecules in treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27110743

  3. Comparative hair restorer efficacy of medicinal herb on nude (Foxn1nu) mice.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P>0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.

  4. Compatibility Study of Danggui Buxue Tang on Chemical Ingredients, Angiogenesis and Endothelial Function

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ping-Lan; Li, Zhi-Cheng; Xie, Rui-Fang; Wang, You-Hua; Zhou, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a classic Chinese herbal formula which consists of Astragali mongholici Radix and Angelica sinensis Radix (ASR). For chemical ingredients, HPLC were performed. Results showed compared with single herbs, DBT decoction could promote the dissolution of ingredients such as ferulic acid and calycosin. Furthermore, when ratio of AMR to ASR was 5 to 1, synthetic score was the best. For angiogenesis, normal and injured zebrafish model were applied. Results showed DBT and its ingredients had angiogenesis effects on Sub Intestinal vessels (SIVs) of normal zebrafish. Meanwhile, DBT and its single herbs could also recover Inter-Segmental Vessels (ISVs) injured by VRI. Angiogenesis effects of DBT on ISVs were better than single herbs. AMR extract, Total Saponins of AMR, Polysaccharide of ASR, ferulic acid, calycosin and calycosin-7-glucoside could be effective ingredients for angiogenisis. For endothelium functions, Lysoph-Osphatidyl choline was used to damage rat endothelial function of thoracic aorta. The results showed DBT and its single herbs could improve endothelial dysfunctions in dose-dependence. Both ferulic acid and calycosin-7-glucoside could also improve endothelium dysfunction in dose dependence. Therefore, compatibility of DBT was reasonable. Compared with single herbs, DBT could promote dissolution of effective ingredients, enhance angiogenesis and relieve endothelial dysfunction. PMID:28327640

  5. Inhibition of TNF-alpha induced cell death in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and Jurkat cells by protocatechuic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhou-Stache, J; Buettner, R; Artmann, G; Mittermayer, C; Bosserhoff, A K

    2002-11-01

    The Chinese herb radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (RSM) is used in traditional Chinese medicine as a treatment for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Several components of the plant extract from salvia mitorrhiza bunge have been determined previously, one of which is protocatechuic acid (PAC). It has been found, in the study, that PAC inhibited TNF-alpha-induced cell death of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Jurkat cells in a concentration of 100 microM when applied 2 h prior to TNF-alpha exposure. Molecular studies revealed that PAC activated NF-kappaB with a maximum effect after 30 min of treatment. Inhibition of NF-kappaB action by MG132 and NF-kappaB inhibitory peptide suppressed the cell-protective effect of PAC. Further, degradation of IkBalpha occurred in response to PAC treatment. The results provide evidence that activation of NF-kappaB plays an important role in mediating the cell-protecting effect of PAC on HUVECs and Jurkat cells. Further studies are required to test whether PAC, a component of radix salviae miltiorrhizae, could be useful in preventing in vivo cell death resulting from cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases.

  6. Multistate Memristive Tantalum Oxide Devices for Ternary Arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonjoo; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Siemon, Anne; Linn, Eike; Waser, Rainer; Rana, Vikas

    2016-11-11

    Redox-based resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) offers excellent properties to implement future non-volatile memory arrays. Recently, the capability of two-state ReRAMs to implement Boolean logic functionality gained wide interest. Here, we report on seven-states Tantalum Oxide Devices, which enable the realization of an intrinsic modular arithmetic using a ternary number system. Modular arithmetic, a fundamental system for operating on numbers within the limit of a modulus, is known to mathematicians since the days of Euclid and finds applications in diverse areas ranging from e-commerce to musical notations. We demonstrate that multistate devices not only reduce the storage area consumption drastically, but also enable novel in-memory operations, such as computing using high-radix number systems, which could not be implemented using two-state devices. The use of high radix number system reduces the computational complexity by reducing the number of needed digits. Thus the number of calculation operations in an addition and the number of logic devices can be reduced.

  7. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md. Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P > 0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

  8. A Chinese herbal decoction, reformulated from Kai-Xin-San, relieves the depression-like symptoms in stressed rats and induces neurogenesis in cultured neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lu; Hu, Qinghua; Mak, Marvin S. H.; Lou, Jianshu; Xu, Sherry L.; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Huaiyou; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2016-01-01

    Kai-Xin-San (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction for anti-depression, is a combination of paired-herbs, i.e. Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (GR)-Polygalae Radix (PR) and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (ATR)-Poria (PO). The make-up of the paired-herbs has been commonly revised according to syndrome differentiation and treatment variation of individual. Currently, an optimized KXS (KXS2012) was prepared by functional screening different combination of GR-PR and ATR-PO. The aim of this study was to verify the effect and underlying mechanism of KXS2012 against depression in chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depressive rats and in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes. In rat model, the CMS-induced depressive symptoms were markedly alleviated by the treatment with KXS2012. The CMS-suppressed neurotransmitter amounts were restored in the presence of KXS2012. And the expressions of neurotropic factors and its corresponding receptors were increased under KXS2012 administration. In cultured neurons, application of KXS2012 could promote neurogenesis by inducing the expression of synaptotagmin and dendritic spine density. Moreover, application of KXS2012 in cultured astrocytes, or in H2O2-stressed astrocytes, induced the expressions of neurotrophic factors: the increase might be associated with the modification of Erk1/2 and CREB phosphorylation. Our current results fully support the therapeutic efficacy of KXS2012 against depression in cell and animal models. PMID:27444820

  9. Speciation of Mg, Mn and Zn in extracts of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Weber, Günther; Konieczyński, Paweł

    2003-04-01

    Aqueous extracts of birch leaves ( folium Betulae), peppermint leaves ( folium Menthae), sage leaves ( folium Salviae), valerian roots ( radix Valerianae), and dandelion roots ( radix Taraxaci) are analysed for the three essential elements magnesium, manganese and zinc. Ultrafiltration reveals that 60-100% of these metals are present as low molecular weight species (<5000 Da). Further characterisation of the low molecular weight fraction is done by using size exclusion chromatography and different detectors, namely element specific AAS detection, diode array UV-VIS detection and electrochemical detection. The similarities and differences of the plant extracts are well reflected by the respective chromatograms, and typical plant constituents can be identified by their spectral and electrochemical properties (e.g. flavonoids in Betula). Mg and Mn species are selectively detected by AAS in closely neighbouring chromatographic regions for all five samples. However, there are significant differences between the samples investigated. In all cases a good correlation exists between detection of these metals (Mg, Mn) and pulsed amperometric detection (PAD), which is selective for carbohydrates. The respective molecular weight of carbohydrate species is in the range of approximately 300-600 Da. The distribution of zinc species (detectable only in the Betula extract) is totally different from that of Mg and Mn species. For zinc, many more species are detected, and there is no correlation to carbohydrates; instead (poly)phenols are involved in zinc complexation.

  10. Hydrolysis of Glycosidic Flavonoids during the Preparation of Danggui Buxue Tang: An Outcome of Moderate Boiling of Chinese Herbal Mixture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wendy Li; Chen, Jian-Ping; Lam, Kelly Yin-Ching; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Yao, Ping; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2014-01-01

    Chemical change during boiling of herbal mixture is a puzzle. By using Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction that contains Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), we developed a model in analyzing the hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides during the boiling of herbal mixture in water. A proper preparation of DBT is of great benefit to the complete extraction of bioactive ingredients. Boiling of DBT in water increased the solubility of AR-derived astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin, calycosin-7-O- β -D-glucoside, and ononin in a time- and temperature-dependent manner: the amounts of these chemicals reached a peak at 2 h. The glycosidic resides of AR, calycosin-7-O- β -D-glucoside, and ononin could be hydrolyzed during the moderate boiling process to form calycosin and formononetin, respectively. The hydrolysis efficiency was strongly affected by pH, temperature, and amount of herbs. Interestingly, the preheated herbs were not able to show this hydrolytic activity. The current results supported the rationality of ancient preparation of DBT in boiling water by moderate heat.

  11. Evaluating Pharmacological Effects of Two Major Components of Shuangdan Oral Liquid: Role of Danshensu and Paeonol in Diabetic Nephropathy Rat

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Zhuying; Zhou, Fuxing; Zhao, Hang; Yang, Qian; Li, Hua; Sun, Jiyuan; Wang, Siwang

    2016-01-01

    Shuangdan oral liquid (SDO) containing radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (Chinese name Danshen) and cortex moutan (Chinese name Mudanpi) is a traditional Chinese medicine using for treating vascular diseases. Danshensu (DSS) is a main effective monomer composition derived from radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and paeonol (Pae) from cortex moutan. Although the two herbs are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, the pharmacological functions of their active compositions were not reported. Therefore, the research of DSS and Pae in mechanisms and pharmacodynamics interaction can provide scientific evidence to support clinical application. The diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats which were induced by streptozotocin (STZ) were treated with SDO, DSS, Pae, and DSS+Pae for eight weeks. The positive effects on DN animal models were investigated by detection of physiological and biochemical indexes and oxidative stress markers, within five treatments: SDO, DSS, Pae, DSS+Pae and insulin group. Compared with the model group, the DSS+Pae group improved the renal function, blood lipid metabolism and blood viscosity, increased the vitality of T-SOD or T-AOC and decreased the level of MDA or NO after the treatment. The study was successfully showed that the DSS+Pae group could delay the process of DN, especially in the renal injury part of histopathology changes. Our results suggest that the co-administration of DSS and Pae significantly may play a protective role in DN rats through decreasing the oxidative stress and improving the blood lipid metabolism mechanisms. PMID:27582557

  12. Morphological and molecular characterization of lymnaeid snails and their potential role in transmission of Fasciola spp. in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dung, Bui Thi; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; The, Dang Tat; Loan, Ho Thi; Losson, Bertrand; Caron, Yannick

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae play an important role in the transmission of fascioliasis worldwide. In Vietnam, 2 common lymnaeid species, Lymnaea swinhoei and Lymnaea viridis, can be recognized on the basis of morphology, and a third species, Lymnaea sp., is known to exist. Recent studies have raised controversy about their role in transmission of Fasciola spp. because of confusion in identification of the snail hosts. The aim of this study is, therefore, to clarify the identities of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam by a combination of morphological and molecular approaches. The molecular analyses using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA clearly showed that lymnaeids in Vietnam include 3 species, Austropeplea viridis (morphologically identified as L. viridis), Radix auricularia (morphologically identified as L. swinhoei) and Radix rubiginosa (morphologically identified as Lymnaea sp.). R. rubiginosa is a new record for Vietnam. Among them, only A. viridis was found to be infected with Fasciola spp. These results provide a new insight into lymnaeid snails in Vietnam. Identification of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam and their role in the liver fluke transmission should be further investigated.

  13. Current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam: an update and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bui, T D; Doanh, P N; Saegerman, C; Losson, B

    2016-09-01

    Vietnam is recognized to be endemic for fasciolosis. However, most of the available publications have not been published in international journals. This review is based on national and international Vietnamese publications and highlights the current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam. It also provides some information available for neighbouring countries. Updated data on responsible species, distribution, transmission and control aspects are summarized. The central region of Vietnam is reported as being highly endemic for fasciolosis, with a high number of human patients (more than 20,000 in 2011). Fasciola gigantica is reported to be the main species in Vietnam. However, hybrids between F. gigantica and F. hepatica were identified. Both humans and animals are infected by the ingestion of raw vegetables and possibly contaminated drinking water. Three lymnaeid snail species (Austropeplea viridis, Radix auricularia and Radix rubiginosa) may act as intermediate hosts of Fasciola spp. However, due to the likely misidentification of snail species and cercariae during the past decade the critical analysis of published data is difficult. A better understanding of transmission aspects of fasciolosis would allow the implementation of preventive measures of this important neglected zoonotic disease.

  14. Prevalence of Extra Roots in Permanent Mandibular First Molars in Iranian Population: A CBCT Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Saeed; Mokhtari, Hadi; Ranjkesh, Bahram; Johari, Masoomeh; Frough Reyhani, Mohammad; Shahi, Shahriar; Seif Reyhani, Sina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Having knowledge about the anatomy of root canal system is essential for success of endodontic treatment. The present study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), to evaluate the prevalence of third root in mandibular first molars in a selected Iranian population. Methods and Materials: A total of 386 CBCT images from subjects referred to oral and maxillofacial radiology department of dental faculty of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from 2011 to 2013 were selected and evaluated for this study and the cases with well-developed permanent mandibular first molars were included. The 3D images were reconstructed in axial cross sections and evaluated by two endodontists for the presence of the third extra lingual (radix entomolaris) or buccal (radix paramolaris) root. The chi-squared test was used to evaluate the relationship between gender and bilateral incidence of extra roots in mandibular first molars. Results: The distribution of three-rooted mandibular first molars with an additional root was 3%, (3.53% in female and 2.50% in male patients). There was no significant relationship between gender and bilateral occurrence of three-rooted mandibular first molars. Conclusion: The occurrence of three-rooted mandibular first molars in Iranian population is not uncommon which should be taken into consideration by the dental practitioners during root canal treatment of these teeth. PMID:28179928

  15. Depolarizing Effects of Daikenchuto on Interstitial Cells of Cajal from Mouse Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyungwoo; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yang, Dongki; Jung, Myeong Ho; Kim, Byung Joo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Daikenchuto (DKT; TJ-100, TU-100), a traditional herbal medicineis used in modern medicine to treat gastrointestinal (GI) functional disorders. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are the pacemaker cells of the GI tract and play important roles in the regulation of GI motility. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of DKT on the pacemaker potentials (PPs) of cultured ICCs from murine small intestine. Materials and Methods: Enzymatic digestions were used to dissociate ICCs from mouse small intestine tissues. All experiments on ICCs were performed after 12 h of culture. The whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record ICC PPs (current clamp mode). All experiments were performed at 30-32°C. Results: In current-clamp modeDKT depolarized and concentration-dependently decreased the amplitudes of PPs. Y25130 (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) or SB269970 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist) did not block DKT-induced PP depolarization, but RS39604 (a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist) did. Methoctramine (a muscarinic M2 receptor antagonist) failed to block DKT-induced PP depolarization, but pretreating 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (a muscarinic M3 receptor antagonist) facilitated blockade of DKT-induced PP depolarization. Pretreatment with an external Ca2+-free solution or thapsigargin abolished PPsand under these conditions, DKT did not induce PP depolarization. Furthermore Ginseng radix and Zingiberis rhizomes depolarized PPs, whereas Zanthoxyli fructus fruit (the third component of DKT) hyperpolarized PPs. Conclusion: These results suggest that DKT depolarizes ICC PPs in an internal or external Ca2+-dependent manner by stimulating 5-HT4 and M3 receptors. Furthermore, the authors suspect that the component in DKT largely responsible for depolarization is probably also a component of Ginseng radix and Zingiberis rhizomes. SUMMARY